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Sample records for multi fuel technology

  1. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    During Phase 1 of this program, the authors evaluated all known hydrogen storage technologies (including those that are now practiced and those that are development) in the context of fuel cell vehicles. They determined that among the development technologies, carbon sorbents could most benefit from closer scrutiny. During Phase 2 of this program, they tested ten different carbon sorbents at various practical temperatures and pressures, and developed the concept of the usable Capacity Ratio, which is the ratio of the mass of hydrogen that can be released from a carbon-filled tank to the mass of hydrogen that can be released from an empty tank. The authors also commissioned the design, fabrication, and NGV2 (Natural Gas Vehicle) testing of an aluminum-lined, carbon-composite, full-wrapped pressure vessel to store hydrogen at 78 K and 3,000 psi. They constructed a facility to pressure cycle the tank at 78 K and to temperature cycle the tank at 3,000 psi, tested one such tank, and submitted it for a burst test. Finally, they devised a means by which cryogenic compressed hydrogen gas tanks can be filled and discharged using standard hardware--that is, without using filters, valves, or pressure regulators that must operate at both low temperature and high pressure. This report describes test methods and test results of carbon sorbents and the design of tanks for cold storage. 7 refs., 91 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  3. Technology Status: Fuel Cells and Electrolysis Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1978-01-01

    The status of the baselined shuttle fuel cell as well as the acid membrane fuel cell and space-oriented water electrolysis technologies are presented. The more recent advances in the alkaline fuel cell technology area are the subject of a companion paper. A preliminary plan for the focusing of these technologies towards regenerative energy storage applications in the multi-hundred kilowatt range is also discussed.

  4. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  5. Fuel cell technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A fuel cell technology program was established to advance the state-of-the-art of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells using low temperature, potassium hydroxide electrolyte technology as the base. Program tasks are described consisting of baseline cell design and stack testing, hydrogen pump design and testing, and DM-2 powerplant testing and technology extension efforts. A baseline cell configuration capable of a minimum of 2000 hours of life was defined. A 6-cell prototype stack, incorporating most of the scheme cell features, was tested for a total of 10,497 hours. A 6-cell stack incorporating all of the design features was tested. The DM-2 powerplant with a 34 cell stack, an accessory section packaged in the basic configuration anticipated for the space shuttle powerplant and a powerplant control unit, was defined, assembled, and tested. Cells were used in the stack and a drag-type hydrogen pump was installed in the accessory section. A test program was established, in conjunction with NASA/JSC, based on space shuttle orbiter mission. A 2000-hour minimum endurance test and a 5000-hour goal were set and the test started on August 8, 1972. The 2000-hour milestone was completed on November 3, 1972. On 13 March 1973, at the end of the thirty-first simulated seven-day mission and 5072 load hours, the test was concluded, all goals having been met. At this time, the DM-2 was in excellent condition and capable of additional endurance.

  6. Energy 101: Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-11

    Learn how fuel cell technology generates clean electricity from hydrogen to power our buildings and transportation-while emitting nothing but water. This video illustrates the fundamentals of fuel cell technology and its potential to supply our homes, offices, industries, and vehicles with sustainable, reliable energy.

  7. Energy 101: Fuel Cell Technology

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Learn how fuel cell technology generates clean electricity from hydrogen to power our buildings and transportation-while emitting nothing but water. This video illustrates the fundamentals of fuel cell technology and its potential to supply our homes, offices, industries, and vehicles with sustainable, reliable energy.

  8. Fuel Tank Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  9. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    SciTech Connect

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  10. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  11. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The work performed during the Second Logical Unit of Work of a multi-year program designed to develop a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) for electric utility power plant application is discussed. The Second Logical Unit of Work, which covers the period May 14, 1983 through May 13, 1984, was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  12. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  13. Thermionic fuel element technology status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, J. W.; Horner, M. W.; Yang, L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of research, conducted between the mid-1960s and 1973, on the multiconverter thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) that comprise the reactor core of an SP-100 thermionic reactor system are presented. Fueled-emitter technology, insulator technology and cell and TFE assembly technology of the prototypical TFEs which were tested in-pile and out-of-pile during these years are described. The proto-TFEs have demonstrated reproducible performance within 5 percent and no premature failures within the 1.5 yr of operation (with projected 3-yr lifetimes). The two primary life-limiting factors had been identified as thermionic emitter dimensional increase due to interactions with the fuel and electrical insulator structural damage from fast neutrons. Multiple options for extending TFE lifetimes to 7 yr or longer are available and will be investigated in the 1984-1985 SP-100 program for resolution of critical technology issues. Design diagrams and test graphs are included.

  14. Fuel cell technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results of a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell development program are summarized. A base line design was defined, and materials and components of the base line configuration were fabricated and tested. Concepts representing base line capability extensions in the areas of life, power, specific weight and volume, versatility of operation, field maintenance, and thermal control were identified and evaluated. Liaison and coordination with space shuttle contractors resulted in the exchange of engineering data.

  15. Multi-State Fuel Waiver

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    September 2016 temporary Fuel Waiver Concerning Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the District of Columbia

  16. Developing technologies for synthetic fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprow, F. B.

    1981-05-01

    After consideration of a likely timetable for the development of a synthetic fuels industry and its necessary supporting technology, the large variety of such fuels and their potential roles is assessed along with their commercialization outlook. Among the fuel production methods considered are: (1) above-ground retorting of oil shale; (2) in-situ shale retorting; (3) open pit mining of tar sands; (4) in-situ steam stimulation of tar sands; (5) coal gasification; (6) methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen; and (7) direct coal liquefaction by the hydrogenation of coal. It is shown that while the U.S. has very limited resource bases for tar sands and heavy crudes, the abundance of shale in the western states and the abundance and greater geographical dispersion of coal will make these the two most important resources of a future synthetic fuels industry.

  17. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-08-20

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  19. Fuel cell technology: A sweeter fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Kevin

    2002-12-01

    Eating sugar gives us a boost when we feel tired because our cells use it as fuel to produce energy. Likewise, sugar can now be used to produce power in artificial biological fuel cells that function in a physiological environment.

  20. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  1. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  2. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  3. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  4. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.; Prokopius, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the current phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development efforts is presented both for multimegawatt systems for electric utility applications and for multikilowatt systems for on-site integrated energy system applications. Improving fuel cell performance, reducing cost, and increasing durability are the technology drivers at this time. Electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, and fuel selection are discussed.

  5. Fuel-conservative engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Mcaulay, J. E.; Reynolds, T. W.; Strack, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft fuel consumption is discussed in terms of its efficient use, and the conversion of energy from sources other than petroleum. Topics discussed include: fuel from coal and oil shale, hydrogen deficiency of alternate sources, alternate fuels evaluation program, and future engines.

  6. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  7. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  8. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, B.

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  9. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  10. Broad specification fuels technology program, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. P.; Jeroszko, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was conducted to assess the impact of the use of broadened properties fuels on combustor design concepts. Emphasis was placed on establishing the viability of design modifications to current combustor concepts and the use of advanced technology concepts to facilitate operation on Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel while meeting exhaust emissions and performance specifications and maintaining acceptable durability. Three different combustor concepts, representative of progressively more aggressive technology levels, were evaluated. When operated on ERBS rather than Jet A fuel, a single stage combustor typical of that in the most recent versions of the JT9D-7 engine was found to produce excess carbon monoxide emissions at idle and elevated liner temperatures at high power levels that were projected to reduced liner life by 13 percent. The introduction of improved component technology, such as refined fuel injectors and advanced liner cooling concepts were shown to have the potential of enhancing the fuel flexibility of the single stage combustor.

  11. Fuel cell technology for lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells have been shown, in several NASA and contractor studies, to be an enabling technology for providing electrical power for lunar bases, outposts, and vehicles. The fuel cell, in conjunction with similar electrolysis cells, comprises a closed regenerative energy storage system, commonly referred to as a regenerative fuel cell (RFC). For stationary applications, energy densities of 1,000 watt-hours per kilograms an order of magnitude over the best rechargeable batteries, have been projected. In this RFC, the coupled fuel cell and electrolyzer act as an ultra-light battery. Electrical energy from solar arrays 'charges' the system by electrolyzing water into hydrogen and oxygen. When an electrical load is applied, the fuel cell reacts the hydrogen and oxygen to 'discharge' usable power. Several concepts for utilizing RFC's, with varying degrees of integration, have been proposed, including both primary and backup roles. For mobile power needs, such as rovers, an effective configuration may be to have only the fuel cell located on the vehicle, and to use a central electrolysis 'gas station'. Two fuel cell technologies are prime candidates for lunar power system concepts: alkaline electrolyte and proton exchange membrane. Alkaline fuel cells have been developed to a mature production power unit in NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter. Recent advances in materials offer to significantly improve durability to the level needed for extended lunar operations. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are receiving considerable support for hydrospace and terrestrial transportation applications. This technology promises durability, simplicity, and flexibility.

  12. Fuel cell technology for lunar surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    1992-02-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells have been shown, in several NASA and contractor studies, to be an enabling technology for providing electrical power for lunar bases, outposts, and vehicles. The fuel cell, in conjunction with similar electrolysis cells, comprises a closed regenerative energy storage system, commonly referred to as a regenerative fuel cell (RFC). For stationary applications, energy densities of 1,000 watt-hours per kilograms an order of magnitude over the best rechargeable batteries, have been projected. In this RFC, the coupled fuel cell and electrolyzer act as an ultra-light battery. Electrical energy from solar arrays 'charges' the system by electrolyzing water into hydrogen and oxygen. When an electrical load is applied, the fuel cell reacts the hydrogen and oxygen to 'discharge' usable power. Several concepts for utilizing RFC's, with varying degrees of integration, have been proposed, including both primary and backup roles. For mobile power needs, such as rovers, an effective configuration may be to have only the fuel cell located on the vehicle, and to use a central electrolysis 'gas station'. Two fuel cell technologies are prime candidates for lunar power system concepts: alkaline electrolyte and proton exchange membrane. Alkaline fuel cells have been developed to a mature production power unit in NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter. Recent advances in materials offer to significantly improve durability to the level needed for extended lunar operations. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are receiving considerable support for hydrospace and terrestrial transportation applications. This technology promises durability, simplicity, and flexibility.

  13. An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect

    DR Brown; R Jones

    1999-03-23

    Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

  14. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  15. Fuel Cycle Comparison for Distributed Power Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.

    2008-11-15

    This report examines backup power and prime power systems and addresses the potential energy and environmental effects of substituting fuel cells for existing combustion technologies based on microturbines and internal combustion engines.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  17. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

  18. Multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Eugen; Raney, Michael Raymond

    2004-07-06

    A multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump for a vehicle includes a housing having an inlet and an outlet and a motor disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump also includes a shaft extending axially and disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump further includes a plurality of pumping modules disposed axially along the shaft. One of the pumping modules is a turbine pumping module and another of the pumping modules is a gerotor pumping module for rotation by the motor to pump fuel from the inlet to the outlet.

  19. Advances in HTGR spent fuel treatment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Lessig, W.S.

    1984-08-01

    GA Technologies, Inc. has been investigating the burning of spent reactor graphite under Department of Energy sponsorship since 1969. Several deep fluidized bed burners have been used at the GA pilot plant to develop graphite burning techniques for both spent fuel recovery and volume reduction for waste disposal. Since 1982 this technology has been extended to include more efficient circulating bed burners. This paper includes updates on high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel cycle options and current results of spent fuel treatment testing for fluidized and advanced circulating bed burners.

  20. Multi channel voltage control for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heideck, G.; Purmann, M.; Styczynski, Z.

    Cell voltage control is a safe method to evaluate the operation of the single cells even though large efforts are being made to stabilise the behaviour of the fuel cells over the whole operating range. For fully developed systems only voltage control of single cells is necessary, whereas in test benches it is necessary to record data of the voltages during operation. Normally, a lot of cells are combined to a stack so that higher total voltages can be reached. Higher voltages make possible a high efficient transformation from direct current of the stack to alternate current of the public network. Sometimes more than 100 cells are connected together whereby the open circuit voltage of a single cell amounts to approximately 1 V. Therefore, the signal processing chips show a high supply maximum rating or the resolution of the values has to be reduced. This paper presents an economically priced multi channel voltage control for single cells of a PEM-fuel cell in combination with a microprocessor control and was developed at the Chair for Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources. The developed system can transfer the data of up to 32 single cells in serial connection. The resolution amounts to 10 bits per channel. The module has its own microprocessor, which is responsible for the intermediate storage of the collected data and the transfer to the RS-232 interface. Optionally, the module can be equipped with an LCD-display of 20 × 4 letters where different menus of the measured and calculated values can be indicated. The module is designed for a voltage of 1 V per channel and can be supplied with a direct voltage of between 6 and 24 V from the fuel cell stack.

  1. Review of Biojet Fuel Conversion Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tao, Ling; Markham, Jennifer; Zhang, Yanan; Tan, Eric; Batan, Liaw; Warner, Ethan; Biddy, Mary

    2016-07-01

    Biomass-derived jet (biojet) fuel has become a key element in the aviation industry’s strategy to reduce operating costs and environmental impacts. Researchers from the oil-refining industry, the aviation industry, government, biofuel companies, agricultural organizations, and academia are working toward developing commercially viable and sustainable processes that produce long-lasting renewable jet fuels with low production costs and low greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, jet fuels must meet ASTM International specifications and potentially be a 100% drop-in replacement for the current petroleum jet fuel. The combustion characteristics and engine tests demonstrate the benefits of running the aviation gas turbine with biojet fuels. In this study, the current technologies for producing renewable jet fuels, categorized by alcohols-to-jet, oil-to-jet, syngas-to-jet, and sugar-to-jet pathways, are reviewed. The main challenges for each technology pathway, including feedstock availability, conceptual process design, process economics, life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and commercial readiness, are discussed. Although the feedstock price and availability and energy intensity of the process are significant barriers, biomass-derived jet fuel has the potential to replace a significant portion of conventional jet fuel required to meet commercial and military demand.

  2. Fuel Cycle Technologies 2014 Achievement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Bonnie C.

    2015-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program supports the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) mission to: “Enhance U.S. security and economic growth through transformative science, technology innovation, and market solutions to meet our energy, nuclear security, and environmental challenges.” Goal 1 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to innovate energy technologies that enhance U.S. economic growth and job creation, energy security, and environmental quality. FCT does this by investing in advanced technologies that could transform the nuclear fuel cycle in the decades to come. Goal 2 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to strengthen national security by strengthening key science, technology, and engineering capabilities. FCT does this by working closely with the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S Department of State to develop advanced technologies that support the Nation’s nuclear nonproliferation goals.

  3. Technology for Use of Variable Quality Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    AD-A 198 782 C TECHNOLOGY FOR USE OF VARIABLE QUALITY FUELS INTERIM REPORT BFLRF No. 239 By J.N. Bowden D.M. Yost 6 A.F. Montemayor L.L. Stavinoha...Operator’s Manual (Crew) for Armored Reconnaissance/Airborne Assault Vehicle, 10 June 1976. 6. Montemayor , A.F., Owens, E.C., "Fuel Property Effects on

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  5. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  6. Multi-output differential technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidare, Srinivas R.

    1997-01-01

    A differential is a very old and proven mechanical device that allows a single input to be split into two outputs having equal torque irrespective of the output speeds. A standard differential is capable of providing only two outputs from a single input. A recently patented multi-output differential technology known as `Plural-Output Differential' allows a single input to be split into many outputs. This new technology is the outcome of a systematic study of complex gear trains (Bidare 1992). The unique feature of a differential (equal torque at different speeds) can be applied to simplify the construction and operation of many complex mechanical devices that require equal torque's or forces at multiple outputs. It is now possible to design a mechanical hand with three or more fingers with equal torque. Since these finger are powered via a differential they are `mechanically intelligent'. A prototype device is operational and has been used to demonstrate the utility and flexibility of the design. In this paper we shall review two devices that utilize the new technology resulting in increased performance, robustness with reduced complexity and cost.

  7. Radiotoxicity Characterization of Multi-Recycled Thorium Fuel - 12394

    SciTech Connect

    Franceschini, F.; Wenner, M.; Fiorina, C.; Huang, M.; Petrovic, B.; Krepel, J.

    2012-07-01

    As described in companion papers, Westinghouse is proposing the implementation of a thorium based fuel cycle to burn the transuranic (TRU) contained in the used nuclear fuel. The potential of thorium as a TRU burner is described in another paper presented at this conference. This paper analyzes the long-term impact of thorium on the front-end and backend of the fuel cycle. This is accomplished by an assessment of the isotopic make-up of Th in a closed cycle and its impact on representative metrics, such as radiotoxicity, decay heat and gamma heat. The behavior in both thermal and fast neutron energy ranges has been investigated. Irradiation in a Th fuel PWR has been assumed as representative of the thermal range, while a Th fuel fast reactor (FR) has been employed to characterize the behavior in the high-energy range. A comparison with a U-fuel closed-cycle FR has been undertaken in an attempt of a more comprehensive evaluation of each cycle's long-term potential. As the Th fuel undergoes multiple cycles of irradiation, the isotopic composition of the recycled fuel changes. Minor Th isotopes are produced; U-232 and Pa-231 build up; the U vector gradually shifts towards increasing amounts of U-234, U-235 etc., eventually leading to the production of non negligible amounts of TRU isotopes, especially Pu-238. The impact of the recycled fuel isotopic makeup on the in-core behavior is mild, and for some aspects beneficial, i.e. the reactivity swing during irradiation is reduced as the fertile characteristics of the fuel increase. On the other hand, the front and the back-end of the fuel cycle are negatively affected due to the presence of Th-228 and U-232 and the build-up of higher actinides (Pu-238 etc.). The presence of U-232 can also be seen as advantageous as it represents an obstacle to potential proliferators. Notwithstanding the increase in the short-term radiotoxicity and decay heat in the multi-recycled fuel, the Th closed cycle has some potentially substantial

  8. Corrosion protected, multi-layer fuel cell interface

    DOEpatents

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1986-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. The multi-layer configuration for the interface comprises a non-cupreous metal-coated metallic element to which is film-bonded a conductive layer by hot pressing a resin therebetween. The multi-layer arrangement provides bridging electrical contact.

  9. Multi-tube fuel nozzle with mixing features

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Michael John

    2014-04-22

    A system includes a multi-tube fuel nozzle having an inlet plate and a plurality of tubes adjacent the inlet plate. The inlet plate includes a plurality of apertures, and each aperture includes an inlet feature. Each tube of the plurality of tubes is coupled to an aperture of the plurality of apertures. The multi-tube fuel nozzle includes a differential configuration of inlet features among the plurality of tubes.

  10. A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Ronald

    2015-05-20

    FCA US LLC (formally known as Chrysler Group LLC, and hereinafter “Chrysler”) was awarded an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded project by the Department of Energy (DOE) titled “A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency” (hereinafter “project”). This award was issued after Chrysler submitted a proposal for Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA- 0000079, “Systems Level Technology Development, Integration, and Demonstration for Efficient Class 8 Trucks (SuperTruck) and Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD).” Chrysler started work on this project on June 01, 2010 and completed testing activities on August 30, 2014. Overall objectives of this project were; Demonstrate a 25% improvement in combined Federal Test Procedure (FTP) City and Highway fuel economy over a 2009 Chrysler minivan; Accelerate the development of highly efficient engine and powertrain systems for light-duty vehicles, while meeting future emissions standards; and Create and retain jobs in accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

  11. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canton, M. H.; Chepanoske, W. A.; Feret, J. M.; France, L. L.; Haines, N. L.; Heberling, C. F.; Holman, R. R.; Kelly, J. L.; Kochka, E. L.

    1992-03-01

    The development is reported of a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) for electric utility or industrial power plant applications. Results of this effort include: (1) development of a baseline rolled electrode technology; (2) advancement of fuel cell technology through improvements in the areas of acid management, catalyst selection, electrode and plate materials and processes, components designs, and quality assurance programs; (3) demonstration of improved fuel cell and stack performance and endurance; (4) successful scaleup of cell and stack design features into fun height 100 kill stacks; and (5) demonstration of combining stacks into a 400 kill module that will be the building block for power plants, including the development of testing facilities and operating procedures applicable to plant operations.

  12. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    This report documents in detail the work performed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Energy Research Corporation during the fourth phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) for electric utility or industrial power plant applications. The results of this effort include (1) development of a baseline rolled electrode technology; (2) advancement of fuel cell technology through innovative improvements in the areas of acid management, catalyst selection, electrode and plate materials and processes, component designs, and quality assurance programs; (3) demonstration of improved fuel cell and stack performance and endurance; (4) successful scaleup of cell and stack design features into full height 100 kW stacks; and (5) demonstration of combining stacks into a 400 kW module that will be the building block for power plants, including the development of testing facilities and operating procedures applicable to plant operations.

  13. Exploring Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brus, David; Hotek, Doug

    2010-01-01

    One of the most significant technological issues of the 21st Century is finding a way to fulfill the energy demands without destroying the environment through global warming and climate change. Worldwide human population is on the rise, and with it, the demand for more energy in pursuit of a higher quality of life. In the meantime, as people use…

  14. FY2013 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-02-01

    Annual progress report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies. The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Program supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle manufacturers and users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  15. FY2014 Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Annual progress report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies. The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Program supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle manufacturers and users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  16. Advanced technology lightweight fuel cell program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of the alkaline electrolyte fuel cell as the power source in a multi hundred kilowatt orbital energy storage system was studied. The total system weight of an electrolysis cell energy storage system was determined. The tests demonstrated: (1) the performance stability of a platinum on carbon anode catalyst configuration after 5000 hours of testing has no loss in performance; (2) capability of the alkaline fuel cell to operate to a cyclical load profile; (3) suitability of a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate for use in the alkaline fuel cell; (4) long life potential of a hybrid polysulfone cell edge frame construction; and (5) long term stability of a fiber reinforced potassium titanate matrix structure. The power section tested operates with passive water removal eliminating the requirement for a dynamic hydrogen pump water separator thereby allowing a powerplant design with reduced weight, lower parasite power, and a potential for high reliability and extended endurance. It is concluded that two perovskites are unsuitable for use as a catalyst or as a catalyst support at the cathode of an alkaline fuel cell.

  17. Multi-State Fuel Waiver - November 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is the November 3, 2016, fuel waiver concerning Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and the District of Columbia.

  18. The status of fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, J.B.

    1991-02-20

    This brief status report provides an introduction to what fuel cells are, why they are important, what uses have been made of them to date, the goals and timetables of current programs, and who the players are in this vital technology. Copies of most of the slides presented and additional diagrams are appended to this paper. Further details can be obtained from the comprehensive texts cited in the bibliography. 11 refs., 44 figs.

  19. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Technology for Coast Guard Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    PAFCs have good stability and the ability to use light hydrocarbon fuels. In addition , PAFCs have a higher thermal efficiency for electricity...requirement for premium fuels. In addition to the high capital costs discussed above, PAFCs may have a high life cycle cost because the fuel cell stacks will...and Solid Oxide fuel cell technologies should be commerically produced within the next decade. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell ( PAFC ) technology is the most

  20. Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

  1. Multi-fuel compression-ignition engine and fuel injection pump therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Pien, P.C.

    1990-06-18

    This patent describes a multi-fuel compression-ignition combustion engine. It includes a first source of primary fuel, a second source of secondary fuel, injection pump means including a body means having a bore therein, plunger means including a body means having a bore therein, plunger means movably mounted within the bore, the plunger means having an end portion defining with a portion of the bore a mixing chamber, first supply means for supplying primary fuel from the first source to the mixing chamber, second supply means for supplying secondary fuel from the second source to the mixing chamber so that the primary and secondary fuels are mixed in the mixing chamber to provide a mixture of the primary and secondary fuels.

  2. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  3. Deployable Fuel Cell Power Generator - Multi-Fuel Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    nationals. Copies may be obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). REPORT NUMBER AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2008-4607 HAS...This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange, and its publication does not constitute the...introduction of more efficient and quiet fuel cell electric generators into power applications. This report describes the demonstration of the direct

  4. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides documentation on synthetic fuels (coal-derived and oil shale). The transformation of the energy in coal and oil shale into a more useful form is described in this publication in terms of major activity areas in the synthetic fuel cycles, that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are coal liquefaction, coal gasification, in-situ gasification, and oil shales. These activities represent both well-documented and advanced activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The advanced activity areas examined are those like coal liquefaction and in-situ retorting of oil shale. For these areas, data from pilot or demonstration plants were used where available; otherwise, engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary volume. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

  5. Combustion technology overview. [the use of broadened property aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of combustor technology developments required for use of broadened property fuels in jet aircraft is presented. The intent of current investigations is to determine the extent to which fuel properties can be varied, to obtain a data base of combustion - fuel quality effects, and to determine the trade-offs associated with broadened property fuels. Subcomponents of in-service combustors such as fuel injectors and liners, as well as air distributions and stoichiometry, are being altered to determine the extent to which fuel flexibility can be extended. Finally, very advanced technology consisting of new combustor concepts is being evolved to optimize the fuel flexibility of gas turbine combustors.

  6. Multi-fuel driven Janus micromotors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; D'Agostino, Mattia; Garcia-Gradilla, Victor; Orozco, Jahir; Wang, Joseph

    2013-02-11

    Here the first example of a chemically powered micromotor that harvests its energy from the reactions of three different fuels is presented. The new Al/Pd Janus microspheres-prepared by depositing a Pd layer on one side of Al microparticles-are propelled efficiently by the thrust of hydrogen bubbles generated from different reactions of Al in strong acidic and alkaline environments, and by an oxygen bubble thrust produced at their partial Pd coating in hydrogen peroxide media. High speeds and long lifetimes of 200 μm s(-1) and 8 min are achieved in strong alkaline media and acidic media, respectively. The ability to autonomously adapt to the presence of a new fuel (surrounding environment), without compromising the propulsion behavior is illustrated. These data also represent the first example of a chemically powered micromotor that propels autonomously and efficiently in alkaline environments (pH > 11) without additional fuels. The ability to use multiple fuel sources to power the same micromotor offers a broader scope of operation and considerable promise for diverse applications of micromotors in different chemical environments.

  7. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project. NREL is seeking fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible analysis of commercially available fuel cell products to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth.

  8. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Fact sheet describing the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project. NREL is seeking fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible analysis of commercially available fuel cell products to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth.

  9. Fuel cell development at McDermott Technology, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Tharp, M.R.; Privette, R.M.; Rowley, D.R.; Khandkar, A.

    1999-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has been involved with the development of a wide variety of fuel cell technologies since 1990. Current programs include the development of planar solid fuel cell (pSOFC) stacks and systems and fuel processing and balance of plant development for proton exchange membrane (PEM) systems. These programs are described.

  10. (Fuel, fission product, and graphite technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, O.M.

    1990-07-25

    Travel to the Forschungszentrum (KFA) -- Juelich described in this report was for the purpose of participating in the annual meeting of subprogram managers for the US/DOE Umbrella Agreement for Fuel, Fission Product, and Graphite Technology. At this meeting the highlights of the cooperative exchange were reviewed for the time period June 1989 through June 1990. The program continues to contribute technology in an effective way for both countries. Revision 15 of the Subprogram Plan will be issued as a result of the meeting. There was interest expressed by KFA management in the level of support received from the NPR program and in potential participation in the COMEDIE loop experiment being conducted at the CEA.

  11. Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign.

  12. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  13. In Situ Multi-Species (O2, N2, Fuel, Other) Fiber Optic Sensor for Fuel Tank Ullage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2007-01-01

    A rugged and compact fiber optic sensor system for in situ real-time measurement of nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), hydrocarbon (HC) fuel vapors, and other gases has been developed over the past several years at Glenn Research Center. The intrinsically-safe, solid-state fiber optic sensor system provides a 1% precision measurement (by volume) of multiple gases in a 5-sec time window. The sensor has no consumable parts to wear out and requires less than 25 W of electrical power to operate. The sensor head is rugged and compact and is ideal for use in harsh environments such as inside an aircraft fuel tank, or as a feedback sensor in the vent-box of an on-board inert gas generation system (OBIGGS). Multiple sensor heads can be monitored with a single optical detection unit for a cost-effective multi-point sensor system. The present sensor technology is unique in its ability to measure N2 concentration directly, and in its ability to differentiate different types of HC fuels. The present sensor system provides value-added aircraft safety information by simultaneously and directly measuring the nitrogen-oxygen-fuel triplet, which provides the following advantages: (1) information regarding the extent of inerting by N2, (2) information regarding the chemical equivalence ratio, (3) information regarding the composition of the aircraft fuel, and (4) by providing a self-consistent calibration by utilizing a singular sensor for all species. Using the extra information made available by this sensor permits the ignitability of a fuel-oxidizer mixture to be more accurately characterized, which may permit a reduction in the amount of inerting required on a real-time basis, and yet still maintain a fire-safe fuel tank. This translates to an increase in fuel tank fire-safety through a better understanding of the physics of fuel ignition, and at the same time, a reduction in compressed bleed air usage and concomitant aircraft operational costs over the long-run. The present fiber

  14. LOW COST MULTI-LAYER FABRICATION METHOD FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Milliken; Robert Ruhl; Jennifer Hillman

    2002-06-01

    Technology Management, Inc has evaluated the practical fabrication advantages and potential economic impact of a multi-pass screen printing process on the costs of fabricating planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks. During this program, multiple catalyzed binder systems were considered. Preliminary screening experiments resulted in four systems being selected for further evaluation. Inks were formulated using these binders in combination with at least three fuel cell materials (anode, cathode, and seal material). Reactivity of the binder with catalyst and fuel cell materials was evaluated. Cell tests indicated that the catalyzed binders did not negatively impact cell performance. Tests were conducted demonstrating single cell performance comparable with standard cell fabrication technology. Tailored patterns were also demonstrated. Economic evaluation indicated that a significant reduction in cost could be achieved, primarily through reduced capital equipment needs.

  15. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  16. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  17. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet describes opportunities for leading fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible fuel cell technology performance and durability analysis by sharing their raw fuel cell test data related to operations, maintenance, safety, and cost with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory via the Hydrogen Secure Data Center.

  18. FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Kevin

    2013-06-28

    Annual progress report of the Fuel & Lubricant Technologies subprogram supporting fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  19. Plasma-cyclone technology for firing solid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Karpenko, E. I.; Basargin, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    A new coal combustion technology is described, which involves preparation of fuel for combustion by subjecting it to electrothermochemical treatment followed by vortex firing of pulverized-coal fuel in a cyclone chamber with removing the molten mineral part of the fuel. A procedure for stepped calculation of the plasma-cyclone process is presented, which includes stage-wise determination of gas flow state parameters, mineral part of fuel, and geometrical characteristics of the chamber. The results of experimental investigations confirming the main theoretical statements are given. The solid fuel plasma-cyclone combustion technology application field including power-generating and power-processing areas is defined.

  20. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Taconic Energy, Inc. TEA Fuel Additive

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Greenhouse Gas Technology Center (GHG Center) is one of six verification organizations operating under EPA’s ETV program. One sector of significant interest to GHG Center stakeholders is transportation - particularly technologies that result in fuel economy improvements. Taco...

  1. Marine Fuel Cell Technology Verification Trainer Program: Operator Curriculum Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ofinito acn. including suggestetns Ior reductng the burden, to Departnment of Defne, t . Washingtn Headquara Services., Diremtorte for information...materials, reference FuelCell Energy (FCE, the manufacturer) documentation are subject to change as the Direct Fuel Cell ( DFC ) SSFC plant technology matures...introduction to the Direct Fuel Cell Ship Service Fuel Cell ( DFC SSFC) for future operators. These modules would fill a 2- to 4- day lecture and

  2. Deterministic methods for multi-control fuel loading optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Fariz B. Abdul

    We have developed a multi-control fuel loading optimization code for pressurized water reactors based on deterministic methods. The objective is to flatten the fuel burnup profile, which maximizes overall energy production. The optimal control problem is formulated using the method of Lagrange multipliers and the direct adjoining approach for treatment of the inequality power peaking constraint. The optimality conditions are derived for a multi-dimensional multi-group optimal control problem via calculus of variations. Due to the Hamiltonian having a linear control, our optimal control problem is solved using the gradient method to minimize the Hamiltonian and a Newton step formulation to obtain the optimal control. We are able to satisfy the power peaking constraint during depletion with the control at beginning of cycle (BOC) by building the proper burnup path forward in time and utilizing the adjoint burnup to propagate the information back to the BOC. Our test results show that we are able to achieve our objective and satisfy the power peaking constraint during depletion using either the fissile enrichment or burnable poison as the control. Our fuel loading designs show an increase of 7.8 equivalent full power days (EFPDs) in cycle length compared with 517.4 EFPDs for the AP600 first cycle.

  3. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  4. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Fuel Cell Technologies: State And Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammes, Nigel; Smirnova, Alevtina; Vasylyev, Oleksandr

    Fuel Cells have become a potentially highly efficient sustainable source of energy and electricity for an ever-demanding power hungry world. The two main types of fuel cells ripe for commercialisation are the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEM). The commercial uses of which include, but are not limited to, military, stand-by power, commercial and industrial, and remoter power. However, all aspects of the electricity market are being considered.

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell technology improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to define a competitive CG/MCFC (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell) power plant and the associated technology development requirements and to develop an improved cell configuration for molten carbonate fuel cells which has improved performance, has reduced cell creep and electrolyte management consistent with 40,000 hour projected life, reduces existing cell cost, and is adaptable to a range of power plant applications. Component design specifications for the end-cells of the alternative cell configuration were completed. Testing to evaluate new components was performed on 14 cells during this reporting period with eight tests started and terminated, and six tests continuing into the next reporting period. A test and performance summary of all the single cell tests conducted to date on this program is presented. A single cell test to qualify new matrix materials and matrix reinforcement was successfully completed. Integrated cell testing of new anode- and cathode-side components was completed. Single cell tests were conducted to identify the electrolyte fill procedure for the new cell configuration. Methods of fabricating manifold seals from the new candidate materials are being developed. Preparation of construction drawings for the 1-ft(sup 2) short stack was continued. Fabrication of repeating cell components for the 1-ft(sup 2) short stack was initiated. Trials to tape cast electrodes and matrices were initiated, tooling to form current collectors is being fabricated, and existing tooling to form separator plates is being modified. Non-repeat components from the previous 1-ft(sup 2) short stack that are acceptable for re-use were identified. New non-repeat components that are required have been ordered. Preparation of the test stand for the 1-ft(sup 2) short stack test was initiated.

  7. Acid fuel cell technologies for vehicular power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, J.R.; Srinivasan, S.

    1982-08-01

    Fuel cells offer a number of significant advantages as vehicular power sources. These include high efficiency, virtually no pollution, and the ability to use nonpetroleum fuel. To date, most fuel cell systems have been designed for either utility or space applications, which have substantially different requirements than vehicular applications. Several fuel cell technologies were assessed specifically for vehicular applications. The results of these assessments were used to calculate the performance and fuel consumption of a fuel cell powered GM X car. Results indicate that the phosphoric acid technology, which has the most development experience, can power a vehicle with reasonable performance, with a range of over 350 miles on 20 gallons of methanol and with high energy efficiency. Solid polymer electrolyte technology, which is second in development experience, can provide performance approaching that of an ICE vehicle and an energy efficiency 149% higher than the ICE-powered version.

  8. Hydrocarbon fuel cooling technologies for advanced propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, D.R.; Spadaccini, L.J.

    1997-04-01

    Storable hydrocarbon fuels that undergo endothermic reaction provide an attractive heat sink for future high-speed aircraft. An investigation was conducted to explore the endothermic potential of practical fuels, with inexpensive and readily available catalysts, under operating conditions simulative of high-speed flight applications. High heat sink capacities and desirable reaction products have been demonstrated for n-heptane and Norpar 12 fuels using zeolite catalysts in coated tube reactor configurations. The effects of fuel composition and operating condition on extent of fuel conversion, product composition, and the corresponding endotherm have been examined. The results obtained in this study provide a basis for catalytic-reactor/heat-exchanger design and analysis.

  9. Proceedings -- US Russian workshop on fuel cell technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.; Sylwester, A.

    1996-04-01

    On September 26--28, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored the first Joint US/Russian Workshop on Fuel Cell Technology at the Marriott Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This workshop brought together the US and Russian fuel cell communities as represented by users, producers, R and D establishments and government agencies. Customer needs and potential markets in both countries were discussed to establish a customer focus for the workshop. Parallel technical sessions defined research needs and opportunities for collaboration to advance fuel cell technology. A desired outcome of the workshop was the formation of a Russian/American Fuel Cell Consortium to advance fuel cell technology for application in emerging markets in both countries. This consortium is envisioned to involve industry and national labs in both countries. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Development of internal reforming carbonate fuel cell stack technology

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.

    1990-10-01

    Activities under this contract focused on the development of a coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system design and the stack technology consistent with the system design. The overall contract effort was divided into three phases. The first phase, completed in January 1988, provided carbonate fuel cell component scale-up from the 1ft{sup 2} size to the commercial 4ft{sup 2} size. The second phase of the program provided the coal-fueled carbonate fuel cell system (CGCFC) conceptual design and carried out initial research and development needs of the CGCFC system. The final phase of the program emphasized stack height scale-up and improvement of stack life. The results of the second and third phases are included in this report. Program activities under Phase 2 and 3 were designed to address several key development areas to prepare the carbonate fuel cell system, particularly the coal-fueled CFC power plant, for commercialization in late 1990's. The issues addressed include: Coal-Gas Related Considerations; Cell and Stack Technology Improvement; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Design Development; Stack Tests for Design Verification; Full-Size Stack Design; Test Facility Development; Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Cost Assessment; and Coal-Fueled Carbonate Fuel Cell System Design. All the major program objectives in each of the topical areas were successfully achieved. This report is organized along the above-mentioned topical areas. Each topical area has been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

    1972-01-01

    The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

  12. Fuel Cell Technology Status - Voltage Degradation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke,; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation describes an independent assessment of fuel cell durability status and discusses the project's relevance to the Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program; NREL's analysis approach; the FY12 technical accomplishments including the fourth annual publication of results; and project collaborations and future work.

  13. Hybrid fuel formulation and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to develop an improved hybrid fuel with higher regression rate, a regression rate expression exponent close to 0.5, lower cost, and higher density. The approach was to formulate candidate fuels based on promising concepts, perform thermomechanical analyses to select the most promising candidates, develop laboratory processes to fabricate fuel grains as needed, fabricate fuel grains and test in a small lab-scale motor, select the best candidate, and then scale up and validate performance in a 2500 lbf scale, 11-inch diameter motor. The characteristics of a high performance fuel have been verified in 11-inch motor testing. The advanced fuel exhibits a 15% increase in density over an all hydrocarbon formulation accompanied by a 50% increase in regression rate, which when multiplied by the increase in density yields a 70% increase in fuel mass flow rate; has a significantly lower oxidizer-to-fuel (O/F) ratio requirement at 1.5; has a significantly decreased axial regression rate variation making for more uniform propellant flow throughout motor operation; is very clean burning; extinguishes cleanly and quickly; and burns with a high combustion efficiency.

  14. Development of the fuel cell power generation technology, 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    NEDO arranged results of the research on the development of the fuel cell power generation technology during fiscal 1981 to 1987. During 1981 to 1983, research and development were made on a dispersed generation type fuel cell power generation system using phosphoric acid fuel cells (low temperature/pressure type) and a thermal power plant substitution type fuel cell power generation system (high temperature/pressure type). During 1984 to 1986, in addition to the above, research was made on a total system of phosphoric acid fuel cells, trial operation of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant (matrix electrolyte method, paste electrolyte method) and a total system. In 1987, as to molten carbonate fuel cells, researches were made on stacks and a peripheral system, support, and a total system. As a comprehensive technology development of phosphoric acid fuel cells, researches were made on a fuel cell power generation system for isolated island use and a fuel cell power generation system for business use.

  15. Technology Status of Thermionic Fuel Elements for Space Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, J. W.; Yang, L.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic reactor power systems are discussed with respect to their suitability for space missions. The technology status of thermionic emitters and sheath insulator assemblies is described along with testing of the thermionic fuel elements.

  16. Aircraft fuel conservation technology. Task force report, September 10, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An advanced technology program is described for reduced fuel consumption in air transport. Cost benefits and estimates are given for improved engine design and components, turboprop propulsion systems, active control systems, laminar flow control, and composite primary structures.

  17. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  18. Preparation and Evaluation of Multi-Layer Anodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Diana; Farmer, Serene C.; Setlock, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an energy device with abundant energy generation, ultra-high specific power density, high stability and long life is critical for enabling longer missions and for reducing mission costs. Of all different types of fuel cells, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is a promising high temperature device that can generate electricity as a byproduct of a chemical reaction in a clean way and produce high quality heat that can be used for other purposes. For aerospace applications, a power-to-weight of (is) greater than 1.0 kW/kg is required. NASA has a patented fuel cell technology under development, capable of achieving the 1.0 kW/kg figure of merit. The first step toward achieving these goals is increasing anode durability. The catalyst plays an important role in the fuel cells for power generation, stability, efficiency and long life. Not only the anode composition, but its preparation and reduction are key to achieving better cell performance. In this research, multi-layer anodes were prepared varying the chemistry of each layer to optimize the performance of the cells. Microstructure analyses were done to the new anodes before and after fuel cell operation. The cells' durability and performance were evaluated in 200 hrs life tests in hydrogen at 850 C. The chemistry of the standard nickel anode was modified successfully reducing the anode degradation from 40% to 8.4% in 1000 hrs and retaining its microstructure.

  19. System and method having multi-tube fuel nozzle with differential flow

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Michael John; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Berry, Jonathan Dwight; York, William David

    2017-01-03

    A system includes a multi-tube fuel nozzle with a fuel nozzle body and a plurality of tubes. The fuel nozzle body includes a nozzle wall surrounding a chamber. The plurality of tubes extend through the chamber, wherein each tube of the plurality of tubes includes an air intake portion, a fuel intake portion, and an air-fuel mixture outlet portion. The multi-tube fuel nozzle also includes a differential configuration of the air intake portions among the plurality of tubes.

  20. Commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Warshay, M.; Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the current commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development efforts is presented. In both the electric utility and on-site integrated energy system applications, reducing cost and increasing reliability are the technology drivers at this time. The longstanding barrier to the attainment of these goals, which manifests itself in a number of ways, has been materials. The differences in approach among the three major participants (United Technologies Corporation (UTC), Westinghouse Electric Corporation/Energy Research Corporation (ERC), and Engelhard Industries) and their unique technological features, including electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, fuel selection and system design philosophy are discussed.

  1. Advanced supersonic technology fuel tank sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Status of the fuel tank simulation and YF-12A flight tests utilizing a fluorosilicone sealant is described. New elastomer sealant development is detailed, and comparisons of high and low temperature characteristics are made to baseline fluorosilicone sealants.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cells - Technology status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, R. D.

    The functional principles, components, operating conditions, and problems in prototype molten carbonate fuel cell plants are described. Centralized carbonate fuel cells consist of four subsystems: a coal gasifier and gas cleanup system, fuel cell stacks, heat removal and recovery system, and a power conditioner to convert dc to ac current. The fuel in the cells comprises hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and produces current by means of completion of an electrical circuit through transfer of carbonate ions through the electrolyte and electrons from cell to cell and eventually into the external circuit. Electrodes are porous sheets which provide sites for the electrochemical reaction and conduction paths for the reactants and products. The construction of LiAlO2-carbonate electrolyte structures is noted, and the electrolyte distribution and structures, the anodes, cathodes, separator plate, and operational problems are considered.

  3. Fuel alcohol extraction technology commercialization conference

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A. L.; Griffith, W. L.; Googin, J. M.

    1980-12-01

    The fualex, or fuel alcohol extraction process, uses a combination of hydrocarbon and surfactant to remove neutral solvents, such as butanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and acetone, from aqueous solution. The hydrocarbon extractants use may be fuels, such as gasoline, furnace oil, and diesel fuel. Surfactant concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 g/liter and hydrocarbon raning from 0.01 to 1 liter per liter aqueous alcohols solution have been investigated. The fualex process was tested on solutions which contain 5% w/v total neutral solvents, since this is near maximum for the fermentation product stream. The neutral solvents are removed in the form of an emulsion which is white to light bluish in the visible range. The emulsion has potential for direct use in fuels or as an intermediate for obtaining purified solvents.

  4. Advanced supersonic technology concept study: Hydrogen fueled configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of hydrogen fueled supersonic transport configurations for the 1990 time period were developed and compared with equivalent technology Jet A-1 fueled vehicles to determine the economic and performance potential of liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Parametric evaluations of supersonic cruise vehicles with varying design and transport mission characteristics established the basis for selecting a preferred configuration which was then studied in greater detail. An assessment was made of the general viability of the selected concept including an evaluation of costs and environmental considerations, i.e., exhaust emissions and sonic boom characteristics. Technology development requirements and suggested implementation schedules are presented.

  5. Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The overall objectives of the Phase IV Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Technology Program were to: (1) establish fuel cell life and performance at temperatures, pressures and current densities significantly higher than those previously demonstrated; (2) provide the ground work for a space energy storage system based on the solid polymer electrolyte technology (i.e., regenerative H2/O2 fuel cell); (3) design, fabricate and test evaluate a full-scale single cell unit. During this phase, significant progress was made toward the accomplishment of these objectives.

  6. Demonstration of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian; Colozza, Anthony; Wynne, Robert; Miller, Michael; Meyer, Al; Smith, William

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA Exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within highly thermally conductive cooling plates to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components within the fuel cell system which reduces mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous development demonstrated the performance of suitable highly thermally conductive cooling plates and integrated heat exchanger technology to collect the heat from the cooling plates (Ref. 1). The next step in the development of this passive thermal approach was the demonstration of the control of the heat removal process and the demonstration of the passive thermal control technology in actual fuel cell stacks. Tests were run with a simulated fuel cell stack passive thermal management system outfitted with passive cooling plates, an integrated heat exchanger and two types of cooling flow control valves. The tests were run to demonstrate the controllability of the passive thermal control approach. Finally, successful demonstrations of passive thermal control technology were conducted with fuel cell stacks from two fuel cell stack vendors.

  7. Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project: Partnership Opportunities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fuel Cell Technology Status Analysis Project. NREL is seeking fuel cell industry partners from the United States and abroad to participate in an objective and credible analysis of commercially available fuel cell products to benchmark the current state of the technology and support industry growth. Participating fuel cell developers share price information about their fuel cell products and/or raw fuel cell test data related to operations, maintenance, and safety with NREL via the Hydrogen Secure Data Center (HSDC). The limited-access, off-network HSDC houses the data and analysis tools to protect proprietary information. NREL shares individualized data analysis results as detailed data products (DDPs) with the partners who supplied the data. Aggregated results are published as composite data products (CDPs), which show the technology status without identifying individual companies. The CDPs are a primary benchmarking tool for the U.S. Department of Energy and other stakeholders interested in tracking the status of fuel cell technologies. They highlight durability advancements, identify areas for continued development, and help set realistic price expectations at small-volume production.

  8. Investigation of the technology development status of alternate fuel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The main purpose of the introduction of alternate fuel vehicles is to contribute to the reduction of pollution, the alternate energy for petroleum, and the energy savings. This report describes the development status of methanol, natural gas, and electric vehicles, which have high potential as alternate fuel vehicles. Characteristics of alternate fuel vehicles are compared by using the same factors on the basis of technological data. Outlines of individual alternate fuel vehicles are illustrated. Then, practicabilities of the alternate fuel vehicles are compared with each other, as for the output and energy densities, maximum output and torque of motors, power performance, specific consumption of energy, driving distance, initial cost, running cost and life cycle cost, convenience of fuel and energy supply, low pollution, and health effects.

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) gas generation from N-Fuel in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.D.

    1996-08-01

    During the conversion from wet pool storage for spent nuclear fuel at Hanford, gases will be generated from both radiolysis and chemical reactions. The gas generation phenomenon needs to be understood as it applies to safety and design issues,specifically over pressurization of sealed storage containers,and detonation/deflagration of flammable gases. This study provides an initial basis to predict the implications of gas generation on the proposed functional processes for spent nuclear fuel conversion from wet to dry storage. These projections are based upon examination of the history of fuel manufacture at Hanford, irradiation in the reactors, corrosion during wet pool storage, available fuel characterization data and available information from literature. Gas generation via radiolysis and metal corrosion are addressed. The study examines gas generation, the boundary conditions for low medium and high levels of sludge in SNF storage/processing containers. The functional areas examined include: flooded and drained Multi-Canister Overpacks, cold vacuum drying, shipping and staging and long term storage.

  10. Army Science Conference 2006 TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF SOLDIER & MAN PORTABLE FUEL CELL POWER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-27

    Research Development Engineering Center (CERDEC) Fuel Cell Technology Team initiated several development contracts to address multiple areas where fuel cell technologies... fuel cell technology focuses specifically on Soldier worn power equipment, mainly from the sub to 100 Watt range. Man Portable Power fuel cell technology

  11. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2015

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-01-08

    This FY 2015 report updates the results of an effort to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 to 5 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from U.S. Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  12. Fuels from biomass. Technology and feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.S. .

    1980-01-01

    This book for engineers, research workers and managers is concerned with decreasing conventional fuel consumption and increasing the use of synthetic fuels. There are 10 chapters: Sources of biomass - wastes and residues (including forestry residues); Sources of biomass - energy farms (including silviculture and aquaculture); Thermal conversion methods; Primary biochemical conversions (production of methane and glucose); Secondary conversion processes (methanol, hydrocarbons, ammonia, ethanol etc.); Case studies and economics - describing pyrolysis methods, production of methane by anaerobic fermentation, and biomass sources (3 chapters); Market penetration analysis; and Environmental impacts. Extensive illustrative data is a list of sourand a listes.

  13. Commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Warshay, M.; Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Reducing cost and increasing reliability were the technology drivers in both the electric utility and on-site integrated energy system applications. The longstanding barrier to the attainment of these goals was materials. Differences in approaches and their technological features, including electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, fuel selection, and system design philosophy were discussed.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: FUEL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techno...

  15. Solar to fuels conversion technologies: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Tuller, Harry L

    2017-01-01

    To meet increasing energy needs, while limiting greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decades, power capacity on a large scale will need to be provided from renewable sources, with solar expected to play a central role. While the focus to date has been on electricity generation via photovoltaic (PV) cells, electricity production currently accounts for only about one-third of total primary energy consumption. As a consequence, solar-to-fuel conversion will need to play an increasingly important role and, thereby, satisfy the need to replace high energy density fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives that remain easy to transport and store. The solar refinery concept (Herron et al. in Energy Environ Sci 8:126-157, 2015), in which captured solar radiation provides energy in the form of heat, electricity or photons, used to convert the basic chemical feedstocks CO2 and H2O into fuels, is reviewed as are the key conversion processes based on (1) combined PV and electrolysis, (2) photoelectrochemically driven electrolysis and (3) thermochemical processes, all focused on initially converting H2O and CO2 to H2 and CO. Recent advances, as well as remaining challenges, associated with solar-to-fuel conversion are discussed, as is the need for an intensive research and development effort to bring such processes to scale.

  16. Broad specification fuels combustion technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design and development efforts to evolve promising aircraft gas turbine combustor configurations for burning broadened-properties fuels were discussed. Design and experimental evaluations of three different combustor concepts in sector combustor rig tests was conducted. The combustor concepts were a state of the art single-annular combustor, a staged double-annular combustor, and a short single-annular combustor with variable geometry to control primary zone stoichiometry. A total of 25 different configurations of the three combustor concepts were evaluated. Testing was conducted over the full range of CF6-80A engine combustor inlet conditions, using four fuels containing between 12% and 14% hydrogen by weight. Good progress was made toward meeting specific program emissions and performance goals with each of the three combustor concepts. The effects of reduced fuel hydrogen content, including increased flame radiation, liner metal temperature, smoke, and NOx emissions were documented. The most significant effect on the baseline combustor was a projected 33% life reduction, for a reduction from 14% to 13% fuel hydrogen content, due to increased liner temperatures.

  17. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  18. Versatile Affordable Advanced Fuels and Combustion Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Fuels, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2008 2415 165 elastomer is highly fluorinated and relatively inert, as evident by the very low percentage of volume swell. Previous...hydrogen bonding involves hydrogen bound to nearly any electrophilic structure not just a highly electrophilic atom such as oxygen and nitrogen

  19. Multi-loop control strategy of a solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao-Juan; Zhu, Xin-Jian

    2011-10-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine (SOFC/MGT) hybrid system is a promising distributed power technology. In order to ensure the system safe operation as well as long lifetime of the fuel cell, an effective control manner is expected to regulate the temperature and fuel utilization at the desired level, and track the desired power output. Thus, a multi-loop control strategy for the hybrid system is investigated in this paper. A mathematical model for the SOFC/MGT hybrid system is built firstly. Based on the mathematical model, control cycles are introduced and their design is discussed. Part load operation condition is employed to investigate the control strategies for the system. The dynamic modeling and control implementation are realized in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment, and the simulation results show that it is feasible to build the multi-loop control methods for the SOFC/MGT hybrid system with regard to load disturbances.

  20. Multi-Pack Disposal Concepts for Spent Fuel (Revision 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Matteo, Edward N.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2016-01-01

    At the initiation of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) R&D campaign, international geologic disposal programs and past work in the U.S. were surveyed to identify viable disposal concepts for crystalline, clay/shale, and salt host media. Concepts for disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing are relatively advanced in countries such as Finland, France, and Sweden. The UFD work quickly showed that these international concepts are all “enclosed,” whereby waste packages are emplaced in direct or close contact with natural or engineered materials . Alternative “open” modes (emplacement tunnels are kept open after emplacement for extended ventilation) have been limited to the Yucca Mountain License Application Design. Thermal analysis showed that if “enclosed” concepts are constrained by peak package/buffer temperature, that waste package capacity is limited to 4 PWR assemblies (or 9 BWR) in all media except salt. This information motivated separate studies: 1) extend the peak temperature tolerance of backfill materials, which is ongoing; and 2) develop small canisters (up to 4-PWR size) that can be grouped in larger multi-pack units for convenience of storage, transportation, and possibly disposal (should the disposal concept permit larger packages). A recent result from the second line of investigation is the Task Order 18 report: Generic Design for Small Standardized Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister Systems. This report identifies disposal concepts for the small canisters (4-PWR size) drawing heavily on previous work, and for the multi-pack (16-PWR or 36-BWR).

  1. Multi-pack Disposal Concepts for Spent Fuel (Rev. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadgu, Teklu; Hardin, Ernest; Matteo, Edward N.

    2015-12-01

    At the initiation of the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) R&D campaign, international geologic disposal programs and past work in the U.S. were surveyed to identify viable disposal concepts for crystalline, clay/shale, and salt host media (Hardin et al., 2012). Concepts for disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing are relatively advanced in countries such as Finland, France, and Sweden. The UFD work quickly showed that these international concepts are all “enclosed,” whereby waste packages are emplaced in direct or close contact with natural or engineered materials . Alternative “open” modes (emplacement tunnels are kept open after emplacement for extended ventilation) have been limited to the Yucca Mountain License Application Design (CRWMS M&O, 1999). Thermal analysis showed that, if “enclosed” concepts are constrained by peak package/buffer temperature, waste package capacity is limited to 4 PWR assemblies (or 9-BWR) in all media except salt. This information motivated separate studies: 1) extend the peak temperature tolerance of backfill materials, which is ongoing; and 2) develop small canisters (up to 4-PWR size) that can be grouped in larger multi-pack units for convenience of storage, transportation, and possibly disposal (should the disposal concept permit larger packages). A recent result from the second line of investigation is the Task Order 18 report: Generic Design for Small Standardized Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister Systems (EnergySolution, 2015). This report identifies disposal concepts for the small canisters (4-PWR size) drawing heavily on previous work, and for the multi-pack (16-PWR or 36-BWR).

  2. Proceedings of the fuels technology contractors review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    The Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting was held November 16-18, 1993, at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). METC periodically provides an opportunity to bring together all of the R&D participants in a DOE-sponsored contractors review meeting to present key results of their research and to provide technology transfer to the active research community and to the interested public. This meeting was previously called the Natural Gas Technology Contractors Review Meeting. This year it was expanded to include DOE-sponsored research on oil shale and tar sands and so was retitled the Fuels Technology Contractors Review Meeting. Current research activities include efforts in both natural gas and liquid fuels. The natural gas portion of the meeting included discussions of results summarizing work being conducted in fracture systems, both natural and induced; drilling, completion, and stimulation research; resource characterization; delivery and storage; gas to liquids research; and environmental issues. The meeting also included project and technology summaries on research in oil shale, tar sands, and mild coal gasification, and summaries of work in natural-gas fuel cells and natural-gas turbines. The format included oral and poster session presentations. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  3. Could Advanced Fusion Fuels Be Used with Today's Technology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, J. F.; Kulcinski, G. L.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Khater, H. Y.

    1998-03-01

    Could today's technology suffice for engineering advanced-fuel, magnetic-fusion power plants, thus making fusion development primarily a physics problem? Such a path would almost certainly cost far less than the present D-T development program, which is driven by daunting engineering challenges as well as physics questions. Advanced fusion fuels, in contrast to D-T fuel, produce a smaller fraction of the fusion power as neutrons but have lower fusion reactivity, leading to a trade-off between engineering and physics. This paper examines the critical fusion engineering issues and related technologies with an eye to their application in tokamak and alternate-concept D-3He power plants. These issues include plasma power balance, magnets, surface heat flux, input power, fuel source, radiation damage, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear proliferation.

  4. Advances in Materials and System Technology for Portable Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the materials and systems engineering used for portable fuel cells. The contents include: 1) Portable Power; 2) Technology Solution; 3) Portable Hydrogen Systems; 4) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell; 5) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System Concept; 6) Overview of DMFC R&D at JPL; 7) 300-Watt Portable Fuel Cell for Army Applications; 8) DMFC units from Smart Fuel Cell Inc, Germany; 9) DMFC Status and Prospects; 10) Challenges; 11) Rapid Screening of Well-Controlled Catalyst Compositions; 12) Screening of Ni-Zr-Pt-Ru alloys; 13) Issues with New Membranes; 14) Membranes With Reduced Methanol Crossover; 15) Stacks; 16) Hybrid DMFC System; 17) Small Compact Systems; 18) Durability; and 19) Stack and System Parameters for Various Applications.

  5. DOE supported research in alcohol fuel technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy sponsored research in alcohol fuel technology development under the direction of Congress and Public Law 96-126. Twenty-seven research grants of about $50,000 each were funded to develop lower cost methods for alcohol fuel production. This paper discusses the objectives of the program and relates the accomplishments achieved by the research. A discussion of the highlights of several selected projects is included.

  6. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  7. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  8. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant (phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1979-01-01

    The status of technology for the manufacturing and testing of 1200 sq. cm cell materials, components, and stacks for on-site integrated energy systems is assessed. Topics covered include: (1) preparation of thin layers of silicon carbide; (2) definition and control schemes for volume changes in phosphoric acid fuel cells; (3) preparation of low resin content graphite phenolic resin composites; (4) chemical corrosion of graphite-phenolic resin composites in hot phosphoric acid; (5) analysis of electrical resistance of composite materials for fuel cells; and (6) fuel cell performance and testing.

  9. Proceedings of the 1999 Review Conference on Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    2000-06-05

    The 1999 Review Conference on Fuel Cell Technology was jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It was held August 3 to 5 in Chicago, Illinois. The goal of this conference was to provide a forum for reviewing fuel cell research and development (R&D) programs, assist in strategic R&D planning, promote awareness of sponsor activities, and enhance interactions between manufacturers, researchers, and stakeholders. This conference was attended by over 250 representatives from industry, academia, national laboratories, gas and electric utilities, DOE, and other Government agencies. The conference agenda included a keynote session, five presentation sessions, a poster presentation reception, and three breakout sessions. The presentation session topics were DOD Fuel Cell Applications, Low-Temperature Fuel Cell Manufacturers, Low-Temperature Component Research, High-Temperature Fuel Cell Manufacturers, and High-Temperature Component Research; the breakout session topics were Future R&D Directions for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells, Future R&D Directions for High-Temperature Fuel Cells, and a plenary summary session. All sessions were well attended.

  10. Broad Specification Fuels Combustion Technology Program, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. P.; Jeroszko, R. A.; Kennedy, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of two advanced technology combustor concepts was conducted to evolve and assess their capability for operation on broadened properties fuels. The concepts were based on the results of Phase 1 of the Broad Specification Fuel Combustor Technology Program which indicated that combustors with variable geometry or staged combustion zones had a flexibility of operation that could facilitate operation on these fuels. Emphasis in defining these concepts included the use of single pipe as opposed to duplex or staged fuels systems to avoid the risk of coking associated with the reduction in thermal stability expected in broadened properties fuels. The first concept was a variable geometry combustor in which the airflow into the primary zone could be altered through valves on the front while the second was an outgrowth of the staged Vorbix combustor, evolved under the NASA/P&W ECCP and EEE programs incorporating simplified fuel and air introduction. The results of the investigation, which involved the use of Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel, indicated that in the form initially conceived, both of these combustor concepts were deficient in performance relative to many of the program goals for performance emissions. However, variations of both combustors were evaluated that incorporated features to simulate conceptual enhancement to demonstrate the long range potential of the combustor. In both cases, significant improvements relative to the program goals were observed.

  11. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC). PMID:26218470

  12. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-07-28

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC).

  13. HTGR Fuel Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments of the HTGR Fuel Technology Program at GA Technologies Inc. during the first half of FY 83. The activities include the fuel process, fuel materials, fuel cycle, fission product transport, core component verification, and core technology transfer tasks necessary to support the design and development of a steam cycle/cogeneration (SC/C) version of the HTGR.

  14. FULL SIZE U-10MO MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL AND FUEL PLATE FABRICATION-TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Moore; J-F Jue; B. H. Rabin; M. J. Nilles

    2010-03-01

    Full-size U10Mo foils are being developed for use in high density LEU monolithic fuel plates. The application of a zirconium barrier layer too the foil is applied using a hot co-rolling process. Aluminum clad fuel plates are fabricated using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or a Friction Bonding (FB) process. An overview is provided of ongoing technology development activities, including: the co-rolling process, foil shearing/slitting and polishing, cladding bonding processes, plate forming, plate-assembly swaging, and fuel plate characterization. Characterization techniques being employed include, Ultrasonic Testing (UT), radiography, and microscopy.

  15. Assessment of technology for production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, A.P.; Spurlock, J.M.; Birchfield, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Technologies for liquid fuel production from biomass vary widely in states of development and extent of need for government action. Ethanol produced from grain (principally corn), for use in gasohol blends, is the most widely used and accepted biomass-based energy source in the U.S. at present. Several practical factors strongly point to needed government emphasis on research and development to advance ethanol-production technology. Liquid fuels produced from soybeans, sunflowers, Euphorbia and similar crops, or from aquatic plants, remain as longer-term potential requiring further assessment. 6 refs.

  16. Engineered Nanostructured MEA Technology for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yimin

    2009-07-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalyst support technology based on unique engineered nanostructures for low temperature fuel cells which: (1) Achieves high catalyst activity and performance; (2) Improves catalyst durability over current technologies; and (3) Reduces catalyst cost. This project is directed at the development of durable catalysts supported by novel support that improves the catalyst utilization and hence reduce the catalyst loading. This project will develop a solid fundamental knowledge base necessary for the synthetic effort while at the same time demonstrating the catalyst advantages in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs).

  17. Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon

    2010-09-01

    The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse

  18. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  19. Assessment of technologies to meet a low carbon fuel standard.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Lutsey, Nicholas P; Parker, Nathan C

    2009-09-15

    California's low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) was designed to incentivize a diverse array of available strategies for reducing transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It provides strong incentives for fuels with lower GHG emissions, while explicitly requiring a 10% reduction in California's transportation fuel GHG intensity by 2020. This paper investigates the potential for cost-effective GHG reductions from electrification and expanded use of biofuels. The analysis indicates that fuel providers could meetthe standard using a portfolio approach that employs both biofuels and electricity, which would reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with the progress of cellulosic and battery technologies, feedstock prices, land availability, and the sustainability of the various compliance approaches. Our analysis is based on the details of California's development of an LCFS; however, this research approach could be generalizable to a national U.S. standard and to similar programs in Europe and Canada.

  20. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Technology Validation and Market Introduction 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for technology validation and market introduction, including ENERGY STAR, building energy codes, technology transfer application centers, commercial lighting initiative, EnergySmart Schools, EnergySmar

  1. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R.

    2011-05-20

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  2. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, T. S.; Taylor, C. H.; Moore, J. S.; Ward, J.

    2016-02-23

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies offices of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in research, development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies. This report estimates the benefits of successfully developing and deploying these technologies (a “Program Success” case) relative to a base case (the “No Program” case). The Program Success case represents the future with completely successful deployment of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies. The No Program case represents a future in which there is no contribution after FY 2016 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies. The benefits of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies were estimated on the basis of differences in fuel use, primary energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, including energy and emissions from fuel production, between the base case and the Program Success case. Improvements in fuel economy of various vehicle types, growth in the stock of fuel cell vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles, and decreased GHG intensity of hydrogen production and delivery in the Program Success case over the No Program case were projected to result in savings in petroleum use and GHG emissions. Benefits were disaggregated by individual program technology areas, which included the FCTO program and the VTO subprograms of batteries and electric drives; advanced combustion engines; fuels and lubricants; materials (for reduction in vehicle mass, or “lightweighting”); and, for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, reduction in rolling and aerodynamic resistance. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 47% to 76

  3. National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC); (NREL) National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam

    2014-03-11

    This presentation gives an overview of the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC), describes how NFCTEC benefits the hydrogen and fuel cell community, and introduces a new fuel cell cost/price aggregation project.

  4. Fuels from microalgae: Technology status, potential, and research requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Neenan, B.; Feinberg, D.; Hill, A.; McIntosh, R.; Terry, K.

    1986-08-01

    Although numerous options for the production of fuels from microalgae have been proposed, our analysis indicates that only two qualify for extensive development - gasoline and ester fuel. In developing the comparisons that support this conclusion, we have identified the major areas of microalgae production and processing that require extensive development. Technology success requires developing and testing processes that fully utilize the polar and nonpolar lipids produced by microalgae. Process designs used in these analyses were derived from fragmented, preliminary laboratory data. These results must be substantiated and integrated processes proposed, tested, and refined to be able to evaluate the commercial feasibility from microalgae. The production of algal feedstocks for processing to gasoline or ester fuel requires algae of high productivity and high lipid content that efficiently utilize saline waters. Species screening and development suggest that algae can achieve required standards taken individually, but algae that can meet the integrated requirements still elude researchers. Effective development of fuels from microalgae technology requires that R and D be directed toward meeting the integrated standards set out in the analysis. As technology analysts, it is inappropriate for us to dictate how the R and D effort should proceed to meet these standards. We end our role by noting that alternative approaches to meeting the feasibility targets have been identified, and it is now the task of program managers and scientists to choose the appropriate approach to assure the greatest likelihood of realizing a commercially viable technology. 70 refs., 39 figs., 35 tabs.

  5. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  6. Fuel efficiency through new airframe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    In its Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program, NASA has expended approximately 200 million dollars toward development and application of advanced airframe technologies to United States's commercial transports. United States manufacturers have already been given a significant boost toward early application of advanced composite materials to control surface and empennage structures and toward selected applications of active controls and advanced aerodynamic concepts. In addition, significant progress in definition and development of innovative, but realistic systems for laminar flow control over the wings of future transports has already been made.

  7. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  8. Technological options for biological fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Vertès, Alain A; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    The current paradigm to produce biotechnological ethanol is to use the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment sugars derived from starch or sugar crops such as maize, sugar cane or sugar beet. Despite its current success, the global impact of this manufacturing model is restricted on the one hand by limits on the availability of these primary raw materials, and on the other hand by the maturity of baker's yeast fermentation technologies. Revisiting the technical, economic, and value chain aspects of the biotechnological ethanol industry points to the need for radical innovation to complement the current manufacturing model. Implementation of lignocellulosic materials is clearly a key enabler to the billion-ton biofuel vision. However, realization of the full market potential of biofuels will be facilitated by the availability of an array of innovative technological options, as the flexibility generated by these alternative processes will not only enable the exploitation of heretofore untapped local market opportunities, but also it will confer to large biorefinery structures numerous opportunities for increased process integration as well as optimum reactivity to logistic and manufacturing challenges. In turn, all these factors will interplay in synergy to contribute in shifting the economic balance in favor of the global implementation of biotechnological ethanol.

  9. Coal-fueled diesel: Technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, G.; Hsu, B.; Flynn, P.

    1989-03-01

    This project consisted of four tasks: (1) to determine if CWM could be ignited and burned rapidly enough for operation in a 1000-rpm diesel engine, (2) to demonstrate that a durable CWM-fueled engine could in principle be developed, (3) to assess current emissions control technology to determine the feasibility of cleaning the exhaust of a CWM-fueled diesel locomotive, and (4) to conduct an economic analysis to determine the attractiveness of powering US locomotives with CWM. 34 refs., 125 figs., 28 tabs.

  10. Technology Development for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Powerplant, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1980-01-01

    The technology development for materials, cells, and reformers for on site integrated energy systems is described. The carbonization of 25 cu cm, 350 cu cm, and 1200 cu cm cell test hardware was accomplished and the performance of 25 cu cm fuel cells was improved. Electrochemical corrosion rates of graphite/phenolic resin composites in phosphoric acid were determined. Three cells (5 in by 15 in stacks) were operated for longer than 7000 hours. Specified endurance stacks completed a total of 4000 hours. An electrically heated reformer was tested and is to provide hydrogen for 23 cell fuel cell stack.

  11. A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2011-01-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  12. Development of a 200kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Take, Tetsuo; Kuwata, Yutaka; Adachi, Masahito; Ogata, Tsutomu

    1996-12-31

    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NFT) has been developing a 200 kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant which can generate AC 200 kW of constant power by switching fuel from pipeline town gas to liquefied propane gas (LPG) and vice versa. This paper describes the outline of the demonstration test plant and test results of its fundamental characteristics.

  13. Multi-level multi-criteria analysis of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maimoun, Mousa; Madani, Kaveh; Reinhart, Debra

    2016-04-15

    Historically, the U.S. waste collection fleet was dominated by diesel-fueled waste collection vehicles (WCVs); the growing need for sustainable waste collection has urged decision makers to incorporate economically efficient alternative fuels, while mitigating environmental impacts. The pros and cons of alternative fuels complicate the decisions making process, calling for a comprehensive study that assesses the multiple factors involved. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods allow decision makers to select the best alternatives with respect to selection criteria. In this study, two MCDA methods, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), were used to rank fuel alternatives for the U.S. waste collection industry with respect to a multi-level environmental and financial decision matrix. The environmental criteria consisted of life-cycle emissions, tail-pipe emissions, water footprint (WFP), and power density, while the financial criteria comprised of vehicle cost, fuel price, fuel price stability, and fueling station availability. The overall analysis showed that conventional diesel is still the best option, followed by hydraulic-hybrid WCVs, landfill gas (LFG) sourced natural gas, fossil natural gas, and biodiesel. The elimination of the WFP and power density criteria from the environmental criteria ranked biodiesel 100 (BD100) as an environmentally better alternative compared to other fossil fuels (diesel and natural gas). This result showed that considering the WFP and power density as environmental criteria can make a difference in the decision process. The elimination of the fueling station and fuel price stability criteria from the decision matrix ranked fossil natural gas second after LFG-sourced natural gas. This scenario was found to represent the status quo of the waste collection industry. A sensitivity analysis for the status quo scenario showed the overall ranking of diesel and

  14. The Fuel Processing Research Facility - A Platform for the Conduct of Synthesis Gas Technology R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Michael J.; Berry, David A.; Gardner, Todd H.; Lyons, K. David

    2001-11-06

    Vision 21 is the U. S. Department of Energy's initiative to deploy high efficiency, ultraclean co-production coal conversion power plants in the twenty-first century. These plants will consist of power and co-production modules, which are integrated to meet specific power and chemical markets. A variety of fuel gas processing technology issues involving gas separations, cleanup, gas-to-liquid fuels production and chemical synthesis, to mention a few, will be addressed by the program. The overall goal is to effectively eliminate, at competitive costs, environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels for producing electricity and transportation fuels. The Fuel Processing Research Facility (FPRF) was developed as a fuel-flexible platform to address many of these technology needs. The facility utilizes a simplified syngas generator that is capable of producing 2,000 standard cubic feet per hour of 900 degree Celsius and 30 atmosphere synthesis gas that can be tailored to the gas composition of interest. It was built on a ''mid-scale'' level in an attempt to successfully branch the traditionally difficult scale-up from laboratory to pilot scale. When completed, the facility will provide a multi-faceted R&D area for the testing of fuel cells, gas separation technologies, and other gas processing unit operations.

  15. Introducing New Learning Tools into a Standard Classroom: A Multi-Tool Approach to Integrating Fuel-Cell Concepts into Introductory College Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amato, Matthew J.; Lux, Kenneth W.; Walz, Kenneth A.; Kerby, Holly Walter; Anderegg, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    A multi-tool approach incorporating traditional lectures, multimedia learning objects, and a laboratory activity were introduced as the concepts surrounding hydrogen fuel-cell technology in college chemistry courses. The new tools are adaptable, facilitating use in different educational environments and address variety of learning styles to…

  16. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2013

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-04-30

    This FY 2013 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  17. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2012

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This FY 2012 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  18. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2014

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-02-01

    This FY 2014 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  19. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This FY 2011 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  20. Microbial-based motor fuels: science and technology.

    PubMed

    Wackett, Lawrence P

    2008-05-01

    The production of biofuels via microbial biotechnology is a very active field of research. A range of fuel molecule types are currently under consideration: alcohols, ethers, esters, isoprenes, alkenes and alkanes. At the present, the major alcohol biofuel is ethanol. The ethanol fermentation is an old technology. Ongoing efforts aim to increase yield and energy efficiency of ethanol production from biomass. n-Butanol, another microbial fermentation product, is potentially superior to ethanol as a fuel but suffers from low yield and unwanted side-products currently. In general, biodiesel fuels consist of fatty acid methyl esters in which the carbon derives from plants, not microbes. A new biodiesel product, called microdiesel, can be generated in engineered bacterial cells that condense ethanol with fatty acids. Perhaps the best fuel type to generate from biomass would be biohydrocarbons. Microbes are known to produce hydrocarbons such as isoprenes, long-chain alkenes and alkanes. The biochemical mechanisms of microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis are currently under study. Hydrocarbons and minimally oxygenated molecules may also be produced by hybrid chemical and biological processes. A broad interest in novel fuel molecules is also driving the development of new bioinformatics tools to facilitate biofuels research.

  1. Microbial‐based motor fuels: science and technology

    PubMed Central

    Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The production of biofuels via microbial biotechnology is a very active field of research. A range of fuel molecule types are currently under consideration: alcohols, ethers, esters, isoprenes, alkenes and alkanes. At the present, the major alcohol biofuel is ethanol. The ethanol fermentation is an old technology. Ongoing efforts aim to increase yield and energy efficiency of ethanol production from biomass. n‐Butanol, another microbial fermentation product, is potentially superior to ethanol as a fuel but suffers from low yield and unwanted side‐products currently. In general, biodiesel fuels consist of fatty acid methyl esters in which the carbon derives from plants, not microbes. A new biodiesel product, called microdiesel, can be generated in engineered bacterial cells that condense ethanol with fatty acids. Perhaps the best fuel type to generate from biomass would be biohydrocarbons. Microbes are known to produce hydrocarbons such as isoprenes, long‐chain alkenes and alkanes. The biochemical mechanisms of microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis are currently under study. Hydrocarbons and minimally oxygenated molecules may also be produced by hybrid chemical and biological processes. A broad interest in novel fuel molecules is also driving the development of new bioinformatics tools to facilitate biofuels research. PMID:21261841

  2. Development of Passive Fuel Cell Thermal Management Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian; Colozza, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. The passive thermal management system relies on heat conduction within the cooling plate to move the heat from the central portion of the cell stack out to the edges of the fuel cell stack rather than using a pumped loop cooling system to convectively remove the heat. Using the passive approach eliminates the need for a coolant pump and other cooling loop components which reduces fuel cell system mass and improves overall system reliability. Previous analysis had identified that low density, ultra-high thermal conductivity materials would be needed for the cooling plates in order to achieve the desired reductions in mass and the highly uniform thermal heat sink for each cell within a fuel cell stack. A pyrolytic graphite material was identified and fabricated into a thin plate using different methods. Also a development project with Thermacore, Inc. resulted in a planar heat pipe. Thermal conductivity tests were done using these materials. The results indicated that lightweight passive fuel cell cooling is feasible.

  3. APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, R.

    2013-06-09

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  4. Compact Multimedia Systems in Multi-chip Module Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Alkalaj, Leon

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial paper shows advanced multimedia system designs based on multi-chip module (MCM) technologies that provide essential computing, compression, communication, and storage capabilities for various large scale information highway applications.!.

  5. Leveraging Intelligent Vehicle Technologies to Maximize Fuel Economy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.

    2011-11-01

    Advancements in vehicle electronics, along with communication and sensing technologies, have led to a growing number of intelligent vehicle applications. Example systems include those for advanced driver information, route planning and prediction, driver assistance, and crash avoidance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is exploring ways to leverage intelligent vehicle systems to achieve fuel savings. This presentation discusses several potential applications, such as providing intelligent feedback to drivers on specific ways to improve their driving efficiency, and using information about upcoming driving to optimize electrified vehicle control strategies for maximum energy efficiency and battery life. The talk also covers the potential of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and related technologies to deliver significant fuel savings in addition to providing safety and convenience benefits.

  6. AlliedSignal solid oxide fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect

    Minh, N.; Barr, K.; Kelly, P.; Montgomery, K.

    1996-12-31

    AlliedSignal has been developing high-performance, lightweight solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for a broad spectrum of electric power generation applications. This technology is well suited for use in a variety of power systems, ranging from commercial cogeneration to military mobile power sources. The AlliedSignal SOFC is based on stacking high-performance thin-electrolyte cells with lightweight metallic interconnect assemblies to form a compact structure. The fuel cell can be operated at reduced temperatures (600{degrees} to 800{degrees}C). SOFC stacks based on this design has the potential of producing 1 kW/kg and 1 ML. This paper summarizes the technical status of the design, manufacture, and operation of AlliedSignal SOFCs.

  7. Status and prospects of fuel cell technology in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dijkum

    1998-07-01

    Fuel Cells attract a lot of press attention today and an some example of a recent press heading is: ``Orders for Onsi's fuel cells hit $111 million''. The principle of fuel cell technology is explained and examples of realized applications given. In short: fuel cells can be used everywhere where power (and heat) is needed. Regarding the status of fuel cells, Europe is way behind Japan and the US. The 15 PAFC-200 kWe units in operation in Europe (worldwide {gt} 90 units) produced 46,796 MWhe during 296,704 cumulative operating hours with an availability % over 70.00. The world record on continuous operation is held by Japan with 9,478 hours reached at 14th September 1996 and two PAFC-units passed their 40,000 hours of cumulative operation (US and Japan). In Japan, market enabling support is continued with subsidies of one third of the costs for 7 PAFC-units. In the Netherlands, Energy Distribution Companies test their tubular 100 kWe SOFC-unit. During 1,335 hours of continuous operation, the unit produced 165 MWhe in total at 3rd March. EnergieNed, CLC/Ansaldo and Gastec evaluated changes for co-generation and small power production with packaged fuel cell power plants in EU and EFTA countries. In general the authors concluded that implementation of fuel cell power plants in all EU and EFTA countries will be probably possible with today' s technical regulations. On might wonder: What has fuel cell technology to offer in one of the most efficient and low-priced gas economies in Europe, the Netherlands. An example of efficient energy use are greenhouses with artificial lighting and CO{sub 2}-fertilization and energy (heat) storage device. Applying relatively favorable depreciation periods and (utility) interest rate, a PAFC 200 kWe generates just a positive return (IRR = 1.7 % after taxes and subsidies) when part of a gas-engine capacity is replaced.

  8. A general framework for the assessment of solar fuel technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, JA; Kim, J; Upadhye, AA; Huber, GW; Maravelias, CT

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of carbon dioxide and water into fuels in a solar refinery presents a potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while providing a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Towards realizing such a solar refinery, there are many technological advances that must be met in terms of capturing and sourcing the feedstocks (namely CO2, H2O, and solar energy) and in catalytically converting CO2 and H2O. In the first part of this paper, we review the state-of-the-art in solar energy collection and conversion to solar utilities (heat, electricity, and as a photon source for photo-chemical reactions), CO2 capture and separation technology, and non-biological methods for converting CO2 and H2O to fuels. The two principal methods for CO2 conversion include (1) catalytic conversion using solar-derived hydrogen and (2) direct reduction of CO2 using H2O and solar energy. Both hydrogen production and direct CO2 reduction can be performed electro-catalytically, photo-electrochemically, photo-catalytically, and thermochemically. All four of these methods are discussed. In the second part of this paper, we utilize process modeling to assess the energy efficiency and economic feasibility of a generic solar refinery. The analysis demonstrates that the realization of a solar refinery is contingent upon significant technological improvements in all areas described above (solar energy capture and conversion, CO2 capture, and catalytic conversion processes).

  9. Long life Regenerative Fuel Cell technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Franklin D.; Cataldo, Robert L.; Mcelroy, James F.; Stedman, Jay K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a technology roadmap for completing advanced development of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) to meet long life (20,000 hrs at 50 percent duty cycle) mobile or portable power system applications on the surface of the moon and Mars. Development of two different sized RFC power system modules is included in this plan (3 and 7.5 kWe). A conservative approach was taken which includes the development of a Ground Engineering System, Qualification Unit, and Flight Unit. This paper includes a concept description, technology assessment, development issues, development tasks, and development schedule.

  10. Fuel cell adventures. Dynamics of a technological community in a quasi-market of technological options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, G. J.; Uyterlinde, M. A.

    In this paper some insights from a social science perspective in the dynamics of the fuel cell community will be provided. An important concept used in the analysis is that of a `quasi'-market of technological options. The strategic choices of actors for certain technological options can be regarded as analogous to choices of consumers made on a market. A scientometric research approach has been used to investigate the aggregate effects of this and other variations of strategic behaviour. These concepts and analyses are shown to be helpful in answering questions such as why fuel cells are so popular today whereas they have not always been, and why preferences for different types of fuel cells shift over time. At the end of the paper the relevance of these kind of analyses for technology forecasting and management practices is briefly discussed.

  11. Cornell Fuel Cell Institute: Materials Discovery to Enable Fuel Cell Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Abruna, H.D.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2012-06-29

    The discovery and understanding of new, improved materials to advance fuel cell technology are the objectives of the Cornell Fuel Cell Institute (CFCI) research program. CFCI was initially formed in 2003. This report highlights the accomplishments from 2006-2009. Many of the grand challenges in energy science and technology are based on the need for materials with greatly improved or even revolutionary properties and performance. This is certainly true for fuel cells, which have the promise of being highly efficient in the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy. Fuel cells offer the possibility of efficiencies perhaps up to 90 % based on the free energy of reaction. Here, the challenges are clearly in the materials used to construct the heart of the fuel cell: the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of two electrodes separated by an ionically conducting membrane. Each electrode is a nanocomposite of electronically conducting catalyst support, ionic conductor and open porosity, that together form three percolation networks that must connect to each catalyst nanoparticle; otherwise the catalyst is inactive. This report highlights the findings of the three years completing the CFCI funding, and incudes developments in materials for electrocatalyts, catalyst supports, materials with structured and functional porosity for electrodes, and novel electrolyte membranes. The report also discusses developments at understanding electrocatalytic mechanisms, especially on novel catalyst surfaces, plus in situ characterization techniques and contributions from theory. Much of the research of the CFCI continues within the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2), a DOE funded, Office of Science Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC).

  12. SunLine Leads the Way in Demonstrating Hydrogen-Fueled Bus Technologies (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    This brochure describes SunLine Transit Agency's newest advanced technology fuel cell electric bus. SunLine is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This bus represents the sixth generation of hydrogen-fueled buses that the agency has operated since 2000.

  13. Full scale phosphoric acid fuel cell stack technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.; Faroque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cells is summarized. The preparation, heat treatment, and characterization of carbon composites used as bipolar separator plates are described. Characterization included resistivity, porosity, and electrochemical corrosion. High density glassy carbon/graphite composites performed well in long-term fuel cell endurance tests. Platinum alloy cathode catalysts and low-loaded platinum electrodes were evaluated in 25 sq cm cells. Although the alloys displayed an initial improvement, some of this improvement diminished after a few thousand hours of testing. Low platinum loading (0.12 mg/sq cm anodes and 0.3 mg/sq cm cathodes) performed nearly as well as twice this loading. A selectively wetproofed anode backing paper was tested in a 5 by 15 inch three-cell stack. This material may provide for acid volume expansion, acid storage, and acid lateral distribution.

  14. Multi-cycle boiling water reactor fuel cycle optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ottinger, K.; Maldonado, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    In this work a new computer code, BWROPT (Boiling Water Reactor Optimization), is presented. BWROPT uses the Parallel Simulated Annealing (PSA) algorithm to solve the out-of-core optimization problem coupled with an in-core optimization that determines the optimum fuel loading pattern. However it uses a Haling power profile for the depletion instead of optimizing the operating strategy. The result of this optimization is the optimum new fuel inventory and the core loading pattern for the first cycle considered in the optimization. Several changes were made to the optimization algorithm with respect to other nuclear fuel cycle optimization codes that use PSA. Instead of using constant sampling probabilities for the solution perturbation types throughout the optimization as is usually done in PSA optimizations the sampling probabilities are varied to get a better solution and/or decrease runtime. The new fuel types available for use can be sorted into an array based on any number of parameters so that each parameter can be incremented or decremented, which allows for more precise fuel type selection compared to random sampling. Also, the results are sorted by the new fuel inventory of the first cycle for ease of comparing alternative solutions. (authors)

  15. Literature Review for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline Knowledge Assessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with future knowledge and opinion surveys. To assess the current understanding and establish the baseline, the HFCIT program plans to conduct scientific surveys of four target audience groups--the general public, the educational community, governmental agencies, and potential large users. The purpose of the literature review is to examine the literature and summarize the results of surveys that have been conducted in the recent past concerning the existing knowledge and attitudes toward hydrogen. This literature review covers both scientific and, to a lesser extent, non-scientific polls. Seven primary data sources were reviewed, two of which were studies based in Europe. Studies involved both closed-end and open-end questions; surveys varied in length from three questions to multi-page interviews. Populations involved in the studies were primarily adults, although one study involved students. The number of participants ranged from 13 to over 16,000 per study. In addition to the primary surveys, additional related studies were mined for pertinent information. The primary conclusions of the surveys reviewed are that the public knows very little about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies but is generally accepting of the potential for hydrogen use. In general, respondents consider themselves as environmentally conscious. The public considers safety as the primary issue surrounding hydrogen as a fuel. Price, performance, and convenience are also considerations that will have major impacts on purchase decisions.

  16. Refuse derived fuels: New technologies for successful operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1988-01-01

    The rising cost of refuse disposal, coupled with the decreasing availability of land suitable for the siting of new landfills have greatly accelerated the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) processing systems as a viable technology of the disposal of our municipal solid waste. The energy products produces by an RDF processing facility-electricity and/or steam, as well as the recovery of other valuable materials from the waste stream, coupled with the inherent flexibility of the RDF technology to be used in varying forms, over a wide range of combustion technologies, makes it an extremely desirable waste-to-energy system. Use of an RDF prepared fuel product can also provide a potentially beneficial reduction of air emissions, and trace metals in the ash when compared to the burning of unprocessed solid waste. This paper discusses the problems which have been encountered in the past with RDF systems; the current status of these facilities including institutional considerations and system economics; and the future potential of RDF processing systems. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Advanced technology development multi-color holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1993-01-01

    This is the final report of the Multi-color Holography project. The comprehensive study considers some strategic aspects of multi-color holography. First, various methods of available techniques for accurate fringe counting are reviewed. These are heterodyne interferometry, quasi-heterodyne interferometry, and phase-shifting interferometry. Phase-shifting interferometry was found to be the most suitable for multi-color holography. Details of experimentation with a sugar solution are also reported where better than 1/200 of a fringe order measurement capability was established. Rotating plate glass phase shifter was used for the experimentation. The report then describes the possible role of using more than two wavelengths with special reference-to-object beam intensity ratio needs in multicolor holography. Some specific two- and three-color cases are also described in detail. Then some new analysis methods of the reconstructed wavefront are considered. These are deflectometry, speckle metrology, confocal optical signal processing, and phase shifting technique related applications. Finally, design aspects of an experimental breadboard are presented.

  18. Use of Multi-Functional Flexible Micro-Sensors for in situ Measurement of Temperature, Voltage and Fuel Flow in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lee, Chung-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution all contribute considerably to fuel cell performance. Conventional methods cannot accurately determine parameter changes inside a fuel cell. This investigation developed flexible and multi-functional micro sensors on a 40 μm-thick stainless steel foil substrate by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and embedded them in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to measure the temperature, voltage and flow. Users can monitor and control in situ the temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution in the cell. Thereby, both fuel cell performance and lifetime can be increased. PMID:22163545

  19. Use of multi-functional flexible micro-sensors for in situ measurement of temperature, voltage and fuel flow in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lee, Chung-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution all contribute considerably to fuel cell performance. Conventional methods cannot accurately determine parameter changes inside a fuel cell. This investigation developed flexible and multi-functional micro sensors on a 40 μm-thick stainless steel foil substrate by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and embedded them in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to measure the temperature, voltage and flow. Users can monitor and control in situ the temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution in the cell. Thereby, both fuel cell performance and lifetime can be increased.

  20. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, Steven A.

    2012-09-28

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify patents related to hydrogen and fuel cells that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents’ current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs that are related to hydrogen and fuel cells.

  1. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, Steven A.; Brown, Scott A.

    2011-09-29

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). To do this, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook two efforts simultaneously to accomplish this project. The first effort was a patent search and analysis to identify hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related patents that are associated with FCT-funded projects (or projects conducted by DOE-EERE predecessor programs) and to ascertain the patents current status, as well as any commercial products that may have used the technology documented in the patent. The second effort was a series of interviews with current and past FCT personnel, a review of relevant program annual reports, and an examination of hydrogen- and fuel-cell-related grants made under the Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs, and within the FCT portfolio.

  2. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ticianelli, E.A.; Srinivasan, S.; Gonzalez, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    With methods used to advance solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology, we are close to obtaining the goal of 1 A/cm/sup 2/ at 0.7. Higher power densities have been reported (2 A/cm/sup 2/ at 0.5 V) but only with high catalyst loading electrodes (2 mg/cm/sup 2/ and 4 mg/cm/sup 2/ at anode and cathode, respectively) and using a Dow membrane with a better conductivity and water retention characteristics. Work is in progress to ascertain performances of cells with Dow membrane impregnated electrodes and Dow membrane electrolytes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  4. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  5. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  6. Operating experience and multi-fuel capability of large-scale CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Cleve, K.; Smith, T.V.

    1997-12-31

    Large scale (250 MW{sub e}) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers capable of effectively utilising a wide range of low grade fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner are now a well proven and reliable technology. Development of this technology and innovative design features continues and three plants - each in their own way representing a significant advance - are discussed. Key technical features and operating experience including availability are reviewed. Fuel variability and test data are also presented. 9 figs.

  7. The impact of fuels on aircraft technology through the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The impact that the supply, quality, and processing costs of future fuels may have on aircraft technology is assessed. The potential range of properties for future jet fuels is discussed along with the establishment of a data base of fuel property effects on propulsion system components. Also, the evolution and evaluation of advanced component technology that would permit the use of broader property fuels and the identification of technical and economic trade-offs within the overall fuel production-air transportation system associated with variations in fuel properties are examined.

  8. The efficient and economic design of PEM fuel cell systems by multi-objective optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Woonki; Gou, Bei

    Since the efficiency of fuel cells is the ratio of the electrical power output and the fuel input, it is a function of power density, system pressure, and stoichiometric ratios of hydrogen and oxygen. Typically, the fuel cell efficiency decreases as its power output increases. In order for the fuel cell system to obtain highly efficient operation with the same power generation, more cells and other auxiliaries such as a high-capacity compressor system, etc. are required. In other words, fuel cell efficiency is closely related to fuel cell economics. Therefore, an optimum efficiency should exist and should result in the definition of a cost-effective fuel cell system. Using a multi-objective optimization technique, the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) method, the efficiency and cost of a fuel cell system have been optimized under various operating conditions. This paper has obtained some analytical results that provide a useful suggestion for the design of a cost-effective fuel cell system with high operation efficiency.

  9. Synthetic fuels technology overview with health and environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, E. J., Jr.; Salmon, E. J.

    1981-06-01

    An introduction is presented to the following synthetic fuels technologies: (1) the Lurgi gasification of coal; (2) the Fischer-Tropsch liquefaction of coal; (3) coal-methanol conversion; (4) donor solvent gas liquefaction; (5) Tosco surface shale retorting; ethanol production from coal; and (6) the coal-methanol-gasoline conversion process. After establishing the system characteristics of these six technologies, consideration is given to their potential major health, safety, environmental and socio-economic impacts at the global, regional and local levels. It is determined that the main global consequence of synfuels development is climate modification, to which may be added the regional impact of dry and wet deposition of gaseous and particulate pollutants, and land and water quality deterioration due to soil erosion at the local level.

  10. Advanced technology development multi-color holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1994-01-01

    Several key aspects of multi-color holography and some non-conventional ways to study the holographic reconstructions are considered. The error analysis of three-color holography is considered in detail with particular example of a typical triglycine sulfate crystal growth situation. For the numerical analysis of the fringe patterns, a new algorithm is introduced with experimental verification using sugar-water solution. The role of the phase difference among component holograms is also critically considered with examples of several two- and three-color situations. The status of experimentation on two-color holography and fabrication of a small breadboard system is also reported. Finally, some successful demonstrations of unconventional ways to study holographic reconstructions are described. These methods are deflectometry and confocal optical processing using some Spacelab III holograms.

  11. Physics Learning Strategies with Multi-touch Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, C.; Schofield, D.

    2011-03-01

    Advancements in technology have opened doorways to build new teaching and learning methods. Through conjunctive use of these technologies and methods, a classroom can be enriched to stimulate and improve student learning. The purpose of our research is to ascertain whether or not multi-touch technology enhances students' abilities to better comprehend and retain the knowledge taught in physics. At their basis, students learn via visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic styles. Labs provide for all but the aural style, while lectures lack kinesthetic learning. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style. By using multi-touch technology in lecture, not only can we accommodate kinesthetic learners, but we can also enrich the experiences of visual learners. Ushering to this wider array of students will hopefully lead to an increase in meaningful learning.

  12. Textile facility retrofits with multi-fuel boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Dover Mills of Shelby, NC, a major producer of finished goods in the textile industry, with dye house and manufacturing plants approximately one-half mile apart, decided in July 1980 to install a shared boiler plant between the two manufacturing facilities. Positioned to serve both plants, this system burns local wood waste, as well as coal, with back-up fuels of gas and oil. The payback period is expected to be less than three years.

  13. Appendix G - GPRA06 hydrogen, fuel cells, and infrastructure technologies (HFCIT) program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target markets for the Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) program include transportation (cars and light trucks) and stationary (particularly residential and commercial) applications.

  14. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL NUMBER DENSITIES FOR MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER CRITICALITY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Thomas

    1996-01-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the number densities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in criticality evaluations of the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) waste packages. The objective of this analysis is to provide material number density information which will be referenced by future MPC criticality design analyses, such as for those supporting the Conceptual Design Report.

  15. Multi-Canister overpack pressurization monitoring and control methodology for the spent nuclear fuel project

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-19

    A control methodology is developed and monitoring alternatives evaluated for controlling pressurization in a Multi- Canister Overpack for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Monitoring alternative evaluations include concept description, identification of uncertainties, and identification of experimental work required for implementation. A monitoring alternative is recommended and implementation requirements, risks and start up testing associated with the recommendation are discussed.

  16. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  17. Fueling dreams of grandeur: Fuel cell research and development and the pursuit of the technological panacea, 1940--2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisler, Matthew Nicholas

    The record of fuel cell research and development is one of the great enigmas in the history of science and technology. For years, this electrochemical power source, which combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and waste water, excited the imaginations of researchers in many countries. Because fuel cells directly convert chemical into electrical energy, people have long believed them exempt from the so-called Carnot cycle limitation on heat engines, which dictates that such devices must operate at less than 100 per cent efficiency owing to the randomization of energy as heat. Fuel cells have thus struck some scientists and engineers as the "magic bullet" of energy technologies. This dissertation explores why people have not been able to develop a cheap, durable commercial fuel cell despite more than 50 years of concerted effort since the end of Second World War. I argue this is so mainly because expectations have always been higher than the knowledge base. I investigate fuel cell research and development communities as central nodes of expectation generation. They have functioned as a nexus where the physical realities of fuel cell technology meet external factors, those political, economic and cultural pressures that create a "need" for a "miracle" power source. The unique economic exigencies of these communities have shaped distinct material practices that have done much to inform popular ideas of the capabilities of fuel cell technology. After the Second World War, the fuel cell was relatively unknown in industrial and governmental science and technology circles. Researchers in most leading industrialized countries, above all the United States, sought to raise the technology's profile through dramatic demonstrations in reductive circumstances, employing notional fuel cells using pure hydrogen and oxygen. Researchers paid less attention to cost and durability, concentrating on increasing power output, a criterion that could be met relatively easily in

  18. Multi-Mission Strategic Technology Prioritization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Rodriquez, G.; Elfes, A.; Derleth, J.; Smith, J. H.; Manvi, R.; Kennedy, B.; Shelton, K.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of a pilot study intended to demonstrate in an auditable fashion how advanced space technology development can best impact future NASA missions. The study was a joint project by staff members of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The other goals of the study were to show an approach to deal effectively with inter-program analysis trades, and to explore the limits of these approaches and tools in terms of what can be realistically achieved.

  19. Experimental investigation of syngas flame stability using a multi-tube fuel injector in a high pressure combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Sergio Elzar

    Over 92% of the coal consumed by power plants is used to generate electricity in the United States (U.S.). The U.S. has the world's largest recoverable reserves of coal, it is estimated that reserves of coal will last more than 200 years based in current production and demand levels. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants aim to reduce the amount of pollutants by gasifying coal and producing synthesis gas. Synthesis gas, also known as syngas, is a product of coal gasification and can be used in gas turbines for energy production. Syngas is primarily a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and is produced by gasifying a solid fuel feedstock such as coal or biomass. The objective of the thesis is to create a flame stability map by performing various experiments using high-content hydrogen fuels with varying compositions of hydrogen representing different coal feedstocks. The experiments shown in this thesis were performed using the High-Pressure Combustion facility in the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (CSETR) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). The combustor was fitted with a novel Multi-Tube fuel Injector (MTI) designed to improve flame stability. This thesis presents the results of testing of syngas fuels with compositions of 20, 30, and 40% hydrogen concentrations in mixtures with carbon monoxide. Tests were completed for lean conditions ranging from equivalence ratios between 0.6 and 0.9. The experimental results showed that at an equivalence ratio of 0.6, a stable flame was not achieved for any of the fuel mixtures tested. It was also observed that the stability region of the syngas flame increased as equivalence ratio and the hydrogen concentration in syngas fuel increases with the 40% hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixture demonstrating the greatest stability region. Design improvements to the MTI are also discussed as part of the future work on this topic.

  20. A Multi-Course Collaborative Project: Using Technology to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye-Shin; LaFleur, Rosetta; Schaeffer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how student learning can be enhanced by using a multi-course project that simulates an industry environment and emphasizes the interrelationship among course concepts through collaborative efforts of student teams. The role of technology as a tool in facilitating student teamwork is examined. The researchers found that students…

  1. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: July 2014

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-09

    This is the May 2014 Update to the Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Office. It identifies the research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation.

  2. Commitment to fuel cell technology?. How to interpret carmakers' efforts in this radical technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoed, Robert

    Since the early 1990s, fuel cell (FC) technology has received a great deal of attention from the automotive industry. Its high efficiency and low emissions have made the technology become one of the dominant technological opportunities to achieve more sustainable mobility. Under pressure of ever-increasing regulatory standards, the automotive industry has spent billions of dollars on researching and developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), with the objective of starting commercialization in 5-10 years time. Industry experts evaluate the industry's apparent commitment to FC technology optimistically as well as critically. Optimists see carmakers' efforts as a sign of change in the industry, necessitated by regulation and societal needs of a cleaner environment. Skeptics see carmakers' efforts in FC technology as 'window dressing', investing minimal amounts of resources (with maximum public exposure) while being limitedly committed to commercialize FCVs. This paper makes an attempt to nuance both views by assessing levels of R&D commitments carmakers. Based on an analysis of patenting behavior, this paper concludes that automotive activities go beyond window dressing, but fall short of portraying full commitment to this radical technology.

  3. Geospatial Analysis and Optimization of Fleet Logistics to Exploit Alternative Fuels and Advanced Transportation Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W.; Singer, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing geographical information system (GIS) tools to evaluate alternative fuel availability in relation to garage locations and to perform automated fleet-wide optimization to determine where to deploy alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles and fueling infrastructure.

  4. Textile facility retrofits with multi-fuel boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Dover Mills of Shelby, NC, a major producer of finished goods in the textile industry, with dye house and manufacturing plants approximately one-half mile apart, decided in July 1980 to install a shared boiler plant between the two manufacturing facilities. This case history documents system payback periods of less than three years; return on investments of 20 percent plus; benefits of state and federal investment tax credits; EPA considerations, which in this case required no additional capital investment; fuel spply; material handling; ash removal; and other design considerations.

  5. Survey of multi-function display and control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Tonkin, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA orbiter spacecraft incorporates a complex array of systems, displays and controls. The incorporation of discrete dedicated controls into a multi-function display and control system (MFDCS) offers the potential for savings in weight, power, panel space and crew training time. The technology applicable to the development of a MFDCS for orbiter application is surveyed. Technology thought to be applicable presently or in the next five years is highlighted. Areas discussed include display media, data handling and processing, controls and operator interactions and the human factors considerations which are involved in a MFDCS design. Several examples of applicable MFDCS technology are described.

  6. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  7. Development Status of PEM Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell System Technology for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Today s widespread development of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for commercial users owes its existence to NASA, where fuel cell technology saw its first applications. Beginning with the early Gemini and Apollo programs, and continuing to this day with the Shuttle Orbiter program, fuel cells have been a primary source of electrical power for many NASA missions. This is particularly true for manned missions, where astronauts are able to make use of the by-product of the fuel cell reaction, potable water. But fuel cells also offer advantages for unmanned missions, specifically when power requirements exceed several hundred watts and primary batteries are not a viable alternative. In recent years, NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) funded the development of fuel cell technology for applications that provide both primary power and regenerative fuel cell energy storage for planned Exploration missions that involved a return to the moon. Under this program, the Altair Lunar Lander was a mission requiring fuel cell primary power. There were also various Lunar Surface System applications requiring regenerative fuel cell energy storage, in which a fuel cell and electrolyzer combine to form an energy storage system with hydrogen, oxygen, and water as common reactants. Examples of these systems include habitat modules and large rovers. In FY11, the ETDP has been replaced by the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program (ETDDP), with many of the same technology goals and requirements applied against NASA s revised Exploration portfolio.

  8. Multi-Dimensional Simulation of LWR Fuel Behavior in the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R. L.; Capps, N. A.; Liu, W.; Rashid, Y. R.; Wirth, B. D.

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear fuel operates in an extreme environment that induces complex multiphysics phenomena occurring over distances ranging from inter-atomic spacing to meters, and times scales ranging from microseconds to years. To simulate this behavior requires a wide variety of material models that are often complex and nonlinear. The recently developed BISON code represents a powerful fuel performance simulation tool based on its material and physical behavior capabilities, finite-element versatility of spatial representation, and use of parallel computing. The code can operate in full three dimensional (3D) mode, as well as in reduced two dimensional (2D) modes, e.g., axisymmetric radial-axial ( R- Z) or plane radial-circumferential ( R- θ), to suit the application and to allow treatment of global and local effects. A BISON case study was used to illustrate analysis of Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction failures from manufacturing defects using combined 2D and 3D analyses. The analysis involved commercial fuel rods and demonstrated successful computation of metrics of interest to fuel failures, including cladding peak hoop stress and strain energy density. In comparison with a failure threshold derived from power ramp tests, results corroborate industry analyses of the root cause of the pellet-clad interaction failures and illustrate the importance of modeling 3D local effects around fuel pellet defects, which can produce complex effects including cold spots in the cladding, stress concentrations, and hot spots in the fuel that can lead to enhanced cladding degradation such as hydriding, oxidation, CRUD formation, and stress corrosion cracking.

  9. Copper-palladium core-shell as an anode in a multi-fuel membraneless nanofluidic fuel cell: toward a new era of small energy conversion devices.

    PubMed

    Maya-Cornejo, J; Ortiz-Ortega, E; Álvarez-Contreras, L; Arjona, N; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Ledesma-García, J; Arriaga, L G

    2015-02-14

    A membraneless nanofluidic fuel cell with flow-through electrodes that works with several fuels (individually or mixed): methanol, ethanol, glycerol and ethylene-glycol in alkaline media is presented. For this application, an efficient Cu@Pd electrocatalyst was synthesized and tested, resulting outstanding performance until now reported, opening the possibility of power nano-devices for multi-uses purposes, regardless of fuel re-charge employed.

  10. The impact of fuels on aircraft technology through the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    In the future, it may be necessary to use jet fuels with a broader range of properties in order to insure a more flexible and reliable supply and to minimize energy consumption and processing costs at the refinery. This paper describes research being conducted to (1) determine the potential range of properties for future jet fuels, (2) establish a data base of fuel property effects on propulsion system components, (3) evolve and evaluate advanced component technology that would permit the use of broader property fuels and (4) identify technical and economic trade-offs within the overall fuel production-air transportation system associated with variations in fuel properties.

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell technology program, phase 1/1A. [design and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell was studied for the purpose of improving the characteristics of the technology. Several facets were evaluated, namely: (1) reduced fuel cell costs; (2) reduced fuel cell weight; (3) improved fuel cell efficiency; and (4) increased systems compatibility. Demonstrated advances were incorporated into a full scale hardware design. A single cell unit was fabricated. A substantial degree of success was demonstrated.

  12. Research on large aperture multi-angle multi-surface mirror process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; He, Manze; Yan, Dingyao; Liu, Yibin

    2016-10-01

    Light weighted multi-angle multi-surface mirror is made of glass-ceramic, with the structural characteristic of multicavity thin wall, high precision of surface figure and angle between surfaces, has very different processing technology with traditional solid mirror. Based on the 460mm×434mm×80mm multi-angle multi-surface mirror, glass combination manufacture method and relevant interferometry of angle measurement was designed. The process technology was studied, then the consistency of angle between surfaces and the influence on multi-cavity thin wall deformation of lateral surface and material of polishing pad on the surface figure processing were controlled. The model between the variation of angle and load was established, from which the hysteresis of angle variation was analyzed, then the prototype workpiece was finished. The difficult problem on synchronically controlling the surface angles and surface figure of the mirror, which has high center of gravity and multi-cavity thin wall, was solved. The lateral surface figure was controlled below λ/6 (PV, λ=632.8nm), and the perpendicularity of lateral surfaces were controlled below 5''.

  13. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  14. Transmutation Dynamics: Impacts of Multi-Recycling on Fuel Cycle Performances

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bays; S. Piet; M. Pope; G. Youinou; A. Dumontier; D. Hawn

    2009-09-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain continuous multi-recycle in either thermal or fast reactors. In Fiscal Year 2009, transmutaton work at INL provided important new insight, caveats, and tools on multi-recycle. Multi-recycle of MOX, even with all the transuranics, is possible provided continuous enrichment of the uranium phase to ~6.5% and also limitting the transuranic enrichment to slightly less than 8%. Multi-recycle of heterogeneous-IMF assemblies is possible with continuous enrichment of the UOX pins to ~4.95% and having =60 of the 264 fuel pins being inter-matrix. A new tool enables quick assessment of the impact of different cooling times on isotopic evolution. The effect of cooling time was found to be almost as controlling on higher mass actinide concentrations in fuel as the selection of thermal versus fast neutron spectra. A new dataset was built which provides on-the-fly estimates of gamma and neutron dose in MOX fuels as a function of the isotopic evolution. All studies this year focused on the impact of dynamic feedback due to choices made in option space. Both the equilibrium fuel cycle concentrations and the transient time to reach equilibrium for each isotope were evaluated over a range of reactor, reprocessing and cooling time combinations. New bounding cases and analysis methods for evaluating both reactor safety and radiation worker safety were established. This holistic collection of physics analyses and methods gives improved resolution of fuel cycle options, and impacts thereof, over that of previous ad-hoc and single-point analyses.

  15. Codes and Standards Requirements for Deployment of Emerging Fuel Cell Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.; Riykin, C.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this NREL report is to provide information on codes and standards (of two emerging hydrogen power fuel cell technology markets; forklift trucks and backup power units), that would ease the implementation of emerging fuel cell technologies. This information should help project developers, project engineers, code officials and other interested parties in developing and reviewing permit applications for regulatory compliance.

  16. Fuel Cell Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office develops technologies to enable fuel cells to be competitive in diverse applications, with a focus on light-duty vehicles (at less than $40/kW) and to enable renewable hydrogen to be cost-competitive with gasoline (at less than $4 per gallon gasoline equivalent (gge), delivered and dispensed).

  17. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Wastewater Recycling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Foley, K. J.; Sutherland, T. A.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of a wastewater recycling system installed in the Grand Hyatt Seattle.

  18. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  19. AEROFROSH: a shock condition calculator for multi-component fuel aerosol-laden flows

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, Matthew Frederick; Haylett, D. R.; Davidson, D. F.; ...

    2015-08-18

    Here, this paper introduces an algorithm that determines the thermodynamic conditions behind incident and reflectedshocksinaerosol-ladenflows.Importantly,the algorithm accounts for the effects of droplet evaporation on post-shock properties. Additionally, this article describes an algorithm for resolving the effects of multiple-component- fuel droplets. This article presents the solution methodology and compares the results to those of another similar shock calculator. It also provides examples to show the impact of droplets on post-shock properties and the impact that multi-component fuel droplets have on shock experimental parameters. Finally, this paper presents a detailed uncertainty analysis of this algorithm’s calculations given typical exper- imental uncertainties

  20. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Multi-Physics and GUI

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-10

    SOFC-MP is a simulation tool developed at PNNL to evaluate the tightly coupled multi-physical phenomena in SOFCs. The purpose of the tool is to allow SOFC manufacturers to numerically test changes in planar stack design to meet DOE technical targets. The SOFC-MP 2D module is designed for computational efficiency to enable rapid engineering evaluations for operation of tall symmetric stacks. It can quickly compute distributions for the current density, voltage, temperature, and species composition in tall stacks with co-flow or counter-flow orientations. The 3D module computes distributions in entire 3D domain and handles all planner configurations: co-flow, counter-flow, and cross-flow. The detailed data from 3D simulation can be used as input for structural analysis. SOFC-MP GUI integrates both 2D and 3D modules, and it provides user friendly pre-processing and post-processing capabilities.

  2. Process technology for multi-enzymatic reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui; Woodley, John M

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, biocatalysis has started to provide an important green tool in synthetic organic chemistry. Currently, the idea of using multi-enzymatic systems for industrial production of chemical compounds becomes increasingly attractive. Recent examples demonstrate the potential of enzymatic synthesis and fermentation as an alternative to chemical-catalysis for the production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In particular, the use of multiple enzymes is of special interest. However, many challenges remain in the scale-up of a multi-enzymatic system. This review summarizes and discusses the technology options and strategies that are available for the development of multi-enzymatic processes. Some engineering tools, including kinetic models and operating windows, for developing and evaluating such processes are also introduced.

  3. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report, June 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells.

  4. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  5. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Swathirajan, S.

    1996-04-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are extremely promising as future power plants in the transportation sector to achieve an increase in energy efficiency and eliminate environmental pollution due to vehicles. GM is currently involved in a multiphase program with the US Department of Energy for developing a proof-of-concept hybrid vehicle based on a PEM fuel cell power plant and a methanol fuel processor. Other participants in the program are Los Alamos National Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Ballard Power Systems and DuPont Co., In the just completed phase 1 of the program, a 10 kW PEM fuel cell power plant was built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a methanol fuel processor with a PEM fuel cell stack. However, the fuel cell power plant must overcome stiff technical and economic challenges before it can be commercialized for light duty vehicle applications. Progress achieved in phase I on the use of monolithic catalyst reactors in the fuel processor, managing CO impurity in the fuel cell stack, low-cost electrode-membrane assembles, and on the integration of the fuel processor with a Ballard PEM fuel cell stack will be presented.

  6. Development of fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing technology at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, T.; Takeda, H.; Togashi, A.; Hayashi, S. . Tokai Works); Stradley, J.G. )

    1991-01-01

    For the past two decades, a broad range of research development (R D) programs to establish fast breeder reactor (FBR) system and its associated fuel cycle technology have been pursued by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Developmental activities for FBR fuel reprocessing technology have been primarily conducted at PNC Tokai Works where many important R D facilities for nuclear fuel cycle are located. These include cold and uranium tests for process equipment development in the Engineering Demonstration Facilities (EDF)-I and II, and laboratory-scale hot tests in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) where fuel dissolution and solvent extraction characteristics are being investigated with irradiated FBR fuel pins whose burn-up ranges up to 100,000 MWd/t. An extensive effort has also been made at EDF-III to develop advanced remote technology which enables to increase plant availability and to decrease radiation exposures to the workers in future reprocessing plants. The PNC and the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) entered into the joint collaboration in which the US shares the R Ds to support FBR fuel reprocessing program at the PNC. Several important R Ds on advanced process equipment such as a rotary dissolver and a centrifugal contactor system are in progress in a joint effort with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). In order to facilitate hot testing on advanced processes and equipment, the design of a new engineering-scale hot test facility is now in progress aiming at the start of hot operation in late 90's. 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. HTGR Fuel Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Fuel Technology Program at General Atomic during the first half of FY-81. The activities include the fuel process, fuel materials, fuel cycle, fission product transport, and core component verification testing tasks necessary to support the design and development of a steam cycle/cogeneration (SC/C) version of the HTGR with a follow-on reformer (R) version. An important effort which was initiated during this period was the preparation of input data for a long-range technology program plan.

  8. Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, JCH FUEL SOLUTIONS, INC., JCH ENVIRO AUTOMATED FUEL CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification testing was conducted at the Cl facility in North Las Vegas, NV, on July 17 and 18, 2001. During this period, engine emissions, fuel consumption, and fuel quality were evaluated with contaminated and cleaned fuel.

    To facilitate this verification, JCH repre...

  10. Multi-shaped e-beam technology for mask writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramss, Juergen; Stoeckel, Arnd; Weidenmueller, Ulf; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Bloecker, Martin; Sczyrba, Martin; Finken, Michael; Wandel, Timo; Melzer, Detlef

    2010-09-01

    Photomask lithography for the 22nm technology node and beyond requires new approaches in equipment as well as mask design. Multi Shaped Beam technology (MSB) for photomask patterning using a matrix of small beamlets instead of just one shaped beam, is a very effective and evolutionary enhancement of the well established Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) technique. Its technical feasibility has been successfully demonstrated [2]. One advantage of MSB is the productivity gain over VSB with decreasing critical dimensions (CDs) and increasing levels of optical proximity correction (OPC) or for inverse lithography technology (ILT) and source mask optimization (SMO) solutions. This makes MSB an attractive alternative to VSB for photomask lithography at future technology nodes. The present paper describes in detail the working principles and advantages of MSB over VSB for photomask applications. MSB integrates the electron optical column, x/y stage and data path into an operational electron beam lithography system. Multi e-beam mask writer specific requirements concerning the computational lithography and their implementation are outlined here. Data preparation of aggressive OPC layouts, shot count reductions over VSB, data path architecture, write time simulation and several aspects of the exposure process sequence are also discussed. Analysis results of both the MSB processing and the write time of full 32nm and 22nm node critical layer mask layouts are presented as an example.

  11. Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH AND TEST REACTOR ALUMINUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL - A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.

    2010-07-11

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program is responsible for the receipt and storage of aluminum research reactor spent nuclear fuel or used fuel until ultimate disposition. Aluminum research reactor used fuel is currently being stored or is anticipated to be returned to the U.S. and stored at DOE-EM storage facilities at the Savannah River Site and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This paper assesses the technologies and the options for safe transportation/receipt and interim storage of aluminum research reactor spent fuel and reviews the comprehensive strategy for its management. The U.S. Department of Energy uses the Appendix A, Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Criteria, to identify the physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of spent nuclear fuel to be returned to the United States under the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The fuel is further evaluated for acceptance through assessments of the fuel at the foreign sites that include corrosion damage and handleability. Transport involves use of commercial shipping casks with defined leakage rates that can provide containment of the fuel, some of which are breached. Options for safe storage include wet storage and dry storage. Both options must fully address potential degradation of the aluminum during the storage period. This paper focuses on the various options for safe transport and storage with respect to technology maturity and application.

  13. Evaluation of fuel-cell technology for Coast Guard applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, T.J.

    1988-10-01

    Recent proposals and the literature show promise of fuel cells being commercially available in the next decade. We searched the literature to determine the current state of fuel-cell technology, to determine if fuel cells can be used by the U.S. Coast Guard, and to make proposals for possible research and development efforts by the Coast Guard. Alkaline and phosphoric acid fuel cell technologies are now technically capable of full scale commercial production. Molten-carbonate and solid-oxide fuel-cell technologies should be commercially produced within the next decade. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) technology is the most promising for Coast Guard use. However, there is no operational need for fuel cells at present and high capital costs and low-energy prices make them economically noncompetitive. We suggest three areas of R D to prepare for changes in operational needs or energy economics. They are: operation of a 200-kW PAFC cogeneration plant to gain fuel-cell experience; development of low-maintenance/high availability PAFC system for remote power; and development of fuel cells for or aircraft propulsion in case there is a strategic crisis in petroleum-distillate supplies.

  14. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan. March 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Amy

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office is one of the 10 technology development offices within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy. This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (the Office). It identifies the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D), and market transformation and crosscutting activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation. This MYPP is intended for use as an operational guide to help the Office manage and coordinate its activities, as well as a resource to help communicate its mission and goals to stakeholders and the public.

  15. Environmental impacts of energy facilities: fuel cell technology compared with coal and conventional gas technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seip, Knut L.; Thorstensen, Bernt; Wang, Hagbarth

    We compare the environmental side effects of power plants based on fuel cell technology with the side effects of conventional electric power plants based on coal and natural gas. The environmental impact of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant is very much less than that of a coal-fired plant (a factor of {1}/{300} for air pollution and a factor of {1}/{5} for water pollution). Compared with a conventional gas plant, impact is reduced by between 50 and 98%. Damage to cultural monuments and buildings is negligible from a fuel cell plant. Socioeconomic negative impacts are reduced by about 30% relative to conventional gas plants (aesthetics and noise) whereas employment is unaltered. Impact on health and safety is greatly reduced compared with that from coal-fired plants and is about 70% of that from conventional gas plants. Preliminary results suggest that society's willingness to pay (WTP) for clean air, and thereby better health, matches the cost of installing emission-reducing equipment on conventional power plants. There is probably an additional WTP for other benefits (e.g., decreased risk of global warming). Thus, the utility of very small emissions, lower CO 2 discharges, and other benefits from SOFC generators may compensate for the increased cost incurred in producing electricity by SOFC generators.

  16. Review of Fuel Cell Technologies for Military Land Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    fuel they use or limited power output. The report concludes that SOFC or PEM FC may be a valuable tool for silent watch extension in the future...OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer PEM Proton Exchange Membrane PEMFC Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel Cell TRL Technical ...TYPE OF REPORT Technical Report 7. DOCUMENT DATE September 2014 8. FILE NUMBER 2014/1160976/1 9. TASK NUMBER 07/357 10. TASK SPONSOR

  17. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    SciTech Connect

    Liess, Martin

    2014-03-24

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  18. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liess, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S

  19. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  20. H2FIRST: A partnership to advance hydrogen fueling station technology driving an optimal consumer experience.

    SciTech Connect

    Moen, Christopher D.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Pratt, Joseph William; Balfour, Bruce; Noma, Edwin Yoichi; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; K. Wipke; J. Kurtz; D. Terlip; K. Harrison; S. Sprik

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) is establishing the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) partnership, led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). FCTO is establishing this partnership and the associated capabilities in support of H2USA, the public/private partnership launched in 2013. The H2FIRST partnership provides the research and technology acceleration support to enable the widespread deployment of hydrogen infrastructure for the robust fueling of light-duty fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). H2FIRST will focus on improving private-sector economics, safety, availability and reliability, and consumer confidence for hydrogen fueling. This whitepaper outlines the goals, scope, activities associated with the H2FIRST partnership.

  1. Alkaline falling-film fuel cell - a breakthrough in technology and cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, K. H.; Walz, R.; Gossen, C. A.

    1994-07-01

    The work described in this paper was oriented towards fuel cells for practical applications, but mainly presents data obtained using half-cells. The economic significance of these data is discussed, together with the technical concept of fuel cell power stations and for transportation applications. The proposed fuel cell will generate power at much lower costs than conventional power plants, and a zero-emission vehicle with fuel cells will operate at lower fuel cost than a car with an internal combustion engine. The simple falling-film process leads to high power densities (6 kW/l) and low cost. The details given are valid for the use of hydrogen produced from fossil energy sources. Concentrated CO2, a byproduct of this technology can be stored in discussed oil and gas fields at a very low cost to avoid global warming. Thus, this 'down-to-earth' hydrogen technology is as free from CO2 emissions as solar-hydrogen technology.

  2. Site Evaluation for Application of Fuel Cell Technology, Nellis Air Force Base, NV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    participated in the development and application of advanced fuel cell technology since fiscal yea 1993 (FY93). CERL selected and evaluated application sites...feedback to manufacturers for 29 of 30 commercially available fuel cell power plants and their thermal interfaces installed at Department of Defense...DoD) locations. This report presents an overview of the information collected at Nellis Air Force Base, NV, along with a conceptual fuel cell installation

  3. Integration of multi-technology on oil spill emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hannam, Phillip M; Xia, Xiaowei; Zhao, Tingting

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of technologies including Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for establishing emergency preparedness for oil spill accidents. In CBR, the Frame method is used to define case representation, and the HEOM (Heterogeneous Euclidean-Overlap Metric) is improved to define the similarity of case properties. In GA, we introduce an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) that achieves case adaptation, in which technologies include the Multi-Parameter Cascade Code method, the Small Section method for generation of an initial population, the Multi-Factor Integrated Fitness Function, and Niche technology for genetic operations including selection, crossover, and mutation. In ANN, a modified back-propagation algorithm is employed to train the algorithm to quickly improve system preparedness. Through the analysis of 32 fabricated oil spill cases, an oil spill emergency preparedness system based on the integration of CBR, GA and ANN is introduced. In particular, the development of ANN is presented and analyzed. The paper also discusses the efficacy of our integration approach.

  4. Multi-Scale Computational Analyses of JP-8 Fuel Droplets and Vapors in Human Respiratory Airway Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    micron- and nano-size aerosols in representative human nasal airways; (ii) multi- component and/or impure droplet evaporation or hygroscopity; (iii...14 1.3.4 Evaporation and deposition of multi- component droplets...fuel surrogate in order to track at least 12 components , i.e., chemical markers, considered to be most harmful. 20080226474 (iv) Model development and

  5. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-08-29

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuel consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0-100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Lastly, government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target.

  6. Technology development program for Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ermold, L.F.; Knecht, D.A.; Hogg, G.W.; Olson, A.L.

    1993-08-01

    Acidic high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage at the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, and describes the Spent Fuel and HLW Technology program in more detail.

  7. Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project evaluation of multi-canister overpack venting and monitoring options during staging of K basins fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wiborg, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    This engineering study recommends whether multi-canister overpacks containing spent nuclear fuel from the Hanford K Basins should be staged in vented or a sealed, but ventable, condition during staging at the Canister Storage Building prior to hot vacuum conditioning and interim storage. The integrally related issues of MCO monitoring, end point criteria, and assessing the practicality of avoiding venting and Hot Vacuum Conditioning for a portion of the spent fuel are also considered.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR SPENT OXIDE FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Seo, Chung-Seok; Kim, Ik-Soo; Hong, Sun-Seok; Kang, Dae-Seung; Park, Seong-Won

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) has been under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 1997. The concept is to convert spent oxide fuel into metallic form and to remove high heat-load fission products such as Cs and Sr from the spent fuel. The heat power, volume, and radioactivity of spent fuel can decrease by a factor of a quarter via this process. For the realization of ACP, a concept of electrochemical reduction of spent oxide fuel in Li2O-LiCl molten salt was proposed and several cold tests using fresh uranium oxides have been carried out. In this new electrochemical reduction process, electrolysis of Li2O and reduction of uranium oxide are taking place simultaneously at the cathode part of electrolysis cell. The conversion of uranium oxide to uranium metal can reach more than 99% ensuring the feasibility of this process.

  9. Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Many previously demonstrated improved fuel cell features were consolidated to (1) obtain a better understanding of the observed characteristics of the operating laboratory-sized cells; (2) evaluate appropriate improved fuel cell features in 0.7 sq ft cell hardware; and (3) study the resultant fuel cell capability and determine its impact on various potential fuel cell space missions. The observed performance characteristics of the fuel cell at high temperatures and high current densities were matched with a theoretical model based on the change in Gibbs free energy voltage with respect to temperature and internal resistance change with current density. Excellent agreement between the observed and model performance was obtained. The observed performance decay with operational time on cells with very low noble metal loadings (0.05 mg/sq cm) were shown to be related to loss in surface area. Cells with the baseline amount of noble catalyst electrode loading demonstrated over 40,000 hours of stable performance.

  10. The Development of Fuel Cell Technology for NASA's Human Spaceflight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    My task this morning is to review the history and current direction of fuel cell technology development for NASA's human spaceflight program and to compare it to the directions being taken in that field for The Hydrogen Economy. The concept of "The Hydrogen Economy" involves many applications for fuel cells, but for today's discussion, I'll focus on automobiles.

  11. An Overview of Current and Past W-UO[2] CERMET Fuel Fabrication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas E. Burkes; Daniel M. Wachs; James E. Werner; Steven D. Howe

    2007-06-01

    Studies dating back to the late 1940s performed by a number of different organizations and laboratories have established the major advantages of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems, particularly for manned missions. A number of NTP projects have been initiated since this time; none have had any sustained fuel development work that appreciably contributed to fuel fabrication or performance data from this era. As interest in these missions returns and previous space nuclear power researchers begin to retire, fuel fabrication technologies must be revisited, so that established technologies can be transferred to young researchers seamlessly and updated, more advanced processes can be employed to develop successful NTP fuels. CERMET fuels, specifically W-UO2, are of particular interest to the next generation NTP plans since these fuels have shown significant advantages over other fuel types, such as relatively high burnup, no significant failures under severe transient conditions, capability of accommodating a large fission product inventory during irradiation and compatibility with flowing hot hydrogen. Examples of previous fabrication routes involved with CERMET fuels include hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and press and sinter, whereas newer technologies, such as spark plasma sintering, combustion synthesis and microsphere fabrication might be well suited to produce high quality, effective fuel elements. These advanced technologies may address common issues with CERMET fuels, such as grain growth, ductile to brittle transition temperature and UO2 stoichiometry, more effectively than the commonly accepted ‘traditional’ fabrication routes. Bonding of fuel elements, especially if the fabrication process demands production of smaller element segments, must be investigated. Advanced brazing techniques and compounds are now available that could produce a higher quality bond segment with increased ease in joining. This paper will briefly address the history of

  12. Multi-layer enhancement to polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1997-10-01

    A multi-level polysilicon surface-micromachining technology consisting of 5 layers of polysilicon is presented. Surface topography and film mechanical stress are the major impediments encountered in the development of a multilayer surface-micromachining process. However, excellent mechanical film characteristics have been obtained through the use of chemical-mechanical polishing for planarization of topography and by proper sequencing of film deposition with thermal anneals. Examples of operating microactuators, geared power-transfer mechanisms, and optical elements demonstrate the mechanical advantages of construction with 5 polysilicon layers.

  13. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  14. Emerging Fuel Cell Technology Being Developed: Offers Many Benefits to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells, which have recently received considerable attention for terrestrial applications ranging from automobiles to stationary power generation, may enable new aerospace missions as well as offer fuel savings, quiet operations, and reduced emissions for current and future aircraft. NASA has extensive experience with fuel cells, having used them on manned space flight systems over four decades. Consequently, the NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated an effort to investigate and develop fuel cell technologies for multiple aerospace applications. Two promising fuel cell types are the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). PEM technology, first used on the Gemini spacecraft in the sixties, remained unutilized thereafter until the automotive industry recently recognized the potential. PEM fuel cells are low-temperature devices offering quick startup time but requiring relatively pure hydrogen fuel. In contrast, SOFCs operate at high temperatures and tolerate higher levels of impurities. This flexibility allows SOFCs to use hydrocarbon fuels, which is an important factor considering our current liquid petroleum infrastructure. However, depending on the specific application, either PEM or SOFC can be attractive. As only NASA can, the Agency is pursuing fuel cell technology for civil uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) because it offers enhanced scientific capabilities, including enabling highaltitude, long-endurance missions. The NASA Helios aircraft demonstrated altitudes approaching 100,000 ft using solar power in 2001, and future plans include the development of a regenerative PEM fuel cell to provide nighttime power. Unique to NASA's mission, the high-altitude aircraft application requires the PEM fuel cell to operate on pure oxygen, instead of the air typical of terrestrial applications.

  15. Multi-KW dc distribution system technology research study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, S. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Multi-KW DC Distribution System Technology Research Study is the third phase of the NASA/MSFC study program. The purpose of this contract was to complete the design of the integrated technology test facility, provide test planning, support test operations and evaluate test results. The subjet of this study is a continuation of this contract. The purpose of this continuation is to study and analyze high voltage system safety, to determine optimum voltage levels versus power, to identify power distribution system components which require development for higher voltage systems and finally to determine what modifications must be made to the Power Distribution System Simulator (PDSS) to demonstrate 300 Vdc distribution capability.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES: CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL-BORNE CATALYST WITH MITSUI/PUREARTH CATALYZED WIRE MESH FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with Mitsui/PUREarth Catalyzed Wire Mesh Filter manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a platinum/cerium fuel-borne catalyst in commerci...

  18. State of technology on hydrogen fueled gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esgar, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    A series of investigations was conducted episodically from the 1950's to the early 1970's to investigate the feasibility and potential problem areas in the use of hydrogen fuel for gas turbine engines. A brief summary and bibliography are presented of the research that has been conducted by NASA, its predecessor NACA, and by industry under U. S. Air Force sponsorship. Although development efforts would be required to provide hydrogen fueled gas turbine engines for aircraft, past research has shown that hydrogen fueled engines are feasible, and except for flight weight liquid hydrogen pumps, there are no problem areas relating to engines requiring significant research.

  19. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  20. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  1. A selective hybrid stochastic strategy for fuel-cell multi-parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, Massimo; Negro, Enrico; Di Noto, Vito; Alotto, Piergiorgio

    2016-11-01

    The in situ identification of fuel-cell material parameters is crucial both for guiding the research for advanced functionalized materials and for fitting multiphysics models, which can be used in fuel cell performance evaluation and optimization. However, this identification still remains challenging when dealing with direct measurements. This paper presents a method for achieving this aim by stochastic optimization. Such techniques have been applied to the analysis of fuel cells for ten years, but typically to specific problems and by means of semi-empirical models, with an increased number of articles published in the last years. We present an original formulation that makes use of an accurate zero-dimensional multi-physical model of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and of two cooperating stochastic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and differential evolution, to extract multiple material parameters (exchange current density, mass transfer coefficient, diffusivity, conductivity, activation barriers …) from the experimental data of polarization curves (i.e. in situ measurements) under some controlled temperature, gas back pressure and humidification. The method is suitable for application in other fields where fitting of multiphysics nonlinear models is involved.

  2. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot: A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect on criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  3. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot - A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect of criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  4. Developing affordable multi-touch technologies for use in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, Carolina; Schofield, Damian; Vampola, David

    2012-02-01

    Physics is one of many areas which has the ability to benefit from a number of different teaching styles and sophisticated instructional tools due to it having both theoretical and practical applications which can be explored. The purpose of this research is to develop affordable large scale multi-touch interfaces which can be used within and outside of the classroom as both an instruction technology and a computer supported collaborative learning tool. Not only can this technology be implemented at university levels, but also at the K-12 level of education. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style [1]. Through the use of these types of multi-touch tools and teaching methods which incorporate them, the classroom can be enriched to allow for better comprehension and retention of information. This is due in part to a wider range of learning styles, such as kinesthetic learning, which are being catered to within the classroom. [4pt] [1] Wieman, C.E, Perkins, K.K., Adams, W.K., ``Oersted Medal Lecture 2007: Interactive Simulations for teaching physics: What works, what doesn't and why,'' American Journal of Physics. 76 393-99.

  5. Surface Power Fission System Fuels: Technology Readiness and Qualification Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marcille, Thomas F.; Poston, David I.

    2006-07-01

    The choice of fuel form for an initial U.S space reactor for surface power applications is significant for a timely, cost effective development program through flight system delivery. While minimizing fuel system development effort and cost is key to achieving a successful practical application, performance and reliability of that fuel system must be predictably understood to insure that the integrated mission requirements are achieved. Performance and reliability predictions depend on understanding the fundamental irradiated material properties for any fuel system (fuel meat plus clad), including thermal conductivity, thermal mechanical and irradiation-induced (constrained and unconstrained) swelling as functions of temperature, burnup and time, and fission gas release. Qualification tasks may include in-pile irradiations and associated post irradiation examinations (PIE) for thermally and spectrally representative operating environments, for intended operational fission rates. Additionally, simplification of the qualification tasks may result from the use of available database information from prior representative in-pile experiments. While available data is compelling, current manufacturing processes may differ from those employed to facilitate previous experiments, and assessing the pedigree of previous processes relative to current ones may be difficult at best. Considered fuel meats include UN, UO{sub 2}, UZrH and metal fuels. This paper will examine the state of the current qualification basis for each of these fuel materials, and assess each as appropriate for use with a low cost initial surface power fission system. A low cost system can not bear the cost of expensive material development programs, necessitated by the lack of high temperature irradiated material property data. As such, a low cost system limits clad and coolant temperatures to < 900 K. (authors)

  6. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008, including market overview and federal role, program vision, mission, design and structure, and goals and multi-year targets.

  7. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-08-29

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuelmore » consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0-100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Lastly, government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target.« less

  8. Characterization of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene-Based Composites for Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates and Development of Educational Tools in Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Gaxiola, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this project we developed conductive thermoplastic resins by adding varying amounts of three different carbon fillers: carbon black (CB), synthetic graphite (SG) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) to a polypropylene matrix for application as fuel cell bipolar plates. This component of fuel cells provides mechanical support to the stack,…

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING THE PLUG POWER SU1 FUEL CELL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Plug Power SU1 Fuel Cell System manufactured by Plug Power. The SU1 is a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that requires hydrogen (H2) as fuel. H2 is generally not available, so the ...

  10. NASA Broad Specification Fuels Combustion Technology program - Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Phase I results and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. P.; Fear, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with increases in the cost of fuels and the reduced availability of high quality petroleum crude, a modification of fuel specifications has been considered to allow acceptance of poorer quality fuels. To obtain the information upon which a selection of appropriate fuels for aircraft can be based, the Broad Specification Fuels Combustion Technology program was formulated by NASA. A description is presented of program-related investigations conducted by an American aerospace company. The specific objective of Phase I of this program has been to evaluate the impact of the use of broadened properties fuels on combustor design through comprehensive combustor rig testing. Attention is given to combustor concepts, experimental evaluation, results obtained with single stage combustors, the stage combustor concept, and the capability of a variable geometry combustor.

  11. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication. Several issues are outside the scope of this report, including the following: thorium fuel cycles, gas-cooled fast reactors, the reliability of TRISO-coated particles (billions in a reactor), and how soon any new reactor or fuel type could be licensed and then deployed and therefore impact fuel cycle performance measures.

  12. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  13. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Research and Development 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for research and development, including residential and commercial integration, lighting, HVAC and water heating, envelope, windows, and analysis tools.

  14. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  15. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  16. Noninvasive Glucose Monitoring: Increasing Accuracy by Combination of Multi-Technology and Multi-Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Gal, Avner; Raykhman, Alexander M.; Naidis, Eugene; Mayzel, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    Background The main concern in noninvasive (NI) glucose monitoring methods is to achieve high accuracy results despite the fact that no direct blood or interstitial fluid glucose measurement is performed. An alternative approach to increase the accuracy of NI glucose measurement was previously suggested through a combination of three NI methods: ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and thermal. This paper provides further explanation about the nature of the implemented technologies, and multi-sensors are presented, as well as a detailed elaboration on the novel algorithm for data analysis. Methods Clinical trials were performed on two different days. During the first day, calibration and six subsequent measurements were performed. During the second day, a “full day” session of about 10 hours took place. During the trial, type 1 and 2 diabetes patients were calibrated and evaluated with GlucoTrack® glucose monitor against HemoCue® (Glucose 201+). Results A total of 91 subjects were tested during the trial period. Clarke error grid (CEG) analysis shows 96% of the readings (on both days 1 and 2) fall in the clinically accepted A and B zones, of which 60% are within zone A. The absolute relative differences (ARDs) yield mean and median values of 22.4% and 15.9%, respectively. The CEG for day 2 of the trial shows 96% of the points in zones A and B, with 57% of the values in zone A. Mean and median ARD values for the readings on day 2 are 23.4% and 16.5%, respectively. The intervals between day 1 (calibration and measurements) and day 2 (measurements only) were 1–22 days, with a median of 6 days. Conclusions The presented methodology shows that increased accuracy was indeed achieved by combining multi-technology and multi-sensors. The approach of integration contributes to increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (glucose to other contributors). A combination of several technologies allows compensation of a possible aberration in one modality by the others, while multi

  17. A multi-objective optimisation model for a general polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Sheila Mae C.; Brett, Daniel J. L.; Fraga, Eric S.

    This paper presents an optimisation model for a general polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system suitable for efficiency and size trade-offs investigation. Simulation of the model for a base case shows that for a given output power, a more efficient system is bigger and vice versa. Using the weighting method to perform a multi-objective optimisation, the Pareto sets were generated for different stack output powers. A Pareto set, presented as a plot of the optimal efficiency and area of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), gives a quantitative description of the compromise between efficiency and size. Overall, our results indicate that, to make the most of the size-efficiency trade-off behaviour, the system must be operated at an efficiency of at least 40% but not more than 47%. Furthermore, the MEA area should be at least 3 cm 2 W -1 for the efficiency to be practically useful. Subject to the constraints imposed on the model, which are based on technical practicalities, a PEM fuel cell system such as the one presented in this work cannot operate at an efficiency above 54%. The results of this work, specifically the multi-objective model, will form a useful and practical basis for subsequent techno-economic studies for specific applications.

  18. MIST Final Report: Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Michael A.; Medvick, Patricia A.; Foley, Michael G.; Foote, Harlan P.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Nuffer, Lisa L.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Renholds, Andrea S.

    2008-03-15

    The Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology (MIST) program was undertaken to advance exploitation tools for Long Wavelength Infra Red (LWIR) hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) analysis as applied to the discovery and quantification of nuclear proliferation signatures. The program focused on mitigating LWIR image background clutter to ease the analyst burden and enable a) faster more accurate analysis of large volumes of high clutter data, b) greater detection sensitivity of nuclear proliferation signatures (primarily released gasses) , and c) quantify confidence estimates of the signature materials detected. To this end the program investigated fundamental limits and logical modifications of the more traditional statistical discovery and analysis tools applied to hyperspectral imaging and other disciplines, developed and tested new software incorporating advanced mathematical tools and physics based analysis, and demonstrated the strength and weaknesses of the new codes on relevant hyperspectral data sets from various campaigns. This final report describes the content of the program and the outlines the significant results.

  19. Advanced micromechanisms in a multi-level polysilicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Miller, S.L.; Barron, C.C.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    Quad-level polysilicon surface micromachining technology, comprising three mechanical levels plus an electrical interconnect layer, is giving rise to a new generation of micro-electromechanical devices and assemblies. Enhanced components can not be produced through greater flexibility in fabrication and design. New levels of design complexity that include multi-level gears, single-attempt locks, and optical elements have recently been realized. Extensive utilization of the fourth layer of polysilicon differentiates these latter generation devices from their predecessors. This level of poly enables the fabrication of pin joints, linkage arms, hinges on moveable plates, and multi-level gear assemblies. The mechanical design aspects of these latest micromachines will be discussed with particular emphasis on a number of design aspects of these latest micromachines will be discussed with particular emphasis on a number of design modifications that improve the power, reliability, and smoothness of operation of the microengine. The microengine is the primary actuation mechanism that is being used to drive mirrors out of plane and rotate 1600-{mu}m diameter gears. Also discussed is the authors most advanced micromechanical system to date, a complex proof-of-concept batch-fabricated assembly that, upon transmitting the proper electrical code to a mechanical lock, permits the operation of a micro-optical shutter.

  20. An Evaluation of Coal Water Slurry Fuel Burners and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    physical beneficiation (froth flotation) to reduce pyrite, biotechnological and other methods to remove more sulfur (especially the organic portion... industral boiler and is shown in Figure 36 (1). It consists of an air register with a center air tube, a rotating cup, a fuel delivery tube, and a variable

  1. Fuel Cell Technology and Its Importance to Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudak, Glenn A.

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cells may seem like a science fiction fantasy to many people, since they are an efficient and nonpolluting power source producing little noise and having no moving parts. But this futuristic energy source not only exists, it has played a key role in providing electricity on spacecraft since the 1960s. Currently, technologists are developing…

  2. Improving the quality indicators fuel pump of plasma technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifullin, S. N.; Pirogova, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that the product quality control is not only to control the process of its manufacture. To the product was in demand and the competitive need to search for new promising technologies for its production. One such technology is the plasma technology.

  3. Strategic need for a multi-purpose thermal hydraulic loop for support of advanced reactor technologies

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, James E.; Sabharwall, Piyush; Yoon, Su -Jong; Housley, Gregory K.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation

  4. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Paul E.; Koenig, Greg John; Uncapher, William Leonard; Grey, Carissa; Engelhardt, Charles; Saltzstein, Sylvia J.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  5. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  6. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Mcwilliams, A. J.

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  7. 'Radiotoxicity Index': An Inappropriate Discriminator for Advanced Fuel Cycle Technology Selection - 12276

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, John; Sowder, Andrew; Apted, Michael; Kozak, Matthew; Nutt, Mark; Swift, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A radiotoxicity index (RI) is often used as a figure of merit for evaluating for evaluating the attractiveness of employing an advanced fuel cycle (i.e., a fuel cycle that uses some combination of separations and other reactor technologies, such as fast reactors), rather than continued use of the current 'once-through' fuel cycle. The RI is calculated by multiplying the amount of every radionuclide found in a waste form for some unit amount of waste times the drinking water dose conversion factor, DCF, for each radionuclide, then summing these together. Some argue that if the RI for an advanced fuel cycle is lower than the RI for a once-through fuel cycle, then implementation of the particular advanced fuel cycle has merit because it reduces the radiotoxicity of the waste. Use of an RI for justifying separations technologies and other components of advanced fuel cycles is not only inappropriate, but can be misleading with respect to judging benefits of advance fuel cycle options. The disposal system, through its use of multiple engineered and natural barriers to migration, eliminates most of the radionuclides contributing to the RI such that additional separations technologies will make little difference to peak dose rates. What must also be considered is the health/dose risk caused to workers and the public by the construction and operation of the separations facility itself. Thus, use of RI may lead to selection of separations technologies that may have a negligible effect on lowering the potential health risks associated with disposal, but will increase real worker and public health risks in the near term. The use of the radiotoxicity index (RI) as a figure of merit for justifying advanced fuel cycles involving separations technologies is not only inappropriate, but can be misleading with respect to judging benefits of advance fuel cycle options. The disposal system, through its use of multiple engineered and natural barriers to migration, eliminates most of the

  8. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    VA : Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Vols. 2013 Aviation Technical Committee Meetings, May 2012. 10. Dallas, A .,Block, J., Klick, P., Grove, B ...utilizing Fuel System Supply Point Joel Schmitigal U S Army Tank Automotive Research DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A . Approved for public release; distribution...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Distribution Statement A . Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In June 2013

  9. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  10. Alcohol-Fuel-Technology Grant Program: an evaluation and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes the research projects with respect to one of five process areas into which each was grouped. The process areas are feedstock preparation, feedstock conversion, product recovery, byproduct recovery, and end use. These areas encompass the conversion of biomass to fuels and the consumption of the fuels. In each of these process areas there are research needs which, if achieved, will provide improved economic feasibility for production. These needs revolve around improved alternate feedstocks, better conversion, lower energy, recycling of the biocatalysts, reduced energy input, less capital intensive recovery of byproducts and expanded byproduct markets. All of the short term projects in this program have directed these investigations to one of these needs. Some of these projects have achieved breakthroughs or shown insight into achieving an improved process. A more detailed technical abstract of each project is available in the Appendix. Within these reviews, the uniqueness of the individual project and its accomplishments are discussed.

  11. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  12. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    SciTech Connect

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-22

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  13. Bioslurping technology applications at Naval fuel remediation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeppel, R.; Goetz, F.; Zwick, T.; Kittel, J.; Julio, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Bioventing accelerates the biodegradation of both high and low volatility fuels immobilized in the vadose zone by satisfying the high oxygen demand of in situ microorganisms through forced aeration of subsurface soils. However, many Naval field sites have light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) residing at and above the groundwater table. In such cases biodegradation of the LNAPL may be a very slow process because bioemulsification and bioavailability are impeded. Bioslurper systems are designed to recover LNAPL via vacuum-assisted pumping, while simultaneously promoting the remediation of vadose zone soil contamination via bioventing. Bioslurping has been ongoing at NAS Fallon, Nevada, for over three years and was initiated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii last summer. The sites have low volatility JP-5 jet fuel on the groundwater table in low to medium permeability soils. An arid bioventing site at Twentynine Palms, CA, appears to be moisture limited. Subsurface irrigation of the 190 ft vadose zone has increased mixed fuel biodegradation rates about 10-fold but wetting the contaminated zone has been a slow process.

  14. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  15. Technologies and Concepts for Reducing the Fuel Burn of Subsonic Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    There are many technologies under development that have the potential to enable large fuel burn reductions in the 2025 timeframe for subsonic transport aircraft relative to the current fleet. This paper identifies a potential technology suite and analyzes the fuel burn reduction potential of these technologies when integrated into advanced subsonic transport concepts. Advanced tube-and-wing concepts are developed in the single aisle and large twin aisle class, and a hybrid-wing-body concept is developed for the large twin aisle class. The resulting fuel burn reductions for the advanced tube-and-wing concepts range from a 42% reduction relative to the 777-200 to a 44% reduction relative to the 737-800. In addition, the hybrid-wingbody design resulted in a 47% fuel burn reduction relative to the 777-200. Of course, to achieve these fuel burn reduction levels, a significant amount of technology and concept maturation is required between now and 2025. A methodology for capturing and tracking concept maturity is also developed and presented in this paper.

  16. Opportunities for the Multi Recycling of Used MOX Fuel in the US - 12122

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.; Bailly, F.; Bouvier, E.; Gain, T.; Lelievre, F.; Senentz, G.H.; Collins, E.

    2012-07-01

    Over the last 50 years the US has accumulated an inventory of used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the region of 64,000 metric tons in 2010, and adds an additional 2,200 metric tons each year from the current fleet of 104 Light Water Reactors. This paper considers a fuel cycle option that would be available for a future pilot U.S. recycling plant that could take advantage of the unique opportunities offered by the age and size of the large U.S. UNF inventory. For the purpose of this scenario, recycling of UNF must use the available reactor infrastructure, currently LWR's, and the main product of recycling is considered to be plutonium (Pu), recycled into MOX fuel for use in these reactors. Use of MOX fuels must provide the service (burn-up) expected by the reactor operator, with the required level of safety. To do so, the fissile material concentration (Pu-239, Pu-241) in the MOX must be high enough to maintain criticality, while, in current recycle facilities, the Pu-238 content has to be kept low enough to prevent excessive heat load, neutron emission, and neutron capture during recycle operations. In most countries, used MOX fuel (MOX UNF) is typically stored after one irradiation in an LWR, pending the development of the GEN IV reactors, since it is considered difficult to directly reuse the recycled MOX fuel in LWRs due to the degraded Pu fissile isotopic composition. In the US, it is possible to blend MOX UNF with LEUOx UNF from the large inventory, using the oldest UNF first. Blending at the ratio of about one MOX UNF assembly with 15 LEUOx UNF assemblies, would achieve a fissile plutonium concentration sufficient for reirradiation in new MOX fuel. The Pu-238 yield in the new fuel will be sufficiently low to meet current fuel fabrication standards. Therefore, it should be possible in the context of the US, for discharged MOX fuel to be recycled back into LWR's, using only technologies already industrially deployed worldwide. Building on that possibility, two scenarios

  17. [Electricity generation from sweet potato fuel ethanol wastewater using microbial fuel cell technology].

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Yi; Sun, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Liang; Xiao, Yao; Zhao, Hai

    2010-10-01

    Air cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) were investigated for electricity production from sweet potato fuel ethanol wastewater containing 5000 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Maximum power density of 334.1 mW/m2, coulombic efficiency (CE) of 10.1% and COD removal efficiency of 92.2% were approached. The effect of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and COD concentration on the performance of MFC was further examined. The addition of PBS from 50 mmol/L to 200 mmol/L increased the maximum power density and CE by 33.4% and 26.0%, respectively. However, the COD removal efficiency was not relative to PBS concentration in the wastewater. When the COD increased from 625 mg/L to 10 000 mg/L, the maximum value of COD removal efficiency and the maximum power density were gained at the wastewater strength of 5 000 mg/L. But the CE ranged from 28.9% to 10.3% with a decreasing trend. These results demonstrate that sweet potato fuel ethanol wastewater can be used for electricity generation in MFC while at the same time achieving wastewater treatment. The increasing of PBS concentration can improve the power generation of MFC. The maximum power density of MFC increases with the rise of COD concentration, but the electricity generation will decrease for the acidification of high wastewater concentration.

  18. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  19. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  20. Ceramic-based fuel technologies: scope and status

    SciTech Connect

    Mcclellan, Kenneth J

    2010-12-16

    This presentation is an overview of the approach, status and path forward for ongoing tasks under the ceramic fuel development part of the program. Experimental work is focused on fundamental studies employing depleted urania-based compositions and mixed oxide (MOX) and minor actinide-bearing MOX. Contributions are included from researchers at LANL, ORNL and BNL. The audience for this presentation consists of the various participants in the FCRD program. Those participants include representatives from: DOE-NE, other national laboratories, DOE funded university researchers, DOE funded industry teams, FCRD funded advisors, and occasionally NRC.

  1. Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-13

    PureCell 400 F lC ll E I DFC 300 1500 d 3000ue e nergy nc. , , an Bloom Energy, Inc. ES-5000 Energy Server Waste processes that produce methane, like...Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell T h l i O i Innovation for Our Energy Future ec no og es verv ew Presented to: DOD-DOE Waste-to- Energy Workshop Dr... t -~, I " I I l 𔃻 1 Biomethane I I ,_.. I I I I I I I ( Clean·Up System 1 \\ / ...... ___________ _ Injection in NG 1 Pipelines 1

  2. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy, and powertrain technology trends for new personal vehicles in the United States. The ??Trends?? report has been published annually since 1975 and covers all passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and all but the largest pickup trucks and vans. This report does not provide formal compliance values for EPA CO2 emissions standards and NHTSA CAFE standards. The downloadable data are available in PDF or spreadsheet (XLS) formats.

  3. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor

  4. Multi-step optimization strategy for fuel-optimal orbital transfer of low-thrust spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasotto, M.; Armellin, R.; Di Lizia, P.

    2016-03-01

    An effective method for the design of fuel-optimal transfers in two- and three-body dynamics is presented. The optimal control problem is formulated using calculus of variation and primer vector theory. This leads to a multi-point boundary value problem (MPBVP), characterized by complex inner constraints and a discontinuous thrust profile. The first issue is addressed by embedding the MPBVP in a parametric optimization problem, thus allowing a simplification of the set of transversality constraints. The second problem is solved by representing the discontinuous control function by a smooth function depending on a continuation parameter. The resulting trajectory optimization method can deal with different intermediate conditions, and no a priori knowledge of the control structure is required. Test cases in both the two- and three-body dynamics show the capability of the method in solving complex trajectory design problems.

  5. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, E. L., Jr.; Williams, M. C.; George, T. J.

    The MCFC technology has been identified by the DOE as a promising product for commercialization. Development of the MCFC technology supports the National Energy Strategy. Review of the status of the MCFC technology indicates that the MCFC technology developers are making rapid and significant progress. Manufacturing facility development and extensive testing is occurring. Improvements in performance (power density), lower costs, improved packaging, and scale up to full height are planned. MCFC developers need to continue to be responsive to end-users in potential markets. It will be market demands for the correct product definition which will ultimately determine the character of MCFC power plants. There is a need for continued MCFC product improvement and multiple product development tests.

  6. Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-12-01

    This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton`s 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ``conventional`` indirect drive target gains versus ``advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor`` direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ``conventional`` and ``advanced`` IFE assumptions, respectively.

  7. Characterization of thermal and mechanical properties of polypropylene-based composites for fuel cell bipolar plates and development of educational tools in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Gaxiola, Daniel

    In this project we developed conductive thermoplastic resins by adding varying amounts of three different carbon fillers: carbon black (CB), synthetic graphite (SG) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) to a polypropylene matrix for application as fuel cell bipolar plates. This component of fuel cells provides mechanical support to the stack, circulates the gases that participate in the electrochemical reaction within the fuel cell and allows for removal of the excess heat from the system. The materials fabricated in this work were tested to determine their mechanical and thermal properties. These materials were produced by adding varying amounts of single carbon fillers to a polypropylene matrix (2.5 to 15 wt.% Ketjenblack EC-600 JD carbon black, 10 to 80 wt.% Asbury Carbons' Thermocarb TC-300 synthetic graphite, and 2.5 to 15 wt.% of Hyperion Catalysis International's FIBRIL(TM) multi-walled carbon nanotubes) In addition, composite materials containing combinations of these three fillers were produced. The thermal conductivity results showed an increase in both through-plane and in-plane thermal conductivities, with the largest increase observed for synthetic graphite. The Department of Energy (DOE) had previously set a thermal conductivity goal of 20 W/m·K, which was surpassed by formulations containing 75 wt.% and 80 wt.% SG, yielding in-plane thermal conductivity values of 24.4 W/m·K and 33.6 W/m·K, respectively. In addition, composites containing 2.5 wt.% CB, 65 wt.% SG, and 6 wt.% CNT in PP had an in-plane thermal conductivity of 37 W/m·K. Flexural and tensile tests were conducted. All composite formulations exceeded the flexural strength target of 25 MPa set by DOE. The tensile and flexural modulus of the composites increased with higher concentration of carbon fillers. Carbon black and synthetic graphite caused a decrease in the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites. However, carbon nanotubes increased the composite tensile and flexural

  8. Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century, Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential. The program focuses on research and development of fuel cell systems for diverse applications in the stationary power, portable power, and transportation sectors. It works to reduce costs and improve technologies to advance fuel cell uses in areas such as combined heat and power, auxiliary power units, portable power systems, and stationary and backup power. To help ensure that fuel cell advances are realized, the program rigorously analyzes energy efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits of fuel cells and seeks to optimize synergies among fuel cell applications and other renewable technologies.

  9. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  10. Advances in multi-finger caliper technology and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, I.; Hazel, P.

    1995-12-31

    Drilling in the Danish sector of the North Sea was on the point of being halted by safety authorities recently, due to fear of a damaged casing. Only after the casing condition was verified by a new multi-finger caliper tool, was the operator permitted to continue unrestricted operations. In proving casing integrity, the caliper saved the operator significant expense in rig down-time, as well as the technical risk involved in replacement of a casing string. This paper describes the development and field test results of a family of caliper tools, one of which was used in the operation cited above. These calipers find applications in both casing wear and corrosion evaluation, and provide independent, real-time readout from each finger. Sponsorship to develop the tools has been provided by the Drilling Engineering Association (Europe), under the DEA(E)-42 project The DEA calipers are designed to give improved coverage, resolution and accuracy, in any fluid, over previous technology, as well as the providing the operator with a very rapid well-site answer. Field test results presented in the paper, together with data from commercial operations (undertaken by Elf Enterprise Caledonia [EEC] and others), detail how the DEA calipers have: confirmed the development of wear grooves; positively identified casing damage; confirmed casing integrity to safety authorities; monitored corrosion using time-lapse techniques; and uniquely identified causes of low productivity.

  11. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of sealed storage cask containing spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitten, P.F.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-08-01

    A PWR spent fuel assembly was encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in a instrumented above surface storage cell during December 1978 for thermal testing. Instrumentation provided to measure canister, liner and concrete temperatures consisted of thermocouples which were inserted into tubes on the outside of the canister and liner and in three radial positions in the concrete. Temperatures from the SSC test assembly have been recorded throughout the past 16 months. Canister and liner temperatures have reached their peak values of 200{sup 0}F and 140{sup 0}F, respectively. Computer predictions of the transient and steady-state temperatures show good agreement with the test data.

  12. The potential effect of future energy-efficiency and emissions-improving technologies on fuel consumption of heavy trucks.

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.; Saricks, C.; Stodolsky, F.

    2003-03-14

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory analyzed heavy-duty truck technologies to support the Energy Information Administration's long-term energy use projections. Researchers conducted an analysis of several technology options that have potential to improve heavy truck fuel economy and emissions characteristics. The technologies are grouped as fuel-economy-enhancing and emissions-improving. Each technology's potential impact on heavy truck fuel economy has been estimated, as has the cost of implementation. The extent of technology penetration is estimated on the basis of truck data analyses and technical judgment.

  13. Fuel comsumption of heavy-duty trucks : potential effect of future technologies for improving energy efficiency and emission.

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.; Vyas, A. D.; Stodolsky, F.; Maples, J. D.; Energy Systems; USDOE

    2003-01-01

    The results of an analysis of heavy-duty truck (Classes 2b through 8) technologies conducted to support the Energy Information Administration's long-term projections for energy use are summarized. Several technology options that have the potential to improve the fuel economy and emissions characteristics of heavy-duty trucks are included in the analysis. The technologies are grouped as those that enhance fuel economy and those that improve emissions. Each technology's potential impact on the fuel economy of heavy-duty trucks is estimated. A rough cost projection is also presented. The extent of technology penetration is estimated on the basis of truck data analyses and technical judgment.

  14. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick R. Soelberg

    2010-11-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication.

  15. NASA/General Electric broad-specification fuels combustion technology program - Phase I results and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Ekstedt, E. E.; Bahr, D. W.; Fear, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    A program is being conducted to develop the technology required to utilize fuels with broadened properties in aircraft gas turbine engines. The first phase of this program consisted of the experimental evaluation of three different combustor concepts to determine their potential for meeting several specific emissions and performance goals, when operated on broadened property fuels. The three concepts were a single annular combustor; a double annular combustor; and a short single annular combustor with variable geometry. All of these concepts were sized for the General Electric CF6-80 engine. A total of 24 different configurations of these concepts were evaluated in a high pressure test facility, using four test fuels having hydrogen contents between 11.8 and 14%. Fuel effects on combustor performance, durability and emissions, and combustor design features to offset these effects were demonstrated.

  16. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  17. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  18. Alcohol fuels technology program: Byng public school. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This is the final report for the Energy Grant awarded to Byng School for the purpose of building a distillery and producing fuel alcohol to be used in the school vehicles. The distillery has been built and alcohol has been produced and tested. At the time of the grant award, it was feared gasoline would soon retail for $4 per gallon. Fortunately, this has not been the case and the school is able to purchase gasoline for about 97 cents. As it cost 93 cents per gallon to produce alcohol in the distillery, the plan to produce alcohol for use in the busses has temporarily been set aside. We are holding the distillery ready for production as insurance against an increase in gasoline price. The plant and process are described.

  19. Investigation of Fuel Nozzle Technologies to Reduce Gas Turbine Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony Francis, Roger Neil

    With increasing requirements for reduced emissions from future gas turbines, a multitude of research is being conducted into fuel nozzles by gas turbine manufacturers. This thesis focuses on the development of a novel spill return nozzle, to improve combustion efficiency at starting and low power conditions -where combustion efficiency is often the poorest. The spill return nozzle has the advantage of being able to improve atomization performance and reduce internal coking potential, all while being a simple and durable design. The spill return nozzle tech- nology was subsequently applied to a design for an existing small gas turbine combustor, and its improvements over the existing nozzle were demonstrated. The proposed design was also extended to experimental testing in a simplified form. CAD drawings of the components for testing were made, and prototypes were built in plastic using a high accuracy 3D printer. Future work involves conducting experimental tests to validate results.

  20. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of materials, cell components, and reformers for on site integrated energy systems is described. Progress includes: (1) heat-treatment of 25 sq cm, 350 sq cm and 1200 sq cm cell test hardware was accomplished. Performance of fuel cells is improved by using this material; (2) electrochemical and chemical corrosion rates of heat-treated and as-molded graphite/phenolic resin composites in phosphoric acid were determined; (3) three cell, 5 in. x 15 in. stacks operated for up to 10,000 hours and 12 in. x 17 in. five cell stacks were tested for 5,000 hours; (4) a three cell 5 in. x 15 in. stack with 0.12 mg Pt/sq cm anodes and 0.25 mg Pt/sq cm cathodes was operated for 4,500 hours; and (5) an ERC proprietary high bubble pressure matrix, MAT-1, was tested for up to 10,000 hours.

  1. Multi-variable mathematical models for the air-cathode microbial fuel cell system

    DOE PAGES

    Ou, Shiqi; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Aaron, Douglas S.; ...

    2016-03-10

    This research adopted the version control system into the model construction for the single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, to understand the interrelation of biological, chemical, and electrochemical reactions. The anodic steady state model was used to consider the chemical species diffusion and electric migration influence to the MFC performance. In the cathodic steady state model, the mass transport and reactions in a multi-layer, abiotic cathode and multi-bacteria cathode biofilm were simulated. Transport of hydroxide was assumed for cathodic pH change. This assumption is an alternative to the typical notion of proton consumption during oxygen reduction to explainmore » elevated cathode pH. The cathodic steady state model provided the power density and polarization curve performance results that can be compared to an experimental MFC system. Another aspect we considered was the relative contributions of platinum catalyst and microbes on the cathode to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We found simulation results showed that the biocatalyst in a cathode that includes a Pt/C catalyst likely plays a minor role in ORR, contributing up to 8% of the total power calculated by the models.« less

  2. Multi-variable mathematical models for the air-cathode microbial fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Shiqi; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-05-01

    This research adopted the version control system into the model construction for the single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, to understand the interrelation of biological, chemical, and electrochemical reactions. The anodic steady state model was used to consider the chemical species diffusion and electric migration influence to the MFC performance. In the cathodic steady state model, the mass transport and reactions in a multi-layer, abiotic cathode and multi-bacteria cathode biofilm were simulated. Transport of hydroxide was assumed for cathodic pH change. This assumption is an alternative to the typical notion of proton consumption during oxygen reduction to explain elevated cathode pH. The cathodic steady state model provided the power density and polarization curve performance results that can be compared to an experimental MFC system. Another aspect considered was the relative contributions of platinum catalyst and microbes on the cathode to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Simulation results showed that the biocatalyst in a cathode that includes a Pt/C catalyst likely plays a minor role in ORR, contributing up to 8% of the total power calculated by the models.

  3. Multi-variable mathematical models for the air-cathode microbial fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Shiqi; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-03-10

    This research adopted the version control system into the model construction for the single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, to understand the interrelation of biological, chemical, and electrochemical reactions. The anodic steady state model was used to consider the chemical species diffusion and electric migration influence to the MFC performance. In the cathodic steady state model, the mass transport and reactions in a multi-layer, abiotic cathode and multi-bacteria cathode biofilm were simulated. Transport of hydroxide was assumed for cathodic pH change. This assumption is an alternative to the typical notion of proton consumption during oxygen reduction to explain elevated cathode pH. The cathodic steady state model provided the power density and polarization curve performance results that can be compared to an experimental MFC system. Another aspect we considered was the relative contributions of platinum catalyst and microbes on the cathode to the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We found simulation results showed that the biocatalyst in a cathode that includes a Pt/C catalyst likely plays a minor role in ORR, contributing up to 8% of the total power calculated by the models.

  4. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  5. Electrolytic hydrogen fuel production with solid polymer electrolyte technology.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titterington, W. A.; Fickett, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A water electrolysis technology based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) concept is presented for applicability to large-scale hydrogen production in a future energy system. High cell current density operation is selected for the application, and supporting cell test performance data are presented. Demonstrated cell life data are included to support the adaptability of the SPE system to large-size hydrogen generation utility plants as needed for bulk energy storage or transmission. The inherent system advantages of the acid SPE electrolysis technology are explained. System performance predictions are made through the year 2000, along with plant capital and operating cost projections.

  6. Market share elasticities for fuel and technology choice in home heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.J.; Ruderman, H.; McMahon, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    A new technique for estimating own- and cross-elasticities of market share for fuel and technology choices in home heating and cooling is presented. We simulate changes in economic conditions and estimate elasticities by calculating predicted changes in fuel and technology market shares. Elasticities are found with respect to household income, equipment capital cost, and equipment capital cost, and equipment operating cost (including fuel price). The method is applied to a revised and extended version of a study by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Data for that study are drawn primarily from the 1975--1979 Annual Housing Surveys. Results are generally similar to previous studies, although our estimates of elasticities are somewhat lower. We feel the superior formulation of consumer choice and the currency of data in EPRI's work produce reliable estimates of market share elasticities. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  8. Teaching Students about Clean Fuels and Transportation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Joe; Carpenter, Pam Page

    2009-01-01

    Regardless of a person's convictions and belief system, science has provided a body of knowledge that points to human interaction with nature as being the leading cause of pollution and a variable to the cause of global warming. Technology teachers are part of the global solution for educating a greater public about energy inputs, processes, and…

  9. A multi-perspective review of microbial fuel-cells for wastewater treatment: Bio-electro-chemical, microbiologic and modeling aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capodaglio, Andrea G.; Molognoni, Daniele; Pons, Anna Vilajeliu

    2016-07-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) represent a still novel technology for the recovery of energy and resources through wastewater treatment. Although the technology is quite appealing, due its potential benefits, its practical application is still hampered by several drawbacks, such as systems instability (especially when attempting to scale-up reactors from laboratory prototype), internally competing microbial reactions, and limited power generation. This paper is an attempt to address several of the operational issues related to MFCs application to wastewater treatment, in particular when dealing with simultaneous organic matter and nitrogen pollution control. Reactor configuration, operational schemes, electrochemical and microbiological characterization, optimization methods and modelling strategies are reviewed and discussed with a multidisciplinary, multi-perspective approach. The conclusions drawn herein can be of practical interest for all MFC researchers dealing with domestic or industrial wastewater treatment..

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: UTC FUEL CELLS' PC25C POWER PLANT - GAS PROCESSING UNIT PERFORMANCE FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system based on the UTC Fuel Cell's PC25C Fuel Cell Power Plant was evaluated. The...

  11. Motor Transportation Technology: Automechanics. [Fuel and Exhaust System.] Block VII. A-VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Instructional materials on fuel and exhaust systems are provided for an auto mechanics course in the motor transportation technology program. Instructor's plans are provided for five units. Each unit consists of instructional and manipulative lessons. The format of an instructional lesson is as follows: the subject, aim, a listing of teaching aids…

  12. 75 FR 36648 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies Subcommittee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting correction. On June 21, 2010,...

  13. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1982-10-01

    This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

  14. Status of Fuel Development and Manufacturing for Space Nuclear Reactors at BWX Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W.J.; Husser, D.L.; Mohr, T.C.; Richardson, W.C.

    2004-02-04

    New advanced nuclear space propulsion systems will soon seek a high temperature, stable fuel form. BWX Technologies Inc (BWXT) has a long history of fuel manufacturing. UO2, UCO, and UCx have been fabricated at BWXT for various US and international programs. Recent efforts at BWXT have focused on establishing the manufacturing techniques and analysis capabilities needed to provide a high quality, high power, compact nuclear reactor for use in space nuclear powered missions. To support the production of a space nuclear reactor, uranium nitride has recently been manufactured by BWXT. In addition, analytical chemistry and analysis techniques have been developed to provide verification and qualification of the uranium nitride production process. The fabrication of a space nuclear reactor will require the ability to place an unclad fuel form into a clad structure for assembly into a reactor core configuration. To this end, BWX Technologies has reestablished its capability for machining, GTA welding, and EB welding of refractory metals. Specifically, BWX Technologies has demonstrated GTA welding of niobium flat plate and EB welding of niobium and Nb-1Zr tubing. In performing these demonstration activities, BWX Technologies has established the necessary infrastructure to manufacture UO2, UCx, or UNx fuel, components, and complete reactor assemblies in support of space nuclear programs.

  15. Developments of Spent Nuclear Fuel Pyroprocessing Technology at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Simpson

    2012-03-01

    This paper summarizes research in used fuel pyroprocessing that has been published by Idaho National Laboratory over the last decade. It includes work done both on treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II and development of advanced technology for potential scale-up and commercialization. Collaborations with universities and other laboratories is included in the cited work.

  16. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  17. Technology gap analysis on sodium-cooled reactor fuel handling system supporting advanced burner reactor development.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Farmer, M.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand in an environmentally sustainable manner, to address nuclear waste management issues without making separated plutonium, and to address nonproliferation concerns. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) is a fast reactor concept which supports the GNEP fuel cycle system. Since the integral fast reactor (IFR) and advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) projects were terminated in 1994, there has been no major development on sodium-cooled fast reactors in the United States. Therefore, in support of the GNEP fast reactor program, the history of sodium-cooled reactor development was reviewed to support the initiation of this technology within the United States and to gain an understanding of the technology gaps that may still remain for sodium fast reactor technology. The fuel-handling system is a key element of any fast reactor design. The major functions of this system are to receive, test, store, and then load fresh fuel into the core; unload from the core; then clean, test, store, and ship spent fuel. Major requirements are that the system must be reliable and relatively easy to maintain. In addition, the system should be designed so that it does not adversely impact plant economics from the viewpoints of capital investment or plant operations. In this gap analysis, information on fuel-handling operating experiences in the following reactor plants was carefully reviewed: EBR-I, SRE, HNPF, Fermi, SEFOR, FFTF, CRBR, EBR-II, DFR, PFR, Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, KNK, SNR-300, Joyo, and Monju. The results of this evaluation indicate that a standardized fuel-handling system for a commercial fast reactor is yet to be established. However, in the past sodium-cooled reactor plants, most major fuel-handling components-such as the rotatable plug, in-vessel fuel-handling machine, ex-vessel fuel transportation cask, ex-vessel sodium-cooled storage

  18. High power density alkaline fuel cell technology for MMW space burst power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, J. Lawrence, Jr.; Trocciola, John C.; Wertheim, Ronald J.

    The use of advanced alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems to provide 10's to 100's of MWe of sprint (burst) power for 100's of seconds per orbit of SDI weapons platform was studied. Recharge power is supplied by a multimegawatt space based nuclear power system. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems offer the potential for significant platform mass reduction by reducing the size and mass of the nuclear power source required. This is because the reactor can be sized for the smaller average power level for the energy storage system, rather than the sprint power level. The regenerative fuel cell is a particularly attractive energy storage device because the fuel cell is essentially a static power conversion device, which results in excellent platform stability for weapon pointing and tracking. Based upon the detailed point design and conceptual layout, the alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system is an attractive choice for integration with a nuclear thermionic system for providing multimegawatt burst power and multi orbit capability.

  19. Broad Specification Fuels Combustion Technology Program. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    128 7.2.7 Combustion Stability 131 7.3 Modifications to the Variable Geometry Combustor Concept 131 7.3.1 Initial Variable Geometry Combustor...implied that combustion was being restricted to areas close to the liners. Based on these observations it was evident that the fundamental concept of...these concepts represent advanced technology approaches that are more likely to find application in future engines rather than in retrofit into older

  20. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, C. L.; Davis, C. L.; Dayton, J. E.; Johnson, C. K.; Katz, M.; Krasij, M.; Kunz, H. R.; Maricle, D. L.; Meyer, A. P.; Pivar, J. C.

    1984-09-01

    A prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of a 1990's-competitive, coal-fired electrical utility central station, or industrial cogeneration power plant was developed. Compressive creep testing of the present anode is continuedl the samples and support the earlier data showing improved creep resistance. Testing to define the operating limits that are suitable for extending the life of nickel oxide cathodes to an acceptable level is continuing. The mechanical characteristics of several one-piece cathode current collector candidates are measured for suitability. Metallographic evaluation of stack separators was initiated. Posttest characterization of surface treated INCO 825 was completed, retort corrosion testing of this material is continuing, potentiostatic immersion testing of alternative single piece cathode current collector materials is initiated. The 20-cell Stack No. 3 progressed from completion and delivery of the Test Plan through Design Review, assembly, and initial heat-up for the start of testing. Manufacture of separator plates for the upcoming 20-cell Stack No. 4 has begun. The primary objective of this follow-on test is stack cost reduction.

  1. Raw materials and technology fuel U.S. economic growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    In 1900, the average U.S. citizen's average life span was 47 years. He traveled about 1,900 km (1,200 miles) in a lifetime and resided in a home with an icebox for food storage and oil or gas for lighting. He communicated by mail, telegraph and crude telephones with limited availability and range. By 2000, the average citizen's life span was 77 years. He traveled an average of 19,000 km/a (12,000 miles/ year) by automobile alone. He resided in a home with many electrical appliances, including refrigerators and electric lights. And the communicated almost instantaneously with any other part of the globe by several widely available means, including portable phones and e-mail. Technology, the application of knowledge about the Earth's materials, their extraction and fabrication into products, helped create this change. Throughout the 20th century, the United States was a leader in technology. Automobiles, refrigerators, electric lighting, telephones and personal computers are only a few examples of the products invented and improved or further developed by American technology (National Academy of Engineering, 2000).

  2. Advances in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    The design, materials and fabrication processes for the earlier technology Westinghouse tubular geometry cell have been described in detail previously. In that design, the active cell components were deposited in the form of thin layers on a ceramic porous support tube (PST). The tubular design of these cells and the materials used therein have been validated by successful electrical testing for over 65,000 h (>7 years). In these early technology PST cells, the support tube, although sufficiently porous, presented an inherent impedance to air flow toward air electrode. In order to reduce such impedance to air flow, the wall thickness of the PST was first decreased from the original 2 mm (the thick-wall PST) to 1.2 mm (the thin-wall PST). The calcia-stabilized zirconia support tube has now been completely eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite tube in state-of-the-art SOFCs. This doped lanthanum manganite tube is extruded and sintered to about 30 to 35 percent porosity, and serves as the air electrode onto which the other cell components are fabricated in thin layer form. These latest technology cells are designated as air electrode supported (AES) cells.

  3. Multi-phase micro-scale flow simulation in the electrodes of a PEM fuel cell by lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Li, X.

    The gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a porous medium generally made of carbon cloth or paper. The gas diffusion layer has been modeled conventionally as a homogeneous porous medium with a constant permeability in the literature of PEM fuel cell. However, in fact, the permeability of such fibrous porous medium is strongly affected by the fiber orientation having non-isotropic permeability. In this work, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is applied to the multi-phase flow phenomenon in the inhomogeneous gas diffusion layer of a PEM fuel cell. The inhomogeneous porous structure of the carbon cloth and carbon paper has been modeled as void space and porous area using Stokes/Brinkman formulation and void space and impermeable fiber distributions obtained from various microscopic images. The permeability of the porous medium is calculated and compared to the experimental measurements in literature showing a good agreement. Simulation results for various fiber distributions indicate that the permeability of the medium is strongly influenced by the effect of fiber orientation. Present lattice Boltzmann flow models are applied to the multi-phase flow simulations by incorporating multi-component LB model with inter-particle interaction forces. The model successfully simulates the complicated unsteady behaviors of liquid droplet motion in the porous medium providing a useful tool to investigate the mechanism of liquid water accumulation/removal in a gas diffusion layer of a PEM fuel cell.

  4. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    PubMed

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ < 0.1) for all fuels over the FTP cycle. Aerosol emitted during filter regeneration is significantly more CCN active and hygroscopic; average κ values range from 0.242 to 0.439 and are as high as 0.843. Regardless of fuel, the current classification of "fresh" tailpipe emissions as nonhygroscopic remains true during nonregeneration operation. However, aftertreatment technologies such as DPF, will produce significantly more hygroscopic particles during regeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant enhancement of hygroscopic materials emitted during DPF regeneration of on-road diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  5. Fuel Economy Regulations and Efficiency Technology Improvements in U.S. Cars Since 1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Donald Warren

    Light-duty vehicles account for 43% of petroleum consumption and 23% of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are the primary policy tool addressing petroleum consumption in the U.S., and are set to tighten substantially through 2025. In this dissertation, I address several interconnected questions on the technical, policy, and market aspects of fuel consumption reduction. I begin by quantifying historic improvements in fuel efficiency technologies since the 1970s. First. I develop a linear regression model of acceleration performance conditional on power, weight, powertrain, and body characteristics, showing that vehicles today accelerate 20-30% faster than vehicles with similar specifications in the 1970s. Second, I find that growing use of alternative materials and a switch to more weight-efficient vehicle architectures since 1975 have cut the weight of today's new cars by approximately 790 kg (46%). Integrating these results with model-level specification data, I estimate that the average fuel economy of new cars could have tripled from 1975-2009, if not for changes in performance, size, and features over this period. The pace of improvements was not uniform, averaging 5% annually from 1975-1990, but only 2% annually since then. I conclude that the 2025 standards can be met through improvements in efficiency technology, if we can return to 1980s rates of improvement, and growth in acceleration performance and feature content is curtailed. I next test the hypotheses that higher fuel prices and more stringent CAFE standards cause automotive firms to deploy efficiency technologies more rapidly. I find some evidence that higher fuel prices cause more rapid changes in technology, but little to no evidence that tighter CAFE standards increase rates of technology change. I conclude that standards alone, without continued high gasoline prices, may not drive technology improvements at rates needed to meet the 2025

  6. Development of Sensors and Sensing Technology for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, E L; Sekhar, P K; Mukundan, R; Williamson, T; Garzon, F H; Woo, L Y; Glass, R R

    2010-01-06

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features. Some of these devices (e.g. yaw sensors for dynamic stability control systems or tire presure warning RF-based devices) may be used on fuel cell vehicles without any modification. However the use of hydrogen as a fuel will dictate the development of completely new technologies for such requirements as the detection of hydrogen leaks, sensors and systems to continuously monitor hydrogen fuel purity and protect the fuel cell stack from poisoning, and for the important, yet often taken for granted, tasks such as determining the state of charge of the hydrogen fuel storage and delivery system. Two such sensors that rely on different transduction mechanisms will be highlighted in this presentation. The first is an electrochemical device for monitoring hydrogen levels in air. The other technology covered in this work, is an acoustic-based approach to determine the state of charge of a hydride storage system.

  7. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of a 1990's-competitive, coal-fired, electrical utility central station, or industrial cogeneration power plant. Fabrication of the cell components to be used in the 100-cell stack was completed successfully. Compressive creep of the anode to be used in the 100-cell stack was measured through 720 hours of testing at 1300(0)F. The data continue to support the creep resistance of this component. Anode and bubble barrier pore spectra data obtained after aging at 1300F confirmed the sintering resistance of these components. A parametric study of candidate separator material data obtained from retort corrosion tests was completed. Based on the study, cell testing of treated INCO 825 was begun. A 1000 hour cell test of Ni-201/316SS at accelerated test conditions showed no failure of this separator plate material. Single cell tests to evaluate Co-based and Ti-based alternate cathode materials were conducted. The cell test performance data and post test chemical analysis show both materials are unstable. Cell testing of a doped Fe-based cathode showed a reaction with the matrix used. A repeat test using a different matrix material is planned. Testing of the 20-cell Subscale Stack was completed on schedule following 2000 hours of operation. A post test analysis was begun in order to correlate the diagnostic test data with the physical evidence of component stability, including electrolyte containment.

  8. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell technology at M-C Power Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, D.

    1996-04-01

    M-C Power Corporation was founded in 1987 with the mission to further develop and subsequently commercialize molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). The technology chosen for commercialization was initially developed by the Institute of Gas technology (IGT). At the center of this MCFC technology is the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchange (IMHEX) separator plate design. The IMHEX technology design provides several functions within one component assembly. These functions include integrating the gas manifold structure into the fuel cell stack, separating the fuel gas stream from the oxidant gas stream, providing the required electrical contact between cells to achieve desired power output, and removing excess heat generated in the electrochemical process. Development of this MCFC technology from lab-scale sizes too a commercial area size of 1m{sup 2} has focused our efforts an demonstrating feasibility and evolutionary progress. The development effort will culminate in a proof-of-concept- 250kW power plant demonstration in 1996. The remainder of our commercialization program focuses upon lowering the costs associated with the MCFC power plant system in low production volumes.

  9. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; ...

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared tomore » current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.« less

  10. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Kaul, Brian C.; Domingo, Norberto; Parks, II, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared to current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.

  11. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  12. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  13. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Portfolio Management 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for program portfolio management, including the program portfolio management process, program analysis, performance assessment, stakeholder interactions, and cross-cutting issues.

  14. Multi-Objective Optimization of an In situ Bioremediation Technology to Treat Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation shows how a multi-objective optimization method is integrated into a transport simulator (MT3D) for estimating parameters and cost of in-situ bioremediation technology to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater.

  15. Development of Multi-Adaptive Simulation Technologies for Nonlinear Solid Polymer Viscoelasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-31

    2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of multi-adaptive simulation technologies for nonlinear solid polymer viscoelasticity 6. AUTHOR(S) J.R. Whiteman...Close out report (funding period 1 April 2007 – 31 July 2007) Development of multi-adaptive simulation technologies for nonlinear solid polymer ...equations describing the inflation of a hyperelastic membrane. With U denoting the exact displacement and V denoting the exact velocity the weak forms

  16. Technology issues associated with fueling the national aerospace plane with slush hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, Ned P.

    1988-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane is a horizontal takeoff and landing, single stage-to-orbit vehicle using hydrogen fuel. The first flights are planned for the mid 1990's. The success of this important national program requires advances in virtually every discipline associated with both airbreathing and space flight. The high heating value, cooling capacity, and combustion properties make hydrogen the fuel of choice, but low density results in a large vehicle. Both fuel cooling capacity and density are increased with the use of slush hydrogen and result in significant reductions in vehicle size. A national program to advance this technology and to find engineering solutions to the many design issues is now under way. The program uses the expertise of the cryogenics production and services industry, the instrumentation industry, universities and governments. The program will be discussed to highlight the major issues and display progress to date.

  17. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides information on the progress of activities during fiscal year 1993 in the Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a new program, efforts are just getting underway toward addressing major issues related to the fuel and waste stored at the ICPP. The SF&WMTDP has the following principal objectives: Investigate direct dispositioning of spent fuel, striving for one acceptable waste form; determine the best treatment process(es) for liquid and calcine wastes to minimize the volume of high level radioactive waste (HLW) and low level waste (LLW); demonstrate the integrated operability and maintainability of selected treatment and immobilization processes; and assure that implementation of the selected waste treatment process is environmentally acceptable, ensures public and worker safety, and is economically feasible.

  18. A New, Scalable and Low Cost Multi-Channel Monitoring System for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Antonio José; González, Isaías; Calderón, Manuel; Segura, Francisca; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-03-09

    In this work a new, scalable and low cost multi-channel monitoring system for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs) has been designed, constructed and experimentally validated. This developed monitoring system performs non-intrusive voltage measurement of each individual cell of a PEFC stack and it is scalable, in the sense that it is capable to carry out measurements in stacks from 1 to 120 cells (from watts to kilowatts). The developed system comprises two main subsystems: hardware devoted to data acquisition (DAQ) and software devoted to real-time monitoring. The DAQ subsystem is based on the low-cost open-source platform Arduino and the real-time monitoring subsystem has been developed using the high-level graphical language NI LabVIEW. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for PEFC monitoring systems. An original amplifying and multiplexing board has been designed to increase the Arduino input port availability. Data storage and real-time monitoring have been performed with an easy-to-use interface. Graphical and numerical visualization allows a continuous tracking of cell voltage. Scalability, flexibility, easy-to-use, versatility and low cost are the main features of the proposed approach. The system is described and experimental results are presented. These results demonstrate its suitability to monitor the voltage in a PEFC at cell level.

  19. A New, Scalable and Low Cost Multi-Channel Monitoring System for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Antonio José; González, Isaías; Calderón, Manuel; Segura, Francisca; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this work a new, scalable and low cost multi-channel monitoring system for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs) has been designed, constructed and experimentally validated. This developed monitoring system performs non-intrusive voltage measurement of each individual cell of a PEFC stack and it is scalable, in the sense that it is capable to carry out measurements in stacks from 1 to 120 cells (from watts to kilowatts). The developed system comprises two main subsystems: hardware devoted to data acquisition (DAQ) and software devoted to real-time monitoring. The DAQ subsystem is based on the low-cost open-source platform Arduino and the real-time monitoring subsystem has been developed using the high-level graphical language NI LabVIEW. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for PEFC monitoring systems. An original amplifying and multiplexing board has been designed to increase the Arduino input port availability. Data storage and real-time monitoring have been performed with an easy-to-use interface. Graphical and numerical visualization allows a continuous tracking of cell voltage. Scalability, flexibility, easy-to-use, versatility and low cost are the main features of the proposed approach. The system is described and experimental results are presented. These results demonstrate its suitability to monitor the voltage in a PEFC at cell level. PMID:27005630

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Stationary Power Application Project

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Pierre

    2009-03-05

    The objectives of this program were to: (1) Develop a reliable, cost-effective, and production-friendly technique to apply the power-enhancing layer at the interface of the air electrode and electrolyte of the Siemens SOFC; (2) Design, build, install, and operate in the field two 5 kWe SOFC systems fabricated with the state-of-the-art cylindrical, tubular cell and bundle technology and incorporating advanced module design features. Siemens successfully demonstrated, first in a number of single cell tests and subsequently in a 48-cell bundle test, a significant power enhancement by employing a power-enhancing composite interlayer at the interface between the air electrode and electrolyte. While successful from a cell power enhancement perspective, the interlayer application process was not suitable for mass manufacturing. The application process was of inconsistent quality, labor intensive, and did not have an acceptable yield. This program evaluated the technical feasibility of four interlayer application techniques. The candidate techniques were selected based on their potential to achieve the technical requirements of the interlayer, to minimize costs (both labor and material), and suitably for large-scale manufacturing. Preliminary screening, utilizing lessons learned in manufacturing tubular cells, narrowed the candidate processes to two, ink-roller coating (IRC) and dip coating (DC). Prototype fixtures were successfully built and utilized to further evaluate the two candidate processes for applying the interlayer to the high power density Delta8 cell geometry. The electrical performance of interlayer cells manufactured via the candidate processes was validated. Dip coating was eventually selected as the application technique of choice for applying the interlayer to the high power Delta8 cell. The technical readiness of the DC process and product quality was successfully and repeatedly demonstrated, and its throughput and cost are amenable to large scale

  1. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Psarras, P. C.; Ball, D. W.; Timko, M. T.; Wong, H.-W.; Peck, J.; Chianelli, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these non-traditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and hydrogen) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activity are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  2. Novel Catalysts and Processing Technologies for Production of Aerospace Fuels from Non-Petroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Psarras, Peter C.; Ball, David W.; Timko, Michael T.; Wong, Hsi-Wu; Peck, Jay; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation fuels production (including aerospace propellants) from non-traditional sources (gases, waste materials, and biomass) has been an active area of research and development for decades. Reducing terrestrial waste streams simultaneous with energy conversion, plentiful biomass, new low-cost methane sources, and/or extra-terrestrial resource harvesting and utilization present significant technological and business opportunities being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. We examine several new approaches to catalyst fabrication and new processing technologies to enable utilization of these nontraditional raw materials. Two basic processing architectures are considered: a single-stage pyrolysis approach that seeks to basically re-cycle hydrocarbons with minimal net chemistry or a two-step paradigm that involves production of supply or synthesis gas (mainly carbon oxides and H2) followed by production of fuel(s) via Sabatier or methanation reactions and/or Fischer-Tröpsch synthesis. Optimizing the fraction of product stream relevant to targeted aerospace (and other transportation) fuels via modeling, catalyst fabrication and novel reactor design are described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels for either terrestrial or space operations; renewable sources based on solar energy and/or energy efficient processes may be mission enabling. Another important issue is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those potentially posing risks to personnel or operations through (catalyst) poisoning or (equipment) damage. Technologies being developed to remove (and/or recycle) heteroatom impurities are briefly discussed as well as the development of chemically robust catalysts whose activities are not diminished during operation. The potential impacts on future missions by such new approaches as well as balance of system issues are addressed.

  3. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire.

  4. JV Task 75 - Lignite Fuel Enhancement via Air-Jigging Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Lamb; Steven Benson; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-03-01

    Several North Dakota lignite coals from the Falkirk Mine were processed in a 5-ton-per-hour dry coal-cleaning plant. The plant uses air-jigging technology to separate undesirable ash constituents as well as sulfur and mercury. The results of this study indicate average ash, sulfur, and mercury reductions on a weight basis of 15%, 22%, and 28%, respectively. The average heating value was increased by 2% on a Btu/lb basis. Two computer models were used to understand the impact of a cleaned fuel on boiler performance: PCQUEST{reg_sign} and Vista. The PCQUEST model indicated improvements in slagging and fouling potential when cleaned coals are used over feed coals. The Vista model was set up to simulate coal performance and economics at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station. In all cases, the cleaned fuel performed better than the original feed coal, with economic benefits being realized for all fuels tested. The model also indicated that one fuel considered to be unusable before cleaning was transformed into a potentially salable product. While these data indicate full-scale implementation of air-jigging technology may be beneficial to the mine and the plant, complete economic analysis, including payback period, is needed to make the final decision to implement.

  5. Neutronic Analyses for HEU to LEU fuel conversion of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E. H.; Newton, T. H.; Bergeron, A.; Horelik, N.; Stevens, J. G

    2011-03-02

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) reactor (MITR-II), based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a research reactor designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on a mixture of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of compact high performance reactors like the MITR-II. This report presents the results of steady state neutronic safety analyses for conversion of MITR-II from the use of HEU fuel to the use of U-Mo LEU fuel. The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the safety analyses meet current requirements for an LEU core replacement of MITR-II.

  6. Optimal energy management in a dual-storage fuel-cell hybrid vehicle using multi-dimensional dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansarey, Mehdi; Shariat Panahi, Masoud; Ziarati, Hussein; Mahjoob, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid storage systems consisting of battery and ultra-capacitor have recently emerged as an alternative to the conventional single buffer layout in hybrid vehicles. Their high power and energy density could improve the performance indices of the vehicle, provided that an optimal energy management strategy is employed that could handle systems with multiple degrees of freedom (DOF). The majority of existing energy management strategies is limited to a single DOF and the small body of work on multi-DOF systems is mainly heuristic-based. We propose an optimal solution to the energy management problem in fuel-cell hybrid vehicles with dual storage buffer for fuel economy in a standard driving cycle using multi-dimensional dynamic programming (MDDP). An efficient MDDP code is developed using MATLAB™'s vectorization feature that helps reduce the inherently high computational cost of MDDP. Results of multiple simulated experiments are presented to demonstrate the applicability and performance of the proposed strategy. A comparison is also made between a single and a double buffer fuel-cell hybrid vehicle in various driving cycles to determine the maximum reduction in fuel consumption that can be achieved by the addition of an ultra-capacitor.

  7. COMPENDIUM: SURVEYS EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS CONCERNING HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, Lorena Faith; Cooper, Christy; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2008-10-01

    This compendium updates a 2003 literature review of surveys of knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Its purpose is to ensure that results of comparable surveys are considered in surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Over twice as many studies related to the DOE survey have been published since 2003 than prior to that date. The fact that there have been significantly more studies implies that there have been further demonstration projects and/or increased interest in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The primary findings of these 15 new surveys, all of which were conducted in Europe (E) or North America (NA), to the DOE surveys are as follows: 1.Respondents who are more educated are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (NA). 2.Respondents who are more knowledgeable about hydrogen and/or fuel cells are more accepting of hydrogen technologies (E, NA). 3.When asked about issues of trust, respondents generally expressed distrust of the government or political parties but trusted scientists and environmental protection organizations (E). 4.Technical knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies is low (E, NA). 5.Respondents may express opinions about a technology even when they are lacking in knowledge of that technology (E). 6.Women and men have different priorities when deciding on an automobile purchase (E). 7.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of decreased safety (E, NA). 8.Public acceptance to hydrogen is vulnerable to perceptions of increased cost (E, NA). The DOE surveys are similar to surveys that examine technical knowledge of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, although the technical questions are certainly different. The DOE surveys are also similar to the opinion surveys in that they address many of the same issues, such as safety, sources of energy information, or trust. There are many differences between the surveys reviewed in this compendium and the DOE surveys. The

  8. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Proof of concept simulations of the Multi-Isotope Process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near-real-time safeguards monitor for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard N.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency will require the development of advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of nondestructive, near-real-time, autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes recent results from model simulations designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) monitor, a novel addition to a safeguards system for reprocessing facilities. The MIP monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in near-real-time. Three computer models including ORIGEN-ARP, AMUSE, and SYNTH were used in series to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate element partitioning during separation, and simulate spectra from product and raffinate streams using a variety of gamma detectors, respectively. Simulations were generated for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup, and cooling time. Hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least squares (PLS) were also used in the analysis. The MIP monitor was found to be sensitive to induced variations of several operating parameters including distinguishing ±2.5% variation from normal process acid concentrations. The ability of PLS to predict burnup levels from simulated spectra was also demonstrated to be within 3.5% of measured values.

  10. Factors That Facilitate Or Hinder Fuel-Saving Initiatives and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) David Henton, Kurtis Noack 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA ...has sought after both behavioral and technological changes to combat this ( Amos , 2012). The amplified dependence on fuel introduces additional costs...Learning Security, 3(1/2), 226–235. Amos , J. F. (2012). 2012 report to the House Armed Services Committee on the posture of the United States Marine

  11. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. transportation sector produces nearly one-third of total U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Among various transportation control strategies evaluated in the U.S., use of vehicles fueled with alternative fuels has been proposed to help solve urban air pollution problems, reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and reduce transportation GHG emissions. GHG emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles depend on type of fuels used, type of primary energy sources used to produce the fuels, and energy efficiencies of vehicles and up-stream energy production activities. Past studies have shown widely-varied, sometimes contradicting, results of GHG emissions by alternative-fueled vehicles. A fuel-cycle model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to estimate fuel-cycle emissions and energy consumption of various alternative-fueled vehicles. The model, called Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET), calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methanol, and nitrous oxide). In this paper, the GREET will be used to estimate fuel-cycle GHG emission impacts of near-term and long-term alternative-fueled vehicle technology options.

  12. A Multi-Layered Ceramic Composite for Impermeable Fuel Cladding for COmmercial Wate Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Feinroth, Herbert

    2008-03-03

    A triplex nuclear fuel cladding is developed to further improve the passive safety of commercial nuclear plants, to increase the burnup and durablity of nuclear fuel, to improve the power density and economics of nuclear power, and to reduce the amount of spent fuel requiring disposal or recycle.

  13. Multi terabits/s optical access transport technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh, Le Nguyen; Wang Tao, Thomas; Livshits, Daniil; Gubenko, Alexey; Karinou, Fotini; Liu Ning, Gordon; Shkolnik, Alexey

    2016-02-01

    Tremendous efforts have been developed for multi-Tbps over ultra-long distance and metro and access optical networks. With the exponential increase demand on data transmission, storage and serving, especially the 5G wireless access scenarios, the optical Internet networking has evolved to data-center based optical networks pressuring on novel and economical access transmission systems. This paper reports (1) Experimental platforms and transmission techniques employing band-limited optical components operating at 10G for 100G based at 28G baud. Advanced modulation formats such as PAM-4, DMT, duo-binary etc are reported and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed so as to achieve multi-Tbps optical transmission systems for access inter- and intra- data-centered-based networks; (2) Integrated multi-Tbps combining comb laser sources and micro-ring modulators meeting the required performance for access systems are reported. Ten-sub-carrier quantum dot com lasers are employed in association with wideband optical intensity modulators to demonstrate the feasibility of such sources and integrated micro-ring modulators acting as a combined function of demultiplexing/multiplexing and modulation, hence compactness and economy scale. Under the use of multi-level modulation and direct detection at 56 GBd an aggregate of higher than 2Tbps and even 3Tbps can be achieved by interleaved two comb lasers of 16 sub-carrier lines; (3) Finally the fundamental designs of ultra-compacts flexible filters and switching integrated components based on Si photonics for multi Tera-bps active interconnection are presented. Experimental results on multi-channels transmissions and performances of optical switching matrices and effects on that of data channels are proposed.

  14. A manufacturing method for multi-layer polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced manufacturing technology which provides multi-layered polysilicon surface micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, the addition of another design layer to a 4 levels process to create a 5 levels process allows consideration of fundamentally new architecture in designs for weapon advanced surety components.

  15. Multi-User Virtual Environments for Learning: Experience and Technology Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, N.; Bucciero, A.; Mainetti, L.; Paolini, P.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) are often used to support learning in formal and informal educational contexts. A technology-based educational experience consists of several elements: content, syllabus, roles, sequence of activities, assignments, assessment procedures, etc. that must be aligned with the affordances of the technologies to…

  16. Hydrocarbon emission fingerprints from contemporary vehicle/engine technologies with conventional and new fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Larisse; Duane, Matthew; Manfredi, Urbano; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Carriero, Massimo; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, B. R.

    2010-06-01

    The present paper presents results from the analysis of 29 individual C 2-C 9 hydrocarbons (HCs) specified in the European Commission Ozone Directive. The 29 HCs are measured in exhaust from common, contemporary vehicle/engine/fuel technologies for which very little or no data is available in the literature. The obtained HC emission fingerprints are compared with fingerprints deriving from technologies that are being phased out in Europe. Based on the total of 138 emission tests, thirteen type-specific fingerprints are extracted (Mean ± SD percentage contributions from individual HCs to the total mass of the 29 HCs), essential for receptor modelling source apportionment. The different types represent exhaust from Euro3 and Euro4 light-duty (LD) diesel and petrol-vehicles, Euro3 heavy-duty (HD) diesel exhaust, and exhaust from 2-stroke preEuro, Euro1 and Euro2 mopeds. The fuels comprise liquefied petroleum gas, petrol/ethanol blends (0-85% ethanol), and mineral diesel in various blends (0-100%) with fatty acid methyl esters, rapeseed methyl esters palm oil methyl esters, soybean oil methyl or sunflower oil methyl esters. Type-specific tracer compounds (markers) are identified for the various vehicle/engine/fuel technologies. An important finding is an insignificant effect on the HC fingerprints of varying the test driving cycle, indicating that combining HC fingerprints from different emission studies for receptor modelling purposes would be a robust approach. The obtained results are discussed in the context of atmospheric ozone formation and health implications from emissions (mg km -1 for LD and mopeds and mg kW h -1 for HD, all normalised to fuel consumption: mg dm -3 fuel) of the harmful HCs, benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Another important finding is a strong linear correlation of the regulated "total" hydrocarbon emissions (tot-HC) with the ozone formation potential of the 29 HCs (ΣPO 3 = (1.66 ± 0.04) × tot-RH; r2 = 0.93). Tot-HC is routinely monitored in

  17. A High-temperature Sealing Technology for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Timothy Z.; Tan, Chufu; Liu, Bob; Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

    2009-09-01

    A reliable, cost-effective high-temperature sealing technology for the joining of ceramic components to metallic structures is critical to the successful development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this paper, our latest development of a novel reactive air brazing (RAB) technology will be presented. This RAB technology uses Ag-CuO as the base braze composition with a variety of additional elements. With a proper processing control, the resultant sealing technology is capable of providing a high-temperature sealing with sufficient chemical inertness, thermal reliability, and bonding strength. We will present in this paper our latest studies on the composition design/synthesis of braze filler materials, and the characterizations including wettability, microstructure, and mechanical properties, as well as a preliminary numerical simulation addressing the residual stress generated during the processing.

  18. Technology evaluation for a waste-fuel-based circulating fluidized-bed project

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.

    1994-12-31

    A comparative technology evaluation is made of competing technologies - pulverized coal (PC), stoker-fired and circulating fluidized-bed boilers - for firing high-ash waste coal. Operating experience from Ukraine and India indicates that PC-fired boilers burning high-ash waste coal can be repowered with circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology. This has been necessary due to poor boiler availability, equipment deterioration, ash content variation in the fuel, and increasingly stringent emissions regulations. Due to these considerations, CFB technology was selected for Ebensburg Power Company`s high-ash waste coal project. The 55 MW B&W CFB boiler at Ebensburg Power, Pennsylvania, USA has successfully fired high-ash waste coal since May 1991. Operating experience of the Ebensburg CFB boiler, including availability, maintenance, and emissions is discussed.

  19. Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

  20. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  1. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  2. Pentexonomy: A Multi-Dimensional Taxonomy of Educational Online Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuapawa, Kimberley; Sher, William; Gu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Educational online technologies (EOTs) have revolutionised the delivery of online education, making a large contribution towards the global increase in demand for higher learning. Educationalists have striven to adapt through knowledge development and application of online tools, but making educationally sound choices about technology has proved…

  3. Technology to Enhance Learning in the Multi-Lingual Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, James E.; Hollenbeck, Darina Z.

    2004-01-01

    Research and various studies have showed that using multimedia in the classroom increases creativity, innovation problem solving and improves communication between people. Technology addresses equity and access issues for learners. Technology allows educators to refine teaching strategies and learning processes, and to be more inclusive of all…

  4. Proof of concept experiments of the multi-isotope process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near real-time monitor for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard N.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-01

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the multi-isotope process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to monitoring and safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of ±1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  5. Waste-to-Energy ECIP (Energy Conservation Investment Program) Project. Volume 1: An Analysis of Hydrogen Infrastructure Fuel Cell Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Infrastructure Fuel Cell Technology Gonzalo Perez, Robert Neathammer, Franklin H. Holcomb, Roch A. Ducey , Byung J. Kim, and Fred Louis April 2006 C on...Analysis of Hydrogen Infrastructure Fuel Cell Technology Franklin H. Holcomb, Roch A. Ducey , and Byung J. Kim Construction Engineering Research...assistance in this project. Dr. Tho- mas Hartranft is Chief, CEERD-CF-E, and L. Michael Golish is Chief, CEERD-CF. The associated Technical Director was

  6. Key Technologies for the Development of Fossil Fuels in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R

    2002-11-22

    As the world faces growing economic and environmental challenges, the energy mix that fuels the global economy is undergoing rapid change. Yet how this change will evolve in the future is uncertain. What will be the sources of primary energy in twenty years? In fifty years? In different regions of the globe? How will this energy be utilized? Fossil energy currently supplies about ninety percent of the world's primary energy. In Japan this number is closer to eighty percent. It is clear that fossil energy will be a major supplier of global energy for some time to come, but what is not clear is the types of fossil energy and how it will be utilized. The degree to which the abundant supplies of fossil energy, especially coal, will continue to play a major role will depend on whether technology will provide safe, clean and affordable fuel for electricity and transportation. Technology will not only assist in finding more fossil energy in varying regions of the globe but, most importantly, will play a strong role in efficient utilization and in determining the cost of delivering that energy. Several important questions will have to be answered: (1) Will cost effective technologies be found to burn coal more cleanly? Can this be done with drastically reduced or no emitted carbon? (2) Can enough oil be found outside the Middle East to ensure more adequate and secure supplies to fuel the transportation and industrial needs? (3) Will the transportation sector, so heavily dependent on oil, be fueled on another source? (4) Can enough natural gas be assured from enough secure places to ensure investment in the utilization of this lowest-carbon fossil fuel? (5) What will these options cost in research and in the price of energy? The answers to these and other questions challenge leaders and researchers in the fossil energy industry. A World Energy Council (WEC) study of those technologies that might be key sheds some light on what might happen in terms of a wide range of

  7. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    F. Stodolsky; L. Gaines; A. Vyas

    2000-06-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter.

  8. Analysis of technology options to reduce the fuel consumption of idling trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Vyas, A.

    2000-08-22

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000--3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter.

  9. Powered by technology or powering technology?---Belief-based decision-making in nuclear power and synthetic fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi-Jen

    The overarching question in this study is how and why technical-fixes in energy policy failed. In the post-WWII era, civilian nuclear power and synthetic fuel had both been top priorities on the U.S. national policy agenda during certain periods of time. Nuclear power was promoted and pursued persistently with great urgency for over two decades. In contrast, synthetic fuel policy suffered from boom-and-bust cycles. The juxtaposition of policy histories of nuclear power and synthetic fuel highlights many peculiarities in policymaking. The U.S. government forcefully and consistently endorsed the development of civilian nuclear power for two decades. It adopted policies to establish the competitiveness of civilian nuclear power far beyond what would have occurred under free-market conditions. Even though synthetic fuel was characterized by a similar level of economic potential and technical feasibility, the policy approach toward synthetic fuel was almost the opposite of nuclear power. Political support usually stopped when the development of synthetic fuel technology encountered economic difficulties. The contrast between the unfaltering faith in nuclear power and the indeterminate attitude toward synthetic fuel raises many important questions. I argue that these diverging paths of development can be explained by exploring the dominant government ideology of the time or "ideology of the state" as the sociology literature describes it. The price-determining approach was a result of government preoccupied with fighting the Cold War. The U.S. intentionally idealized and deified nuclear power to serve its Cold War psychological strategy. These psychological maneuverings attached important symbolic meaning to nuclear power. The society-wide enthusiasm and resulting bandwagon market are better understood by taking the role of symbolism in the political arena into account. On the other hand, a "welfare state" ideology that stood behind synthetic fuel was confused

  10. Survey of Collaboration Technologies in Multi-level Security Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-28

    Dickson. 1996. "Teams in Organizations: Recent Research on Performance and Effectiveness". Annual Review of Psychology , 47:307-338. [32] Hall, D.L... Psychology , 94, 2, 535-546. [48] Moore, J.A. (2002). JView: an information visualization paradigm. Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4716, 367-374. In Enabling...date. Multilevel security solutions like the Multi-Layer Access Solution were developed by Gestalt and MAXIM Systems before these companies became

  11. Advances in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology with low-platinum-loading electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Ticianelli, E. A.; Derouin, C. R.; Redondo, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Gemini Space program demonstrated the first major application of fuel cell systems. Solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells were used as auxiliary power sources in the spacecraft. There has been considerable progress in this technology since then, particularly with the substitution of Nafion for the polystyrene sulfonate membrane as the electrolyte. Until recently the performance was good only with high platinum loading (4 mg/sq cm) electrodes. Methods are presented to advance the technology by (1) use of low platinum loading (0.35 mg/sq cm) electrodes; (2) optimization of anode/membrane/cathode interfaces by hot pressing; (3) pressurization of reactant gases, which is most important when air is used as cathodic reactant; and (4) adequate humidification of reactant gases to overcome the water management problem. The high performance of the fuel cell with the low loading of platinum appears to be due to the extension of the three dimensional reaction zone by introduction of a proton conductor, Nafion. This was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry.

  12. Solar thermal technologies as a bridge from fossil fuels to renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Vishwanath Haily; Panse, Sudhir V.; Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B.

    2015-11-01

    Integrating solar thermal systems into Rankine-cycle power plants can be done with minimal modification to the existing infrastructure. This presents an opportunity to introduce these technologies into the commercial space incrementally, to allow engineers to build familiarity with the systems before phasing out fossil-fuel energy with solar electricity. This paper shows that there is no thermodynamic barrier to injecting solar thermal heat into Rankine-cycle plants to offset even up to 50% fossil-fuel combustion with existing technology: with better solar-to-electricity efficiencies than conventionally deployed solar-thermal power plants. This strategy is economically preferable to installing carbon-capture and compression equipment for mitigating an equivalent amount of greenhouse-gas emissions. We suggest that such projects be encouraged by extending the same subsidy/incentives to the solar-thermal fraction of a `solar-aided’ plant that would be offered to a conventionally deployed solar-thermal power plant of similar capacity. Such a policy would prepare the ground for an incremental solar-thermal takeover of fossil-fuel power plants.

  13. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFC's for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-sq cm per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  14. Comparison of exhaust emissions from Swedish environmental classified diesel fuel (MK1) and European Program on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) reference fuel: a chemical and biological characterization, with viewpoints on cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, R; Christensen, A; Törnqvist, M; Ehrenberg, L; Rannug, U; Sjögren, M; Rafter, J; Soontjens, C; Almén, J; Grägg, K

    2001-05-01

    Diesel fuels, classified as environmentally friendly, have been available on the Swedish market since 1991. The Swedish diesel fuel classification is based upon the specification of selected fuel composition and physical properties to reduce potential environmental and health effects from direct human exposure to exhaust. The objective of the present investigation was to compare the most stringent, environmentally classified Swedish diesel fuel (MK1) to the reference diesel fuel used in the "European Program on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies" (EPEFE) program. The study compares measurements of regulated emissions, unregulated emissions, and biological tests from a Volvo truck using these fuels. The regulated emissions from these two fuels (MK1 vs EPEFE) were CO (-2.2%), HC (12%), NOx (-11%), and particulates (-11%). The emissions of aldehydes, alkenes, and carbon dioxide were basically equivalent. The emissions of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 1-nitropyrene were 88% and 98% lower than those of the EPEFE fuel, respectively. The emissions of semi-volatile PAHs and 1-nitropyrene were 77% and 80% lower than those from the EPEFE fuel, respectively. The reduction in mutagenicity of the particle extract varied from -75 to -90%, depending on the tester strain. The reduction of mutagenicity of the semi-volatile extract varied between -40 and -60%. Furthermore, the dioxin receptor binding activity was a factor of 8 times lower in the particle extracts and a factor of 4 times lower in the semi-volatile extract than that of the EPEFE fuel. In conclusion, the MK1 fuel was found to be more environmentally friendly than the EPEFE fuel.

  15. Examination of the costs, benefits and enery conservation aspects of the NASA aircraft fuel conservation technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The costs and benefits of the NASA Aircraft Fuel Conservation Technology Program are discussed. Consideration is given to a present worth analysis of the planned program expenditures, an examination of the fuel savings to be obtained by the year 2005 and the worth of this fuel savings relative to the investment required, a comparison of the program funding with that planned by other Federal agencies for energy conservation, an examination of the private industry aeronautical research and technology financial posture for the period FY 76 - FY 85, and an assessment of the potential impacts on air and noise pollution. To aid in this analysis, a computerized fleet mix forecasting model was developed. This model enables the estimation of fuel consumption and present worth of fuel expenditures for selected commerical aircraft fleet mix scenarios.

  16. Detailed Multi-dimensional Modeling of Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Tseronis, K; Fragkopoulos, I S; Bonis, I; Theodoropoulos, C

    2016-06-01

    Fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and can be attributed to their high operating temperature. Here we consider a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell setup in which a separate fuel reformer is not required. We construct a multidimensional, detailed model of a planar solid oxide fuel cell, where mass transport in the fuel channel is modeled using the Stefan-Maxwell model, whereas the mass transport within the porous electrodes is simulated using the Dusty-Gas model. The resulting highly nonlinear model is built into COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, and is validated against experimental data from the literature. A number of parametric studies is performed to obtain insights on the direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell system behavior and efficiency, to aid the design procedure. It is shown that internal reforming results in temperature drop close to the inlet and that the direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell performance can be enhanced by increasing the operating temperature. It is also observed that decreases in the inlet temperature result in smoother temperature profiles and in the formation of reduced thermal gradients. Furthermore, the direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell performance was found to be affected by the thickness of the electrochemically-active anode catalyst layer, although not always substantially, due to the counter-balancing behavior of the activation and ohmic overpotentials.

  17. Failure analysis of fuel cell electrodes using three-dimensional multi-length scale X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, A.; El Hannach, M.; Orfino, F. P.; Dutta, M.; Kjeang, E.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT), a non-destructive technique, is proposed for three-dimensional, multi-length scale characterization of complex failure modes in fuel cell electrodes. Comparative tomography data sets are acquired for a conditioned beginning of life (BOL) and a degraded end of life (EOL) membrane electrode assembly subjected to cathode degradation by voltage cycling. Micro length scale analysis shows a five-fold increase in crack size and 57% thickness reduction in the EOL cathode catalyst layer, indicating widespread action of carbon corrosion. Complementary nano length scale analysis shows a significant reduction in porosity, increased pore size, and dramatically reduced effective diffusivity within the remaining porous structure of the catalyst layer at EOL. Collapsing of the structure is evident from the combination of thinning and reduced porosity, as uniquely determined by the multi-length scale approach. Additionally, a novel image processing based technique developed for nano scale segregation of pore, ionomer, and Pt/C dominated voxels shows an increase in ionomer volume fraction, Pt/C agglomerates, and severe carbon corrosion at the catalyst layer/membrane interface at EOL. In summary, XCT based multi-length scale analysis enables detailed information needed for comprehensive understanding of the complex failure modes observed in fuel cell electrodes.

  18. An assessment of the benefits of the use of NASA developed fuel conservative technology in the US commercial aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cost and benefits of a fuel conservative aircraft technology program proposed by NASA are estimated. NASA defined six separate technology elements for the proposed program: (a) engine component improvement (b) composite structures (c) turboprops (d) laminar flow control (e) fuel conservative engine and (f) fuel conservative transport. There were two levels postulated: The baseline program was estimated to cost $490 million over 10 years with peak funding in 1980. The level two program was estimated to cost an additional $180 million also over 10 years. Discussions with NASA and with representatives of the major commercial airframe manufacturers were held to estimate the combinations of the technology elements most likely to be implemented, the potential fuel savings from each combination, and reasonable dates for incorporation of these new aircraft into the fleet.

  19. A parallel multi-domain solution methodology applied to nonlinear thermal transport problems in nuclear fuel pins

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A.; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P.; Sampath, Rahul S.; Clarno, Kevin T.; Dilts, Gary A.

    2015-01-26

    We describe an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors are described. The details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstrating the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Moreover, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods. Finally, we demonstrate the power of the coupling methodology by considering problems with couplings between surface and volume physics and coupling of nonlinear thermal transport in fuel rods to an external radiation transport code.

  20. A parallel multi-domain solution methodology applied to nonlinear thermal transport problems in nuclear fuel pins

    DOE PAGES

    Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A.; Allu, Srikanth; ...

    2015-01-26

    We describe an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors are described. The details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstratingmore » the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Moreover, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods. Finally, we demonstrate the power of the coupling methodology by considering problems with couplings between surface and volume physics and coupling of nonlinear thermal transport in fuel rods to an external radiation transport code.« less

  1. Architecture for Multi-Technology Real-Time Location Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodas, Javier; Barral, Valentín; Escudero, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    The rising popularity of location-based services has prompted considerable research in the field of indoor location systems. Since there is no single technology to support these systems, it is necessary to consider the fusion of the information coming from heterogeneous sensors. This paper presents a software architecture designed for a hybrid location system where we can merge information from multiple sensor technologies. The architecture was designed to be used by different kinds of actors independently and with mutual transparency: hardware administrators, algorithm developers and user applications. The paper presents the architecture design, work-flow, case study examples and some results to show how different technologies can be exploited to obtain a good estimation of a target position. PMID:23435050

  2. Thermodynamic Modeling and Dispatch of Distributed Energy Technologies including Fuel Cell -- Gas Turbine Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarty, Dustin Fogle

    Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch

  3. A Multi-Stage Wear Model for Grid-to-Rod Fretting of Nuclear Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2014-01-01

    The wear of fuel rod cladding against the supporting structures in the cores of pressurized water nuclear reactors (PWRs) is an important and potentially costly tribological issue. Grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF), as it is known, involves not only time-varying contact conditions, but also elevated temperatures, flowing hot water, aqueous tribo-corrosion, and the embrittling effects of neutron fluences. The multi-stage, closed-form analytical model described in this paper relies on published out-of-reactor wear and corrosion data and a set of simplifying assumptions to portray the conversion of frictional work into wear depth. The cladding material of interest is a zirconium-based alloy called Zircaloy-4, and the grid support is made of a harder and more wear-resistant material. Focus is on the wear of the cladding. The model involves an incubation stage, a surface oxide wear stage, and a base alloy wear stage. The wear coefficient, which is a measure of the efficiency of conversion of frictional work into wear damage, can change to reflect the evolving metallurgical condition of the alloy. Wear coefficients for Zircaloy-4 and for a polyphase zirconia layer were back-calculated for a range of times required to wear to a critical depth. Inputs for the model, like the friction coefficient, are taken from the tribology literature in lieu of in-reactor tribological data. Concepts of classical fretting were used as a basis, but are modified to enable the model to accommodate the complexities of the PWR environment. Factors like grid spring relaxation, pre-oxidation of the cladding, multiple oxide phases, gap formation, impact, and hydrogen embrittlement are part of the problem definition but uncertainties in their relative roles limits the ability to validate the model. Sample calculations of wear depth versus time in the cladding illustrate how GTRF wear might occur in a discontinuous fashion during months-long reactor operating cycles. A means to account for grid/rod gaps

  4. Feasibility of Technologies to Produce Coal-Based Fuels with Equal or Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions than Petroleum Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-22

    unit of fuel energy (i.e., 70-78 g CO2/MJ), whether the fuel is produced from coal, petroleum, or biomass ; additionally, CO2 has the same effect in...29]. Although biomass and biofuels often have a carbon-to- energy ratio that is similar to their fossil fuel counterparts, these fuels are often...www.netl.doe.gov/research/coal/ energy -systems/gasification Coal & Coal/ Biomass to Liquids (C&CBTL) 2. DOE’s Coal and Coal- Biomass to Liquids program effort

  5. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

  6. Investigating the Integration of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and a Gas Turbine System with Coal Gasification Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    conceptually integrate the hybrid power system with existing and imminent coal gasification technologies. The gasification technologies include the Kellogg...Brown Root (KBR) Transport Reactor and entrained coal gasification . Parametric studies will be performed wherein pertinent fuel cell stack process...dependent variables of interest. Coal gasification data and a proven SOFC model will be used to test the theoretical integration. Feasibility and

  7. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  8. Ultrasonic inspection of rocket fuel model using laminated transducer and multi-channel step pulser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, T.; Hamajima, T.; Tashiro, H.; Sato, A.

    2013-01-01

    For the ultrasonic inspection for the packing of solid fuel in a rocket booster, an industrial inspection is difficult. Because the signal to noise ratio in ultrasonic inspection of rocket fuel become worse due to the large attenuation even using lower frequency ultrasound. For the improvement of this problem, we tried to applied the two techniques in ultrasonic inspection, one was the step function pulser system with the super wideband frequency properties and the other was the laminated element transducer. By combining these two techniques, we developed the new ultrasonic measurement system and demonstrated the advantages in ultrasonic inspection of rocket fuel model specimen.

  9. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS SEPARATION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2005-02-01

    Two new solvent extraction technologies have been recently developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel, following dissolution in nitric acid. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. This new strip reagent reduces product volume by a factor of 20, over the baseline process. Countercurrent flowsheet tests on simulated spent nuclear fuel feed streams have been performed with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4',4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance.

  10. From here to efficiency : time lags between the introduction of new technology and the achievement of fuel savings.

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.; Stodolsky, F.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1999-12-03

    In this paper, the energy savings of new technology offering significant improvements in fuel efficiency are tracked for over 20 years as vehicles incorporating that technology enter the fleet and replace conventional light-duty vehicles. Two separate analyses are discussed: a life-cycle analysis of aluminum-intensive vehicles and a fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and greenhouse gas emissions of double vs. triple fuel-economy vehicles. In both efforts, market-penetration modeling is used to simulate the rate at which new technology enters the new fleet, and stock-adjustment modeling is used to capture the inertia in turnover of new and existing current-technology vehicles. Together, these two effects--slowed market penetration and delayed vehicle replacement--increase the time lag between market introduction and the achievement of substantial energy savings. In both cases, 15-20 years elapse, before savings approach these levels.

  11. Flame synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes using CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2} fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Manciu, F.S.; Camacho, J.; Choudhuri, A.R.

    2008-07-01

    Flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has the potential to become a cost effective, energy efficient and scalable method for large-volume commercial synthesis. The in-flame concentration of key particulate inception intermediates, i.e., CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}, and C{sub 5}H{sub 5} can be tailored using hydrogen fuel blends to optimize and enhance the yield of flame synthesis processes. Additionally, synthesis of CNTs using hydrogen fuel blends (coal or biomass derived gases) creates new opportunities for efficient coal utilization and by-product synergism of coal-fired power plants. This article reports an investigation on the synthesis of CNTs using H{sub 2} doped CH{sub 4} flames. For a baseline study, nanostructures formed in diffusion flames of 100% CH{sub 4} at different fuel flow rates have been analyzed. Initially the yield of nanomaterials increases with the increase in H{sub 2} doping in the fuel mixture. However, at higher H{sub 2} concentration (10%) and flow velocity (Jet Exit Reynolds number > 200), formation of nanostructures diminishes and H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} flames produce amorphous carbon and soot particles. The maximum yield of nanostructures occurs at 95-5% CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2} fuel compositions and 8.37E-07m{sup 3}/s (corresponding Jet Exit Reynolds number=200). Raman analyses of the pristine samples show the existence of distinctive multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) D and G bands at 1321cm{sup -1} and 1595cm{sup -1}, respectively. Infrared absorption measurements of vibrational line characteristics of CNTs also reveal the presence of C-H bonds.

  12. Reaching Mars: multi-criteria R&D portfolio selection for Mars exploration technology planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Dolgin, B. P.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    The exploration of Mars has been the focus of increasing scientific interest about the planet and its relationship to Earth. A multi-criteria decision-making approach was developed to address the question, Given a Mars program composed of mission concepts dependent on a variety of alternative technology development programs, which combination of technologies would enable missions to maximize science return under a constrained budget?.

  13. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF`s) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV`S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available ``practical``. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  14. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stability Research for Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuel Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, Kenneth; Stiegemeier, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of a new generation of high performance boost rocket engines. These efforts, which will represent a substantial advancement in boost engine technology over that developed for the Space Shuttle Main Engines in the early 1970s, are being pursued both at NASA and the United States Air Force. NASA, under its Space Launch Initiative s Next Generation Launch Technology Program, is investigating the feasibility of developing a highly reliable, long-life, liquid oxygen/kerosene (RP-1) rocket engine for launch vehicles. One of the top technical risks to any engine program employing hydrocarbon fuels is the potential for fuel thermal stability and material compatibility problems to occur under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions required for regenerative fuel cooling of the engine combustion chamber and nozzle. Decreased heat transfer due to carbon deposits forming on wetted fuel components, corrosion of materials common in engine construction (copper based alloys), and corrosion induced pressure drop increases have all been observed in laboratory tests simulating rocket engine cooling channels. To mitigate these risks, the knowledge of how these fuels behave in high temperature environments must be obtained. Currently, due to the complexity of the physical and chemical process occurring, the only way to accomplish this is empirically. Heated tube testing is a well-established method of experimentally determining the thermal stability and heat transfer characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels. The popularity of this method stems from the low cost incurred in testing when compared to hot fire engine tests, the ability to have greater control over experimental conditions, and the accessibility of the test section, facilitating easy instrumentation. These benefits make heated tube testing the best alternative to hot fire engine testing for thermal stability and heat transfer research. This investigation

  15. Distributed structural health monitoring system based on smart wireless sensor and multi-agent technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shenfang; Lai, Xiaosong; Zhao, Xia; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Liang

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a new parallel distributed structural health monitoring technology based on the wireless sensor network and multi-agent system for large scale engineering structures. The basic idea of this new technology is that of adopting the smart wireless sensor with on-board microprocessor to form the monitoring sensor network and the multi-agent technology to manage the whole health monitoring system. Using this technology, the health monitoring system becomes a distributing parallel system instead of a serial system with all processing work done by the central computer. The functions, the reliability, the flexibility and the speed of the whole system will be greatly improved. In addition, with wireless communication links instead of wires, the system weight and complexity will be lowered. In this paper, the distributed smart wireless sensor network is designed first based on the Berkeley Mote Mica wireless sensor platform. Two kinds of sensor have been adopted: piezoelectric sensors and electric resistance wires. They are connected to a Mica MPR board though a designed charge amplifier circuit or bridge circuit and MTS101 board. Seven kinds of agents are defined for the structural health monitoring system. A distributed health monitoring architecture based on the defined agents is proposed. Finally, a composite structural health monitoring system based on a Mica wireless platform and multi-agent technology is developed to evaluate the efficacy of the new technology. The developed system can successfully monitor the concentrated load position or a loose bolt position.

  16. Interim storage technology of spent fuel and high-level waste in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Geiser, H.; Schroder, J.

    2007-07-01

    The idea of using casks for interim storage of spent fuel arose at GNS after a very controversial political discussion in 1978, when total passive safety features (including aircraft crash conditions) were required for an above ground spent fuel storage facility. In the meantime, GNS has loaded more than 1000 casks at 25 different storage sites in Germany. GNS cask technology is used in 13 countries. Spent fuel assemblies of PWR, BWR, VVER, RBMK, MTR and THTR as well as vitrified high level waste containers are stored in full metal casks of the CASTOR{sup R} type. Also MOX fuel of PWR and BWR has been stored. More than two decades of storage have shown that the basic requirements (safe confinement, criticality safety, sufficient shielding and appropriate heat transfer) have been fulfilled in any case - during normal operation and in case of severe accidents, including aircraft crash. There is no indication of problems arising in the future. Of course, the experience of more than 20 years has resulted in improvements of the cask design. The CASTOR{sup R} casks have been thoroughly investigated by many experiments. There have been approx. 50 full and half scale drop tests and a significant number of fire tests, simulations of aircraft crash, investigations with anti tank weapons, and an explosion of a railway tank with liquid gas neighbouring a loaded CASTOR{sup R} cask. According to customer and site specific demands, different types of storage facilities are realized in Germany. Firstly, there are facilities for long-term storage, such as large ventilated central storage buildings away from reactor or ventilated storage buildings at the reactor site, ventilated underground tunnels or concrete platforms outside a building. Secondly, there are facilities for temporary storage, where casks have been positioned in horizontal orientation under a ventilated shielding cover outside a building. (authors)

  17. Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leungwattanakit, Watcharin; Artho, Cyrille; Hagiya, Masami; Tanabe, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Mitsuharu

    2009-01-01

    Model checkers find failures in software by exploring every possible execution schedule. Java PathFinder (JPF), a Java model checker, has been extended recently to cover networked applications by caching data transferred in a communication channel. A target process is executed by JPF, whereas its peer process runs on a regular virtual machine outside. However, non-deterministic target programs may produce different output data in each schedule, causing the cache to restart the peer process to handle the different set of data. Virtualization tools could help us restore previous states of peers, eliminating peer restart. This paper proposes the application of virtualization technology to networked model checking, concentrating on JPF.

  18. Application of multi-function display and control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Holcomb, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA orbiter spacecraft incorporates a complex array of systems, displays, and controls. The incorporation of discrete dedicated controls into a multifunction display and control system (MFDCS) offers the potential for savings in weight, power, panel space, and crew training time. Technology identified as applicable to a MFDCS is applied to the orbiter orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and the electrical power distribution and control system (EPDCS) to derive concepts for a MFDCS design. Several concepts of varying degrees of performance and complexity are discussed and a suggested concept for further development is presented in greater detail. Both the hardware and software aspects and the human factors considerations of the designs are included.

  19. Recent technologic advances in multi-detector row cardiac CT.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Sandra Simon

    2009-11-01

    Recent technical advances in multi-detector row CT have resulted in lower radiation dose, improved temporal and spatial resolution, decreased scan time, and improved tissue differentiation. Lower radiation doses have resulted from the use of pre-patient z collimators, the availability of thin-slice axial data acquisition, the increased efficiency of ECG-based tube current modulation, and the implementation of iterative reconstruction algorithms. Faster gantry rotation and the simultaneous use of two x-ray sources have led to improvements in temporal resolution, and gains in spatial resolution have been achieved through application of the flying x-ray focal-spot technique in the z-direction. Shorter scan times have resulted from the design of detector arrays with increasing numbers of detector rows and through the simultaneous use of two x-ray sources to allow higher helical pitch. Some improvement in tissue differentiation has been achieved with dual energy CT. This article discusses these recent technical advances in detail.

  20. Study of multi-megawatt technology needs for photovoltaic space power systems, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. M.; Pleasant, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Possible missions requiring multimegawatt photovoltaic space power systems in the 1990's time frame and power system technology needs associated with these missions are examined. Four specific task areas were considered: (1) missions requiring power in the 1-10 megawatt average power region; (2) alternative power systems and component technologies; (3) technology goals and sensitivity trades and analyses; and (4) technology recommendations. Specific concepts for photovoltaic power approaches considered were: planar arrays, concentrating arrays, hybrid systems using Rankine engines, thermophotovoltaic approaches; all with various photovoltaic cell component technologies. Various AC/DC power management approaches, and battery, fuel cell, and flywheel energy storage concepts are evaluated. Interactions with the electrical ion engine injection and stationkeeping system are also considered.

  1. Automated Characterization of Spent Fuel through the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-07-31

    This research developed an algorithm for characterizing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) samples based on simulated gamma spectra. The gamma spectra for a variety of light water reactor fuels typical of those found in the United States were simulated. Fuel nuclide concentrations were simulated in ORIGEN-ARP for 1296 fuel samples with a variety of reactor designs, initial enrichments, burn ups, and cooling times. The results of the ORIGEN-ARP simulation were then input to SYNTH to simulate the gamma spectrum for each sample. These spectra were evaluated with partial least squares (PLS)-based multivariate analysis methods to characterize the fuel according to reactor type (pressurized or boiling water reactor), enrichment, burn up, and cooling time. Characterizing some of the features in series by using previously estimated features in the prediction greatly improves the performance. By first classifying the spent fuel reactor type and then using type-specific models, the prediction error for enrichment, burn up, and cooling time improved by a factor of two to four. For some features, the prediction was further improved by including additional information, such as including the predicted burn up in the estimation of cooling time. The optimal prediction flow was determined based on the simulated data. A PLS discriminate analysis model was developed which perfectly classified SNF reactor type. Burn up was predicted within 0.1% root mean squared percent error (RMSPE) and both cooling time and initial enrichment within approximately 2% RMSPE.

  2. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: March 2015 Update

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-03-01

    This is the March 2015 Update to the Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office. It identifies the RDD&D activities the Office will focus on over the next four years.

  3. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: November 2014 Update

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    This is the November 2014 Update to the Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office. It identifies the RDD&D activities the Office will focus on over the next four years.

  4. Technologically and Artistically Enhanced Multi-Sensory Computer-Programming Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katai, Zoltan; Toth, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades more and more research has analysed relatively new or rediscovered teaching-learning concepts like blended, hybrid, multi-sensory or technologically enhanced learning. This increased interest in these educational forms can be explained by new exciting discoveries in brain research and cognitive psychology, as well as by the…

  5. Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga

    2007-07-01

    High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Foreign travel report: Visits to UK, Belgium, Germany, and France to benchmark European spent fuel and waste management technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ermold, L.F.; Knecht, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    The ICPP WINCO Spent Fuel and Waste Management Development Program recently was funded by DOE-EM to develop new technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels, sodium-bearing liquid waste, and calcine to a form suitable for disposal. European organizations are heavily involved, in some cases on an industrial scale in areas of waste management, including spent fuel disposal and HLW vitrification. The purpose of this trip was to acquire first-hand European efforts in handling of spent reactor fuel and nuclear waste management, including their processing and technical capabilities as well as their future planning. Even though some differences exist in European and U.S. DOE waste compositions and regulations, many aspects of the European technologies may be applicable to the U.S. efforts, and several areas offer potential for technical collaboration.

  7. Investigations To Characterize Multi-Junction Solar Cells In The Stratosphere Using Low-Cost Balloon And Communication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, Glenroy A.; Wang, Qianghua; Woodyard, James R.; Johnston, Richard R.; Brown, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of current balloon, control and communication technologies to test multi-junction solar sell in the stratosphere to achieve near AMO conditions have been investigated. The design criteria for the technologies are that they be reliable, low cost and readily available. Progress is reported on a program to design, launch, fly and retrieve payloads dedicated to testing multi-junction solar cells.

  8. State of the Art of Common Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Technology and Adaptations NEEDED for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gave, G.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame of the power source activity at CNES. a statement of fuel cell technology for terrestrial application has been performed followed by a survey of reseach and technology actions necessary for space applications. In the last years a lot of different research and development actions have been performed on fuel cells for terrestrial particulaly for vehicles in the frame of an antipollution policy.The main results obtained concern : - solid polymer fuel cell technology using hydrogen ( high pressure stored or obtained by methanol - cost reduction with a future mass production as target (subtantial results have been obtained on - easy utilization - hydrogen production and storage ( source of hydrogen being mainly brought by methanol an overview is given mainly on technologies which present a certain interrest for space In the field of terrestrial reseach and development actions, proton conductive solid polymer technology fuel cell is perfectlly re-usable for space applications ,particularly : - new polymer membranes ( high conductive protonic conductivity, additives permitting to preserve - catalysts ( Pt nanoparticles technology,transition metal additives for increasing electrode - initial humification of reactant gases - gas management - stack technology in terms of, materials,machining, assembly, electrical contacts - thermal management taking into account that the main requirements for space applications are : - operation under zero gravity ( this requirement concerns the fuel cell stack in which electrolyte - an attractive mass budget - reliability and safety Some space specificities nevertheless remain and lead to make some technical choices and to guide developments, these scopes are the following : - the use of pure hydrogen, and oxygen gases ( for evident advantageous mass budget) doe not need - conversion efficiency leading to an attractive energy density budget is preferrred than high power - water rejection from the fuel cell systems need

  9. Pulse quenching induced by multi-collection effects in 45 nm silicon-on-insulator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artola, L.; Hubert, G.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the analysis of pulse quenching effects induced in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. Simulation results emphasize the need to consider multi-collection effects in the occurrence mechanisms of single event transients (SET) in very large scaling integration (VLSI) components even with SOI technologies, which is known to be initially less sensitive to soft errors (SE). The impacts of gate-to-gate spacing and voltage scaling on the SET occurrence and characteristics have been highlighted. The simulations have been performed with the soft error prediction tool MUSCA SEP3 developed for digital complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies (SOI, Bulk).

  10. Sustainability assessment of tertiary wastewater treatment technologies: a multi-criteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Plakas, K V; Georgiadis, A A; Karabelas, A J

    2016-01-01

    The multi-criteria analysis gives the opportunity to researchers, designers and decision-makers to examine decision options in a multi-dimensional fashion. On this basis, four tertiary wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies were assessed regarding their sustainability performance in producing recycled wastewater, considering a 'triple bottom line' approach (i.e. economic, environmental, and social). These are powdered activated carbon adsorption coupled with ultrafiltration membrane separation (PAC-UF), reverse osmosis, ozone/ultraviolet-light oxidation and heterogeneous photo-catalysis coupled with low-pressure membrane separation (photocatalytic membrane reactor, PMR). The participatory method called simple multi-attribute rating technique exploiting ranks was employed for assigning weights to selected sustainability indicators. This sustainability assessment approach resulted in the development of a composite index as a final metric, for each WWT technology evaluated. The PAC-UF technology appears to be the most appropriate technology, attaining the highest composite value regarding the sustainability performance. A scenario analysis confirmed the results of the original scenario in five out of seven cases. In parallel, the PMR was highlighted as the technology with the least variability in its performance. Nevertheless, additional actions and approaches are proposed to strengthen the objectivity of the final results.

  11. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell& Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.

    2003-08-01

    Fact sheet describes the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus that was demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency from November 2002 to February 2003. The bus was evaluated by DOE's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  12. Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) of Spent Fuel Pools: Tool Survey - Scenarios, Technology Considerations, and Evaluation Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Smart, Heidi A.; MacDougall, Matthew R.

    2016-01-18

    The objective of this report is to identify the foundational elements which will drive the survey and evaluation of potential technologies to be considered to maintain CoK of spent fuel within a pool in the potential absence of light or in low light scenarios. These foundational elements include identifying use cases that highlight the type of environments in which the technologies may be asked to operate; the CoK elements required of the technologies, such as unique identification or presence/absence identification; the functional and operational requirements for the technologies; and the criteria against which the technologies will be evaluated.

  13. Hazard identification of exhausts from gasoline-ethanol fuel blends using a multi-cellular human lung model.

    PubMed

    Bisig, Christoph; Roth, Michèle; Müller, Loretta; Comte, Pierre; Heeb, Norbert; Mayer, Andreas; Czerwinski, Jan; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Ethanol can be produced from biomass and as such is renewable, unlike petroleum-based fuel. Almost all gasoline cars can drive with fuel containing 10% ethanol (E10), flex-fuel cars can even use 85% ethanol (E85). Brazil and the USA already include 10-27% ethanol in their standard fuel by law. Most health effect studies on car emissions are however performed with diesel exhausts, and only few data exists for other fuels. In this work we investigated possible toxic effects of exhaust aerosols from ethanol-gasoline blends using a multi-cellular model of the human lung. A flex-fuel passenger car was driven on a chassis dynamometer and fueled with E10, E85, or pure gasoline (E0). Exhausts obtained from a steady state cycle were directly applied for 6h at a dilution of 1:10 onto a multi-cellular human lung model mimicking the bronchial compartment composed of human bronchial cells (16HBE14o-), supplemented with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophages, cultured at the air-liquid interface. Biological endpoints were assessed after 6h post incubation and included cytotoxicity, pro-inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Filtered air was applied to control cells in parallel to the different exhausts; for comparison an exposure to diesel exhaust was also included in the study. No differences were measured for the volatile compounds, i.e. CO, NOx, and T.HC for the different ethanol supplemented exhausts. Average particle number were 6×10(2) #/cm(3) (E0), 1×10(5) #/cm(3) (E10), 3×10(3) #/cm(3) (E85), and 2.8×10(6) #/cm(3) (diesel). In ethanol-gasoline exposure conditions no cytotoxicity and no morphological changes were observed in the lung cell cultures, in addition no oxidative stress - as analyzed with the glutathione assay - was measured. Gene expression analysis also shows no induction in any of the tested genes, including mRNA levels of genes related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammation, as well as indoleamine 2

  14. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  15. Advancing MEMS Technology Usage through the MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Processes) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, D. A.; Markus, K. W.; Dhuler, V.; Mahadevan, R.; Cowen, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to help provide access to advanced micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies and lower the barriers for both industry and academia, the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina (MCNC) and ARPA have developed a program which provides users with access to both MEMS processes and advanced electronic integration techniques. The four distinct aspects of this program, the multi-user MEMS processes (MUMP's), the consolidated micro-mechanical element library, smart MEMS, and the MEMS technology network are described in this paper. MUMP's is an ARPA-supported program created to provide inexpensive access to MEMS technology in a multi-user environment. It is both a proof-of-concept and educational tool that aids in the development of MEMS in the domestic community. MUMP's technologies currently include a 3-layer poly-silicon surface micromachining process and LIGA (lithography, electroforming, and injection molding) processes that provide reasonable design flexibility within set guidelines. The consolidated micromechanical element library (CaMEL) is a library of active and passive MEMS structures that can be downloaded by the MEMS community via the internet. Smart MEMS is the development of advanced electronics integration techniques for MEMS through the application of flip chip technology. The MEMS technology network (TechNet) is a menu of standard substrates and MEMS fabrication processes that can be purchased and combined to create unique process flows. TechNet provides the MEMS community greater flexibility and enhanced technology accessibility.

  16. Characterizing droplet combustion of pure and multi-component liquid fuels in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gregory S.; Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The importance of understanding the effects of fuel composition, length scales, and other parameters on the combustion of liquid fuels has motivated the examination of simple flames which have easily characterized flow fields and hence, the potential of being modeled accurately. One such flame for liquid fuel combustion is the spherically symmetric droplet flame which can be achieved in an environment with sufficiently low gravity (i.e., low buoyancy). To examine fundamental characteristics of spherically symmetric droplet combustion, a drop tower facility has been employed to provide a microgravity environment to study droplet combustion. This paper gives a brief review of results obtained over the past three years under NASA sponsorship (grant NAG3-987).

  17. Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

  18. Development of Technologies for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; R. Scott HErbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson; Terry A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance. A flowsheet for treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being developed.

  19. Testimony of Fred R. Mynatt before the Energy Research and Development Subcommittee of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, US House of Representatives. [Advanced fuel technology, gas-cooled reactor technology, and liquid metal-cooled reactor technology programs

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt, F.R.

    1987-03-18

    This report provides a description of the statements submitted for the record to the committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the United States House of Representatives. These statements describe three principal areas of activity of the Advanced Reactor Technology Program of the Department of Energy (DOE). These areas are advanced fuel cycle technology, modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology, and liquid metal-cooled reactor. The areas of automated reactor control systems, robotics, materials and structural design shielding and international cooperation were included in these statements describing the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's efforts in these areas. (FI)

  20. Combustion Dynamics in Multi-Nozzle Combustors Operating on High-Hydrogen Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Santavicca, Dom; Lieuwen, Tim

    2013-09-30

    Actual gas turbine combustors for power generation applications employ multi-nozzle combustor configurations. Researchers at Penn State and Georgia Tech have extended previous work on the flame response in single-nozzle combustors to the more realistic case of multi-nozzle combustors. Research at Georgia Tech has shown that asymmetry of both the flow field and the acoustic forcing can have a significant effect on flame response and that such behavior is important in multi-flame configurations. As a result, the structure of the flame and its response to forcing is three-dimensional. Research at Penn State has led to the development of a three-dimensional chemiluminescence flame imaging technique that can be used to characterize the unforced (steady) and forced (unsteady) flame structure of multi-nozzle combustors. Important aspects of the flame response in multi-nozzle combustors which are being studied include flame-flame and flame-wall interactions. Research at Penn State using the recently developed three-dimensional flame imaging technique has shown that spatial variations in local flame confinement must be accounted for to accurately predict global flame response in a multi-nozzle can combustor.

  1. Fuels research: Fuel thermal stability overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative fuels or crude supplies are examined with respect to satisfying aviation fuel needs for the next 50 years. The thermal stability of potential future fuels is discussed and the effects of these characteristics on aircraft fuel systems are examined. Advanced fuel system technology and design guidelines for future fuels with lower thermal stability are reported.

  2. Innovative and Highly Productive Joining Technologies for Multi-Material Lightweight Car Body Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschut, G.; Janzen, V.; Olfermann, T.

    2014-05-01

    Driven by increasing costs for energy and raw material and especially by the European CO2-emission laws, automotive industry faces the challenge to develop more lightweight and at the same time still rigid and crash-stable car bodies, that are affordable for large-scale production. The implementation of weight-reduced constructions depends not only on the availability of lightweight materials and related forming technologies, but also on cost-efficient and reliable joining technologies suitable for multi-material design. This article discusses the challenges and requirements for these technologies, based on the example of joining aluminium with press-hardened boron steels, what is considered as a very important material combination for affordable future lightweight mobility. Besides a presentation of recent developments for extending the process limits of conventional mechanical joining methods, new promising technologies such as resistance element welding are introduced. In addition, the performance, advantages, and disadvantages of the presented technologies are compared and discussed.

  3. Aerolization During Boron Nanoparticle Multi-Component Fuel Group Burning Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-03

    Oleic Acid-coated Boron (or B4C) nanoparticles with a Cerium Oxide (CeO2) catalyst to enhance energy density of conventional aviation fuels, such as...milling time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements on boron nanoparticle batches detected cerium boride indicating that the CeO2

  4. A multi-objective shuffled frog leaping algorithm for in-core fuel management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshi, S. Safaei; Zolfaghari, A.; Mirvakili, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    The efficient operation and in-core fuel management of PWRs are of utmost importance. In the present work, a core reload optimization using Shuffled Frog Leaping (SFL) algorithm is addressed and mapped on nuclear fuel loading pattern optimization. SFL is one of the latest meta-heuristic optimization algorithms which is used for solving the discrete optimization problems and inspired from social behavior of frogs. The algorithm initiates the search from an initial population and carries forward to draw out an optimum result. This algorithm employs the use of memetic evolution by exchanging ideas between the members of the population in each local search. The local search of SFL is similar to particle swarm optimization (PSO) and applying shuffling process accomplishes the information exchange between several local searches to obtain an overall optimum result. To evaluate the proposed technique, Shekel's Foxholes and a VVER-1000 reactor are used as test cases to illustrate performance of SFL. Among numerous neutronic and thermal-hydraulic objectives necessary for a fuel management problem to reach an overall optimum, this paper deals with two neutronic objectives, i.e., maximizing effective multiplication factor and flattening power distribution in the core, to evaluate the capability of applying SFL algorithm for a fuel management problem. The results, convergence rate and reliability of the method are quite promising and show the potential and efficiency of the technique for other optimization applications in the nuclear engineering field.

  5. Fuel cells, electrolyzers, and microalgae photobioreactors: technologies for long-duration missions in human spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, Stefan; Bretschneider, Jens; Nathanson, Emil; Buchert, Melanie

    Long-duration and far-distant missions in human spaceflight have higher requirements on life support systems (LSS) technologies than for missions into low Earth orbit (LEO). LSS technologies have to ensure that humans can survive, live, and work in space. Enhancements of existing technologies, new technological developments and synergetic components integration help to close the oxygen, water and carbon loops. For these reasons, the approach of a synergetic integration of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEFC), Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers (PEL) and Photobioreactors (PBR) for microalgae cultivation into the LSS is investigated. It is demonstrated in which mission scenarii the application of PEFC, PEL, and PBR are useful in terms of mass, reliability, and cycle closures. The paper represents the current status of research at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) of University of Stuttgart on PEFC, PEL, and PBR development. A final configuration of a prototype of a PEFC system includes the gas, water, and thermal management. The PEL is a state-of-the-art technology for space application, but the specific requirements by a synergetic integration are focused. A prototype configuration of a PBR system, which was tested under microgravity conditions in a parabolic experiment, consists of a highly sophisticated cultivation chamber, adapted sensorics, pumps, nutrients supply and harvesting unit. Additionally, the latest results of the cultivation of the microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus in the laboratories of the IRS are represented. Both species are robust, nutrient-rich for human diet. An outlook of the next steps is given for in-orbit verification.

  6. Coproduction of acetic acid and electricity by application of microbial fuel cell technology to vinegar fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Takanori; Nara, Youhei; Tsujiguchi, Takuya; Ohshima, Takayuki

    2013-08-01

    The coproduction of a useful material and electricity via a novel application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology to oxidative fermentation was investigated. We focused on vinegar production, i.e., acetic acid fermentation, as an initial and model useful material that can be produced by oxidative fermentation in combination with MFC technology. The coproduction of acetic acid and electricity by applying MFC technology was successfully demonstrated by the simultaneous progress of acetic acid fermentation and electricity generation through a series of repeated batch fermentations. Although the production rate of acetic acid was very small, it increased with the number of repeated batch fermentations that were conducted. We obtained nearly identical (73.1%) or larger (89.9%) acetic acid yields than that typically achieved by aerated fermentation (75.8%). The open-cycle voltages measured before and after fermentation increased with the total fermentation time and reached a maximum value of 0.521 V prior to the third batch fermentation. The maximum current and power densities measured in this study (19.1 μA/cm² and 2.47 μW/cm², respectively) were obtained after the second batch fermentation.

  7. Research on filling process of fuel and oxidant during detonation based on absorption spectrum technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Research on detonation process is of great significance for the control optimization of pulse detonation engine. Based on absorption spectrum technology, the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant during detonation is researched. As one of the most important products, H2O is selected as the target of detonation diagnosis. Fiber distributed detonation test system is designed to enable the detonation diagnosis under adverse conditions in detonation process. The test system is verified to be reliable. Laser signals at different working frequency (5Hz, 10Hz and 20Hz) are detected. Change of relative laser intensity in one detonation circle is analyzed. The duration of filling process is inferred from the change of laser intensity, which is about 100~110ms. The peak of absorption spectrum is used to present the concentration of H2O during the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant. Absorption spectrum is calculated, and the change of absorption peak is analyzed. Duration of filling process calculated with absorption peak consisted with the result inferred from the change of relative laser intensity. The pulse detonation engine worked normally and obtained the maximum thrust at 10Hz under experiment conditions. The results are verified through H2O gas concentration monitoring during detonation.

  8. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  9. Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop: Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) Facility for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; SuJong Yoon

    2001-11-01

    Effective and robust high temperature heat transfer systems are fundamental to the successful deployment of advanced reactors for both power generation and non-electric applications. Plant designs often include an intermediate heat transfer loop (IHTL) with heat exchangers at either end to deliver thermal energy to the application while providing isolation of the primary reactor system. In order to address technical feasibility concerns and challenges a new high-temperature multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility “Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test facility” (ARTIST) is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory. The facility will include three flow loops: high-temperature helium, molten salt, and steam/water. Details of some of the design aspects and challenges of this facility, which is currently in the conceptual design phase, are discussed

  10. Recapturing Graphite-Based Fuel Element Technology for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Trammell, Michael P; Jolly, Brian C; Miller, James Henry; Qualls, A L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    ORNL is currently recapturing graphite based fuel forms for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). This effort involves research and development on materials selection, extrusion, and coating processes to produce fuel elements representative of historical ROVER and NERVA fuel. Initially, lab scale specimens were fabricated using surrogate oxides to develop processing parameters that could be applied to full length NTP fuel elements. Progress toward understanding the effect of these processing parameters on surrogate fuel microstructure is presented.

  11. Adopting Clean Fuels and Technologies on School Buses. Pollution and Health Impacts in Children

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Jennifer; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Davey, Mark E.; Sullivan, James R.; Jahnke, Jordan; Koenig, Jane; Larson, Timothy V.; Liu, L. J. Sally

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: More than 25 million American children breathe polluted air on diesel school buses. Emission reduction policies exist, but the health impacts to individual children have not been evaluated. Methods: Using a natural experiment, we characterized the exposures and health of 275 school bus riders before, during, and after the adoption of clean technologies and fuels between 2005 and 2009. Air pollution was measured during 597 trips on 188 school buses. Repeated measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function (FEV1, FVC), and absenteeism were also collected monthly (1,768 visits). Mixed-effects models longitudinally related the adoption of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation systems (CCVs), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), or biodiesel with exposures and health. Measurements and Main Results: Fine and ultrafine particle concentrations were 10–50% lower on buses using ULSD, DOCs, and/or CCVs. ULSD adoption was also associated with reduced FeNO (−16% [95% confidence interval (CI), −21 to −10%]), greater changes in FVC and FEV1 (0.02 [95% CI, 0.003 to 0.05] and 0.01 [95% CI, −0.006 to 0.03] L/yr, respectively), and lower absenteeism (−8% [95% CI, −16.0 to −0.7%]), with stronger associations among patients with asthma. DOCs, and to a lesser extent CCVs, also were associated with improved FeNO, FVC growth, and absenteeism, but these findings were primarily restricted to patients with persistent asthma and were often sensitive to control for ULSD. No health benefits were noted for biodiesel. Extrapolating to the U.S. population, changed fuel/technologies likely reduced absenteeism by more than 14 million/yr. Conclusions: National and local diesel policies appear to have reduced children’s exposures and improved health. PMID:25867003

  12. 2004 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Review Presentation: Cost and Performance Enhancements for a PEM Fuel Cell Turbocompressor

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Mark K.

    2004-05-26

    The objective is to assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

  13. Spent nuclear fuel project multi-year work plan WBS {number_sign}1.4.1

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) is a controlled living document that contains the current SNF Project Technical, Schedule and Cost Baselines. These baselines reflect the current Project execution strategies and are controlled via the change control process. Other changes to the MYWP document will be controlled using the document control process. These changes will be processed as they are approved to keep the MYWP a living document. The MYWP will be maintained continuously as the project baseline through the life of the project and not revised annually. The MYWP is the one document which summarizes and links these three baselines in one place. Supporting documentation for each baseline referred to herein may be impacted by changes to the MYWP, and must also be revised through change control to maintain consistency.

  14. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications-Production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study was undertaken, primarily during 2007. Three key technology areas within hydrogen transport were selected - hydrogen storage, fuel cell drivetrains, and small-scale hydrogen production - and interviews with selected experts conducted. Forty-nine experts from 34 organisations within the fuel cell, automotive, industrial gas and other related industries participated, in addition to some key academic and government figures. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, North America and Europe, and analysed using conventional mathematical techniques to provide weighted and averaged rankings of issues viewed as important by the experts. It became clear both from the interviews and the subsequent analysis that while a primary concern in China was fundamental technical performance, in the other regions cost and policy were rated more highly. Although a few individual experts identified possible technical showstoppers, the overall message was that pre-commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could realistically be on the road in tens of thousands within 5 years, and that full commercialisation could take place within 10-15 years, without the need for radical technical breakthroughs. Perhaps surprisingly, the performance of hydrogen storage technologies was not viewed as a showstopper, though cost was seen as a significant challenge. Overall, however, coherent policy development was more frequently identified as a major issue to address.

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel project estimate of volatile fission products release from multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.D.

    1996-08-01

    Spent N-Reactor fuel will be moved from wet pool storage to dry storage at Hanford Washington. This fuel will be sequentially loaded into a Multiple Container Overpack (MCO), moved to the cold vacuum drying station, drained, cold vacuum dried, shipped to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), staged for up to 2 years,hot vacuum dried at 300 degrees C, hot conditioned at 150 degrees C, and finally, sealed and stored for up to 75 years in the CSB.During each proposed process step, the volatile radioactive fission products released to the atmosphere were estimated.Tritium is the only volatile fission product released insignificant amounts during each process step. For an accident scenario involving interior MCO temperature of 600 degrees C for up to 8 hours, it was estimated that many volatile fission products are released.

  16. The Evaluation of the Impact of New Technologies for Different Powertrain Medium-Duty Trucks on Fuel Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Michael; Prohaska, Robert

    2016-09-27

    In this paper, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory present the results of simulation studies to evaluate potential fuel savings as a result of improvements to vehicle rolling resistance, coefficient of drag, and vehicle weight as well as hybridization for four powertrains for medium-duty parcel delivery vehicles. The vehicles will be modeled and simulated over 1,290 real-world driving trips to determine the fuel savings potential based on improvements to each technology and to identify best use cases for each platform. The results of impacts of new technologies on fuel saving will be presented, and the most favorable driving routes on which to adopt them will be explored.

  17. The Evaluation of the Impact of New Technologies for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Trucks on Fuel Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Kelly, Kenneth; Konan, Arnaud; Lammert, Michael; Prohaska, Robert

    2016-10-06

    In this paper, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory present the results of simulation studies to evaluate potential fuel savings as a result of improvements to vehicle rolling resistance, coefficient of drag, and vehicle weight as well as hybridization for four power trains for medium-duty parcel delivery vehicles. The vehicles will be modeled and simulated over 1,290 real-world driving trips to determine the fuel savings potential based on improvements to each technology and to identify best use cases for each platform. The results of impacts of new technologies on fuel saving will be presented, and the most favorable driving routes on which to adopt them will be explored.

  18. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Moulden, Steve

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  19. #Learning: The use of back channel technology in multi-campus nursing education.

    PubMed

    Yates, Karen; Birks, Melanie; Woods, Cindy; Hitchins, Marnie

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study into the use of microblogging technology (TodaysMeet) in large, multi-site lectures in a nursing program. The aim of this study was to investigate students' use of the technology and their perceptions of its value in stimulating engagement in a complex learning environment. The study demonstrated that students like the anonymity that the technology provided, allowing them to ask questions without fear of appearing less competent than their peers. Many of the respondents commented positively on the opportunity to engage with students and the lecturer at other campuses. While some students appreciated the opportunity to interact and have feedback from peers, others saw this as a negative aspect of the technology. This study suggests that, used appropriately, microblogging can be incorporated into large lectures to promote student participation and engagement and ultimately enhance the learning process.

  20. Two- and Three-dimensional High Performance, Patterned Overlay Multi-chip Module Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyke, James

    1993-01-01

    A two- and three-dimensional multi-chip module technology was developed in response to the continuum in demand for increased performance in electronic systems, as well as the desire to reduce the size, weight, and power of space systems. Though developed to satisfy the needs of military programs, such as the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, the technology, referred to as High Density Interconnect, can also be advantageously exploited for a wide variety of commercial applications, ranging from computer workstations to instrumentation and microwave telecommunications. The robustness of the technology, as well as its high performance, make this generality in application possible. More encouraging is the possibility of this technology for achieving low cost through high volume usage.

  1. Distributed Wireless Multi-Sensor Technologies, A Novel Approach to Reduce Motor Energy Usage

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Sexton

    2008-03-28

    This report is the final report for the General Electric Distributed Wireless Multi-Sensor Technologies project. The report covers the research activities and benefits surrounding wireless technology used for industrial sensing applications. The main goal of this project was to develop wireless sensor technology that would be commercialized and adopted by industry for a various set of applications. Many of these applications will yield significant energy savings. One application where there was significant information to estimate a potential energy savings was focused on equipment condition monitoring and in particular electric motor monitoring. The results of the testing of the technology developed are described in this report along with the commercialization activities and various new applications and benefits realized.

  2. Low NO sub x heavy fuel combustor concept program. Phase 1A: Combustion technology generation coal gas fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherlock, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion tests of two scaled burners using actual coal gas from a 25 ton/day fluidized bed coal gasifier are described. The two combustor configurations studied were a ceramic lined, staged rich/lean burner and an integral, all metal multiannual swirl burner (MASB). The tests were conducted over a range of temperature and pressures representative of current industrial combustion turbine inlet conditions. Tests on the rich lean burner were conducted at three levels of product gas heating values: 104, 197 and 254 btu/scf. Corresponding levels of NOx emissions were 5, 20 and 70 ppmv. Nitrogen was added to the fuel in the form of ammonia, and conversion efficiencies of fuel nitrogen to NOx were on the order of 4 percent to 12 percent, which is somewhat lower than the 14 percent to 18 percent conversion efficiency when src-2 liquid fuel was used. The MASB was tested only on medium btu gas (220 to 270 btu/scf), and produced approximately 80 ppmv NOx at rated engine conditions. Both burners operated similarly on actual coal gas and erbs fuel, and all heating values tested can be successfully burned in current machines.

  3. Early Student Support for Application of Advanced Multi-Core Processor Technologies to Oceanographic Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-07

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...maintaining the data needed , and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of...Student Support for Appl ication of Advanced Multi-Core Processor N00014-12-1-0298 Technologies to Oceanographic Research Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc

  4. Study of multi-megawatt technology needs for photovoltaic space power systems. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. M.; Pleasant, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Possible missions requiring multimegawatt photovoltaic space power systems in the 1990's time frame and associated power system technology needs are examined. The following concepts for photovoltaic power approaches are considered: planar arrays, concentrating arrays, hybrid systems using Rankine engines, thermophotovoltaic and AC/DC power management approaches, battery, fuel cell, flywheel energy storage, and interactions with the electrical ion engine injection and stationkeeping system. The levels of modularity for efficient, safe, constructable, serviceable, and cost effective system design are analyzed, and the benefits of alternate approaches developed. Both manned low Earth orbit and unmanned geosynchronous Earth orbit applications were examined for technological development. Technology developments applicable to power systems which appear to have benefits independent of the absolute power level are suggested.

  5. [Occupational risk and technological innovations. Comparison of conventional and nuclear energy systems (fuel, coal and nuclear) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fagnani, F; Hubert, P; Maccia, C

    1981-01-01

    The objective is to compare the occupational risks associated to the production of electricity through three alternative technologies: fuel, coal and nuclear (Pressurised Water Reactor). A methodology is proposed in order to integrate the operation and construction activities. The data related to a French scenario have been collected and are presented. The results obtained in the case of nuclear technology correspond to the present French program for 1990 and have in this respect a prospective value.

  6. Developing a regional canopy fuels assessment strategy using multi-scale lidar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Birgit E.; Nelson, Kurtis

    2011-01-01

    Accurate assessments of canopy fuels are needed by fire scientists to understand fire behavior and to predict future fire occurrence. A key descriptor for canopy fuels is canopy bulk density (CBD). CBD is closely linked to the structure of the canopy; therefore, lidar measurements are particularly well suited to assessments of CBD. LANDFIRE scientists are exploring methods to integrate airborne and spaceborne lidar datasets into a national mapping effort. In this study, airborne lidar, spaceborne lidar, and field data are used to map CBD in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, with the airborne lidar serving as a bridge between the field data and the spaceborne observations. The field-based CBD was positively correlated with airborne lidar observations (R2=0.78). Mapped values of CBD using the airborne lidar dataset were significantly correlated with spaceborne lidar observations when analyzed by forest type (R2=0.62, evergreen and R2=0.71, mixed). Though continued research is necessary to validate these results, they do support the feasibility of airborne and, most importantly, spaceborne lidar data for canopy fuels assessment.

  7. Palladium and palladium-tin supported on multi wall carbon nanotubes or carbon for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; Furtunato da Silva, Dionisio; Martins da Silva, Júlio César; Antonio de Sá, Osvaldo; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Coelho dos Santos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Pd and PdSn (Pd:Sn atomic ratios of 90:10), supported on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) or Carbon (C), are prepared by an electron beam irradiation reduction method. The obtained materials are characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The activity for ethanol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium, at room temperature, using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in the temperature range of 60-90 °C. CV analysis finds that Pd/MWCNT and PdSn/MWCNT presents onset potentials changing to negative values and high current values, compared to Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts. ATR-FTIR analysis, performed during the CV, identifies acetate and acetaldehyde as principal products formed during the ethanol electro-oxidation, with low conversion to CO2. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 ethanol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalysts supported on MWCNT, also, show higher power densities, compared to the materials supported on carbon: PdSn/MWCNT, presents the best result (36 mW cm-2). The results show that the use of MWCNT, instead of carbon, as support, plus the addition of small amounts of Sn to Pd, improves the electrocatalytic activity for Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR).

  8. Physicochemical characterization of particulate emissions from a compression ignition engine employing two injection technologies and three fuels.

    PubMed

    Surawski, N C; Miljevic, B; Ayoko, G A; Roberts, B A; Elbagir, S; Fairfull-Smith, K E; Bottle, S E; Ristovski, Z D

    2011-07-01

    Alternative fuels and injection technologies are a necessary component of particulate emission reduction strategies for compression ignition engines. Consequently, this study undertakes a physicochemical characterization of diesel particulate matter (DPM) for engines equipped with alternative injection technologies (direct injection and common rail) and alternative fuels (ultra low sulfur diesel, a 20% biodiesel blend, and a synthetic diesel). Particle physical properties were addressed by measuring particle number size distributions, and particle chemical properties were addressed by measuring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Particle volatility was determined by passing the polydisperse size distribution through a thermodenuder set to 300 °C. The results from this study, conducted over a four point test cycle, showed that both fuel type and injection technology have an impact on particle emissions, but injection technology was the more important factor. Significant particle number emission (54%-84%) reductions were achieved at half load operation (1% increase-43% decrease at full load) with the common rail injection system; however, the particles had a significantly higher PAH fraction (by a factor of 2 to 4) and ROS concentrations (by a factor of 6 to 16) both expressed on a test-cycle averaged basis. The results of this study have significant implications for the health effects of DPM emissions from both direct injection and common rail engines utilizing various alternative fuels.

  9. Bachelor of Science-Engineering Technology Program and Fuel Cell Education Program Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L.; Sleiti, Ahmad

    2011-09-19

    The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology education project has addressed DOE goals by supplying readily available, objective, technical, and accurate information that is available to students, industry and the public. In addition, the program has supplied educated trainers and training opportunities for the next generation workforce needed for research, development, and demonstration activities in government, industry, and academia. The project has successfully developed courses and associated laboratories, taught the new courses and labs and integrated the HFCT option into the accredited engineering technology and mechanical engineering programs at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNCC). The project has also established ongoing collaborations with the UNCC energy related centers of the Energy Production & Infrastructure Center (EPIC), the NC Motorsports and Automotive Research Center (NCMARC) and the Infrastructure, Design, Environment and Sustainability Center (IDEAS). The results of the project activities are presented as two major areas – (1) course and laboratory development, offerings and delivery, and (2) program recruitment, promotions and collaborations. Over the project period, the primary activity has been the development and offering of 11 HFCT courses and accompanying laboratories. This process has taken three years with the courses first being developed and then offered each year over the timeframe.

  10. Cell integrated multi-junction thermocouple array for solid oxide fuel cell temperature sensing: N+1 architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranaweera, Manoj; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the cell temperature distribution of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during normal operation has multifaceted advantages in performance and degradation studies. Present efforts on measuring temperature from operating SOFCs measure only the gas channel temperature and do not reveal the cell level temperature distribution, which is more important for understanding a cell's performance and its temperature-related degradation. The authors propose a cell-integrated, multi-junction thermocouple array for in-situ cell surface temperature monitoring of an operational SOFC. The proposed thermocouple array requires far fewer numbers of thermoelements than that required by sets of thermocouples for the same number of temperature sensing points. Hence, the proposed array causes lower disturbance to cell performance than thermocouples. The thermoelement array was sputter deposited on the cathode of a commercial SOFC using alumel (Ni:Al:Mn:Si - 95:2:2:1 by wt.) and chromel (Ni:Cr - 90:10 by wt.). The thermocouple array was tested in a furnace over the entire operating temperature range of a typical SOFC. The individual sensing points of the array were shown to measure temperature independently from each other with equivalent accuracy to a thermocouple. Thus, the concept of multi-junction thermocouples is experimentally validated and its stability on a porous SOFC cathode is confirmed.

  11. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 5 Report Use of Fuel Cell Technology in Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the performance of high temperature membranes and observe the impact of different parameters, such as water-to-carbon ratio, carbon formation, hydrogen formation, efficiencies, methane formation, fuel and oxidant utilization, sulfur reduction, and the thermal efficiency/electrical efficiency relationship, on fuel cell performance. A 250 KW PEM fuel cell model was simulated [in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the help of the fuel cell computer software model (GCtool)] which would be used to produce power of 250 kW and also produce steam at 120oC that can be used for industrial applications. The performance of the system was examined by estimating the various electrical and thermal efficiencies achievable, and by assessing the effect of supply water temperature, process water temperature, and pressure on thermal performance. It was concluded that increasing the fuel utilization increases the electrical efficiency but decreases the thermal efficiency. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are optimum at ~85% fuel utilization. The low temperature membrane (70oC) is unsuitable for generating high-grade heat suitable for useful cogeneration. The high temperature fuel cells are capable of producing steam through 280oC that can be utilized for industrial applications. Increasing the supply water temperature reduces the efficiency of the radiator. Increasing the supply water temperature beyond the dew point temperature decreases the thermal efficiency with the corresponding decrease in high-grade heat utilization. Increasing the steam pressure decreases the thermal efficiency. The environmental impacts of fuel cell use depend upon the source of the hydrogen rich fuel used. By using pure hydrogen, fuel cells have virtually no emissions except water. Hydrogen is rarely used due to problems with storage and transportation, but in the future, the growth of a “solar hydrogen economy” has been projected

  12. The Adoption of Advanced Fuel Cycle Technology Under a Single Repository Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Wilson

    2009-11-02

    Develops the tools to investiage the hypothesis that the savings in repository space associated with the implementation of advanced nuclear fuel cycles can result in sufficient cost savings to offset the higher costs of those fuel cycles.

  13. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  14. Analytic Methods for Benchmarking Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, Marc; Saur, Genevieve; Ramsden, Todd; Eichman, Joshua

    2015-05-28

    This presentation summarizes NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis work in three areas: resource potential, greenhouse gas emissions and cost of delivered energy, and influence of auxiliary revenue streams. NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis projects focus on low-­carbon and economic transportation and stationary fuel cell applications. Analysis tools developed by the lab provide insight into the degree to which bridging markets can strengthen the business case for fuel cell applications.

  15. Externally-fired combined cycle: An effective coal fueled technology for repowering and new generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, L.E.; Bary, M.R.; Gray, K.M.; LaHaye, P.G.

    1995-06-01

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is an attractive emerging technology for powering high efficiency combined gas and steam turbine cycles with coal or other ash bearing fuels. In the EFCC, the heat input to a gas turbine is supplied indirectly through a ceramic air heater. The air heater, along with an atmospheric coal combustor and ancillary equipment, replaces the conventional gas turbine combustor. A steam generator located downstream from the ceramic air heater and steam turbine cycle, along with an exhaust cleanup system, completes the combined cycle. A key element of the EFCC Development Program, the 25 MMBtu/h heat-input Kennebunk Test Facility (KTF), has recently begun operation. The KTF has been operating with natural gas and will begin operating with coal in early 1995. The US Department of Energy selected an EFCC repowering of the Pennsylvania Electric Company`s Warren Station for funding under the Clean Coal Technology Program Round V. The project focuses on repowering an existing 48 MW (gross) steam turbine with an EFCC power island incorporating a 30 MW gas turbine, for a gross power output of 78 MW and a net output of 72 MW. The net plant heat rate will be decreased by approximately 30% to below 9,700 Btu/kWh. Use of a dry scrubber and fabric filter will reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate emissions to levels under those required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions are controlled by the use of staged combustion. The demonstration project is currently in the engineering phase, with startup scheduled for 1997. This paper discusses the background of the EFCC, the KTF, the Warren Station EFCC Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project, the commercial plant concept, and the market potential for the EFCC.

  16. The Development of Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Power Generation - From Spacecraft Applications to the Hydrogen Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The fuel cell uses a catalyzed reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer to directly produce electricity. Its high theoretical efficiency and low temperature operation made it a subject of much study upon its invention ca. 1900, but its relatively high life cycle costs kept it as "solution in search of a problem" for its first half century. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a cost effective solution was, starting in the 1960's that of a power source for NASA's manned spacecraft. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. However, starting in the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of terrestrial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but these advances are often in directions quite different from those needed for NASA spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's manned space program.

  17. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    agents for the briquetting of 90% coal and 10% sawdust blends. Guar gum, wheat starch, and a multi-component formulation were identified as most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the pulverized-coal market with costs being around $8 per ton of the coal-sawdust blend. REAX/lime and a second multi-component formulation were identified as the most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the stoker-coal market. Various sources of sawdust generated from different wood types were also investigated to determine their chemical properties and to evaluate their relative performance when briquetted with clean coal to form a premium fuel. The highest heating values, approaching 7,000 Btu/lb, were obtained from oak. Sawdusts from higher-density, red oak, white oak, hickory, and beech trees provided higher quality briquettes relative to their lower-density counterparts. In addition to sawdust type, a number of other parameters were evaluated to characterize their impact on briquette properties. The parameters that exhibited the greatest impact on briquette performance were binder concentration; sawdust concentration and particle size; cure temperature; and ash content. Parameters that had the least impact on briquette properties, at least over the ranges studied, were moisture content, briquetting force, and briquetting dwell time. The continuous production of briquettes from a blend of coal and sawdust was evaluated using a 200 lbs/hr Komarek Model B-100 briquetter. The heating values of briquettes produced by the unit exceeded the goal of the project by a large margin. A significant observation was the role of feed moisture on the stability of the mass flow rate through the briquetter and on briquette strength. Excessive feed moisture levels caused inconsistent or stoppage of material flow through the feed hopper and resulted in the production of variable-quality briquettes. Obviously, the limit on feed moisture content has a

  18. Examining the Impact of Off-Task Multi-Tasking with Technology on Real-Time Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Eileen; Zivcakova, Lucia; Gentile, Petrice; Archer, Karin; De Pasquale, Domenica; Nosko, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of multi-tasking with digital technologies while attempting to learn from real-time classroom lectures in a university setting. Four digitally-based multi-tasking activities (texting using a cell-phone, emailing, MSN messaging and Facebook[TM]) were compared to 3 control groups…

  19. Significance of chamber pressure to complex multi-phase physics in jet engine fuel injection processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Rainer; Oefelein, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Injection processes in jet engines at chamber pressures in excess of the thermodynamic critical pressure of the liquid fuel are not well understood. Under some conditions, a distinct two-phase interface may not exist anymore which eliminates the presence of classical spray atomization phenomena. A comprehensive model for jet engine fuel injections is derived to quantify the conditions under which the interfacial dynamics transition to diffusion-dominated mixing processes without surface tension. At certain conditions, the model shows two-phase interfaces with substantially increased thicknesses and distinctively reduced mean free paths in comparison to ambient pressure conditions. Then, the underlying assumptions of a distinct two-phase interface do not apply anymore and the interface along with its surface tension is shown to deteriorate as it broadens substantially. As a consequence of this physical complexity, the conceptual view of spray atomization and evaporation as an appropriate model for jet engine injection processes is, contrary to conventional wisdom, questionable at certain operating conditions. Instead, a Large Eddy Simulation using a dense-fluid approximation is applied which takes the complex thermo-physics of real-fluid behavior into account.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design

    DOEpatents

    McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.; Myles, Kevin M.

    1999-01-01

    A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell. The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell with multi-unit construction and prismatic design

    DOEpatents

    McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.; Myles, K.M.

    1999-03-16

    A single cell unit of a solid oxide fuel cell is described that is individually fabricated and sintered prior to being connected to adjacent cells to form a solid oxide fuel cell. The single cell unit is comprised of a shaped anode sheet positioned between a flat anode sheet and an anode-electrolyte-cathode (A/E/C) sheet, and a shaped cathode sheet positioned between the A/E/C sheet and a cathode-interconnect-anode (C/I/A) sheet. An alternate embodiment comprises a shaped cathode sheet positioned between an A/E/C sheet and a C/I/A sheet. The shaped sheets form channels for conducting reactant gases. Each single cell unit is individually sintered to form a finished sub-assembly. The finished sub-assemblies are connected in electrical series by interposing connective material between the end surfaces of adjacent cells, whereby individual cells may be inspected for defects and interchanged with non-defective single cell units. 7 figs.

  2. Energy technology VIII: New fuels era; Proceedings of the Eighth Conference, Washington, DC, March 9-11, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, R. F.

    Papers were presented on energy analysis, planning, and regulation, noting lead times necessary for energy systems development, the socioeconomic and environmental effects of energy systems, and utility planning procedures. Effective energy use was considered in terms of utility load management, cogeneration, conservation, heat pumps, and heat recovery methods. Technologies for exploitation of fossil, geothermal, and nuclear resources were discussed, with attention given to synthetic fuels, fuel cells, and fusion prospects. Finally renewable energy resources were examined regarding solar building heat systems, economics, solar pond performance, biomass, alcohol, small-scale hydro, wind turbine performance, and photovoltaic systems.

  3. Multi-PV technologies method for parameters estimation of two-diode model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallem, Souhir; Marrekchi, Amal; Kammoun, Soulaymen; Ben Ali Kammoun, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Researches are showing that photovoltaic cell equivalent model parameters are not constant and are sensitive to climatic conditions changes. An improved algorithm for multi-photovoltaic cells manufacturing technologies to estimate those parameters is presented in this paper. The method allows a dynamic model for the PV cell according to different climatic conditions. This method shows a better performance of the model for several technologies (poly-crystalline, mono-crystalline and amorphous) of the PV module. Simulated I - V curves are compared to experimental characteristics and other estimation methods for different PV modules and different technologies. Some considerations about the impact of the variations of these resistances on the PV module performance are drawn.

  4. Object-oriented technologies in a multi-mission data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Susan C.; Miller, Kevin J.; Louie, John J.

    1993-01-01

    The Operations Engineering Laboratory (OEL) at JPL is developing new technologies that can provide more efficient and productive ways of doing business in flight operations. Over the past three years, we have worked closely with the Multi-Mission Control Team to develop automation tools, providing technology transfer into operations and resulting in substantial cost savings and error reduction. The OEL development philosophy is characterized by object-oriented design, extensive reusability of code, and an iterative development model with active participation of the end users. Through our work, the benefits of object-oriented design became apparent for use in mission control data systems. Object-oriented technologies and how they can be used in a mission control center to improve efficiency and productivity are explained. The current research and development efforts in the JPL Operations Engineering Laboratory are also discussed to architect and prototype a new paradigm for mission control operations based on object-oriented concepts.

  5. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Kukwon; Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Sluder, Scott; Parks, II, James E; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly

  7. A consortium approach to commercialized Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, Allan

    Westinghouse is developing its tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for a variety of applications in stationary power generation markets. By pressurizing a SOFC and integrating it with a gas turbine (GT), power systems with efficiencies as high as 70-75% can be obtained. The first such system will be tested in 1998. Because of their extraordinarily high efficiency (60-70%) even in small sizes the first SOFC products to be offered are expected to be integrated SOFC/GT power systems in the 1-7 MW range, for use in the emerging distributed generation (DG) market segment. Expansion into larger sizes will follow later. Because of their modularity, environmental friendliness and expected cost effectiveness, and because of a worldwide thrust towards utility deregulation, a ready market is forecasted for baseload distributed generation. Assuming Westinghouse can complete its technology development and reach its cost targets, the integrated SOFC/GT power system is seen as a product with tremendous potential in the emerging distributed generation market. While Westinghouse has been a leader in the development of power generation technology for over a century, it does not plan to manufacture small gas turbines. However, GTs small enough to integrate with SOFCs and address the 1-7 MW market are generally available from various manufacturers. Westinghouse will need access to a new set of customers as it brings baseload plants to the present small market mix of emergency and peaking power applications. Small cogeneration applications, already strong in some parts of the world, are also gaining ground everywhere. Small GT manufacturers already serve this market, and alliances and partnerships can enhance SOFC commercialization. Utilities also serve the DG market, especially those that have set up energy service companies and seek to grow beyond the legal and geographical confines of their current regulated business. Because fuel cells in general are a new product, because small

  8. Development of pyro-processing technology at CRIEPI for carving out the future of nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Iizuka, M.; Koyama, T.; Sakamura, Y.; Uozumi, K.; Fujihata, K.; Kato, T.; Murakami, T.; Tsukada, T.; Glatz, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    Pyro-processing has been attracting increasing attention as a promising candidate as an advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology. It provides economic advantage as well as reduction in proliferation risk and burden of long live radioactive waste, especially when it is combined with advanced fuels such as metallic or nitride fuel which gives excellent burning efficiency of minor actinides (MA). CRIEPI has been developing pyro-processing technology since late eighties with both domestic and international collaborations. In the early stage, electrochemical and thermodynamic properties in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt, and fundamental feasibility of core technology like electrorefining were chiefly investigated. Currently, stress in the process chemistry development is also placed on supporting technologies, such as treatment of anode residue and high temperature distillation for cathode product from electrorefining, and so on. Waste treatment process development, such as studies on adsorption behavior of various FP elements into zeolite and conditions for the fabrication of glass-bonded sodalite waste form, are steadily improved as well. In parallel, dedicated pyro-processing equipment such as zeolite column for treatment of spent electro-refiner salt is currently in progress. Recently, an integrated engineering-scale fuel cycle tests were performed funded by Japanese government (MEXT) as an important step before proceeding to large scale hot demonstration of pyro-processing. Oxide fuels can be readily introduced into the pyro-processing by reducing them to metals by adoption of electrochemical reduction technique. Making use of this advantage, the pyro-processing is currently under preliminary evaluation for its applicability to the treatment of the corium, mainly consisting of (U,Zr)O{sub 2}, formed in different composition during the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. (authors)

  9. A calibration technology for multi-camera system with various focal lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruihua; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Huaxia; Yu, Liandong

    2016-01-01

    Calibration is the basis of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction for machine vision technology. Nowadays, the most widely used calibration method among computer vision is the technique for binocular stereo measurement. However, binocular stereo vision has limited view field which is difficult to measure large-scale mechanical components synchronously. Thus, enlarging the view field is urgent in need for the large scale measurement. With the application of multi-camera system, the calibration for cameras with different focal lengths is required. In this paper, a method aiming at calibration problems for multi-camera system of different focal lengths is proposed. An imaging model for multi-camera system with various focal lengths is analyzed. The Harris corner detector is applied to determine the relationship between signal camera and checkerboard. Finally, the external parameters of different cameras can be obtained by the link with the checkerboard. The calibration results indicate that the calculation method used in this work can calibrate multi-camera with various focal lengths.

  10. CORAL: a stepping stone for establishing the Indian fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, M.; Natarajan, R.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-07-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel from Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been successfully demonstrated in the pilot plant, CORAL (COmpact Reprocessing facility for Advanced fuels in Lead shielded cell). Since commissioning in 2003, spent mixed carbide fuel from FBTR of different burnups and varying cooling period, have been reprocessed in this facility. Reprocessing of the spent fuel with a maximum burnup of 100 GWd/t has been successfully carried out so far. The feed backs from these campaigns with progressively increasing specific activities, have been useful in establishing a viable process flowsheet for reprocessing the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) spent fuel. Also, the design of various equipments and processes for the future plants, which are either under design for construction, namely, the Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (DFRP) and the Fast reactor fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP) could be finalized. (authors)

  11. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

    2003-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling with best-case scenario assumptions, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: MOBILE SOURCE RETROFIT AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES: CLEAN CLEAR FUEL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.’S, UNIVERSAL FUEL CELL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development operates the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. Congress funds ETV in response to the belief ...

  13. Future Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-04

    tactical ground mobility and increasing operational reach • Identify, review, and assess – Technologies for reducing fuel consumption, including...T I O N S A C T I O N S TOR Focus - Tactical ground mobility - Operational reach - Not A/C, Ships, or troops Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Management...Fuel Management During Combat Operations Energy Fundamentals • Energy Density • Tactical Mobility • Petroleum Use • Fuel Usage (TWV) • TWV OP TEMPO TOR

  14. Study on Model Based Combustion Control of Diesel Engine with Multi Fuel Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikemura, R.; Yamasaki, Y.; Kaneko, S.

    2016-09-01

    A controller for model-based control of diesel engine with triple injection were developed with a combustion model. In the combustion model, an engine cycle is discretized into several representative points in order to improve calculation speed, while physical equations are employed to expand the versatility. The combustion model can predict in-cylinder pressure and temperature in these discrete points. Prediction accuracy of the combustion model was evaluated by comparison with experimental result. A controller was designed with the combustion model in order to calculate optimal fuel injection pattern for controlling in-cylinder pressure peak timing. The controller's performance was evaluated through simulation in which the combustion model was used as a plant model.

  15. Experiments and Modeling of Multi-Component Fuel Behavior in Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    gas stream is reduced in pressure and collected in a - 20 - Secondary Gas Input Gas Catalyst/Fuel Feeder ( .. 5 mm ID Inconel Tube Optical Sensor ...1.17424E-2 -6.05608E-4 -5.21833E-3 -4.34469E-4 I AMonia 3.03197E-2 2.48355E-3 I 5.35142E-3 I COs 2.91963E-3 6.77602E-5 5.83?26E-4 I 7.78665E-4 CS2...1.19925E-2 .1@342 8.6105SE-3 I% Amonia 3.19180E-2 2.61235E-3 I 3.63353E-3 I% C25 2.54749E-3 5.90755E-5 5.69498E-4 0 6.79416E-4CS2 -2.61289E-3

  16. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

  17. Two stage bioethanol refining with multi litre stacked microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Gloriod, Olivier; Huguenin, Gérald; Blatter, Maxime; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-12-01

    Ethanol, electricity, hydrogen and methane were produced in a two stage bioethanol refinery setup based on a 10L microbial fuel cell (MFC) and a 33L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MFC was a triple stack for ethanol and electricity co-generation. The stack configuration produced more ethanol with faster glucose consumption the higher the stack potential. Under electrolytic conditions ethanol productivity outperformed standard conditions and reached 96.3% of the theoretically best case. At lower external loads currents and working potentials oscillated in a self-synchronized manner over all three MFC units in the stack. In the second refining stage, fermentation waste was converted into methane, using the scale up MEC stack. The bioelectric methanisation reached 91% efficiency at room temperature with an applied voltage of 1.5V using nickel cathodes. The two stage bioethanol refining process employing bioelectrochemical reactors produces more energy vectors than is possible with today's ethanol distilleries.

  18. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first project quarter, a technical kick-off meeting was held on the Brown campus involving PIs from Brown (Hurt, Calo), BYU (Fletcher), and B&W (Sayre, Burge). Following this first meeting the current version of CBK (Version 8) was transferred to B&W McDermott and the HP-CBK code developed by BYU was transferred to Brown to help guide the code development in this project. Also during the first project year, progress was reviewed at an all-hands meeting was held at Brigham Young University in August, 2001. The meeting was attended by PIs Fletcher, Hurt, Calo, and Sayre, and also by affiliated investigators Steven Burge from McDermott and Prof. William Hecker from BYU. During the first project year, significant progress was made on several fronts, as described in detail in the previous annual report. In the current second annual report, we report on progress made on two important project tasks. At Brown University: (1) Char combustion reactivities at 500 C in air were determined for a diverse set of solid fuels and organic model compound chars. These varied over 4 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 700 C, and over 3 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 1000 C. The resultant reactivities correlate poorly with organic elemental composition and with char surface area. (2) Specially-acquired model materials with minute amounts of inorganic matter exhibit low reactivities that fall in a narrow band as a function of wt-% carbon. Reactivities in this sample subset correlate reasonably well with total char surface area. (3) A hybrid chemical/statistical model was developed which explains most of the observed reactivity variation based on four variables: the amounts of nano-dispersed K, nanodispersed (Ca+Mg), elemental carbon (wt-% daf), and

  19. A multi-platform linking code for fuel burnup and radiotoxicity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, R.; Pereira, C.; Veloso, M. A. F.; Cardoso, F.; Costa, A. L.

    2014-02-01

    A linking code between ORIGEN2.1 and MCNP has been developed at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/UFMG to calculate coupled neutronic/isotopic results for nuclear systems and to produce a large number of criticality, burnup and radiotoxicity results. In its previous version, it evaluated the isotopic composition evolution in a Heat Pipe Power System model as well as the radiotoxicity and radioactivity during lifetime cycles. In the new version, the code presents features such as multi-platform execution and automatic results analysis. Improvements made in the code allow it to perform simulations in a simpler and faster way without compromising accuracy. Initially, the code generates a new input for MCNP based on the decisions of the user. After that, MCNP is run and data, such as recoverable energy per prompt fission neutron, reaction rates and keff, are automatically extracted from the output and used to calculate neutron flux and cross sections. These data are then used to construct new ORIGEN inputs, one for each cell in the core. Each new input is run on ORIGEN and generates outputs that represent the complete isotopic composition of the core on that time step. The results show good agreement between GB (Coupled Neutronic/Isotopic code) and Monteburns (Automated, Multi-Step Monte Carlo Burnup Code System), developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. Autonomous Decentralized Voltage Profile Control of Super Distributed Energy System using Multi-agent Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Takao; Hara, Ryoichi; Oyama, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Keiichiro

    A super distributed energy system is a future energy system in which the large part of its demand is fed by a huge number of distributed generators. At one time some nodes in the super distributed energy system behave as load, however, at other times they behave as generator - the characteristic of each node depends on the customers' decision. In such situation, it is very difficult to regulate voltage profile over the system due to the complexity of power flows. This paper proposes a novel control method of distributed generators that can achieve the autonomous decentralized voltage profile regulation by using multi-agent technology. The proposed multi-agent system employs two types of agent; a control agent and a mobile agent. Control agents generate or consume reactive power to regulate the voltage profile of neighboring nodes and mobile agents transmit the information necessary for VQ-control among the control agents. The proposed control method is tested through numerical simulations.