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Sample records for multi-charged ion atom

  1. Energy dependence of multi-electron transfer reactions between slow multi-charged ions and neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoda, Toshinori; Kamemoto, Shinsuke; Hirayama, Takato; Koizumi, Tetsuo

    2009-11-01

    Using an ion-spectroscopy method, charge transfer reactions between slow multi-charged Arq+(q=3~5) ions and neutral Ar atoms have been studied in the laboratory collision energies from 3.1 to 4.6keV. The energy gain spectra of single-electron capture processes show no strong energy dependence. On the contrary, those of double-electron capture processes depend on the collision energy.

  2. Low Energy Electron Capture by Multi-Charged Ions from H(D).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejoub, R.; Krstic, P. S.; Schultz, D. R.; Havener, C. C.; Lee, T. G.

    2004-05-01

    Low energy electron capture cross sections are measured at the ORNL Multi-charged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) using the ion-atom merged-beams technique. Absolute measurements are performed for the fundamental one-electron He^2+ + H system and when combined with previous measurements establish an experimental benchmark for comparison with recent theory. New measurements for N^2+ + H in the collision energy range 0.015-100 eV/u show a typical 1/v increasing cross section below 10 eV/u with the possibility of structures below 1 eV/u. An investigation is underway to explore the origin of the structures observed at both low and high energies. The ion-atom merged-beams apparatus is being upgraded to take advantage of the high velocity and higher quality beams that will be produced by the ORNL HV platform upgrade project. Expected improvements include access to lower energies with better energy resolution for measurements with both H and D. Research supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. DoE, Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 and by the NASA SARA program under Work Order No. 10,060 with UT-Batelle, LLC.

  3. Beam Extraction from Laser Driven Multi-Charged Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O A; Logan, B G

    2001-03-19

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. They discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1-MV beam of Xe{sup 16+} ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. The design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from the initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. They conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 amperes.

  4. An analytic expression for the sheath criterion in magnetized plasmas with multi-charged ion species

    SciTech Connect

    Hatami, M. M.

    2015-04-15

    The generalized Bohm criterion in magnetized multi-component plasmas consisting of multi-charged positive and negative ion species and electrons is analytically investigated by using the hydrodynamic model. It is assumed that the electrons and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with different temperatures and the positive ions enter into the sheath region obliquely. Our results show that the positive and negative ion temperatures, the orientation of the applied magnetic field and the charge number of positive and negative ions strongly affect the Bohm criterion in these multi-component plasmas. To determine the validity of our derived generalized Bohm criterion, it reduced to some familiar physical condition and it is shown that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when entrance velocity of ion into the sheath satisfies the obtained Bohm criterion. Also, as a practical application of the obtained Bohm criterion, effects of the ionic temperature and concentration as well as magnetic field on the behavior of the charged particle density distributions and so the sheath thickness of a magnetized plasma consisting of electrons and singly charged positive and negative ion species are studied numerically.

  5. Theoretical investigations of the IO,q+ (q = 2, 3, 4) multi-charged ions: metastability, characterization and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hammami, H; Yazidi, O; Ben El Hadj Rhouma, M; Al Mogren, M M; Hochlaf, M

    2014-07-07

    Using ab initio methodology, we studied the IO(q+) (q = 2, 3, 4) multi-charged ions. Benchmark computations on the IO(X(2)Π) neutral species allow validate the current procedure. For IO(2+), several potential wells were found on the ground and the electronic excited states potentials with potential barriers with respect to dissociation, where this dication can exist in the gas phase as long-lived metastable molecules. We confirm hence the recent observation of the dication by mass spectrometry. Moreover, we predict the existence of the metastable IO(3+) trication, where a shallow potential well along the IO internuclear distance is computed. This potential well supports more than 10 vibrational levels. The IO(3+) excited states are repulsive in nature, as well as the computed potentials for the IO(4+) tetracation. For the bound states, we give a set of spectroscopic parameters including excitation transition energies, equilibrium distances, harmonic and anharmonic vibrational terms, and rotational constants. At the MRCI + Q/aug-cc-pV5Z(-PP) level, the adiabatic double and triple ionization energies of IO are computed to be ~28.1 eV and ~55.0 eV, respectively.

  6. Theoretical investigations of the IO,{sup q+} (q = 2, 3, 4) multi-charged ions: Metastability, characterization and spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hammami, H.; Yazidi, O.; Ben El Hadj Rhouma, M.; Al Mogren, M. M.; Hochlaf, M.

    2014-07-07

    Using ab initio methodology, we studied the IO{sup q+} (q = 2, 3, 4) multi-charged ions. Benchmark computations on the IO(X{sup 2}Π) neutral species allow validate the current procedure. For IO{sup 2+}, several potential wells were found on the ground and the electronic excited states potentials with potential barriers with respect to dissociation, where this dication can exist in the gas phase as long-lived metastable molecules. We confirm hence the recent observation of the dication by mass spectrometry. Moreover, we predict the existence of the metastable IO{sup 3+} trication, where a shallow potential well along the IO internuclear distance is computed. This potential well supports more than 10 vibrational levels. The IO{sup 3+} excited states are repulsive in nature, as well as the computed potentials for the IO{sup 4+} tetracation. For the bound states, we give a set of spectroscopic parameters including excitation transition energies, equilibrium distances, harmonic and anharmonic vibrational terms, and rotational constants. At the MRCI + Q/aug-cc-pV5Z(-PP) level, the adiabatic double and triple ionization energies of IO are computed to be ∼28.1 eV and ∼55.0 eV, respectively.

  7. Generation of multi-charged high current ion beams using the SMIS 37 gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, M. A.; Zorin, V. G.; Sidorov, A. V.; Bokhanov, A. F.; Izotov, I. V.; Razin, S. V.; Skalyga, V. A.

    2013-06-02

    A gas-dynamic ECR ion source (GaDIS) is distinguished by its ability to produce high current and high brightness beams of moderately charged ions. Contrary to a classical ECR ion source where the plasma confinement is determined by the slow electron scattering into an empty loss-cone, the higher density and lower electron temperature in a GaDIS plasma lead to an isotropic electron distribution with the confinement time determined by the prompt gas-dynamic flow losses. As a result, much higher ion fluxes are available, however a decrease in the confinement time of the GaDIS plasma lowers the ion charge state. The gas-dynamic ECR ion source concept has been successfully realized in the SMIS 37 experimental facility operated at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia. The use of high-power (~100 kW) microwave (37.5 GHz) radiation provides a dense plasma (~1013 cm-3) with a relatively low electron temperature (~50- 100 eV) and allows for the generation of high current (~1 A/cm2) beams of multi-charged ions. In this work we report on the present status of the SMIS 37 ion source and discuss the advanced numerical modeling of ion beam extraction using the particle-in-cell code WARP

  8. Photoabsorption by Ions and Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, Steven T.

    2004-12-01

    Recent progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of photoabsorption by atoms and ions is presented. Specifically, examples of near-chaotic behavior in photoionization of positive ions, low-energy manifestations of nondipole effects, high-energy breakdown of the single particle picture and new phenomenology uncovered in the inner-shell photoabsorption by negative ions are discussed.

  9. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  10. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  11. Trapping ions and atoms optically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaetz, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Isolating neutral and charged particles from the environment is essential in precision experiments. For decades, this has been achieved by trapping ions with radio-frequency (RF) fields and neutral particles with optical fields. Recently, the trapping of ions by interaction with light has been demonstrated. This might permit the advantages of optical trapping and ions to be combined. For example, we would benefit from superimposing optical traps to investigate ensembles of ions and atoms in the absence of any RF fields and from the versatile and scalable trapping geometries featured by optical lattices. In particular, ions provide individual addressability, and electronic and motional degrees of freedom that can be coherently controlled and detected via high-fidelity, state-dependent operations. Their long-range Coulomb interaction is significantly larger compared to those of neutral atoms and molecules. This enables ultra-cold interaction and the chemistry of trapped ions and atoms to be studied, as well as providing a novel platform for higher-dimensional experimental quantum simulations. The aim of this topical review is to present the current state of the art and to discuss the current challenges and prospects of the emerging field.

  12. Atomic absorption spectroscopy in ion channel screening.

    PubMed

    Stankovich, Larisa; Wicks, David; Despotovski, Sasko; Liang, Dong

    2004-10-01

    This article examines the utility of atomic absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with cold flux assays, to ion channel screening. The multiplicity of ion channels that can be interrogated using cold flux assays and atomic absorption spectroscopy is summarized. The importance of atomic absorption spectroscopy as a screening tool is further elaborated upon by providing examples of the relevance of ion channels to various physiological processes and targeted diseases.

  13. Laser-cooled atomic ions as probes of molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kenneth R.; Viteri, C. Ricardo; Clark, Craig R.; Goeders, James E.; Khanyile, Ncamiso B.; Vittorini, Grahame D.

    2015-01-22

    Trapped laser-cooled atomic ions are a new tool for understanding cold molecular ions. The atomic ions not only sympathetically cool the molecular ions to millikelvin temperatures, but the bright atomic ion fluorescence can also serve as a detector of both molecular reactions and molecular spectra. We are working towards the detection of single molecular ion spectra by sympathetic heating spectroscopy. Sympathetic heating spectroscopy uses the coupled motion of two trapped ions to measure the spectra of one ion by observing changes in the fluorescence of the other ion. Sympathetic heating spectroscopy is a generalization of quantum logic spectroscopy, but does not require ions in the motional ground state or coherent control of the ion internal states. We have recently demonstrated this technique using two isotopes of Ca{sup +} [Phys. Rev. A, 81, 043428 (2010)]. Limits of the method and potential applications for molecular spectroscopy are discussed.

  14. Ion-Atom Cold Collisions and Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Maleki, Lute; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Collisions between ultracold neutral atoms have for some time been the subject of investigation, initially with hydrogen and more recently with laser cooled alkali atoms. Advances in laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms in a Magneto-Optic Trap (MOT) have made cold atoms available as the starting point for many laser cooled atomic physics investigations. The most spectacularly successful of these, the observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) in a dilute ultra-cold spin polarized atomic vapor, has accelerated the study of cold collisions. Experimental and theoretical studies of BEC and the long range interaction between cold alkali atoms is at the boundary of atomic and low temperature physics. Such studies have been difficult and would not have been possible without the development and advancement of laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms. By contrast, ion-atom interactions at low temperature, also very difficult to study prior to modern day laser cooling, have remained largely unexplored. But now, many laboratories worldwide have almost routine access to cold neutral atoms. The combined technologies of ion trapping, together with laser cooling of neutrals has made these studies experimentally feasible and several very important, novel applications might come out of such investigations . This paper is an investigation of ion-atom interactions in the cold and ultra-cold temperature regime. Some of the collisional ion-atom interactions present at room temperature are very much reduced in the low temperature regime. Reaction rates for charge transfer between unlike atoms, A + B(+) approaches A(+) + B, are expected to fall rapidly with temperature, approximately as T(sup 5/2). Thus, cold mixtures of atoms and ions are expected to coexist for very long times, unlike room temperature mixtures of the same ion-atom combination. Thus, it seems feasible to cool ions via collisions with laser cooled atoms. Many of the conventional collisional interactions

  15. Ion-Atom Cold Collisions and Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Maleki, Lute; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Collisions between ultracold neutral atoms have for some time been the subject of investigation, initially with hydrogen and more recently with laser cooled alkali atoms. Advances in laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms in a Magneto-Optic Trap (MOT) have made cold atoms available as the starting point for many laser cooled atomic physics investigations. The most spectacularly successful of these, the observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) in a dilute ultra-cold spin polarized atomic vapor, has accelerated the study of cold collisions. Experimental and theoretical studies of BEC and the long range interaction between cold alkali atoms is at the boundary of atomic and low temperature physics. Such studies have been difficult and would not have been possible without the development and advancement of laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms. By contrast, ion-atom interactions at low temperature, also very difficult to study prior to modern day laser cooling, have remained largely unexplored. But now, many laboratories worldwide have almost routine access to cold neutral atoms. The combined technologies of ion trapping, together with laser cooling of neutrals has made these studies experimentally feasible and several very important, novel applications might come out of such investigations . This paper is an investigation of ion-atom interactions in the cold and ultra-cold temperature regime. Some of the collisional ion-atom interactions present at room temperature are very much reduced in the low temperature regime. Reaction rates for charge transfer between unlike atoms, A + B(+) approaches A(+) + B, are expected to fall rapidly with temperature, approximately as T(sup 5/2). Thus, cold mixtures of atoms and ions are expected to coexist for very long times, unlike room temperature mixtures of the same ion-atom combination. Thus, it seems feasible to cool ions via collisions with laser cooled atoms. Many of the conventional collisional interactions

  16. Atomic Clock Based On Linear Ion Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Dick, G. John

    1992-01-01

    Highly stable atomic clock based on excitation and measurement of hyperfine transition in 199Hg+ ions confined in linear quadrupole trap by radio-frequency and static electric fields. Configuration increases stability of clock by enabling use of enough ions to obtain adequate signal while reducing non-thermal component of motion of ions in trapping field, reducing second-order Doppler shift of hyperfine transition. Features described in NPO-17758 "Linear Ion Trap for Atomic Clock." Frequency standard based on hyperfine transition described in NPO-17456, "Trapped-Mercury-Ion Frequency Standard."

  17. Single atom devices by ion implantation.

    PubMed

    van Donkelaar, Jessica; Yang, C; Alves, A D C; McCallum, J C; Hougaard, C; Johnson, B C; Hudson, F E; Dzurak, A S; Morello, A; Spemann, D; Jamieson, D N

    2015-04-22

    To expand the capabilities of semiconductor devices for new functions exploiting the quantum states of single donors or other impurity atoms requires a deterministic fabrication method. Ion implantation is a standard tool of the semiconductor industry and we have developed pathways to deterministic ion implantation to address this challenge. Although ion straggling limits the precision with which atoms can be positioned, for single atom devices it is possible to use post-implantation techniques to locate favourably placed atoms in devices for control and readout. However, large-scale devices will require improved precision. We examine here how the method of ion beam induced charge, already demonstrated for the deterministic ion implantation of 14 keV P donor atoms in silicon, can be used to implant a non-Poisson distribution of ions in silicon. Further, we demonstrate the method can be developed to higher precision by the incorporation of new deterministic ion implantation strategies that employ on-chip detectors with internal charge gain. In a silicon device we show a pulse height spectrum for 14 keV P ion impact that shows an internal gain of 3 that has the potential of allowing deterministic implantation of sub-14 keV P ions with reduced straggling.

  18. Radioactive Ions and Atoms in Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendooven, P.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; ńystö, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W. X.

    2006-04-01

    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve the extraction. Evaporating a thin surface layer of the liquid using second-sound pulses gave an extraction efficiency of 7.2 %.

  19. Entangled states of trapped atomic ions.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Rainer; Wineland, David

    2008-06-19

    To process information using quantum-mechanical principles, the states of individual particles need to be entangled and manipulated. One way to do this is to use trapped, laser-cooled atomic ions. Attaining a general-purpose quantum computer is, however, a distant goal, but recent experiments show that just a few entangled trapped ions can be used to improve the precision of measurements. If the entanglement in such systems can be scaled up to larger numbers of ions, simulations that are intractable on a classical computer might become possible.

  20. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  1. Quantum-classical electron distributions in atoms and atomic ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, Joseph A.

    1988-01-01

    A quantum-classical approach is used to obtain the velocity distributions in atoms and positive and negative ions in both ground and excited states. In the analysis, Hartree-Fock electronic wavefunctions are used to determine the radial electron distributions, and the central-field approximation is used to study the the dynamic properties of the localized electrons. The distributions for the outer and inner shells are found to agree well with exact results obtained by numerical calculations.

  2. Quantum-classical electron distributions in atoms and atomic ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, Joseph A.

    1988-01-01

    A quantum-classical approach is used to obtain the velocity distributions in atoms and positive and negative ions in both ground and excited states. In the analysis, Hartree-Fock electronic wavefunctions are used to determine the radial electron distributions, and the central-field approximation is used to study the the dynamic properties of the localized electrons. The distributions for the outer and inner shells are found to agree well with exact results obtained by numerical calculations.

  3. Atomic ion clock with two ion traps, and method to transfer ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D. (Inventor); Chung, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An atomic ion clock with a first ion trap and a second ion trap, where the second ion trap is of higher order than the first ion trap. In one embodiment, ions may be shuttled back and forth from one ion trap to the other by application of voltage ramps to the electrodes in the ion traps, where microwave interrogation takes place when the ions are in the second ion trap, and fluorescence is induced and measured when the ions are in the first ion trap. In one embodiment, the RF voltages applied to the second ion trap to contain the ions are at a higher frequency than that applied to the first ion trap. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  4. Fully variational average atom model with ion-ion correlations.

    PubMed

    Starrett, C E; Saumon, D

    2012-02-01

    An average atom model for dense ionized fluids that includes ion correlations is presented. The model assumes spherical symmetry and is based on density functional theory, the integral equations for uniform fluids, and a variational principle applied to the grand potential. Starting from density functional theory for a mixture of classical ions and quantum mechanical electrons, an approximate grand potential is developed, with an external field being created by a central nucleus fixed at the origin. Minimization of this grand potential with respect to electron and ion densities is carried out, resulting in equations for effective interaction potentials. A third condition resulting from minimizing the grand potential with respect to the average ion charge determines the noninteracting electron chemical potential. This system is coupled to a system of point ions and electrons with an ion fixed at the origin, and a closed set of equations is obtained. Solution of these equations results in a self-consistent electronic and ionic structure for the plasma as well as the average ionization, which is continuous as a function of temperature and density. Other average atom models are recovered by application of simplifying assumptions.

  5. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-01

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 107 A m-2 sr-1 eV-1 and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 107 A m-2 sr-1 eV-1. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  6. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-28

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  7. JPL Ultrastable Trapped Ion Atomic Frequency Standards.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric A; Yi, Lin; Tucker, Blake; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Recently, room temperature trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on three directions: 1) ultrastable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate stability performance and autonomous timekeeping; 2) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements; and 3) miniature clocks. In this paper, we concentrate on the first direction and present a design and the initial results from a new ultrastable clock referred to as L10 that achieves a short-term stability of 4.5 ×10(-14)/τ(1/2) and an initial measurement of no significant drift with an uncertainty of 2.4 ×10(-16) /day over a two-week period.

  8. Collisional Cooling of Light Ions by Cotrapped Heavy Atoms.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sourav; Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S A

    2017-03-17

    We experimentally demonstrate cooling of trapped ions by collisions with cotrapped, higher-mass neutral atoms. It is shown that the lighter ^{39}K^{+} ions, created by ionizing ^{39}K atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), when trapped in an ion trap and subsequently allowed to cool by collisions with ultracold, heavier ^{85}Rb atoms in a MOT, exhibit a longer trap lifetime than without the localized ^{85}Rb MOT atoms. A similar cooling of trapped ^{85}Rb^{+} ions by ultracold ^{133}Cs atoms in a MOT is also demonstrated in a different experimental configuration to validate this mechanism of ion cooling by localized and centered ultracold neutral atoms. Our results suggest that the cooling of ions by localized cold atoms holds for any mass ratio, thereby enabling studies on a wider class of atom-ion systems irrespective of their masses.

  9. Angular distributions of sputtered atoms for low-energy heavy ions, medium ions and light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Mizuno, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Hidetoshi

    1986-03-01

    The angular distributions of sputtered atoms for the near-threshold sputtering of heavy ions, medium ions, and light ions have been investigated by a few-collision model and the ACAT computer simulation code. For heavy-ion sputtering the preferential angle of sputtered atoms is about 50° which is measured from the surface normal, while in the case of the near-threshold light-ion sputtering the preferential angles are nearly equal to the surface normal and do not depend on angle of incidence. It is found that the agreement between the ACAT preferential angles and theoretical values due to a few-collision model is very good.

  10. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  11. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  12. Continuum Absorption Coefficient of Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armaly, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of heat transfer to the heat shield of a Jupiter probe has been estimated to be one order of magnitude higher than any previously experienced in an outer space exploration program. More than one-third of this heat load is due to an emission of continuum radiation from atoms and ions. The existing computer code for calculating the continuum contribution to the total load utilizes a modified version of Biberman's approximate method. The continuum radiation absorption cross sections of a C - H - O - N ablation system were examined in detail. The present computer code was evaluated and updated by being compared with available exact and approximate calculations and correlations of experimental data. A detailed calculation procedure, which can be applied to other atomic species, is presented. The approximate correlations can be made to agree with the available exact and experimental data.

  13. Trapped Atomic Ions and Quantum Information Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wineland, D. J.; Leibfried, D.; Bergquist, J. C.; Blakestad, R. B.; Bollinger, J. J.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Epstein, R. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schaetz, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Seidelin, S.; Shiga, N.

    2006-11-07

    The basic requirements for quantum computing and quantum simulation (single- and multi-qubit gates, long memory times, etc.) have been demonstrated in separate experiments on trapped ions. Construction of a large-scale information processor will require synthesis of these elements and implementation of high-fidelity operations on a very large number of qubits. This is still well in the future. NIST and other groups are addressing part of the scaling issue by trying to fabricate multi-zone arrays of traps that would allow highly-parallel and scalable processing. In the near term, some simple quantum processing protocols are being used to aid in quantum metrology, such as in atomic clocks. As the number of qubits increases, Schroedinger's cat paradox and the measurement problem in quantum mechanics become more apparent; with luck, trapped ion systems might be able to shed light on these fundamental issues.

  14. Trapped Atomic Ions and Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wineland, D. J.; Leibfried, D.; Bergquist, J. C.; Blakestad, R. B.; Bollinger, J. J.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Epstein, R. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Knill, M.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schaetz, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Seidelin, S.; Shiga, N.; Wesenberg, J. H.

    2006-11-01

    The basic requirements for quantum computing and quantum simulation (single- and multi-qubit gates, long memory times, etc.) have been demonstrated in separate experiments on trapped ions. Construction of a large-scale information processor will require synthesis of these elements and implementation of high-fidelity operations on a very large number of qubits. This is still well in the future. NIST and other groups are addressing part of the scaling issue by trying to fabricate multi-zone arrays of traps that would allow highly-parallel and scalable processing. In the near term, some simple quantum processing protocols are being used to aid in quantum metrology, such as in atomic clocks. As the number of qubits increases, Schrödinger's cat paradox and the measurement problem in quantum mechanics become more apparent; with luck, trapped ion systems might be able to shed light on these fundamental issues.

  15. Compact, Highly Stable Ion Atomic Clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John

    2008-01-01

    A mercury-ion clock now at the breadboard stage of development (see figure) has a stability comparable to that of a hydrogen-maser clock: In tests, the clock exhibited an Allan deviation of between 2 x 10(exp -13) and 3 x 10(exp -13) at a measurement time of 1 second, averaging to about 10(exp -15) at 1 day. However, the clock occupies a volume of only about 2 liters . about a hundredth of the volume of a hydrogen-maser clock. The ion-handling parts of the apparatus are housed in a sealed vacuum tube, wherein only a getter pump is used to maintain the vacuum. Hence, this apparatus is a prototype of a generation of small, potentially portable high-precision clocks for diverse ground- and space-based navigation and radio science applications. Furthermore, this new ion-clock technology is about 100 times more stable and precise than the rubidium atomic clocks currently in use in the NAV STAR GPS Earth-orbiting satellites. In this clock, mercury ions are shuttled between a quadrupole and a 16-pole linear radio-frequency trap. In the quadrupole trap, the ions are tightly confined and optical state selection from a Hg-202 radio-frequency-discharge ultraviolet lamp is carried out. In the 16-pole trap, the ions are more loosely confined and atomic transitions resonant at frequency of about 40.507 GHz are interrogated by use of a microwave beam at that frequency. The trapping of ions effectively eliminates the frequency pulling caused by wall collisions inherent to gas-cell clocks. The shuttling of the ions between the two traps enables separation of the state-selection process from the clock microwave- resonance process, so that each of these processes can be optimized independently of the other. The basic ion-shuttling, two-trap scheme as described thus far is not new: it has been the basis of designs of prior larger clocks. The novelty of the present development lies in major redesigns of its physics package (the ion traps and the vacuum and optical subsystems) to effect

  16. Reactions of atomic oxygen with the chlorate ion and the perchlorate ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan'ev, Vladimir; Miklin, Mikhail; Kriger, Ludmila

    2014-06-01

    The reactions of the chlorate ion with atomic oxygen formed under photolysis of the nitrate ion introduced to potassium chlorate crystal by co-crystallization were studied by optical and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The perchlorate ion was found to form in solids as product of addition reaction of singlet atomic oxygen, formed under dissociation of the peroxynitrite ion - the product of isomerization of the excited nitrate ion. Triplet atomic oxygen does not react with the chlorate ion. The atomic oxygen formed under photolysis of the nitrate ion introduced to potassium perchlorate crystal by co-crystallization does not react with the perchlorate ion.

  17. Separation of metal ions in nitrate solution by ultrasonic atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masanori; Ikeno, Masayuki; Fujii, Toshitaka

    2004-11-01

    In the ultrasonic atomization of metal nitrate solutions, the molar ratio of metal ions is changed between solution and mist. Small molar metal ions tend to be transferred to mist by ultrasonic wave acceleration, while large molar ions tend to remain in solution. As a result, metal ions can be separated by ultrasonic atomization. We show experimental data and propose a conceptual mechanism for the ultrasonic separation of metal ions.

  18. Separation of metal ions in nitrate solution by ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masanori; Ikeno, Masayuki; Fujii, Toshitaka

    2004-11-15

    In the ultrasonic atomization of metal nitrate solutions, the molar ratio of metal ions is changed between solution and mist. Small molar metal ions tend to be transferred to mist by ultrasonic wave acceleration, while large molar ions tend to remain in solution. As a result, metal ions can be separated by ultrasonic atomization. We show experimental data and propose a conceptual mechanism for the ultrasonic separation of metal ions.

  19. Ionization Phenomena in Ion-Atom Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveney, Edward Francis

    Two many-electron ion-atom collision systems are used to investigate atomic and molecular structure and collisional interactions. Electrons emitted from MeV/u C^{3+} projectile target -atom collisions were measured with a high-resolution position -sensitive electron spectrometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The electrons are predominantly ionized by direct projectile -target interactions or autoionizing (AI) from doubly excited AI levels of the ion which were excited in the collision. The energy dependence of directly scattered target electrons, binary-encounter electrons (BEE), is investigated and compared with theory. AI levels of the projectile 1s to nl single electron excited series, (1s2snl) n = 2,3,4,....infty, including the series limit are identified uniquely using energy level calculations. Original Auger yield calculations using a code by Cowan were used to discover a 1/{n^3} scaling in intensities of Auger peaks in the aforementioned series. This is explained using scattering theory. A nonstatistical population of the terms in the (1s2s2l) configuration was identified and investigated as a function of the beam energy and for four different target atoms. Two electron excited configurations are identified and investigated. The angular distribution of a correlated transfer and excitation AI state is measured and compared to theory. The final scattered charge state distributions of Kr^ {n+}, n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, projectiles are measured following collisions with Kr targets in the Van de Graaff Laboratory here at The University of Connecticut. Average scattered charge states as high as 12 are observed. It appears that these electrons are ionized during the lifetime of the quasimolecular state but a complete picture of the ionization mechanism(s) is not known. Calculations using a statistical model of ionization, modified in several ways, are compared with the experimental results to see if it is possible to isolate whether or not the electrons originate

  20. Understanding Molecular Ion-Neutral Atom Collisions for the Production of Ultracold Molecular Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-06

    chamber is the...system. Molecular and/or atomic ions that have been produced by laser ablation of a solid target are trapped in the middle chamber of... clouds of Ba+ ions and Ca atoms. Due to the strong Coulomb interaction, the Ba+ ions quickly cool the molecular ion translation motion, while

  1. Storage rings for investigation of ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1987-08-01

    In this survey, we give a brief description of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, and examples for their use in ion-atom collision physics. The compression of the phase space distribution of the ions by electron cooling, and the gain factors of in-ring experiments compared to single-pass experiments are explained. Some examples of a new generation of ion-atom collision experiments which may become feasible with storage rings are given. These include the studies of angular differential single- and double-electron capture cross sections, the production of slow highly charged recoil ions, and atomic collision processes using decelerated and crossed beam. 30 refs.

  2. Atomic and molecular effects on spherically convergent ion flow. I. Single atomic species

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, G. A.; Santarius, J. F.

    2010-01-15

    A formalism for analyzing the effect of ion-neutral gas interactions on the flow of ions between nearly transparent electrodes in spherical geometry has been developed for atomic ions in a weakly ionized plasma, so that the important atomic effects are charge exchange and ion impact ionization. The formalism is applied to spherical, gridded, inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices. The formalism yields detailed information about the energy spectra of the ions and fast neutral atoms, and the resulting fusion rate for {sup 3}He ions in a background {sup 3}He gas. The results are illustrated with an example calculation for the Wisconsin IEC device operating on {sup 3}He.

  3. Relative stopping powers for atomic and molecular ions in carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, Malcolm F.

    1986-03-01

    Electronic stopping powers of carbon for atomic and molecular nitrogen ions have been calculated using semi-classical free electron scattering from Herman-Skillman potentials, parametrized to include an adjustable exponential screening factor F( tv, Z), representing atomic ions. For molecular ions, aligned along the beam direction and having velocity 1.2 a.u., the stopping powers for individual atomic components were calculated as a function of internuclear separation. Screening factors for the two centers of force were assumed to decrease linearly from the value at zero internuclear separation, equivalent to that of a silicon ion, to that for nitrogen ions at large separations. Results are consistent with the diminishment of average stopping power per atomic ion which has been observed for beam-aligned nitrogen molecular ions. Similar calculations for molecular hydrogen in carbon agree with the enhancement of stopping power which has been observed. Evidence of nonlinear effects is indicated.

  4. Problems with Accurate Atomic Lfetime Measurements of Multiply Charged Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Trabert, E

    2009-02-19

    A number of recent atomic lifetime measurements on multiply charged ions have reported uncertainties lower than 1%. Such a level of accuracy challenges theory, which is a good thing. However, a few lessons learned from earlier precision lifetime measurements on atoms and singly charged ions suggest to remain cautious about the systematic errors of experimental techniques.

  5. Quantum Electrodynamics Effects in Heavy Ions and Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shabaev, V. M.; Andreev, O. V.; Bondarev, A. I.; Glazov, D. A.; Kozhedub, Y. S.; Maiorova, A. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Plunien, G.; Volotka, A. V.

    2011-05-11

    Quantum electrodynamics theory of heavy ions and atoms is considered. The current status of calculations of the binding energies, the hyperfine splitting and g factor values in heavy few-electron ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared with available experimental data. A special attention is focused on tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electromagnetic fields and on determination of the fundamental constants. Recent progress in calculations of the parity nonconservation effects with heavy atoms and ions is also reported.

  6. Controlled long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secker, T.; Gerritsma, R.; Glaetzle, A. W.; Negretti, A.

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate trapped ions interacting with atoms that are coupled to Rydberg states. The strong polarizabilities of the Rydberg levels increase the interaction strength between atoms and ions by many orders of magnitude, as compared to the case of ground-state atoms, and may be mediated over micrometers. We calculate that such interactions can be used to generate entanglement between an atom and the motion or internal state of an ion. Furthermore, the ion could be used as a bus for mediating spin-spin interactions between atomic spins in analogy to much employed techniques in ion-trap quantum simulation. The proposed scheme comes with attractive features as it maps the benefits of the trapped-ion quantum system onto the atomic one without obviously impeding its intrinsic scalability. No ground-state cooling of the ion or atom is required and the setup allows for full dynamical control. Moreover, the scheme is to a large extent immune to the micromotion of the ion. Our findings are of interest for developing hybrid quantum information platforms and for implementing quantum simulations of solid-state physics.

  7. Positron Interactions with Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand K.

    2012-01-01

    Dirac, in 1928, combining the ideas of quantum mechanics and the ideas of relativity invented the well-known relativistic wave equation. In his formulation, he predicted an antiparticle of the electron of spin n-bar/2. He thought that this particle must be a proton. Dirac published his interpretation in a paper 'A theory of electrons and protons.' It was shown later by the mathematician Hermann Weyl that the Dirac theory was completely symmetric between negative and positive particles and the positive particle must have the same mass as that of the electron. In his J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize Acceptance Speech, Dirac notes that 'Blackett was really the first person to obtain hard evidence for the existence of a positron but he was afraid to publish it. He wanted confirmation, he was really over cautious.' Positron, produced by the collision of cosmic rays in a cloud chamber, was detected experimentally by Anderson in 1932. His paper was published in Physical Review in 1933. The concept of the positron and its detection were the important discoveries of the 20th century. I have tried to discuss various processes involving interactions of positrons with atoms and ions. This includes scattering, bound states and resonances. It has not been possible to include the enormous work which has been carried out during the last 40 or 50 years in theory and measurements.

  8. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  9. A dense gas of laser-cooled atoms for hybrid atom-ion trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höltkemeier, Bastian; Glässel, Julian; López-Carrera, Henry; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We describe the realization of a dark spontaneous-force trap of rubidium atoms. The atoms are loaded from a beam provided by a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap yielding a capture efficiency of 75%. The dense and cold atomic sample is characterized by saturated absorption imaging. Up to 10^9 atoms are captured with a loading rate of 3× 10^9 atoms/s into a cloud at a temperature of 250 μK with the density exceeding 10^{11} atoms/cm^3. Under steady-state conditions, more than 90% of the atoms can be prepared into the absolute atomic ground state, which provides favorable conditions for the investigation of sympathetic cooling of ions in a hybrid atom-ion trap.

  10. Chemical stability of positronic complexes with atoms and atomic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, M.W.; Nakanishi, H.; Schrader, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    A simple theory for establishing the stability or instability of positron-atomic systems against dissociation is presented. The theory consists of assuming that Morse-potential parameters for protonic diatoms are transferrable to the corresponding positronic molecules, and making appropriate reduced-mass modifications in the calculation of binding energies. The surprisingly good reliability of the method is established by appealing to the well-known positronium affinities of atomic hydrogen and fluorine. Positronium (Ps) binding is found for about half of the 42 atoms tested. In addition, instability is indicated for all nine positron-atom systems tested, and stability is indicated for seven of eight negatively charged systems tested; e.g., PsO/sup -/.

  11. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  13. Atomic transport in ion mixed Pd/Co bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K. H.; Jang, H. G.; Song, J. H.; Woo, J. J.; Choi, B. S.; Jeong, K.; Whang, C. N.

    1993-06-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic atomic transport in an ion beam mixed Pd/Co bilayer have been studied from the shifts of a marker layer in Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. A thin layer of Au (1 nm) was embedded as a marker at the interface between Pd and Co layers. 80 keV Ar + was used to irradiate the marker sample at 90K. The Pd/Co system shows near isotropic atomic transport ( JPd/ JCo = 0.86) due to the thermal spike effect. We present a simple relationship between the ration of atomic fluxes induced by ion mixing and the activation energies for the normal impurity diffusion of constituents in a bilayer to describe quantitatively the isotropic and anisotropic atomic transport in thermal spike induced ion mixing. Thermal spike induced atomic transport is closely related with the activation energy for normal impurity diffusion.

  14. Spectroscopy of atomic and molecular ions using quantum logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, P. O.; Rosenband, T.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Bergquist, J. C.; Wineland, D. J.

    2006-10-01

    Recently developed techniques for quantum computation using trapped ions allow precise coherent control of the internal and external states of single atoms. Here we report how these techniques can be employed to perform precision spectroscopy of atomic and molecular ions that lack accessible transitions for laser cooling and detection. Furthermore, we discuss how quantum logic can be used to laser-cool molecules to near their rotational and vibrational ground state by avoiding detrimental spontaneous emission of photons from the molecule.

  15. Newly appreciated roles for electrons in ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I.A. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Since the previous Debrecen workshop on High-Energy Ion-Atom Collisions there have been numerous experiments and substantial theoretical developments in the fields of fast ion-atom and ion- solid collisions concerned with explicating the previously largely underappreciated role of electrons as ionizing and exciting agents in such collisions. Examples to be discussed include the double electron ionization problem in He; transfer ionization by protons in He; double excitation in He; backward scattering of electrons in He; the role of electron-electron interaction in determining beta parameters for ELC; projectile K ionization by target electrons; electron spin exchange in transfer excitation; electron impact ionization in crystal channels; resonant coherent excitation in crystal channels; excitation and dielectronic recombination in crystal channels; resonant transfer and excitation; the similarity of recoil ion spectra observed in coincidence with electron capture vs. electron loss; and new research on ion-atom collisions at relativistic energies.

  16. Ion microscopy based on laser-cooled cesium atoms.

    PubMed

    Viteau, M; Reveillard, M; Kime, L; Rasser, B; Sudraud, P; Bruneau, Y; Khalili, G; Pillet, P; Comparat, D; Guerri, I; Fioretti, A; Ciampini, D; Allegrini, M; Fuso, F

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a prototype of a Focused Ion Beam machine based on the ionization of a laser-cooled cesium beam and adapted for imaging and modifying different surfaces in the few-tens nanometer range. Efficient atomic ionization is obtained by laser promoting ground-state atoms into a target excited Rydberg state, then field-ionizing them in an electric field gradient. The method allows obtaining ion currents up to 130pA. Comparison with the standard direct photo-ionization of the atomic beam shows, in our conditions, a 40-times larger ion yield. Preliminary imaging results at ion energies in the 1-5keV range are obtained with a resolution around 40nm, in the present version of the prototype. Our ion beam is expected to be extremely monochromatic, with an energy spread of the order of the eV, offering great prospects for lithography, imaging and surface analysis.

  17. A compact source for bunches of singly charged atomic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murböck, T.; Schmidt, S.; Andelkovic, Z.; Birkl, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Vogel, M.

    2016-04-01

    We have built, operated, and characterized a compact ion source for low-energy bunches of singly charged atomic ions in a vacuum beam line. It is based on atomic evaporation from an electrically heated oven and ionization by electron impact from a heated filament inside a grid-based ionization volume. An adjacent electrode arrangement is used for ion extraction and focusing by applying positive high-voltage pulses to the grid. The method is particularly suited for experimental environments which require low electromagnetic noise. It has proven simple yet reliable and has been used to produce μs-bunches of up to 106 Mg+ ions at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. We present the concept, setup and characterizing measurements. The instrument has been operated in the framework of the SpecTrap experiment at the HITRAP facility at GSI/FAIR to provide Mg+ ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions by laser-cooled 24Mg+.

  18. Multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1989-03-01

    Research in atomic physics at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Super-HILAC and Bevalac accelerators on multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions is described. Experiments have studied various aspects of the charge-transfer, ionization, and excitation processes. Examples of processes in which electron correlation plays a role are resonant transfer and excitation and Auger-electron emission. Processes in which electron behavior can generally be described as uncorrelated include ionization and charge transfer in high-energy ion-atom collisions. A variety of experiments and results for energies from 1 MeV/u to 420 MeV/u are presented. 20 refs., 15 figs.

  19. Next Generation JPL Ultra-Stable Trapped Ion Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Eric; Tucker, Blake; Larsen, Kameron; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on two directions: 1) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements, and 2) ultra-stable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate performance. In this paper we present a new ultra-stable trapped ion clock designed, built, and tested in the second category. The first new standard, L10, will be delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory for use in characterizing DoD space clocks.

  20. Observation of Cold Collisions between Trapped Ions and Trapped Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Andrew T.; Cetina, Marko; Oručević, Fedja; Vuletić, Vladan

    2009-06-01

    We study cold collisions between trapped ions and trapped atoms in the semiclassical (Langevin) regime. Using Yb+ ions confined in a Paul trap and Yb atoms in a magneto-optical trap, we investigate charge-exchange collisions of several isotopes over three decades of collision energies down to 3μeV (kB×35mK). The minimum measured rate coefficient of 6×10-10cm3s-1 is in good agreement with that derived from a Langevin model for an atomic polarizability of 143 a.u.

  1. Next Generation JPL Ultra-Stable Trapped Ion Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Eric; Tucker, Blake; Larsen, Kameron; Hamell, Robert; Tjoelker, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, trapped ion atomic clock development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has focused on two directions: 1) new atomic clock technology for space flight applications that require strict adherence to size, weight, and power requirements, and 2) ultra-stable atomic clocks, usually for terrestrial applications emphasizing ultimate performance. In this paper we present a new ultra-stable trapped ion clock designed, built, and tested in the second category. The first new standard, L10, will be delivered to the Naval Research Laboratory for use in characterizing DoD space clocks.

  2. Hard and soft acids and bases: atoms and atomic ions.

    PubMed

    Reed, James L

    2008-07-07

    The structural origin of hard-soft behavior in atomic acids and bases has been explored using a simple orbital model. The Pearson principle of hard and soft acids and bases has been taken to be the defining statement about hard-soft behavior and as a definition of chemical hardness. There are a number of conditions that are imposed on any candidate structure and associated property by the Pearson principle, which have been exploited. The Pearson principle itself has been used to generate a thermodynamically based scale of relative hardness and softness for acids and bases (operational chemical hardness), and a modified Slater model has been used to discern the electronic origin of hard-soft behavior. Whereas chemical hardness is a chemical property of an acid or base and the operational chemical hardness is an experimental measure of it, the absolute hardness is a physical property of an atom or molecule. A critical examination of chemical hardness, which has been based on a more rigorous application of the Pearson principle and the availability of quantitative measures of chemical hardness, suggests that the origin of hard-soft behavior for both acids and bases resides in the relaxation of the electrons not undergoing transfer during the acid-base interaction. Furthermore, the results suggest that the absolute hardness should not be taken as synonymous with chemical hardness but that the relationship is somewhat more complex. Finally, this work provides additional groundwork for a better understanding of chemical hardness that will inform the understanding of hardness in molecules.

  3. Observation of collisions between cold Li atoms and Yb+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joger, J.; Fürst, H.; Ewald, N.; Feldker, T.; Tomza, M.; Gerritsma, R.

    2017-09-01

    We report on the observation of cold collisions between 6Li atoms and Yb+ ions. This combination of species has recently been proposed as the most suitable for reaching the quantum limit in hybrid atom-ion systems, due to its large mass ratio. For atoms and ions prepared in the 1/2 2S ground state, the charge-transfer and association rate is found to be at least 103 times smaller than the Langevin collision rate. These results confirm the excellent prospects of 6Li-Yb+ for sympathetic cooling and quantum information applications. For ions prepared in the excited electronic states 1/2 2P, 3/2 2D, and 7/2 2F, we find that the reaction rate is dominated by charge transfer and does not depend on the ionic isotope or the collision energy in the range ˜1 -120 mK . The low charge-transfer rate for ground-state collisions is corroborated by theory, but the 4 f shell in the Yb+ ion prevents an accurate prediction for the charge-transfer rate of the 1/2 2P, 3/2 2D, and 7/2 2F states. Using ab initio methods of quantum chemistry we calculate the atom-ion interaction potentials up to energies of 30 ×103cm-1 , and use these to give qualitative explanations of the observed rates.

  4. New Atomic Ion SIMS Facility at the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, K. S.; Fazel, K. C.; Fahey, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Mass spectrometry of particulates and few micrometer regions of samples by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is a very useful analytical tool. However, there are limitations caused by interferences from molecular species, such as hydrides, oxides, and carbides. Above mass 90 u, these interferences (> 104 M/ΔM) can exceed the resolving power of SIMS. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is capable of eliminating such molecular ion interferences, but lacks spatial information and generally requires use of negative ions. This requirement limits its sensitivity, since actinide and lanthanide elements preferentially generate positive atomic ions (~104 : 1). The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has installed a hybrid SIMS-AMS system, using a Single Stage AMS as a replacement for the normal Cameca IMS 4f SIMS electron multiplier detector. The NRL design enables analysis of either positive or negative ions. Thus, this system offers the potential to provide SIMS-like particle and micro-scale analysis without a forest of signals from molecular species, and is capable of measuring important positive atomic ions. This should improve measurement sensitivity and precision to determine isotopic distributions of actinides, lanthanides, and transition metals; and elemental abundances of trace species in particles or small features. Initial measurements show that molecule intensities can be reduced by seven orders of magnitude while atomic ion intensities are only diminished ~50%. We have chosen to call this instrument an atomic ion SIMS, or ai-SIMS, for short. The effect of basic operational parameters such as ion energy, charge state, molecule destruction gas and its pressure will be described, and examples of the benefits and capabilities of ai-SIMS will be presented.

  5. Ion-atom association reactions in the rare gases.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, A. S.; Roberts, R. E.; Bernstein, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    A simple resonance theory of three-body ion-atom association reactions is presented. The reaction is considered as proceeding through the formation of a long lived orbiting resonance complex between the atom and the ion. The population of these quasi-bound states is estimated assuming thermal equilibrium. A stable molecular ion may then be formed upon deactivation of the complex by collision with a third body. Various simplifying approximations to the potential curves and surfaces are employed. Furthermore, the deactivation cross sections for the relevant complexes are estimated from the corresponding atomic 'sizes.' A simple analytical formula for the three-body rate constant is thus derived. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained for He(+) in He and fair agreement for other light systems.

  6. Bremsstrahlung spectra from atoms and ions at low relativistic energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N. B.; Pratt, R. H.

    1999-09-01

    Analytic expressions for bremsstrahlung spectra from neutral atoms and ions, including the polarizational bremsstrahlung contribution in a stripped atom approximation, are developed for electron scattering at energies of 10-2000 keV. A modified Elwert factor and a simple higher Born correction are used for the Coulomb spectrum, with ordinary bremsstrahlung screening effects in ions and atoms adequately characterized in the non-relativistic Born approximation. In parallel with the development of this analytic description, new numerical results are obtained for ordinary bremsstrahlung from ions and from bare nuclei, appreciably extending the available data set which can be used to study dependences on element, ionicity, energy and the fraction of incident energy radiated. The accuracy of predictions with the analytic expressions is then determined by comparison with the full numerical relativistic partial-wave results for ordinary bremsstrahlung and with non-relativistic numerical results in the Born approximation or in partial waves for the polarizational amplitude.

  7. Atomic physics experiments with stored cooled heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    The wide ranging interest in the development of heavy ion synchrotrons with electron beam cooling is evident from the number of projects presently under way. Although much of the initial motivation for these rings stemmed from nuclear and particle physics, a considerable amount of atomic physics experimentation is planned. This paper surveys some of the new opportunities in atomic physics which may be made available with storage ring systems. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Saturation Effect of Projectile Excitation in Ion-Atom Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Takeshi; Lin, Chii-Dong

    Calculations of projectile K-shell electron excitation cross sections for He-like ions during ion-atom collisions have been performed in the distortion approximation by the use of Herman-Skillman wave functions. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data for several targets. The excitation cross sections deviate from the first-Born approximation and show the saturation effect as a function of target atomic number. This effect can be explained as the distortion of the projectile electronic states by the target nucleus.

  9. Atom probe field ion microscopy characterizations of VVER steels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.K.; Jayaram, R.; Othen, P.J.; Brauer, G.

    1993-07-01

    An atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) characterization of Soviet types 15Kh2MFA Cr-Mo-V (VVER 440) and 15Kh2NMFA Ni-Cr-Mo-V (VVER 1000) pressure vessel steels has been performed. Field ion microscopy has revealed that the lath boundaries in unirradiated VVER 440 and VVER 1000 steels are decorated with a thin film of brightly-imaging molybdenum carbonitride precipitates and some coarser vanadium carbides. Atom probe analysis has revealed significant enrichments of phosphorous at the lath boundaries.

  10. A Modular Quantum System of Trapped Atomic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hucul, David Alexander

    Scaling up controlled quantum systems to involve large numbers of qubits remains one of the outstanding challenges of quantum information science. One path toward scalability is the use of a modular architecture where adjacent qubits may be entangled with applied electromagnetic fields, and remote qubits may be entangled using photon interference. Trapped atomic ion qubits are one of the most promising platforms for scaling up quantum systems by combining long coherence times with high fidelity entangling operations between proximate and remote qubits. In this thesis, I present experimental progress on combining entanglement between remote atomic ions separated by 1 meter with near-field entanglement between atomic ions in the same ion trap. I describe the experimental improvements to increase the remote entanglement rate by orders of magnitude to nearly 5 per second. This is the first experimental demonstration where the remote entanglement rate exceeds the decoherence rate of the entangled qubits. The flexibility of creating remote entanglement through photon interference is demonstrated by using the interference of distinguishable photons without sacrificing remote entanglement rate or fidelity. Next I describe the use of master clock in combination with a frequency comb to lock the phases of all laser-induced interactions between remote ion traps while removing optical phase stability requirements. The combination of both types of entanglement gates to create a small quantum network are described. Finally, I present ways to mitigate cross talk between photonic and memory qubits by using different trapped ion species. I show preliminary work on performing state detection of nuclear spin 0 ions by using entanglement between atomic ion spin and photon polarization. These control techniques may be important for building a large-scale modular quantum system.

  11. Loss of atomic oxygen in mass spectrometer ion sources.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, L. R.; Nier, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    A gas beam consisting of a mixture of atomic and molecular oxygen has been directed at the ion source of a mass spectrometer like those used in sounding rockets for determining the neutral composition of the lower thermosphere. The loss of atomic oxygen on mass spectrometer surfaces was evaluated by flagging the beam in several ways and comparing the experimental results with predicted values. The results obtained suggest that in rocket flights using similar instruments the atomic oxygen densities computed assuming no-loss conditions may be low by a factor of 2.5. Studies made using a beam containing tracer O-18 indicate that carbon dioxide observed when atomic oxygen enters the source is formed in a reaction involving atomic oxygen from the beam and carbon monoxide from the surfaces bombarded.

  12. Phonon-Mediated Detection of Trapped Atomic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, David; Rosenband, Till; Wineland, David

    2008-03-01

    Both quantum information processing and quantum-limited metrology require sensitive detection of quantum states. Using trapped atomic ions, we investigate quantum non-demolition measurements in a two-species ion chain composed of Al^+ and Be^+. By mapping information from Al^+ to a shared phonon-mode then to Be^+ and detecting repetitively we have experimentally demonstrated a fidelity for state initialization and detection of 0.9994. We have also shown an increase in measurement efficiency through an adaptive procedure. Here we apply these ideas to the detection of states of multiple Al^+ using a single Be^+ ion, and describe the preparation of entangled states through measurement.

  13. Total Born approximation cross sections for single electron loss by atoms and ions colliding with atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rule, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first born approximation (FBA) is applied to the calculation of single electron loss cross sections for various ions and atoms containing from one to seven electrons. Screened hydrogenic wave functions were used for the states of the electron ejected from the projectile, and Hartree-Fock elastic and incoherent scattering factors were used to describe the target. The effect of the target atom on the scaling of projectile ionization cross sections with respect to the projectile nuclear charge was explored in the case of hydrogen-like ions. Scaling of the cross section with respect to the target nuclear charge for electron loss by Fe (+25) in collision with neutral atoms ranging from H to Fe is also examined. These results were compared to those of the binary encounter approximation and to the FBA for the case of ionization by completely stripped target ions.

  14. Kinetic theory of radio frequency quadrupole ion traps. I. Trapping of atomic ions in a pure atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viehland, Larry A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.

    2004-05-01

    A kinetic theory based on the Boltzmann equation is developed for the trapping of atomic ions in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap containing enough neutral atoms that ion-neutral collisions cannot be ignored. The collisions are treated at the same level of sophistication and detail as is used to deal with the time- and space-dependent electric fields in the trap. As a result, microscopic definitions are obtained for the damping and stochastic forces that originate from such collisions. These definitions contrast with corresponding phenomenological terms added ad hoc in previous treatments to create damped Mathieu and Langevin equations, respectively. Furthermore, the theory indicates that either collisional cooling or heating of the ions is possible, depending upon details of the ion-neutral mass ratios and interaction potential. The kinetic theory is not dependent on any special assumptions about the electric field strengths, the ion-neutral interaction potentials, or the ion-neutral mass ratio. It also provides an ab initio way to describe the ion kinetic energies, temperatures, and other properties by a series of successive approximations.

  15. Calorimetric detection of neutral-atom content of ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Energy deposition technique deduces neutral-beam flux or dose from measured values of incremental resistance increases in platinum wire passed through beam. Steady-state heat balance analysis led to equivalent neutral-beam current. Method was used to detect neutral-atom content of 60-keV argon ion beam.

  16. The Helium Atom and Isoelectronic Ions in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    The energy levels of the helium atom and isoelectronic ions in two dimensions are considered. The difficulties encountered in the analytical evaluation of the perturbative and variational expressions for the ground state, promote an interesting factorization of the inter-electronic interaction, leading to simple expressions for the energy. This…

  17. The Helium Atom and Isoelectronic Ions in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    The energy levels of the helium atom and isoelectronic ions in two dimensions are considered. The difficulties encountered in the analytical evaluation of the perturbative and variational expressions for the ground state, promote an interesting factorization of the inter-electronic interaction, leading to simple expressions for the energy. This…

  18. Atom probe field ion microscopy of titanium aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.; Miller, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Titanium aluminides have a number of potential high temperature applications due to their good elevated-temperature mechanical properties, low density, and good creep and oxidation resistance. However, fabrication of commercial components of these materials has been impeded by their poor mechanical properties at ambient temperatures. Significant efforts with various degrees of success have been made to improve the mechanical properties of these TiAl alloys by doping them with a variety of different elements including B, C, Cr, Er, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Nb, P, Si, Ta, V and W. One of the optimum analytical tools for investigating the effects of these additions on the microstructure is the atom probe field ion micro scope. However, relatively few studies of titanium aluminides, compared to some other intermetallic compounds, have performed by atom probe field ion microscopy. This lack of attention can be attributed to the brittle nature of the material, in-situ transformations that occur during the field ion microscopy and preferential evaporation problems that were encountered in some of the early studies. The atom probe field ion microscope used for the current experiments has a low base pressure ({approximately} 2 {times} 10{sup 9} Pa) and careful attention was paid to optimizing the experimental parameters. All the examples shown were obtained from specimens prepared by standard electropolishing techniques. To demonstrate the suitability of the technique to these materials, several different titanium aluminides have been characterized in the atom probe.

  19. A high resolution ion microscope for cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stecker, Markus; Schefzyk, Hannah; Fortágh, József; Günther, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We report on an ion-optical system that serves as a microscope for ultracold ground state and Rydberg atoms. The system is designed to achieve a magnification of up to 1000 and a spatial resolution in the 100 nm range, thereby surpassing many standard imaging techniques for cold atoms. The microscope consists of four electrostatic lenses and a microchannel plate in conjunction with a delay line detector in order to achieve single particle sensitivity with high temporal and spatial resolution. We describe the design process of the microscope including ion-optical simulations of the imaging system and characterize aberrations and the resolution limit. Furthermore, we present the experimental realization of the microscope in a cold atom setup and investigate its performance by patterned ionization with a structure size down to 2.7 μm. The microscope meets the requirements for studying various many-body effects, ranging from correlations in cold quantum gases up to Rydberg molecule formation.

  20. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from March 16, 1991 through March 15, 1992. This work involves the experimental investigation of fundamental atomic processes in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron correlation effects. Processes involving combinations of excitation, ionization, and charge transfer are investigated utilizing coincidence techniques in which projectiles charge-changing events are associated with x-ray emission, target recoil ions, or electron emission. New results have been obtained for studies involving (1) resonant recombination of atomic ions, (2) double ionization of helium, and (3) continuum electron emission. Experiments were conducted using accelerators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Michigan State University, Western Michigan University, and the Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary. Brief summaries of work completed and work in progress are given in this report.

  1. Correlated eikonal initial state in ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ciappina, M.F.; Otranto, S.; Garibotti, C.R.

    2002-11-01

    An approximation is developed to deal with the ionization of atoms by bare charged ions. In this method the transition amplitude describing the three-body final state is evaluated using a continuum correlated wave and that for the initial state by an analytical continuation of the {phi}{sub 2} model to complex momenta. This procedure introduces in the atomic bound state a kinematical correlation with the projectile motion. Doubly differential cross sections (DDCS's) are computed for collisions of H{sup +} and F{sup 9+} ions with He atoms. Results for the DDCS's in the forward direction are compared with experimental data and other theoretical models. We find an enhancement of the distribution for low energy electrons and that the asymmetry of the electron capture to the continuum (ECC) peak is correctly described.

  2. Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-06-06

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  3. Estimates of Collisional Cooling and Quenching Rates for Atomic and Molecular Ion Collisions with Ultracold Atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Winthrop; Wells, James

    2009-05-01

    Translational cross sections and rate coefficients for cold ion-neutral elastic and charge-exchange collisions (either atomic or molecular) are >> larger (˜10^6 a.u.) than neutral-neutral collisions at the same CM energy. This is due to the long range polarization potential V(R) = -C4/R^4, where C4 is proportional to the polarizability of the neutral partner. Thus collisions between ultracold alkali atoms (trapped in a magneto-optic trap or MOT) and low-energy ions can be used for sympathetic cooling experiments. We are building a prototype hybrid-trap apparatus [1] that applies these principles to collisions of Ca^+ ions (which can be laser pre-cooled) with MOT-trapped ultracold Na atoms. Some calculations on this system and other related ion-neutral systems have been published [2] and some initial experiments on other ion-neutral species have begun [3]. Estimates of cooling and quenching rates in the low K-mK CM energy range for Ca+ on Na and other cases will be presented and possible experiments described. [1] Winthrop W. Smith, Oleg P. Makarov and Jian Lin, J. Modern Optics 52, 2253 (2005). [2] R. Côt'e and A. Dalgarno, Phys. Rev. A 62, 012709 (2000); R. Côt'e, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5316 (2000). [3] A. Grier, M. Cetina, F.Orucevic, and V. Vuletic, ArXiv atom-ph/0808.3620.

  4. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K.

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  5. A compact source for bunches of singly charged atomic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Murböck, T.; Birkl, G.; Schmidt, S.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Andelkovic, Z.; Vogel, M.

    2016-04-15

    We have built, operated, and characterized a compact ion source for low-energy bunches of singly charged atomic ions in a vacuum beam line. It is based on atomic evaporation from an electrically heated oven and ionization by electron impact from a heated filament inside a grid-based ionization volume. An adjacent electrode arrangement is used for ion extraction and focusing by applying positive high-voltage pulses to the grid. The method is particularly suited for experimental environments which require low electromagnetic noise. It has proven simple yet reliable and has been used to produce μs-bunches of up to 10{sup 6} Mg{sup +} ions at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. We present the concept, setup and characterizing measurements. The instrument has been operated in the framework of the SpecTrap experiment at the HITRAP facility at GSI/FAIR to provide Mg{sup +} ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions by laser-cooled {sup 24}Mg{sup +}.

  6. A compact source for bunches of singly charged atomic ions.

    PubMed

    Murböck, T; Schmidt, S; Andelkovic, Z; Birkl, G; Nörtershäuser, W; Vogel, M

    2016-04-01

    We have built, operated, and characterized a compact ion source for low-energy bunches of singly charged atomic ions in a vacuum beam line. It is based on atomic evaporation from an electrically heated oven and ionization by electron impact from a heated filament inside a grid-based ionization volume. An adjacent electrode arrangement is used for ion extraction and focusing by applying positive high-voltage pulses to the grid. The method is particularly suited for experimental environments which require low electromagnetic noise. It has proven simple yet reliable and has been used to produce μs-bunches of up to 10(6) Mg(+) ions at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. We present the concept, setup and characterizing measurements. The instrument has been operated in the framework of the SpecTrap experiment at the HITRAP facility at GSI/FAIR to provide Mg(+) ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions by laser-cooled (24)Mg(+).

  7. Automated Atom-By-Atom Three-Dimensional (3D) Reconstruction of Field Ion Microscopy Data.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Michal; Gault, Baptiste; Smith, George D W; Bagot, Paul A J; Moody, Michael P

    2017-03-20

    An automated procedure has been developed for the reconstruction of field ion microscopy (FIM) data that maintains its atomistic nature. FIM characterizes individual atoms on the specimen's surface, evolving subject to field evaporation, in a series of two-dimensional (2D) images. Its unique spatial resolution enables direct imaging of crystal defects as small as single vacancies. To fully exploit FIM's potential, automated analysis tools are required. The reconstruction algorithm developed here relies on minimal assumptions and is sensitive to atomic coordinates of all imaged atoms. It tracks the atoms across a sequence of images, allocating each to its respective crystallographic plane. The result is a highly accurate 3D lattice-resolved reconstruction. The procedure is applied to over 2000 tungsten atoms, including ion-implanted planes. The approach is further adapted to analyze carbides in a steel matrix, demonstrating its applicability to a range of materials. A vast amount of information is collected during the experiment that can underpin advanced analyses such as automated detection of "out of sequence" events, subangstrom surface displacements and defects effects on neighboring atoms. These analyses have the potential to reveal new insights into the field evaporation process and contribute to improving accuracy and scope of 3D FIM and atom probe characterization.

  8. Atomic switch: atom/ion movement controlled devices for beyond von-neumann computers.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Terabe, Kazuya; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Aono, Masakazu

    2012-01-10

    An atomic switch is a nanoionic device that controls the diffusion of metal ions/atoms and their reduction/oxidation processes in the switching operation to form/annihilate a conductive path. Since metal atoms can provide a highly conductive channel even if their cluster size is in the nanometer scale, atomic switches may enable downscaling to smaller than the 11 nm technology node, which is a great challenge for semiconductor devices. Atomic switches also possess novel characteristics, such as high on/off ratios, very low power consumption and non-volatility. The unique operating mechanisms of these devices have enabled the development of various types of atomic switch, such as gap-type and gapless-type two-terminal atomic switches and three-terminal atomic switches. Novel functions, such as selective volatile/nonvolatile, synaptic, memristive, and photo-assisted operations have been demonstrated. Such atomic switch characteristics can not only improve the performance of present-day electronic systems, but also enable development of new types of electronic systems, such as beyond von- Neumann computers. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Clustering of ions at atomic dimensions in quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Padma K.; Eliasson, Bengt; Eliasson

    2013-08-01

    By means of particle simulations of the equations of motion for ions interacting among themselves under the influence of newly discovered Shukla-Eliasson attractive force (SEAF) in a dense quantum plasma, we demonstrate that the SEAF can bring ions closer at atomic dimensions. We present simulation results of the dynamics of an ensemble of ions in the presence of the SEAF without and with confining external potentials and collisions between ions and degenerate electrons. Our particle simulations reveal that under the SEAF, ions attract each other, come closer, and form ionic clusters in the bath of degenerate electrons that shield ions. Furthermore, an external confining potential produces robust ion clusters that can have cigar- and ball-like shapes, which remain stable when the confining potential is removed. The stability of ion clusters is discussed. Our results may have applications to solid density plasmas (density exceeding 1023 per cm3), where the electrons will be degenerate and quantum forces due to the electron recoil effect caused by the overlapping of electron wave functions and electron tunneling through the Bohm potential, electron-exchange and electron-exchange and electron correlations associated with electron-1/2 spin effect, and the quantum statistical pressure of the degenerate electrons play a decisive role.

  10. Suppressing Loss of Ions in an Atomic Clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John; Chung, Sang

    2010-01-01

    An improvement has been made in the design of a compact, highly stable mercury- ion clock to suppress a loss of ions as they are transferred between the quadrupole and higher multipole ion traps. Such clocks are being developed for use aboard spacecraft for navigation and planetary radio science. The modification is also applicable to ion clocks operating on Earth: indeed, the success of the modification has been demonstrated in construction and operation of a terrestrial breadboard prototype of the compact, highly stable mercury-ion clock. Selected aspects of the breadboard prototype at different stages of development were described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The following background information is reviewed from previous articles: In this clock as in some prior ion clocks, mercury ions are shuttled between two ion traps, one a 16- pole linear radio-frequency trap, while the other is a quadrupole radio-frequency trap. In the quadrupole trap, ions are tightly confined and optical state selection from a 202Hg lamp is carried out. In the 16-pole trap, the ions are more loosely confined and atomic transitions are interrogated by use of a microwave beam at approximately 40.507 GHz. The trapping of ions effectively eliminates the frequency pulling that would otherwise be caused by collisions between clock atoms and the wall of a gas cell. The shuttling of the ions between the two traps enables separation of the state-selection process from the clock microwave-resonance process, so that each of these processes can be optimized independently of the other. This is similar to the operation of an atomic beam clock, except that with ions the beam can be halted and reversed as ions are shuttled back and forth between the two traps. When the two traps are driven at the same radio frequency, the strength of confinement can be reduced near the junction between the two traps, depending upon the relative phase of the RF voltage used to operate each of the two traps, and

  11. Local correlation energies of atoms, ions and model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umrigar, Cyrus; Huang, Chien-Jung

    1997-03-01

    We present nearly local definitions of the correlation energy density, and its potential and kinetic components, and evaluate them for several atoms, ions and model systems. This information provides valuable guidance in constructing better correlation functionals than those in common use, such as the local density approximation (LDA) and the various generalized gradient approximations (GGAs). The true local correlation energy per electron has oscillations, reflecting the shell-structure, whereas the LDA approximation to it is monotonic. In addition we demonstrate that, for two-electron systems, the quantum chemistry and the density functional definitions of the correlation energy approach each other with increasing atomic number as 1/Z^3.

  12. Friction. Tuning friction atom-by-atom in an ion-crystal simulator.

    PubMed

    Bylinskii, Alexei; Gangloff, Dorian; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-06-05

    Friction between ordered, atomically smooth surfaces at the nanoscale (nanofriction) is often governed by stick-slip processes. To test long-standing atomistic models of such processes, we implemented a synthetic nanofriction interface between a laser-cooled Coulomb crystal of individually addressable ions as the moving object and a periodic light-field potential as the substrate. We show that stick-slip friction can be tuned from maximal to nearly frictionless via arrangement of the ions relative to the substrate. By varying the ion number, we also show that this strong dependence of friction on the structural mismatch, as predicted by many-particle models, already emerges at the level of two or three atoms. This model system enables a microscopic and systematic investigation of friction, potentially even into the quantum many-body regime.

  13. Manipulating ion-atom collisions with coherent electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Tom

    2002-08-26

    Laser-assisted ion-atom collisions are considered in terms of a nonperturbative quantum mechanical description of the electronic motion. It is shown for the system He(2+) - H at 2 keV/amu that the collision dynamics depend strongly on the initial phase of the laser field and the applied wavelength. Whereas electronic transitions are caused by the concurrent action of the field and the projectile ion at relatively low frequencies, they can be separated into modified collisional capture and field ionization events in the region above the one-photon ionization threshold.

  14. Measurement of femtosecond atomic lifetimes using ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träbert, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Two types of experiment are described that both employ an electron beam ion trap for the production of highly charged ion species with the aim of then measuring atomic level lifetimes in the femtosecond range. In one experiment (done by Beiersdorfer et al. some time ago), the lifetime measurement depends on the associated line broadening. In a recent string of experiments at Linac Coherent Light Source Stanford, the HI-LIGHT collaboration employed pump-probe excitation using the FEL as a short-pulse X-ray laser.

  15. Local density probing of atomic gas via cold Li-Ca+ inelastic collisions in an atom-ion hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Ryoichi; Haze, Shinsuke; Fujinaga, Munekazu; Kyuno, Kazuki; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold atoms in a harmonic trap inevitably has an inhomogeneous density distribution, which makes an atomic gas an ensemble of atoms in different physical phases. Recent technical advances in the determination of local physical quantities in an atomic gas overcome this complexity and make it possible to directly compare experimental results with many-body theories of a homogeneous atomic gas. A laser-cooled ion can be used as a high-spatial resolution probe of physical quantities of an atomic gas. The spatial spread of an ion can be reduced to sub-microns, which is even small enough for the application of the local probe of atoms in optical lattices. In our experiment, we constructed Li and Ca+ ultracold hybrid system and observed inelastic collisions as a loss of ions. The inelastic collision is confirmed to be a charge-exchange process, whose rate depends linearly on the local atomic density. From the measurement of the rate of the charge-exchange, we can reproduce an atomic density profile. This is an important step toward a local probe of physical quantities of atoms with cold ions. In this presentation, we report on the observation of charge-exchange collisions between Li atom and Ca+ ions, and discuss the feasibility of the ions as a probe of the atoms.

  16. Some properties of Stark states of hydrogenic atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, J. D.

    2007-10-01

    The motivation for this work is the problem of providing accurate values of the atomic transition matrix elements for the Stark components of Rydberg Rydberg transitions in atomic hydrogen and hydrogenic ions, for use in spectral line broadening calculations applicable to cool, low-density plasmas, such as those found in H II regions. Since conventional methods of calculating these transition matrix elements cannot be used for the high principal quantum numbers now easily attained in radio astronomical spectra, we attempt to show that the recurrence relation (ladder operator) method recently employed by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889 97) and Hey (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641 64) can be taken over into the parabolic coordinate system used to describe the Stark states of the atomic (ionic) radiators. The present method is therefore suggested as potentially useful for extending the work of Griem (1967 Astrophys. J. 148 547 58, 2005 Astrophys. J. 620 L133 4), Watson (2006), Stambulchik et al (2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 016401(9 pp) on Stark broadening in transitions between states of high principal quantum number, to physical conditions where the binary, impact approximation is no longer strictly applicable to both electron and ion perturbers. Another possible field of application is the study of Stark mixing transitions in 'ultracold' Rydberg atoms perturbed by long-range interactions with slow atoms and ions. Preparatory to the derivation of recurrence relations for states of different principal quantum number, a number of properties and recurrence relations are also found for states of identical principal quantum number, including the analogue in parabolic coordinates to the relations of Pasternack (1937 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 23 91 4, 250) in spherical polar coordinates.

  17. EBIT in the Magnetic Trapping Mode: Mass Spectrometry, Atomic Lifetime Measurements, and Charge Transfer Reactions of Highly Charged Atomic Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikhard, L; Beiersdorfer, P; Trabert, E

    2001-07-10

    Although it may sound like a contradiction in terms, the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) works as an ion trap even when the electron beam is switched off. We present various experiments that exploit the ''magnetic trapping mode'' for investigations of ion confinement, charge exchange processes, atomic lifetime and ion mass measurements.

  18. Hyperfine-mediated static polarizabilities of monovalent atoms and ions

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.

    2010-12-15

    We apply relativistic many-body methods to compute static differential polarizabilities for transitions inside the ground-state hyperfine manifolds of monovalent atoms and ions. Knowledge of this transition polarizability is required in a number of high-precision experiments, such as microwave atomic clocks and searches for CP-violating permanent electric dipole moments. While the traditional polarizability arises in the second order of interaction with the externally applied electric field, the differential polarizability involves an additional contribution from the hyperfine interaction of atomic electrons with nuclear moments. We derive formulas for the scalar and tensor polarizabilities including contributions from magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine interactions. Numerical results are presented for Al, Rb, Cs, Yb{sup +}, Hg{sup +}, and Fr.

  19. Improved method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, D.; Lykke, K.

    1996-12-31

    A technique to enhance the yield of neutral atomic and ionic species (H{sup +}, D{sup +}, O{sup +}, N{sup +}, etc.) from plasmas. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}, among others, with the most effective being water (H{sub 2}O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave produced beams consisting essentially of 100% atomic neutral species (H) have been generated, and ion beams of close to 100% purity have been generated.

  20. Calculation of anomalous scattering for ions and atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Pratt, R. H.; Roy, S. C.; Kissel, Lynn

    1990-04-01

    The anomalous scattering factors g', g" for forward scattering are generated for neutral Ne and for Ne 2+, 4+, 6+ and 7+ ions, utilizing a dispersion relation integration method, for photon energies from 1 to 70 keV. Photoionization cross sections (i.e., g") above threshold are calculated in the relativistic Hartree-Slater potential; the code of Cromer and Liberman [1] is used to obtained the corresponding bound-free contribution to g' from g". However it is found that the contribution from bound-bound transitions to g' is much more important for ions than for the neutral atom. The primary reason is that in ions there are more inner-shell vacancies for which bound-bound transitions are allowed. Near the K threshold the major bound-bound transition for the neutral neon atom is 1s → 3p, whose oscillator strength is about ten times less than that of 1s → 2p transition which is allowed in neon ions. With the contribution from the major bound-bound transitions included in g', the Rayleigh scattering cross sections obtained in this way agree well with results of direct S-matrix calculations [2].

  1. Atomic layer deposition ultrathin film origami using focused ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supekar, O. D.; Brown, J. J.; Eigenfeld, N. T.; Gertsch, J. C.; Bright, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) micromachining is a powerful tool for maskless lithography and in recent years FIB has been explored as a tool for strain engineering. Ion beam induced deformation can be utilized as a means for folding freestanding thin films into complex 3D structures. FIB of high energy gallium (Ga+) ions induces stress by generation of dislocations and ion implantation within material layers, which create creases or folds upon mechanical relaxation enabled by motion of the material layers. One limitation on such processing is the ability to fabricate flat freestanding thin film structures. This capability is limited by the residual stresses formed during processing and fabrication of the films, which can result in initial curvature and deformation of films upon release from a sacrificial fabrication layer. This paper demonstrates folding in freestanding ultrathin films (<40 nm thin) of heterogeneous composition (metal, insulator, semiconductor, etc) with large lateral dimension structures (aspect ratio >1:1000) by ion-induced stress relaxation. The ultrathin flat structures are fabricated using atomic layer deposition on sacrificial polyimide. We have demonstrated vertical folding with 30 keV Ga+ ions in structures with lateral dimensions varying from 10 to 50 μm.

  2. Atomic layer deposition ultrathin film origami using focused ion beams.

    PubMed

    Supekar, O D; Brown, J J; Eigenfeld, N T; Gertsch, J C; Bright, V M

    2016-12-09

    Focused ion beam (FIB) micromachining is a powerful tool for maskless lithography and in recent years FIB has been explored as a tool for strain engineering. Ion beam induced deformation can be utilized as a means for folding freestanding thin films into complex 3D structures. FIB of high energy gallium (Ga(+)) ions induces stress by generation of dislocations and ion implantation within material layers, which create creases or folds upon mechanical relaxation enabled by motion of the material layers. One limitation on such processing is the ability to fabricate flat freestanding thin film structures. This capability is limited by the residual stresses formed during processing and fabrication of the films, which can result in initial curvature and deformation of films upon release from a sacrificial fabrication layer. This paper demonstrates folding in freestanding ultrathin films (<40 nm thin) of heterogeneous composition (metal, insulator, semiconductor, etc) with large lateral dimension structures (aspect ratio >1:1000) by ion-induced stress relaxation. The ultrathin flat structures are fabricated using atomic layer deposition on sacrificial polyimide. We have demonstrated vertical folding with 30 keV Ga(+) ions in structures with lateral dimensions varying from 10 to 50 μm.

  3. Cooling atomic ions with visible and infra-red light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenfelser, F.; Marinelli, M.; Negnevitsky, V.; Ragg, S.; Home, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the ability to load, cool and detect singly charged calcium ions in a surface electrode trap using only visible and infrared lasers for the trapped-ion control. As opposed to the standard methods of cooling using dipole-allowed transitions, we combine power broadening of a quadrupole transition at 729 nm with quenching of the upper level using a dipole allowed transition at 854 nm. By observing the resulting 393 nm fluorescence we are able to perform background-free detection of the ion. We show that this system can be used to smoothly transition between the Doppler cooling and sideband cooling regimes, and verify theoretical predictions throughout this range. We achieve scattering rates which reliably allow recooling after collision events and allow ions to be loaded from a thermal atomic beam. This work is compatible with recent advances in optical waveguides, and thus opens a path in current technologies for large-scale quantum information processing. In situations where dielectric materials are placed close to trapped ions, it carries the additional advantage of using wavelengths which do not lead to significant charging, which should facilitate high rate optical interfaces between remotely held ions.

  4. Atomic collisions with 33-TeV lead ions

    SciTech Connect

    Vane, C.R.; Datz, S.; Krause, H.F.

    1996-10-01

    Recent availability of relativistic and ultrarelativistic beams of heavy ions has permitted the first controlled studies of atomic collisions at energies sufficient to measure effects of several new basic phenomena. These include measurements substantiating recently predicted finite nuclear size effects resulting in a reduction in the total electronic energy loss of heavy ions in matter, and measurements of Coulomb collisions in which electrons are excited from the Dirac negative energy continuum. Measurements of total energy loss, free electron-positron pair production, and electron capture from pair production have been recently performed using 33-TeV Pb{sup 82+} ions from the CERN SPS accelerator in Geneva. Results of these studies are presented, along with comparisons with relevant theory.

  5. Structure of the alkali-metal-atom + strontium molecular ions: Towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Aymar, M.; Dulieu, O.; Guerout, R.

    2011-08-14

    The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold lithium or rubidium atom and a strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

  6. Atom probe field ion microscopy of high resistivity materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrandij, S.J.; Larson, D.J.; Miller, M.K.

    1998-02-01

    Over the last 30 years the atom probe has proved to be a powerful tool for studying nanometer-sized compositional fluctuations in a wide range of metallic alloys but has had only limited applications to semiconductors and ceramics. One of the primary reasons for this difference is the higher resistivity of semiconducting and ceramic specimens. Because of this high resistivity, the high voltage field evaporation pulse is attenuated before it reaches the apex of the specimen thereby making the pulse ineffective for field evaporation. Experiments have demonstrated that both variants of the voltage-pulsed atom probe (i.e., those instruments in which the field evaporation pulse is applied directly to the specimen and those in which the negative pulse is applied to a counter electrode in front of the specimen) are equally affected. In this overview, the limits of applicability of the voltage-pulsed atom probe to high resistivity materials are examined. In this study, a wide range of materials have been examined to determine whether field ion microscopy and voltage-pulsed field evaporation can be achieved and the results are summarized in the report. Field ion microscopy including dc field evaporation was possible for all materials except bulk ceramic insulators and glasses. Field ion microscopy requires some conductivity both to achieve a high electric field at the apex of the specimen, and also to support the field ion current. In contrast, voltage-pulsed field evaporation requires transmission of the pulse to the apex of the specimen. All metallic alloys including high resistance alloys and metallic glasses were successfully field evaporated with a voltage pulse. Specimens that were produced from bulk material of several conducting ceramics including MoSi, TiB and TiC were also successfully field evaporated with a voltage pulse.

  7. Gas field ion source current stability for trimer and single atom terminated W(111) tips

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Radovan; Wolkow, Robert A.; Pitters, Jason L.

    2012-06-25

    Tungsten W(111) oriented trimer-terminated tips as well as single atom tips, fabricated by a gas and field assisted etching and evaporation process, were investigated with a view to scanning ion microscopy and ion beam writing applications. In particular, ion current stability was studied for helium and neon imaging gases. Large ion current fluctuations from individual atomic sites were observed when a trimer-terminated tip was used for the creation of neon ion beam. However, neon ion current was stable when a single atom tip was employed. No such current oscillations were observed for either a trimer or a single atom tip when imaged with helium.

  8. Spin dynamics and entanglement growth with trapped ions, atoms & molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachenmayer, Johannes; Lanyon, Ben; Roos, Christian; Daley, Andrew; Zhu, Bihui; Rey, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    Trapped ions and systems of cold atoms or molecules in optical lattices offer controlled environments to experimentally study non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum spin-models with interactions of varying range. Theoretically calculating dynamics of observables for these experiments is a major challenge both analytically and numerically. In 1D, the growth behavior of the entanglement entropy between different blocks of a many-body state determines whether the evolution of the system can be efficiently simulated on a classical computer or not. In return, the study of entanglement growth can guide experiments to regimes where a quantum simulator can outperform a numerical simulation. Here we present results on the entanglement growth behavior in 1D strings of ions after a quench, and show how the growth depends on the range of the interactions. Furthermore we report on progress on methods for higher dimensional systems. These can be used to model Ramsey-dynamics for current experiments with alkaline earth atoms or polar molecules in optical lattices, or for systems with Rydberg atoms.

  9. Use of predissociation to enhance the atomic hydrogen ion fraction in ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1979-01-01

    A duopigatron ion source is modified by replacing the normal oxide-coated wire filament cathode of the ion source with a hot tungsten oven through which hydrogen gas is fed into the arc chamber. The hydrogen gas is predissociated in the hot oven prior to the arc discharge, and the recombination rate is minimized by hot walls inside of the arc chamber. With the use of the above modifications, the atomic H.sub.1.sup.+ ion fraction output can be increased from the normal 50% to greater than 70% with a corresponding decrease in the H.sub.2.sup.+ and H.sub.3.sup.+ molecular ion fraction outputs from the ion source.

  10. Formation of molecular ions by radiative association of cold trapped atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; da Silva, Humberto, Jr.; Aymar, Mireille; Raoult, Maurice

    2015-05-01

    Radiative emission during cold collisions between trapped laser-cooled Rb atoms and alkaline-earth ions (Ca+ , Sr+ , Ba+) and Yb+ are studied theoretically, using accurate effective-core-potential based quantum chemistry calculations of potential energy curves and transition dipole moments of the related molecular ions. Radiative association of molecular ions is predicted to occur for all systems with a cross section two to ten times larger than the radiative charge transfer one. Partial and total rate constants are also calculated and compared to available experiments. Narrow shape resonances are expected, which could be detectable at low temperature with an experimental resolution at the limit of the present standards. Vibrational distributions show that the final molecular ions are not created in their ground state level. Supported by the Marie-Curie ITN ``COMIQ: Cold Molecular Ions at the Quantum limit'' of the EU (#607491).

  11. Observation of a power-law energy distribution in atom-ion hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Ziv; Akerman, Nitzan; Sikorsky, Tomas; Ben-Shlomi, Ruti; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2016-05-01

    Understanding atom-ion collision dynamics is at the heart of the growing field of ultra-cold atom-ion physics. The naive picture of a hot ion sympathetically-cooled by a cold atomic bath doesn't hold due to the time dependent potentials generated by the ion Paul trap. The energy scale of the atom-ion system is determined by a combination of the atomic bath temperature, the ion's excess micromotion (EMM) and the back action of the atom-ion attraction on the ion's position in the trap. However, it is the position dependent ion's inherent micromotion which acts as an amplifier for the ion's energy during random consecutive collisions. Due to this reason, the ion's energy distribution deviates from Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) characterized by an exponential tail to one with power-law tail described by Tsallis q-exponential function. Here we report on the observation of a strong deviation from MB to Tsallis energy distribution of a trapped ion. In our experiment, a ground-state cooled 88 Sr+ ion is immersed in an ultra-cold cloud of 87 Rb atoms. The energy scale is determined by either EMM or solely due to the back action on the ion position during a collision with an atom in the trap. Energy distributions are obtained using narrow optical clock spectroscopy.

  12. Charge exchange and ionization in hydrogen atom-fully stripped ion collisions in Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Wang, J. G.; He, B.; Qiu, Y. B.; Janev, R. K.

    2007-05-15

    The processes of charge exchange and ionization in collisions of ground state hydrogen atom with fully stripped ions in a weakly coupled plasma are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method in the collision energy range 10-900 keV/amu. The interparticle interactions are described by the Debye-Hueckel model with inclusion of dynamical effects associated with the projectile velocity. The microcanonical distribution of initial state electronic coordinates and momenta has been determined by inclusion of plasma screening effects. The cross section dependencies on plasma parameters and ion charge and velocity are investigated. It is shown that plasma effects on charge exchange and ionization cross sections are significant and particularly pronounced at low collision velocities. The results of systematic cross section calculations for different values of Debye screening length (in the range 1-50a{sub 0}) and ion charges (in the range 1-14) are presented.

  13. Creation and recovery of a W(111) single atom gas field ion source.

    PubMed

    Pitters, Jason L; Urban, Radovan; Wolkow, Robert A

    2012-04-21

    Tungsten single atom tips have been prepared from a single crystal W(111) oriented wire using the chemical assisted field evaporation and etching method. Etching to a single atom tip occurs through a symmetric structure and leads to a predictable last atom unlike etching with polycrystalline tips. The single atom tip formation procedure is shown in an atom by atom removal process. Rebuilds of single atom tips occur on the same crystalline axis as the original tip such that ion emission emanates along a fixed direction for all tip rebuilds. This preparation method could be utilized and developed to prepare single atom tips for ion source development.

  14. Transferable pseudoclassical electrons for aufbau of atomic ions.

    PubMed

    Ekesan, Solen; Kale, Seyit; Herzfeld, Judith

    2014-06-05

    Generalizing the LEWIS reactive force field from electron pairs to single electrons, we present LEWIS• in which explicit valence electrons interact with each other and with nuclear cores via pairwise interactions. The valence electrons are independently mobile particles, following classical equations of motion according to potentials modified from Coulombic as required to capture quantum characteristics. As proof of principle, the aufbau of atomic ions is described for diverse main group elements from the first three rows of the periodic table, using a single potential for interactions between electrons of like spin and another for electrons of unlike spin. The electrons of each spin are found to distribute themselves in a fashion akin to the major lobes of the hybrid atomic orbitals, suggesting a pointillist description of the electron density. The broader validity of the LEWIS• force field is illustrated by predicting the vibrational frequencies of diatomic and triatomic hydrogen species.

  15. Generation of hyperentangled states between remote noninteracting atomic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Baolin; Zhan Youbang

    2010-11-15

    We propose a scheme of generating four-qubit hyperentangled states between a pair of remote noninteracting atomic ions with a {Lambda} configuration that are confined in Paul traps. These hyperentangled states, different from the normal entangled states that are entangled in a single degree of freedom, are entangled in both spin and motion degrees of freedom. In our proposal, the entanglement is first generated in spin degrees of freedom using linear optics and then transferred to the motion degree of freedom using a sequence of laser pluses, including the stimulated Raman carrier transitions and sideband transitions. The proposal is completed with regenerating entanglement in spin degrees of freedom using linear optics.

  16. Long-Lived Qubit Memory Using Atomic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Jost, J. D.; Chiaverini, J.; Demarco, B.; Ben-Kish, A.; Blakestad, R. B.; Britton, J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Leibfried, D.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schaetz, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Wineland, D. J.

    2005-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a robust quantum memory using a magnetic-field-independent hyperfine transition in 9Be+ atomic ion qubits at a magnetic field B≃0.01194 T. We observe that the single physical qubit memory coherence time is greater than 10 s, an improvement of approximately 5 orders of magnitude from previous experiments with 9Be+. We also observe long coherence times of decoherence-free subspace logical qubits comprising two entangled physical qubits and discuss the merits of each type of qubit.

  17. Metallic atoms and ions in comets: Comet Halley 1986 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibadov, S.

    1992-01-01

    The origin of metallic atoms and ions in the cometary comae is investigated theoretically. Two effects are revealed in the comas of bright comets: (1) the Na anomalous type effect is possible within the gas-dust jets of comet P/Halley 1986 3 due to cooling cometary dust by cryogenic gas flow from the nucleus; and (2) the production of ions of refractory elements (Fe(+), Si(+), etc.) at large heliocentric distances is possible in the comas of the Halley type dusty comets due to high-velocity impacts between cometary and zodiacal dust particles. Spectral observations of comets with high sensitivity and spatial resolution are important for studying both comets and interplanetary dust.

  18. Semiempirical Theories of the Affinities of Negative Atomic Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, John W.

    1961-01-01

    The determination of the electron affinities of negative atomic ions by means of direct experimental investigation is limited. To supplement the meager experimental results, several semiempirical theories have been advanced. One commonly used technique involves extrapolating the electron affinities along the isoelectronic sequences, The most recent of these extrapolations Is studied by extending the method to Include one more member of the isoelectronic sequence, When the results show that this extension does not increase the accuracy of the calculations, several possible explanations for this situation are explored. A different approach to the problem is suggested by the regularities appearing in the electron affinities. Noting that the regular linear pattern that exists for the ionization potentials of the p electrons as a function of Z, repeats itself for different degrees of ionization q, the slopes and intercepts of these curves are extrapolated to the case of the negative Ion. The method is placed on a theoretical basis by calculating the Slater parameters as functions of q and n, the number of equivalent p-electrons. These functions are no more than quadratic in q and n. The electron affinities are calculated by extending the linear relations that exist for the neutral atoms and positive ions to the negative ions. The extrapolated. slopes are apparently correct, but the intercepts must be slightly altered to agree with experiment. For this purpose one or two experimental affinities (depending on the extrapolation method) are used in each of the two short periods. The two extrapolation methods used are: (A) an isoelectronic sequence extrapolation of the linear pattern as such; (B) the same extrapolation of a linearization of this pattern (configuration centers) combined with an extrapolation of the other terms of the ground configurations. The latter method Is preferable, since it requires only experimental point for each period. The results agree within

  19. Atomic resolution of Lithium Ions in LiCoO

    SciTech Connect

    Shao-Horn, Yang; Croguennec, Laurence; Delmas, Claude; Nelson, Chris; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2003-03-18

    LiCoO2 is the most common lithium storage material for lithium rechargeable batteries, used widely to power portable electronic devices such as laptop computers. Lithium arrangements in the CoO2 framework have a profound effect on the structural stability and electrochemical properties of LixCoO2 (0 < x < 1), however, probing lithium ions has been difficult using traditional X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Here we have succeeded in simultaneously resolving columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in layered LiCoO2 battery material using experimental focal series of LiCoO2 images obtained at sub-Angstrom resolution in a mid-voltage transmission electron microscope. Lithium atoms are the smallest and lightest metal atoms, and scatter electrons only very weakly. We believe our observations of lithium to be the first by electron microscopy, and that they show promise to direct visualization of the ordering of lithium and vacancy in LixCoO2.

  20. Cycle Time Reduction in Trapped Mercury Ion Atomic Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Eric A.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Taghavi, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    The use of the mercury ion isotope (201)Hg(+) was examined for an atomic clock. Taking advantage of the faster optical pumping time in (201)Hg(+) reduces both the state preparation and the state readout times, thereby decreasing the overall cycle time of the clock and reducing the impact of medium-term LO noise on the performance of the frequency standard. The spectral overlap between the plasma discharge lamp used for (201)Hg(+) state preparation and readout is much larger than that of the lamp used for the more conventional (199)Hg(+). There has been little study of (201)Hg(+) for clock applications (in fact, all trapped ion clock work in mercury has been with (199)Hg(+); however, recently the optical pumping time in (201)Hg(+) has been measured and found to be 0.45 second, or about three times faster than in (199)Hg(+) due largely to the better spectral overlap. This can be used to reduce the overall clock cycle time by over 2 seconds, or up to a factor of 2 improvement. The use of the (201)Hg(+) for an atomic clock is totally new. Most attempts to reduce the impact of LO noise have focused on reducing the interrogation time. In the trapped ion frequency standards built so far at JPL, the optical pumping time is already at its minimum so that no enhancement can be had by shortening it. However, by using (201)Hg(+), this is no longer the case. Furthermore, integrity monitoring, the mechanism that determines whether the clock is functioning normally, cannot happen faster than the clock cycle time. Therefore, a shorter cycle time will enable quicker detection of failure modes and recovery from them.

  1. Effects due to adsorbed atoms upon angular and energy distributions of surface produced negative hydrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, M.; Bacal, M.; Kasuya, T.; Kato, S.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure to Cs added hydrogen discharge makes surface of plasma grid of a negative hydrogen ion source covered with Cs and hydrogen. A Monte-Carlo particle simulation code ACAT was run to evaluate the effects due to adsorbed Cs and H atoms upon the angular and energy distributions of H atoms leaving the surface. Accumulation of H atoms on the surface reduces particle reflection coefficients and the mean energy of backscattered H atoms. Angular distributions of H atoms reflected from the hydrogen covered surface tend to be under-cosine at lower energies. Desorption of adsorbed H atoms is more efficient for hydrogen positive ions than for Cs positive ions at lower incident energy. At higher energy more than 100 eV, Cs ions desorb adsorbed H atoms more efficiently than hydrogen ions.

  2. Energy loss straggling in collisions of fast finite-size ions with atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D. N.; Matveev, V. I.

    2013-03-01

    The influence of ion size on straggling of energy losses by fast partially stripped ions is studied using the nonperturbative approach based on the eikonal approximation. It is shown that such a consideration of collisions of ions with complex atoms can lead to considerable corrections in calculating root-mean-square straggling of energy losses by fast ions compared to the results obtained for point ions. The root-mean-square straggling of energy losses are calculated for bromide and iodine ions in collisions with copper, silver, and aluminum atoms. It is shown that allowance for the size of the electron "coat" of an ion noticeably improves the agreement with experimental data.

  3. Energy loss straggling in collisions of fast finite-size ions with atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, D. N. Matveev, V. I.

    2013-03-15

    The influence of ion size on straggling of energy losses by fast partially stripped ions is studied using the nonperturbative approach based on the eikonal approximation. It is shown that such a consideration of collisions of ions with complex atoms can lead to considerable corrections in calculating root-mean-square straggling of energy losses by fast ions compared to the results obtained for point ions. The root-mean-square straggling of energy losses are calculated for bromide and iodine ions in collisions with copper, silver, and aluminum atoms. It is shown that allowance for the size of the electron 'coat' of an ion noticeably improves the agreement with experimental data.

  4. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a bibliography for 1991 on the following topics: Atom probe field ion microscopy; field desorption mass spectrometry; field emission; field ion microscopy; and field emission theory.

  5. Method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Spence, David; Lykke, Keith

    1998-01-01

    A technique to enhance the yield of atomic ion species (H.sup.+, D.sup.+, O.sup.+, N.sup.+, etc.) from plasma ion sources. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H.sub.2 O, D.sub.2 O, O.sub.2, and SF.sub.6, among others, with the most effective being water (H.sub.2 O) and deuterated water (D.sub.2 O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave generated plasmas have produced ion beams comprised of close to 100% purity protons (H.sup.+) and close to 100% purity deuterons (D.sup.+). The technique also increases the total yield of protons and deuterons by converting unwanted ion species, namely, H.sub.2.sup.+,H.sub.3.sup.+ and D.sub.2.sup.+, D.sub.3.sup.+, into the desired ion species, H.sup.+ and D.sup.+, respectively.

  6. Method for the production of atomic ion species from plasma ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Spence, D.; Lykke, K.

    1998-08-04

    A technique to enhance the yield of atomic ion species (H{sup +}, D{sup +}, O{sup +}, N{sup +}, etc.) from plasma ion sources. The technique involves the addition of catalyzing agents to the ion discharge. Effective catalysts include H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}, among others, with the most effective being water (H{sub 2}O) and deuterated water (D{sub 2}O). This technique has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory, where microwave generated plasmas have produced ion beams comprised of close to 100% purity protons (H{sup +}) and close to 100% purity deuterons (D{sup +}). The technique also increases the total yield of protons and deuterons by converting unwanted ion species, namely, H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} and D{sub 2}{sup +}, D{sub 3}{sup +}, into the desired ion species, H{sup +} and D{sup +}, respectively. 4 figs.

  7. Fluctuating Potentials In Micrometer Scale Atomic Ion Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, J.; Seidelin, S.; Chiaverini, J.; Reichle, R.; Bollinger, J. J.; Leibfried, D.; Wesenberg, J. H.; Blakestad, R. B.; Epstein, R. J.; Shiga, N.; Amini, J. M.; Brown, K. R.; Home, J. P.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Wineland, D. J.

    2007-03-01

    Electromagnetic confinement of atomic ion qubits coupled with laser cooling has permitted observation of 10 minute coherence times [1, 2]. Recent work to miniaturize electromagnetic traps promises qubit densities attractive for large scale quantum computing [3]. However, motional heating resulting from poorly understood fluctuating trapping potentials is observed to increase as approximately dimensions-4 [4]. We discuss efforts to suppress this heating and present experimental results for several microtrap fabrication techniques [5, 6]. [1] P. T. H. Fisk et al., IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 113 (1995). [2] J. J. Bollinger et al., IEEE Trans. Instrum. Measurement 40, 126 (1991). [3] A. Steane, quant-ph/0412165. [4] L. Deslauriers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006). [5] S. Seidelin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006). [6] J. Britton et al., quant-ph/0605170.

  8. Characteristics of flows of energetic atoms reflected from metal targets during ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmichev, A.; Perevertaylo, V.; Tsybulsky, L.; Volpian, O.

    2016-07-01

    Particle number and energy reflection coefficients for energetic neutralized gas ions (Ar and O atoms) backscattered from metal targets during ion bombardment have been calculated using TRIM code. The energy distributions of reflected atoms are computed, too, and their dependence on the primary ion energy and the angle of ion incidence is determined. The obtained data confirm the possibility of employing energetic atoms reflection for generation of high energy neutral beams and point out to take this phenomenon into account under analysis of the ion technology for coating deposition.

  9. Independent-particle models for light negative atomic ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.

    1980-01-01

    For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic ions of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these ions. Results for total energies and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner energy levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.

  10. Independent-particle models for light negative atomic ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.

    1980-01-01

    For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic ions of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these ions. Results for total energies and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner energy levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.

  11. Spectr-W3 Online Database On Atomic Properties Of Atoms And Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faenov, A. Ya.; Magunov, A. I.; Pikuz, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Loboda, P. A.; Bakshayev, N. N.; Gagarin, S. V.; Komosko, V. V.; Kuznetsov, K. S.; Markelenkov, S. A.

    2002-10-01

    Recent progress in the novel information technologies based on the World-Wide Web (WWW) gives a new possibility for a worldwide exchange of atomic spectral and collisional data. This facilitates joint efforts of the international scientific community in basic and applied research, promising technological developments, and university education programs. Special-purpose atomic databases (ADBs) are needed for an effective employment of large-scale datasets. The ADB SPECTR developed at MISDC of VNIIFTRI has been used during the last decade in several laboratories in the world, including RFNC-VNIITF. The DB SPECTR accumulates a considerable amount of atomic data (about 500,000 records). These data were extracted from publications on experimental and theoretical studies in atomic physics, astrophysics, and plasma spectroscopy during the last few decades. The information for atoms and ions comprises the ionization potentials, the energy levels, the wavelengths and transition probabilities, and, to a lesser extent, -- also the autoionization rates, and the electron-ion collision cross-sections and rates. The data are supplied with source references and comments elucidating the details of computations or measurements. Our goal is to create an interactive WWW information resource based on the extended and updated Web-oriented database version SPECTR-W3 and its further integration into the family of specialized atomic databases on the Internet. The version will incorporate novel experimental and theoretical data. An appropriate revision of the previously accumulated data will be performed from the viewpoint of their consistency to the current state-of-the-art. We are particularly interested in cooperation for storing the atomic collision data. Presently, a software shell with the up-to-date Web-interface is being developed to work with the SPECTR-W3 database. The shell would include the subsystems of information retrieval, input, update, and output in/from the database and

  12. Forward electron production in heavy ion-atom and ion-solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    A sharp cusp in the velocity spectrum of electrons, ejected in ion-atom and ion-solid collisions, is observed when the ejected electron velocity vector v/sub e/ matches that of the emergent ion vector v/sub p/ in both speed and direction. In ion-atom collisions, the electrons originate from capture to low-lying, projectile-centered continuum states (ECC) for fast bare or nearly bare projectiles, and from loss to those low-lying continuum states (ELC) when loosely bound projectile electrons are available. Most investigators now agree that ECC cusps are strongly skewed toward lower velocities, and exhibit full widths half maxima roughly proportional to v/sub p/ (neglecting target-shell effects, which are sometimes strong). A close examination of recent ELC data shows that ELC cusps are instead nearly symmetric, with widths nearly independent on v/sub p/ in the velocity range 6 to 18 a.u., a result only recently predicted by theory. Convoy electron cusps produced in heavy ion-solid collisions at MeV/u energies exhibit approximately velocity-independent widths very similar to ELC cusp widths. While the shape of the convoy peaks is approximately independent of projectile Z, velocity, and of target material, it is found that the yields in polycrystalline targets exhibit a strong dependence on projectile Z and velocity. While attempts have been made to link convoy electron production to binary ECC or ELC processes, sometimes at the last layer, or alternatively to a solid-state wake-riding model, our measured dependences of cusp shape and yield on projectile charge state and energy are inconsistent with the predictions of available theories. 10 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  13. Highly charged ions as a basis of optical atomic clockwork of exceptional accuracy.

    PubMed

    Derevianko, Andrei; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2012-11-02

    We propose a novel class of atomic clocks based on highly charged ions. We consider highly forbidden laser-accessible transitions within the 4f(12) ground-state configurations of highly charged ions. Our evaluation of systematic effects demonstrates that these transitions may be used for building exceptionally accurate atomic clocks which may compete in accuracy with recently proposed nuclear clocks.

  14. Treatment of Ion-Atom Collisions Using a Partial-Wave Expansion of the Projectile Wavefunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, T. G.; Foster, M.; Colgan, J.; Madison, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge…

  15. Treatment of Ion-Atom Collisions Using a Partial-Wave Expansion of the Projectile Wavefunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, T. G.; Foster, M.; Colgan, J.; Madison, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge…

  16. A single-atom sharp iridium tip as an emitter of gas field ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hong-Shi; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Hwang, Ying-Siang; Lu, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Yueh; Hou, Jin-Long; Tsong, Tien T.

    2009-08-01

    We report a reliable method for preparing a pure Ir single-atom tip by thermal treatment in oxygen. The atomic structure of the tip apex and its ion emission characteristics are investigated with field ion microscopy. We have shown that the Ir single-atom tip can be a good field ion emitter, capable of emitting a variety of gas ion beams, such as He+, H2+, N2+, and O2+, with high brightness and stability. In addition, this tip can easily be maintained and regenerated in vacuum, ensuring it has sufficient lifetime for practical applications.

  17. Relevant ion time scales for electron impact processes of atoms in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Murillo, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a new model for treating collisional atomic processes has been presented. This model simultaneously and self-consistently treats electron and ion processes. For transitions frequencies above the ion plasma frequency, it is argued that little ion motion occurs although the interaction is still strong; the ion microfield perturbs the atom. The electron impact processes may still be described by a DSF between levels of the perturbed atoms, suggesting the name Microfield Stochastic Model (MSM) for this method. Future work will be directed towards refining some of the approximations used here for application to realistic systems.

  18. Screening-Antiscreening Effect in Ion-Atom Collisions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulskotter, Hans-Peter G.

    1990-01-01

    In a collision between an atomic projectile carrying one or more electrons and a target atom, one of the events that may occur is the ionization of a projectile electron. Projectile ionization, usually called electron loss, is normally attributed to the Coulomb interaction between the target nucleus and projectile electron. The effect of the target electrons can be accounted for partially by introducing a screened Coulomb interaction between the target and the projectile electron. However, the target electrons can not only act coherently as screening agents, but may also act incoherently as ionizing (antiscreening) agents. We have measured the cross sections for projectile K-shell ionization for 0.75 - 3.5 MeV/Nucleon Li^{2+ }, C^{5+}, and O^{7+} projectiles, for projectile electron loss of 100 and 380 MeV/Nucleon Au^{52+} projectiles in collisions with H_2, He, and N _2, and for 380 MeV/N Au^ {75+} projectiles in collisions with H _2 and N_2 targets. We unambiguously demonstrate that for energies where the target electrons have sufficient kinetic energy in the projectile frame to ionize the projectile electron, the electron-electron interaction can lead to a significant increase in the total ionization cross section. The largest relative increase we have been able to observe is 76%. The experimental results generally agree with plane-wave Born approximation calculations by Bates and Griffing and modified by Anholt which take into account the interaction between projectile and target electrons. We also describe the properties of a new target gas cell which has been designed and built for the use at the relativistic heavy-ion accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

  19. Fine tuning the ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surface using ion mixtures.

    PubMed

    Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Fearn, Sarah; Ismail, Nur L; McIntosh, Alastair J S; Lovelock, Kevin R J

    2015-03-28

    Ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surfaces can be created that are remarkably different from the bulk composition. In this communication we demonstrate, using low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), that for ionic liquid mixtures the outer atomic surface shows significantly more atoms from anions with weaker cation-anion interactions (and vice versa).

  20. High-brightness Cs focused ion beam from a cold-atomic-beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A. V.; Schwarzkopf, A.; McClelland, J. J.; Knuffman, B.

    2017-06-01

    We present measurements of focal spot size and brightness in a focused ion beam system utilizing a laser-cooled atomic beam source of Cs ions. Spot sizes as small as (2.1 ± 0.2) nm (one standard deviation) and reduced brightness values as high as (2.4 ± 0.1) × 107 A m-2 Sr-1 eV-1 are observed with a 10 keV beam. This measured brightness is over 24 times higher than the highest brightness observed in a Ga liquid metal ion source. The behavior of brightness as a function of beam current and the dependence of effective source temperature on ionization energy are examined. The performance is seen to be consistent with earlier predictions. Demonstration of this source with very high brightness, producing a heavy ionic species such as Cs+, promises to allow significant improvements in resolution and throughput for such applications as next-generation circuit edit and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  1. Atomic data and line intensities for the S V ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorga, C.; Stancalie, V.

    2017-05-01

    The energy levels, oscillator strengths, spontaneous radiative decay rates, lifetimes and electron impact collision strengths have been obtained for the [ Ne ] 3s nl, [ Ne ] 3p nl, [ Ne ] 3d nl configurations belonging to S V ion, with n ≤ 7 and l ≤ 4, resulting in 567 fine-structure levels. The calculations have been performed within the fully relativistic Flexible Atomic Code (FAC, Gu, 2008) framework and the distorted wave approximation. To attain the desired accuracy for the levels energy, the valence-valence and valence-core correlations have been taken care of by including 96 configuration state functions (CSFs) in the model, reaching a total of 3147 fine-structure levels. Two separate calculations have been performed with the local central potential computed for two different average configurations. A third calculation is also performed without the addition of the core-excited states in the atomic model for completeness. The effects of slightly different mean configurations and valence-core correlations on the energy levels and decay rates are investigated. The collision data have been computed employing the relativistic distorted-wave method along with the atomic model containing the 96 CSFs and corresponding to the ground state mean configuration. The collision strengths corresponding to excitation from the first four fine-structure levels are given for five energy values of the scattered electron 2.65, 6.18, 11.02, 17.36, 25.43 Rydberg, plus an additional variable small energy value near the threshold. A collisional-radiative model has been employed to solve the rate equations for the populations of the 567 fine-structure levels, for a temperature of LogTE(K) = 5.2 corresponding to the maximum abundance of S V, and at densities 106-1016cm-3, assuming a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function and black body radiation of temperature 6000 K and dilution factor 0.35 for the photon distribution function. The main processes responsible for the

  2. Investigations of Atomic Transport Induced by Heavy Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwell, Thomas Clyde

    The mechanisms of atomic transport induced by ion irradiation generally fall into the categories of anisotropic or isotropic processes. Typical examples of these are recoil implantation and cascade mixing, respectively. We have measured the interaction of these processes in the mixing of Ti/SiO(,2)/Si, Cr/SiO(,2)/Si and Ni/SiO(,2)/Si multi-layers irradiated with Xe at fluences of 0.01 - 10 x 10('15)cm('-2). The fluence dependence of net metal transport into the underlying layers was measured with different thicknesses of SiO(,2) and different sample temperatures during irradiation (-196 to 500C). There is a linear dependence at low fluences. At high fluences, a square-root behavior predominates. For thin SiO(,2) layers (<20nm), the cross -over point depends on the SiO(,2) thickness. These results are readily interpreted in terms of competition between the flux of injected atoms and diffusion of the accumulating metal. The detailed analysis allows us to speculate on the role of chemical reaction kinetics in controlling the outcome of intra-cascade processes. There is no significant correlation between the reactivity of the metal with SiO(,2) and the amount of mixing observed when the irradiations are performed at 25C or below. The contribution from primary recoils is quite pronounced since the gross mixing is small. A significant correlation exists between the mixing and the energy deposited through elastic collisions F(,D ). Several models are examined in an attempt to describe the transport process in Ni/SiO(,2). It is likely that injection of Ni by secondary recoil implantation is primarily responsible for getting Ni into the SiO(,2). Secondary recoil injection is thought to scale with F(,D). Trends in the mixing rates indicate that the dominant mechanism for Ti and Cr could be the same as for Ni. The processes of atomic transport and phase formation clearly fail to be separable at higher temperatures. A positive correlation with chemical reactivity emerges at

  3. Angular Distributions of Sputtered Atoms from Semiconductor Targets at Grazing Ion Beam Incidence Angles

    SciTech Connect

    Sekowski, M.; Burenkov, A.; Martinez-Limia, A.; Hernandez-Mangas, J.; Ryssel, H.

    2008-11-03

    Angular distributions of ion sputtered germanium and silicon atoms are investigated within this work. Experiments are performed for the case of grazing ion incidence angles, where the resulting angular distributions are asymmetrical with respect to the polar angle of the sputtered atoms. The performed experiments are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations from different programs. We show here an improved model for the angular distribution, which has an additional dependence of the ion incidence angle.

  4. Dynamics of a Ground-State Cooled Ion Colliding with Ultracold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Ziv; Sikorsky, Tomas; Ben-shlomi, Ruti; Akerman, Nitzan; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2016-12-01

    Ultracold atom-ion mixtures are gaining increasing interest due to their potential applications in ultracold and state-controlled chemistry, quantum computing, and many-body physics. Here, we studied the dynamics of a single ground-state cooled ion during few, to many, Langevin (spiraling) collisions with ultracold atoms. We measured the ion's energy distribution and observed a clear deviation from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, characterized by an exponential tail, to a power-law distribution best described by a Tsallis function. Unlike previous experiments, the energy scale of atom-ion interactions is not determined by either the atomic cloud temperature or the ion's trap residual excess-micromotion energy. Instead, it is determined by the force the atom exerts on the ion during a collision which is then amplified by the trap dynamics. This effect is intrinsic to ion Paul traps and sets the lower bound of atom-ion steady-state interaction energy in these systems. Despite the fact that our system is eventually driven out of the ultracold regime, we are capable of studying quantum effects by limiting the interaction to the first collision when the ion is initialized in the ground state of the trap.

  5. Dynamics of a Ground-State Cooled Ion Colliding with Ultracold Atoms.

    PubMed

    Meir, Ziv; Sikorsky, Tomas; Ben-Shlomi, Ruti; Akerman, Nitzan; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2016-12-09

    Ultracold atom-ion mixtures are gaining increasing interest due to their potential applications in ultracold and state-controlled chemistry, quantum computing, and many-body physics. Here, we studied the dynamics of a single ground-state cooled ion during few, to many, Langevin (spiraling) collisions with ultracold atoms. We measured the ion's energy distribution and observed a clear deviation from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, characterized by an exponential tail, to a power-law distribution best described by a Tsallis function. Unlike previous experiments, the energy scale of atom-ion interactions is not determined by either the atomic cloud temperature or the ion's trap residual excess-micromotion energy. Instead, it is determined by the force the atom exerts on the ion during a collision which is then amplified by the trap dynamics. This effect is intrinsic to ion Paul traps and sets the lower bound of atom-ion steady-state interaction energy in these systems. Despite the fact that our system is eventually driven out of the ultracold regime, we are capable of studying quantum effects by limiting the interaction to the first collision when the ion is initialized in the ground state of the trap.

  6. Atomic-layer-deposition oxide nanoglue for sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaogang; Liu, Yang; Jia, Zheng; Chen, Yu-Chen; Wan, Jiayu; Weadock, Nicholas; Gaskell, Karen J; Li, Teng; Hu, Liangbing

    2014-01-08

    Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) coatings have been increasingly used to improve battery performance. However, the electrochemical and mechanistic roles remain largely unclear, especially for ALD coatings on electrodes that undergo significant volume changes (up to 100%) during charging/discharging. Here we investigate an anode consisting of tin nanoparticles (SnNPs) with an ALD-Al2O3 coating. For the first time, in situ transmission electron microscopy unveiled the dynamic mechanical protection of the ALD-Al2O3 coating by coherently deforming with the SnNPs under the huge volume changes during charging/discharging. Battery tests in coin-cells further showed the ALD-Al2O3 coating remarkably boosts the cycling performance of the Sn anodes, comparing with those made of bare SnNPs. Chemomechanical simulations clearly revealed that a bare SnNP debonds and falls off the underlying substrate upon charging, and by contrast the ALD-Al2O3 coating, like ion-conductive nanoglue, robustly anchors the SnNP anode to the substrate during charging/discharging, a key to improving battery cycle performance.

  7. Atomic nuclei decay modes by spontaneous emission of heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Ivaşcu, M.; Sndulescu, A.; Greiner, Walter

    1985-08-01

    The great majority of the known nuclides with Z>40, including the so-called stable nuclides, are metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relative to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematic calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained from parent-emitted heavy ion combinations leading to a magic (208Pb) or almost magic daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-lives in the range of 1010-1030 s: 5He, 8-10Be, 11,12B, 12-16C, 13-17N, 15-22O, 18-23F, 20-26Ne, 23-28Na, 23-30Mg, 27-32Al, 28-36Si, 31-39P, 32-42S, 35-45Cl, 37-47Ar, 40-49 K, 42-51. . .Ca, 44-53 Sc, 46-53Ti, 48-54V, and 49-55 Cr. The shell structure and the pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes.

  8. Numerical calculation of ionization in fast ion-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbatsch, Marko; Chassid, Michal

    1996-05-01

    Numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in a 1D model and in a realistic 3D setting^1,2 are analyzed to calculate excitation probabilities and differential electron emission probabilities for collisions of fast bare projectiles with hydrogen atoms. The results are tested for the expected scaling behaviour with projectile charge and collision energy. The ionization probabilities are calculated by first projecting out the bound-state contributions from the time-evolved wavefunction and then performing a discrete Fourier transform. Comparison is provided with recent experiments for helium targets using cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy^3. For fast (v=12 au) and highly charged projectiles (Z_p=24) bound-state excitations are dominantly produced at much larger impact parameters than b >= 3 au for which the ionization channel receives its largest contribution. ^1 M. Horbatsch, Phys. Rev. A 44, R5346 (1991) ^2 M. Chassid and M. Horbatsch, J. Phys. B 28,L621 (1995) ^3 R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3371 (1994).

  9. Atomic force microscope cantilever calibration using a focused ion beam.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Ashley D; Quinton, Jamie S; Gibson, Christopher T

    2012-07-20

    A calibration method is presented for determining the spring constant of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers, which is a modification of the established Cleveland added mass technique. A focused ion beam (FIB) is used to remove a well-defined volume from a cantilever with known density, substantially reducing the uncertainty usually present in the added mass method. The technique can be applied to any type of AFM cantilever; but for the lowest uncertainty it is best applied to silicon cantilevers with spring constants above 0.7 N m(-1), where uncertainty is demonstrated to be typically between 7 and 10%. Despite the removal of mass from the cantilever, the calibration method presented does not impair the probes' ability to acquire data. The technique has been extensively tested in order to verify the underlying assumptions in the method. This method was compared to a number of other calibration methods and practical improvements to some of these techniques were developed, as well as important insights into the behavior of FIB modified cantilevers. These results will prove useful to research groups concerned with the application of microcantilevers to nanoscience, in particular for cases where maintaining pristine AFM tip condition is critical.

  10. Emulating solid-state physics with a hybrid system of ultracold ions and atoms.

    PubMed

    Bissbort, U; Cocks, D; Negretti, A; Idziaszek, Z; Calarco, T; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Hofstetter, W; Gerritsma, R

    2013-08-23

    We propose and theoretically investigate a hybrid system composed of a crystal of trapped ions coupled to a cloud of ultracold fermions. The ions form a periodic lattice and induce a band structure in the atoms. This system combines the advantages of high fidelity operations and detection offered by trapped ion systems with ultracold atomic systems. It also features close analogies to natural solid-state systems, as the atomic degrees of freedom couple to phonons of the ion lattice, thereby emulating a solid-state system. Starting from the microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, we derive the low energy Hamiltonian, including the atomic band structure, and give an expression for the atom-phonon coupling. We discuss possible experimental implementations such as a Peierls-like transition into a period-doubled dimerized state.

  11. An apparatus for immersing trapped ions into an ultracold gas of neutral atoms.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Stefan; Härter, Arne; Frisch, Albert; Hoinka, Sascha; Denschlag, Johannes Hecker

    2012-05-01

    We describe a hybrid vacuum system in which a single ion or a well-defined small number of trapped ions (in our case Ba(+) or Rb(+)) can be immersed into a cloud of ultracold neutral atoms (in our case Rb). This apparatus allows for the study of collisions and interactions between atoms and ions in the ultracold regime. Our setup is a combination of a Bose-Einstein condensation apparatus and a linear Paul trap. The main design feature of the apparatus is to first separate the production locations for the ion and the ultracold atoms and then to bring the two species together. This scheme has advantages in terms of stability and available access to the region where the atom-ion collision experiments are carried out. The ion and the atoms are brought together using a moving one-dimensional optical lattice transport which vertically lifts the atomic sample over a distance of 30 cm from its production chamber into the center of the Paul trap in another chamber. We present techniques to detect and control the relative position between the ion and the atom cloud.

  12. A New Formula for Energy Spectrum of Sputtered Atoms Due to Low-Energy Light Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Yamamura, Yasunori; Ono, Tadayoshi; Kawamura, Takaichi

    A new formula has been derived to describe the energy spectrum of sputtered atoms from a target material bombarded by light ions. We assume that sputtered atoms bombarded by low-energy light ions are mainly primary knock-on atoms which are created by large-angle backscattered light ions. The escape processes of recoil atoms are estimated on the basis of the Falcone-Sigmund model. The new formula has the dependence on the incident energy of a projectile. We have compared the new formula with simulation results calculated with ACAT code for a Fe target material bombarded by 50eV, 100eV and 500eV D+ ions. Good agreements are found for 50eV and 100eV D+ ions.

  13. Quantum State Control of Trapped Atomic and Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seck, Christopher M.

    Full quantum control of a molecule would have a significant impact in molecular coherent control (alignment and orientation) and ultracold and quantum chemistry, quantum computing and simulation as well as hybrid quantum devices, and precision spectroscopy of importance to fundamental physics research. Precision spectroscopy of even simple diatomic molecules offers the possibility of uncovering physics beyond the standard model, specifically time variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio, which is currently constrained by astronomical molecular observations at the 10-16 1/yr level and laboratory atomic measurements at the 10-17 1/yr level. To achieve this level of measurement and to avoid the complications of diatomic structure on traditional spectroscopy methods, molecular quantum logic spectroscopy (mQLS) will be the spectroscopy technique of choice. We discuss development of in-house external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) systems and improvements to the Libbrecht-Hall circuit, which is a well-known, low-noise current driver for narrow-linewidth diode lasers. However, as the current approaches the maximum set limit, the noise in the laser current increases dramatically. This behavior is documented and simple circuit modifications to alleviate this issue are explored. We cool trapped AlH+ molecules to their ground rotational-vibrational quantum state using an electronically-exciting broadband laser to simultaneously drive cooling resonances from many different rotational levels. We demonstrate rotational cooling on the 140(20) ms timescale from room temperature to 3.8 K, with the ground state population increasing from 3% to 95.4%. Since QLS does not require the high gate fidelities usually associated with quantum computation and quantum simulation, it is possible to make simplifying choices in ion species and quantum protocols at the expense of some fidelity. We demonstrate sideband cooling and motional state detection protocols for 138Ba+ of sufficient fidelity

  14. Two-atom model in enhanced ion backscattering near 180/sup 0/ scattering angles

    SciTech Connect

    Oen, O.S.

    1981-06-01

    The recent discovery by Pronko, Appleton, Holland, and Wilson of an unusual enhancement of the yield of ions backscattered through angles close to 180/sup 0/ from the near surface regions of solids is investigated using a two-atom scattering model. The model predicts an enhancement effect in amorphous solids whose physical origin arises from the tolerance of path for those ions whose inward and outward trajectories lie in the vicinity of the critical impact parameter. Predictions are given of the dependence of the yield enhancement on the following parameters: ion energy, backscattering depth, exit angle, scattering potential, atomic numbers of projectile and target, and atomic density of target.

  15. Level-energy-dependent mean velocities of excited tungsten atoms sputtered by krypton-ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Nogami, Keisuke; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Mineta, Shota; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Furuya, Kenji; Motohashi, Kenji

    2015-11-15

    Visible emission spectra were acquired from neutral atoms sputtered by 35–60 keV Kr{sup +} ions from a polycrystalline tungsten surface. Mean velocities of excited tungsten atoms in seven different 6p states were also obtained via the dependence of photon intensities on the distance from the surface. The average velocities parallel to the surface normal varied by factors of 2–4 for atoms in the different 6p energy levels. However, they were almost independent of the incident ion kinetic energy. The 6p-level energy dependence indicated that the velocities of the excited atoms were determined by inelastic processes that involve resonant charge exchange.

  16. He2+ molecular ion and the He- atomic ion in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieyra, J. C. Lopez; Turbiner, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    We study the question of existence, i.e., stability with respect to dissociation of the spin-quartet permutation- and reflection-symmetric 4(-3) +g (Sz=-3 /2 ,M =-3 ) state of the (α α e e e ) Coulomb system: the He2 + molecular ion, placed in a magnetic field 0 ≤B ≤10 000 a.u. We assume that the α particles are infinitely massive (Born-Oppenheimer approximation of zero order) and adopt the parallel configuration, when the molecular axis and the magnetic field direction coincide, as the optimal configuration. The study of the stability is performed variationally with a physically adequate trial function. To achieve this goal, we explore several helium-containing compounds in strong magnetic fields, in particular; we study the spin-quartet ground state of the He- ion and the ground (spin-triplet) state of the helium atom, both for a magnetic field in 100 ≤B ≤10 000 a.u. The main result is that the He2 + molecular ion in the state 4(-3) +g is stable towards all possible decay modes for magnetic fields B ≳120 a .u . and with the magnetic field increase the ion becomes more tightly bound and compact with a cigar-type form of electronic cloud. At B =1000 a .u . , the dissociation energy of He2 + into He-+α is ˜702 eV and the dissociation energy for the decay channel to He +α +e is ˜729 eV , and both energies are in the energy window for one of the observed absorption features of the isolated neutron star 1E1207.4-5209.

  17. Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, A.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Chau, S.; Mack, M.; Harrison, S.; Svrluga, R.; Khoury, J.

    2013-07-01

    A new concept for ultra-shallow processing of surfaces known as accelerated neutral atom beam (ANAB) technique employs conversion of energetic gas cluster ions produced by the gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) method into intense collimated beams of coincident neutral gas atoms having controllable average energies from less than 10 eV per atom to beyond 100 eV per atom. A beam of accelerated gas cluster ions is first produced as is usual in GCIB, but conditions within the source ionizer and extraction regions are adjusted such that immediately after ionization and acceleration the clusters undergo collisions with non-ionized gas atoms. Energy transfer during these collisions causes the energetic cluster ions to release many of their constituent atoms. An electrostatic deflector is then used to eliminate charged species, leaving the released neutral atoms to still travel collectively at the same velocities they had as bonded components of their parent clusters. Upon target impact, the accelerated neutral atom beams produce effects similar to those normally associated with GCIB, but to shallower depths, with less surface damage and with superior subsurface interfaces. The paper discusses generation and characterization of the accelerated neutral atom beams, describes interactions of the beams with target surfaces, and presents examples of ongoing work on applications for biomedical devices.

  18. Search for an explanation for neutralization rates of atomic ion-ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Wiens, Justin P.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Viggiano, Albert A.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured well over a hundred rate coefficients k for cation-anion mutual neutralization reactions at thermal energies. For molecular ions, the k at 300 K tend not to vary more than a factor of two or three, presumably because a great many neutral states cross the incoming Coulombic potential energy curve. Atomic-atomic systems, for which there are few favorable curve crossings between the neutral and Coulombic curves, show variation of at least a factor of 60 in the measured k values at 300 K. For reactions involving the noble-gas cations, we assume that the final state is the lowest excited state of the neutral, plus the ground state of the neutralized anion, because otherwise the crossing distance R is so small that the curve-crossing probability is nil. We plotted measured k values (in cm3/s) vs the distance R (in bohr) at which the neutral and Coulombic curves cross, the found that the data are fairly well fit by a power law for k, 10-4R - 2 . 8 . The question is, is there a physical explanation for the observed dependence on R? We will discuss the data and the expectations of Landau-Zener theory. Supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR-2303EP).

  19. Fragmentation of phosphorylated and singly charged peptide ions via interaction with metastable atoms

    PubMed Central

    Berkout, Vadym D.; Doroshenko, Vladimir M.

    2008-01-01

    Fragmentation of phosphorylated peptide ions via interaction with electronically excited metastable argon atoms was studied in a linear trap – time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Doubly charged ions of phosphorylated peptides from an Enolase digest were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to a metastable atom beam in the linear trap. The metastable argon atoms were generated using a glow-discharge source. An intensive series of c- and z- ions were observed in all cases, with the phosphorylation group intact. The formation of molecular radical cations with reduced charge indicated that an electron transfer from a highly excited metastable state of argon to the peptide cation occurred. Additionally, singly charged Bradykinin, Substance P and Fibrinopeptide A molecular ions were fragmented via interaction with electronically excited metastable helium atoms. The fragmentation mechanism was different in this case and involved Penning ionization. PMID:19956340

  20. Fragmentation of phosphorylated and singly charged peptide ions via interaction with metastable atoms.

    PubMed

    Berkout, Vadym D; Doroshenko, Vladimir M

    2008-12-01

    Fragmentation of phosphorylated peptide ions via interaction with electronically excited metastable argon atoms was studied in a linear trap - time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Doubly charged ions of phosphorylated peptides from an Enolase digest were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to a metastable atom beam in the linear trap. The metastable argon atoms were generated using a glow-discharge source. An intensive series of c- and z- ions were observed in all cases, with the phosphorylation group intact. The formation of molecular radical cations with reduced charge indicated that an electron transfer from a highly excited metastable state of argon to the peptide cation occurred. Additionally, singly charged Bradykinin, Substance P and Fibrinopeptide A molecular ions were fragmented via interaction with electronically excited metastable helium atoms. The fragmentation mechanism was different in this case and involved Penning ionization.

  1. Summary of informal workshop on state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Cocke, C.L.; Datz, S.; Kostroun, V.

    1984-11-13

    The present state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research in the United States is assessed by means of a questionnaire and informal workshop. Recommendations for future facilities are given. 3 refs.

  2. Measurements of Scattering Processes in Negative Ion- Atom Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kvale, T. J.

    2000-12-22

    The main research activity is to study various scattering processes which occur in H{sup -} collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets in the intermediate energy region. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization.

  3. Highly charged ions for atomic clocks and search for variation of the fine structure constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    We review a number of highly charged ions which have optical transitions suitable for building extremely accurate atomic clocks. This includes ions from Hf 12+ to U 34+, which have the 4 f 12 configuration of valence electrons, the Ir 17+ ion, which has a hole in almost filled 4 f subshell, the Ho 14+, Cf 15+, Es 17+ and Es 16+ ions. Clock transitions in most of these ions are sensitive to variation of the fine structure constant, α (α = e2/hbar c). E.g., californium and einsteinium ions have largest known sensitivity to α-variation while holmium ion looks as the most suitable ion for experimental study. We study the spectra of the ions and their features relevant to the use as frequency standards.

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  5. Complex decay patterns in atomic core photoionization disentangled by ion-recoil measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Guillemin, Renaud; Bomme, Cedric; Marin, Thierry; Journel, Loic; Marchenko, Tatiana; Kushawaha, Rajesh K.; Piancastelli, Maria Novella; Simon, Marc; Trcera, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    Following core 1s ionization and resonant excitation of argon atoms, we measure the recoil energy of the ions due to momentum conservation during the emission of Auger electrons. We show that such ion momentum spectroscopy can be used to disentangle to some degree complex decay patterns, involving both radiative and nonradiative decays.

  6. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.F.; Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations of books, conference proceedings, journals, and patents published in 1992 on the following types of microscopy: atom probe field ion microscopy (108 items); field emission microscopy (101 items); and field ion microscopy (48 items). An addendum of 34 items missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  7. Calculation Of Change-Changing Cross Sections Of IONS Or Atoms Colliding With Fast IONS Using The Classical Trajectory Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, I. D., Shnidman, Ariel, Mebane, Harrison, Davidson, R.C.

    2008-10-10

    Evaluation of ion-atom charge-changing cross sections is needed for many accelerator applications. A classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation has been used to calculate ionization and charge exchange cross sections. For benchmarking purposes, an extensive study has been performed for the simple case of hydrogen and helium targets in collisions with various ions. Despite the fact that the simulation only accounts for classical mechanics, the calculations are comparable to experimental results for projectile velocities in the region corresponding to the vicinity of the maximum cross section. Shortcomings of the CTMC method for multielectron target atoms are discussed.

  8. High efficiency direct detection of ions from resonance ionization of sputtered atoms

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Pellin, M.J.; Young, C.E.

    1985-01-16

    A method and apparatus are provided for trace and other quantitative analysis with high efficiency of a component in a sample, with the analysis involving the removal by ion or other bombardment of a small quantity of ion and neutral atom groups from the sample, the conversion of selected neutral atom groups to photoions by laser initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, the selective deflection of the photoions for separation from original ion group emanating from the sample, and the detection of the photoions as a measure of the quantity of the component. In some embodiments, the original ion group is accelerated prior to the RIS step for separation purposes. Noise and other interference are reduced by shielding the detector from primary and secondary ions and deflecting the photoions sufficiently to avoid the primary and secondary ions.

  9. High efficiency direct detection of ions from resonance ionization of sputtered atoms

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Young, Charles E.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for trace and other quantitative analysis with high efficiency of a component in a sample, with the analysis involving the removal by ion or other bombardment of a small quantity of ion and neutral atom groups from the sample, the conversion of selected neutral atom groups to photoions by laser initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy, the selective deflection of the photoions for separation from original ion group emanating from the sample, and the detection of the photoions as a measure of the quantity of the component. In some embodiments, the original ion group is accelerated prior to the RIS step for separation purposes. Noise and other interference are reduced by shielding the detector from primary and secondary ions and deflecting the photoions sufficiently to avoid the primary and secondary ions.

  10. PREFACE: Heavy-Ion Spectroscopy and QED Effects in Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Ingvar; Martinson, Indrek; Schuch, Reinhold

    1993-01-01

    Experimental studies of heavy and highly charged ions have made remarkable progress in recent years. Today it is possible to produce virtually any ion up to hydrogen-like uranium; to study collisions of those ions with atoms, electrons, and solid surfaces; to excite such an ion and accurately measure the radiation emitted. This progress is largely due to the development of new experimental methods, for instance, the high-energy ion accelerators, laser-produced plasmas, advanced ion sources and ion traps (such as EBIS, EBIT, ECR, etc.), high temperature magnetically confined plasmas and heavy-ion storage rings. The motivations for studies of collisions with highly charged ions and for the understanding of the structure of heavy atomic systems are multi-faceted. Besides of the basic scientific aspects which are mainly the subject of this symposium, much incentive is experienced by applications, e.g., the interpretation of spectra from space (solar corona, solar flares and hot stars), the modelling of stellar atmospheres, the diagnostics of fusion plasma impurities, and the development of X-ray lasers. Since quite some time highly charged ions play a key role for high-precision metrology of atomic structure. These studies have been benchmarks for tests of advanced theories, including many-body theories of interelectronic correlations, relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic (QED) effects, effects due to the finite size of the nucleus and to parity non-conservation (PNC). The interest in QED effects in heavy ions has increased drastically in the last few years. The remarkable experiment on Li-like uranium, recently reported from Berkeley, has stimulated several groups to perform very accurate Lamb-shift calculations on such systems, and reports from three groups were given about such work. The agreement between the calculations as well as with experiment was generally very good, which implies that the problem of evaluating the first-order Lamb shift for any element is

  11. First atomic physics experiments with cooled stored ion beams at the Heidelberg heavy-ion ring TSR

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Balykin, V.; Baumann, W.; Berger, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Blatt, P.; Blum, M.; Faulstich, A.; Friedrich, A.; Gerhard, M.; Geyer, C.; Grieser, M.; Grieser, R.; Habs, D.; Heyng, H.W.; Hochadel, B.; Holzer, B.; Huber, G.; Jaeschke, E.; Jung, M.; Karafillidis, A.; Kilgus, G.; Klein, R.; Kraemer, D.; Krause, P.; Krieg, M.; Kuehl, T.; Matl, K.; Mueller, A.; Music, M.; Neumann, R.; Neureither, G.; Ott, W.; Petrich, W.; Povh, B.; Repnow, R.; Schroeder, S.; Schuch, R.; Schwalm, D.; Sigray, P.; Steck, M.; Stokstad, R.; Szmola, E.; Wagner, M.; Wanner, B.; Welti, K.; Zwickler, S. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg Manne Siegbahn Institute , Stockholm Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung , Darmstadt (Fed

    1990-06-01

    An overview of atomic physics experiments at the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) is given. Highly charged ions up to fully stripped silicon have been stored at energies between 4 and 12 MeV/u. The enhancement of the beam intensity by stacking, the beam lifetime, and electron cooling of these ion beams are discussed. Radiative and state-selective dielectronic recombination rates of hydrogen-like oxygen ions with free electrons from the electron cooler were measured. Beam noise spectra are being investigated with regard to collective effects caused by the Coulomb interaction in the cold ion beams. Resonance fluorescence from stored single-charged ions was observed using tunable narrow-band lasers. First indications of laser cooling in a storage ring were seen.

  12. Rayleigh x-ray scattering from many-electron atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhykov, A.; Yerokhin, V. A.; Stöhlker, Th; Fritzsche, S.

    2015-07-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the elastic Rayleigh scattering of x-rays by many-electron atoms and ions. Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution and linear polarization of the scattered photons for the case when the incident light is completely (linearly) polarized. Based on second-order perturbation theory and the independent particle approximation, we found that the Rayleigh angular distribution is strongly affected by the charge state and shell structure of the target ions or atoms. This effect can be observed experimentally at modern synchrotron facilities and might provide further insight into the structure of heavy atomic systems.

  13. Total Born-approximation cross sections for single-electron loss by atoms and ions colliding with atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rule, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first Born approximation (FBA) is applied to the calculation of single-electron-loss cross sections for various ions and atoms containing from one to seven electrons. Screened hydrogenic wave functions are used for the states of the electron ejected from the projectile, and Hartree-Fock elastic and incoherent scattering factors are used to describe the target. The effect of the target atom on the scaling of projectile ionization cross sections with respect to the projectile nuclear charge is explored in the case of hydrogenlike ions. Also examined is the scaling of the cross section with respect to the target nuclear charge for electron loss by Fe(25+) in collision with neutral atoms ranging from H to Fe. These results are compared with those of the binary-encounter approximation (BEA) and with the FBA for the case of ionization by completely stripped target ions. Electron-loss cross sections are also calculated for the ions O(i+) (i = 3-7) and N(i+) (i = 0-6) in collision with He targets in the energy range of approximately 0.1 to 100 MeV/nucleon. These results are found to be in excellent agreement with the available data near the peak of the ionization cross section.

  14. Atom probe field-ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: field-ion microscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM), and liquid metal ion sources (LMIS). Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles.

  15. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.; Russell, K.F.

    1990-12-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion spectroscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and theory. Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. This bibliography covers the period 1989. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications.

  16. An estimating formula for ion-atom association rates in gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, B. K.; Johnsen, R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple estimating formula is derived for rate coefficients of three-body ion atom association in gases and compare its predictions to experimental data on ion association and three-body radiative charge transfer reactions of singly- and doubly-charged rare-gas ions. The formula appears to reproduce most experimental data quite well. It may be useful for estimating the rates of reactions that have not been studied in the laboratory.

  17. Resonant charge exchange involving electronically excited states of nitrogen atoms and ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kosarim, A. V.; Smirnov, B. M.; Laricchiuta, A.

    2006-12-15

    Within the framework of the asymptotic theory the matrices for the exchange interaction potentials of the nitrogen ion, with electron shell p{sup 2}, and nitrogen atom, with electron shell p{sup 3}, are constructed. The hierarchy of interactions in the nitrogen molecular ion at large internuclear distances is constructed for different electronic states. On the basis of these interaction potentials, the cross sections of resonant charge exchange in slow collisions are evaluated for different values of electron momentum projections and then averaged over these momentum projections. The mobilities of nitrogen ions in atomic nitrogen are also derived.

  18. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report, 15 September 1984-14 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1985-09-01

    Advances are reported in the two areas of primary research: low-energy ion-atom collisions using secondary ion recoil sources, SIRS, and high-energy ion-atom collisions using the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator beams. We have investigated the feasibility of accel-decel with a tandem plus superconducting LINAC with great success, and we have continued to work on the designs of a stand-alone CRYEBIS and a superconducting Nb split-ring resonator LINAC as an appropriate booster for the EN tandem.

  19. New source of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Braenzel, J.; Schnürer, M.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2016-02-15

    The scenario of “electron-capture and -loss” was recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with MeV kinetic energies. However, it does not explain why the formation of negative ions in a liquid spray is much more efficient than with an isolated atom. The role of atomic excited states in the charge-exchange processes is considered, and it is shown that it cannot account for the observed phenomena. The processes are more complex than the single electron-capture and -loss approach. It is suggested that the shell effects in the electronic structure of the projectile ion and/or target atoms may influence the capture/loss probabilities.

  20. Metal vapor target for precise studies of ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W. Vorobyev, G.; Herfurth, F.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Spillmann, U.; Guo, D.; Trotsenko, S.; Gumberidze, A.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2014-05-15

    Although different ion-atom collisions have been studied in various contexts, precise values of cross-sections for many atomic processes were seldom obtained. One of the main uncertainties originates from the value of target densities. In this paper, we describe a unique method to measure a target density precisely with a combination of physical vapor deposition and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. This method is preliminarily applied to a charge transfer cross-section measurement in collisions between highly charged ions and magnesium vapor. The final relative uncertainty of the target density is less than 2.5%. This enables the precise studies of atomic processes in ion-atom collisions, even though in the trial test the deduction of precise capture cross-sections was limited by other systematic errors.

  1. Treatment of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, M; Colgan, J; Wong, T G; Madison, D H

    2008-01-01

    We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge scattering quantities. Here we show that such calculations are possible using modern high-performance computing. We demonstrate the utility of our method by examining elastic scattering of protons by hydrogen and helium atoms, problems familiar to undergraduate students of atomic scattering. Application to ionization of helium using partial-wave expansions of the projectile wavefunction, which has long been desirable in heavy-ion collision physics, is thus quite feasible.

  2. Predicting the DNA sequence dependence of nanopore ion current using atomic-resolution Brownian dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Jeffrey; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2012-01-01

    It has become possible to distinguish DNA molecules of different nucleotide sequences by measuring ion current passing through a narrow pore containing DNA. To assist experimentalists in interpreting the results of such measurements and to improve the DNA sequence detection method, we have developed a computational approach that has both the atomic-scale accuracy and the computational efficiency required to predict DNA sequence-specific differences in the nanopore ion current. In our Brownian dynamics method, the interaction between the ions and DNA is described by three-dimensional potential of mean force maps determined to a 0.03 nm resolution from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. While this atomic-resolution Brownian dynamics method produces results with orders of magnitude less computational effort than all-atom molecular dynamics requires, we show here that the ion distributions and ion currents predicted by the two methods agree. Finally, using our Brownian dynamics method, we find that a small change in the sequence of DNA within a pore can cause a large change in the ion current, and validate this result with all-atom molecular dynamics. PMID:22606364

  3. Characteristics of krypton ion emission from a gas field ionization source with a single atom tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shichi, Hiroyasu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Hashizume, Tomihiro

    2017-06-01

    A scanning ion beam instrument equipped with a gas field ionization source (GFIS) has been commercialized, but only helium and neon are currently available as GFISs. The characteristics of krypton ion emission from a single atom tip (SAT) have not been reported yet. In this study, the characteristics of krypton ion emission were investigated by field ion microscopy. At 65 K, the krypton ion emission current reached approximately 40 pA, which is 1 order of magnitude higher than that at 130 K. As the krypton gas pressure was increased, the krypton ion current increased. At a pressure of 0.3 Pa, the emission current was anticipated to reach 200 pA, which may be high enough for nanofabrication. The variation of the krypton ion current was as low as 5% in one hour. We concluded that a krypton ion beam instrument equipped with a GFIS will be a powerful tool for nanofabrication.

  4. Noise Sensing and Quantum Simulation with Trapped Atomic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, Dylan J.

    In this work, we present a novel method to couple any two vibrational modes of a single trapped ion, allowing energy to be swapped between the two modes. We use the scheme to perform ground state cooling and heating rate measurements of vibrational modes without direct optical access. This lessens experimental design constraints in trapped ion experiments, particularly in surface trap apparatus where optical access can be difficult. We use a single ion as an electric-field noise sensor to study noise processes originating on the metallic surfaces of microfabricated ion traps. We show that realistic models of surface noise predict a specific polarization of the electric-field fluctuations relative to the trap geometry. In contrast, technical noise sources predict a different polarization direction and magnitude which can be inferred by electrostatic simulation of the trapping electrodes. We show that, by comparing heating rates of the two radial modes of a single trapped ion, one can determine whether technical noise sources are a significant contribution to heating. This is an important test for experiments aimed at studying surface noise effects. We also study dephasing due to surface noise, in which the electric potential curvature due to surface noise sources disturbs the phase of the ion motion. We measure the dephasing time for trapped ion motion. Using a noise model featuring dipolar noise sources, we probe the power spectrum of surface noise effects. These measurements, especially if repeated in a trap with smaller ion-electrode distances, may yield new insights as to the physical origin of surface noise effects. We demonstrate a two-ion quantum simulation of vibrationally-assisted energy transfer, an important phenomenon in biochemical energy transfer. We show that the quantum simulator performs well when benchmarked against exact numerical simulation. We believe that our approach can be scaled to more complicated systems beyond the reach of classical

  5. Autoionization of He atoms by partially stripped ion impact

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Olson, R.E.

    2005-08-15

    A study of the autoionization process induced by partially stripped ion impact is performed. Electron spectra in momentum space are predicted within a classical model for partially stripped ions. The results are compared with those obtained for pure Coulomb-like projectiles. A quantum-mechanical extension of the Barrachina-Macek model is proposed for partially stripped projectiles. Structure on the electron angular distribution arising in quantum and classical treatments is identified and compared. The presence of rainbow scattering interference is observed in the binary ring profile of the outgoing autoionized electrons for positive-ion impact.

  6. Atomic Physics Effects on Convergent, Child-Langmuir Ion Flow between Nearly Transparent Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, John F.; Emmert, Gilbert A.

    2013-11-07

    Research during this project at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute (UW FTI) on ion and neutral flow through an arbitrary, monotonic potential difference created by nearly transparent electrodes accomplished the following: (1) developed and implemented an integral equation approach for atomic physics effects in helium plasmas; (2) extended the analysis to coupled integral equations that treat atomic and molecular deuterium ions and neutrals; (3) implemented the key deuterium and helium atomic and molecular cross sections; (4) added negative ion production and related cross sections; and (5) benchmarked the code against experimental results. The analysis and codes treat the species D0, D20, D+, D2+, D3+, D and, separately at present, He0 and He+. Extensions enhanced the analysis and related computer codes to include He++ ions plus planar and cylindrical geometries.

  7. Symmetric eikonal model for projectile-electron excitation and loss in relativistic ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Voitkiv, A. B.; Najjari, B.; Shevelko, V. P.

    2010-08-15

    At impact energies > or approx. 1 GeV/u the projectile-electron excitation and loss occurring in collisions between highly charged ions and neutral atoms is already strongly influenced by the presence of atomic electrons. To treat these processes in collisions with heavy atoms we generalize the symmetric eikonal model, used earlier for considerations of electron transitions in ion-atom collisions within the scope of a three-body Coulomb problem. We show that at asymptotically high collision energies this model leads to an exact transition amplitude and is very well suited to describe the projectile-electron excitation and loss at energies above a few GeV/u. In particular, by considering a number of examples we demonstrate advantages of this model over the first Born approximation at impact energies of {approx}1-30 GeV/u, which are of special interest for atomic physics experiments at the future GSI facilities.

  8. Neutral atomic oxygen beam produced by ion charge exchange for Low Earth Orbital (LEO) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Rutledge, Sharon; Brdar, Marko; Olen, Carl; Stidham, Curt

    1987-01-01

    A low energy neutral atomic oxygen beam system was designed and is currently being assembled at the Lewis Research Center. The system utilizes a 15 cm diameter Kaufman ion source to produce positive oxygen ions which are charge exchange neutralized to produce low energy (variable from 5 to 150 eV) oxygen atoms at a flux simulating real time low Earth orbital conditions. An electromagnet is used to direct only the singly charged oxygen ions from the ion source into the charge exchange cell. A retarding potential grid is used to slow down the oxygen ions to desired energies prior to their charge exchange. Cryogenically cooled diatomic oxygen gas in the charge exchange cell is then used to transfer charge to the oxygen ions to produce a neutral atomic oxygen beam. Remaining non-charge exchanged oxygen ions are then swept from the beam by electromagnetic or electrostatic deflection depending upon the desired experiment configuration. The resulting neutral oxygen beam of 5 to 10 cm in diameter impinges upon target materials within a sample holder fixture that can also provide for simultaneous heating and UV exposure during the atomic oxygen bombardment.

  9. Atomic-scale thermocapillary flow in focused ion beam milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kallol; Johnson, Harley; Freund, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Focused ion beams (FIB) offer an attractive tool for nanometer-scale manufacturing and material processing, particularly because they can be focused to a few nanometer diameter spot. This motivates their use for many applications, such as sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), forming nanometer scale pores in thin films for DNA sequencing. Despite its widespread use, the specific mechanisms of FIB milling, especially at high ion fluxes for which significant phase change might occur, remains incompletely understood. Here we investigate the process of nanopore fabrication in thin Si films using molecular dynamics simulation where Ga+ ions are used as the focused ions. For a range of ion intensities in a realistic configuration, a recirculating melt region develops, which is seen to flow with a symmetrical pattern, counter to how it would flow were it is driven by the ion momentum flux. Such flow is potentially important for the shape and composition of the formed structures. Relevant stress scales and estimated physical properties of silicon under these extreme conditions support the importance thermocapillary effects. A continuum flow model with Marangoni forcing reproduces the flow.

  10. Direct detection of atomic ions from molecular photofragmentation during nonresonant multiphoton ionization of sputtered species

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Burnett, J.W.; White, J.M.

    1993-09-01

    The photoionization of sputtered Cu, Al, and Ru atoms and dimers was investigated by measuring velocity distributions using both resonant and nonresonant photoionization. Nonresonant ionization produced an atomic distribution that peaked at the same velocity as the respective dimer distribution, indicating that virtually all the nonresonant atomic ion signal is from photofragmented dimers. Various mechanisms of dimer photofragmentation are discussed. Domination of the atomic photoion channel by molecule fragmentation appears to be a general phenomenon that must be accounted for in all gas-phase multiphoton nonresonant ionization experiments at easily achievable laser power densities ({le} 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}).

  11. Improved atomic model for charge transfer in multielectron ion-atom collisions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. D.; Tunnell, L. N.

    1980-07-01

    Electron capture to the K shell of projectiles from the K and other subshells of multielectron target atoms is studied in the intermediate energy region using the single-active-electron approximation and the two-state, two-center atomic eigenfunction expansion method. It is concluded that the theoretical capture cross section is not sensitive to the atomic models used at high collision energies where the projectile velocity v is near or greater than the orbital velocity ve of the active electron. For vatomic potential such as the Herman-Skillman potential is needed to represent the target atom. The insufficiency of various simple Coulomb model potentials is illustrated. Capture cross sections for a few collision systems are obtained and compared with experimental data when available to illustrate the reliability of the present model.

  12. Determination of Optimum Conditions for Distinguishing the Pulse Height Distributions of Atomic and Polyatomic Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kristo, M J

    2006-12-12

    This work explored the use of pulse height distributions (PHD) from multiplier-type detectors as a means of detecting and eliminating the effects of polyatomic interferences in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We explored the behavior of PHD for {sup 235}U{sup +}, {sup 208}Pb{sup 27}Al{sup +} and {sup 207}Pb{sup 28}Si{sup +}, all with a nominal mass-to-charge ratio of 235. In every case, the distribution for the atomic ion ({sup 235}U{sup +}) was clearly shifted relative to the distributions for {sup 208}Pb{sup 27}Al{sup +} and {sup 207}Pb{sup 28}Si{sup +}. When the first surface of the detector is metallic in character, the polyatomic ions are shifted to larger pulse heights relative to the atomic ion. When the first surface of the detector is oxide in character, the atomic ion is shifted to larger pulse heights relative to the polyatomic ions. The relative positioning appear to be stable for a given detector over time at the same secondary ion impact energy. Consequently, it appears to be feasible to use PHD data to detect interfering polyatomic ions and eliminate their deleterious effects using peak deconvolution techniques. Consequently, the updated Ultrafast RAE detector will be designed to make the pulse height information available to the data acquisition system.

  13. Hybrid ion-atom trap for studying ultra-cold collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Oleg P.; Lin, Jian; Smith, W. W.

    2003-05-01

    We built an apparatus for studying ultra-cold collisions between atoms and atomic or molecular ions. Atomic sodium vapor is produced from getters in the ultra-high vacuum chamber. The atoms are trapped in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap (MOT) by capturing a low-velocity component of a thermal distribution into the region between two anti-Helmholtz coils. A localized cloud of cold Na atoms was successfully generated for MOT types I and II. The cooling transitions were stimulated by the red-detuned Na D2 line emission from a single-frequency stabilized ring-dye laser. The repumping frequency was generated by an electro-optical modulator (EOM) at 1.712 GHz. The loading time constant, ˜ 500 ms, was measured from the fluorescence intensity increase when the magnetic field is suddenly turned on. A linear Paul ion trap, centered on the MOT, is designed to trap Ca^+ ions, produced by electronic bombardment of neutral calcium atoms from a tube oven. A detector is provided for product ions from charge-transfer collisions or photoassociative ionization. We are testing the various components of the completed apparatus. This work is supported by NSF grant # PHY-9988215 and in part by the University of CT Research Foundation.

  14. Atomic-scale thermocapillary flow in focused ion beam milling

    SciTech Connect

    Das, K.; Johnson, H. T.; Freund, J. B.

    2015-05-15

    Focused ion beams provide a means of nanometer-scale manufacturing and material processing, which is used for applications such as forming nanometer-scale pores in thin films for DNA sequencing. We investigate such a configuration with Ga{sup +} bombardment of a Si thin-film target using molecular dynamics simulation. For a range of ion intensities in a realistic configuration, a recirculating melt region develops, which is seen to flow with a symmetrical pattern, counter to how it would flow were it driven by the ion momentum flux. Such flow is potentially important for the shape and composition of the formed structures. Relevant stress scales and estimated physical properties of silicon under these extreme conditions support the importance thermocapillary effects. A flow model with Marangoni forcing, based upon the temperature gradient and geometry from the atomistic simulation, indeed reproduces the flow and thus could be used to anticipate such flows and their influence in applications.

  15. Distribution of Boron Atoms in Ion Implanted Compound Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-22

    The nondestructive neutron depth profiling (NDP) technique has been used to measure the boron (10B) distributions in GaAs, CdTe, Hg0.7Cd0.3Te, and Hg0.85Mn0.15Te after multiple energy ion implants. The NDP results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical ion ranges obtained from Monte Carlo computer simulations. Only minor changes in the boron profiles were seen for the chosen annealing conditions. Keywords

  16. Simultaneous ejection of two molecular ions from keV gold atomic and polyatomic projectile impacts.

    PubMed

    Rickman, R D; Verkhoturov, S V; Parilis, E S; Schweikert, E A

    2004-01-30

    We present the first experimental data on the simultaneous ejection of two molecular ions from the impact of Au(+)(n) (1< or =n< or =4) with energies ranging between 17 and 56 keV. The yields from single phenylalanine (Ph) emission, coemission of two Ph ions, and emission of the Ph dimer were measured. Large increases (1 to 2 orders of magnitude) in coemitted ion yields were observed with increasing projectile energy and complexity. Correlation coefficients were calculated for the coemission of two Ph ions; their behavior suggests differences in emission pathways for bombardment by atomic and polyatomic projectiles.

  17. Energetic neutral atoms emitted from ice by ion bombardment under Ganymede surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wurz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Magnetospheric or solar wind ions directly interacting with a planetary surface result in backscattering or sputtering of energetic neutral atoms. One example is the solar wind interaction with the surface of the Moon, where the produced energetic neutral atoms were observed by the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer instrument (SARA) on Chandrayaan-1. At Jupiter, magnetospheric plasma interacts in a similar way with the surface of the Galilean moons. However, the emission of energetic neutral atoms from "dirty" ices as found e.g. on Ganymede's surface is poorly understood. We set up an experiment to study the ion to surface interaction under Ganymede surface environment conditions using the unique capabilities of the MEFISTO test facility at University of Bern. Ions of various species and energies up to 33 keV/q were impacted on a block of ice made from a mixture of water, NaCl and dry ice. The energetic neutral atoms produced by the interaction were detected with the prototype of the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer instrument (JNA.) JNA is proposed as part of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) for ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter and instrument is based on the Energetic Energetic Neutral Atom instrument (ENA) built for the BepiColombo Magnetospheric Orbiter. We present energy spectra for different ion beam species and energetic neutral atom species combinations. The data show high yields for energetic neutral atoms up to the upper end of the instrument energy range of 3.3 keV. The energy spectra of the neutral atom flux emitted from the ice could only partially be fitted by the Sigmund-Thompson formula. In some cases, but not all, a Maxwellian distribution provides a reasonable description of the data.

  18. Atoms and Ions Interacting with Particles and Fields: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robicheaux, Francis

    2014-09-18

    This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms with particles and fields. The duration of the grant was the 10 year period from 8/2003 to 8/2013. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 65 peer reviewed publications over these 10 years with 8 of the publications in Physical Review Letters; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B, ...). I will disuss the results for the periods of time relevant for each grant period.

  19. New atomic data for the FeXII coronal ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binello, A. M.; Mason, H. E.; Storey, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Various FeXII spectroscopic lines in the UV and EUV range have been proved to be ideal diagnostic tools for measuring electron temperature, density and iron abundance in the solar corona. In the framework of the ``IRON PROJECT'' we have provided improved theoretical calculations of the atomic data required to analyse the intensity of these lines and to apply the results to SOHO (Solar Heliospheric Observatory) observations. Extensive configuration interaction and relativistic effects have been allowed for in the atomic structure computations which have provided energy levels and an extensive set of radiative data. The e-FeXII collisional problem has been tackled with the multichannel R-matrix method, a close-coupling calculation for the determination of electron impact collision strengths. Final results are presented for FeXII thermally averaged collision strengths, for fine-structure forbidden transitions within the ground configuration.

  20. Preparation and Analysis of Atom Probe Tips by Xenon Focused Ion Beam Milling.

    PubMed

    Estivill, Robert; Audoit, Guillaume; Barnes, Jean-Paul; Grenier, Adeline; Blavette, Didier

    2016-06-01

    The damage and ion distribution induced in Si by an inductively coupled plasma Xe focused ion beam was investigated by atom probe tomography. By using predefined patterns it was possible to prepare the atom probe tips with a sub 50 nm end radius in the ion beam microscope. The atom probe reconstruction shows good agreement with simulated implantation profiles and interplanar distances extracted from spatial distribution maps. The elemental profiles of O and C indicate co-implantation during the milling process. The presence of small disc-shaped Xe clusters are also found in the three-dimensional reconstruction. These are attributed to the presence of Xe nanocrystals or bubbles that open during the evaporation process. The expected accumulated dose points to a loss of >95% of the Xe during analysis, which escapes undetected.

  1. Retrieval of metal atom and ion number densities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowski, Martin; Von Savigny, Christian; Burrows, John

    2016-07-01

    When meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere with velocities of several 10 km/s, they heat up due to frictional heating and meteoric material is ablated in the upper atmosphere at around 100 km. A certain part of this ablated material are metal atoms and ions, which form layers of about 10 km width at altitudes between 80 to 110 km. The metal atoms and ions are strong emitters of dayglow coming from resonance fluorescence. From satellite observations of these emission signature, densities of the metal atom and ion layers can be retrieved. From the densities of the metal layers in combination with model simulations the input rate of meteoric material can be estimated, which still shows a large uncertainty range between 1 to 300 tons per day. We will present results of the number density retrievals from the SCIAMACHY limb mesosphere and lower thermosphere measurements from 2008 to 2012 for Mg, Mg^{+} and Na.

  2. Cohesive energy effects on the atomic transport induced by ion beam mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, G. S.; Jung, S. M.; Song, J. H.; Kim, H. B.; Woo, J. J.; Byun, D. H.; Whang, C. N.

    1997-01-01

    Atomic transport in the radiation enhanced diffusion (RED) region has been studied from the shifts of a marker layer in ion beam mixed {Pd}/{Co} and {Pd}/{Au} bilayers. 80 keV Ar + with a dose of 1.5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 were irradiated into the bilayers at temperature region from 90 K to 700 K. In the {Pd}/{Co} system, the atomic flux of Pd ( JPd) transported across the interface is nearly same with JCo in the thermal spike region, while JPd is always larger than JCo in the RED regio However, in the {Pd}/{Au} system, JPd is nearly same with JAu in both of the thermal spike and RED regions. We have developed a model to describe the atomic transport in the RED region, which predicts that the atom with small cohesive energy has more mobility than that with large cohesive energy.

  3. Parity nonconservation in odd isotopes of single trapped atomic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, B. K.; Mandal, P.; Mukherjee, M.

    2011-03-15

    We have estimated the size of the light shifts due to parity-nonconservation (PNC) interactions in different isotopes of Ba{sup +} and Ra{sup +} ions based on the work of Fortson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2383 (1993)]. We have used the nuclear-spin-independent (NSI) amplitudes calculated earlier by us [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163003 (2006); Phys. Rev. A 78, 050501(R) (2008)], and we have employed the third-order many-body perturbation theory [MBPT(3)] in this work to estimate the nuclear-spin-dependent (NSD) amplitudes in these ions. Ra{sup +} is found to be more favorable than Ba{sup +} for measuring both the NSI and NSD PNC observables.

  4. The use of 133 Ba+ as a new candidate for trapped atomic ion qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hucul, David; Christiansen, Justin; Campbell, Wesley; Hudson, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Trapped atomic ions are qubit standards in quantum information science because of their long coherence times and high fidelity entangling gates. Many different atomic ions have been used as qubits, each with strengths and weaknesses dictated by its atomic structure. We propose to use 133 Ba+ as an atomic qubit. 133 Ba+ is a nearly ideal, all-purpose candidate by combining many of the strengths of different workhorse atomic ions. 133 Ba+, like 171 Yb+, has a nuclear spin 1/2, allowing for a robust hyperfine qubit with simple state preparation and readout via differential fluorescence. The lack of a low-lying F-state, like in Ca+, simplifies high-fidelity qubit state detection that relies on shelving a qubit level to a meta-stable excited state. In addition, 133 Ba+ can be used for background-free qubit state detection where the wavelength of the qubit detection light differs from all excitation light by at least 50 THz. Unlike all other ions in use, the optical transitions of barium are in the visible spectrum, enabling the use of high power lasers, low-loss fibers, high quantum efficiency detectors, and other technologies developed for visible wavelengths of light to ease some requirements toward scaling a quantum system.

  5. A new trapped ion atomic clock based on 201Hg+.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric A; Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin; Tjoelker, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy has been performed on the ground-state hyperfine transitions in trapped (201)Hg+ ions as part of a program to investigate the viability of (201)Hg+ for clock applications. Part of the spectroscopy work was directed at magnetic-field-sensitive hyperfine lines with delta m(F) = 0, which allow accurate Doppler-free measurement of the magnetic field experienced by the trapped ions. Although it is possible to measure Doppler-free magnetic-field-sensitive transitions in the commonly used clock isotope, (199)Hg+, it is more difficult. In this paper, we discuss how this (199)Hg+ feature may be exploited to produce a more stable clock or one requiring less magnetic shielding in environments with magnetic field fluctuations far in excess of what is normally found in the laboratory. We have also determined that in discharge-lamp-based trapped mercury ion clocks, the optical pumping time for (201)Hg+ is about 3 times shorter than that of (199)Hg+ This can be used to reduce dead time in the interrogation cycle for these types of clocks, thereby reducing the impact of local oscillator noise aliasing effects.

  6. State-selective charge transfer cross sections for light ion impact of atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D. R.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Havener, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged ions, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving light ions have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact energy regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.

  7. Ionization of hydrogen atoms by multiply charged ions at low energies: The scaling law

    SciTech Connect

    Janev, R.K.; Ivanovski, G.; Solov'ev, E.A. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, St. Cyril and Methodius University, P.O. Box 162, 91000 Skopje, Macedonia )

    1994-02-01

    Using the adiabatic superpromotion model of low-energy atomic collisions, a simple scaling relationship is derived for the ionization cross section of hydrogen atoms colliding with multiply charged ions. Detailed ionization-cross-section calculations for the systems H(1[ital s])+He[sup 2+], C[sup 6+], and O[sup 8+] have been performed and used to determine three numerical constants in the cross-section-scaling relationship. The scaled cross section represents well the available data for fully stripped ions with charge [ital Z][ge]2 in the energy region below the cross-section maximum.

  8. Observation of the continuous stern-gerlach effect on an electron bound in an atomic Ion

    PubMed

    Hermanspahn; Haffner; Kluge; Quint; Stahl; Verdu; Werth

    2000-01-17

    We report on the first observation of the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect on an electron bound in an atomic ion. The measurement was performed on a single hydrogenlike ion ( 12C5+) in a Penning trap. The measured g factor of the bound electron, g = 2.001 042(2), is in excellent agreement with the theoretical value, confirming the relativistic correction at a level of 0.1%. This proves the possibility of g-factor determinations on atomic ions to high precision by using the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The result demonstrates the feasibility of conducting experiments on single heavy highly charged ions to test quantum electrodynamics in the strong electric field of the nucleus.

  9. GLO observations of E- and F-region metal atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, James A.; Murad, Edmond; Viereck, Rodney A.; Knecht, David J.; Pike, Charles P.; Broadfoot, A. Lyle

    In addition to the major atmospheric gases and their ions, the D- and E-regions are populated by metal (Na, Mg, Fe, Ca) atoms, compounds, and ions. Visible and ultraviolet resonance scattering and chemiluminescence have been observed by the ``GLO'' experiment, which includes a ground-controlled shuttle-based UV-vis-IR spectrograph and was flown on three shuttles in 1995. Each flight returned limb-view data on metal atom and ion emissions in the 80 to 350 km tangent height region. Improved optics provided 3 A˚ full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) resolution in the ultraviolet, and simultaneous altitude profiles were routinely measured that spanned 150 km in tangent height with 10 - 15 km resolution. Clouds of metal ions, particularly Mg^+, were observed in daytime above 120 km tangent height near the geomagnetic equator. This poster report deals with one segment of the Mg^+ observations.

  10. Formation of a Multi-Charged Plasma in the Directed Gas Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, I. S.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Shalashov, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    We consider a gas-dynamic model describing the formation of a plasma with multiply ionized ions under the conditions of resonant heating of the electron component. Based on the isothermal approximation, possible regimes of the plasma flow are classified, the influence of the geometric divergence of the flow on the formation of the ion charge distribution is studied, and optimal regimes for the achievement of the maximum ion charge are identified. The model can be used for optimization and interpretation of modern experiments on generation of the extreme ultraviolet radiation due to the excitation of lines of multiply ionized atoms in a gas flow heated by strong millimeter or submillimeter waves.

  11. Forging Fast Ion Conducting Nanochannels with Swift Heavy Ions: The Correlated Role of Local Electronic and Atomic Structure

    DOE PAGES

    Sachan, Ritesh; Cooper, Valentino R.; Liu, Bin; ...

    2016-12-19

    Atomically disordered oxides have attracted significant attention in recent years due to the possibility of enhanced ionic conductivity. However, the correlation between atomic disorder, corresponding electronic structure, and the resulting oxygen diffusivity is not well understood. The disordered variants of the ordered pyrochlore structure in gadolinium titanate (Gd2Ti2O7) are seen as a particularly interesting prospect due to intrinsic presence of a vacant oxygen site in the unit atomic structure, which could provide a channel for fast oxygen conduction. In this paper, we provide insights into the subangstrom scale on the disordering-induced variations in the local atomic environment and its effectmore » on the electronic structure in high-energy ion irradiation-induced disordered nanochannels, which can be utilized as pathways for fast oxygen ion transport. With the help of an atomic plane-by-plane-resolved analyses, the work shows how the presence of various types of TiOx polyhedral that exist in the amorphous and disordered crystalline phase modify the electronic structures relative to the ordered pyrochlore phase in Gd2Ti2O7. Finally, the correlated molecular dynamics simulations on the disordered structures show a remarkable enhancement in oxygen diffusivity as compared with ordered pyrochlore lattice and make that a suitable candidate for applications requiring fast oxygen conduction.« less

  12. Forging Fast Ion Conducting Nanochannels with Swift Heavy Ions: The Correlated Role of Local Electronic and Atomic Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Sachan, Ritesh; Cooper, Valentino R.; Liu, Bin; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Voas, Brian K.; Lang, Maik; Ou, Xin; Trautmann, Christina; Zhang, Yanwen; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Weber, William J.

    2016-12-19

    Atomically disordered oxides have attracted significant attention in recent years due to the possibility of enhanced ionic conductivity. However, the correlation between atomic disorder, corresponding electronic structure, and the resulting oxygen diffusivity is not well understood. The disordered variants of the ordered pyrochlore structure in gadolinium titanate (Gd2Ti2O7) are seen as a particularly interesting prospect due to intrinsic presence of a vacant oxygen site in the unit atomic structure, which could provide a channel for fast oxygen conduction. In this paper, we provide insights into the subangstrom scale on the disordering-induced variations in the local atomic environment and its effect on the electronic structure in high-energy ion irradiation-induced disordered nanochannels, which can be utilized as pathways for fast oxygen ion transport. With the help of an atomic plane-by-plane-resolved analyses, the work shows how the presence of various types of TiOx polyhedral that exist in the amorphous and disordered crystalline phase modify the electronic structures relative to the ordered pyrochlore phase in Gd2Ti2O7. Finally, the correlated molecular dynamics simulations on the disordered structures show a remarkable enhancement in oxygen diffusivity as compared with ordered pyrochlore lattice and make that a suitable candidate for applications requiring fast oxygen conduction.

  13. The Spectr-W3 database on the spectroscopic properties of atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, I. Yu.; Loboda, P. A.; Gagarin, S. V.; Ivliev, S. V.; Kozlov, A. I.; Morozov, S. V.; Pikuz, S. A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Popova, V. V.; Faenov, A. Ya.

    2016-04-01

    The Spectr-W3 database was developed in 2001-2013 and is available online (http://spectrw3. snz.ru). The database contains information on various spectroscopic constants of atoms and ions such as the wavelengths and probabilities of radiative transitions, energy levels of atoms and ions, ionization potentials, autoionization rates, and the parameters of analytical approximation of cross sections and rates of collisional transitions in atoms and ions. Spectr-W3 presently contains around 450 thousand records and is the world's largest factual database on spectral properties of multicharged ions. A new stage of development of Spectr-W3, which involves adding a new section titled "Emission Spectrograms" to the database, commenced in 2014. In contrast to the already existing sections that contain tabulated data, this new section provides graphical data (with necessary explanatory notes) on the spectrograms of emission of atoms and ions excited in various plasma sources. The structure of sections of the Spectr-W3 database is characterized, and examples of queries and the corresponding search results are given.

  14. Atomic physics with highly charged ions: Progress report, 15 August 1985--14 August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1988-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project ''Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions'' speaks to these points. The experimental work is made possible locally by the use of relatively high velocity, highly charged projectiles (v typically 5% c) as obtained from the 6 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the accelerator and collisions at low velocity using secondary beams (recoil ions produced in a high velocity collision) in a so-called SIRS (Secondary Ion Recoil Source) geometry. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x-rays and Auger electrons. Correlation effects and polarization phenomena in ion-atom collisions have been investigated.

  15. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Gao, Yi Qin; Zhuang, Wei

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  16. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Zhuang, Wei E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Yi Qin E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  17. Coherence and correlations in fast ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Burgdoerfer, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper focusses on the description, classification and interpretation of coherent excitation of atomic or ionic systems with Coulombic two-body final state interactions. A group-theoretical approach is used to classify and interpret coherent excitation. The most significant result is that the state of excitation represented by a density operator can be mapped one to one onto expectation values of a set of operators. Examples are used to illustrate what can be learned about the collision process from investigations of coherent excitation. (JDH)

  18. Distortion effects in electron excitation of hydrogen atoms by impact of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, C.A.; Rivarola, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    Electron excitation from the fundamental state of hydrogen atoms by impact of bare ions is studied at intermediate and high collision velocities. Total cross sections for final {ital np} states by impact of protons, alpha particles, and He{sup +} ions are calculated using the symmetric eikonal approximation and compared with experimental data. This comparison supports the existence of distortion effects recently predicted by Bugacov and co-workers [Phys. Rev. A {bold 47}, 1052 (1993)]. The validity of scaling laws is analyzed.

  19. Effects of Ion Atomic Number on Single-Event Gate Rupture (SEGR) Susceptibility of Power MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Goldsman, Neil; Liu, Sandra; Titus, Jeffrey L.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of heavy-ion interaction with the oxide, charge ionized in the epilayer, and charge ionized in the drain substrate, on the bias for SEGR failure in vertical power MOSFETs is experimentally investigated. The results indicate that both the charge ionized in the epilayer and the ion atomic number are important parameters of SEGR failure. Implications on SEGR hardness assurance are discussed.

  20. Ion-beam induced atomic mixing in isotopically controlled silicon multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radek, M.; Bracht, H.; Liedke, B.; Böttger, R.; Posselt, M.

    2016-11-01

    Implantation of germanium (Ge), gallium (Ga), and arsenic (As) into crystalline and preamorphized isotopically controlled silicon (Si) multilayer structures at temperatures between 153 K and 973 K was performed to study the mechanisms mediating ion-beam induced atomic mixing. Secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry was applied to determine concentration-depth profiles of the stable isotopes before and after ion implantation. The intermixing is analytically described by a depth-dependent displacement function. The maximum displacement is found to depend not only on temperature and microstructure but also on the doping type of the implanted ion. Molecular dynamics calculations evaluate the contribution of cascade mixing, i.e., thermal-spike mixing, to the overall observed atomic mixing. Calculated and experimental results on the temperature dependence of ion-beam mixing in the amorphous and crystalline structures provide strong evidence for ion-beam induced enhanced crystallization and enhanced self-diffusion, respectively. On the other hand, the former process is confirmed by channeling Rutherford backscattering analyses of the amorphous layer thickness remaining after implantation, the latter process is consistently attributed to the formation of highly mobile Si di-interstitials formed under irradiation and in the course of damage annealing. The observed ion-beam mixing in Si is compared to recent results on ion-beam mixing of Ge isotope multilayers that, in contrast to Si, are fully described by thermal-spike mixing only.

  1. Hyperfine structure measurement of 87Rb atoms injected into superfluid helium as highly energetic ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Kei; Furukawa, Takeshi; Yang, Xiaofei; Fujita, Tomomi; Wakui, Takashi; Mitsuya, Yousuke; Hayasaka, Miki; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Hatakeyama, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Odashima, Hitoshi; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Orochi Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We have developed a new nuclear laser spectroscopy technique that is called OROCHI (Optical RI-atoms Observation in Condensed Helium as Ioncatcher). In OROCHI, highly energetic ion beam is injected into superfluid helium (He II) and is trapped as atoms. Hyperfine structure (HFS) and Zeeman splitting of trapped atoms is measured using laser-microwave (MW)/radiofrequency (RF) double resonance method. We deduce nuclear moments and spin values from the measured splittings, respectively So far, we measured Zeeman splitting of 84-87Rb atoms To evaluate the validity of the OROCHI method, it is necessary to investigate the following two points not only for Zeeman but also for HFS splitings. (i) What is the accuracy in frequency in our measurement? (ii) How high beam intensity is necessary to observe resonance spectra? For this purpose we conducted online experiment using 87Rb beam and measured the HFS splitting of injected 87Rb atoms in He II.

  2. Role of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor wall conditions on radical and ion substrate fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Mark J.

    2014-01-15

    Chamber wall conditions, such as wall temperature and film deposits, have long been known to influence plasma source performance on thin film processing equipment. Plasma physical characteristics depend on conductive/insulating properties of chamber walls. Radical fluxes depend on plasma characteristics as well as wall recombination rates, which can be wall material and temperature dependent. Variations in substrate delivery of plasma generated species (radicals, ions, etc.) impact the resulting etch or deposition process resulting in process drift. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is known to depend strongly on substrate radical flux, but film properties can be influenced by other plasma generated phenomena, such as ion bombardment. In this paper, the chamber wall conditions on a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process are investigated. The downstream oxygen radical and ion fluxes from an inductively coupled plasma source are indirectly monitored in temperature controlled (25–190 °C) stainless steel and quartz reactors over a range of oxygen flow rates. Etch rates of a photoresist coated quartz crystal microbalance are used to study the oxygen radical flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Plasma density estimates from Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements are used to study the ion flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Reactor temperature was not found to impact radical and ion fluxes substantially. Radical and ion fluxes were higher for quartz walls compared to stainless steel walls over all oxygen flow rates considered. The radical flux to ion flux ratio is likely to be a critical parameter for the deposition of consistent film properties. Reactor wall material, gas flow rate/pressure, and distance from the plasma source all impact the radical to ion flux ratio. These results indicate maintaining chamber wall conditions will be important for delivering consistent results from plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

  3. Xenon gas field ion source from a single-atom tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Chun-Yueh; Chang, Wei-Tse; Li, Po-Chang; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Chang, Chia-Seng; Tsong, T. T.; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2017-06-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) systems have become powerful diagnostic and modification tools for nanoscience and nanotechnology. Gas field ion sources (GFISs) built from atomic-size emitters offer the highest brightness among all ion sources and thus can improve the spatial resolution of FIB systems. Here we show that the Ir/W(111) single-atom tip (SAT) can emit high-brightness Xe+ ion beams with a high current stability. The ion emission current versus extraction voltage was analyzed from 150 K up to 309 K. The optimal emitter temperature for maximum Xe+ ion emission was ˜150 K and the reduced brightness at the Xe gas pressure of 1 × 10-4 torr is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of a Ga liquid metal ion source, and four to five orders of magnitude higher than that of a Xe inductively coupled plasma ion source. Most surprisingly, the SAT emitter remained stable even when operated at 309 K. Even though the ion current decreased with increasing temperature, the current at room temperature (RT) could still reach over 1 pA when the gas pressure was higher than 1 × 10-3 torr, indicating the feasibility of RT-Xe-GFIS for application to FIB systems. The operation temperature of Xe-SAT-GFIS is considerably higher than the cryogenic temperature required for the helium ion microscope (HIM), which offers great technical advantages because only simple or no cooling schemes can be adopted. Thus, Xe-GFIS-FIB would be easy to implement and may become a powerful tool for nanoscale milling and secondary ion mass spectroscopy.

  4. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1991-12-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion microscopy (FIM), field emission (FE), ion sources, and field desorption mass microscopy (FDMM). Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. The bibliography covers the period 1990. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references, listed alphabetically by authors, are subdivided into the categories listed in paragraph one above. An Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  5. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1991-12-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion microscopy (FIM), field emission (FE), ion sources, and field desorption mass microscopy (FDMM). Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. The bibliography covers the period 1990. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references, listed alphabetically by authors, are subdivided into the categories listed in paragraph one above. An Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  6. Charge transfer reactions in multiply charged ion-atom collisions. [in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.

    1975-01-01

    Charge-transfer reactions in collisions between highly charged ions and neutral atoms of hydrogen and/or helium may be rapid at thermal energies. If these reactions are rapid, they will suppress highly charged ions in H I regions and guarantee that the observed absorption features from such ions cannot originate in the interstellar gas. A discussion of such charge-transfer reactions is presented and compared with the available experimental data. The possible implications of these reactions for observations of the interstellar medium, H II regions, and planetary nebulae are outlined.

  7. V. S. Lebedev and I. L. Beigman, Physics of Highly Excited Atoms and Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewe, R.

    1999-07-01

    This book contains a comprehensive description of the basic principles of the theoretical spectroscopy and experimental spectroscopic diagnostics of Rydberg atoms and ions, i.e., atoms in highly excited states with a very large principal quantum number (n≫1). Rydberg atoms are characterized by a number of peculiar physical properties as compared to atoms in the ground or a low excited state. They have a very small ionization potential (∝1/n2), the highly excited electron has a small orbital velocity (∝1/n), the radius (∝n2) is very large, the excited electron has a long orbital period (∝n3), and the radiation lifetime is very long (∝n3-5). At the same time the R. atom is very sensitive to perturbations from external fields in collisions with charged and neutral targets. In recent years, R. atoms have been observed in laboratory and cosmic conditions for n up to ˜1000, which means that the size amounts to about 0.1 mm, ˜106 times that of an atom in the ground state. The scope of this monograph is to familiarize the reader with today's approaches and methods for describing isolated R. atoms and ions, radiative transitions between highly excited states, and photoionization and photorecombination processes. The authors present a number of efficient methods for describing the structure and properties of R. atoms and calculating processes of collisions with neutral and charged particles as well as spectral-line broadening and shift of Rydberg atomic series in gases, cool and hot plasmas in laboratories and in astrophysical sources. Particular attention is paid to a comparison of theoretical results with available experimental data. The book contains 9 chapters. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the basic properties of R. atoms (ions), Chapter 2 is devoted to an account of general methods describing an isolated Rydberg atom. Chapter 3 is focussed on the recent achievements in calculations of form factors and dipole matrix elements of different types of

  8. An ion cyclotron resonance study of reactions of some atomic and simple polyatomic ions with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpas, Z.; Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reactions of various positive ions with water vapor were studied by ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric techniques. Rate constants and product distributions were determined for reactions of the ions: Ar(+), Co(+), N2(+), and CO2(+), CH2(+), and CH4(+), CH2Cl(+), HCO(+), H2CO(+), H2COH(+), H2S(+) and HS(+). The results obtained in this work are compared with earlier reported data where available.

  9. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report, FY 1989--91

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  10. Energies of Various Interactions Between Hydrogen and Helium Atoms and Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, Robert J.; Mason, Edward A.; Vanderslice, Joseph T.

    1960-01-01

    A compilation is made of those interactions between hydrogen and helium atoms and ions whose potential curves are well established by virtue of being based on experimental data or on essentially exact quantum-mechanical calculations. These potential curves have been fitted with well-known empirical forms which should be useful in calculations of transport properties involving these interactions.

  11. Etching of Bacillus atrophaeus by oxygen atoms, molecules and argon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, J.; Flötgen, C.; Kussel, G.; Raball, V.; von Keudell, A.

    2008-10-01

    The etching of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus by oxygen atoms, molecules and argon ions is investigated in a particle beam experiment. Thereby, the conditions occurring in an argon oxygen plasma are mimicked and fundamental inactivation mechanisms are revealed. It is shown that only the combined impact of argon ions and of O atoms or O2 molecules causes significant etching of the spores. This is explained by the process of chemical sputtering, where an ion induced defect at the surface of the spore reacts with either the incident bi-radical O2 or with an incident O atom. This leads to the formation of CO, CO2 and H2O and thus to erosion. This process is compared to the plasma etching of hydrocarbon thin films as an atomistic model system for the spore coat. It is shown that the etch rate in an inductively coupled argon oxygen plasma is only maximal if both, the electron density and thus the ion flux towards the surface and the O atom flux are optimized simultaneously.

  12. Preface: Photon and fast Ion induced Processes in Atoms, MOlecules and Nanostructures (PIPAMON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kövér, László

    2016-02-01

    This Special Issue contains selected papers of contributions presented in the International Workshop on Photon and fast Ion induced Processes in Atoms, MOlecules and Nanostructures (PIPAMON), held between March 24 and 26, 2015 in Debrecen, Hungary. The venue, the Aquaticum Thermal and Wellness Hotel provided a pleasant ;all-under-one-roof; environment for the event.

  13. Field Ion Microscopy and Atom Probe Tomography of Metamorphic Magnetite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K.; Martens, R. L.; Kelly, T. F.; Evans, N. D.; Miller, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetite has been analysed using Field Ion Microscopy (FIM) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT), highly attractive techniques for the nanoanalysis of geological materials despite the difficulties inherent in analyzing semiconducting and insulating materials. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Design of a versatile pressure control system for gas targets in ion-atom collision studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuelling, S.; Bruch, R.

    1993-06-01

    In this work, a unique gas target pressure control system is described which has been developed to measure state selective absolute EUV cross sections subsequent to electron and ion impact on gaseous targets. This system can be used in any type of gas phase experiment using positively or negatively charged and neutral particle beams interacting with atomic and molecular targets.

  15. Field Ion Microscopy and Atom Probe Tomography of Metamorphic Magnetite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, K.; Martens, R. L.; Kelly, T. F.; Evans, N. D.; Miller, M. K.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetite has been analysed using Field Ion Microscopy (FIM) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT), highly attractive techniques for the nanoanalysis of geological materials despite the difficulties inherent in analyzing semiconducting and insulating materials. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies of Highly Charged Ions on Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, Ilija N; Seely, D. G.; McCammon, D; Havener, Charles C

    2011-01-01

    Accurate studies of low energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H like, and He like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H like ions of C, N, O and fully stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV u 20 keV u) and compared to previous H oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV u 3.3 keV u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  17. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies Of Highly Charged Ions On Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C.; Seely, D. G.; McCammon, D.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate studies of low-energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X-ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H-like, and He-like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H-like ions of C, N, O and fully-stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV/u-20 keV/u) and compared to previous H-oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV/u-3.3 keV/u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H-oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  18. Interaction of 3d transition metal atoms with charged ion projectiles from Electron Nuclear Dynamics computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelberg, Frank

    2003-03-01

    Computational results on atomic scattering between charged projectiles and transition metal target atoms are presented. This work aims at obtaining detailed information about charge, spin and energy transfer processes that occur between the interacting particles. An in-depth understanding of these phenomena is expected to provide a theoretical basis for the interpretation of various types of ion beam experiments, ranging from gas phase chromatography to spectroscopic observations of fast ions in ferromagnetic media. This contribution focuses on the scattering of light projectiles ranging from He to O, that are prepared in various initial charge states, by 3d transition metal atoms. The presented computations are performed in the framework of Electron Nuclear Dynamics (END)^1 theory which incorporates the coupling between electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom without reliance on the computationally cumbersome and frequently intractable determination of potential energy surfaces. In the present application of END theory to ion - transition metal atom scattering, a supermolecule approach is utilized in conjunction with a spin-unrestricted single determinantal wave function describing the electronic system. Integral scattering, charge and spin exchange cross sections are discussed as functions of the elementary parameters of the problem, such as projectile and target atomic numbers as well as projectile charge and initial kinetic energy. ^1 E.Deumens, A.Diz, R.Longo, Y.Oehrn, Rev.Mod.Phys. 66, 917 (1994)

  19. In-Situ atomic force microscopic observation of ion beam bombarded plant cell envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Yu, L. D.; Brown, I. G.; Seprom, C.; Vilaithong, T.

    2007-04-01

    A program in ion beam bioengineering has been established at Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand, and ion beam induced transfer of plasmid DNA molecules into bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) has been demonstrated. However, a good understanding of the fundamental physical processes involved is lacking. In parallel work, onion skin cells have been bombarded with Ar+ ions at energy 25 keV and fluence1-2 × 1015 ions/cm2, revealing the formation of microcrater-like structures on the cell wall that could serve as channels for the transfer of large macromolecules into the cell interior. An in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) system has been designed and installed in the CMU bio-implantation facility as a tool for the observation of these microcraters during ion beam bombardment. Here we describe some of the features of the in-situ AFM and outline some of the related work.

  20. An investigation of polarized atomic photofragments using the ion imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bracker, A.S.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis describes measurement and analysis of the recoil angle dependence of atomic photofragment polarization (atomic v-J correlation). This property provides information on the electronic rearrangement which occurs during molecular photodissociation. Chapter 1 introduces concepts of photofragment vector correlations and reviews experimental and theoretical progress in this area. Chapter 2 described the photofragment ion imaging technique, which the author has used to study the atomic v-J correlation in chlorine and ozone dissociation. Chapter 3 outlines a method for isolating and describing the contribution to the image signal which is due exclusively to angular momentum alignment. Ion imaging results are presented and discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses a different set of experiments on the three-fragment dissociation of azomethane. 122 refs.

  1. Double K-shell photoionization of low-Z atoms and He-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoszowska, J.; Kheifets, A. S.; Berset, M.; Bray, I.; Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Fennane, K.; Kavčič, M.; Kayser, Y.; Szlachetko, J.; Szlachetko, M.

    2009-03-01

    We report on the investigation of the photon energy dependence of double 1s photoionization of light atoms and compare the cross sections for hollow atom and He-like ion production. Measurements of the Kα hypersatellite x-ray spectra of Mg, Al, and Si were carried out using the Fribourg high-resolution x-ray spectrometer installed at the ID21 and ID26 beam lines at the ESRF. The double-to-single photoionization cross section ratios were derived as a function of the incident photon beam energy and compared to convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations for He-like ions. The dynamical electron-electron scattering contribution to the DPI cross-sections was found to be more important for neutral atoms than for the He isoelectronic series.

  2. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions. Progress report, March 16, 1991--March 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from March 16, 1991 through March 15, 1992. This work involves the experimental investigation of fundamental atomic processes in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron correlation effects. Processes involving combinations of excitation, ionization, and charge transfer are investigated utilizing coincidence techniques in which projectiles charge-changing events are associated with x-ray emission, target recoil ions, or electron emission. New results have been obtained for studies involving (1) resonant recombination of atomic ions, (2) double ionization of helium, and (3) continuum electron emission. Experiments were conducted using accelerators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Michigan State University, Western Michigan University, and the Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary. Brief summaries of work completed and work in progress are given in this report.

  3. An independent-atom-model description of ion-molecule collisions including geometric screening corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdde, Hans Jürgen; Achenbach, Alexander; Kalkbrenner, Thilo; Jankowiak, Hans-Christian; Kirchner, Tom

    2016-04-01

    A new model to account for geometric screening corrections in an independent-atom-model description of ion-molecule collisions is introduced. The ion-molecule cross sections for net capture and net ionization are represented as weighted sums of atomic cross sections with weight factors that are determined from a geometric model of overlapping cross section areas. Results are presented for proton collisions with targets ranging from diatomic to complex polyatomic molecules. Significant improvement compared to simple additivity rule results and in general good agreement with experimental data are found. The flexibility of the approach opens up the possibility to study more detailed observables such as orientation-dependent and charge-state-correlated cross sections for a large class of complex targets ranging from biomolecules to atomic clusters.

  4. The truncated Wigner approximation for spin dynamics in systems of trapped ions, atoms & molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachenmayer, Johannes; Zhu, Bihui; Pikovski, Alexander; Hazzard, Kaden; Holland, Murray; Rey, Ana Maria

    2014-05-01

    Trapped ions and systems of cold atoms or molecules in optical lattices offer controlled environments to experimentally study non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum spin-models with interactions of varying range. Theoretically calculating dynamics of observables for these experiments is a major challenge both analytically and numerically. While in one dimension, time-dependent density matrix renormalization group techniques (t-DMRG) allow for an efficient simulation of the dynamics as long as the time-dependent bi-partite entanglement growth remains moderate, a simulation for systems in two or three dimensions is more demanding. Here we present a numerical technique, which employs the truncated Wigner approximation (TWA) and which can be used to simulate Ramsey-dynamics for current experiments with trapped ions, alkaline earth atoms, polar molecules in optical lattices, or for systems with Rydberg atoms.

  5. Surpassing the mass restriction of buffer gas cooling: Cooling of low mass ions by localized heavier atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sourav; Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    Cooling of trapped ions has resulted in fascinating science including the realization of some of the most accurate atomic clocks. It has also found widespread application, for example, in mass spectrometry and cold chemistry. Among the different methods for cooling ions, cooling by elastic collisions with ultracold neutral atoms is arguably the most generic. However, in spite of its widespread application, there is confusion with regards the collisional heating/cooling of light ions by heavier neutral atoms. We address the question experimentally and demonstrate, for the first time, cooling of light ions by co-trapped heavy atoms. We show that trapped 39 K+ ions are cooled by localized ultracold neutral 85 Rb atoms. The atom-ion mass ratio (= 2.18) is well beyond any theoretical predictions so far. We further argue that cooling of ions by localized cold atoms is possible for any mass ratio. The result opens up the possibility of reaching the elusive s-wave collision regime in atom-ion collisions. S.D. is supported by DST-INSPIRE Faculty Fellowship, India.

  6. Effects of anisotropic electron-ion interactions in atomic photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, D.; Starace, A. F.; Manson, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    The photoelectron asymmetry parameter beta in LS-coupling is obtained as an expansion into contributions from alternative angular momentum transfers j sub t. The physical significance of this expansion of beta is shown to be that: (1) the electric dipole interaction transfers to the atom a charcteristic single angular momentum j sub t = sub o, where sub o is the photoelectron's initial orbital momentum; and (2) angular momentum transfers indicate the presence of anisotropic interaction of the outgoing photoelectron with the residual ion. For open shell atoms the photoelectron-ion interaction is generally anisotropic; photoelectron phase shifts and electric dipole matrix elements depend on both the multiplet term of the residual ion and the total orbital momentum of the ion-photoelectron final state channel. Consequently beta depends on the term levels of the residual ion and contains contributions from all allowed values of j sub t. Numerical calculations of the asymmetry parameters and partial cross sections for photoionization of atomic sulfur are presented.

  7. Laser photodetached electron spectroscopy of atomic negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, Aaron Macdonald

    1998-10-01

    A new, state-of-the-art, laser photodetached electron spectrometry (LPES) apparatus has been developed in order to study the properties of negative ions. This apparatus has been used for the experimental determination of the electron affinity of lanthanum. Evidence is presented that indicates that lanthanum has a positive electron affinity of 0.47 ± 0.02 eV. At least one bound excited state of La was also observed in the photodetachment spectra, and the binding energy relative to the ground state of lanthanum was measured as 0.17 ± 0.02 eV. The energy scale of the La photoelectron spectra was normalized using photoelectron energy spectra of Cu, which has a well known electron affinity (J. Ho, K. M. Ervin and W. C. Lineberger, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6987 (1990)). Photoelectron angular distributions for the photodetachment process hv + C/sp- ( (He) 2s22p3/ 4S) → C( (He) 2s22p2/ 3P) + e/sp-(ks,d), have been measured at six discrete wavelengths in the region ranging from 457.9- to 647.1-nm. Values of the asymmetry parameter have been determined by fits to the photoelectron yield as a function of the angle between the laser polarization vector and the linear momentum vector of the collected photoelectrons. Two of the present measurements (488.0- and 514.5-nm) are shown to be in excellent agreement with the previous measurements of Hall and Siegel (J. Chem. Phys. 48, 943 (1968)). In a similar fashion, the spectral dependence of the angular distributions of photoelectrons produced by the single-photon detachment of Al/sp-, Si/sp- and P/sp- ions have been measured at five discrete photon wavelengths, ranging from 457.9- to 647.1- nm (2.71-1.92 eV). The measured asymmetry parameters for Al/sp- are compared with a recent theoretical calculation (C. N. Liu and A. F. Starace, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Vol. 42, No. 2, 1026 (1997)), and are found to be in very good agreement. The experimental data for C/sp- and Si/sp- are fitted with a qualitative model (D. Hanstorp, C. Bengtsson

  8. Application of Ion and Electron Momentum Imaging to Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocke, C. L.

    2000-06-01

    COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) combines fast imaging detectors with a supersonically cooled gas target to allow the charged particles from any ionizing collision, including both recoil ions and electrons, to be collected with extremely high efficiency and with fully measured vector momenta. Since all particles are measured in event mode, the full multi-dimensional momentum space is mapped. We will review several examples of the use of this technique to study two- , three- and four-body final states created in ionizing interactions of photons and charged particles with He and D2 . The momentum spectra of electrons ejected from these targets by slow projectiles reveal the stucture of the molecular orbitals which are promoted into the continuum. Double photoionization of the same targets reveals patterns which can be interpreted in terms of collective coordinates. Two-electron removal from D2 by Xe ^26+ reveals the influence of the projectile field on the dissociation process. A recent application of the technique to ionization by high intensity laser fields will be discussed. Work performed in collaboration with M.A.Abdallah^1, I.Ali^1, Matthias Achler^2, H.Braeuning^2,3, Angela Braeuning-Deminian^2, Achim Czasch^2,3, R.Doerner^2,3, R.DuBois^6, A. Landers^1,5, V.Mergel^2, R.E.Olson^6, T.Osipov^1, M.Prior^3, H.Schmidt-Boecking^2, M.Singh^1, A.Staudte^2,3, T.Weber^2, W.Wolff^4, and H.E.Wolf^4 ^1J.R.Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506; ^2 Institut fuer Kernphysik, Univ. Frankfurt, August-Euler-Str.6,D-60486 Frankfurt, Germany ; ^3Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720; ^4Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Caixa Postal 68.528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; ^5Physics Dept., Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008; ^6Physics Dept., Univ. Missouri Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 Work supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic

  9. Spectr-W3 online database on atomic properties of multicharged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobelev, I. Yu; Loboda, P. A.; Faenov, A. Ya; Gagarin, S. V.; Kozlov, A. I.; Morozov, S. V.; Pikuz, S. A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Popova, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The Spectr-W3 information-reference system was developed in 2001-2013 and realized as an online Web resource based on the factual atomic database Spectr-W3. The information accumulated in the Spectr-W3 atomic database contains about 450,000 records and includes the experimental and theoretical data on ionization potentials, energy levels, wavelengths, radiation transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths, and the parameters of analytical approximations of electron-collisional cross-sections and rates for atoms and ions. Those data were extracted from publications in physical journals, proceedings of the related conferences, special-purpose publications on atomic data, provided directly by authors. The information is supplied with references to the original sources and comments, elucidating the details of experimental measurements or calculations. To date, the Spectr-W3 atomic database is still the largest factual database in the world, containing the information on spectral properties of multicharged ions. In 2014, the new stage in the development of the Spectr-W3 atomic database started. The purpose of this stage is the creation of a new information section of the Spectr-W3 database. This section would contain the information on the x-ray emission spectrograms registered from various plasma sources.

  10. A high-resolution pulsed-laser atom-probe field-ion microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelikov, Dmitriy V.

    2001-10-01

    The atom-probe field-ion microscope is a unique instrument for the analysis of materials on an atom-by- atom and atomic layer-by-atomic layer basis. It combines a point projection microscope, which allows one to observe individual atoms in direct lattice space on the surface of a sharply pointed tip under a high positive voltage, with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer that can measure mass-to-charge ratios of individual atoms field- evaporated from the surface of a tip during a few nanosecond wide high-voltage or laser pulse. The ability to distinguish atomic isotopes and molecular clusters of one species from the other is crucial in the atom-probe analysis of multi-component materials. One of the main sources of errors in such an analysis is energy deficits of field-evaporated ions inherent to the pulsed high- voltage evaporation process. Therefore, in this study the task of designing and fabricating an atom-probe field-ion microscope capable of compensating these energy deficits, and versatile enough to be able to analyze a wide spectrum of engineering materials, was undertaken. The instrument has the following features: (a)ultrahigh vacuum (UHV); (b)a specimen exchange device that will store up to 10 specimens and allows transferring specimens directly from atmospheric pressure to UHV conditions; (c)a closed cycle helium refrigerator with a temperature regulator capable of cooling the specimen to 10 K; (d)a 3D goniometer with +/-30° tilt in the horizontal and vertical planes; (e)a variable distance, high gain MCP assembly for field-ion microscopy; (f)a single stage reflectron lens; (g)a 1500 Hz solid-state high voltage pulser; (h)a 20 Hz, 300 μJ/pulse, 4 ns pulsed nitrogen laser analysis capability. The mass resolution of this instrument is D(/) /= / at full-width half-maximum (FWHM) with high-voltage pulsing and D(/) /= / at FWHM with laser pulsing.

  11. Gas-phase catalysis by atomic and cluster metal ions: the ultimate single-site catalysts.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Diethard K; Schwarz, Helmut

    2005-04-15

    Gas-phase experiments with state-of-the-art techniques of mass spectrometry provide detailed insights into numerous elementary processes. The focus of this Review is on elementary reactions of ions that achieve complete catalytic cycles under thermal conditions. The examples chosen cover aspects of catalysis pertinent to areas as diverse as atmospheric chemistry and surface chemistry. We describe how transfer of oxygen atoms, bond activation, and coupling of fragments can be mediated by atomic or cluster metal ions. In some cases truly unexpected analogies of the idealized gas-phase ion catalysis can be drawn with related chemical transformations in solution or the solid state, and so improve our understanding of the intrinsic operation of a practical catalyst at a strictly molecular level.

  12. An Apparatus for the Measurement of Various Scattering Processes in Intermediate Energy, Ion - Atom Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kvale, T. J.; Seely, D. G.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes the main features of an apparatus constructed at the University of Toledo for the study of various scattering processes in intermediate energy, ion - atom collisions. The main purpose of this facility is to provide experimental data which serve as benchmarks to test current scattering theories for those processes. Recent measurements of single electron detachment (SED) and double electron detachment (DED) total cross sections for 5-50 keV H{sup -} ions incident on noble gases and for 10-50 keV H{sup -} ions incident on CH{sub 4} molecules were conducted in this laboratory. As a result of an analysis of the scattered beam growth curves, information about other charge-changing cross sections in the hydrogen-atom (molecule) collision systems were obtain, as well.

  13. Surface field analysis of splitting of orbitals of atoms and ions approaching a metal surface.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V. S.; Waber, J. T.

    1971-01-01

    The splitting of p- and d-orbitals of an atom or an ion which is caused by the locally varying potential near the surface of a realistic metal has been studied for bcc and fcc substrates. A quasi-ionic model is reasonable at close distance, inasmuch as the electron gas does not completely screen the ionic cores. The arrangement of ion cores near the surface causes the potential to vary in three dimensions. Expressions for energy levels were derived for an unsymmetric group using the quasi-ionic model and techniques used in the treatment of crystal field of nearest neighbors. A number of cases involving ions, as well as atoms in the vicinity of a metal substrate were numerically evaluated.

  14. Resonance and intercombination lines in Mg-like ions of atomic numbers Z=13–92

    DOE PAGES

    Santana, Juan A.; Trabert, Elmar

    2015-02-05

    While prominent lines of various Na-like ions have been measured with an accuracy of better than 100 ppm and corroborate equally accurate calculations, there have been remarkably large discrepancies between calculations for Mg-like ions of high atomic number. We present ab initio calculations using the multireference Moller-Plesset approach for Mg-like ions of atomic numbers Z = 13-92 and compare the results with other calculations of this isoelectronic sequence as well as with experimental data. Our results come very close to experiment (typically 100 ppm) over a wide range. Furthermore, data at high values of Z are sparse, which calls formore » further accurate measurements in this range where relativistic and QED effects are large.« less

  15. Coupling all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of ions in water with Brownian dynamics.

    PubMed

    Erban, Radek

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ions (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-)) in aqueous solutions are investigated. Water is described using the SPC/E model. A stochastic coarse-grained description for ion behaviour is presented and parametrized using MD simulations. It is given as a system of coupled stochastic and ordinary differential equations, describing the ion position, velocity and acceleration. The stochastic coarse-grained model provides an intermediate description between all-atom MD simulations and Brownian dynamics (BD) models. It is used to develop a multiscale method which uses all-atom MD simulations in parts of the computational domain and (less detailed) BD simulations in the remainder of the domain.

  16. Charge-transfer energy in closed-shell ion-atom interactions. [for H and Li ions in He

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Rizzatti, M.; Mason, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of charge-transfer energy in the interactions between closed-shell ions and atoms is investigated. Ab initio calculations on H(plus)-He and Li(plus)-He are used as a guide for the construction of approximate methods for the estimation of the charge-transfer energy for more complicated systems. For many alkali ion-rate gas systems the charge-transfer energy is comparable to the induction energy in the region of the potential minimum, although for doubly charged alkaline-earth ions in rare gases the induction energy always dominates. Surprisingly, an empirical combination of repulsion energy plus asymptotic induction energy plus asymptotic dispersion energy seems to give a fair representation of the total interaction, especially if the repulsion energy is parameterized, despite the omission of any explicit charge-transfer contribution. More refined interaction models should consider the charge-transfer energy contribution.

  17. a Study of Low Energy Electron-Molecule and Ion - Collisions Using Rydberg Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollars, Byron George

    Low energy collisions between Rydberg atoms and neutral molecules have been investigated over a wide range of principal quantum numbers n, and for several different neutral targets. The results have been used to validate the free-electron, independent particle model of Rydberg atom collisions. Comparison between theory and experiment show that at large values of n, ionization of Rb(nS,nD) Rydberg atoms in the reaction: (UNFORMATTED TABLE FOLLOWS). Rb(nS,nD) + SF(,6) (--->) Rb('+) = SF(,6)('-) (1). (TABLE ENDS). proceeds by electron transfer from the Rydberg atom to the SF(,6) molecule. The rate constants measured for this reaction are much the same as for the attachment of free, low-energy electrons to SF(,6). Thus, Rydberg collision studies can provide information about low-energy free electron interactions. Studies of the rate constants for free ion production in the reaction: (UNFORMATTED TABLE FOLLOWS). K(nD) + SF(,6) (--->) K('+) + SF(,6)('-) (2). (TABLE ENDS). showed these to decrease sharply at smaller n, falling far below the value expected on the basis of Rydberg electron attachment to SF(,6). This behavior is attributed not to breakdown of the free-electron model, but to post -attachment electrostatic interactions between the product ions, which are formed closer to each other at lower n. Model calculations that take this electrostatic interaction into account confirm this prediction. Other Rydberg atom collision processes, such as: (UNFORMATTED TABLE FOLLOWS). K(nD) + O(,2) (--->) K('+) + O(,2)('-) (3). K(nD) + H(,2)O (--->) KH(,2)O('+) + e('-) (4). (TABLE ENDS). have been studied, as they require both the Rydberg ion core and electron to participate in the collision. Since O(,2)('-) ions formed by free electron attachment have short lifetimes against autodetachment, the observation of long-lived O(,2)('-) reaction product suggests that the K('+) core ion plays a role in stabilizing the excited O(,2)('-) ions formed by Rydberg electron attachment. Stable

  18. Delta-ray production in ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.E.; Toburen, L.H.

    1980-07-01

    The stochastic energy concentrations randomly deposited in submicron volumes in and near the paths of charged particles is needed. Computational methods, especially Monte Carlo methods, required a comprehensive set of basic interaction cross sections for the primary and all secondary radiation products. Of particular importance for high LET radiations are the cross sections for the production of energetic secondary electrons, delta-rays, in primary ionizing events. In this paper, we review the present state of available data on the production of delta-rays by fast positive ions in collision with targets of biological interest. The systematics in the cross sections for proton ionization of molecular targets are discussed, indicating what scaling is possible and summarizing what can be concluded regarding the dependence of the mean delta-ray energies on the chemical makeup of the medium. A comparison of typical data is made with the binary-encounter approximation to illustrate the limitations of this theoretical treatment of the ionization process. A bibliography of relevant published works on this topic is included.

  19. Differences between Doppler velocities of ions and neutral atoms in a solar prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Hillier, A.

    2017-05-01

    Context. In astrophysical systems with partially ionized plasma, the motion of ions is governed by the magnetic field while the neutral particles can only feel the magnetic field's Lorentz force indirectly through collisions with ions. The drift in the velocity between ionized and neutral species plays a key role in modifying important physical processes such as magnetic reconnection, damping of magnetohydrodynamic waves, transport of angular momentum in plasma through the magnetic field, and heating. Aims: This paper aims to investigate the differences between Doppler velocities of calcium ions and neutral hydrogen in a solar prominence to look for velocity differences between the neutral and ionized species. Methods: We simultaneously observed spectra of a prominence over an active region in H I 397 nm, H I 434 nm, Ca II 397 nm, and Ca II 854 nm using a high dispersion spectrograph of the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida observatory. We compared the Doppler velocities, derived from the shift of the peak of the spectral lines presumably emitted from optically-thin plasma. Results: There are instances when the difference in velocities between neutral atoms and ions is significant, for example 1433 events ( 3% of sets of compared profiles) with a difference in velocity between neutral hydrogen atoms and calcium ions greater than 3σ of the measurement error. However, we also found significant differences between the Doppler velocities of two spectral lines emitted from the same species, and the probability density functions of velocity difference between the same species is not significantly different from those between neutral atoms and ions. Conclusions: We interpreted the difference of Doppler velocities as being a result of the motions of different components in the prominence along the line of sight, rather than the decoupling of neutral atoms from plasma. The movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Self-consistent-field calculations of atoms and ions using a modified local-density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Liberman, D.A.; Albritton, J.R.; Wilson, B.G.; Alley, W.E. )

    1994-07-01

    Local-density-approximation calculations of atomic structure are useful for the description of atoms and ions in plasmas. The large number of different atomic configurations that exist in typical plasmas leads one to consider the expression of total energies in terms of a Taylor series in the orbital occupation numbers. Two schemes for computing the second derivative Taylor-series coefficients are given; the second, and better one, uses the linear response method developed by Zangwill and Soven [Phys. Rev. A 21, 1561 (1980)] for the calculation of optical response in atoms. A defect in the local-density approximation causes some second derivatives involving Rydberg orbitals to be infinite. This is corrected by using a modified local-density approximation that had previously been proposed [Phys. Rev. B 2, 244 (1970)].

  1. Atomic physics and synchrotron radiation: The production and accumulation of highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Agagu, A.; Jones, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation can be used to produce highly-charged ions, and to study photoexcitation and photoionization for ions of virtually any element in the periodic table. To date, with few exceptions, atomic physics studies have been limited to rare gases and a few metal vapors, and to photoexcitation energies in the VUV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. These limitations can now be overcome using photons produced by high-brightness synchrotron storage rings, such as the x-ray ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven. Furthermore, calculations indicate that irradiation of an ion trap with an intense energetic photon beam will result in a viable source of highly-charged ions that can be given the name PHOBIS: the PHOton Beam Ion Source. Promising results, which encourage the wider systematic use of synchrotron radiation in atomic physics research, have been obtained in recent experiments on VUV photoemission and the production and storage of multiply-charged ions. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Energy distributions of atomic and molecular ions sputtered by C 60+ projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcorte, A.; Poleunis, C.; Bertrand, P.

    2006-07-01

    In the process of investigating the interaction of fullerene projectiles with adsorbed organic layers, we measured the kinetic energy distributions (KEDs) of fragment and parent ions sputtered from an overlayer of polystyrene (PS) oligomers cast on silver under 15 keV C 60+ bombardment. These measurements have been conducted using our TRIFT™ spectrometer, recently equipped with the C 60+ source developed by Ionoptika, Ltd. For atomic ions, the intensity corresponding to the high energy tail decreases in the following order: C +( E-0.4) > H +( E-1.5) > Ag +( E-3.5). In particular, the distribution of Ag + is not broader than those of Ag 2+ and Ag 3+ clusters, in sharp contrast with 15 keV Ga + bombardment. On the other hand, molecular ions (fragments and parent-like species) exhibit a significantly wider distribution using C 60+ instead of Ga + as primary ions. For instance, the KED of Ag-cationized PS oligomers resembles that of Ag + and Ag n+ clusters. A specific feature of fullerene projectiles is that they induce the direct desorption of positively charged oligomers, without the need of a cationizing metal atom. The energy spectrum of these PS + ions is significantly narrower then that of Ag-cationized oligomers. For characteristic fragments of PS, such as C 7H 7+ and C 15H 13+ and polycyclic fragments, such as C 9H 7+ and C 14H 10+, the high energy decay is steep ( E-4 - E-8). In addition, reorganized ions generally show more pronounced high energy tails than characteristic ions, similar to the case of monoatomic ion bombardment. This observation is consistent with the higher excitation energy needed for their formation. Finally, the fraction of hydrocarbon ions formed in the gas phase via unimolecular dissociation of larger species is slightly larger with gallium than with fullerene projectiles.

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradas, N. P.; Arstila, K.; Battistig, G.; Bianconi, M.; Dytlewski, N.; Jeynes, C.; Kótai, E.; Lulli, G.; Mayer, M.; Rauhala, E.; Szilágyi, E.; Thompson, M.

    2007-09-01

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) includes a group of techniques for the determination of elemental concentration depth profiles of thin film materials. Often the final results rely on simulations, fits and calculations, made by dedicated codes written for specific techniques. Here we evaluate numerical codes dedicated to the analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis and non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis data. Several software packages have been presented and made available to the community. New codes regularly appear, and old codes continue to be used and occasionally updated and expanded. However, those codes have to date not been validated, or even compared to each other. Consequently, IBA practitioners use codes whose validity, correctness and accuracy have never been validated beyond the authors' efforts. In this work, we present the results of an IBA software intercomparison exercise, where seven different packages participated. These were DEPTH, GISA, DataFurnace (NDF), RBX, RUMP, SIMNRA (all analytical codes) and MCERD (a Monte Carlo code). In a first step, a series of simulations were defined, testing different capabilities of the codes, for fixed conditions. In a second step, a set of real experimental data were analysed. The main conclusion is that the codes perform well within the limits of their design, and that the largest differences in the results obtained are due to differences in the fundamental databases used (stopping power and scattering cross section). In particular, spectra can be calculated including Rutherford cross sections with screening, energy resolution convolutions including energy straggling, and pileup effects, with agreement between the codes available at the 0.1% level. This same agreement is also available for the non-RBS techniques. This agreement is not limited to calculation of spectra from particular structures with predetermined

  4. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions. Progress report, February 16, 1990--February 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from February 16, 1990 through February 15, 1993. This work involves the experimental investigation of atomic interactions in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron-correlation effects. The processes studied are of interest both from fundamental and applied points of view. In the latter case, results are obtained which are relevant to the understanding of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, highly-excited (Rydberg) and continuum states of atoms and ions, atomic structure effects, the interaction of ions with surfaces, and the development of heavy-ion storage-rings. The results obtained have provided the basis for several M.A. thesis projects at Western Michigan and several Ph.D. dissertation projects are currently underway. Summaries of work completed and work in progress are given below in Section II. This research has resulted in 26 papers (in print and in press), 12 invited presentations at national and international meetings, and 28 contributed presentations as detailed in Section III.

  5. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future. PMID:27239245

  6. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, J. J.; Wilson, T. M.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Twedt, K. A.

    2016-03-15

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.

  7. A (201)Hg+ Comagnetometer for (199)Hg+ Trapped Ion Space Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Eric A.; Taghavi, Shervin; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for unambiguously measuring the exact magnetic field experienced by trapped mercury ions contained within an atomic clock intended for space applications. In general, atomic clocks are insensitive to external perturbations that would change the frequency at which the clocks operate. On a space platform, these perturbative effects can be much larger than they would be on the ground, especially in dealing with the magnetic field environment. The solution is to use a different isotope of mercury held within the same trap as the clock isotope. The magnetic field can be very accurately measured with a magnetic-field-sensitive atomic transition in the added isotope. Further, this measurement can be made simultaneously with normal clock operation, thereby not degrading clock performance. Instead of using a conventional magnetometer to measure ambient fields, which would necessarily be placed some distance away from the clock atoms, first order field-sensitive atomic transition frequency changes in the atoms themselves determine the variations in the magnetic field. As a result, all ambiguity over the exact field value experienced by the atoms is removed. Atoms used in atomic clocks always have an atomic transition (often referred to as the clock transition) that is sensitive to magnetic fields only in second order, and usually have one or more transitions that are first-order field sensitive. For operating parameters used in the (199)Hg(+) clock, the latter can be five orders of magnitude or more sensitive to field fluctuations than the clock transition, thereby providing an unambiguous probe of the magnetic field strength.

  8. High-coherence electron and ion bunches from laser-cooled atoms.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, Ben M; Thompson, Daniel J; McCulloch, Andrew J; Murphy, Dene; Speirs, Rory W; Torrance, Joshua S J; Scholten, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Cold atom electron and ion sources produce electron bunches and ion beams by photoionization of laser-cooled atoms. They offer high coherence and the potential for high brightness, with applications including ultra-fast electron-diffractive imaging of dynamic processes at the nanoscale. The effective brightness of electron sources has been limited by nonlinear divergence caused by repulsive interactions between the electrons, known as the Coulomb explosion. It has been shown that electron bunches with ellipsoidal shape and uniform density distribution have linear internal Coulomb fields, such that the Coulomb explosion can be reversed using conventional optics. Our source can create bunches shaped in three dimensions and hence in principle achieve the transverse spatial coherence and brightness needed for picosecond-diffractive imaging with nanometer resolution. Here we present results showing how the shaping capability can be used to measure the spatial coherence properties of the cold electron source. We also investigate space-charge effects with ions and generate electron bunches with durations of a few hundred picoseconds. Future development of the cold atom electron and ion source will increase the bunch charge and charge density, demonstrate reversal of Coulomb explosion, and ultimately, ultra-fast coherent electron-diffractive imaging.

  9. The Heidelberg test storage ring for heavy ions and its use for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Schuch, R.

    1986-11-01

    A brief description of the Heavy-Ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) presently being built at the Max-Planck Institut in Heidelberg is given. It will be able to store ions injected from the tandem postaccelerator combination up to about 30 MeV/nucleon for a charge to mass ratio of 0.5. One of the main purposes of the TSR will be the study of electron cooling. Some atomic physics experiments are discussed using the electron cooling device which provides an electron-ion collision facility with good energy resolution and ion beams of high currents and low emittances. Here the possibilities for measurements of spontaneous and laser-induced radiative recombination and dielectronic recombination in the electron cooling section are discussed.

  10. Trapping molecular ions formed via photo-associative ionization of ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Chen, Kuang; Schowalter, Steven J; Hudson, Eric R

    2011-11-14

    The formation of (40)Ca(2)(+) molecular ions is observed in a hybrid (40)Ca magneto-optical and ion trap system. The molecular ion formation process is determined to be photo-associative ionization of ultracold (40)Ca atoms. A lower bound for the two-body rate constant is found to be beta ≥ 2 ± 1 × 10(-15) cm(3) Hz. Ab initio molecular potential curves are calculated for the neutral Ca(2) and ionic Ca(2)(+) molecules and used in a model that identifies the photo-associative ionization pathway. As this technique does not require a separate photo-association laser, it could find use as a simple, robust method for producing ultracold molecular ions.

  11. Shell- and subshell-resolved projectile excitation of hydrogenlike Au{sup 78+} ions in relativistic ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gumberidze, A.; Fritzsche, S.; Bosch, F.; Kraemer, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Ionescu, D. C.; Stachura, Z.; Surzhykov, A.; Warczak, A.; Stoehlker, Th.

    2010-11-15

    The projectile excitation of high-Z ions has been investigated in relativistic ion-atoms collisions by observing the subsequent x-ray emission. The x-ray spectra from the projectile excitation have been separated from the x-ray emission following electron capture into the excited states using a novel anticoincidence technique. For the particular case of hydrogenlike Au{sup 78+} ions colliding with Ar atoms, Coulomb excitation from the ground state into the fine-structure-resolved n=2 levels as well as into levels with principal quantum number n{>=}3 has been measured with excellent statistics. The observed spectra agree well with simulated spectra that are based on Dirac's relativistic equation and the proper inclusion of the magnetic interaction into the amplitudes for projectile excitation. It is shown that a coherent inclusion of the magnetic part of the Lienard-Wiechert potential leads to the lowering of the excitation cross section by up to 35%. This effect is more pronounced for excitation into states with high angular momentum and is confirmed by our experimental data.

  12. Negative ion productions in high velocity collision between small carbon clusters and Helium atom target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Chabot; K, Béroff; T, Pino; G, Féraud; N, Dothi; Padellec A, Le; G, Martinet; S, Bouneau; Y, Carpentier

    2012-11-01

    We measured absolute double capture cross section of Cn+ ions (n=1,5) colliding, at 2.3 and 2.6 a.u velocities, with an Helium target atom and the branching ratios of fragmentation of the so formed electronically excited anions Cn-*. We also measured absolute cross section for the electronic attachment on neutral Cn clusters colliding at same velocities with He atom. This is to our knowledge the first measurement of neutral-neutral charge exchange in high velocity collision.

  13. Multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions by high-intensity X-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Popruzhenko, S. B. Mur, V. D.; Popov, V. S.; Bauer, D.

    2009-06-15

    Coulomb corrections to the action function and rate of multiphoton ionization of atoms and ions in a strong linearly polarized electromagnetic field are calculated for high values of the Keldysh adiabaticity parameter. The Coulomb corrections significantly increase the ionization rate for atoms (by several orders of magnitude). An interpolation formula proposed for ionization rate is valid for arbitrary values of the adiabaticity parameter. The high accuracy of the formula is confirmed by comparison with the results of numerical calculations. The general case of elliptic polarization of laser radiation is also considered.

  14. Effects of anisotropic electron-ion interactions in atomic photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, D.; Starace, A. F.; Manson, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the angular momentum transfer formulation of the differential photoionization cross section is presented and photoionization amplitudes in LS coupling are considered. The application of the theoretical concepts and relations developed is illustrated with the aid of an example involving the calculation of the angular distribution of photoelectrons ionized from atomic sulfur according to a certain reaction. The investigation shows that anisotropic electron-ion interactions in atomic sulfur lead to measurable differences between photoelectron angular distribution asymmetry parameters corresponding to alternative ionic term levels.

  15. Vibrationally resolved transitions in ion-molecule and atom-molecular ion slow collisions

    DOE Data Explorer

    The data tables and interactive graphs made available here contain theoretical integral cross sections for vibrational excitation and vibrationally resolved charge transfer from vibrationally excited states of H2 and H2+ with protons and hydrogen atoms, respectively. [From http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/h2mol/home.html] (Specialized Interface)

  16. Ion-Atom/Argon—Calculation of ionization cross sections by fast ion impact for neutral target atoms ranging from hydrogen to argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSherry, D. M.; O'Rourke, S. F. C.; Crothers, D. S. F.

    2003-10-01

    A FORTRAN 90 program is presented which calculates the total cross sections, and the electron energy spectra of the singly and doubly differential cross sections for the single target ionization of neutral atoms ranging from hydrogen up to and including argon. The code is applicable for the case of both high and low Z projectile impact in fast ion-atom collisions. The theoretical models provided for the program user are based on two quantum mechanical approximations which have proved to be very successful in the study of ionization in ion-atom collisions. These are the continuum-distorted-wave (CDW) and continuum-distorted-wave eikonal-initial-state (CDW-EIS) approximations. The codes presented here extend previously published codes for single ionization of target hydrogen [Crothers and McCartney, Comput. Phys. Commun. 72 (1992) 288], target helium [Nesbitt, O'Rourke and Crothers, Comput. Phys. Commun. 114 (1998) 385] and target atoms ranging from lithium to neon [O'Rourke, McSherry and Crothers, Comput. Phys. Commun. 131 (2000) 129]. Cross sections for all of these target atoms may be obtained as limiting cases from the present code. Program summaryTitle of program: ARGON Catalogue identifier: ADSE Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADSE Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it is operable: Computers: Four by 200 MHz Pro Pentium Linux server, DEC Alpha 21164; Four by 400 MHz Pentium 2 Xeon 450 Linux server, IBM SP2 and SUN Enterprise 3500 Installations: Queen's University, Belfast Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Red-hat Linux 5.2, Digital UNIX Version 4.0d, AIX, Solaris SunOS 5.7 Compilers: PGI workstations, DEC CAMPUS Programming language used: FORTRAN 90 with MPI directives No. of bits in a word: 64, except on Linux servers 32 Number of processors used: any number Has the

  17. Electron exchange between an H - ion and a spherical cluster of aluminum atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, D. K.; Polivnikova, T. Yu.; Gainullin, I. K.; Urazgildin, I. F.

    2009-08-01

    The resonant charge transfer (RCT) between a hydrogen anion and a cluster of aluminum atoms is investigated by means of the wave-packet propagation method that does not exploit the perturbation theory. The RCT on a spherical cluster is found to exhibit quantum size effects due to the finite size of the cluster. The survival amplitude of an ion state has been calculated as a function of the distance to the ion-surface in a normal collision. It is shown that depending on the velocity of the impinging particle, the cluster can behave either as a bulk metal or as a quantum structure with discrete energy states existing over two coordinates.

  18. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F.

    1994-10-01

    This bibliography, covering the period 1993, includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field emission (FE), and field ion microscopy (FIM). Technique-oriented studies and applications are included. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references are listed alphabetically by authors, an Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  19. Experimental Issues in Coherent Quantum-State Manipulation of Trapped Atomic Ions

    PubMed Central

    Wineland, D. J.; Monroe, C.; Itano, W. M.; Leibfried, D.; King, B. E.; Meekhof, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    Methods for, and limitations to, the generation of entangled states of trapped atomic ions are examined. As much as possible, state manipulations are described in terms of quantum logic operations since the conditional dynamics implicit in quantum logic is central to the creation of entanglement. Keeping with current interest, some experimental issues in the proposal for trappedion quantum computation by J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller (University of Innsbruck) are discussed. Several possible decoherence mechanisms are examined and what may be the more important of these are identified. Some potential applications for entangled states of trapped-ions which lie outside the immediate realm of quantum computation are also discussed. PMID:28009379

  20. Optical Field Ionization of Atoms and Ions Using Ultrashort Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittinghoff, David Neal

    This dissertation research is an investigation of the strong optical field ionization of atoms and ions by 120-fs, 614-nm laser pulses and 130-fs, 800-nm laser pulses. The experiments have shown ionization that is enhanced above the predictions of sequential tunneling models for He^{+2}, Ne ^{+2} and Ar^ {+2}. The ion yields for He^ {+1}, Ne^{+1} and Ar^{+1} agree well with the theoretical predictions of optical tunneling models. Investigation of the polarization dependence of the ionization indicates that the enhancements are consistent with a nonsequential ionization mechanism in which the linearly polarized field drives the electron wavefunction back toward the ion core and causes double ionization through inelastic e-2e scattering. These investigations have initiated a number of other studies by other groups and are of current scientific interest in the fields of high-irradiance laser -matter interactions and production of high-density plasmas. This work involved: (1) Understanding the characteristic nature of the ion yields produced by tunneling ionization through investigation of analytic solutions for tunneling at optical frequencies. (2) Extensive characterization of the pulses produced by 614-nm and 800-nm ultrashort pulse lasers. Absolute calibration of the irradiance scale produced shows the practicality of the inverse problem--measuring peak laser irradiance using ion yields. (3) Measuring the ion yields (number of ions produced versus irradiance) for three noble gases using linear, circular and elliptical polarizations of laser pulses.

  1. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Be-like Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Anand; Landi, E.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic data and collision rates are needed to model the spectrum of optically thin astrophysical sources. Recent observations from solar instrumentation such as SOH0 and Hinode have revealed the presence of hosts of lines emitted by high-energy configurations from ions belonging to the Be-like to the 0-like isoelectronic sequences. Data for such configurations are often unavailable in the literature. We have started a program to calculate the atomic parameters and rates for the high-energy configurations of Be-like ions of the type ls2.21.nl' where n=3,4,5. We report on the results of this project and on the diagnostic application of the predicted spectral lines.

  2. Understanding Molecular-Ion Neutral Atom Collisions for the Production of Ultracold Molecular Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-03

    Schowalter, Svetlana Kotochigova, Kuang Chen, Eric R. Hudson. Evidence for sympathetic vibrational cooling of translationally cold molecules, Nature...03 2013): 0. doi: 10.1038/nature11937 Wade G. Rellergert, Scott T. Sullivan, Svetlana Kotochigova, Eric R. Hudson. Role of Electronic Excitations...109.223002 Kuang Chen, Steven Schowalter, Svetlana Kotochigova, Alexander Petrov, Wade Rellergert, Scott Sullivan, Eric Hudson. Molecular-ion trap

  3. Impact Collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy Applied to the Determination of Atomic Surface Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Richard Stephen

    1990-08-01

    The technique of impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS) was used to investigate the atomic structure and low energy ion scattering dynamics from various surfaces. A new formalism for calculating the three-dimensional cross section for an ion to scatter sequentially and classically from two atoms has been developed. This method can be used to assist in the interpretation of ICISS data in terms of quantitative surface-structure models. Shadowing and blocking effects for energetic ions scattering from more than one atom are shown to be special cases of rainbow scattering. Even at keV energies and above, the cross section at the critical angle for scattering must be evaluated by quantum or semi-classical means to avoid the singularity in the classically calculated cross sections. In an ICISS investigation of the Ag(110) surface, a surface flux peak analysis demonstrated that the surface was not a complete monolayer, but rather contained 10-15% random vacancies. Subsurface Li^+ scattering results confirmed the oscillatory relaxation of the first two atomic layers of the surface, with Delta_{12} = -7.5% and Delta_{23} = 4.0%. Modeling of the neutralization mechanism for the He^+ scattering gave a best fit time-dependent Auger neutralization time constant of 0.84 +/- 0.08 fs. A neutralization study of 5 keV He^+ ions scattered from Au adatoms on the Si(111)- sqrt{3} x sqrt {3}-Au surface showed the He^+ ICISS data contained false shadowing features that were actually the result of local neutralization effects. Good agreement was obtained for a radially dependent ion-atom neutralization theory with rate R = Aexp (-ar) , where A and a are 15.5 fs^{ -1} and 1.94 A^{-1} , respectively. A detailed examination of the Si(111)- sqrt{3} x sqrt{3 })-Ag surface was also made. The 5 keV Li ^+ ICISS data gave evidence for Ag island formation at single monolayer coverages of silver, while the LEED, AES and LEIS data showed that at relatively high coverages of Ag (35 ML

  4. Sympathetic cooling of the Ba{sup +} ion by collisions with ultracold Rb atoms: Theoretical prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Krych, Michal; Skomorowski, Wojciech; Pawlowski, Filip; Moszynski, Robert; Idziaszek, Zbigniew

    2011-03-15

    State-of-the-art ab initio techniques have been applied to compute the potential energy curves of the (BaRb){sup +} molecular ion in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the singlet and triplet states dissociating into the ground-state {sup 1}S Rb{sup +} ion and the Ba atom in the ground {sup 1}S state or the lowest singlet or triplet d excited states, and for the singlet and triplet states dissociating into the ground-state {sup 2}S Rb atom and the ground-state {sup 2}S Ba{sup +} ion. The ground-state potential energy was obtained with the coupled-cluster method restricted to single, double, and nonperturbative triple excitations. The first triplet states in the {Sigma}, {Pi}, and {Delta} symmetries were computed with the restricted open-shell coupled-cluster method restricted to single, double, and nonperturbative triple excitations. All other excited-state potential energy curves were computed using the equation of motion approach within the coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and linear triples framework. The long-range coefficients describing the electrostatic, induction, and dispersion interactions at large interatomic distances are also reported. The electric transition dipole moments governing the x {sup 1{Sigma}{yields}1{Sigma}},{sup 1{Pi}} transitions have been obtained as the first residue of the polarization propagator computed with the linear response coupled-cluster method restricted to single and double excitations. Nonadiabatic radial and angular coupling matrix elements as well as the spin-orbit coupling matrix elements have been evaluated using the multireference configuration-interaction method restricted to single and double excitations with a large active space. With these couplings, the spin-orbit-coupled (relativistic) potential energy curves for the 0{sup +} and 1 states relevant for the running experiments have been obtained. Finally, relativistic transition moments and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements were obtained from the

  5. Highly charged ions for atomic clocks, quantum information, and search for α variation.

    PubMed

    Safronova, M S; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Safronova, U I; Porsev, S G; Kozlov, M G

    2014-07-18

    We propose 10 highly charged ions as candidates for the development of next generation atomic clocks, quantum information, and search for α variation. They have long-lived metastable states with transition wavelengths to the ground state between 170-3000 nm, relatively simple electronic structure, stable isotopes, and high sensitivity to α variation (e.g., Sm(14+), Pr(10+), Sm(13+), Nd(10+)). We predict their properties crucial for the experimental exploration and highlight particularly attractive systems for these applications.

  6. High charge state, ion-atom collision experiments using accel-decel

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, E.M.; Clark, M.W.; Tanis, J.A.; Graham, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies of /sub 16/S/sup 13 +/ + He collisions between 2.5 and 200 MeV, which were made using the accel-decel technique with the Brookhaven National Laboratory coupled MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerators, are discussed. Cross sections were measured for single electron-capture and -loss as well as K x rays correlated to electron-capture. Other planned ion-atom collision experiments requiring accel-decel are also presented. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, Joel

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied in high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W55+ through Ne-like W64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W44+ through Co-like W47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W64+ through Li-like W71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W6+ could be useful for

  8. Irradiation effects of displacement damage and gas atoms in Yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated by Au and helium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Ziqiang; Guo, Gang

    2017-07-01

    Single and sequential ion beam irradiated Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was carried out to study the irradiation effects of vacancies and helium gas atoms. The results show that the displacement damage value of sequential ion beam irradiation is less than that of single He ion irradiation and larger than that of single Au ion irradiation. The irradiation effects of displacement damage (mainly vacancies) and gas atoms may lead to a strong reduction of the interstitial helium atoms. Sequential ion beam irradiation generates more vacancies-helium bubbles than single helium ion irradiation. The results are important for fundamental understanding of interaction between vacancy and helium bubbles, and it also plays a guiding role in the practical industrial applications in the nuclear reactor.

  9. Spin-Orbit Interactions and Quantum Spin Dynamics in Cold Ion-Atom Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscherbul, Timur V.; Brumer, Paul; Buchachenko, Alexei A.

    2016-09-01

    We present accurate ab initio and quantum scattering calculations on a prototypical hybrid ion-atom system Yb+ -Rb, recently suggested as a promising candidate for the experimental study of open quantum systems, quantum information processing, and quantum simulation. We identify the second-order spin-orbit (SO) interaction as the dominant source of hyperfine relaxation in cold Yb+ -Rb collisions. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental observations [L. Ratschbacher et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 160402 (2013)] of hyperfine relaxation rates of trapped Yb+ immersed in an ultracold Rb gas. The calculated rates are 4 times smaller than is predicted by the Langevin capture theory and display a weak T-0.3 temperature dependence, indicating significant deviations from statistical behavior. Our analysis underscores the deleterious nature of the SO interaction and implies that light ion-atom combinations such as Yb+ -Li should be used to minimize hyperfine relaxation and decoherence of trapped ions in ultracold atomic gases.

  10. Nonlinear effects in defect production by atomic and molecular ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    David, C. Dholakia, Manan; Chandra, Sharat; Nair, K. G. M.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Amirthapandian, S.; Amarendra, G.; Varghese Anto, C.; Santhana Raman, P.; Kennedy, John

    2015-01-07

    This report deals with studies concerning vacancy related defects created in silicon due to implantation of 200 keV per atom aluminium and its molecular ions up to a plurality of 4. The depth profiles of vacancy defects in samples in their as implanted condition are carried out by Doppler broadening spectroscopy using low energy positron beams. In contrast to studies in the literature reporting a progressive increase in damage with plurality, implantation of aluminium atomic and molecular ions up to Al{sub 3}, resulted in production of similar concentration of vacancy defects. However, a drastic increase in vacancy defects is observed due to Al{sub 4} implantation. The observed behavioural trend with respect to plurality has even translated to the number of vacancies locked in vacancy clusters, as determined through gold labelling experiments. The impact of aluminium atomic and molecular ions simulated using MD showed a monotonic increase in production of vacancy defects for cluster sizes up to 4. The trend in damage production with plurality has been explained on the basis of a defect evolution scheme in which for medium defect concentrations, there is a saturation of the as-implanted damage and an increase for higher defect concentrations.

  11. Probing interactions of thermal Sr Rydberg atoms using simultaneous optical and ion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Ryan K.; Bounds, Alistair D.; Huillery, Paul; Keegan, Niamh C.; Faoro, Riccardo; Bridge, Elizabeth M.; Weatherill, Kevin J.; Jones, Matthew P. A.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a method for probing interaction effects in a thermal beam of strontium atoms using simultaneous measurements of Rydberg EIT and spontaneously created ions or electrons. We present a Doppler-averaged optical Bloch equation model that reproduces the optical signals and allows us to connect the optical coherences and the populations. We use this to determine that the spontaneous ionization process in our system occurs due to collisions between Rydberg and ground state atoms in the EIT regime. We measure the cross section of this process to be 0.6+/- 0.2 {σ }{geo}, where {σ }{geo} is the geometrical cross section of the Rydberg atom. This result adds complementary insight to a range of recent studies of interacting thermal Rydberg ensembles.

  12. Atoms and Ions; Universality, Singularity and Particularity:. on Boltzmann's Vision a Century Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Ludwig Boltzmann died by his own hand 101 years ago last September. He was a passionate believer in atoms: underlying thermodynamics, he felt, lay a statistical world governed by the mechanics of individual particles. His struggles against critics -- "Have you ever seen an atom?" taunted Ernst Mach -- left him pessimistic. Nevertheless, following Maxwell and clarified by Gibbs, he established the science of Statistical Mechanics. But today, especially granted our understanding of critical singularities and their universality, how much do atomic particles and their charged partners, ions, really matter? The answers we have also met opposition. But Boltzmann would have welcomed the insights gained and approved of applications of statistical dynamics to biology, sociology, and other enterprises. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  13. Two-Centre Convergent Close-Coupling Approach to Ion-Atom Collisions: Current Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyrov, Alisher; Abdurakhmanov, Ilkhom; Bailey, Jackson; Bray, Igor

    2016-09-01

    There are two versions of the convergent close-coupling (CCC) approach to ion-atom collisions: quantum-mechanical (QM-CCC) and semi-classical (SC-CCC). Recently, both implementations have been extended to include electron-transfer channels. The SC-CCC approach has been applied to study the excitation and the electron-capture processes in proton-hydrogen collisions. The integral alignment parameter A20 for polarization of Lyman- α emission and the cross sections for excitation and electron-capture into the lowest excited states have been calculated for a wide range of the proton impact energies. It has been established that for convergence of the results a very wide range of impact parameters (typically, 0-50 a.u.) is required due to extremely long tails of transition probabilities for transitions into the 2 p states at high energies. The QM-CCC approach allowed to obtain an accurate solution of proton-hydrogen scattering problem including all underlying processes, namely, direct scattering and ionisation, and electron capture into bound and continuum states of the projectile. In this presentation we give a general overview of current progress in applications of the two-centre CCC approach to ion-atom and atom-atom collisions. The work is supported by the Australian Research Council.

  14. Electron-loss and excitation cross sections for a He+ ion colliding with various atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Toshiaki

    1985-10-01

    A unitarized impact-parameter method is applied to calculate the electron-loss and excitation cross sections for He+ ions colliding with atoms. The projectile ionization and excitation are dominantly caused by the average potential field of the target atom (atomic number Z2). The inelastic process of exciting the target atom contributes negligibly except for light target elements. We adopt the Molière potential to describe this average potential field. The energy dependences of the electron-loss cross sections in He, N2, and Ar targets are in good agreement with the reported data. In the case of the Kr target, the present theory yields larger cross sections than the data, especially below 1 MeV impact energy of a He+ projectile. The calculated loss cross sections at impact velocity ranging from 2v0 to 6v0 (v0=2.18×108 cm/s) show a weaker Z2 dependence in the large Z2 region than that given by the Bohr formula. As for the cross section for exciting the ground state of a projectile to the first excited state, a similar weak Z2 dependence can be found. The recent experimental results using 40-MeV F8+ ions colliding with He, Ne, Ar, and Kr targets have supported this tendency.

  15. Influence of the plasma environment on atomic structure using an ion-sphere model

    DOE PAGES

    Belkhiri, Madeny Jean; Fontes, Christopher John; Poirier, Michel

    2015-09-03

    Plasma environment effects on atomic structure are analyzed using various atomic structure codes. To monitor the effect of high free-electron density or low temperatures, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are compared. After a discussion of the implementation of the Fermi-Dirac approach within the ion-sphere model, several applications are considered. In order to check the consistency of the modifications brought here to extant codes, calculations have been performed using the Los Alamos Cowan Atomic Structure (cats) code in its Hartree-Fock or Hartree-Fock-Slater form and the parametric potential Flexible Atomic Code (fac). The ground-state energy shifts due to the plasma effects for themore » six most ionized aluminum ions have been calculated using the fac and cats codes and fairly agree. For the intercombination resonance line in Fe22+, the plasma effect within the uniform electron gas model results in a positive shift that agrees with the MCDF value of B. Saha et al.« less

  16. Atomic layer etching of Cu film using gas cluster ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Noriaki; Ogawa, Akihiro

    2017-05-01

    In this work, atomic layer etching (ALE) with a gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) was investigated for the first time. Since gas cluster ions produce dense energy deposition without severe damage, effective, low-damage, and low-temperature removal of chemically altered surface layers is expected. In this study, ALE of Cu films upon oxygen GCIB (O2-GCIB) irradiation in the presence of acetic acid vapor was investigated. Cu atoms were removed from the surface layer, owing to chemical reactions between adsorbed acetic acid molecules and Cu atoms upon O2-GCIB irradiation at room temperature. Since there was no physical sputtering upon 5 kV O2-GCIB irradiation, a self-limiting etch stop was observed after removal of the top layer. Conversely, upon 20 kV O2-GCIB irradiation, Cu atoms were physically sputtered after removal of the chemically altered surface layer. By applying low-energy (5 kV) GCIB irradiation, ALE with GCIB was achieved at room temperature.

  17. Molecular ion implantation technique for obtaining the same depth profile for the component atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Mimura, Masakazu; Gotoh, Yasuhito

    1996-12-31

    The molecular ion implantation, in which the ions of polyatomic molecule are used as an implantation particle, is expected to have two main advantages: (1) obtaining the similar depth profiles of implanted component atoms of different elements at a single implantation, and (2) achieving simultaneous implantation of different atoms at the same position. In this paper, we have showed these advantages by an analytical estimation of the projected ranges for each implanted atoms of a polyatomic molecule, and then, by the computer simulation by TRIM. In addition, the experimental results obtained by SIMS were also presented. As for the evaluation of depth profiles, the overlap areas between two depth distributions were calculated by a numerical integration as a degree of the similarity between two depth profiles of different atoms. As a result, the projected ranges and overlap areas showed that depth profiles are almost the same in a usual implantation energy range, except of hydrogen due to the lack of neutron in the nucleus. For the simple evaluation for the similarity of two depth profiles, a factor S was proposed instead of the overlap area.

  18. Influence of the plasma environment on atomic structure using an ion-sphere model

    SciTech Connect

    Belkhiri, Madeny Jean; Fontes, Christopher John; Poirier, Michel

    2015-09-03

    Plasma environment effects on atomic structure are analyzed using various atomic structure codes. To monitor the effect of high free-electron density or low temperatures, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are compared. After a discussion of the implementation of the Fermi-Dirac approach within the ion-sphere model, several applications are considered. In order to check the consistency of the modifications brought here to extant codes, calculations have been performed using the Los Alamos Cowan Atomic Structure (cats) code in its Hartree-Fock or Hartree-Fock-Slater form and the parametric potential Flexible Atomic Code (fac). The ground-state energy shifts due to the plasma effects for the six most ionized aluminum ions have been calculated using the fac and cats codes and fairly agree. For the intercombination resonance line in Fe22+, the plasma effect within the uniform electron gas model results in a positive shift that agrees with the MCDF value of B. Saha et al.

  19. Influence of the plasma environment on atomic structure using an ion-sphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkhiri, Madeny; Fontes, Christopher J.; Poirier, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Plasma environment effects on atomic structure are analyzed using various atomic structure codes. To monitor the effect of high free-electron density or low temperatures, Fermi-Dirac and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are compared. After a discussion of the implementation of the Fermi-Dirac approach within the ion-sphere model, several applications are considered. In order to check the consistency of the modifications brought here to extant codes, calculations have been performed using the Los Alamos Cowan Atomic Structure (cats) code in its Hartree-Fock or Hartree-Fock-Slater form and the parametric potential Flexible Atomic Code (fac). The ground-state energy shifts due to the plasma effects for the six most ionized aluminum ions have been calculated using the fac and cats codes and fairly agree. For the intercombination resonance line in Fe22 +, the plasma effect within the uniform electron gas model results in a positive shift that agrees with the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock value of B. Saha and S. Fritzsche [J. Phys. B 40, 259 (2007), 10.1088/0953-4075/40/2/002]. Last, the present model is compared to experimental data in titanium measured on the terawatt Astra facility and provides values for electron temperature and density in agreement with the maria code.

  20. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Schwindt, Peter D. D.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; Casias, Adrian; Wagner, Adrian R.; Moorman, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald P.; Kellogg, James R.; Prestage, John D.

    2016-05-12

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm3 in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, the package was sealed with a copper pinch-off and was then pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of 171Yb+. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10-11 / τ1/2.

  1. Time-of-flight mass spectrographs—From ions to neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möbius, E.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Kucharek, H.; Popecki, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    After their introduction to space physics in the mid 1980s time-of-flight (TOF) spectrographs have become a main staple in spaceborne mass spectrometry. They have largely replaced magnetic spectrometers, except when extremely high mass resolution is required to identify complex molecules, for example, in the vicinity of comets or in planetary atmospheres. In combination with electrostatic analyzers and often solid state detectors, TOF spectrographs have become key instruments to diagnose space plasma velocity distributions, mass, and ionic charge composition. With a variety of implementation schemes that also include isochronous electric field configurations, TOF spectrographs can respond to diverse science requirements. This includes a wide range in mass resolution to allow the separation of medium heavy isotopes or to simply provide distributions of the major species, such as H, He, and O, to obtain information on source tracers or mass fluxes. With a top-hat analyzer at the front end, or in combination with deflectors for three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the distribution function of ions can be obtained with good time resolution. Most recently, the reach of TOF ion mass spectrographs has been extended to include energetic neutral atoms. After selecting the arrival direction with mechanical collimation, followed by conversion to ions, adapted TOF sensors form a new branch of the spectrograph family tree. We review the requirements, challenges, and implementation schemes for ion and neutral atom spectrographs, including potential directions for the future, while largely avoiding overlap with complementary contributions in this special issue.

  2. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock

    DOE PAGES

    Schwindt, Peter D. D.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; ...

    2016-05-12

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm3 in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, the package wasmore » sealed with a copper pinch-off and was then pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of 171Yb+. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10-11 / τ1/2.« less

  3. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwindt, Peter D. D.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; Casias, Adrian; Wagner, Adrian R.; Moorman, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald P.; Kellogg, James R.; Prestage, John D.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm3 in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, it was sealed with a copper pinch-off and was subsequently pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of 171Y b+. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10-11/τ1/2.

  4. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock.

    PubMed

    Schwindt, Peter D D; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; Casias, Adrian; Wagner, Adrian R; Moorman, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald P; Kellogg, James R; Prestage, John D

    2016-05-01

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm(3) in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, it was sealed with a copper pinch-off and was subsequently pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of (171)Y b(+). The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10(-11)/τ(1/2).

  5. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Schwindt, Peter D. D.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; Casias, Adrian; Wagner, Adrian R.; Moorman, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald P.; Kellogg, James R.; Prestage, John D.

    2016-05-12

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm3 in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, the package was sealed with a copper pinch-off and was then pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of 171Yb+. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10-11 / τ1/2.

  6. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    Schwindt, Peter D. D. Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; Casias, Adrian; Wagner, Adrian R.; Moorman, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald P.; Kellogg, James R.; Prestage, John D.

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm{sup 3} in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, it was sealed with a copper pinch-off and was subsequently pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of {sup 171}Y b{sup +}. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10{sup −11}/τ{sup 1/2}.

  7. Dipole moments and orientation polarizabilities of diatomic molecular ions for precision atomic mass measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Michelle; Brown, John M.; Rosmus, Pavel; Linguerri, Roberto; Komiha, Najia; Myers, Edmund G.

    2007-01-01

    In high precision Penning trap mass spectrometry the cyclotron frequency of a polarizable ion is perturbed due to the Stark interaction with the motional electric field. For polar diatomic molecular ions, which have adjacent rotational levels of opposite parity, these shifts can be particularly large—especially for the lowest rotational levels, which are those occupied by ions stored for many hours in cryogenic Penning traps. In order to provide corrections to precision atomic mass measurements, we consider the calculation of orientation polarizabilities of CO+ and the positive ions of the first and second row diatomic hydrides, LiH+ to ArH+ . Dipole moments for these ions have been calculated using the restricted coupled cluster method with perturbative triples and large basis sets. Using these dipoles and an effective Hamiltonian, we have obtained rotational-state dependent polarizabilities of the open-shell diatomic ions CO+ , NH+ , OH+ , FH+ , PH+ , SH+ , and ClH+ . Results are given for those rotational levels that are significantly populated at 4.2K , for magnetic fields up to 10T . For the remaining first and second row hydride cations, polarizabilities at the magnetic fields of interest can be obtained from a simple formula valid for closed-shell molecules. Conversely, in cases where the polarizability shifts can be measured, our results enable experimental determination of dipole moments.

  8. The role of the auxiliary atomic ion beam in C60(+)-Ar+ co-sputtering.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chun; Liu, Chi-Ping; Kuo, Che-Hung; Chang, Hsun-Yun; Chang, Chi-Jen; Hsieh, Tung-Han; Lee, Szu-Hsian; You, Yun-Wen; Kao, Wei-Lun; Yen, Guo-Ji; Huang, Chih-Chieh; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2011-03-07

    Cluster ion sputtering has been proven to be an effective technique for depth profiling of organic materials. In particular, C(60)(+) ion beams are widely used to profile soft matter. The limitation of carbon deposition associated with C(60)(+) sputtering can be alleviated by concurrently using a low-energy Ar(+) beam. In this work, the role of this auxiliary atomic ion beam was examined by using an apparatus that could analyze the sputtered materials and the remaining target simultaneously using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), respectively. It was found that the auxiliary 0.2 kV Ar(+) stream was capable of slowly removing the carbon deposition and suppresses the carbon from implantation. As a result, a more steady sputtering condition was achieved more quickly with co-sputtering than by using C(60)(+) alone. Additionally, the Ar(+) beam was found to interfere with the C(60)(+) beam and may lower the overall sputtering rate and secondary ion intensity in some cases. Therefore, the current of this auxiliary ion beam needs to be carefully optimized for successful depth profiling.

  9. Silicon dioxide mask by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition in focused ion beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Shah, Ali; Alasaarela, Tapani; Chekurov, Nikolai; Savin, Hele; Tittonen, Ilkka

    2017-02-01

    In this work, focused ion beam (FIB) lithography was developed for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) silicon dioxide SiO2 hard mask. The PEALD process greatly decreases the deposition temperature of the SiO2 hard mask. FIB Ga+ ion implantation on the deposited SiO2 layer increases the wet etch resistivity of the irradiated region. A programmed exposure in FIB followed by development in a wet etchant enables the precisely defined nanoscale patterning. The combination of FIB exposure parameters and the development time provides greater freedom for optimization. The developed process provides high pattern dimension accuracy over the tested range of 90-210 nm. Utilizing the SiO2 mask developed in this work, silicon nanopillars with 40 nm diameter were successfully fabricated with cryogenic deep reactive ion etching and the aspect ratio reached 16:1. The fabricated mask is suitable for sub-100 nm high aspect ratio silicon structure fabrication.

  10. Silicon dioxide mask by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition in focused ion beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengjun; Shah, Ali; Alasaarela, Tapani; Chekurov, Nikolai; Savin, Hele; Tittonen, Ilkka

    2017-02-24

    In this work, focused ion beam (FIB) lithography was developed for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PEALD) silicon dioxide SiO2 hard mask. The PEALD process greatly decreases the deposition temperature of the SiO2 hard mask. FIB Ga(+) ion implantation on the deposited SiO2 layer increases the wet etch resistivity of the irradiated region. A programmed exposure in FIB followed by development in a wet etchant enables the precisely defined nanoscale patterning. The combination of FIB exposure parameters and the development time provides greater freedom for optimization. The developed process provides high pattern dimension accuracy over the tested range of 90-210 nm. Utilizing the SiO2 mask developed in this work, silicon nanopillars with 40 nm diameter were successfully fabricated with cryogenic deep reactive ion etching and the aspect ratio reached 16:1. The fabricated mask is suitable for sub-100 nm high aspect ratio silicon structure fabrication.

  11. Fabrication of ion conductive tin oxide-phosphate amorphous thin films by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Suk Won; Jang, Dong Young; Kim, Jun Woo; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2015-07-15

    This work reports the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of tin oxide-phosphate films using tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin and trimethyl phosphate as precursors. The growth rates were 1.23–1.84 Å/cycle depending upon the deposition temperature and precursor combination. The ionic conductivity of the ALD tin oxide-phosphate films was evaluated by cross-plane impedance measurements in the temperature range of 50–300 °C under atmospheric air, with the highest conductivity measured as 1.92 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} at 300 °C. Furthermore, high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy exhibited two O1s peaks that were classified as two subpeaks of hydroxyl ions and oxygen ions, revealing that the quantity of hydroxyl ions in the ALD tin oxide-phosphate films influences their ionic conductivity.

  12. Atomic Scale Picture of the Ion Conduction Mechanism in Tetrahedral Network of Lanthanum Barium Gallate

    SciTech Connect

    Jalarvo, Niina H; Gourdon, Olivier; Bi, Zhonghe; Gout, Delphine J; Ohl, Michael E; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2013-01-01

    Combined experimental study of impedance spectroscopy, neutron powder diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering was performed to shed light into the atomic scale ion migration processes in proton and oxide ion conductor; La0.8Ba1.2GaO3.9 . This material consist of tetrahedral GaO4 units, which are rather flexible and rocking motion of these units promotes the ionic migration process. The oxide ion (vacancy) conduction takes place on channels along c axis, involving a single elementary step, which occurs between adjacent tetrahedron (inter-tetrahedron jump). The proton conduction mechanism consists of intra-tetrahedron and inter-tetrahedron elementary processes. The intra-tetrahedron proton transport is the rate-limiting process, with activation energy of 0.44 eV. The rocking motion of the GaO4 tetrahedron aids the inter-tetrahedral proton transport, which has the activation energy of 0.068 eV.

  13. Ion-Beam-Induced Atomic Mixing in Ge, Si, and SiGe, Studied by Means of Isotope Multilayer Structures

    PubMed Central

    Radek, Manuel; Liedke, Bartosz; Schmidt, Bernd; Voelskow, Matthias; Bischoff, Lothar; Lundsgaard Hansen, John; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Bougeard, Dominique; Böttger, Roman; Prucnal, Slawomir; Posselt, Matthias; Bracht, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline and preamorphized isotope multilayers are utilized to investigate the dependence of ion beam mixing in silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), and silicon germanium (SiGe) on the atomic structure of the sample, temperature, ion flux, and electrical doping by the implanted ions. The magnitude of mixing is determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy provide information about the structural state after ion irradiation. Different temperature regimes with characteristic mixing properties are identified. A disparity in atomic mixing of Si and Ge becomes evident while SiGe shows an intermediate behavior. Overall, atomic mixing increases with temperature, and it is stronger in the amorphous than in the crystalline state. Ion-beam-induced mixing in Ge shows no dependence on doping by the implanted ions. In contrast, a doping effect is found in Si at higher temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations clearly show that ion beam mixing in Ge is mainly determined by the thermal spike mechanism. In the case of Si thermal spike, mixing prevails at low temperature whereas ion beam-induced enhanced self-diffusion dominates the atomic mixing at high temperature. The latter process is attributed to highly mobile Si di-interstitials formed under irradiation and during damage annealing. PMID:28773172

  14. Transition rates for lithium-like ions, sodium-like ions, and neutral alkali-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Liu, Z.W.; Sapirstein, J.

    1996-11-01

    Third-order many-body perturbation theory is used to obtain E1 transition amplitudes for ions of the lithium and sodium isoelectronic sequences and for the neutral alkali-metal atoms potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. Complete angular reductions of the first, second, and third-order amplitudes are given. Tables of transition energies and rates are given for the 2p{sub {1/2}} {yields} 2s{sub {1/2}}, 2p{sub 3/2} {yields} 2s{sub {1/2}}, 3s{sub {1/2}} {yields} 2p{sub {1/2}}, and 3s{sub {1/2}} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} transitions in the lithium isoelectronic sequence and for the corresponding 3p{sub 1/2} {yields} 3s{sub 1/2}, 3p{sub 3/2} {yields} 3s{sub {1/2}}, 4s{sub {1/2}} {yields} 3p{sub 1/2}, and 4s{sub {1/2}} {yields} 3p{sub 3/2} transitions in the sodium sequence. For neutral alkali atoms, amplitudes of np{sub {1/2}} {yields} ns{sub {1/2}}, np{sub 3/2} {yields} ns{sub {1/2}}, (n + 1)s{sub {1/2}} {yields} np{sub {1/2}}, and (n + 1)s{sub {1/2}} {yields} np{sub 3/2} transitions are evaluated, where n is the principal quantum number of the valence electron in the atomic ground state, Semi-empirical corrections for the omitted fourth- and higher-order terms in perturbation theory are given for the neutral alkali-metal atoms. Comparisons with previous high-precision calculations and with experiment are made. 42 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  15. Development of series H(-) multicusp ion source at China Institute of Atomic Energy.

    PubMed

    TianJue, Zhang; XianLu, Jia; ZhenGuo, Li; Yinlong, Lu; JiuChang, Qin; Xia, Zheng; Hongjuan, Yao; JunQing, Zhong; GaoFeng, Pan; Tao, Ge; Fengping, Guan

    2014-02-01

    The development of H(-) multicusp ion sources has been carried out at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for more than ten years. The first H(-) ion source with 5.2 mA was made in 2002. After improving the configured magnetic field, a H(-) ion source of 10 mA was made in 2004, and the beam intensity of 15 mA was obtained in 2008 after further improvements of the filter field. The beam intensity of 18 mA was achieved in 2010 following the in-depth study and optimization on some essential operation conditions. Now a series of H(-) cusp sources with different sizes and beam intensity ranging from 3 mA to 18 mA have been successfully developed at CIAE. All the ion sources can fast finish the test on the test stand now, since all the connections are modularized and can fit all kinds of H(-) mulitcusp source of CIAE. The development status of the various H(-) multicusp ion sources at CIAE are presented in the paper.

  16. Development of series H- multicusp ion source at China Institute of Atomic Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TianJue, Zhang; XianLu, Jia; ZhenGuo, Li; Yinlong, Lu; JiuChang, Qin; Xia, Zheng; Hongjuan, Yao; JunQing, Zhong; GaoFeng, Pan; Tao, Ge; Fengping, Guan

    2014-02-01

    The development of H- multicusp ion sources has been carried out at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for more than ten years. The first H- ion source with 5.2 mA was made in 2002. After improving the configured magnetic field, a H- ion source of 10 mA was made in 2004, and the beam intensity of 15 mA was obtained in 2008 after further improvements of the filter field. The beam intensity of 18 mA was achieved in 2010 following the in-depth study and optimization on some essential operation conditions. Now a series of H- cusp sources with different sizes and beam intensity ranging from 3 mA to 18 mA have been successfully developed at CIAE. All the ion sources can fast finish the test on the test stand now, since all the connections are modularized and can fit all kinds of H- mulitcusp source of CIAE. The development status of the various H- multicusp ion sources at CIAE are presented in the paper.

  17. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A A; Belchenko, Yu I; Davydenko, V I; Ivanov, I A; Kolmogorov, V V; Listopad, A A; Mishagin, V V; Putvinsky, S V; Shulzhenko, G I; Smirnov, A

    2014-02-01

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB6 cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  18. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  19. Cross section database for carbon atoms and ions: Electron-impact ionization, excitation, and charge exchange in collisions with hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Suno, Hiroya . E-mail: suno@jamstec.go.jp; Kato, Takako

    2006-07-15

    A database has been constructed consisting of the recommended cross sections for electron-impact excitation and ionization of carbon atoms and ions C, C{sup +}-C{sup 5+}, asl as for charge exchange processes between carbon ions C{sup +}-C{sup 6+} and hydrogen atoms. We have collected a large amount of theoretical and experimental cross section data from the literature, and have critically assessed their accuracy. The recommended cross sections, the best values for use, are expressed in the form of simple analytical functions. These are also presented in graphical form.

  20. Performance predictions of a focused ion beam from a laser cooled and compressed atomic beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Haaf, G.; Wouters, S. H. W.; van der Geer, S. B.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Mutsaers, P. H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Focused ion beams are indispensable tools in the semiconductor industry because of their ability to image and modify structures at the nanometer length scale. Here, we report on performance predictions of a new type of focused ion beam based on photo-ionization of a laser cooled and compressed atomic beam. Particle tracing simulations are performed to investigate the effects of disorder-induced heating after ionization in a large electric field. They lead to a constraint on this electric field strength which is used as input for an analytical model which predicts the minimum attainable spot size as a function of, amongst others, the flux density of the atomic beam, the temperature of this beam, and the total current. At low currents (I < 10 pA), the spot size will be limited by a combination of spherical aberration and brightness, while at higher currents, this is a combination of chromatic aberration and brightness. It is expected that a nanometer size spot is possible at a current of 1 pA. The analytical model was verified with particle tracing simulations of a complete focused ion beam setup. A genetic algorithm was used to find the optimum acceleration electric field as a function of the current. At low currents, the result agrees well with the analytical model, while at higher currents, the spot sizes found are even lower due to effects that are not taken into account in the analytical model.

  1. Short-range ordering of ion-implanted nitrogen atoms in SiC-graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Willke, P.; Druga, T.; Wenderoth, M.; Amani, J. A.; Weikert, S.; Hofsäss, H.; Thakur, S.; Maiti, K.

    2014-09-15

    We perform a structural analysis of nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(0001) prepared by ultra low-energy ion bombardment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that nitrogen atoms are incorporated almost exclusively as graphitic substitution in the graphene honeycomb lattice. With an irradiation energy of 25 eV and a fluence of approximately 5 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, we achieve a nitrogen content of around 1%. By quantitatively comparing the position of the N-atoms in the topography measurements with simulated random distributions, we find statistically significant short-range correlations. Consequently, we are able to show that the dopants arrange preferably at lattice sites given by the 6 × 6-reconstruction of the underlying substrate. This selective incorporation is most likely triggered by adsorbate layers present during the ion bombardment. This study identifies low-energy ion irradiation as a promising method for controlled doping in epitaxial graphene.

  2. Status of Charge Exchange Cross Section Measurements for Highly Charged Ions on Atomic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C.; Schultz, D. R.; Seely, D. G.; Schultz, P. C.

    2011-05-01

    Total cross sections of charge exchange (CX) for C5+, N6+, and O7+ ions on ground state atomic hydrogen are measured in an extended collision energy range of 1 - 20,000 eV/u. Absolute CX measurements are performed using an improved merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source mounted on a high voltage platform. In order to improve the problematic H+ signal collection for these exoergic CX collisions at low relative energies, a new double focusing electrostatic analyzer was installed. Experimental CX data are in good agreement with all previous H-oven relative measurements at higher collision energies. We compare our results with the most recent molecular orbital close-coupling (MOCC) and atomic orbital close-coupling (AOCC) theoretical calculations. Work supported by the NASA Solar & Heliospheric Physics Program NNH07ZDA001N, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences and the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. DoE.

  3. Atomic physics measurements using an ECR ion source located on a 350-kV high-voltage platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R.W.; Berry, H.G.; Liu, C.J.; Hass, M.; Pardo, R.C.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.; Zabransky, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a new atomic physics facility at the Argonne PII ECR ion source which was built for the Uranium Upgrade of the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. An important feature of our ECR ion source is that it is on a high-voltage platform which provides beam energies of up to 350q keV, where q is the charge of the ion. We discuss the experimental program in progress at this ion source which includes measurements of state-selective electron capture cross sections, photon and electron spectroscopy, studies of quasi-molecular collisions, and polarization studies using an optically pumped Na target. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Modern Focused-Ion-Beam-Based Site-Specific Specimen Preparation for Atom Probe Tomography.

    PubMed

    Prosa, Ty J; Larson, David J

    2017-02-06

    Approximately 30 years after the first use of focused ion beam (FIB) instruments to prepare atom probe tomography specimens, this technique has grown to be used by hundreds of researchers around the world. This past decade has seen tremendous advances in atom probe applications, enabled by the continued development of FIB-based specimen preparation methodologies. In this work, we provide a short review of the origin of the FIB method and the standard methods used today for lift-out and sharpening, using the annular milling method as applied to atom probe tomography specimens. Key steps for enabling correlative analysis with transmission electron-beam backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography are presented, and strategies for preparing specimens for modern microelectronic device structures are reviewed and discussed in detail. Examples are used for discussion of the steps for each of these methods. We conclude with examples of the challenges presented by complex topologies such as nanowires, nanoparticles, and organic materials.

  5. Implementation of atomically defined field ion microscopy tips in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, William; Miyahara, Yoichi; Grütter, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The field ion microscope (FIM) can be used to characterize the atomic configuration of the apices of sharp tips. These tips are well suited for scanning probe microscope (SPM) use since they predetermine the SPM resolution and the electronic structure for spectroscopy. A protocol is proposed for preserving the atomic structure of the tip apex from etching due to gas impurities during the period of transfer from the FIM to the SPM, and estimations are made regarding the time limitations of such an experiment due to contamination with ultra-high vacuum rest gases. While avoiding any current setpoint overshoot to preserve the tip integrity, we present results from approaches of atomically defined tungsten tips to the tunneling regime with Au(111), HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) and Si(111) surfaces at room temperature. We conclude from these experiments that adatom mobility and physisorbed gas on the sample surface limit the choice of surfaces for which the tip integrity is preserved in tunneling experiments at room temperature. The atomic structure of FIM tip apices is unchanged only after tunneling to the highly reactive Si(111) surface.

  6. Radioactive ion beam transportation for the fundamental symmetry study with laser-trapped atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Arikawa, Hiroshi Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Sakemi, Y.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Yoshida, H. P.; Imai, K.; and others

    2014-02-15

    The search for the violation of the fundamental symmetry in a radioactive atom is the promising candidate for precision tests of the standard model and its possible extensions. The subtle signal arising from the symmetry violation is enhanced in heavy atoms, such as a francium (Fr). To realize high precision measurements, a large amount of radioactive isotopes is required. The Fr is produced via a nuclear fusion reaction using a melted gold target with a {sup 18}O primary beam at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The maximum extraction efficiency of the Fr ion was achieved at approximately 35%. The beam line consists of an electrostatic deflector, three electrostatic quadrupole triplets to the measurement area at 10 m away from the reaction point, and several beam diagnosis systems. We optimized parameters of the beam line.

  7. High-fidelity local addressing of trapped ions and atoms by composite sequences of laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Vitanov, Nikolay V

    2011-04-01

    A vital requirement for a quantum computer is the ability to locally address, with high fidelity, any of its qubits without affecting their neighbors. We propose an addressing method using composite sequences of laser pulses that dramatically reduces the addressing error in a lattice of closely spaced atoms or ions and at the same time significantly enhances the robustness of qubit manipulations. To this end, we design novel (to our knowledge) high-fidelity composite pulses for the most important single-qubit operations. In principle, this method allows one to beat the diffraction limit, for only atoms situated in a small spatial region around the center of the laser beam are excited, well within the laser beam waist.

  8. Radioactive ion beam transportation for the fundamental symmetry study with laser-trapped atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikawa, Hiroshi; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-02-01

    The search for the violation of the fundamental symmetry in a radioactive atom is the promising candidate for precision tests of the standard model and its possible extensions. The subtle signal arising from the symmetry violation is enhanced in heavy atoms, such as a francium (Fr). To realize high precision measurements, a large amount of radioactive isotopes is required. The Fr is produced via a nuclear fusion reaction using a melted gold target with a 18O primary beam at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The maximum extraction efficiency of the Fr ion was achieved at approximately 35%. The beam line consists of an electrostatic deflector, three electrostatic quadrupole triplets to the measurement area at 10 m away from the reaction point, and several beam diagnosis systems. We optimized parameters of the beam line.

  9. Radioactive ion beam transportation for the fundamental symmetry study with laser-trapped atoms.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Hiroshi; Ando, S; Aoki, T; Ezure, S; Harada, K; Hayamizu, T; Inoue, T; Ishikawa, T; Itoh, M; Kawamura, H; Kato, K; Kato, T; Uchiyama, A; Aoki, T; Furukawa, T; Hatakeyama, A; Hatanaka, K; Imai, K; Murakami, T; Nataraj, H S; Sato, T; Shimizu, Y; Wakasa, T; Yoshida, H P; Sakemi, Y

    2014-02-01

    The search for the violation of the fundamental symmetry in a radioactive atom is the promising candidate for precision tests of the standard model and its possible extensions. The subtle signal arising from the symmetry violation is enhanced in heavy atoms, such as a francium (Fr). To realize high precision measurements, a large amount of radioactive isotopes is required. The Fr is produced via a nuclear fusion reaction using a melted gold target with a (18)O primary beam at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The maximum extraction efficiency of the Fr ion was achieved at approximately 35%. The beam line consists of an electrostatic deflector, three electrostatic quadrupole triplets to the measurement area at 10 m away from the reaction point, and several beam diagnosis systems. We optimized parameters of the beam line.

  10. Atom Probe Field Ion Microscopy of Zr-Doped Polysynthetically Twinned Titanium Aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, H.; Larson, D.J.; Miller, M.K.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1999-02-28

    Interracial segregation and partitioning in a polysynthetically twinned Ti-48.4 at.% Al-0.6% Zr alloy were investigated by atom probe field ion microscopy and atom probe tomography. The compositions of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases were determined to be Ti-47.5% Al-O.71% Zr-0.06% O and Ti-31.6% Al-0.68% Zr-2.4% O, respectively. These results indicate a high concentration of zirconium in both matrix phases, confirming a strength increase through solid-solution strengthening, but no significant zirconium partitioning to either phase. Although zirconium additions produced a refined lamellar microstructure in this material, compositional analysis of {gamma}/{gamma} and {gamma}/{alpha}{sub 2} interfaces showed no evidence of significant zirconium segregation. This suggests that zirconium additions may produce a refined lamellar microstructure, but may not be effective at providing resistance to growth and coarsening.

  11. Improved Roothaan-Hartree-Fock wave functions for atoms and ions with N <= 54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Toshikatsu; Watanabe, Shinya; Kanayama, Katsutoshi; Yasuda, Ryuji; Thakkar, Ajit J.

    1995-08-01

    Improved Roothaan-Hartree-Fock wave functions are reported for the ground states of all the neutral atoms from He to Xe, singly charged cations from Li+ to Cs+, and stable singly charged anions from H- to I-. Our neutral atom wave functions are an improvement over those of Clementi and Roetti [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 177 (1974)], Bunge et al. [Phys. Rev. A 46, 3691 (1992)] and Koga et al. [Phys. Rev. A 47, 4510 (1993)]. The ion wave functions are an improvement over those of Clementi and Roetti, and Koga et al. [J. Phys. B 26, 2529 (1993)]. In all cases, the current wave functions predict energies within 1.3×10-5 hartrees of the numerical Hartree-Fock limit.

  12. Ion-biomolecule collisions studied within the independent atom model including geometric screening corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdde, H. J.; Achenbach, A.; Kalkbrenner, T.; Jankowiak, H. C.; Kirchner, T.

    2016-05-01

    A recently introduced model to account for geometric screening corrections in an independent-atom-model description of ion-molecule collisions is applied to proton collisions from amino acids and DNA and RNA nucleobases. The correction coefficients are obtained from using a pixel counting method (PCM) for the exact calculation of the effective cross sectional area that emerges when the molecular cross section is pictured as a structure of (overlapping) atomic cross sections. This structure varies with the relative orientation of the molecule with respect to the projectile beam direction and, accordingly, orientation-independent total cross sections are obtained from averaging the pixel count over many orientations. We present net capture and net ionization cross sections over wide ranges of impact energy and analyze the strength of the screening effect by comparing the PCM results with Bragg additivity rule cross sections and with experimental data where available. Work supported by NSERC, Canada.

  13. Charge exchange transition probability for collisions between unlike ions and atoms within the adiabatic approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    A simple formula for the transition probability for electron exchange between unlike ions and atoms is established within the adiabatic approximation by employing the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) method. The formula also involves an adiabatic parameter, introduced by Massey, and thus the difficulties arising from the internal energy defect and the adiabatic approximation are avoided. Specific reactions Li(+++) + H to Li(++) + H(+) and Be(4+) + H to Be(3+) + H(+) are considered as examples. The calculated capture cross section results of the present work are compared with the experimental data and with the calculation of other authors over the velocity range of 10(7) cm/sec to 10(8) cm/sec.

  14. Recent Applications of the Lattice, Time-Dependent Schr dinger Equation Approach for Ion-Atom Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, David Robert; Ovchinnikov, S. Yu.; Sternberg, J. B.; Macek, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary computational methods, such as the lattice, time-dependent Schroedinger equation (LTDSE) approach, have opened opportunities to study ion-atom collisions at a new level of detail and to uncover unexpected phenomena. Such interactions within gaseous, plasma, and material environments are fundamental to diverse applications such as low temperature plasma processing of materials, magnetic confinement fusion, and astrophysics. Results are briefly summarized here stemming from recent use of the LTDSE approach, with particular emphasis on elucidation of unexpected vortices in the ejected electron spectrum in ion-atom collisions and for an atom subject to an electric field pulse.

  15. Dynamic dipole polarizabilities of the Li atom and the Be{sup +} ion

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Liyan; Yan Zongchao; Shi Tingyun; Mitroy, J.

    2010-04-15

    The dynamic dipole polarizabilities for Li atoms and Be{sup +} ions in the 2 {sup 2}S and 2 {sup 2}P states are calculated using the variational method with a Hylleraas basis. The present polarizabilities represent the definitive values in the nonrelativistic limit. Corrections due to relativistic effects are also estimated. Analytic representations of the polarizabilities for frequency ranges encompassing the n=3 excitations are presented. The recommended polarizabilities for {sup 7}Li and {sup 9}Be{sup +} are 164.11{+-}0.03 a{sub 0}{sup 3} and 24.489{+-}0.004 a{sub 0}{sup 3}, respectively.

  16. Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces: Fundamental science empowering advances in technology

    PubMed Central

    Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces are critically important to the understanding and modeling of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), and so in the development of technologies based on LTPs. Recent progress in obtaining experimental benchmark data and the development of highly sophisticated computational methods is highlighted. With the cesium-based diode-pumped alkali laser and remote plasma etching of Si3N4 as examples, we demonstrate how accurate and comprehensive datasets for electron collisions enable complex modeling of plasma-using technologies that empower our high-technology–based society. PMID:27317740

  17. Challenges of Theoretical Spectroscopy of Heavy and Superheavy Atoms and Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gaigalas, Gediminas; Rudzikas, Zenonas

    2011-05-11

    A review of methods of efficient accounting for correlation and relativistic effects is presented. A considerable part of efforts for these approaches must be devoted to coping with integrations over spin-angular variables, occurring in the matrix elements of the operators under consideration. Efficient methods to find the abovementioned quantities are described, based on the use of symmetry properties of operators and matrix elements in three spaces (orbital, spin and quasispin), on second quantization in coupled tensorial form, and on graphical technique. This allows to study and to generate fairly accurate their spectroscopic data practically for any atom and ion of periodical table.

  18. One and a half centered expansion for ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Reading, J.F.; Ford, A.L.; Becker, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Fast ion-atom collisions in which charge transfer plays a dominant role have been traditionally treated by a two center expansion (TCE): the state wavefunction is approximated by a truncated set of Hilbert states centered on the target and projectile. This method is accurate but expensive in the use of computer time. A new method which allows charge transfer through variational time independent amplitudes, and target excitation and ionization through variational time dependent amplitudes is presented. The method retains the efficiency of a single centered expansion and yet reproduces the conventional TCE results in situations where charge transfer is dominant. Comparison to experiment is made.

  19. Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces: Fundamental science empowering advances in technology.

    PubMed

    Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J

    2016-06-28

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces are critically important to the understanding and modeling of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), and so in the development of technologies based on LTPs. Recent progress in obtaining experimental benchmark data and the development of highly sophisticated computational methods is highlighted. With the cesium-based diode-pumped alkali laser and remote plasma etching of Si3N4 as examples, we demonstrate how accurate and comprehensive datasets for electron collisions enable complex modeling of plasma-using technologies that empower our high-technology-based society.

  20. Atomic and Electronic Structures of Bismuth Selenide Surfaces Investigated by Low Energy Ion Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weimin

    Topological insulator (TI) materials do not conduct electricity in the bulk, but instead conduct along the surface via topological surface states (TSS). To fully utilize these materials, it is critically important to understand their surface atomic and electronic structures, both of which can be sensitively probed by low energy ion scattering (LEIS). Bi2Se3 is a TI that consists of stacked quintuple layers ordered as Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se. The surfaces are expected to show a Se-termination after mechanical cleaving, but instead various surface terminations are found. Time-of-flight (TOF) LEIS spectra show that Bi2Se3 surfaces prepared by in situ cleaving or by Ar+ ion bombardment and annealing (IBA) are always Se-terminated. Impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS) finds no differences in the geometric structure of the top three atomic layers of IBA-prepared surfaces and in situ cleaved surfaces. Note that the annealing temperature is critical in preparing surfaces with IBA. If it's too low, then surface will not be well-ordered. If it's too high, then surface Se vacancies will form. Ex situ cleaved Bi2Se3 surfaces can be either Se-terminated or Bi-rich, which might be caused by contaminants that adsorb at surface defects and induce a chemical reaction. After exposure to air, IBA-prepared surfaces show less surface contamination than cleaved surfaces and maintain their Se-termination. Cs is adsorbed on Bi2Se3 as a tool to investigate the surface electronic properties of TIs. Scattered alkali ions exchange charge with surfaces through a non-adiabatic resonant charge transfer (RCT) process that depends on the local electrostatic potential (LEP) above the target atom. It is found that the neutralization probability for Na + scattered from Se sites is unexpectedly larger than from Bi sites. This can be explained by the spatial distribution of the TSS carriers in which the electron density accumulates below the first layer Se atoms and above the second layer Bi

  1. High-power Ti:sapphire lasers for spectroscopy of antiprotonic atoms and radioactive ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, M.; Dax, A.; Soter, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ASACUSA collaboration has developed injection-seeded Ti:sapphire lasers of linewidth Γpl ˜ 6 MHz, pulse energy 50-100 mJ, and output wavelength λ = 726-941 nm. They are being used in two-photon spectroscopy experiments of antiprotonic helium atoms at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) of CERN. Ti:sapphire lasers of larger linewidth Γpl ˜ 100 MHz but more robust design will also be used in collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) experiments of neutron-deficient francium ions at the ISOLDE facility.

  2. High-power Ti:sapphire lasers for spectroscopy of antiprotonic atoms and radioactive ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, M.; Dax, A.; Soter, A.

    The ASACUSA collaboration has developed injection-seeded Ti:sapphire lasers of linewidth Γpl ˜ 6 MHz, pulse energy 50-100 mJ, and output wavelength λ = 726-941 nm. They are being used in two-photon spectroscopy experiments of antiprotonic helium atoms at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) of CERN. Ti:sapphire lasers of larger linewidth Γpl ˜ 100 MHz but more robust design will also be used in collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) experiments of neutron-deficient francium ions at the ISOLDE facility.

  3. Interchannel Coupling in the Photoionization of Atoms and Ions in the X-Ray Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, Steven T.; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.

    2002-01-01

    To understand how this interchannel coupling, so important in neutral atoms, applies to positive ions, a research program has been initiated to deal with this question, i.e., a program to quantify the effects of interchannel coupling in ionic photoionization, thereby assessing existing photoionization data bases in the x-ray region. To accomplish this task, we have employed the Relativistic Random-Phase-Approximation (RRPA) methodology which includes significant aspects of electron-electron correlation, including interchannel coupling. The RRPA methodology has been found to produce excellent agreement with experiment for neutral Ne at photon energies in the 1 keV range.

  4. Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces: Fundamental science empowering advances in technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-06-01

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces are critically important to the understanding and modeling of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), and so in the development of technologies based on LTPs. Recent progress in obtaining experimental benchmark data and the development of highly sophisticated computational methods is highlighted. With the cesium-based diode-pumped alkali laser and remote plasma etching of Si3N4 as examples, we demonstrate how accurate and comprehensive datasets for electron collisions enable complex modeling of plasma-using technologies that empower our high-technology-based society.

  5. Atom probe field-ion microscopy characterization of nickel and titanium aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.J.; Miller, M.K.

    2000-02-01

    A review of the contributions of atom probe field-ion microscopy to the characterization of nickel and titanium aluminides is presented. The nickel aluminide systems studied include boron-doped Ni{sub 3}Al and boron-, carbon-, beryllium-, zirconium-, molybdenum-, and hafnium-doped NiAl. These systems have been characterized in terms of solute segregation to boundaries, dislocations, and other defects, matrix solubilities, precipitation, and site-occupation probabilities. The partitioning behavior of impurities and alloying additions, matrix solubilities, precipitate compositions, and interfacial segregation in several of {alpha}{sub 2} + {gamma} titanium aluminides and related alloys are also reviewed.

  6. Multielectron Processes in Heavy Ion{endash}Atom Collisions at Intermediate Velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Vernhet, D.; Rozet, J.P.; Wohrer, K.; Chetioui, A.; Adoui, L.; Cassimi, A.; Grandin, J.P.; Ramillon, J.M.; Cornille, M.; Stephan, C.

    1997-11-01

    Using high resolution x-ray spectroscopy, we have measured projectile electron single and multiple cross sections when a two-electron Ar{sup 16+} ion collides with neutral target atoms. For a fixed impact velocity (v{sub p}=23 a.u. ) , but using various targets from He to Xe, a range from the perturbative regime to the strong interaction regime has been investigated. Double excitation cross sections are found to be well reproduced by an independent electron model. First measurements of capture-ionization cross sections are also reported and show the importance of this often-neglected process. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and atomic models of highly charged heavy ions in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, C.; Murakami, I.; Koike, F.; Tamura, N.; Sakaue, H. A.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Kato, D.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Sudo, S.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2017-01-01

    We report recent results of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions in plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The LHD is an ideal source of experimental databases of EUV spectra because of high brightness and low opacity, combined with the availability of pellet injection systems and reliable diagnostic tools. The measured heavy elements include tungsten, tin, lanthanides and bismuth, which are motivated by ITER as well as a variety of plasma applications such as EUV lithography and biological microscopy. The observed spectral features drastically change between quasicontinuum and discrete depending on the plasma temperature, which leads to some new experimental identifications of spectral lines. We have developed collisional-radiative models for some of these ions based on the measurements. The atomic number dependence of the spectral feature is also discussed.

  8. Hg-201 (+) CO-Magnetometer for HG-199(+) Trapped Ion Space Atomic Clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Taghavi, Shervin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Local magnetic field strength in a trapped ion atomic clock is measured in real time, with high accuracy and without degrading clock performance, and the measurement is used to compensate for ambient magnetic field perturbations. First and second isotopes of an element are co-located within the linear ion trap. The first isotope has a resonant microwave transition between two hyperfine energy states, and the second isotope has a resonant Zeeman transition. Optical sources emit ultraviolet light that optically pump both isotopes. A microwave radiation source simultaneously emits microwave fields resonant with the first isotope's clock transition and the second isotope's Zeeman transition, and an optical detector measures the fluorescence from optically pumping both isotopes. The second isotope's Zeeman transition provides the measure of magnetic field strength, and the measurement is used to compensate the first isotope's clock transition or to adjust the applied C-field to reduce the effects of ambient magnetic field perturbations.

  9. Coating and functionalization of high density ion track structures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mättö, Laura; Szilágyi, Imre M.; Laitinen, Mikko; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Sajavaara, Timo

    2016-10-01

    In this study flexible TiO2 coated porous Kapton membranes are presented having electron multiplication properties. 800 nm crossing pores were fabricated into 50 μm thick Kapton membranes using ion track technology and chemical etching. Consecutively, 50 nm TiO2 films were deposited into the pores of the Kapton membranes by atomic layer deposition using Ti(iOPr)4 and water as precursors at 250 °C. The TiO2 films and coated membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectometry (XRR). Au metal electrode fabrication onto both sides of the coated foils was achieved by electron beam evaporation. The electron multipliers were obtained by joining two coated membranes separated by a conductive spacer. The results show that electron multiplication can be achieved using ALD-coated flexible ion track polymer foils.

  10. Wave packet dynamics of an atomic ion in a Paul trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemloo, A.; Dion, C. M.; Rahali, G.

    2016-07-01

    Using numerical simulations of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we study the full quantum dynamics of the motion of an atomic ion in a linear Paul trap. Such a trap is based on a time-varying, periodic electric field and hence corresponds to a time-dependent potential for the ion, which we model exactly. We compare the center-of-mass motion with that obtained from classical equations of motion, as well as to results based on a time-independent effective potential. We also study the oscillations of the width of the ion’s wave packet, including close to the border between stable (bounded) and unstable (unbounded) trajectories. Our results confirm that the center-of-mass motion always follows the classical trajectory, that the width of the wave packet is bounded for trapping within the stability region, and therefore that the classical trapping criterion is fully applicable to quantum motion.

  11. Ejection of atoms and molecules from Io by plasma-ion impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieveka, E. M.; Johnson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The directions and energy distributions of neutral atoms and molecules ejected from Io are modeled analytically. The particles are emitted from the Io exosphere by collisions of incident plasma ions. Some of the Io atmosphere is attributed to particles sputtered off the surface by incoming plasma ions, while other departing particles originate at the top of volcanic plumes. Account is taken of the thermal motion of incident plasma and Io's gravitational field when calculating the distribution of the ejected particles. The distributions associated with each type of ejection force are projected to be different and highly dependent on the inclusion of realistic cross-sections. Attention is focused on Na-rich species and defining ejection processes which can be verified with ground-based observations. It is, however, concluded that no particles are ejected directly from the surface by Jean's escape.

  12. Unexplained features of capture and ionization for ion-aligned-Rydberg-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumal, A. N.; Tripathi, D. N.

    2001-10-01

    Observed but unexplained features, namely, oscillations in the capture cross sections and an unexpected increase in the ionization cross sections at lower velocities, are discussed using classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulated results for ion-aligned-Rydberg-atom collisions. The initial alignment (m=0, 1, and 2) dependence of the cross sections shows evidence of ``capture through quasimolecular ion formation,'' identified as the most likely cause for the oscillations. Spatial overlap, in addition to the velocity matching mechanism, is shown to play an important role in the collision process. The unexpected rise in the ionization cross section toward lower reduced velocities is explained qualitatively in terms of the multiple encounter model [Perumal and Tripathi, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 143, 429 (1998)].

  13. A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Fontes, Christopher J; Sampson, Douglas H

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.

  14. Design of heavy-ion APF-IH type linac for atomic physics and medical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, T.; Hattori, T.; Kashiwagi, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Matsui, S.; Dudu, D.; Osvath, E.; Vata, I.; Yamada, S.

    2002-04-01

    We have studied a compact heavy-ion linac for atomic physics and medical use. The design of the linac was based on using alternating-phase-focus (APF) and interdigital-H (IH) structures which give sufficient electric power efficiency. Thereby, it will be possible to design a small and high efficiency linac. The APF-IH linac was designed to accelerate ions from C 2+ to U 40+, from 30 to 300 keV/u and an operating frequency of 100 MHz. We made a half-scale cold model of this linac using orbit calculation and measured its RF characteristics. Then, we designed a APF-IH type linac using the results of the measurement.

  15. Near-threshold photoionization of hydrogenlike uranium studied in ion-atom collisions via the time-reversed process.

    PubMed

    Stöhlker, T; Ma, X; Ludziejewski, T; Beyer, H F; Bosch, F; Brinzanescu, O; Dunford, R W; Eichler, J; Hagmann, S; Ichihara, A; Kozhuharov, C; Krämer, A; Liesen, D; Mokler, P H; Stachura, Z; Swiat, P; Warczak, A

    2001-02-05

    Radiative electron capture, the time-reversed photoionization process occurring in ion-atom collisions, provides presently the only access to photoionization studies for very highly charged ions. By applying the deceleration mode of the ESR storage ring, we studied this process in low-energy collisions of bare uranium ions with low- Z target atoms. This technique allows us to extend the current information about photoionization to much lower energies than those accessible for neutral heavy elements in the direct reaction channel. The results prove that for high- Z systems, higher-order multipole contributions and magnetic corrections persist even at energies close to the threshold.

  16. Atomic Data for Nebular Abundance Determinations: Photoionization and Recombination Properties of Xenon Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Nicholas C.; Kerlin, Austin B.

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a study of the photoionization (PI) and recombination properties of low-charge Xe ions. The abundances of neutron(n)-capture elements (atomic number Z > 30) are of interest in planetary nebulae (PNe) since they can be enriched by slow n-capture nucleosynthesis (the ``s-process'') in the progenitor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Xe is particularly valuable, because it is the most widely-observed ``heavy-s'' species (Z > 40) in PNe. Its abundance relative to lighter n-capture elements can be used to determine s-process neutron exposures, and constrain s-process enrichment patterns as a function of progenitor metallicity. Using the atomic structure code AUTOSTRUCTURE (Badnell 2011, Comp. Phys. Comm., 182, 1528), we have computed multi-configuration Breit-Pauli distorted-wave PI cross sections and radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for neutral through six-times ionized Xe, data which are critically needed for accurate Xe abundance determinations in ionized nebulae. We find good agreement between our computed direct PI cross sections and experimental measurements. Internal uncertainties are estimated for our calculations by using three different configuration interaction expansions for each ion, and by testing the sensitivity of our results to the radial orbital scaling parameters. As found for other n-capture elements (Sterling & Witthoeft 2011, A&A, 529, A147; Sterling 2011, A&A, 533, A62), DR is the dominant recombination mechanism for Xe ions at nebular temperatures (~104 K). Following Sterling et al. (2015, ApJS, 218, 25), these data will be added to nebular modeling codes to compute ionization correction factors for unobserved Xe ions in PNe, which will enable elemental Xe abundances to be determined with much higher accuracy than is currently possible. This work is supported by NSF award AST-1412928.

  17. Two Azimuthally Separated Regions of Cusp Ion Injection Observed via Energetic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, M.; Taguchi, S.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imager on the IMAGE spacecraft can detect energetic neutral atoms produced by ion injection into the cusp through a charge exchange with the Earth's hydrogen exosphere. We examined the occurrence of the LENA cusp signal during positive IMF B(sub z) in terms of the arrival direction and the IMF clock angle theta(sub CA). Results of statistical analyses show that the occurrence frequency is high on the postnoon side when theta(sub CA) is between approximately 20 degrees and approximately 50 degrees. This is ascribed to ion injection caused by cusp reconnection typical of positive IMF B(sub z). Our results also show that there is another situation of high occurrence frequency, which can be identified with theta(sub CA) of approximately 30 degrees to approximately 80 degrees. When theta(sub CA) is relatively large (60 degrees - 80 degrees), occurrence frequencies are high at relatively low latitudes over a wide extent spanning both prenoon and postnoon sectors. This feature suggests that the ion injection is caused by reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Its postnoon side boundary shifts toward the prenoon as theta(sub CA) decreases. When theta(sub CA) is less than approximately 50 degrees, the high occurrence frequency exists well inside the prenoon sector, which is azimuthally separated from the postnoon region ascribed to cusp reconnection. The prenoon region, which is thought due to ion injection caused by dayside reconnection, may explain the recent report that proton aurora brightening occurs in the unanticipated prenoon sector of the northern high-latitude ionosphere for IMF B(sub y) greater than 0 and B(sub z) greater than 0.

  18. Two Azimuthally Separated Regions of Cusp Ion Injection Observed via Energetic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, M.; Taguchi, S.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imager on the IMAGE spacecraft can detect energetic neutral atoms produced by ion injection into the cusp through a charge exchange with the Earth's hydrogen exosphere. We examined the occurrence of the LENA cusp signal during positive IMF B(sub z) in terms of the arrival direction and the IMF clock angle theta(sub CA). Results of statistical analyses show that the occurrence frequency is high on the postnoon side when theta(sub CA) is between approximately 20 degrees and approximately 50 degrees. This is ascribed to ion injection caused by cusp reconnection typical of positive IMF B(sub z). Our results also show that there is another situation of high occurrence frequency, which can be identified with theta(sub CA) of approximately 30 degrees to approximately 80 degrees. When theta(sub CA) is relatively large (60 degrees - 80 degrees), occurrence frequencies are high at relatively low latitudes over a wide extent spanning both prenoon and postnoon sectors. This feature suggests that the ion injection is caused by reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Its postnoon side boundary shifts toward the prenoon as theta(sub CA) decreases. When theta(sub CA) is less than approximately 50 degrees, the high occurrence frequency exists well inside the prenoon sector, which is azimuthally separated from the postnoon region ascribed to cusp reconnection. The prenoon region, which is thought due to ion injection caused by dayside reconnection, may explain the recent report that proton aurora brightening occurs in the unanticipated prenoon sector of the northern high-latitude ionosphere for IMF B(sub y) greater than 0 and B(sub z) greater than 0.

  19. Optical field ionization of atoms and ions using ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, David Neal

    1993-12-01

    This dissertation research is an investigation of the strong optical field ionization of atoms and ions by 120-fs, 614-run laser pulses and 130-fs, 800-nm laser pulses. The experiments have shown ionization that is enhanced above the predictions of sequential tunneling models for He+2, Ne+2 and Ar+2. The ion yields for He+1, Ne+1 and Ar+1 agree well with the theoretical predictions of optical tunneling models. Investigation of the polarization dependence of the ionization indicates that the enhancements are consistent with a nonsequential ionization mechanism in which the linearly polarized field drives the electron wavefunction back toward the ion core and causes double ionization through inelastic e-2e scattering. These investigations have initiated a number of other studies by other groups and are of current scientific interest in the fields of high-irradiance laser-matter interactions and production of high-density plasmas. This work involved: (1) Understanding the characteristic nature of the ion yields produced by tunneling ionization through investigation of analytic solutions for tunneling at optical frequencies. (2) Extensive characterization of the pulses produced by 614-nm and 800-ran ultrashort pulse lasers. Absolute calibration of the irradiance scale produced shows the practicality of the inverse problem--measuring peak laser irradiance using ion yields. (3) Measuring the ion yields for three noble gases using linear, circular and elliptical polarizations of laser pulses at 614-nm and 800-nm. The measurements are some of the first measurements for pulse widths as low as 120-fs.

  20. Atomic Scale Verification of Oxide-Ion Vacancy Distribution near a Single Grain Boundary in YSZ

    PubMed Central

    An, Jihwan; Park, Joong Sun; Koh, Ai Leen; Lee, Hark B.; Jung, Hee Joon; Schoonman, Joop; Sinclair, Robert; Gür, Turgut M.; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents atomic scale characterization of grain boundary defect structure in a functional oxide with implications for a wide range of electrochemical and electronic behavior. Indeed, grain boundary engineering can alter transport and kinetic properties by several orders of magnitude. Here we report experimental observation and determination of oxide-ion vacancy concentration near the Σ13 (510)/[001] symmetric tilt grain-boundary of YSZ bicrystal using aberration-corrected TEM operated under negative spherical aberration coefficient imaging condition. We show significant oxygen deficiency due to segregation of oxide-ion vacancies near the grain-boundary core with half-width < 0.6 nm. Electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements with scanning TEM indicated increased oxide-ion vacancy concentration at the grain boundary core. Oxide-ion density distribution near a grain boundary simulated by molecular dynamics corroborated well with experimental results. Such column-by-column quantification of defect concentration in functional materials can provide new insights that may lead to engineered grain boundaries designed for specific functionalities. PMID:24042150

  1. Experimental study of H atom recombination on different surfaces in relation to H- negative ion production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleiferis, S.; Bentounes, J.; Béchu, S.; Svarnas, P.; Bés, A.; Lacoste, A.; Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    Volume production of H- negative ions is mostly attributed to the dissociative attachment of electrons to ro-vibrationally excited molecules. Apart from the main formation path for enriching the plasma with these molecules (i.e. radiative decay of singlet states excited by collisions with energetic electrons, EV excitation), an additional formation process refers to recombination of hydrogen atoms on the surface of materials which face the plasma. In this work, the importance of the later process is evaluated by considering various materials. Pyrex, Stainless Steel, Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG), and Yttrium, are sequentially tested in the ECR-driven H- negative ion source ROSAE III. This source is specially designed to promote as much as possible surface recombination only on the surface of the specimen under test. Optical emission spectroscopy does prove a high degree of dissociation in this source. Furthermore, electron and negative ion densities are measured by means of electrostatic probe and laser photodetachment, respectively. The effectiveness of the above materials for the production of ro-vibrational states is thus evaluated indirectly, i.e. by comparing the values of the produced negative ion densities, assuming H- production through DA mainly. The results suggest that, under the present conditions, the formation of ro-vibrational states is apparently dominated by process other than surface recombination.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on graphene through controlled ion beam treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Seok; Oh, Il-Kwon; Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Hyungjun; Yeom, Geun Young E-mail: gyyeom@skku.edu; Kim, Kyong Nam E-mail: gyyeom@skku.edu

    2016-05-23

    The polymer residue generated during the graphene transfer process to the substrate tends to cause problems (e.g., a decrease in electron mobility, unwanted doping, and non-uniform deposition of the dielectric material). In this study, by using a controllable low-energy Ar{sup +} ion beam, we cleaned the polymer residue without damaging the graphene network. HfO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition on graphene cleaned using an Ar{sup +} ion beam showed a dense uniform structure, whereas that grown on the transferred graphene (before Ar{sup +} ion cleaning) showed a non-uniform structure. A graphene–HfO{sub 2}–metal capacitor fabricated by growing 20-nm thick HfO{sub 2} on graphene exhibited a very low leakage current (<10{sup −11} A/cm{sup 2}) for Ar{sup +} ion-cleaned graphene, whereas a similar capacitor grown using the transferred graphene showed high leakage current.

  3. Diagnosing Pickup Ion Distributions beyond the Termination Shock through Ener-getic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Wu, X.

    2008-12-01

    The solar wind accumulates interstellar pickup ions throughout the heliosphere, which can be described with an isotropic velocity distribution in the plasma frame with a cut-off at the solar wind speed. This distribution is then transported across the termination shock where it is slowed down and heated, thus producing a distribution with a significant portion of ions that show velocity components towards the Sun. In the interaction with the interstellar gas flow through the heliosphere a fraction of these pickup ions is turned into energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), the sunward pointing portion of which can then be observed by ENA sensors in the inner heliosphere, such as instruments on Mars Express, STEREO, and IBEX. In this contribution we generate a simplified analytical model of the pickup ions and their ENA counterparts for a hydrodynamic flow pattern in the heliosheath. The energy distribution of the ENAs is sensitive to the radial component of the heliosheath flow. The attempt is made to predict spatial patterns of the ENA spectra based on the heliosheath flow pattern for comparison with future IBEX maps. These patterns will also be compared with angular variations and temporal changes in the recently published ENA observations with STEREO STE (Wang, L., R.P. Lin, D.E. Larson, J. Luhman, Nature, 454, 81-83, 2008).

  4. Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Aging Mechanisms in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, S. C.; Bhushan, B.

    Lithium-ion batteries have been very popular in the past decade. They are now commonly used in portable devices such as mobile phones, laptop computers, and digital cameras due to their high energy density. Recently, they have been developed for applications requiring long life, such as electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Prolonged aging is one of the key attributes in such applications. Investigation of aging mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries becomes very challenging as aging does not occur due to a single process, but because of multiple processes occurring at the same time. Moreover, the anode and the cathode in lithium-ion batteries have different aging mechanisms. In this chapter, we review the recent studies conducted using the atomic force microscope (AFM) to understand the aging mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries. These include studies conducted to understand the surface film formation, the morphological changes, and the changes in surface properties of carbon-based anodes and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes.

  5. Single-Ion Deconvolution of Mass Peak Overlaps for Atom Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    London, Andrew J; Haley, Daniel; Moody, Michael P

    2017-03-16

    Due to the intrinsic evaporation properties of the material studied, insufficient mass-resolving power and lack of knowledge of the kinetic energy of incident ions, peaks in the atom probe mass-to-charge spectrum can overlap and result in incorrect composition measurements. Contributions to these peak overlaps can be deconvoluted globally, by simply examining adjacent peaks combined with knowledge of natural isotopic abundances. However, this strategy does not account for the fact that the relative contributions to this convoluted signal can often vary significantly in different regions of the analysis volume; e.g., across interfaces and within clusters. Some progress has been made with spatially localized deconvolution in cases where the discrete microstructural regions can be easily identified within the reconstruction, but this means no further point cloud analyses are possible. Hence, we present an ion-by-ion methodology where the identity of each ion, normally obscured by peak overlap, is resolved by examining the isotopic abundance of their immediate surroundings. The resulting peak-deconvoluted data are a point cloud and can be analyzed with any existing tools. We present two detailed case studies and discussion of the limitations of this new technique.

  6. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, H. Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  7. Atomic displacement in solids: analysis of the primary event and the collision cascade. Part I: Neutron and positive ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, P.; Räisänen, J.

    2005-05-01

    A modern, mathematical-physics introduction to the analytical problem of atomic displacement in solids which is both technically adequate and relevant to an introductory graduate students' curriculum in radiation damage theory is reported. The problematic of atomic displacement in solids is introduced didactically, deriving first the primary event (that is, the formation of the primary knock-on atom) and then building on that specific set of results in order to extend their basics to secondary, tertiary and higher-order progeny—the collision cascade—for both neutrons and positive ions, namely, their average damage functions, displacement cross-sections and energy spectra. A comparison of atomic displacement in solids under neutron and positive ion irradiation is discussed in terms of the physical concept of concentration of displaced atoms (or displacement dose).

  8. An ultra-low energy (30-200 eV) ion-atomic beam source for ion-beam-assisted deposition in ultrahigh vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mach, Jindrich; Kolibal, Miroslav; Sikola, Tomas; Samoril, Tomas; Voborny, Stanislav; Zlamal, Jakub; Spousta, Jiri; Dittrichova, Libuse

    2011-08-15

    The paper describes the design and construction of an ion-atomic beam source with an optimized generation of ions for ion-beam-assisted deposition under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The source combines an effusion cell and an electron impact ion source and produces ion beams with ultra-low energies in the range from 30 eV to 200 eV. Decreasing ion beam energy to hyperthermal values ({approx_equal}10{sup 1} eV) without loosing optimum ionization conditions has been mainly achieved by the incorporation of an ionization chamber with a grid transparent enough for electron and ion beams. In this way the energy and current density of nitrogen ion beams in the order of 10{sup 1} eV and 10{sup 1} nA/cm{sup 2}, respectively, have been achieved. The source is capable of growing ultrathin layers or nanostructures at ultra-low energies with a growth rate of several MLs/h. The ion-atomic beam source will be preferentially applied for the synthesis of GaN under UHV conditions.

  9. Energetic negative ion and neutral atom beam generation at passage of laser accelerated high energy positive ions through a liquid spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abicht, F.; Prasad, R.; Priebe, G.; Braenzel, J.; Ehrentraut, L.; Andreev, A.; Nickles, P. V.; Schnürer, M.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Ter-Avetisyan, Sargis

    2013-05-01

    Beams of energetic negative ions and neutral atoms are obtained from water and ethanol spray targets irradiated by high intensity (5×1019 W/cm2) and ultrashort (50 fs) laser pulses. The resulting spectra were measured with the Thomson parabola spectrometer, which enabled absolute measurements of both: positive and negative ions. The generation of a beam of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms was confirmed with CR-39 track detectors and their spectral characteristics have been measured using time of flight technique. Generation is ascribed to electron-capture and -loss processes in the collisions of laser-accelerated high-energy protons with spray of droplets. The same method can be applied to generate energetic negative ions and neutral atoms of different species.

  10. State selective Rydberg charge transfer and ionization in low energy ion-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumal, A. N.; Tripathi, D. N.

    1998-10-01

    The Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation method with a core modified interaction potential has been used to study the single charge transfer in Na +and Ar + ions colliding with a variety of state selected Na Rydberg atom targets ( n=24, 28, 33, 40 and l=2) in the reduced velocity region v=0.2-2.0. The experimentally observed structures in the total capture cross section versus reduced velocity curves are reproduced by CTMC method. The n-distribution of final capture state has got two peaks viz. first one at nf= ni and the second one at a higher nf depending on the initial angular momentum in the velocity regime 0.4-0.6. These structures have been explained in terms of quasimolecular-ion formation and a classical model proposed by Roy et al. (B.N. Roy, D.N. Tripathi, D.K. Rai, Phys. Rev. A 5 (1972) 1252). The CTMC ionization cross section results are benchmarked with the recent experimental measurement of Makarov et al. (O.P. Makarov, D.M. Homan, O.P. Sorokina, K.B. MacAdam, in: F. Aumayr, G. Betz, H.P. Winter (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on the Physics of Electronics and Atomic Collisions, Vienna, 1997, p. FR052) for Na +-Na(24 d).

  11. Balmer alpha emission and hydrogen atom energy in ion-source discharges

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, D.H.; Kim, J.

    1981-07-01

    The structure of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line emission profiles from three types of neutral beam injector ion source plasmas (filling pressure approx. 10 mTorr, electron density approx. 1 to 2 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/, electron temperature approx. 2 to 4 eV) is studied with the aid of a simple model for the neutral particle balance and H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission. A large fraction of the H/sub ..cap alpha../ is produced by dissociative excitation of H/sub 2/ and dissociative recombination of H/sub 2//sup +/, while the remainder is produced by excitation of H atoms, most of which have energies that are close to the characteristic H/sub 2/ dissociation energies. The H/sub ..cap alpha../ linewidth is thus insensitive to the discharge operating conditions and equals approx. 0.27 A when only slow (approx. 0.3 eV) dissociatively excited atoms are present or approx. 0.35 A when fast (> 1 eV) atoms, apparently also produced in dissociation reactions, are present as well.

  12. Energy and angular distributions of detached electrons in a solvable model of ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Y. |; Solovev, E.A.

    1999-08-01

    Electron energy and angular distributions are computed for a model of atom{endash}negative-ion collisions. In this model, electron-atom interactions are represented by zero-range potentials in an approximation where two identical atoms move along straight-line classical trajectories in head-on collisions. Analytic expressions for the ionization amplitudes are interpreted in terms of Sturmian eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. At high velocity, the computed distributions exhibit direct excitation and continuum capture cusps in addition to the binary encounter ridge. At low velocities, a single feature corresponding to an electron distribution centered midway between the target and projectile emerges. For initial conditions corresponding to gerade symmetry a single broad peak appears, while for ungerade symmetry there is a node at the midpoint so that the peak splits into two parts. It is confirmed that the advanced adiabatic approximation gives an accurate description of the ungerade distribution at low and intermediate velocities. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Energy and angular distributions of detached electrons in a solvable model of ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Y. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 ); Solovev, E.A. )

    1999-08-01

    Electron energy and angular distributions are computed for a model of atom[endash]negative-ion collisions. In this model, electron-atom interactions are represented by zero-range potentials in an approximation where two identical atoms move along straight-line classical trajectories in head-on collisions. Analytic expressions for the ionization amplitudes are interpreted in terms of Sturmian eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. At high velocity, the computed distributions exhibit direct excitation and continuum capture cusps in addition to the binary encounter ridge. At low velocities, a single feature corresponding to an electron distribution centered midway between the target and projectile emerges. For initial conditions corresponding to gerade symmetry a single broad peak appears, while for ungerade symmetry there is a node at the midpoint so that the peak splits into two parts. It is confirmed that the advanced adiabatic approximation gives an accurate description of the ungerade distribution at low and intermediate velocities. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  14. Quantum simulation of many-body physics with neutral atoms, molecules, and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss-Feig, Michael

    Real materials are extremely complicated, and any attempt to understand their bulk properties must begin with the appropriate choice of an idealized model, or Hamiltonian. There are many situations where such models have furnished a decisive understanding of complex quantum phenomena, such as BCS superconductivity and quantum magnetism. There are also cases, for instance the unconventional superconductivity of doped cuprates or heavy-fermion metals, where even the simplest conceivable models are intractable to current theoretical techniques. A promising route toward understanding the physics of such models is to simulate them directly with a highly controlled quantum system. Ultracold neutral atoms, polar molecules, and ions are in many ways ideally suited to this task. In this thesis, we emphasize how the unique features of particular atomic and molecular systems can be leveraged to access interesting physics in experimentally feasible temperature regimes. In chapter 3, we consider prospects for simulation of the Kondo lattice model using alkaline-earth atoms. In particular, we show how groundstate properties—for instance anomalous mass enhancement—can be probed by looking at far-from equilibrium dynamics, which are a standard diagnostic tool in ultracold atom experiments. Chapter 4 describes a realistic implementation of a bosonic version of the Kondo lattice model, and we show how the Kondo interaction qualitatively changes the superfluid to Mott insulator phase transition. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 are unified through an attempt to understand the effects of dissipation in many-body quantum systems. In chapter 5, our goal is mainly to understand the detrimental effects of two-body reactive collisions on dipolar molecules in a 3D optical lattice. Chapter 6 takes a rather different perspective, and shows that this type of loss naturally induces quantum correlations in the steady state of reactive fermionic molecules or alkaline earth atoms. In chapter 7, we develop

  15. Determination of some metal ions in various meat and baby food samples by atomic spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Kartal, Şenol

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we report a simple and rapid solid phase extraction system for the separation/preconcentration and determination of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Cr(III), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ions by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This method is based upon the retention of metal ions on a column packed with poly[N-(3-methyl-1H-indole-1-yl)]-2-methacrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid-co divinylbenzene] (MMAD) resin as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent at pH 8. At the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (3 s/b) between 0.12 and 1.6 μg L(-1), preconcentration factor of 100, and the relative standard deviation of ⩽1.8% were achieved (n=10). The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing certified reference materials (CRMs) and performing recovery experiments. The developed method was successfully applied to the various natural water, meat products and baby food samples. The recoveries of analyte ions were found in added real samples and CRMs from 95% to 102%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electron capture in collisions of Al2+ ions with He atoms at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, A.; Sato, H.; Gu, J. P.; Hirsch, G.; Buenker, R. J.; Kimura, M.

    2001-09-01

    Electron capture resulting from collisions of Al2+ ions with He atoms from 0.15 to 1000 keV/u is investigated using a molecular-orbital representation within a semiclassical frame. Molecular electronic states and corresponding couplings are determined by the ALCHEMY program. Sixteen molecular states all connecting to single-electron-capture processes are included, and hence radial and rotational couplings among these channels are fully considered. The trajectory effect arising from the straight-line, Coulomb, and ground-state potential trajectories for electron-capture and excitation processes is carefully assessed. The electron-capture cross section by ground-state Al2+(2S) ions slowly increases before it reaches a maximum of 1.3×10-16 cm2 at 100 keV/u. Those for metastable Al2+(2P) ions sharply increase with increasing energy, and reach a peak at 1 keV/u with a value of 1.5×10-16 cm2. The earlier experimental data are found to be larger by an order of magnitude although their energy dependence is in good accord with the present result. Excitation cross sections for both the ground and metastable states are found to be much larger by a factor of 2-3 than corresponding capture cross sections above 1 keV/u although they become comparable below this energy.

  17. Atomic layer etching of InGaAs by controlled ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Woo; San Kim, Doo; Kyeom Mun, Mu; Lee, Won Oh; Kim, Ki Seok; Yeom, Geun Young

    2017-06-01

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) could be an important next-generation etching technique, applicable to various semiconductor materials including III-V compound materials such as indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) which has high carrier mobility, an advantageous characteristic in nanoscale electronic devices. In this study, the ALE characteristics of InGaAs have been investigated using a reactive ion beam technique. For the ALE of InGaAs, chlorine radicals/low-energy (10-19 eV) reactive ions and low-energy (5-8 eV) Ar+ ions were used for adsorption and desorption, respectively, during the etch cycle to precisely control the etch depth and to minimize the surface damage of the InGaAs. By using the ALE technique, a constant etch rate of 1.1 Å/cycle could be obtained for InGaAs, as well as an infinite etch selectivity of InGaAs over various materials such as photoresist, silicon, amorphous carbon layer, SiO2, and HfO2. The surface composition and surface roughness of the InGaAs after ALE were similar to those of as-received un-etched InGaAs.

  18. The Strength of Chaos: Accurate Simulation of Resonant Electron Scattering by Many-Electron Ions and Atoms in the Presence of Quantum Chaos

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0012 The Strength of Chaos: accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many-electron ions and atoms in the presence...SUBTITLE The Strength of Chaos: accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many- electron ions and atoms in the presence of quantum chaos...Strength of Chaos: accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many-electron ions and atoms in the presence of quantum chaos” Date 13

  19. Temporal behavior of unresolved transition array emission in water window soft x-ray spectral region from multiply charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Nishikino, Masaharu; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    We have characterized the spectral structure and the temporal history of the laser-produced high-Z multi-charged ion plasmas for the efficient water window soft x-ray sources. Strong unresolved transition array emission was observed due to 4d-4f and 4f-5g transitions from Au, Pb, and Bi plasmas in the 280-700 eV photon energy region. The temporal behavior of the emission was essentially similar of that of the laser pulse with a slight delay between different transitions. These results provide feedback for accurate modeling of the atomic processes with the radiative hydrodynamic simulations.

  20. Temporal behavior of unresolved transition array emission in water window soft x-ray spectral region from multiply charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, Thanh-Hung Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Nishikino, Masaharu

    2015-09-21

    We have characterized the spectral structure and the temporal history of the laser-produced high-Z multi-charged ion plasmas for the efficient water window soft x-ray sources. Strong unresolved transition array emission was observed due to 4d–4f and 4f–5g transitions from Au, Pb, and Bi plasmas in the 280–700 eV photon energy region. The temporal behavior of the emission was essentially similar of that of the laser pulse with a slight delay between different transitions. These results provide feedback for accurate modeling of the atomic processes with the radiative hydrodynamic simulations.

  1. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Hanada, M. Kojima, A.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; Yamano, Y.; Grisham, L. R.

    2016-02-15

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.

  2. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hanada, M; Kojima, A; Tobari, H; Nishikiori, R; Hiratsuka, J; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Yoshida, M; Ichikawa, M; Watanabe, K; Yamano, Y; Grisham, L R

    2016-02-01

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.

  3. Suppression of Emittance Growth Using a Shaped Cold Atom Electron and Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Murphy, D.; Speirs, R. W.; van Bijnen, R. M. W.; McCulloch, A. J.; Scholten, R. E.; Sparkes, B. M.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate precise control of charged particle bunch shape with a cold atom electron and ion source to create bunches with linear and, therefore, reversible Coulomb expansion. Using ultracold charged particles enables detailed observation of space-charge effects without loss of information from thermal diffusion, unambiguously demonstrating that shaping in three dimensions can result in a marked reduction of Coulomb-driven emittance growth. We show that the emittance growth suppression is accompanied by an increase in bunch focusability and brightness, improvements necessary for the development of sources capable of coherent single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction of noncrystalline objects, with applications ranging from femtosecond chemistry to materials science and rational drug design.

  4. Emerging applications of atomic layer deposition for lithium-ion battery studies.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangbo; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Sun, Xueliang

    2012-07-17

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are used widely in today's consumer electronics and offer great potential for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs, pure EVs, and also in smart grids as future energy-storage devices. However, many challenges must be addressed before these future applications of LIBs are realized, such as the energy and power density of LIBs, their cycle and calendar life, safety characteristics, and costs. Recently, a technique called atomic layer deposition (ALD) attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach for resolving these issues. In this article, recent advances in using ALD for LIB studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: 1) ALD for designing and synthesizing new LIB components, i.e., anodes, cathodes, and solid electrolytes, and; 2) ALD used in modifying electrode properties via surface coating. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using ALD for developing high-performance LIBs.

  5. Coincidence measurements of electron capture and loss in ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, R.D.

    1990-09-01

    Collisions between fast, fully stripped projectiles and atomic targets predominantly result in target electrons being ejected to the continuum. For fast partially stripped projectiles which bring weakly bound electrons into the collision, projectile ionization can also contribute to the observed electron spectra. At lower impact velocities, electron capture by the projectile ion becomes important and higher order processes, often referred to as transfer ionization, can be a significant source of free electrons. In recent years, coincidence techniques have been used to evaluate the relative importance of electron capture and loss in free electron production, to separate the capture and loss contributions from those resulting from target ionization alone, and to provide more detailed information about electron capture and loss mechanisms than is available from total cross section measurements. A brief survey of these experiments will be presented. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  6. [Determination of trace sodium ion in high purity water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xia; Shen, Shi-gang; Sun, Han-wen

    2007-01-01

    The present paper studied on the determination of trace Na+ in high purity water by graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry. A method of directly on-line concentrating samples in graphite furnace, multiple charging, ashing, then determining once by directly charging into pools of graphite furnace, was set up. The goal of concentrating samples and avoiding contamination as well as raising sensitivity were finally achieved. To prevent the background of purity water and regent in experiment from covering the ion concentration of the sample, the authors prepared the high purity water and regent to meet the requirement of the experiment by electrodialysis in series with distillation and below-boiling-point quartz distillation at pure worktable. Satisfactory results of linearity and detection limit were obtained. The detection limit with this method was 0. 086 microg x L(-1) for Na+. The recovery was 101%-104%.

  7. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. II. Statistical atom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Möller, Wolfhard

    2016-05-01

    A model for charge-dependent energy loss of slow ions is developed based on the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of atoms. Using a modified electrostatic potential which takes the ionic charge into account, nuclear and electronic energy transfers are calculated, the latter by an extension of the Firsov model. To evaluate the importance of multiple collisions even in nanometer-thick target materials we use the charge-state-dependent potentials in a Monte Carlo simulation in the binary collision approximation and compare the results to experiment. The Monte Carlo results reproduce the incident charge-state dependence of measured data well [see R. A. Wilhelm et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 052708 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052708], even though the experimentally observed charge exchange dependence is not included in the model.

  8. Reaction of anthracene with atomic ions of interstellar interest. A FALP measurement at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canosa, A.; Laubé, S.; Rebrion, C.; Pasquerault, D.; Gomet, J. C.; Rowe, B. R.

    1995-11-01

    We present the results obtained on studying the reaction of anthracene with some atomic ions of interstellar interest (He + and C +) and with Ar +. Rate coefficients have been measured at room temperature (293 K) in afterglow experiments using flowing afterglow Langmuir probe-mass spectrometer apparatus. Reactions proceed with rate coefficients of respectively 5.2 × 10 -9, 3 × 10 -9, 1 × 10 -9 cm 3 s -1 for He +, C + and Ar +. The results were obtained with an uncertainty of about 30% and were found to be close to the Langevin rate. The nature of the products has also been investigated. More particularly, the evidence for carbon accretion and for the production of doubly charged species is discussed.

  9. Field ionization of Rydberg atoms for high-brightness electron and ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, A. J.; Speirs, R. W.; Grimmel, J.; Sparkes, B. M.; Comparat, D.; Scholten, R. E.

    2017-06-01

    We present an ionization mechanism for use in a cold atom electron source with the goal of producing highly monochromatic electron beams. We experimentally produce a map of the Stark states of 85Rb below the ionization threshold and identify states that undergo selective field ionization. The properties of an electron beam produced by field-assisted ionization of such states are quantified. A theoretical framework is established to predict the improvement to beam quality when ionization is conducted above the ionization threshold, where ionization conditions are typically more favorable than below the threshold. Calculations suggest that selective ionization of Rydberg states may offer a pathway to the production of high-brightness, highly monochromatic ion and electron beams.

  10. Coordinate space translation technique for simulation of electronic process in the ion-atom collision.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hong, Xuhai; Wang, Jian; Kim, Kwang S

    2011-04-21

    Recently we developed a theoretical model of ion-atom collisions, which was made on the basis of a time-dependent density functional theory description of the electron dynamics and a classical treatment of the heavy particle motion. Taking advantage of the real-space grid method, we introduce a "coordinate space translation" technique to allow one to focus on a certain space of interest such as the region around the projectile or the target. Benchmark calculations are given for collisions between proton and oxygen over a wide range of impact energy. To extract the probability of charge transfer, the formulation of Lüdde and Dreizler [J. Phys. B 16, 3973 (1983)] has been generalized to ensemble-averaging application in the particular case of O((3)P). Charge transfer total cross sections are calculated, showing fairly good agreements between experimental data and present theoretical results.

  11. Coordinate space translation technique for simulation of electronic process in the ion-atom collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Hong, Xuhai; Wang, Jian; Kim, Kwang S.

    2011-04-01

    Recently we developed a theoretical model of ion-atom collisions, which was made on the basis of a time-dependent density functional theory description of the electron dynamics and a classical treatment of the heavy particle motion. Taking advantage of the real-space grid method, we introduce a "coordinate space translation" technique to allow one to focus on a certain space of interest such as the region around the projectile or the target. Benchmark calculations are given for collisions between proton and oxygen over a wide range of impact energy. To extract the probability of charge transfer, the formulation of Lüdde and Dreizler [J. Phys. B 16, 3973 (1983)] has been generalized to ensemble-averaging application in the particular case of O(3P). Charge transfer total cross sections are calculated, showing fairly good agreements between experimental data and present theoretical results.

  12. H type of hidden crossings in atomic collisions involving highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jakimovski, D.; Savichev, V.I.; Solovev, E.A. ||

    1996-10-01

    We examine the structure of the hidden crossings of the adiabatic potential curves {ital E}({ital R}) in the problem of two Coulomb centers with charges {ital Z}{sub 2} and {ital Z}{sub 1}, when {ital Z}{sub 2}{gt}{ital Z}{sub 1}. In this case we observe a new type of hidden crossing between the states ({ital n},{ital l},{ital m})-({ital n},{ital l}+1,{ital m}), where {ital n}, {ital l}, and {ital m} are the spherical quantum numbers of the united atom. This leads to the appearance of a mechanism of nonadiabatic transitions in hydrogen{emdash}multicharged ion collisions. As an example of this mechanism we present results of a calculation of inelastic transitions in O{sup 7+}(1{ital s})+H collisions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Comparison of scanning ion conductance microscopy with atomic force microscopy for cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Rheinlaender, Johannes; Geisse, Nicholas A; Proksch, Roger; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2011-01-18

    We present the first direct comparison of scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) for cell imaging. By imaging the same fibroblast or myoblast cell with both technologies in series, we highlight their advantages and disadvantages with respect to cell imaging. The finite imaging force applied to the sample in AFM imaging results in a coupling of mechanical sample properties into the measured sample topography. For soft samples such as cells this leads to artifacts in the measured topography and to elastic deformation, which we demonstrate by imaging whole fixed cells and cell extensions at high resolution. SICM imaging, on the other hand, has a noncontact character and can provide the true topography of soft samples at a comparable resolution.

  14. Suppression of Emittance Growth Using a Shaped Cold Atom Electron and Ion Source.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D J; Murphy, D; Speirs, R W; van Bijnen, R M W; McCulloch, A J; Scholten, R E; Sparkes, B M

    2016-11-04

    We demonstrate precise control of charged particle bunch shape with a cold atom electron and ion source to create bunches with linear and, therefore, reversible Coulomb expansion. Using ultracold charged particles enables detailed observation of space-charge effects without loss of information from thermal diffusion, unambiguously demonstrating that shaping in three dimensions can result in a marked reduction of Coulomb-driven emittance growth. We show that the emittance growth suppression is accompanied by an increase in bunch focusability and brightness, improvements necessary for the development of sources capable of coherent single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction of noncrystalline objects, with applications ranging from femtosecond chemistry to materials science and rational drug design.

  15. Heavy-Rydberg ion-pair formation in Rydberg atom collisions: Probing dissociative electron attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael; Buathong, Sitti; Dunning, F. Barry

    2015-05-01

    While electron transfer in Rydberg atom collisions with attaching targets forms a valuable technique with which to create heavy-Rydberg ion pairs to examine their properties, we demonstrate here that measurements of their velocity distributions can also provide insights into the behavior of the excited intermediates formed through initial electron transfer. The experimental results are analyzed with the aid of a Monte Carlo collision code that models the details of electron transfer reactions. Results for a variety of targets are presented that demonstrate the use of this approach to examine the dynamics of dissociative electron attachment, the lifetimes of the intermediates created, and the channels by which they decay. Research supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation under Grant C-0734.

  16. Numerical analysis of atomic density distribution in arc driven negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T. Shibata, T.; Hatayama, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Hanada, M.; Sawada, K.

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to calculate atomic (H{sup 0}) density distribution in JAEA 10 ampere negative ion source. A collisional radiative model is developed for the calculation of the H{sup 0} density distribution. The non-equilibrium feature of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), which mainly determines the H{sup 0} production rate, is included by substituting the EEDF calculated from 3D electron transport analysis. In this paper, the H{sup 0} production rate, the ionization rate, and the density distribution in the source chamber are calculated. In the region where high energy electrons exist, the H{sup 0} production and the ionization are enhanced. The calculated H{sup 0} density distribution without the effect of the H{sup 0} transport is relatively small in the upper region. In the next step, the effect should be taken into account to obtain more realistic H{sup 0} distribution.

  17. Simultaneous Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy with Microchanneled Cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossola, Dario; Dorwling-Carter, Livie; Dermutz, Harald; Behr, Pascal; Vörös, János; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2015-12-01

    We combined scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) into a single tool using AFM cantilevers with an embedded microchannel flowing into the nanosized aperture at the apex of the hollow pyramid. An electrode was positioned in the AFM fluidic circuit connected to a second electrode in the bath. We could thus simultaneously measure the ionic current and the cantilever bending (in optical beam deflection mode). First, we quantitatively compared the SICM and AFM contact points on the approach curves. Second, we estimated where the probe in SICM mode touches the sample during scanning on a calibration grid and applied the finding to image a network of neurites on a Petri dish. Finally, we assessed the feasibility of a double controller using both the ionic current and the deflection as input signals of the piezofeedback. The experimental data were rationalized in the framework of finite elements simulations.

  18. Vortices Associated with the Wave Function of a Single Electron Emitted in Slow Ion-Atom Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Goihl, C.; Metz, D.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Dörner, R.; Ovchinnikov, S. Yu.; Macek, J. H.; Schultz, D. R.

    2014-02-01

    We present measurements and calculations of the momentum distribution of electrons emitted during the ion-atom collision 10 keV/u He2++He→He++He2++e-, which show rich structures for ion scattering angles above 2 mrad arising dominantly from two-electron states. Our calculations reveal that minima in the measured distributions are zeros in the electronic probability density resulting from vortices in the electronic current.

  19. Cold interactions between an Yb+ ion and a Li atom: Prospects for sympathetic cooling, radiative association, and Feshbach resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomza, Michał; Koch, Christiane P.; Moszynski, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The electronic structure of the (LiYb )+ molecular ion is investigated with two variants of the coupled cluster method restricted to single, double, and noniterative or linear triple excitations. Potential-energy curves for the ground and excited states, permanent and transition electric dipole moments, and long-range interaction coefficients C4 and C6 are reported. The data are subsequently employed in scattering calculations and photoassociation studies. Feshbach resonances are shown to be measurable, despite the ion's micromotion in the Paul trap. Molecular ions can be formed in their singlet electronic ground state by one-photon photoassociation and in triplet states by two-photon photoassociation; and control of cold atom-ion chemistry based on Feshbach resonances should be feasible. Conditions for sympathetic cooling of an Yb+ ion by an ultracold gas of Li atoms are found to be favorable in the temperature range 10 nK -10 mK , and further improvements using Feshbach resonances should be possible. Overall, these results suggest excellent prospects for building a quantum simulator with ultracold Yb+ ions and Li atoms.

  20. Determination of mercury(II) ion by electrochemical cold vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arbab-Zavar, M Hosein; Rounaghi, G Hosein; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Masrournia, Mahboube

    2003-05-01

    A technique for determination of mercury is described; it is based on electrolytic reduction of Hg(II) ion on a graphite cathode, the trapping of mercury vapor and its volatilization into a quartz tube aligned in the optical path of an atomic absorption spectrometer. The electrochemical cell consisted of a graphite cathode and an anode operating with constant direct current for the production of mercury atoms. A pre-activated graphite rod was used as the cathode material. The optimum conditions for electrochemical generation of mercury cold vapor (the electrolysis time and current, the flow rate, the type of electrode and electrolyte) were investigated. The characteristic electrochemical data with chemical cold vapor using NaBH4-acid were compared. The presence of cadmium(II), arsenic(III), antimony(III), selenium(IV), bismuth(III), silver(I), lead(II), lithium(I), sodium(I) and potassium(I) showed interference effects which were eliminated by suitable separation techniques. The calibration curve is linear over the range of 5-90 ng ml(-1) mercury(II). The detection limit is 2 ng ml(-1) of Hg(II) and the RSD is 2.5% (n = 10) for 40 ng ml(-1). The accuracy and recovery of the method were investigated by analyzing spiked tap water and river water.

  1. Hierarchical surface atomic structure of a manganese-based spinel cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghan; Yoon, Gabin; Jeong, Minseul; Lee, Min-Joon; Kang, Kisuk; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-01-19

    The increasing use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in high-power applications requires improvement of their high-temperature electrochemical performance, including their cyclability and rate capability. Spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) is a promising cathode material because of its high stability and abundance. However, it exhibits poor cycling performance at high temperatures owing to Mn dissolution. Herein we show that when stoichiometric lithium manganese oxide is coated with highly doped spinels, the resulting epitaxial coating has a hierarchical atomic structure consisting of cubic-spinel, tetragonal-spinel, and layered structures, and no interfacial phase is formed. In a practical application of the coating to doped spinel, the material retained 90% of its capacity after 800 cycles at 60 °C. Thus, the formation of an epitaxial coating with a hierarchical atomic structure could enhance the electrochemical performance of LIB cathode materials while preventing large losses in capacity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Wave-packet continuum-discretization approach to ion-atom collisions: Nonrearrangement scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurakhmanov, I. B.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Bray, I.

    2016-08-01

    A general single-center close-coupling approach based on a continuum-discretization procedure is developed to calculate excitation and ionization processes in ion-atom collisions. The continuous spectrum of the target is discretized using stationary wave packets constructed from the Coulomb wave functions, the eigenstates of the target Hamiltonian. Such continuum discretization allows one to generate pseudostates with arbitrary energies and distribution. These features are ideal for detailed differential ionization studies. The approach starts from the semiclassical three-body Schrödinger equation for the scattering wave function and leads to a set of coupled differential equations for the transition probability amplitudes. To demonstrate its utility the method is applied to calculate collisions of antiprotons with atomic hydrogen. A comprehensive set of benchmark results from integrated to fully differential cross sections for antiproton-impact ionization of hydrogen in the energy range from 1 keV to 1 MeV is provided. Contrary to previous predictions, we find that at low incident energies the singly differential cross section has a maximum away from the zero emission energy. This feature could not be seen without a fine discretization of the low-energy part of the continuum.

  3. Atom ejection from a fast-ion track: A molecular-dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Urbassek, H.M. ); Kafemann, H. ); Johnson, R.E. )

    1994-01-01

    As a model for atom ejection from fast-ion tracks, molecular-dynamics simulations of a cylindrical track of energized particles are performed. An idealized situation is studied where every atom in a cylindrical track of radius [ital R][sub 0] is energized with energy [ital E][sub 0]. The emission yield [ital Y]([ital E][sub 0],[ital R][sub 0]) shows the existence of two ejection regimes. If the particle energy [ital E][sub 0] is below the sublimation energy [ital U] of the material, a threshold regime is seen in which [ital Y] rises roughly like the third power of [ital E][sub 0]; for high-energy densities [ital E][sub 0][approx gt][ital U], the yield rises much more slowly, roughly linearly. In both cases, ejected particles mostly originate from the track, rather than from its surroundings, and from the first or the first few monolayers. The behavior found is interpreted here in terms of emission due to a pressure-driven jet (linear regime) or due to a pressure pulse (threshold regime). These both behave differently from the often-used thermal-spike sputtering model.

  4. Electron emission in collisions of fast highly charged bare ions with helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Abhoy; Mandal, Chittranjan; Purkait, Malay

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the electron emission from ground state helium atom in collision with fast bare heavy ions at intermediate and high incident energies. In the present study, we have applied the present three-body formalism of the three Coulomb wave (3C-3B) model and the previously adopted four-body formalism of the three Coulomb wave (3C-4B). To represent the active electron in the helium atom in the 3C-3B model, the initial bound state wavefunction is chosen to be hydrogenic with an effective nuclear charge. The wavefunction for the ejected electron in the exit channel has been approximated to be a Coulomb continuum wavefunction with same effective nuclear charge. Effectively the continuum-continuum correlation effect has been considered in the present investigation. Here we have calculated the energy and angular distribution of double differential cross sections (DDCS) at low and high energy electron emission from helium atom. The large forward-backward asymmetry is observed in the angular distribution which is explained in terms of the two-center effect (TCE). Our theoretical results are compared with available experimental results as well as other theoretical calculations based on the plain wave Born approximation (PWBA), continuum-distorted wave (CDW) approximation, continuum-distorted wave eikonal-initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, and the corresponding values obtained from the 3C-4B model [S. Jana, R. Samanta, M. Purkait, Phys. Scr. 88, 055301 (2013)] respectively. It is observed that the four-body version of the present investigation produces results which are in better agreement with experimental observations for all cases.

  5. Conversion of an atomic to a molecular argon ion and low pressure argon relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, N. Stankov; A, P. Jovanović; V, Lj Marković; S, N. Stamenković

    2016-01-01

    The dominant process in relaxation of DC glow discharge between two plane parallel electrodes in argon at pressure 200 Pa is analyzed by measuring the breakdown time delay and by analytical and numerical models. By using the approximate analytical model it is found that the relaxation in a range from 20 to 60 ms in afterglow is dominated by ions, produced by atomic-to-molecular conversion of Ar+ ions in the first several milliseconds after the cessation of the discharge. This conversion is confirmed by the presence of double-Gaussian distribution for the formative time delay, as well as conversion maxima in a set of memory curves measured in different conditions. Finally, the numerical one-dimensional (1D) model for determining the number densities of dominant particles in stationary DC glow discharge and two-dimensional (2D) model for the relaxation are used to confirm the previous assumptions and to determine the corresponding collision and transport coefficients of dominant species and processes. Project supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grant No. ON171025).

  6. Atomic layer deposited tungsten nitride thin films as a new lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Dip K; Sen, Uttam K; Sinha, Soumyadeep; Dhara, Arpan; Mitra, Sagar; Sarkar, Shaibal K

    2015-07-14

    This article demonstrates the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of tungsten nitride using tungsten hexacarbonyl [W(CO)6] and ammonia [NH3] and its use as a lithium-ion battery anode. In situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements are carried out to confirm the self-limiting behaviour of the deposition. A saturated growth rate of ca. 0.35 Å per ALD cycle is found within a narrow temperature window of 180-195 °C. In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibrational spectroscopy is used to determine the reaction pathways of the surface bound species after each ALD half cycle. The elemental presence and chemical composition is determined by XPS. The as-deposited material is found to be amorphous and crystallized to h-W2N upon annealing at an elevated temperature under an ammonia atmosphere. The as-deposited materials are found to be n-type, conducting with an average carrier concentration of ca. 10(20) at room temperature. Electrochemical studies of the as-deposited films open up the possibility of this material to be used as an anode material in Li-ion batteries. The incorporation of MWCNTs as a scaffold layer further enhances the electrochemical storage capacity of the ALD grown tungsten nitride (WNx). Ex situ XRD analysis confirms the conversion based reaction mechanism of the as-grown material with Li under operation.

  7. Ion-exchange preconcentration and determination of vanadium in milk samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-García, Ignacio; Viñas, Pilar; Romero-Romero, Rafael; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2009-06-15

    A new method for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of vanadium in milk and infant formulas using suspensions to avoid the need for previous dissolution of samples is described. Sensitivity is improved by a procedure based on preconcentration and removal of the matrix, using ion-exchange (Dowex 1X8-100). Suspensions of 15% (m/v) infant formula samples were prepared in a medium containing 0.05M sodium citrate (pH 7.2) and passed through the ion exchange column. Vanadium was eluted from the column using 1M hydrochloric acid and injected in the graphite furnace using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid plus magnesium nitrate as chemical modifiers. Calibration was carried out using multiple injection and aqueous standards prepared in the same medium. Detection limits were 0.2 ng g(-1) for infant formulas and 0.02 microg L(-1) for cow milk samples. The reliability of the procedure was checked by comparing the results obtained with those found using a previous mineralization stage and by analyzing five certified reference materials.

  8. Organic surfaces excited by low-energy ions: atomic collisions, molecular desorption and buckminsterfullerenes.

    PubMed

    Delcorte, Arnaud

    2005-10-07

    This article reviews the recent progress in the understanding of kiloelectronvolt particle interactions with organic solids, including atomic displacements in a light organic medium, vibrational excitation and desorption of fragments and entire molecules. This new insight is the result of a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, essentially molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Classical MD simulations provide us with a detailed microscopic view of the processes occurring in the bombarded target, from the collision cascade specifics to the scenarios of molecular emission. Time-of-flight SIMS measures the mass and energy distributions of sputtered ionized fragments and molecular species, a precious source of information concerning their formation, desorption, ionization and delayed unimolecular dissociation in the gas phase. The mechanisms of energy transfer and sputtering are compared for bulk molecular solids, organic overlayers on metal and large molecules embedded in a low-molecular weight matrix. These comparisons help understand some of the beneficial effects of metal substrates and matrices for the analysis of molecules by SIMS. In parallel, I briefly describe the distinct ionization channels of molecules sputtered from organic solids and overlayers. The specific processes induced by polyatomic projectile bombardment, especially fullerenes, are discussed on the basis of new measurements and calculations. Finally, the perspective addresses the state-of-the-art and potential developments in the fields of surface modification and analysis of organic materials by kiloelectronvolt ion beams.

  9. Electron capture by Ne{sup 4+} ions from atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Havener, C.C.; Rejoub, R.; Vane, C.R.; Krause, H.F.; Savin, D.W.; Schnell, M.; Wang, J.G.; Stancil, P.C.

    2005-03-01

    Using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory ion-atom merged-beams apparatus, the absolute total electron-capture cross section has been measured for collisions of Ne{sup 4+} with hydrogen and deuterium at relative energies in the center-of-mass frame between 0.10 and 1006 eV/u. Comparison with previous measurements shows large discrepancies between 80 and 600 eV/u. For energies below {approx}1 eV/u, a sharply increasing cross section is attributed to the ion-induced dipole attraction between the reactants. Multichannel Landau-Zener calculations are performed between 0.01 and 5000 eV/u and compare well to the measured total cross sections. Below {approx}5 eV/u, the present total cross section calculations show a significant target isotope effect. At 0.01 eV/u, the H:D total cross section ratio is predicted to be {approx}1.4 where capture is dominated by transitions into the Ne{sup 3+} (2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}3d) configuration.

  10. The plasma focus as a source of collimated beams of negative ion clusters and of neutral deuterium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, V.; Powell, C.

    1984-03-01

    We report the space anisotropy and brightness B4 (i.e., the momentum normalized density in four dimensional transverse phase space) of a high-intensity pulsed source of neutral-atom and negative-ion-cluster beams with energy/atom E≳0.2 Mev, ion clusters with m/Z (a.u.) ≳200. The source is formed in an 0.5 MA plasma focus-PF-discharge. The energy spectrum of different particle species is obtained from a 12.2 kG magnetic analyzer, energy filters and time resolved detectors. Collimated particle beams are ejected within a <6° cone along the discharge axis inside a ≳3 mm diameter plasma channel (neutral atoms, ion clusters, impurity heavy ions at 0°, electron beams, clusters and negatively-charged ion clumps at 180°). Pulsed kA currents of ions (and neutral fluence of comparable intensity at 180°) are detected in the 6° cone at 0° with B4˜107 (mA/cm2rad2) for particle energies E≳200 KeV. In the 180° direction the soruce ejects multiple pulses of electron and ion beams in alternating sequency (typical pulse duration ˜10 ns) with a net negative charge which provide charge neutralization for ion and ion cluster beams. The source which can operate—in principle—at a high repetition rate has a scaling law in which the particle-intensity increases without a detectable increase of the angular dispersion.

  11. A new formula for the statistical weight for a sequence of Rydberg levels in an atom or ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, M.; Lennerstad, H.

    2017-07-01

    We present a new formula for the total statistical weight of all Rydberg levels Gion (nl, nh ) for which the principal quantum number n is between higher, nh , and a lower, nl , limits. This formula can be used for all atoms in the periodic table and for all corresponding ions.

  12. Validation of an atomic absorption rubidium ion efflux assay for KCNQ/M-channels using the ion Channel Reader 8000.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kewei; McIlvain, Beal; Tseng, Eugene; Kowal, Dianne; Jow, Flora; Shen, Ru; Zhang, Howard; Shan, Qin Jennifer; He, Lan; Chen, Diana; Lu, Qiang; Dunlop, John

    2004-10-01

    M-channels (M-current), encoded by KCNQ2/3 K(+) channel genes, have emerged as novel drug targets for a number of neurological disorders. The lack of direct high throughput assays combined with the low throughput of conventional electrophysiology (EP) has impeded rapid screening and evaluation of K(+)-channel modulators. Development of a sensitive and efficient assay for the direct measurement of M-current activity is critical for identifying novel M-channel modulators and subsequent investigation of their therapeutic potential. Using a stable CHO cell line expressing rat KCNQ2/3 K(+) channels confirmed by EP, we have developed and validated a nonradioactive rubidium (Rb(+)) efflux assay in a 96-well plate format. The Rb(+) efflux assay directly measures the activity of functional channels by atomic absorption spectroscopy using the automated Ion Channel Reader (ICR) 8000. The stimulated Rb(+) efflux from KCNQ2/3-expressing cells was blocked by the channel blockers XE991 and linopirdine with IC(50) values of 0.15 microM and 1.3 microM, respectively. Twelve compounds identified as KCNQ2/3 openers were further assessed in this assay, and their EC(50) values were compared with those obtained with EP. A higher positive correlation coefficient between these two assays (r = 0.60) was observed than that between FlexStation membrane potential and EP assays (r = 0.23). To simplify the assay and increase the throughput, we demonstrate that EC(50) values obtained by measuring Rb(+) levels in the supernatant are as robust and consistent as those obtained from the ratio of Rb(+) in supernatant/lysate. By measuring the supernatant only, the throughput of ICR8000 in an eight-point titration is estimated to be 40 compounds per day, which is suitable for a secondary confirmation assay.

  13. Shorting time of magnetically insulated reflex-ion diodes from the neutral-atom charge-exchange mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, G.

    1981-10-01

    In a magnetically insulated diode, collision-free electrons return to the cathode and no electron current is present at the anode. Electron transport to the anode is studied in this paper. Steady-state space-charge-limited flow is assumed initially. Breakdown of ion flow occurs when static neutral atoms at the anode undergo charge exchange, which results in neutral atoms drifting across the diode. These are subsequently ionized by reflexing ions producing electrons trapped in Larmor orbits throughout the diode. These electrons drift to the anode via ionization and inelastic collisions with other neutral atoms. Model calculations compare the effects of foil and mesh cathodes. Steady-state space-charge-limited ion current densities are calculated. The neutral atom density at the cathode is determined as a function of time. The shorting time of the diode is scaled versus the electrode separation d, the diode potential V/sub 0/, the magnetic field, and the initial concentration of static neutron atoms.

  14. Influence of ion-to-atom ratio on the microstructure of evaporated molybdenum thin films grown using low energy argon ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Praveen Kumar Nayak, Maheswar; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Lodha, Gyanendra Singh; Sant, Tushar; Sharma, Surinder Mohan; Mukherjee, Chandrachur

    2014-03-15

    The authors report the effect of argon ion to molybdenum atom ratio (r) on the microstructure of low energy (70 eV) argon ion assisted electron beam evaporated Mo thin films. Surface roughness, morphology, and crystallinity of Mo films are found to strongly depend on “r.” Increase of “r” from 0 to 100 induces gradual loss in crystallinity, reduction in surface roughness and systematic increase in density of the film. For “r” ∼ 100, average atomic density of the film approaches the bulk value (97%) with lowest surface roughness. Further, increasing “r” up to 170 reduces the atomic density, increases roughness, and increase in crystallinity induced by low energy Ar ion beam. The observed surface roughness and grain size determined by x-ray reflectivity and glancing incidence x-ray diffraction correlate well with atomic force microscopy measurements. This study demonstrates that for r = 100 one gets lowest roughness Mo film with highest density and nearly amorphous microstructure. The growth model is discussed by structural zone model.

  15. Analysis of H atoms in a negative ion source plasma with the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function.

    PubMed

    Koga, S; Shibata, T; Terasaki, R; Kameyama, N; Hatayama, A; Bacal, M; Tsumori, K

    2012-02-01

    In negative ion sources for the neutral beam injection, it is important to calculate H atom flux onto the plasma grid (PG) surface for the evaluation of H(-) production on the PG surface. We have developed a neutral (H(2) molecules and H atoms) transport code. In the present study, the neutral transport code is applied to the analysis of the H(2) and H transport in a NIFS-R&D ion source in order to calculate the flux onto the PG surface. Taking into account non-equilibrium feature of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), i.e., the fast electron component, we have done the neutral transport simulation. The results suggest that the precise evaluation of the EEDF, especially in the energy range 15 eV < E < 30 eV is important for the dissociation rate of H(2) molecules by the electron impact collision and the resultant H atom flux on the PG.

  16. Self-consistent field tight-binding model for neutral and (multi-) charged carbon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnon, Laurent; Spiegelman, Fernand

    2007-08-01

    A semiempirical model for carbon clusters modeling is presented, along with structural and dynamical applications. The model is a tight-binding scheme with additional one- and two-center distance-dependent electrostatic interactions treated self-consistently. This approach, which explicitly accounts for charge relaxation, allows us to treat neutral and (multi-) charged clusters not only at equilibrium but also in dissociative regions. The equilibrium properties, geometries, harmonic spectra, and relative stabilities of the stable isomers of neutral and singly charged clusters in the range n =1-14, for C20 and C60, are found to reproduce the results of ab initio calculations. The model is also shown to be successful in describing the stability and fragmentation energies of dictations in the range n =2-10 and allows the determination of their Coulomb barriers, as examplified for the smallest sizes (C22+,C32+,C42+). We also present time-dependent mean-field and linear response optical spectra for the C8 and C60 clusters and discuss their relevance with respect to existing calculations.

  17. Ti atom and Ti ion number density evolution in standard and multi-pulse HiPIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, M.; Hnilica, J.; Vitelaru, C.; Minea, T.; Vašina, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, comparison of standard and multi-pulse high power impulse magnetron sputtering is performed. The effective branching fraction method is used for titanium atom and ion number density determination, showing that the residual titanium atoms and ions from the preceding pulse are crucial for the subsequent pulse initiation and development. It is shown that the discharge current rises faster in the subsequent pulse, but does not reach the same maximum as in the preceding pulse. The time evolution of the titanium atom density shows different behaviour, initial increase is followed by decrease in the preceding pulse and a rather constant evolution during the subsequent pulse. As for the titanium ion number density, it reaches typically lower values in the subsequent pulse, approaching the maximum values from the preceding pulse only at long delays of 1.5 ms. The most significant increase of the total ion flux to the substrate, namely 43% increase with respect to standard high power impulse magnetron sputtering, is observed in the multi-pulse high power impulse magnetron sputtering with the shortest studied delay of 200 μ s. The residual titanium atoms produced by the preceding pulse are already thermalized at the beginning of the subsequent pulse, thus being available for ionization during the subsequent pulse. The reservoir of these thermalized atoms gets depleted as the delay increases. However, even for the longest studied delay of 1.5 ms the influence of the preceding pulse on the subsequent pulse is still distinct, including the enhancement of the total ion flux to the substrate by 23%.

  18. Atomic data and theoretical X-ray spectra of Ge-like through V-like W ions

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brage, T.; Gu, M.F.

    2014-03-15

    The atomic structure and spectra of ten tungsten ions have been calculated using the Flexible Atomic Code. The calculations yield energy levels, radiative lifetimes, spectral line positions, transition probability rates, and oscillator strengths for the tungsten ions isoelectronic to germanium, W{sup 42+}, through vanadium, W{sup 51+}. Collisional–radiative models for high-temperature, low-density plasmas have been implemented to produce line emissivities for X-ray transitions in the 1–4 keV (3–12 Å) spectral interval. The Ge-like through V-like W ions are important in nuclear fusion research where their spectra may provide diagnostic information on magnetically confined plasmas.

  19. The impact of gas-surface reactions on mass spectrometric measurements of atomic nitrogen. [determination of atmosphere ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Mauersberger, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a simplified model of the ion source chemistry, explains several details of the data reduction method used in obtaining atomic-nitrogen (N) densities from OSS data, and discusses implications of gas-surface reactions for the design of future satellite-borne mass spectrometers. Because of various surface reactions, N appears in three different forms in the ion source, as N, NO, and NO2. Considering the rather small spin modulation of NO and NO2 in the semi-open ionization chamber used in the OSS instrument, it is not surprising that these reaction products have not been previously identified in closed source instruments as a measure of the presence of atomic nitrogen. Warmup and/or outgassing of the ion source are shown to drastically reduce the NO2 concentration, thereby making possible reliable measurement of ambient N densities.

  20. The impact of gas-surface reactions on mass spectrometric measurements of atomic nitrogen. [determination of atmosphere ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Mauersberger, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a simplified model of the ion source chemistry, explains several details of the data reduction method used in obtaining atomic-nitrogen (N) densities from OSS data, and discusses implications of gas-surface reactions for the design of future satellite-borne mass spectrometers. Because of various surface reactions, N appears in three different forms in the ion source, as N, NO, and NO2. Considering the rather small spin modulation of NO and NO2 in the semi-open ionization chamber used in the OSS instrument, it is not surprising that these reaction products have not been previously identified in closed source instruments as a measure of the presence of atomic nitrogen. Warmup and/or outgassing of the ion source are shown to drastically reduce the NO2 concentration, thereby making possible reliable measurement of ambient N densities.

  1. An extended formula for the energy spectrum of sputtered atoms from a material irradiated by light ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, T.; Aoki, Y.; Kawamura, T.; Kenmotsu, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    2005-03-01

    We extend a formula proposed by Kenmotsu et al. (hereafter Paper I), which fits with the energy spectrum of atoms sputtered from a heavy material hit by low-energy light ions (H +, D +, T +, He +) by taking into account an inelastic energy loss neglected in Paper I. We assume that primary knock-on atoms produced by ions backscattered at large angles do not lose energy while penetrating the material up to the surface, instead of the energy-loss model used in Paper I. The extended formula is expressed in terms of a normalized energy-distribution function and is compared with the data calculated with the ACAT code for 50 eV, 100 eV and 1 keV D + ions impinging on a Fe target. Our formula fits well with the data in a wide range of incident energy.

  2. The formation of excited atoms during charge exchange between hydrogen ions and alkali atoms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieman, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The charge exchange cross sections for protons and various alkali atoms are calculated using the classical approximation of Gryzinski. It is assumed that the hydrogen atoms resulting from charge exchange exist in all possible excited states. Charge transfer collisions between protons and potassium as well as protons and sodium atoms are studied. The energy range investigated is between 4 and 30 keV. The theoretical calculations of the capture cross section and the cross section for the creation of metastable 2S hydrogen are compared to experimental values. Good quantitative agreement is found for the capture cross section but only qualitative agreement for the metastable cross section. Analysis of the Lyman alpha window in molecular oxygen suggests that measured values of the metastable cross section may be in error. Thick alkali target data are also presented. This allows the determination of the total electron loss cross section. Finally, some work was done with H2(+).

  3. Formation and atomic configuration of binary metallic glasses studied by ion beam mixing and molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, K. P.; Gao, N.; Dai, X. D.; Li, J. H.; Liu, B. X.

    2007-06-15

    Metallic glasses are obtained in an immiscible Ag-Nb system with overall composition ranging from 25 to 90 at. % of Nb by ion beam mixing. Interestingly, the diffraction analysis shows that the formed Nb-rich metallic glass features are two distinct atomic configurations. In atomistic modeling, an n-body Ag-Nb potential is derived, under the assistance of ab initio calculation, and then applied in molecular dynamics simulations. An atomic configuration is discovered, i.e., an icositetrahedral ordering, and as well as an icosahedral ordering observed in the Ag-Nb metallic glasses and in some previously reported systems. Simulations confirm that the two dominate local atomic packing units are formed through a structural phase transition from the Nb-based bcc and fcc solid solutions, respectively, suggesting a concept of structural heredity that the crystalline structure of the constituent metals play a decisive role in determining the atomic structure of the resultant metallic glasses.

  4. Near-resonant versus nonresonant chemiluminescent charge-transfer reactions of atomic ions with HCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenewinkel-Meyer, Th.; Ottinger, Ch.

    1994-01-01

    Charge-transfer reactions of C+, O+, F+, Ar+ and some other atomic ions with hydrogen chloride were investigated at collision energies between <1 eV and 1 keV. The electronically excited products HCl+ (A 2Σ+) were detected by means of the A 2Σ+→X 2Πi optical emission. In some cases the spectra showed, at low collision energies, an enhanced excitation of specific vibrational HCl+(A,v') levels: for C+, v'=1; for O+, v'=3 as well as v'=1; and for F+, v'=6. These levels are populated in near-resonant, slightly exothermic processes. Their rotational temperature was on the order of 600-700 K. For the other vibrational levels the excitation is off-resonance, mostly endothermic, and here the rotational temperature was 1000-4000 K. Corresponding data are also given for DCl. The selectivity for certain vibrational states is explained by crossings between the vibronic entrance and exit state energy surfaces, calculated from classical electrostatic multipole potentials. The cross sections for the near-resonant reactions decrease monotonically with increasing collision energy, while for the endothermic channels they rise steeply from threshold to a plateau. With argon ions the excitation function exhibits an unusual shape. Here the charge-transfer cross sections for all vibrational levels go through a maximum just above threshold, which is followed by a distinct minimum at about 10 eVc.m.. This may be due to formation of a long-lived collision complex (Ar-HCl)+.

  5. Thin film growth into the ion track structures in polyimide by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mättö, L.; Malm, J.; Arstila, K.; Sajavaara, T.

    2017-09-01

    High-aspect ratio porous structures with controllable pore diameters and without a stiff substrate can be fabricated using the ion track technique. Atomic layer deposition is an ideal technique for depositing thin films and functional surfaces on complicated 3D structures due to the high conformality of the films. In this work, we studied Al2O3 and TiO2 films grown by ALD on pristine polyimide (Kapton HN) membranes as well as polyimide membranes etched in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and boric acid (BO3) solution by means of RBS, PIXE, SEM-EDX and helium ion microcopy (HIM). The focus was on the first ALD growth cycles. The areal density of Al2O3 film in the 400 cycle sample was determined to be 51 ± 3 × 1016 at./cm2, corresponding to the thickness of 55 ± 3 nm. Furthermore, the growth per cycle was 1.4 Å/cycle. The growth is highly linear from the first cycles. In the case of TiO2, the growth per cycle is clearly slower during the first 200 cycles but then it increases significantly. The growth rate based on RBS measurements is 0.24 Å/cycle from 3 to 200 cycles and then 0.6 Å/cycle between 200 and 400 cycles. The final areal density of TiO2 film after 400 cycles is 148 ± 3 × 1015 at./cm2 which corresponds to the thickness of 17.4 ± 0.4 nm. The modification of the polyimide surface by etching prior to the deposition did not have an effect on the Al2O3 and TiO2 growth.

  6. A New Large Echelle Spectrometer for Measuring Atomic Transition Probabilities of Fe-group Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael; Lawler, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate atomic transition probabilities for weak lines connected to the ground and low metastable levels of Fe-group ions are needed for elemental abundance studies on metal-poor stars. Metal-poor stars represent the oldest observable stellar generation and offer a direct probe into the early history of nucleosynthesis and the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Unexplained trends in relative Fe-group abundances, such as [Co/Cr], as a function of metallicity, or [Fe/H], have been observed. These trends may result from a breakdown in the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation used in traditional photosphere models underlying elemental abundance determinations. The ground and low metastable levels of Fe-group ions contain most of the Fe-group material in a stellar photosphere, and thus second spectra lines with low E.P.s are essentially immune to non-LTE effects. To improve lab data on important Fe-group lines we have developed a novel instrument based on a 3 meter focal length vacuum echelle spectrograph combined with an aberration corrected cross dispersion system and a UV sensitive CCD array. This spectrometer is capable of recording both emission and absorption spectra with high resolving power, very broad wavelength coverage, and high signal-to-noise. It is also free from the multiplex noise of a FTS, making it ideally suited for measuring branching fractions of very weak lines. The combination of very accurate branching fractions with radiative lifetimes from time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence will yield accurate absolute transition probabilities of weak second spectra lines with low E.P.s for the Fe-group elements. Instrument design and preliminary results will be presented. Supported by NASA Grant NNX09AL13G.

  7. Large-scale relativistic calculations of ionization energies and total binding energies of all atoms and positive atomic ions with nuclear charge Z = 1-110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, Alexander; Froese Fischer, Charlotte; Reader, Joseph; Indelicato, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The latest versions of advanced multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock atomic codes, MCDFGME and Grasp2K, are used to calculate ionization energies (IE) and total binding energies of all atomic systems. Comparison with experiment and other benchmark data shows an excellent accuracy achieved in these calculations for H-, He-, and Li-like ions. In particular, our results for H-like ions with Z >2, obtained with the MCDFGME code, are the most accurate available today. For multi-electron ions, we combine the accurate single-configuration MCDFGME calculations with the correlation-difference energy (difference between the multiconfiguration and single-configuration total energies) calculated with Grasp2K. This approach results in a dramatically improved agreement of calculated IEs with experiment (less than 0.7 eV on average) for all systems, excluding those involving open f-shells. The most probable ground states are found for most systems, leaving questionable only about 100 out of total 6105 considered systems.

  8. Investigating Global Ion and Neutral Atom Populations with IBEX and Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florinski, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to investigate pickup ion (PUI) production in the solar wind and heliosheath (the region between the termination shock and the heliopause) and compute the distributed energetic neutral atom fluxes throughout the helioshpere. The simulations were constrained by comparing the model output against observations from Ulysses, New Horizons, Voyager 1 and 2, and IBEX space probes. As evidenced by the number of peer reviewed journal publications resulting from the project (13 plus three submitted) and their citation rate (156 citations over three years), the project has made a lasting contribution to the field. The outcome is a significant improvement of our understanding of the pickup ion production and distribution in the distant heliosphere. The team has accomplished the entire set of tasks A-H set forth in the proposal. Namely, the transport modeling framework has been augmented with two populations of pickup ions (PUIs), the boundary conditions for the plasma and interstellar neutral hydrogen were verified against Ulysses and New Horizons PUI and an optimal set of velocity diffusion parameters established. The multi-component fluxes of PUIs were computed and isotropic velocity distributions generated for each cell in the computer simulation that covered the heliosphere from 1.5 AU to the heliopause. The distributions were carefully compared with in situ measurements at 3 AU (Ulysses), 12 AU (New Horizons), and 80-90 AU (Voyager 1 and 2) as well as those inferred from ENA fluxes measured by Cassini and IBEX (Wu et al., 2016). Some examples of modeldata comparison are shown in Figure 1. We have used coupled MHD-plasma and kinetic-neutral code to investigate the likely range of plasma and magnetic field parameters in the local interstellar medium (LISM), based on the assumption that the shape of the IBEX ribbon could be used to determine the orientation of the interstellar magnetic field. While the magnetic field is believed to be

  9. Reactions of State-Selected Atomic Oxygen Ions O(+)((4)S, (2)D, (2)P) with Methane.

    PubMed

    Cunha de Miranda, Barbara; Romanzin, Claire; Chefdeville, Simon; Vuitton, Véronique; Žabka, Jan; Polášek, Miroslav; Alcaraz, Christian

    2015-06-11

    An experimental study has been carried out on the reactions of state selected O(+)((4)S, (2)D, (2)P) ions with methane with the aims of characterizing the effects of both the parent ion internal energy and collision energy on the reaction dynamics and determining the fate of oxygen species in complex media, in particular the Titan ionosphere. Absolute cross sections and product velocity distributions have been determined for the reactions of (16)O(+) or (18)O(+) ions with CH4 or CD4 from thermal to 5 eV collision energies by using the guided ion beam (GIB) technique. Dissociative photoionization of O2 with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation delivered by the DESIRS beamline at the SOLEIL storage ring and the threshold photoion photoelectron coincidence (TPEPICO) technique are used for the preparation of purely state-selected O(+)((4)S, (2)D, (2)P) ions. A complete inversion of the product branching ratio between CH4(+) and CH3(+) ions in favor of the latter is observed for excitation of O(+) ions from the (4)S ground state to either the (2)D or the (2)P metastable state. CH4(+) and CH3(+) ions, which are by far the major products for the reaction of ground state and excited states, are strongly backward scattered in the center of mass frame relative to O(+) parent ions. For the reaction of O(+)((4)S), CH3(+) production also rises with increasing collision energy but with much less efficiency than with O(+) excitation. We found that a mechanism of dissociative charge transfer, mediated by an initial charge transfer step, can account very well for all the observations, indicating that CH3(+) production is associated with the formation of H and O atoms (CH3(+) + H + O) rather than with OH formation by an hydride transfer process (CH3(+) + OH). Therefore, as the CH4(+) production by charge transfer is also associated with O atoms, the fate of oxygen species in these reactions is essentially the O production, except for the reaction of O(+)((4)S), which also

  10. Influence of ions on two-dimensional and three-dimensional atomic force microscopy at fluorite-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, K.; Watkins, M.; Shluger, A. L.; Fukuma, T.

    2017-06-01

    Recent advancement in liquid-environment atomic force microscopy (AFM) has enabled us to visualize three-dimensional (3D) hydration structures as well as two-dimensional (2D) surface structures with subnanometer-scale resolution at solid-water interfaces. However, the influence of ions present in solution on the 2D- and 3D-AFM measurements has not been well understood. In this study, we perform atomic-scale 2D- and 3D-AFM measurements at fluorite-water interfaces in pure water and a supersaturated solution of fluorite. The images obtained in these two environments are compared to understand the influence of the ions in solution on these measurements. In the 2D images, we found clear difference in the nanoscale structures but no significant difference in the atomic-scale contrasts. However, the 3D force images show clear difference in the subnanometer-scale contrasts. The force contrasts measured in pure water largely agree with those expected from the molecular dynamics simulation and the solvent tip approximation model. In the supersaturated solution, an additional force peak is observed over the negatively charged fluorine ion site. This location suggests that the observed force peak may originate from cations adsorbed on the fluorite surface. These results demonstrate that the ions can significantly alter the subnanometer-scale force contrasts in the 3D-AFM images.

  11. [Atomic absorption spectrophotometry study of copper ion release by copper-bearing intrauterine devices].

    PubMed

    Berthou, J; Chrétien, F C; Driguez, P A

    1998-11-01

    Copper release from copper-bearing IUD's was studied in vitro and in vivo using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in deionized water, normal saline solution and normal ovulatory cervical mucus. In these media, copper release from a 375 mm2 DIU occurs without latency, showing comparable amounts for identical time intervals. Daily copper release was shown to be respectively 8 and 11 times higher in cervical mucus and normal saline solution than in deionized water. Although copper ions are detectable in ovulatory cervical mucus under physiological conditions, the copper content appears 5 to 6 times higher in women bearing a copper IUD. Obviously, the copper amount is dependent on the copper exposed surface: the daily in vitro release from a 250 mm2 IUD is 18% inferior to that observed from a 375 mm2 model. In vivo, the daily copper release in ovulatory mucus of 380 or 200 mm2 IUD users is respectively 5 and 3.5 times higher than in controls.

  12. An alumina stabilized ZnO-graphene anode for lithium ion batteries via atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingpeng; Wang, Aiji; Wang, Yinshu; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2014-10-07

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was applied to deposit ZnO on graphene aerogel, and this composite was used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. This electrode material was further modified by an ultrathin Al2O3 layer via ALD to stabilize its electrochemical stability. These two metal oxides were uniformly immobilized on graphene frameworks, and the Al2O3 coating strongly improved the electrochemical performances of ZnO-graphene aerogel composite anodes. Particularly, the composite with 10 ALD cycles of Al2O3 coating (denoted as ZnO-G-10) exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1513 mA h g(-1) and maintained a reversible capacity of 490 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). Furthermore, the capacity retention rate increased from 70% to 90% in comparison with its uncoated counterpart after 100 cycles. The ZnO-G-10 anode also showed good rate-capability, delivering a discharge capacity of 415 mA h g(-1) at 1000 mA g(-1). The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the formation of an artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer, stabilizing ZnO and the electrolyte by preventing the aggregation of Zn/ZnO nanograins and the side reaction that would cause the degradation of anodes.

  13. Effect of electron-nuclei interaction on internuclear motions in slow ion-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.

    2015-10-01

    The electron-nuclei interaction affects the internuclear motion in slow ion-atom collisions, which in turn affects theoretical results for the cross sections of various collision processes. The results are especially sensitive to the details of the internuclear dynamics in the presence of a strong isotope effect on the cross sections, as is the case, e.g., for the charge transfer in low-energy collisions of He2+ with H, D, and T. By considering this system as an example, we show that internuclear trajectories defined by the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potential in the entrance collision channel, which effectively accounts for the electron-nuclei interaction, are in much better agreement with trajectories obtained in the ab initio electron-nuclear dynamics approach [R. Cabrera-Trujillo et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 012715 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.012715] than the corresponding Coulomb trajectories. We also show that the use of the BO trajectory instead of the Coulomb trajectory in the calculations of the charge-transfer cross sections within the adiabatic approach improves the agreement of the results with ab initio calculations.

  14. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished. PMID:25161320

  15. Dynamics of the fully stripped ion-hydrogen atom charge exchange process in dense quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling-yu; Wan, Jiang-feng; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Xiao, Guo-qing; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei

    2014-09-15

    The plasma screening effects of dense quantum plasmas on charge exchange processes of a fully stripped ion colliding with a hydrogen atom are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The inter-particle interactions are described by the exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that in weak screening conditions, cross sections increase with the increase of the ionic charge Z. However, in strong screening conditions, the dependence of cross sections on the ionic charge is related to the incident particle energy. At high energies, cross sections show a linear increase with the increase of Z, whereas at low energies, cross sections for Z≥4 become approximately the same. The He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} impacting charge exchange cross sections in dense quantum plasmas are also compared with those in weakly coupled plasmas. The interactions are described by the static screened Coulomb potential. It is found that for both He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+}, the oscillatory screening effects of dense quantum plasmas are almost negligible in weak screening conditions. However, in strong screening conditions, the oscillatory screening effects enhance the screening effects of dense quantum plasmas, and the enhancement becomes more and more significant with the increase of the screening parameter and the ionic charge.

  16. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J.

    2014-08-04

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished.

  17. Pion correlations as a function of atomic mass in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon, A.D.

    1989-11-26

    The method of two pion interferometry was used to obtain source-size and lifetime parameters for the pions produced in heavy ion collisions. The systems used were 1.70 {center dot} A GeV {sup 56}Fe + Fe, 1.82 {center dot} A GeV {sup 40}Ar + KCl and 1.54 {center dot} A GeV {sup 93}Nb + Nb, allowing for a search for dependences on the atomic number. Two acceptances (centered, in the lab., at {approximately} 0{degrees} and 45{degrees}) were used for each system, allowing a search for dependences on the viewing angle. The correlation functions were calculated by comparing the data samples to background (or reference) samples made using the method of event mixing, where pions from different events are combined to produce a data sample in which the Bose-Einstein correlation effect is absent. The effect of the correlation function on the background samples is calculated, and a method for weighting the events to remove the residual correlation effect is presented. The effect of the spectrometer design on the measured correlation functions is discussed, as are methods for correcting for these effects during the data analysis. 58 refs., 39 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Atomic Force Microscopy of Vertically Stacked Focused-Ion-Beam Induced Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo-Kovac, Marta; Saucer, Timothy; Martin, Andrew; Millunchick, Joanna; Sih, Vanessa

    2013-03-01

    Control over the positioning of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) could facilitate the coupling of QDs to photonic crystal cavities and has applications in the development of high-efficiency solar cells. QDs grown through self-assembly nucleate at random spatial locations. However, a focused ion beam (FIB) can be used to create preferential sites for QD nucleation, and this pattern can be transferred to subsequent layers of QDs, either due to strain or residual effects of the templating. Multilayer QD stacks can therefore maintain the lateral pattern of the initial layer while separating QDs from material damage induced by the patterning. Multilayer QD structures were grown on FIB-patterned GaAs(001) substrates with 10 nm thick GaAs spacers between the layers. The substrates were patterned with sixteen square arrays of holes with spacings of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μm each at FIB dwell times of 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 ms. We report on the effects of multilayer QD growth on the initial layers through atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging of single, two-, and three-layer FIB-templated QD samples.

  19. A recoil ion momentum spectrometer for molecular and atomic fragmentation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Arnab; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Misra, Deepankar

    2015-04-15

    We report the development and performance studies of a newly built recoil ion momentum spectrometer for the study of atomic and molecular fragmentation dynamics in gas phase upon the impact of charged particles and photons. The present design is a two-stage Wiley-McLaren type spectrometer which satisfies both time and velocity focusing conditions and is capable of measuring singly charged ionic fragments up-to 13 eV in all directions. An electrostatic lens has been introduced in order to achieve velocity imaging. Effects of the lens on time-of-flight as well as on the position have been investigated in detail, both, by simulation and in experiment. We have used 120 keV proton beam on molecular nitrogen gas target. Complete momentum distributions and kinetic energy release distributions have been derived from the measured position and time-of-flight spectra. Along with this, the kinetic energy release spectra of fragmentation of doubly ionized nitrogen molecule upon various projectile impacts are presented.

  20. SPEX (Plasma Code Spectral Fitting Tool). Collisional ionization for atoms and ions of H to Zn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urdampilleta, I.; Kaastra, J. S.

    2017-03-01

    Every observation of astrophysical objects involving a spectrum requires atomic data for the interpretation of line fluxes, ratios and ionization state of the emitting plasma. One of processes which determines it is collisional ionization. In this study an update of the direct ionization (DI) and excitation-autoionization (EA) processes is discussed for the H to Zn-like isoelectronic sequences. The previous assessments were performed by Dere (2007, A&A 466, 771) for H to Zn isoelectronc sequences, Arnaud & Raymond (1992, ApJ. 398, 394) for Fe and Arnaud & Rothenflug (1985, A&AS, 60, 425). However, in the last years new laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations of ionization cross sections have become accessible. We provide a review, extension and update of this previous work and fit the cross sections of all individuals shells of all ions from H to Zn. These data are described using an extension of Younger's formula, suitable for integration over a Maxwellian velocity distribution to derive the subshell ionization rate coefficients. These ionization rate coefficients are included together with the radiative recombination rates data (Mao et al. 2016, A&AS, 27568) and a change-exchange model (Gu et al. 2016, A&A 588, A52, 11) into the high-resolution plasma code and spectral fit tool SPEX V3.0 (Kaastra et al. 1996, UV and X-ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas).

  1. A recoil ion momentum spectrometer for molecular and atomic fragmentation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Arnab; Tribedi, Lokesh C.; Misra, Deepankar

    2015-04-01

    We report the development and performance studies of a newly built recoil ion momentum spectrometer for the study of atomic and molecular fragmentation dynamics in gas phase upon the impact of charged particles and photons. The present design is a two-stage Wiley-McLaren type spectrometer which satisfies both time and velocity focusing conditions and is capable of measuring singly charged ionic fragments up-to 13 eV in all directions. An electrostatic lens has been introduced in order to achieve velocity imaging. Effects of the lens on time-of-flight as well as on the position have been investigated in detail, both, by simulation and in experiment. We have used 120 keV proton beam on molecular nitrogen gas target. Complete momentum distributions and kinetic energy release distributions have been derived from the measured position and time-of-flight spectra. Along with this, the kinetic energy release spectra of fragmentation of doubly ionized nitrogen molecule upon various projectile impacts are presented.

  2. Understanding Li-ion battery processes at the atomic to nano-scale.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Yongjie; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Hudak, Nicholas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Shaw, Michael J.; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-05-01

    Reducing battery materials to nano-scale dimensions may improve battery performance while maintaining the use of low-cost materials. However, we need better characterization tools with atomic to nano-scale resolution in order to understand degradation mechanisms and the structural and mechanical changes that occur in these new materials during battery cycling. To meet this need, we have developed a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)-based platform for performing electrochemical measurements using volatile electrolytes inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This platform uses flip-chip assembly with special alignment features and multiple buried electrode configurations. In addition to this platform, we have developed an unsealed platform that permits in situ TEM electrochemistry using ionic liquid electrolytes. As a test of these platform concepts, we have assembled MnO{sub 2} nanowires on to the platform using dielectrophoresis and have examined their electrical and structural changes as a function of lithiation. These results reveal a large irreversible drop in electronic conductance and the creation of a high degree of lattice disorder following lithiation of the nanowires. From these initial results, we conclude that the future full development of in situ TEM characterization tools will enable important mechanistic understanding of Li-ion battery materials.

  3. Experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. Progress report, February 16, 1993--April 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kostroun, V.O.

    1994-04-27

    Experimental study of low energy, highly charged ions with other atomic species requires an advanced ion source such as an electron beam ion source, EBIS or an electron cyclotron ion source, ECRIS. Five years ago we finished the design and construction of the Cornell superconducting solenoid, cryogenic EBIS (CEBIS). Since then, this source has been in continuous operation in a program whose main purpose is the experimental study of interactions of highly charged ions with atoms at keV energies. This progress report for the period February 16, 1993 to April 15, 1994 describes the work accomplished during this time in the form of short abstracts.

  4. A gated Thomson parabola spectrometer for improved ion and neutral atom measurements in intense laser produced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tata, Sheroy; Mondal, Angana; Sarkar, Soubhik; Lad, Amit D.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2017-08-01

    Ions of high energy and high charge are accelerated from compact intense laser produced plasmas and are routinely analysed either by time of flight or Thomson parabola spectrometry. At the highest intensities where ion energies can be substantially large, both these techniques have limitations. Strong electromagnetic pulse noise jeopardises the arrival time measurement, and a bright central spot in the Thomson parabola spectrometer affects the signal to noise ratio of ion traces that approach close to the central spot. We present a gated Thomson parabola spectrometer that addresses these issues and provides an elegant method to improvise ion spectrometry. In addition, we demonstrate that this method provides the ability to detect and measure high energy neutral atoms that are invariably present in most intense laser plasma acceleration experiments.

  5. A gated Thomson parabola spectrometer for improved ion and neutral atom measurements in intense laser produced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Tata, Sheroy; Mondal, Angana; Sarkar, Soubhik; Lad, Amit D; Krishnamurthy, M

    2017-08-01

    Ions of high energy and high charge are accelerated from compact intense laser produced plasmas and are routinely analysed either by time of flight or Thomson parabola spectrometry. At the highest intensities where ion energies can be substantially large, both these techniques have limitations. Strong electromagnetic pulse noise jeopardises the arrival time measurement, and a bright central spot in the Thomson parabola spectrometer affects the signal to noise ratio of ion traces that approach close to the central spot. We present a gated Thomson parabola spectrometer that addresses these issues and provides an elegant method to improvise ion spectrometry. In addition, we demonstrate that this method provides the ability to detect and measure high energy neutral atoms that are invariably present in most intense laser plasma acceleration experiments.

  6. Icositetrahedral and icosahedral atomic configurations observed in the Nb-Ag metallic glasses synthesized by ion beam mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, K. P.; Gao, N.; Dai, X. D.; Li, J. H.; Lai, W. S.; Liu, B. X.

    2006-08-28

    Metallic glasses are obtained in an immiscible Nb-Ag system by ion beam mixing and an atomic configuration in the amorphous structure is discovered, i.e., an icositetrahedral ordering, which, together with an icosahedral ordering also observed in the Nb-Ag metallic glasses and in some previously reported systems, helps in formulating a structural spectrum of the amorphous solids. The experimental characterization and atomistic modeling with an ab initio derived Nb-Ag potential demonstrate the significance of structural heredity, i.e., the crystalline structures of the constituent metals play a decisive role in determining the atomic structure of the metallic glasses in the system.

  7. Theoretical analysis of the projectile and target coherence in COLTRIMS experiments on atomic ionization by fast ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzakov, Konstantin A.

    2017-03-01

    Possible effects of the so-called projectile and target coherence in the ion-atom ionizing collisions studied with COLTRIMS are examined by means of quantum scattering theory of wave packets. The projectile-coherence effects are shown to have no serious influence on the measured fully differential cross sections. It is demonstrated that in the discussed experiments the effects of the target center-of-mass wave packet might be of greater importance. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces", edited by A.N. Grum-Grzhimailo, E.V. Gryzlova, Yu V. Popov, and A.V. Solov'yov.

  8. Towards high-energy and durable lithium-ion batteries via atomic layer deposition: elegantly atomic-scale material design and surface modification.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangbo

    2015-01-16

    Targeted at fueling future transportation and sustaining smart grids, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are undergoing intensive investigation for improved durability and energy density. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling uniform and conformal nanofilms, has recently made possible many new advances for superior LIBs. The progress was summarized by Liu and Sun in their latest review [1], offering many insightful views, covering the design of nanostructured battery components (i.e., electrodes and solid electrolytes), and nanoscale modification of electrode/electrolyte interfaces. This work well informs peers of interesting research conducted and it will also further help boost the applications of ALD in next-generation LIBs and other advanced battery technologies.

  9. The identification of autoionizing states of atomic chromium for the resonance ionization laser ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day Goodacre, T.; Chrysalidis, K.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into autoionizing states of atomic chromium, in the service of the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS): the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility based at CERN. The multi-step resonance photo-ionization process enables element selective ionization which, in combination with mass separation, allows isotope specific selectivity in the production of radioactive ion beams at ISOLDE. The element selective nature of the process requires a multi-step "ionization scheme" to be developed for each element. Using the method of in-source resonance ionization spectroscopy, an optimal three-step, three-resonance photo-ionization scheme originating from the 3d5(6S)4s a7S3 atomic ground state has been developed for chromium. The scheme uses an ionizing transition to one of the 15 newly observed autoionizing states reported here. Details of the spectroscopic studies are described and the new ionization scheme is summarized.

  10. Effects of metal nanoparticles on the secondary ion yields of a model alkane molecule upon atomic and polyatomic projectiles in secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Nimer; Heile, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Bertrand, Patrick; Delcorte, Arnaud

    2008-08-15

    A model alkane molecule, triacontane, is used to assess the effects of condensed gold and silver nanoparticles on the molecular ion yields upon atomic (Ga(+) and In(+)) and polyatomic (C60(+) and Bi3(+)) ion bombardment in metal-assisted secondary ion mass spectrometry (MetA-SIMS). Molecular films spin-coated on silicon were metallized using a sputter-coater system, in order to deposit controlled quantities of gold and silver on the surface (from 0 to 15 nm equivalent thickness). The effects of gold and silver islets condensed on triacontane are also compared to the situation of thin triacontane overlayers on metallic substrates (gold and silver). The results focus primarily on the measured yields of quasi-molecular ions, such as (M - H)(+) and (2M - 2H)(+), and metal-cationized molecules, such as (M + Au)(+) and (M + Ag)(+), as a function of the quantity of metal on the surface. They confirm the absence of a simple rule to explain the secondary ion yield improvement in MetA-SIMS. The behavior is strongly dependent on the specific projectile/metal couple used for the experiment. Under atomic bombardment (Ga(+), In(+)), the characteristic ion yields an increase with the gold dose up to approximately 6 nm equivalent thickness. The yield enhancement factor between gold-metallized and pristine samples can be as large as approximately 70 (for (M - H)(+) under Ga(+) bombardment; 10 nm of Au). In contrast, with cluster projectiles such as Bi3(+) and C60(+), the presence of gold and silver leads to a dramatic molecular ion yield decrease. Cluster projectiles prove to be beneficial for triacontane overlayers spin-coated on silicon or metal substrates (Au, Ag) but not in the situation of MetA-SIMS. The fundamental difference of behavior between atomic and cluster primary ions is tentatively explained by arguments involving the different energy deposition mechanisms of these projectiles. Our results also show that Au and Ag nanoparticles do not induce the same behavior in Met

  11. Precision measurements of cross-sections for inelastic processes in collisions of alkali metal ions with atoms of rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomsadze, R. A.; Gochitashvili, M. R.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2017-01-01

    A multifaceted experimental study of collisions of Na+ and K+ ions in the energy range of 0.5-10 keV with He and Ar atoms is presented. Absolute cross-sections for charge-exchange, ionization, stripping and excitation processes were measured using a refined version of the transfer electric field method, angle- and energy-dependent collection of product ions, energy loss and optical spectroscopy methods. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are employed to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes.

  12. Ion-exchange separation and atomic-absorption determination of fifteen major, minor and trace elements in silicates.

    PubMed

    Mazzuootelli, A; Frache, R; Dadone, A; Baffi, F

    A scheme of ion-exchange separation of fifteen elements (major, minor and trace) determined mainly by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (Ti by colorimetry) is applied to rock, mineral and ceramic analysis. Mn, Cu, Co, Fe and Zn are separated on an anion-exchanger and Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ti, Al, Ni and Ba on a cation-exchanger. The method has been tested by analysis of a synthetic mixture of the fifteen ions in the ratios in common rock samples, and of various international standards (100-mg samples).

  13. Selective Sputtering of Impurity Hydrogen Atoms from a GaN(0001) Surface by Slow Multicharged Ion Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motohashi, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry was conducted for slow multicharged Arq+ (q = 4, 6, or 8) impact on a GaN(0001) surface. Selective sputtering of protons from impurities was demonstrated. The relative intensity of protons increased with an increase in the charge state q, and it reached 92% in the case of Ar8+ incidence with scattering Ar+. The width of the proton spectrum measured in coincidence with scattering Ar+ ions was almost equal to that of Ar atoms in Ar8+ impacts. These facts suggest that the potential sputtering rather than the kinetic sputtering of impurities was dominant in the Ar8+ impact.

  14. Secondary ion yields produced by keV atomic and polyatomic ion impacts on a self-assembled monolayer surface

    PubMed

    Harris; Baker; Van Stipdonk MJ; Crooks; Schweikert

    1999-01-01

    A suite of keV polyatomic or 'cluster' projectiles was used to bombard unoxidized and oxidized self-assembled monolayer surfaces. Negative secondary ion yields, collected at the limit of single ion impacts, were measured and compared for both molecular and fragment ions. In contrast to targets that are orders of magnitude thicker than the penetration range of the primary ions, secondary ion yields from polyatomic projectile impacts on self-assembled monolayers show little to no enhancement when compared with monatomic projectiles at the same velocity. This unusual trend is most likely due to the structural arrangement and bonding characteristics of the monolayer molecules with the Au(111). Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions. Progress report, 16 February 1993--15 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments of research supported by DOE. This work involves the experimental investigation of fundamental atomic processes in collisions of few-electron, charged projectile ions with neutral gas targets or electrons. The major emphasis is the study of collision processes involving two active electrons, and particularly those in which the electron-electron interaction plays a role. New results have been obtained for studies involving (1) continuum-electron emission, (2) double ionization of helium and Li{sup +}, and (3) resonant recombination of atomic ions. Experiments were conducted using accelerators at Western Michigan University, Michigan State University, Indiana University, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary. Brief summaries of work completed and work in progress are given.

  16. An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of zinc in canned juices after ion exchange separation.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Alrahman, A M

    1984-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of microgram quantities of zinc in canned juices. After sample digestion in concentrated nitric acid, the solution is evaporated till near dryness, and then a solution of 2 M HCl is added to form tetrachlorozincate (II) ion. This acid solution, containing the zinc complex is passed through an ion-exchange column (anion exchange resin, chloride form, which is preconditioned by passing 1 M HCl solution). Zinc is eluted from the column with 0.01 M HCl solution. After evaporation to dryness, the residue is dissolved in 1% (v/v) HNO3, and then atomized into an air-acetylene flame. The limit of detection of the method is 0.15 micrograms ml-1 Zn. The analytical aspects of the proposed method, including the standard addition technique are discussed.

  17. Synthesis of nine-atom deltahedral Zintl ions of germanium and their functionalization with organic groups.

    PubMed

    Gillett-Kunnath, Miriam M; Sevov, Slavi C

    2012-02-11

    Although the first studies of Zintl ions date between the late 1890's and early 1930's they were not structurally characterized until many years later. Their redox chemistry is even younger, just about ten years old, but despite this short history these deltahedral clusters ions E9(n-) (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; n = 2, 3, 4) have already shown interesting and diverse reactivity and have been at the forefront of rapidly developing and exciting new chemistry. Notable milestones are the oxidative coupling of Ge9(4-) clusters to oligomers and infinite chains, their metallation, capping by transition-metal organometallic fragments, insertion of a transition-metal atom at the center of the cluster which is sometimes combined with capping and oligomerization, addition of main-group organometallic fragments as exo-bonded substituents, and functionalization with various organic residues by reactions with organic halides and alkynes. This latter development of attaching organic fragments directly to the clusters has opened up a new field, namely organo-Zintl chemistry, that is potentially fertile for further synthetic explorations, and it is the step-by-step procedure for the synthesis of germanium-divinyl clusters described herein. The initial steps outline the synthesis of an intermetallic precursor of K4Ge9 from which the Ge9(4-) clusters are extracted later in solution. This involves fused-silica glass blowing, arc-welding of niobium containers, and handling of highly air-sensitive materials in a glove box. The air-sensitive K4Ge9 is then dissolved in ethylenediamine in the box and then alkenylated by a reaction with Me3SiC≡CSiMe3. The reaction is followed by electrospray mass spectrometry while the resulting solution is used for obtaining single crystals containing the functionalized clusters [H2C=CH-Ge9-CH=CH2](2-). For this purpose the solution is centrifuged, filtered, and carefully layered with a toluene solution of 18-crown-6. Left undisturbed for a few days, the so

  18. Synthesis of Nine-atom Deltahedral Zintl Ions of Germanium and their Functionalization with Organic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gillett-Kunnath, Miriam M.; Sevov, Slavi C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the first studies of Zintl ions date between the late 1890's and early 1930's they were not structurally characterized until many years later.1,2 Their redox chemistry is even younger, just about ten years old, but despite this short history these deltahedral clusters ions E9n- (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; n = 2, 3, 4) have already shown interesting and diverse reactivity and have been at the forefront of rapidly developing and exciting new chemistry.3-6 Notable milestones are the oxidative coupling of Ge94- clusters to oligomers and infinite chains,7-19 their metallation,14-16,20-25 capping by transition-metal organometallic fragments,26-34 insertion of a transition-metal atom at the center of the cluster which is sometimes combined with capping and oligomerization,35-47 addition of main-group organometallic fragments as exo-bonded substituents,48-50 and functionalization with various organic residues by reactions with organic halides and alkynes.51-58 This latter development of attaching organic fragments directly to the clusters has opened up a new field, namely organo-Zintl chemistry, that is potentially fertile for further synthetic explorations, and it is the step-by-step procedure for the synthesis of germanium-divinyl clusters described herein. The initial steps outline the synthesis of an intermetallic precursor of K4Ge9 from which the Ge94- clusters are extracted later in solution. This involves fused-silica glass blowing, arc-welding of niobium containers, and handling of highly air-sensitive materials in a glove box. The air-sensitive K4Ge9 is then dissolved in ethylenediamine in the box and then alkenylated by a reaction with Me3SiC≡CSiMe3. The reaction is followed by electrospray mass spectrometry while the resulting solution is used for obtaining single crystals containing the functionalized clusters [H2C=CH-Ge9-CH=CH2]2-. For this purpose the solution is centrifuged, filtered, and carefully layered with a toluene solution of 18-crown-6. Left

  19. Thermodynamics of various F420 coenzyme models as sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ke; Shen, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing

    2015-06-14

    32 F420 coenzyme models with alkylation of the three different N atoms (N1, N3 and N10) in the core structure (XFH(-)) were designed and synthesized and the thermodynamic driving forces (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the 32 XFH(-) releasing hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and electrons, the thermodynamic driving forces of the 32 XFH˙ releasing protons and hydrogen atoms and the thermodynamic driving forces of XF(-)˙ releasing electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The effects of the methyl group at N1, N3 and N10 and a negative charge on N1 and N10 atoms on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were examined; the results show that seating arrangements of the methyl group and the negative charge have remarkably different effects on the thermodynamic properties of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates. The effects of the substituents at C7 and C8 on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were also examined; the results show that the substituents at C7 and C8 have good Hammett linear free energy relationships with the six thermodynamic parameters. Meanwhile, a reasonable determination of possible reactions between members of the F420 family and NADH family in vivo was given according to a thermodynamic analysis platform constructed using the elementary step thermodynamic parameter of F420 coenzyme model 2FH(-) and NADH model MNAH releasing hydride ions in acetonitrile. The information disclosed in this work can not only fill a gap in the chemical thermodynamics of F420 coenzyme models as a class of very important organic sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons, but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of F420 coenzyme.

  20. Examination of Organic Vapor Adsorption onto Alkali Metal and Halide Atomic Ions by using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maiβer, Anne; Hogan, Christopher J

    2017-08-18

    We utilize ion mobility mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure differential mobility analyzer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DMA-MS) to examine the formation of ion-vapor molecule complexes with seed ions of K(+) , Rb(+) , Cs(+) , Br(-) , and I(-) exposed to n-butanol and n-nonane vapor under subsaturated conditions. Ion-vapor molecule complex formation is indicated by a shift in the apparent mobility of each ion. Measurement results are compared to predicted mobility shifts based upon the Kelvin-Thomson equation, which is commonly used in predicting rates of ion-induced nucleation. We find that n-butanol at saturation ratios as low as 0.03 readily binds to all seed ions, leading to mobility shifts in excess of 35 %. Conversely, the binding of n-nonane is not detectable for any ion for saturation ratios in the 0-0.27 range. An inverse correlation between the ionic radius of the initial seed and the extent of n-butanol uptake is observed, such that at elevated n-butanol concentrations, the smallest ion (K(+) ) has the smallest apparent mobility and the largest (I(-) ) has the largest apparent mobility. Though the differences in behavior of the two vapor molecules types examined and the observed effect of ionic seed radius are not accounted for by the Kelvin-Thomson equation, its predictions are in good agreement with measured mobility shifts for Rb(+) , Cs(+) , and Br(-) in the presence of n-butanol (typically within 10 % of measurements). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. Angular distribution of Rh atoms desorbed from ion-bombarded Rh l brace 100 r brace : Effect of local environment

    SciTech Connect

    Maboudian, R.; Postawa, Z.; El-Maazawi, M.; Garrison, B.J.; Winograd, N. )

    1990-10-15

    Energy-resolved angular distributions of Rh atoms desorbed by 5 keV Ar-ion bombardment of the Rh{l brace}100{r brace} surface are measured with use of a multiphoton resonance ionization technique. The results are shown to be in good agreement with molecular-dynamics simulations of the ion-impact event using the same interaction potential optimized previously to describe desorption from Rh{l brace}111{r brace}. In addition, by analyzing contour plots of the surface potential energy, the trend in the experimental results for Rh{l brace}100{r brace} and those previously published for Rh{l brace}111{r brace} are well explained. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the peak in the polar-angle distribution of neutral particles desorbed from ion-bombarded single crystals is mainly determined by the relative positions of surface atoms which influence the trajectory of an exiting particle via channeling and blocking. Moreover, the anisotropy of the momentum imparted to the surface atoms in the last collision leads to an enhancement of ejection along certain crystallographic directions.

  2. Synthesis of atomic layers of hybridized h-BNC by depositing h-BN on graphene via ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J. H.; Zhang, X. W.; Liu, H.; Yin, Z. G.; Wang, D. G.; Wang, Y.; You, J. B.; Wu, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    We report the deposition of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on graphene by ion beam sputtering deposition. Both graphene domains and films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition were used as substrates. In the case of graphene domains, it was found that the h-BN domains were preferentially grown on the baked Cu surface instead of graphene due to the highly catalytic activity of Cu. On the other hand, the higher ejection energy of sputtered particles leads to the mixing of boron/nitrogen atoms and carbon atoms. Consequently, the h-BNC films consisting of the hybrid atomic layers of h-BN and graphene domains were formed when the graphene films were used as substrates. This work provides a promising and accessible route for the synthesis of hybridized h-BNC material.

  3. Comparative analysis of deuterium ions implanted and deuterium atoms saturated at high pressure in pure pd and Pd diluted alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Wiśniewski, R.; Wilczynska, T.; Kitowski, K.

    2012-01-01

    Pd and its diluted alloys (Pd-Ag, Pd-Pt, Pd-Ru, Pd-Rh) were implanted by 25 keV deuterium ions at a fluence interval of (1.2-2.3) × 1022 m-2. The same property alloys were saturated by deuterium atoms using high pressure chamber during long period with temperature stabilization and electrical resistance measurement of standard Pd wire. The post-treatment depth distributions of deuterium and accompanied hydrogen atoms were measured immediately after implantation (ten days) and after definite time period (three months) after saturation with the usage of elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). After two months, the measurements were repeated. The comparison of obtained results in both series of studies allowed one to make an important observation of a relative stability of deuterium and hydrogen atoms in pure Pd and its diluted alloys.

  4. Solvated alkali atoms and electron-transfer paramagnetic ion pairs: Some common trends from computer simulation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fois, Ettore S.; Gamba, Aldo

    1994-06-01

    Quantum molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for an alkali atom (sodium) diluted in a model dipolar fluid, at various solvent densities, and for the sodium/pyrazine ion pair in the same liquid. The excitonic state proposed by Logan, i.e., an hybrid s/p dipolar atom, is found to be the ground state of the solvated sodium. The Na atomic dipole increases with solvent density. The dipole moment of the Na/pyrazine pair increases with solvent density as well: In this case the Na self-excitation is replaced by electron transfer from Na to pyrazine resulting in a larger dipole moment stabilized by the solvent. Our results compare favorably with available experimental data.

  5. Li atom adsorption on graphene with various defects for large-capacity Li ion batteries: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiota, Kento; Kawai, Takazumi

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the fundamental properties of the interaction between a Li atom and a graphene surface with various defect structures by first-principles electronic state calculations to improve the capacity and charge rate of a graphitic anode for Li ion battery applications. The adsorption energy tends to decrease as the number of deficit carbon atoms at a neighboring defect increases even for adsorption at a hexagonal ring (HR) away from defects, although the interaction between a Li adatom and an HR is similar independent of the defect structure. The reason for the change in adsorption energy is the electronic charge transfer from the Li 2s-like state to the defect-induced state near the Fermi level. We also found that a Li atom diffuses through a V6 defect without a diffusion barrier practically.

  6. Speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in seafood by ion chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tingting; Ji, Hongwei; Li, Huixin; Cui, He; Song, Tian; Duan, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Qianlin; Cai, Feng; Zhang, Li

    2017-06-01

    Ion chromatography-ultra violet-hydride generation-Atomic Florescence Spectrometry was applied to detect 5 arsenic species in seafoods. The arsenic species studied include arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (As(III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and arsenate (As(V)), which were extracted from samples using 2% formic acid. Gradient elution using 33 mmol L-1 CH3COONH4 and 15 mmol L-1 Na2CO3 with 10 mL CH3CH2OH at pH 8.4 allowed the chromatographic separation of all the species on a Hamilton PRP-X100 anion-exchange column in less than 8 min. In this study, an ultrasound extraction method was used to extract arsenic species from seafood. The extraction efficiency was good and the recoveries from spiked samples were in the range of 72.6%-109%; the precision between sample replicates was higher than 3.6% for all determinations. The detection limits were 3.543 μg L-1 for AsB, 0.426 μg L-1 for As(III), 0.216 μg L-1 for DMA, 0.211 μg L-1 for MMA, and 0.709 μg L-1 for As(V), and the linear coefficients were greater than 0.999. We also developed an application of this method for the determination of arsenic species in bonito, Euphausia superba, and Enteromorpha with satisfactory results. Therefore, it was confirmed that this method was appropriate for the detection of arsenic species in seafood.

  7. Equation-Of Coupled-Cluster Calculations of Photodetachment Cross Sections for Atomic Negative Ions across the Periodic Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichino, Takatoshi; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The innovative application of the ion-trap technique by Wester and coworkers has yielded definitive experimental values of photodetachment cross sections for the atomic oxygen radical anion (Obullet -) [Hlavenka et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 061105 (2009)]. In the present study, equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) calculations have been performed to derive theoretical values of photodetachment cross sections for the negative ions of atoms in the first two periods of the periodic table as well as of those which belong to the alkali metal and halogen groups. Two methods have been employed to derive the cross sections. One involves the Dyson orbitals obtained from EOM-CC calculations and plane wave functions for the detached electron in the transition dipole moment integrals. The other method utilizes the moment theory following EOM-CC calculations of transition dipole moments for a large number of pseudo-states. The cross sections so evaluated for Obullet - match the experimental values very well. Generally good agreement has been found between the theoretical and experimental values of the cross sections for the atoms in the first two periods, while the present calculations cast some doubt on reported experimental values for some atoms beyond the second period. Substantial relativistic effects on the cross section have been observed for heavy elements in the alkali metal and halogen groups.

  8. Atom penetration from a thin film into the substrate during sputtering by polyenergetic Ar{sup +} ion beam with mean energy of 9.4 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Kalin, B.A.; Gladkov, V.P.; Volkov, N.V.; Sabo, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Penetration of alien atoms (Be, Ni) into Be, Al, Zr, Si and diamond was investigated under Ar{sup +} ion bombardment of samples having thermally evaporated films of 30--50 nm. Sputtering was carried out using a wide energy spectrum beam of Ar{sup +} ions of 9.4 keV to dose D = 1 {times} 10{sup 16}--10{sup 19} ion/cm{sup 2}. Implanted atom distribution in the targets was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) of H{sup +} and He{sup +} ions with energy of 1.6 MeV as well as secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS). During the bombardment, the penetration depth of Ar atoms increases with dose linearly. This depth is more than 3--20 times deeper than the projected range of bombarding ions and recoil atoms. This is a deep action effect. The analysis shows that the experimental data for foreign atoms penetration depth are similar to the data calculated for atom migration through the interstitial site in a field of internal (lateral) compressive stresses created in the near-surface layer of the substrate as a result of implantation. Under these experimental conditions atom ratio r{sub i}/r{sub m} (r{sub i} -- radius of dopant, r{sub m} -- radius target of substrate) can play a principal determining role.

  9. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging at Low Altitudes from the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid: Extraction of the Equatorial Ion Distribution. Paper 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Pontus C:son; Barabash, Stas; Roelof, Edmond C.; Chase, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Energetic neutral atom (ENA) images obtained by the ENA imager on- board the Astrid satellite in the polar cap at 1000 km during a moderate magnetic storm (Dst greater than or equal to 80 nT) on 8 February 1995 are simulated using a parameterized model of the equatorial ion distribution and a six-component Chamberlain exo-sphere with parameters from the MSISE-90 model. By changing the ion parameters until a matching ENA image is obtained one can extract the equatorial ion distribution. Four consecutive images from different view points several of minutes apart are simulated assuming H(+) and O(+), respectively, as parent ions. The optimal set of parameters is extracted by minimizing the chi(exp 2) difference between simulated and observed ENA image using Powell's minimization algorithm. The optimal equatorial model ion distribution consists of O(+) peaked in around dusk. The lower intensity of fluxes obtained from vantage points closer to the pole is an effect of the loss cone of the parent ion distribution being empty.

  10. In vitro liberation of charged gold atoms: autometallographic tracing of gold ions released by macrophages grown on metallic gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Agnete; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Danscher, Gorm

    2007-07-01

    The present study demonstrates that cultured macrophages are able to liberate gold ions from metallic gold surfaces, a process suggested to be called "dissolucytosis", in a way analogous to the release taking place when metallic implants are placed in a body. Using the ultra-sensitive autometallographic (AMG) technique, we demonstrate that murine macrophages grown on a surface of metallic gold liberate gold ions. Ultra-structural AMG reveals that the gold ions are located in an ultra-thin membrane-like structure, "the dissolution membrane", intervened between the macrophages and the metal surface. The presence of AMG silver enhanced gold nanoparticles in the dissolution membrane proves that the release of charged gold atoms takes place extracellularly. The dissolution membrane is most likely secreted and chemically controlled by the "dissolucytes", here macrophages, and the membrane is essential for the dissolution of metal implants and particles, which cannot be phagocytosed. Our findings support the notion that whenever a metallic gold surface is attacked by dissolucytes, gold ions are liberated and taken up by surrounding cells. As gold ions can suppress the inflammatory process, it is reasonable to expect that when dissolucytosis takes place in the living organism the liberated gold ions will cause local immunosuppression.

  11. 'Programming' Electron Beam Ion Traps To Produce Atomic Data Relevant To Plasma Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Currell, Fred; O'Rourke, Brian; Kavanagh, Anthony; Li Yueming; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Ohtani, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Hirofumi

    2009-09-10

    After a brief review of the processes taking place in electron beam ions traps (EBITs), the means by which EBITs are used to make measurements of electron impact ionization cross-sections and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths are discussed. In particular, results from a study involving holmium ions extracted from an electron beam ion trap are used to illustrate a technique for studying dielectronic recombination in open-shell target ions.

  12. Thomson spectrometer-microchannel plate assembly calibration for MeV-range positive and negative ions, and neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, R.; Abicht, F.; Braenzel, J.; Priebe, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Borghesi, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Nickles, P. V.

    2013-05-15

    We report on the absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) detector, used in conjunction with a Thomson parabola spectrometer. The calibration delivers the relation between a registered count numbers in the CCD camera (on which the MCP phosphor screen is imaged) and the number of ions incident on MCP. The particle response of the MCP is evaluated for positive, negative, and neutral particles at energies below 1 MeV. As the response of MCP depends on the energy and the species of the ions, the calibration is fundamental for the correct interpretation of the experimental results. The calibration method and arrangement exploits the unique emission symmetry of a specific source of fast ions and atoms driven by a high power laser.

  13. Atomic emission spectrometric determination of ephedrine, cinchonine, chlorpheniramine, atropine and diphenhydramine based on formation of ion associates with ammonium reineckate.

    PubMed

    Khalil, S

    1999-12-01

    Ion-associate complexes of ephedrine HCl (I), cinchonine HCl (II), chlorpheniramine maleate (III), atropine sulphate (IV) and diphenhydramine HCl (V) with ammonium reineckate were precipitated and their solubilities were studied as a function of pH, ionic strength and temperature. Saturated solutions of each ion-associate under the optimum precipitation conditions were prepared and the Cr ion content in the supernatant was determined. The solubility products were thus elucidated at different temperatures. A new accurate and precise method using direct current plasma-atomic emission spectrometry for the determination of the investigated drugs in pure solutions and in pharmaceutical preparations is described. The drugs can determined by the present method in the ranges 1.6-52,2.64-85.8,3.12-101.4,5.52-180.4 and 2.72-75.85 microg/ml solutions of I, II, III, IV and V, respectively.

  14. Indirect atomic absorption determination of atropine, diphenhydramine, tolazoline, and levamisole based on formation of ion-associates with potassium tetraiodometrcurate.

    PubMed

    El Ries, M A; Khalil, S

    2001-04-01

    Ion-associate complexes of atropine sulphate (I), diphenhydramine HCl (II), tolazoline HCl (III) and levamisole HCl (IV) with potassium tetraiodomercurate were precipitated and their solubilities were studied as a function of pH, ionic strength and temperature. Saturated solutions of each ion-associate under the optimum precipitation conditions were prepared and the metal ion-content in the supernatant was determined. The solubility products were thus calculated at different temperatures. A new accurate and precise method using atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of the investigated drugs in pure solutions and in pharmaceutical preparations is described. The drugs can be determined by the present method in the ranges 13.6--138.8, 5.6-58, 3.6--39.6 and 4.8--48 microg/ml solutions of I--IV, respectively.

  15. Thomson spectrometer-microchannel plate assembly calibration for MeV-range positive and negative ions, and neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, R.; Abicht, F.; Borghesi, M.; Braenzel, J.; Nickles, P. V.; Priebe, G.; Schnürer, M.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2013-05-01

    We report on the absolute calibration of a microchannel plate (MCP) detector, used in conjunction with a Thomson parabola spectrometer. The calibration delivers the relation between a registered count numbers in the CCD camera (on which the MCP phosphor screen is imaged) and the number of ions incident on MCP. The particle response of the MCP is evaluated for positive, negative, and neutral particles at energies below 1 MeV. As the response of MCP depends on the energy and the species of the ions, the calibration is fundamental for the correct interpretation of the experimental results. The calibration method and arrangement exploits the unique emission symmetry of a specific source of fast ions and atoms driven by a high power laser.

  16. Role of silver ions in destabilization of intermolecular adhesion forces measured by atomic force microscopy in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Chaw, K C; Manimaran, M; Tay, Francis E H

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the potential use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a tool to measure the intermolecular forces in biofilm structures and to study the effect of silver ions on sessile Staphylococcus epidermidis cell viability and stability. We propose a strategy of destabilizing the biofilm matrix by reducing the intermolecular forces within the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) using a low concentration (50 ppb) of silver ions. Our AFM studies on the intermolecular forces within the EPSs of S. epidermidis RP62A and S.epidermidis 1457 biofilms suggest that the silver ions can destabilize the biofilm matrix by binding to electron donor groups of the biological molecules. This leads to reductions in the number of binding sites for hydrogen bonds and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and, hence, the destabilization of the biofilm structure.

  17. Formation rate for Rb 2 + molecular ions created in collisions of Rb Rydberg and ground-state atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanojevic, Jovica; Côté, Robin

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the formation rate of the molecular Rb2+ion in its various bound states produced in the associative ionization of a Rydberg and a ground-state atom. Before the formation takes place, the colliding atoms are accelerated by an attractive force between the collision partners. In this way the ground-state atom is first captured by the Rydberg electron and then guided towards the positive ion-core where a molecular ion is subsequently formed. As recently demonstrated, this process results in giant collisional cross sections for the molecular ion formation, with the cross sections essentially determined by the size of the Rydberg atom. For sufficient high principal quantum numbers and atomic densities, many ground-state atoms are already located inside the Rydberg atom and ready to participate in the associative ionization. The same process can occur between a Rydberg and a ground-state atom that form a long-range Rydberg molecule, possibly contributing to the shortening of the lifetimes of Rydberg atoms and molecules. Partial support from the US Army Research Office (ARO-MURI W911NF-14-1-0378), and from NSF (Grant No. PHY-1415560).

  18. Simulation of the low earth orbital atomic oxygen interaction with materials by means of an oxygen ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Paulsen, Phillip E.; Steuber, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is the predominant species in low-Earth orbit between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km. These highly reactive atoms are a result of photodissociation of diatomic oxygen molecules from solar photons having a wavelength less than or equal to 2430A. Spacecraft in low-Earth orbit collide with atomic oxygen in the 3P ground state at impact energies of approximately 4.2 to 4.5 eV. As a consequence, organic materials previously used for high altitude geosynchronous spacecraft are severely oxidized in the low-Earth orbital environment. The evaluation of materials durability to atomic oxygen requires ground simulation of this environment to cost effectively screen materials for durability. Directed broad beam oxygen sources are necessary to evaluate potential spacecraft materials performance before and after exposure to the simulated low-Earth orbital environment. This paper presents a description of a low energy, broad oxygen ion beam source used to simulate the low-Earth orbital atomic oxygen environment. The results of materials interaction with this beam and comparison with actual in-space tests of the same meterials will be discussed. Resulting surface morphologies appear to closely replicate those observed in space tests.

  19. Low-Altitude Emission of Energetic Neutral Atoms: A New Diagnostic of the Energetics of Ion Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.; Nair, H.

    2010-12-01

    We describe a new theoretical understanding of the emission of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) generated by the precipitation of energetic magnetospheric ions into the Earth’s monatomic oxygen (O) exosphere (200-800 km). This low altitude emission (LAE) is the brightest ENA source in images obtained from Astrid-1/PIPPI, IMAGE/MENA/HENA, and TWINS1/2. The upward ENA “albedo” from the precipitating protons in the energy range 1-100 keV can approach 50% of the incident proton intensity. Unlike FUV imaging, ENA imaging of the LAE allows us to extract the detailed (not integrated) energy spectrum of the precipitating protons. We have verified this claim by comparing ENA images from TWINS 1/2 with in situ ion spectra measured by DMSP spacecraft (~825 km altitude) flying simultaneously under the ENA LAE regions (Bazell et al., J. Geophys. Res., in press 2010, and also this Conference). Quantitative extraction of proton spectra from the ENA images requires a “thick-target” theory that treats properly the multiple atomic collisions (charge exchange of protons, stripping ENA H-atoms) and associated energy losses (including ionization and excitation). Analytic solutions to the coupled proton/H-atom transport equations have been obtained, and they provide quantitative insight into the strong dependence of the ENA LAE upon the pitch angle and the energy of the precipitating protons. Since global ENA images of LAE can be obtained with exposure times of a minute or so during large geomagnetic storms, the distribution in magnetic latitude and local time of their evolving spectra contain critical diagnostics of the physics of not only the precipitation process, but also of the acceleration of the energetic ions themselves. Simulated 24 keV ENA low altitude emission viewed from TWINS-2 generated by precipitating protons below a DMSP pass (Bazell et al., JGR, in press, 2010).

  20. Modeling the near-Earth interaction between ring current ions and exospheric neutrals: escape through energetic neutral atoms (ENAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LLera, K.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    The two major loss processes for ring current decay are precipitation and energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). Since the exospheric neutral density increases with decreasing altitudes, precipitating ring current ions (reaching down to 200 - 800 km in altitude) also produce low-altitude ENA signatures that can be stronger than the ring current emission at equatorial distances ( 2 - 9 Re). The higher density results in multiple collisions between the ring current ions and exospheric oxygen. The affect on hydrogen ions is the focus of this study. Since the H particle sustains energy loss ( 36 eV) at each neutralizing or re-ionizing interaction, the escaped ENAs do not directly reflect the ring current properties. We model the energy loss due to multiple charge exchange and electron stripping interactions of 1 - 100 keV precipitating ring current ions undergo before emerging as low-altitude ENAs. The H particle is either an ion or an ENA throughout the simulation. Their lifetime is analytically determined by the length of one mean free path. We track the ion state with Lorentz motion while the ENA travels ballistically across the geomagnetic field. Our simulations show the energy loss is greater than 20% for hydrogen ring current ions below 30 keV (60 keV for the simulations that wander equatorward). This is the first quantification of the energy loss associated with the creation of low-altitude ENAs. Our model (currently constrained in the meridional plane) has revealed characteristics on how precipitation is affected by the near-Earth neutral exosphere. This ion-neutral interaction removes particles from the loss cone but promotes loss through ENA generation. These findings should be implemented in models predicting the ring current decay and used as an analysis tool to reconstruct the ring current population from observed low-altitude ENAs.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition for Improved Electrochemical Stability for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Leah Autumn

    2011-12-01

    The dwindling supply of fossil fuels and the harmful green house gases which they produce have driven research towards developing a reliable and safe solution. Alternative forms of transportation, such as hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and all electric vehicles in turn have recently received vast consumer attention. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are seen as the most promising option in HEVs and PHEVs. However, while prevalent in watches, computers and phones, significant improvements in both energy density and rate capability need to be achieved before LIBs are suitable for vehicular applications. Decades of research has yielded a range of anode and cathode materials that exhibit higher capacity and better rate capability than the traditional graphite and LiCoO2 found in commercial batteries. Unfortunately due to material pulverization and electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions high performance materials are often plagued with poor capacity retention and material degradation. Surprisingly, many of the issues accompanying high performance materials can be suppressed by the application of as little as 8 angstroms of Al 2O3 on the surface. Ultra-thin, conformal, ceramic passivating layers are grown using a thin film technique called Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Self-limiting and easily tailored, ALD is a superior coating method compared to the more common wet-chemical methods such as sol-gel. Conformal ALD is applied to commercially common materials (graphite, LiCoO2), as well as high energy density alternatives (MoO3, Li(Ni1/3 Mn1/3Co1/3)O2). It will be shown that the ALD coating protects high surface area state-of-the-art nanoparticles from decomposition and protects electrode surfaces from HF attack and dissolution even up to 5.0 V. In addition to extending overall electrochemical cycling stability, ALD will be shown to minimize hazards and risks, such as thermal runaway, by preventing unwanted side reactions with the organic liquid electrolyte. ALD

  2. Investigations of ion-irradiated uranium dioxide nuclear fuel with laser-assisted atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valderrama, Billy

    Performance in commercial light water reactors is dictated by the ability of its fuel material, uranium dioxide (UO2), to transport heat generated during the fission process. It is widely known that the service lifetime is limited by irradiation-induced microstructural changes that degrade the thermal performance of UO2. Studying the role of complex, often interacting mechanisms that occur during the early stages of microstructural evolution presents a challenge. Phenomena of particular interest are the segregation of fission products to form bubbles and their resultant effect on grain boundary (GB) mobility, and the effect of irradiation on fuel stoichiometry. Each mechanism has a profound consequence on fuel thermal conductivity. Several advanced analytical techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, etc. have been used to study these mechanisms. However, they each have limitations and cannot individually provide the necessary information for deeper understanding. One technique that has been under utilized is atom probe tomography (APT), which has a unique ability to spatially resolve small-scale chemical variations. APT uses the principle of field ionization to evaporate surface ions for chemical analysis. For low electrical conductivity systems, a pulsed laser is used to thermally assist in the evaporation process. One factor complicating the analysis is that laser-material interactions are poorly understood for oxide materials and literature using this technique with UO2 is lacking. Therefore, an initial systematic study to identify the optimal conditions for the analysis of UO2 using laser-assisted APT was conducted. A comparative study on the evaporation behavior between CeO2 and UO2 was followed. CeO2 was chosen due to its technological relevancy and availability of comparative studies with laser-assisted APT. Dissimilar evaporation behavior between these materials was identified and attributed

  3. Transfer of a weakly bound electron in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles. II. Ion-pair formation and resonant quenching of the Rb(nl) and Ne(nl) States by Ca, Sr, and Ba atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2013-10-15

    Electron-transfer processes are studied in thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms with alkaline-earth Ca(4s{sup 2}), Sr(5s{sup 2}), and Ba(6s{sup 2}) atoms capable of forming negative ions with a weakly bound outermost p-electron. We consider the ion-pair formation and resonant quenching of highly excited atomic states caused by transitions between Rydberg covalent and ionic terms of a quasi-molecule produced in collisions of particles. The contributions of these reaction channels to the total depopulation cross section of Rydberg states of Rb(nl) and Ne(nl) atoms as functions of the principal quantum number n are compared for selectively excited nl-levels with l Much-Less-Than n and for states with large orbital quantum numbers l = n - 1, n - 2. It is shown that the contribution from resonant quenching dominates at small values of n, and the ion-pair formation process begins to dominate with increasing n. The values and positions of the maxima of cross sections for both processes strongly depend on the electron affinity of an alkaline-earth atom and on the orbital angular momentum l of a highly excited atom. It is shown that in the case of Rydberg atoms in states with large l {approx} n - 1, the rate constants of ion-pair formation and collisional quenching are considerably lower than those for nl-levels with l Much-Less-Than n.

  4. Preconcentration of gold ions from water samples by modified organo-nanoclay sorbent prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Daryoush; Mostafavi, Ali; Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    In this work, the applicability of modified organo nanoclay as a new and easy prepared solid sorbent for the preconcentration of trace amounts of Au(III) ion from water samples is studied. The organo nanoclay was modified with 5-(4'-dimethylamino benzyliden)-rhodanine and used as a sorbent for separation of Au(III) ions. The sorption of gold ions was quantitative in the pH range of 2.0-6.0. Quantitative desorption occurred with 6.0 mL of 1.0 mol L(-1) Na(2)S(2)O(3). The amount of eluted Au(III) was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In the initial solution the linear dynamic range was in the range of 0.45 ng mL(-1) to 10.0 microg mL(-1), the detection limit was 0.1 ng mL(-1) and the preconcentration factor was 105. Also, the relative standard deviation was +/-2.3% (n=8 and C=2.0 microg mL(-1)) and the maximum capacity of the sorbent was 3.9 mg of Au(III) per gram of modified organo nanoclay. The influences of the experimental parameters including sample pH, eluent volume and eluent type, sample volume, and interference of some ions on the recoveries of the gold ion were investigated. The proposed method was applied for preconcentration and determination of gold in different samples.

  5. Two-color above-threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and intense laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seipt, D.; Müller, R. A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target atoms with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analog to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of the atoms relative to the beam. For macroscopically extended targets, in contrast, three of these dichroism signals tend to zero, while the other four just coincide with the standard circular dichroism, similar as for Bessel beams with a small opening angle. Detailed computations of the dichroism are performed and discussed for the 4 s valence-shell photoionization of Ca+ ions.

  6. Colorimetric and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mucolytic drug ambroxol through ion-pair formation with iron and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Levent, Abdulkadir; Sentürk, Zühre

    2010-09-01

    Colorimetric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods have been developed for the determination of mucolytic drug Ambroxol. These procedures depend upon the reaction of iron(III) metal ion with the drug in the presence of thiocyanate ion to form stable ion-pair complex which extractable chloroform. The red-coloured complex was determined either colorimetrically at 510 nm or by indirect atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) via the determination of the iron content in the formed complex. The optimum experimental conditions for pH, concentrations of Fe(3+) and SCN(-), shaking time, phase ratio, and the number of extractions were determined. Under the proposed conditions, linearity was obeyed in the concentration ranges 4.1x10(-6) - 5.7x10(-5) M (1.7-23.6 µg mL(-1)) using both methods, with detection limits of 4.6x10(-7) M (0.19 µg mL(-1)) for colorimetry and 1.1x10(-6) M (0.46 µg mL(-1)) for AAS. The proposed methods were applied for the determination of Ambroxol in tablet dosage forms. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode-array detection.

  7. Time-dependence ion charge state distributions of vacuum arcs: An interpretation involving atoms and charge exchange collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2004-08-27

    Experimentally observed charge state distributions are known to be higher at the beginning of each arc discharge. Up to know, this has been attributed to cathode surface effects in terms of changes of temperature, chemical composition and spot mode. Here it is shown that the initial decay of charge states of cathodic arc plasmas may at least in part due to charge exchange collisions of ions with neutrals that gradually fill the discharge volume. Sources of neutrals may include evaporated atoms from macroparticles and still-hot craters of previously active arc spots. More importantly, atoms are also produced by energetic condensation of the cathodic arc plasma. Self-sputtering is significant when ions impact with near-normal angle of incidence, and ions have low sticking probability when impacting at oblique angle of incidence. Estimates show that the characteristic time for filling the near-cathode discharge volume agrees well with the charge state decay time, and the likelihood of charge exchange is reasonably large to be taken into account.

  8. Role of ionization-excitation processes in the cross section for direct ionization of heavy atomic ions by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, J. L.; Liu, L. P.; Liu, P. F.; Yuan, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    The contribution to the ionization cross section of ionization-excitation processes by electron impact is usually negligibly small for low- and medium-Z elements. We demonstrate here, however, that for heavy atomic ions with the outermost shell being n d (n =4 ,5 ) the ionization-excitation processes play an evident role in the ionization cross section. For the 4 s24 p64 d10 ground level of Gd18 +, the ionization-excitation cross section due to the excitation of levels in the 4 s24 p64 d84 f configuration is comparable to the direct 4 p and 4 s ionization cross sections of (4s24 p54 d10) 1 /2 and (4s 4 p64 d10) 1 /2. The total ionization cross section will be underestimated by 15% without including the contribution from ionization-excitation processes. This is a general conclusion for heavy atomic ions, which is verified by taking Pd-like ions of Sn4 +,Ba10 +,Nd14 +,Tb19 +,Yb24 +, and W28 + as examples. The role of ionization-excitation processes can be understood from the overlapping of the wave functions between the 4 d and 4 f orbitals.

  9. Measurement of a large chemical reaction rate between ultracold closed-shell 40Ca atoms and open-shell 174Yb+ ions held in a hybrid atom-ion trap.

    PubMed

    Rellergert, Wade G; Sullivan, Scott T; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander; Chen, Kuang; Schowalter, Steven J; Hudson, Eric R

    2011-12-09

    Ultracold 174Yb+ ions and 40Ca atoms are confined in a hybrid trap. The charge exchange chemical reaction rate constant between these two species is measured and found to be 4 orders of magnitude larger than recent measurements in other heteronuclear systems. The structure of the CaYb+ molecule is determined and used in a calculation that explains the fast chemical reaction as a consequence of strong radiative charge transfer. A possible explanation is offered for the apparent contradiction between typical theoretical predictions and measurements of the radiative association process in this and other recent experiments.

  10. Measurement of a Large Chemical Reaction Rate between Ultracold Closed-Shell {sup 40}Ca Atoms and Open-Shell {sup 174}Yb{sup +} Ions Held in a Hybrid Atom-Ion Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Rellergert, Wade G.; Sullivan, Scott T.; Chen Kuang; Schowalter, Steven J.; Hudson, Eric R.; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander

    2011-12-09

    Ultracold {sup 174}Yb{sup +} ions and {sup 40}Ca atoms are confined in a hybrid trap. The charge exchange chemical reaction rate constant between these two species is measured and found to be 4 orders of magnitude larger than recent measurements in other heteronuclear systems. The structure of the CaYb{sup +} molecule is determined and used in a calculation that explains the fast chemical reaction as a consequence of strong radiative charge transfer. A possible explanation is offered for the apparent contradiction between typical theoretical predictions and measurements of the radiative association process in this and other recent experiments.

  11. Very strong Rydberg atom scattering in K(12p)-CH3NO2 collisions: Role of transient ion pair formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, M.; Buathong, S.; Dunning, F. B.

    2017-05-01

    Collisions between K(12p) Rydberg atoms and CH3NO2 target molecules are studied. Whereas CH3NO2 can form long-lived valence-bound CH3NO2-ions, the data provide no evidence for production of long-lived K+⋯ CH3NO2 - ion pair states. Rather, the data show that collisions result in unusually strong Rydberg atom scattering. This behavior is attributed to ion-ion scattering resulting from formation of transient ion pair states through transitions between the covalent K(12p) + CH3NO2 and ionic K+ + (dipole bound) CH3NO2-terms in the quasimolecule formed during collisions. The ion-pair states are destroyed through rapid dissociation of the CH3NO2 - ions induced by the field of the K+ core ion, the detached electron remaining bound to the K+ ion in a Rydberg state. Analysis of the experimental data shows that ion pair lifetimes ≳10 ps are sufficient to account for the present observations. The present results are consistent with recent theoretical predictions that Rydberg collisions with CH3NO2 will result in strong collisional quenching. The work highlights a new mechanism for Rydberg atom scattering that could be important for collisions with other polar targets. For purposes of comparison, results obtained following K(12p)-SF6 collisions are also included.

  12. Bias in bonding behavior among boron, carbon, and nitrogen atoms in ion implanted a-BN, a-BC, and diamond like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Genisel, Mustafa Fatih; Uddin, Md. Nizam; Say, Zafer; Bengu, Erman; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit; Gulseren, Oguz

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we implanted N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +} ions into sputter deposited amorphous boron carbide (a-BC) and diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films in an effort to understand the chemical bonding involved and investigate possible phase separation routes in boron carbon nitride (BCN) films. In addition, we investigated the effect of implanted C{sup +} ions in sputter deposited amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) films. Implanted ion energies for all ion species were set at 40 KeV. Implanted films were then analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes in the chemical composition and bonding chemistry due to ion-implantation were examined at different depths of the films using sequential ion-beam etching and high resolution XPS analysis cycles. A comparative analysis has been made with the results from sputter deposited BCN films suggesting that implanted nitrogen and carbon atoms behaved very similar to nitrogen and carbon atoms in sputter deposited BCN films. We found that implanted nitrogen atoms would prefer bonding to carbon atoms in the films only if there is no boron atom in the vicinity or after all available boron atoms have been saturated with nitrogen. Implanted carbon atoms also preferred to either bond with available boron atoms or, more likely bonded with other implanted carbon atoms. These results were also supported by ab-initio density functional theory calculations which indicated that carbon-carbon bonds were energetically preferable to carbon-boron and carbon-nitrogen bonds.

  13. Choline ion interactions with DNA atoms explain unique stabilization of A-T base pairs in DNA duplexes: a microscopic view.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Miki; Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Tanaka, Shigenori; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-16

    Under physiological conditions, G-C base pairs are more stable than A-T base pairs. In a previous study, we showed that in the hydrated ionic liquid of choline dihydrogen phosphate, the stabilities of these base pairs are reversed. In the present study, we elucidated the unique binding interactions of choline ions with DNA atoms from a microscopic viewpoint using molecular dynamics simulations. Three times more choline ions bind to the DNA duplex than sodium ions. Sodium ions bind closely but not stably; in contrast, the choline ions bind through multiple hydrogen bonding networks with DNA atoms stably. The affinity of choline ion for the minor groove of A-T base pairs is more than 2 times that for other groove areas. In the narrow A-T minor groove, choline ion has high affinity for the ribose atoms of thymine. Choline ions also destabilize the formation of hydrogen bonds between G-C base pairs by binding to base atoms preferentially for both of duplex and single-strand DNA, which are associated with the bonds between G-C base pairs. Our new finding will not only lead to better control of DNA stability for use in DNA nanodevices, but also provide new insight into the stability of DNA duplexes under crowding conditions found in living cells.

  14. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-ionized atoms in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R.E.; Bennett, C.; Chen, M.H.; Cowan, T.; Dietrich, D.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Levine, M.A.; Schneider, M.B.; Scofield, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged-ions (q /le/ 70+) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of dielectronic recombination, electron impact excitation and transition energies are presented. 15 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. An independent atom model description of ion-molecule collisions including geometric screening corrections: application to biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdde, H. J.; Achenbach, A.; Kalkbrenner, T.; Jankowiak, H. C.; Kirchner, T.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, we proposed to calculate electron removal cross sections for ion-molecule collisions in an independent atom model that accounts for geometric screening corrections. The correction coefficients are obtained from using a pixel counting method (PCM) for the exact calculation of the effective cross sectional area that emerges when the molecular cross section is pictured as a structure of (overlapping) atomic cross sections. This structure varies with the relative orientation of the molecule with respect to the projectile beam direction and, accordingly, orientation-independent total cross sections are obtained from averaging the pixel count over many orientations. In this contribution, we apply the PCM to proton collisions from amino acids and DNA and RNA nucleobases. The strength of the screening effect is analyzed by comparing the PCM results with Bragg additivity rule cross sections and with experimental data where available. Work supported by NSERC, Canada.

  16. Intramolecular Halogen Atom Coordinated H Transfer via Ion-Neutral Complex in the Gas Phase Dissociation of Protonated Dichlorvos Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Cheng, Shuai

    2017-10-01

    Intramolecular halogen atom coordinated H transfer reaction in the gas phase dissociation of protonated dichlorvos derivatives has been explored by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Upon collisional activation, protonated dichlorvos underwent dissociation reaction via cleavage of the P-O bond to give reactive ion-neutral complex (INC) intermediate, [dimethoxylphosphinoylium + dichloroacetaldehyde]. Besides direct dissociation of the complex, intramolecular chlorine atom coordinated H transfer reaction within the complex takes place, leading to the formation of protonated dimethyl chlorophosphate. To investigate the fragmentation mechanism, deuterium-labeled experiments and several other halogen-substituted (Br and F) analogs of dichlorvos were prepared and evaluated, which display a similar intramolecular halogen transfer. Density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations were performed and the computational results also support the mechanism. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Pickup Ion Production in the Global Heliosphere and Heliosheath and Their Diagnostics by Fluxes of Energetic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    An anisotropic particle transport model, based on an expansion of a focused transport equation in Legendre polynomials, is used here as a tool to analyze the distributions of pickup ions (PUIs) in the heliosphere and heliosheath. A three-dimensional, MHD-kinetic model for flows of a thermal plasma, neutral atoms and PUIs has been developed. The preliminary results from our model are in qualitative agreement with observations made by New Horizons, Ulysses, Voyager 1 and 2. All-sky maps of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) fluxes with energies of about 0.2-6 keV based on our current PUI model are qualitatively similar to IBEX-Hi distributed ENA maps. Also, simulated spectra of ENA fluxes nearly match IBEX-Hi spectra of distributed ENA fluxes. It is demonstrated that preserving some pitch-angle information of the PUI distribution is important for correctly interpreting the data.

  18. Intramolecular Halogen Atom Coordinated H Transfer via Ion-Neutral Complex in the Gas Phase Dissociation of Protonated Dichlorvos Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Cheng, Shuai

    2017-07-01

    Intramolecular halogen atom coordinated H transfer reaction in the gas phase dissociation of protonated dichlorvos derivatives has been explored by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Upon collisional activation, protonated dichlorvos underwent dissociation reaction via cleavage of the P-O bond to give reactive ion-neutral complex (INC) intermediate, [dimethoxylphosphinoylium + dichloroacetaldehyde]. Besides direct dissociation of the complex, intramolecular chlorine atom coordinated H transfer reaction within the complex takes place, leading to the formation of protonated dimethyl chlorophosphate. To investigate the fragmentation mechanism, deuterium-labeled experiments and several other halogen-substituted (Br and F) analogs of dichlorvos were prepared and evaluated, which display a similar intramolecular halogen transfer. Density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations were performed and the computational results also support the mechanism.

  19. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion: Atom collisions. Technical progress report, 1 September 1991--31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kvale, T.J.

    1994-09-27

    This report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past three years of the grant. This research project is designed to study various scattering processes which occur in H{sup {minus}} collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets in the intermediate energy region. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H{sup {minus}} is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements will provide total cross sections (TCS) initially, and once the angular positioning apparatus is installed, will provide angular differential cross sections (ADCS).

  20. Photodissociation of Trapped Rb2+: Implications for Simultaneous Trapping of Atoms and Molecular Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothi, S.; Ray, Tridib; Dutta, Sourav; Allouche, A. R.; Vexiau, Romain; Dulieu, Olivier; Rangwala, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The direct photodissociation of trapped 85Rb2+ (rubidium) molecular ions by the cooling light for the 85Rb magneto-optical trap (MOT) is studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Vibrationally excited Rb2+ ions are created by photoionization of Rb2 molecules formed photoassociatively in the Rb MOT and are trapped in a modified spherical Paul trap. The decay rate of the trapped Rb2+ ion signal in the presence of the MOT cooling light is measured and agreement with our calculated rates for molecular ion photodissociation is observed. The photodissociation mechanism due to the MOT light is expected to be active and therefore universal for all homonuclear diatomic alkali metal molecular ions.