Science.gov

Sample records for multi-isotope dd d18o

  1. Isolating relative humidity: dual isotopes d18O and dD as deuterium deviations from the global meteoric water line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cellulose d18O and dD can provide insights on climates and hydrological cycling in the distant past and how these factors differ spatially. However, most studies of plant cellulose have used only one isotope, most commonly d18O, resulting in difficulties partitioning variation in d18O of precipitati...

  2. A temporal stable isotopic (d18O, dD, d-excess) comparison in glacier meltwater streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper, we describe the importance of hyporheic dynamics within Andersen Creek and Von Guerard Stream, Taylor Valley, Antarctica, from the 2010-11 melt season using natural tracers. Water collection started at flow onset and continued, with weekly hyporheic zone sampling. The water d18O and d...

  3. A precise method for the analysis of d18O of dissolved inorganic phosphate in seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, K.; Silva, S.; Kendall, C.; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Paytan, A.

    2004-01-01

    A method for preparation and analysis of the oxygen isotope composition (d18O) of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) has been developed and preliminary results for water samples from various locations are reported. Phosphate is extracted from seawater samples by coprecipitation with magnesium hydroxide. Phosphate is further purified through a series of precipitations and resin separation and is ultimately converted to silver phosphate. Silver phosphate samples are pyrolitically decomposed to carbon monoxide and analyzed for d18O. Silver phosphate samples weighing 0.7 mg (3.5 mol oxygen) can be analyzed routinely with an average standard deviation of about 0.3. There is no isotope fractionation during extraction and blanks are negligible within analytical error. Reproducibility was determined for both laboratory standards and natural samples by multiple analyses. A comparison between filtered and unfiltered natural seawater samples was also conducted and no appreciable difference was observed for the samples tested. The d18O values of DIP in seawater determined using this method range from 18.6 to 22.3, suggesting small but detectable natural variability in seawater. For the San Francisco Bay estuary DIP d18O is more variable, ranging from 11.4 near the San Joaquin River to 20.1 near the Golden Gate Bridge, and was well correlated with salinity, phosphate concentration, and d18O of water.

  4. Patterns of d18O in fish tissues in two Oregon Coast range streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. As part of this work we have examined changes in d18O in coho salmon juveniles (from eggs to smolting) and sculpin (from 0.5 to 20 gm.). For fish...

  5. Patterns of d18O in fish tissues in two Oregon Coast range streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. As part of this work we have examined changes in d18O in coho salmon juveniles (from eggs to smolting) and sculpin (from 0.5 to 20 gm.). For fish...

  6. Laser based water equilibration method for d18O determination of water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandic, Magda; Smajgl, Danijela; Stoebener, Nils

    2017-04-01

    Determination of d18O with water equilibration method using mass spectrometers equipped with equilibration unit or Gas Bench is known already for many years. Now, with development of laser spectrometers this extends methods and possibilities to apply different technologies in laboratory but also in the field. The Thermo Scientific™ Delta Ray™ Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectrometer (IRIS) analyzer with the Universal Reference Interface (URI) Connect and Teledyne Cetac ASX-7100 offers high precision and throughput of samples. It employs optical spectroscopy for continuous measurement of isotope ratio values and concentration of carbon dioxide in ambient air, and also for analysis of discrete samples from vials, syringes, bags, or other user-provided sample containers. Test measurements and conformation of precision and accuracy of method determination d18O in water samples were done in Thermo Fisher application laboratory with three lab standards, namely ANST, Ocean II and HBW. All laboratory standards were previously calibrated with international reference material VSMOW2 and SLAP2 to assure accuracy of the isotopic values of the water. With method that we present in this work achieved repeatability and accuracy are 0.16‰ and 0.71‰, respectively, which fulfill requirements of regulatory method for wine and must after equilibration with CO2.

  7. d18O in natural archives : possible influence of precipitation seasonality both at glacial-interglacial and decadal time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Daux, V.; Goosse, H.; von Grafenstein, U.; Hoffmann, G.; Jouzel, J.; Landais, A.; Werner, M.

    2004-05-01

    This presentation will be organised in two parts, focusing on the combined use of proxy d18O records and atmospheric modelling, suggesting reorganisations of the precipitation seasonal cycle both during ice ages (in Greenland) and during the "little ice age" (in western Europe). The apparent disagreement between Greenland ice core d18O temperature estimates versus alternative paleothermometry methods probably arises from past changes in glacial snowfall seasonality, as simulated by general circulation models. We discuss the possibility to account for this seasonality when interpreting the ice core d18O signal and propose an approach to extract, from the combined use of d18O and deuterium excess,, a reconstruction of past changes in site and source temperatures. At another temporal scale, we use the comparison of annual tree rings d18O records from Brittany, western France, with other instrumental and historical paleoclimate records (including grape harvest dates and human teeth phosphate isotopic composition) to suggest a significant change in precipitation seasonality during the Little Ice Age. This result is supported by ensemble millennial scale simulations conducted with an intermediate complexity climate model, ECBILT-CLIO. Such changes in the precipitation seasonal cycle may significantly influence d18O proxy records and therefore paleoclimatic reconstructions; the combined use of climate models and isotopic records is necessary to estimate this cause of bias.

  8. Sources of nitrate in the Arno River waters: Constraints from d15N and d18O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Buccianti, Antonella; Silva, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Running waters in anthropogenically affected areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination. Source identification is a fundamental step for the development of effective remediation. Previous studies pointed to pollution by nitrogen-bearing contaminants in the Arno Basin. In this paper, eleven surface water samples have been analysed for main and trace components and 15N/14N and 18O/16O ratios, with the aim of identifying for the first time the origin of nitrate in the Arno River Basin so that further investigations can appropriately be designed. d18O(NO3)and d15N(NO3) values have allowed to hypothesise the main sources of nitrate, as follows: i) mineralized fertilizer, ii) soil-organic nitrogen, iii) manure and septic waste. The anomalously high d15N and d18O values in the Chiana (d15N=24.9‰ and d18O=15.5‰) and Usciana tributaries (d15N=30.1‰ and d18O=7.2‰) show a low probability of belonging to the same population as that of the other samples and can be related to denitrification process of nitrate from animal waste/sewage and/or an industrial process (e.g. tanneries).

  9. Correlation Between Miocene Global Climatic Changes (d18O) and Magnetic Properties, Using Neuro Fuzzy Logic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, Vincenzo; da Silva, Ana; Hurtado, Nuri

    2010-05-01

    We have used the hybrid algorithm of neuro fuzzy logic (NFL), to establish a correlation between global climatic changes (benthic foraminiferal d18O data), experimental S-ratios and magnetic susceptibility (χ), in 44 samples of the Colombian stratigraphic well Saltarín 1A (Llanos foreland basin). χ and S-ratios were linked to global d18O data based on a constant accumulation rate for the stratigraphic interval flanked by the two age constrains available. A good inference (over 64%) is obtained using 4 fuzzy clusters or TKS type relationships. A stronger correlation is perhaps prevented by the likely influence of local and regional tectonic events and climatic changes that could have affected the Colombian Llanos foreland basin during Miocene times. For the Guayabo and León lithologies, it seems that the late diagenesis of the primary magnetic minerals and the assumption of a constant accumulation rate might have a minor influence on these results.

  10. Climate Phase and Long-Term Site Specific Patterns of Isotopes (d18O) in Precipitation across the U. S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, J. M.; White, J. W.; Vachon, R.; Zauscher, M.; Castro, C.; Pielke, R.

    2003-12-01

    Our understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of the isotopic characteristics of precipitation across the U. S. has been limited because no systematic analysis have been conducted across the U. S. during divergent climate phases or over extended recent time periods. Using weekly precipitation samples from a spatially complete set of sampling stations across the U. S. we have evaluate the following questions: a) what are the seasonal patterns of the isotopic (d18O) patterns across the U. S. during Neutral and El Nino phases, b) to what degree do differences in temperature, precipitation and climatology explain El Nino affects on the seasonal patterns of isotopes in precipitation and c) what are the long-term patterns and magnitudes of d18O-values in precipitation over a recent 10-year period for sites in the western, central and eastern U. S.? We have found that depleted precipitation dominates the Northern Rocky Mountain region, while relatively enriched precipitation occurs in the western U. S. and in the southern Great Lakes region, however, these patterns are season specific, being magnified in spring and fall. These seasonal differences appear to reflect climatological changes with intensification of the sub-tropical flow and a delay in the monsoon formation during El Nino phases. Time-series data for sites in the western U. S. exhibit the strongest annual and monthly temperature correlations with slopes ranging between 0.3 to 0.6oC per mil of d18O.

  11. Evaluating the source of streamwater nitrate using d15N and d18O in nitrate in two watersheds in New Hampshire, USA

    Treesearch

    Linda H. Pardo; Carol Kendall; Jennifer Pett-Ridge; Cecily C.Y. Chang; Cecily C.Y. Chang

    2004-01-01

    The natural abundance of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate can be a powerful tool for identifying the source of nitrate in streamwater in forested watersheds, because the two main sources of nitrate, atmospheric deposition and microbial nitrification, have distinct d18O values. Using a simple mixing model, we estimated the relative fractions in streamwater...

  12. FY09 PROGRESS: MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Laspe, Amy R.; Ward, Rebecca M.

    2009-10-18

    Model and experimental estimates of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor performance for determining burnup after dissolution and acid concentration during solvent extraction steps during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are presented.

  13. Major shifts in age control at ODP S. 982 near the Pliocene onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation - Composite depths and d18O stratigraphy revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelifi, Nabil; Sarnthein, Michael

    2010-05-01

    ODP Site 982 at Rockall Plateau provided a key sediment section for reconstructing northeast Atlantic paleoceanography over the Late Pliocene to Quaternary onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. By now, S. 982 served to monitor benthic d18O stratigraphy and the global d18O ice effect (Venz and Hodell, 2002; Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005), past changes in SST and SST phase relationships (Lawrence, 2009), trends in atmospheric pCO2 (Pagani et al., 2010) and Atlantic Intermediate Water composition, and the advection of Mediterranean Outflow Water (Khelifi, 2010, in prep.). A detailed revision of composite depths and magnetostratigraphy, and renewed fine-tuning of the benthic d18O record now led to a significant age shift (rejuvenation) of all proxy records by 20 to 150 ky during the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation 3.2-2.7 Ma, an interval of major climate change. The revised new SST records well compares with coeval SST trends previously published from ODP sites elsewhere in the northern North Atlantic (e.g., Bartoli et al., 2005). Our study demonstrates the crucial significance of assembling with care composite-depth scales and a reliable d18O stratigraphy in ODP sediment records as backbone for correlations in paleoceanography. Refs: G. Bartoli et al., 2005, EPSL, 237, 33-44. N. Khelifi, 2010, PhD Thesis Kiel University, in prep. K. Lawrence, 2009, Paleoceanogr., 24/2 Lisiecki and M. Raymo, 2005, Paleoceanogr., 20 PA1003, Pagani et al., 2010, Nature Geoscience, 3/1, Venz and D. Hodell, 2002, Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo., 182, 197-220.

  14. Toward the Inference of Deglacial Ocean Dynamics from the Spatial Pattern of LGM-to-Modern d13C and d18O Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, G.; Peterson, C. D.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Spero, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of the whole-ocean d13C change between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the modern-day are converging to values of about 0.4 per mil, and are of great use in partitioning land versus ocean contributions to the deglacial carbon cycle. To determine which specific oceanic processes are at play, however, knowledge of the spatial pattern of LGM-to-modern d13C and d18O change is critical. Spatial maps have mostly focused on Atlantic d13C, with less progress for d18O and the Pacific and Indian sectors, due to the concentration of sediment-core observations in the Atlantic and the difficulty in making meaningful maps from sparse data. Here, we demonstrate that a state estimation (or data assimilation) method based on recently compiled data and a simple kinematic ocean model simultaneously produces reasonable results for: 1) global maps of d13C and d18O, 2) uncertainty in the estimated properties, and 3) oceanic water-mass geometry. The observations include benthic d13C and d18O data from 493 marine sediment cores that were collected from the scientific literature and NOAA, PANGEA, and Delphi databases. The kinematic model permits each data point to have influence both up- and downstream along a water-mass pathway, typically allowing a larger geographical range than a statistical interpolation method. No assumption regarding the state of the circulation is necessary, and the modern-day circulation need not be assumed to be representative of the LGM. With this method, meridional (or other) sections can be compared between ocean basins. Furthermore, the internally-consistent d18O and d13C maps are used to determine the LGM-to-modern spatial changes that are robust given the uncertainty and sparsity of data. Rather than simply focus on property maps, we suggest that the link between observations and circulation changes (as reflected by the paths that water travels), points the way toward dynamical processes that must be explained. A particular application of our

  15. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for d18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Bohlke, Johnkarl F.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Brand, Willi A.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groning, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    IAEA-602 benzoic acid +71.28?±?0.36‰ USGS35 sodium nitrate +56.81?±?0.31‰ IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate +25.32?±?0.29‰ IAEA-601 benzoic acid +23.14?±?0.19‰ IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate +12.13?±?0.33‰ NBS 127 barium sulfate +8.59?±?0.26‰ VSMOW2 water 0‰ IAEA-600 caffeine -3.48?±?0.53‰ IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate -11.35?±?0.31‰ USGS34 potassium nitrate -27.78?±?0.37‰ SLAP water -55.5‰ The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for d18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (d18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the d18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA-SO-6, and NBS 127), or organic material (IAEA-601 benzoic acid, IAEA-602 benzoic acid, and IAEA-600 caffeine), as appropriate to the material being analyzed, had these reference materials been analyzed with unknowns. This procedure ensures that readers will be able to normalize the d18O values at a later time should it become necessary. The high-temperature reduction technique for analyzing d18O and d2H is not as widely applicable as the well-established combustion technique for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope determination. To obtain the most reliable stable isotope data, materials should be treated in an identical fashion; within the same sequence of analyses, samples should be compared with working reference materials that are as similar in nature and in isotopic composition as feasible."

  16. Oxygen isotopes of Pacific seawater, 0-40 kyr, based on d18O and Mg/Ca of benthic and planktic foraminifera: relation to deglacial sealevel rise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, A. C.; Klinkhammer, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    Combining high resolution (~200 year sample resolution) oxygen and carbon isotope measurements and Mg/Ca analyses in planktic (G. ruber and N. dutertrei) and benthic foraminifera (Uvigerina sp.; use of infaunal benthics minimizes likely CO3= effects) from the mid-depth eastern Pacific provides for detailed estimates of changing d18O of seawater over the past 40 kyr at ODP Site 1242. The key to this analysis is improved precision of the Mg/Ca analyses based on a new generation of high precision flow-through time-resolved analysis (FT-TRA) (e.g., average internal precision for Mg/Ca is now +/-0.005 benthic, and +/-0.015 planktic). This method is relatively insensitive to mild dissolution of heterogeneous shells, and thus requires no corrections for preservation. The change in seawater d18O (at 1364 m depth) between the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum is 1.2 +/- 0.04 permil when averaged over the stages, consistent with pore-water diffusion estimates; however, millennial scale events (which the pore-water data cannot detect) bring the total range up to about 1.6 permil. Are such short-term events related to sealevel change, or do they reflect changing watermasses? Measurements of d13C data (C. wuellerstorfi), sensitive to modern subsurface watermass gradients, are not highly correlated to short- term changes in d18Oseawater suggesting a transient response to ice volume changes. Glacial weakening of AAIW (salty, high d18O, high d13C) relative to north Pacific watermasses (fresher, lower d18O, low d13C) suggest that the benthic d18Oseawater may underestimate total local changes related to ice volume (with a caveat regarding proper scaling of benthic Mg/Ca to temperature). Benthic d18Oseawater falls through the deglaciation in steps, starting at 18 cal ka, with maximum rates of change at 14-15 ka, and with secondary rapid steps at 16-17 ka and 10-11 kar. Planktic foraminifera yield smaller glacial-interglacial d18Oseawater values, with Holocene-to-LGM stage- average

  17. Sea-surface and deep-sea temperatures and seawater d18O in the Southern Ocean over the last 440,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripati, A.; Greaves, M.; Elderfield, H.; Hall, I.; Barker, S.

    2004-12-01

    The circulation of Antarctic Bottom Water is one of the controlling factors in the Earth's heat budget, and therefore Southern Ocean paleoceanography is critical to understanding glacial-interglacial climate change. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1123 (3290 m water depth) on Chatham Rise (41° 47.15' S, 171° 28.94' W) is located just north of the present-day Subtropical Convergence, below the Pacific Deep Western Boundary Current, within the depth range of Antarctic Bottom Water. The recovered sedimentary sequence from ODP Site 1123 contains a record of Southern Ocea, hydrographic variations over several glacial-interglacial cycles: We present a 440,000 year record of surface and deepwater hydrographic variability based measurements of Mg/Ca and stable isotope ratios in planktic and benthic foraminifera. Planktic Mg/Ca-based temperatures indicate a maximum glacial-interglacial temp. change of 7.5°C. The planktic record shares many features in common with a record from a shallower site located just south of the Subtropical Convergence excepth that temp. changes across Termin. 1 and 2 aren't seen at Site 1123. Possible reasons for this include hydrographic differences between sites, foraminiferal habitat, and dissolution artifacts. Glacial-interglacial benthic Mg/Ca differences are variable through the record, with coldest temperatures inferred for Stages 8 and 10. Deep-water temps. based on Mg/Ca indicate LGM values of -0.8°C (calibration of Martin et al. 2002) and a seawater d18O of 1.0 per mil (VSMOW), similar to the porewater-based reconstruction at this site (Adkins et al. 2002).

  18. The new frontiers of multimodality and multi-isotope imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnam Azad, Babak; Nimmagadda, Sridhar

    2014-06-01

    Technological advances in imaging systems and the development of target specific imaging tracers has been rapidly growing over the past two decades. Recent progress in "all-in-one" imaging systems that allow for automated image coregistration has significantly added to the growth of this field. These developments include ultra high resolution PET and SPECT scanners that can be integrated with CT or MR resulting in PET/CT, SPECT/CT, SPECT/PET and PET/MRI scanners for simultaneous high resolution high sensitivity anatomical and functional imaging. These technological developments have also resulted in drastic enhancements in image quality and acquisition time while eliminating cross compatibility issues between modalities. Furthermore, the most cutting edge technology, though mostly preclinical, also allows for simultaneous multimodality multi-isotope image acquisition and image reconstruction based on radioisotope decay characteristics. These scientific advances, in conjunction with the explosion in the development of highly specific multimodality molecular imaging agents, may aid in realizing simultaneous imaging of multiple biological processes and pave the way towards more efficient diagnosis and improved patient care.

  19. Experimental Validation of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Douglas, Matthew; Christensen, Richard

    2010-05-13

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with personnel from The Ohio State University, are working to develop a system for monitoring spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities on-line, non-destructively, and in near-real-time. This method, known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, is based upon the measurement of distribution patterns of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within particular process streams. Distribution patterns, monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry, are then compared in near-real-time to patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. By targeting gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout the facility. In addition, utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, increases the likelihood that attempts to divert material via process manipulation would be detected. Proof-of-principle modeling exercises simulating changes in acid strength have been completed and the results are promising. Laboratory validation is currently under way and significant results are available. The latest experimental results, along with an overview of the method will be presented.

  20. 10. DD and GG breaker building and associated conveyors. DD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DD and GG breaker building and associated conveyors. DD is coke transfer hous ein foreground; GG is breaker building in center. Coal bunker is tall building to left; 2-story coke conveyor on left brought coal to powerhouse pulverizer. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  1. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164...

  2. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164...

  3. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164 ...

  4. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164 ...

  5. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164 ...

  6. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  7. Physiological responses of a young Picea Sitchensis stand to long-term nitrogen and sulphur deposition: a lesson from d13C, d18O and d15N in tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Borghetti, Marco; Levy, Peter; Perks, Mike; Saurer, Matthias; Sheppard, Lucy; Sutton, Mark

    2010-05-01

    deposition on tree physiological traits were investigated in a young Picea Sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. plantation on an acid peat soil (Deepsyke forest, Scotland, UK). The Deepsyke experiment is unique in providing the opportunity to evaluate the long-term effects of frequent aerial N and S spraying onto a forest canopy for a period of 5 to 8 years. The adopted approach was based on the measurements of stable carbon (d13C), oxygen (d18O) and nitrogen (d15N) isotope composition in tree rings. We used d13C for assessing changes in WUEi, while the degree of photosynthetic and stomatal responses to the different treatments were investigated using a conceptual model, combining variations of d13C and d18O. The differences between canopy vs. soil N applications were evaluated as magnitude of changes in WUEi and underlying mechanisms involved. Furthermore, physiological responses were also assessed in relation to leaf nutrient status. Finally, changes in tree internal N cycle in relation to canopy nitrogen uptake and the relative contribution to variation of WUEi were detected by d15N in tree rings.

  8. Quantitative imaging of subcellular metabolism with stable isotopes and multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Matthew L; Lechene, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) is the quantitative imaging of stable isotope labels in cells with a new type of secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS). The power of the methodology is attributable to (i) the immense advantage of using non-toxic stable isotope labels, (ii) high resolution imaging that approaches the resolution of usual transmission electron microscopy and (iii) the precise quantification of label down to 1 part-per-million and spanning several orders of magnitude. Here we review the basic elements of MIMS and describe new applications of MIMS to the quantitative study of metabolic processes including protein and nucleic acid synthesis in model organisms ranging from microbes to humans.

  9. Quantitative imaging of selenoprotein with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS).

    PubMed

    Tang, Shiow-Shih; Guillermier, Christelle; Wang, Mei; Poczatek, Joseph Collin; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Loscalzo, Joseph; Lechene, Claude

    2014-11-01

    Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) allows high resolution quantitative imaging of protein and nucleic acid synthesis at the level of a single cell using stable isotope labels. We employed MIMS to determine the compartmental localization of selenoproteins tagged with stable isotope selenium compounds in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC), and to compare the efficiency of labeling (to determine the ideal selenium source) from these compounds: [(82)Se]-selenite, [(77)Se]-seleno-methionine, and [(76)Se]-methyl-selenocysteine. We found that all three selenium sources appear to be localized in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm in HAEC. Seleno-methionine appears to be a better source for (seleno)protein synthesis. For MIMS detection, we compared freeze-drying to thin layer vs. thin sectioning for sample preparation. MIMS provides a unique and novel way to dissect selenoprotein synthesis in cells.

  10. 100% DD Energy Model Update

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-06-30

    The Miami Science Museum energy model has been used during DD to test the building's potential for energy savings as measured by ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Appendix G. This standard compares the designed building's yearly energy cost with that of a code-compliant building. The building is currently on track show 20% or better improvement over the ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Appendix G baseline; this performance would ensure minimum compliance with both LEED 2.2 and current Florida Energy Code, which both reference a less strict version of ASHRAE 90.1. In addition to being an exercise in energy code compliance, the energy model has been used as a design tool to show the relative performance benefit of individual energy conservation measures (ECMs). These ECMs are areas where the design team has improved upon code-minimum design paths to improve the energy performance of the building. By adding ECMs one a time to a code-compliant baseline building, the current analysis identifies which ECMs are most effective in helping the building meet its energy performance goals.

  11. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security...

  12. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... specified in subpart 4.4 and the clause at 52.204-2: (a) DD Form 254 (Department of Defense (DOD)),...

  13. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The following... specified in subpart 4.4 and the clause at 52.204-2: (a) DD Form 254 (Department of Defense (DOD)),...

  14. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security...

  15. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification...

  16. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification...

  17. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification...

  18. Multi-isotopic transuranic waste interrogation using delayed neutron nondestructive assay and iterative quadratic programming techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei

    1997-11-01

    Nuclear safeguards for Special Nuclear Materials is to protect the nuclear materials against malevolent use and to insure their peaceful usage. The nondestructive assay technique (NDA) offers an efficient and proliferation resistance method for nuclear safeguards technology. NDA techniques were investigated for multi-isotopic transuranic waste interrogation. This work was originally intended for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) under development at Argonne National Laboratory. One major feature of the IFR is its integral fuel cycle based on a pyrometallurgical process. More than 99% of transuranics produced in the fuel are returned to the makeup fuel and burned in the reactor. With the long-lived actinides removed from the waste stream, the waste produced will decay sufficiently in 300 years dropping below the cancer risk level of natural uranium ore and easing the perceived waste management problem. The feasibility of using nondestructive assay techniques for the IFR fuel cycle waste interrogation were studied. A special DNNDA experimental device was designed and analysis techniques were developed. The DNNDA technique uses the delayed neutrons emitted after the activation of a 14 MeV neutron source as the characteristic signature for each fissionable isotope. A tantalum/polyethylene filter was employed to enhance the discrimination between the fissile and the fissionable isotopes. Spontaneous fissions from 240Pu were also measured to assist the mass assay. A nonlinear overdetermined system was established based on the DNNDA measurements. An Iterative Quadratic Programming (IQP) method was applied to perform the estimates. The IQP method has several advantages over the linear least squares and Kalman filter methods, it has the flexibility of adding additional constraints, it has superlinear global convergence and it can be utilized for nonlinear problems. The results show that using the IQP method with the DNNDA technique is quite promising for multi-isotopic assay

  19. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY13 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Coble, Jamie B.; Jordan, David V.; Mcdonald, Luther W.; Forrester, Joel B.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Reilly, Dallas D.

    2013-09-01

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of “… (minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism.” The MIP Monitor measures the distribution of the radioactive isotopes in product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These isotopes are monitored online by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing “normal” process conditions using multivariate analysis and pattern recognition algorithms. The combination of multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy allows us to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting for systems representing aqueous reprocessing facilities. However, pyroprocessing is emerging as an alternative to aqueous reprocessing techniques.

  20. The Multi-Isotope Process Monitor Project: FY11 Progress and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Hayes, John W.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Bender, Sarah E.; Unlu, Kenan; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Schreiber, S. S.; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2012-08-01

    Summary The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor represents a potentially new and efficient approach to monitoring process conditions in reprocessing facilities with the high-level goal of aiding in the “...(minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism” (Office of Technology Assessment 1995). This approach relies on multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy of spent fuel product and waste streams to automatically and simultaneously monitor a variety of process conditions (e.g., acid concentrations, burnup, cooling time, etc.) in near real-time (NRT). While the conceptual basis for the MIP Monitor has been shown to be effective in an aqueous reprocessing system, the fundamental approach should also be viable in a pyro-processing recycle system. The MIP Monitor may be calibrated to provide online quantitative information about process variables for process control or domestic safeguards applications; or it can simply monitor, with a built-in information barrier, for off-normal conditions in process streams, making the approach well-suited for applications were it is necessary to respect proprietary information or for international safeguards applications. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments were performed in previous years demonstrating the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting. This report details follow-on research and development efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) related to the MIP Monitor for fiscal year 2011 (FY11).

  1. Soluble salt sources in medieval porous limestone sculptures: a multi-isotope (N, O, S) approach.

    PubMed

    Kloppmann, W; Rolland, O; Proust, E; Montech, A T

    2014-02-01

    The sources and mechanisms of soluble salt uptake by porous limestone and the associated degradation patterns were investigated for the life-sized 15th century "entombment of Christ" sculpture group located in Pont-à-Mousson, France, using a multi-isotope approach on sulphates (δ(34)S and δ(18)O) and nitrates (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). The sculpture group, near the border of the Moselle River, is within the potential reach of capillary rise from the alluvial aquifer. Chemical analyses show a vertical zonation of soluble salts with a predominance of sulphates in the lower parts of the statues where crumbling and blistering prevail, and higher concentrations of nitrates and chloride in the high parts affected by powdering and efflorescence. Isotope fingerprints of sulphates suggest a triple origin: (1) the lower parts are dominated by capillary rise of dissolved sulphate from the Moselle water with characteristic Keuper evaporite signatures that progressively decreases with height; (2) in the higher parts affected by powdering the impact of atmospheric sulphur becomes detectable; and (3) locally, plaster reparations impact the neighbouring limestone through dissolution and re-precipitation of gypsum. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes suggest an organic origin of nitrates in all samples. N isotope signatures are compatible with those measured in the alluvial aquifer of the Moselle River further downstream. This indicates contamination by sewage or organic fertilisers. Significant isotopic contrasts are observed between the different degradation features depending on the height and suggest historical changes of nitrate sources. © 2013.

  2. Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor: A Near-Real-Time Monitor For Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Douglas, Matthew; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard

    2008-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The threat of protracted diversion of Pu from commercial reprocessing operations is perhaps the greatest concern to national and international agencies tasked with safeguarding these facilities. While it is generally understood that a method for direct monitoring of process on-line and in near-real time (NRT) would be the best defense against protracted diversion scenarios, an effective method with these qualities has yet to be developed. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by proposing an on-line NRT process monitoring method that should be sensitive to minor alterations in process conditions and compatible with small, easily deployable, detection systems. This Approach is known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and involves the determination and recognition of the contaminant pattern within a process stream for a suite of indicator (radioactive) elements present in the spent fuel as a function of process variables. Utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, decreases the likelihood that attempts to divert Pu by altering the ReDox environment within the process would go undetected. In addition, by identifying gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, this Approach might eliminate the need for bulky neutron detection systems, relying instead on small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors easily deployable throughout the facility.

  3. The Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: Multivariate Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Rutherford, Crystal E.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-10-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). The time delay between sampling and subsequent DA provides a potential opportunity to divert the material out of the appropriate chemical stream. Leveraging new on-line nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for MC&A verification at such facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and pattern recognition software to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. Recent efforts have been made to explore the basic limits of using multivariate analysis techniques on gamma-ray spectra. This paper will provide an overview of the methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technology.

  4. Identification of the geographical place of origin of an unidentified individual by multi-isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Font, Laura; van der Peijl, Gerard; van Leuwen, Carina; van Wetten, Isis; Davies, Gareth R

    2015-01-01

    A multi-isotope investigation (Sr and Pb isotopes and δ18O, δ13C and δ15N) was applied to bone and teeth from an unidentified male found drowned in the"IJ" Ruyterkade in Amsterdam, The Netherlands in March of 1999. The individual remained unidentified until mid 2013, after the isotope study was completed. Coupled δ13C and δ15N values in bone collagen recovered from rib and femur are consistent with an omnivore living in a region where C3-type diet dominates (i.e. Europe). Integrated Sr and Pb isotopes and δ18O values in canine and third molar teeth and femur and rib bone data exclude extended residence in north-west Europe and particularly The Netherlands. Characteristic Pb isotope ratios coupled with inferred δ18O values of drinking water argue for a most probable place of origin for the unidentified individual in west and south Poland, south-east Slovakia and the region of Ukraine-Romania-Bulgaria, specifically the region associated with the Carpathian Mountains. Independent of the isotope study, the Cold Case Team made a positive identification with an individual from south-west Poland, validating the results of the multiple-isotopic approach.

  5. D-D tokamak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.E. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Finn, P.A.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Stevens, H.C.

    1980-11-01

    A tokamak D-D reactor design, utilizing the advantages of a deuterium-fueled reactor but with parameters not unnecessarily extended from existing D-T designs, is presented. Studies leading to the choice of a design and initial studies of the design are described. The studies are in the areas of plasma engineering, first-wall/blanket/shield design, magnet design, and tritium/fuel/vacuum requirements. Conclusions concerning D-D tokamak reactors are stated.

  6. Observations of Low-Lying Electronic States of NiD, and Multi-Isotope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Mahdi; Shayesteh, Alireza; Crozet, Patrick; Ross, Amanda J.

    2017-06-01

    Resolved laser induced fluorescence spectra of NiD, recorded at Doppler resolution between 11500 and 18000 {cm^{-1}}, have defined some 200 term energies in two of the three strongly-interacting, low-lying ({X ^2Δ}, {W ^2Π} and {V ^2Σ^+}) states of NiD associated with an Ni{^+(3d^9})-D^- configuration. Our observations span v = 0 - 5 in the lowest spin-orbit component of the ground state, {X_1 ^2Δ_{5/2} }, v = 0 - 3 in {X_2 ^2Δ_{3/2} } and v = 0 - 1 in {W_1 ^2Π_{3/2} }, the lower component of the {W ^2Π } state. Spin-orbit and rotation-electronic interactions are strong in NiD. Large parity splittings are seen, due to interactions with the unobserved ^2Σ^+ state. We have attempted a global, multi-isotope fit to reproduce observed term energies up to 6000 {cm^{-1}} in NiD and ^{58,60,62}NiH, in an extension of the `Supermultiplet' model proposed by Gray and co-workers, because fits with NiD term energies alone failed to converge to sensible solutions. Dunham-type parameters have been used to represent the unperturbed X ^2Δ, W ^2Π and V ^2Σ^+ states, with off-diagonal matrix elements (treating spin-orbit, L- and S-uncoupling effects) based on Ni^+ atomic properties. Some electronic Born-Oppenheimer breakdown terms were included in the model. The spectra show emission from several excited states close to the unique level populated by the single-mode laser. Bands of collisionally-induced fluorescence identify three levels (A (Ω = 5/2) v = 1, E (Ω = 3/2) v = 1 and I (Ω = 3/2) v = 0) that have not been reported before. Gray, Li, Nelis, and Field, {J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7164 (1991)

  7. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  8. Quantitative imaging of inositol distribution in yeast using multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS).

    PubMed

    Saiardi, A; Guillermier, C; Loss, O; Poczatek, J C; Lechene, C

    2014-11-01

    Despite the widely recognized importance of the several species of inositol polyphosphates in cell biology, inositol has not been successfully imaged and quantified inside cells using traditional spectrophotometry. Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) technology, however, has facilitated direct imaging and measurement of cellular inositol. After pulsing cells with inositol labeled with the stable isotope Carbon-13 ((13)C), the label was detected in subcellular volumes by MIMS. The tridimensional localization of (13)C within the cell illustrated cellular distribution and local accumulation of inositol. In parallel, we performed control experiments with (13)C-Glucose to compare a different (13)C distribution pattern. Because many functions recently attributed to inositol polyphosphates are localized in the nucleus, we analyzed its relative nuclear concentration. We engineered yeast with human thymidine permease and viral thymidine kinase, then fed them with (15)N-thymidine. This permitted direct analysis of the nuclear DNA through the detection of the (15)N isotopic signal. We found practically no co-localization between inositol signal ((13)C-isotope) and nuclear signal ((15)N-isotope). The (13)C-tag (inositol) accumulation was highest at the plasma membrane and in cytoplasmic domains. In time-course labeling experiments performed with wild type yeast (WT) or modified yeast unable to synthesize inositol from glucose (ino1Δ), the half-time of labeled inositol accumulation was ~1 hour in WT and longer in ino1Δ. These studies should serve as a template to study metabolism and physiological role of inositol using genetically modified yeasts.

  9. Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry reveals slow protein turnover in hair-cell stereocilia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Duan-Sun; Piazza, Valeria; Perrin, Benjamin J; Rzadzinska, Agnieszka K; Poczatek, J Collin; Wang, Mei; Prosser, Haydn M; Ervasti, James M; Corey, David P; Lechene, Claude P

    2012-01-15

    Hair cells of the inner ear are not normally replaced during an animal's life, and must continually renew components of their various organelles. Among these are the stereocilia, each with a core of several hundred actin filaments that arise from their apical surfaces and that bear the mechanotransduction apparatus at their tips. Actin turnover in stereocilia has previously been studied by transfecting neonatal rat hair cells in culture with a β-actin-GFP fusion, and evidence was found that actin is replaced, from the top down, in 2-3 days. Overexpression of the actin-binding protein espin causes elongation of stereocilia within 12-24 hours, also suggesting rapid regulation of stereocilia lengths. Similarly, the mechanosensory 'tip links' are replaced in 5-10 hours after cleavage in chicken and mammalian hair cells. In contrast, turnover in chick stereocilia in vivo is much slower. It might be that only certain components of stereocilia turn over quickly, that rapid turnover occurs only in neonatal animals, only in culture, or only in response to a challenge like breakage or actin overexpression. Here we quantify protein turnover by feeding animals with a (15)N-labelled precursor amino acid and using multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry to measure appearance of new protein. Surprisingly, in adult frogs and mice and in neonatal mice, in vivo and in vitro, the stereocilia were remarkably stable, incorporating newly synthesized protein at <10% per day. Only stereocilia tips had rapid turnover and no treadmilling was observed. Other methods confirmed this: in hair cells expressing β-actin-GFP we bleached fiducial lines across hair bundles, but they did not move in 6 days. When we stopped expression of β- or γ-actin with tamoxifen-inducible recombination, neither actin isoform left the stereocilia, except at the tips. Thus, rapid turnover in stereocilia occurs only at the tips and not by a treadmilling process.

  10. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY12 Progress and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Orton, Christopher R.; Jordan, David V.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2012-09-27

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of "...(minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism." The MIP Monitor measures distributions of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. The monitor utilizes this multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy of reprocessing streams to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. Multivariate analysis methods common in chemometrics, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS), act as pattern recognition techniques, which can detect small deviations from the expected, nominal condition. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting. Development of the MIP Monitor approach continues to evaluate the efficacy of the monitor for automated, real-time or near-real-time application. This report details follow-on research and development efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development related to the MIP Monitor for fiscal year

  11. 76 FR 82003 - Submission for Review: DD 1918 Establishment Information Form, DD 1919 Wage Data Collection Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: DD 1918 Establishment Information Form, DD 1919 Wage Data Collection Form, DD 1919C Wage Data Collection Continuation Form AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... collection request (ICR) 3206-0036, Establishment Information Form (DD 1918), Wage Data Collection Form...

  12. 76 FR 50771 - Submission for Review: DD 1918 Establishment Information Form, DD 1919 Wage Data Collection Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: DD 1918 Establishment Information Form, DD 1919 Wage Data Collection Form, DD 1919C Wage Data Collection Continuation Form AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... collection request (ICR) 3206-0036, Establishment Information Form (DD 1918), Wage Data Collection Form...

  13. Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    metal pollutants. The main objective of this study is to characterize the sources and the behavior of these heavy metals in the aquatic environment, and their spatial distribution using a multi-isotope approach. Each of these isotope systematics on their own reveals important information about their geogenic or anthropogenic origin but, considered together, provide a more integrated understanding of the budgets of these pollutants within the Loire River Basin.

  14. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 45 - DD Form 215

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 215 C Appendix C to Part 45 National... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. C Appendix C to Part 45—DD Form 215 EC21OC91.050...

  15. INEL D&D long-range plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  16. Is it really organic?--multi-isotopic analysis as a tool to discriminate between organic and conventional plants.

    PubMed

    Laursen, K H; Mihailova, A; Kelly, S D; Epov, V N; Bérail, S; Schjoerring, J K; Donard, O F X; Larsen, E H; Pedentchouk, N; Marca-Bell, A D; Halekoh, U; Olesen, J E; Husted, S

    2013-12-01

    Novel procedures for analytical authentication of organic plant products are urgently needed. Here we present the first study encompassing stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium and sulphur as well as compound-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate for discrimination of organically and conventionally grown plants. The study was based on wheat, barley, faba bean and potato produced in rigorously controlled long-term field trials comprising 144 experimental plots. Nitrogen isotope analysis revealed the use of animal manure, but was unable to discriminate between plants that were fertilised with synthetic nitrogen fertilisers or green manures from atmospheric nitrogen fixing legumes. This limitation was bypassed using oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate in potato tubers, while hydrogen isotope analysis allowed complete discrimination of organic and conventional wheat and barley grains. It is concluded, that multi-isotopic analysis has the potential to disclose fraudulent substitutions of organic with conventionally cultivated plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Multi-Isotopic Analysis To Track The Origin Of NO3 In Groundwater And To Trace Natural Attenuation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Soler, A.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrate pollution has become a major threat to groundwater quality as the maximum nitrate concentration allowed by the European Directive 98/83/CE in waters for human consumption, 50 mg/L, is reached in most of the regional aquifers in Europe. In Catalonia, according to the nitrate directive, nine areas have been declared as vulnerable to nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. Five of these areas have been studied coupling hydro chemical data with a multi-isotopic approach, in an ongoing research project looking for an integrated application of classical hydrochemistry data, with a comprehensive isotopic characterisation (δ15N and δ18O of dissolved nitrate, δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ D and δ18O of water) in order to assess groundwater management in this area. The nitrogen isotopes have allowed to determine the origin of nitrate pollution for the different areas: fertilisers in the Maresme area, animal manure in the Osona and Empordà areas, and a mixed origin in Selva and Garrotxa areas. The coupled use of δ15N and δ18O permitted to determine the existence of denitrification processes (natural attenuation of pollution), and showed that this process is effective in the Osona, Selva and the Empordà areas, but not significant in the Maresme and Garrotxa areas. The multi-isotopic approach, coupling δ15N and δ18O of nitrate, with the isotopic composition of the ions involved in denitrification reactions (δ34S, δ18O, and δ13C ), showed the relationship between sulphide oxidation and nitrate attenuation in the Osona area. In the Empordà and Selva areas, the denitrification is not linked to sulphide oxidation, and organic matter must be the electron donor for denitrification, though further research is needed to confirm the role of organic matter. The observed denitrification processes reveal optional strategies for nitrogen attenuation.

  18. Catalyzed D-D stellarator reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald A.

    2016-05-12

    The advantages of using the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) approach for a fusion reactor—lower and less energetic neutron flux and no need for a tritium breeding blanket—have been evaluated in previous papers, giving examples of both tokamak and stellarator reactors. This paper presents an update for the stellarator example, taking account of more recent empirical transport scaling results and design studies of lower-aspect-ratio stellarators. We use a modified version of the Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor model to cost a stellarator-type reactor. Recently, this model has been updated to reflect the improved science and technology base and costs in the magnetic fusion program. Furthermore, it is shown that an interesting catalyzed D-D, stellarator power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved: R/ ≈ 4, required improvement factor to ISS04 scaling, FR = 0.9 to 1.15, <β> ≈ 8.0% to 11.5%, Zeff ≈ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ≈ 0.07, Bm ≈ 14 to 16 T, and R ≈ 18 to 24 m.

  19. Catalyzed D-D stellarator reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald A.

    2016-05-12

    The advantages of using the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) approach for a fusion reactor—lower and less energetic neutron flux and no need for a tritium breeding blanket—have been evaluated in previous papers, giving examples of both tokamak and stellarator reactors. This paper presents an update for the stellarator example, taking account of more recent empirical transport scaling results and design studies of lower-aspect-ratio stellarators. We use a modified version of the Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor model to cost a stellarator-type reactor. Recently, this model has been updated to reflect the improved science and technology base and costs in the magnetic fusionmore » program. Furthermore, it is shown that an interesting catalyzed D-D, stellarator power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved: R/ ≈ 4, required improvement factor to ISS04 scaling, FR = 0.9 to 1.15, <β> ≈ 8.0% to 11.5%, Zeff ≈ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ≈ 0.07, Bm ≈ 14 to 16 T, and R ≈ 18 to 24 m.« less

  20. Catalyzed D-D stellarator reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald A.

    2016-05-12

    The advantages of using the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) approach for a fusion reactor—lower and less energetic neutron flux and no need for a tritium breeding blanket—have been evaluated in previous papers, giving examples of both tokamak and stellarator reactors. This paper presents an update for the stellarator example, taking account of more recent empirical transport scaling results and design studies of lower-aspect-ratio stellarators. We use a modified version of the Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor model to cost a stellarator-type reactor. Recently, this model has been updated to reflect the improved science and technology base and costs in the magnetic fusion program. Furthermore, it is shown that an interesting catalyzed D-D, stellarator power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved: R/ ≈ 4, required improvement factor to ISS04 scaling, FR = 0.9 to 1.15, <β> ≈ 8.0% to 11.5%, Zeff ≈ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ≈ 0.07, Bm ≈ 14 to 16 T, and R ≈ 18 to 24 m.

  1. AmpH, a Bifunctional dd-Endopeptidase and dd-Carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    González-Leiza, Silvia M.; de Pedro, Miguel A.; Ayala, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (LMM PBPs) are important for correct cell morphogenesis. These enzymes display dd-carboxypeptidase and/or dd-endopeptidase activities associated with maturation and remodeling of peptidoglycan (PG). AmpH has been classified as an AmpH-type class C LMM PBP, a group closely related to AmpC β-lactamases. AmpH has been associated with PG recycling, although its enzymatic activity remained uncharacterized until now. Construction and purification of His-tagged AmpH from E. coli permitted a detailed study of its enzymatic properties. The N-terminal export signal of AmpH is processed, but the protein remains membrane associated. The PBP nature of AmpH was demonstrated by its ability to bind the β-lactams Bocillin FL (a fluorescent penicillin) and cefmetazole. In vitro assays with AmpH and specific muropeptides demonstrated that AmpH is a bifunctional dd–endopeptidase and dd-carboxypeptidase. Indeed, the enzyme cleaved the cross-linked dimers tetrapentapeptide (D45) and tetratetrapeptide (D44) with efficiencies (kcat/Km) of 1,200 M−1 s−1 and 670 M−1 s−1, respectively, and removed the terminal d-alanine from muropeptides with a C-terminal d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptide. Both dd-peptidase activities were inhibited by 40 μM cefmetazole. AmpH also displayed a weak β-lactamase activity for nitrocefin of 1.4 × 10−3 nmol/μg protein/min, 1/1,000 the rate obtained for AmpC under the same conditions. AmpH was also active on purified sacculi, exhibiting the bifunctional character that was seen with pure muropeptides. The wide substrate spectrum of the dd-peptidase activities associated with AmpH supports a role for this protein in PG remodeling or recycling. PMID:22001512

  2. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - DD Form 214

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 214 A Appendix A to Part 45 National... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. A Appendix A to Part 45—DD Form 214 EC23OC91.003 EC23OC91.004 EC23OC91.005 EC23OC91.006...

  3. Multi-isotope approach: a tool to better constrain both sources and processes affecting NO3 pollution in watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.

    2006-12-01

    Nitrate is one of the major pollutants of drinking water resources worldwide. Recent European directives reduced inputs from intensive agriculture, but in most places NO3 levels are approaching the potable limit of 50 mg.l-1 in groundwater. Determining the source(s) of contamination in groundwater is an important first step for improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we review here the benefit of using a multi- isotope approach (d15N, d180, d11B and 87Sr/86Sr), in addition to conventional hydrogeological analysis, to both constrain the watersheds hydrology and trace the origin of their NO3 pollution. Watersheds presented here include both fractured bedrock and alluvial (subsurface and deep) hydrogeological contexts. The strontium budget in watersheds is mainly controlled by the water-rock interactions (human inputs usually represents negligible fluxes). With the example of the Allier river (Central France), we show that, even on a very small watershed, the main water flows can usually be determined by the use of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, thus helping understanding the hydrology controlling pollution processes. The characterisation of the different usual nitrate sources of pollution in groundwater (mineral fertilisers, wastewater and animals manure) shows that they can clearly be discriminated using isotopes. The isotopic composition of the dissolved nitrogen species has been used extensively to better constrain the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater. The possibility of quantifying both origin and secondary processes affecting N concentrations by means of a single tracer appears more limited however. Nitrogen cannot be considered conservative because it is biologically modified through nitrification and denitrification reactions, both during infiltration of the water and in the groundwater body, causing isotopic fractionation that modifies the d15N-n signatures of the dissolved N species. Discriminating multiple NO3 sources by their N

  4. INEL D&D Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility.

  5. Neutron suppression in polarized dd fusion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. S.; Liu, K. F.; Shuy, G. W.

    1999-11-01

    We report a model-independent partial-wave analysis of polarized dd fusion reactions at low energies. The radial transition amplitudes, designated by the central, spin-orbit, and tensor forces, are determined by fitting angular distributions of the tensor and vector analyzing powers AXZ(θ), AZZ(θ), AXX-YY(θ), and AY(θ), and the unpolarized cross section σ0(θ). The polarized fusion cross section σ1,1(θ) is then predicted from these radial transition amplitudes. We stress that this is feasible only when these amplitudes are separated according to the tensor rank of the interaction. This study includes the D-state components of the deuteron, triton, and 3He, and the partial-wave expansion is done up to the d wave for both the entrance and exit channels. Experimental data at Elab=30, 50, 70, and 90 keV for the d(d,p)t reaction are very well fitted with this method. It is found that the ratio of polarized to unpolarized cross sections is about 86% at 30 keV and goes down to 22% at 90 keV. The implication of the suppression of a polarized dd fusion reaction is discussed in the context of the neutron-lean fusion reactor with polarized D-3He fuel. It turns out that the important range of energy for suppressing the d(d,p)t and d(d,n)3He reactions at the plasma temperature T=60 keV is Ed=80-600 keV. More experimental data are needed in this range to make a detailed study of the neutron suppression.

  6. The impact of storage time and temperature in polyethylen bottles on the multi isotope composition of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiedinger, Iris; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2017-04-01

    Storage of water samples in polyethylen bottles for later hydrogeochemical analysis is a common practice in laboratories world-wide. It is, however, known for a long time to geochemists that aqueous solutions lose water as a function of time due to the diffusion of water molecules (similar to CO2 or H2S) through the polymer membrane, a process that is suspected to increase with rising temperature. First observations on the impact of storage on O-18 and H-2 contents in water were reported by Spangenberg & Vennemann (RCIM 2008) and Spangenberg (RCIM 2012), but no study considered systematically the effect of temperature, sofar. In the present study we carried out long-term experiments to investigate the impact of storage of fresh water in LDPE bottles for up to 18 months at 4 different temperatures (4°, 10°, 23°, and 60°C). The loss of water was followed gravimetrically, and the stable isotope composition of the water sample was analyzed with a Picarro CRDS 2140-i system. Whereas, at the low temperatures of 4° and 10°C, no measurable loss of water was observed during a storage time up to 1.5 years, a substantial loss of water was observed at 23°C and 60°C. This change was associated with, for instance at 60°C: an increase in d18O (up to 10 ‰), d2H (up to 28 ‰), d17O (up to 5 ‰). The deuterium excess was shifted towards lower values by up to 55 ‰. The magnitude of the isotope effect mostly depends on the extend of evaporation from the bottles, allowing for an estimate of the fractionation factor by considering a closed Rayleigh-type system.

  7. Evidence for a functional link between Dd-STATa and Dd-PIAS, a Dictyostelium PIAS homologue.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Takefumi; Hirano, Tatsunori; Ogasawara, Shun; Aoshima, Ryota; Yachi, Ayako

    2011-09-01

    Several mammalian protein families inhibit the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) was initially identified through its ability to interact with human STAT proteins. We isolated a gene (pisA) encoding a Dictyostelium orthologue of PIAS, Dd-PIAS, which possesses almost all the representative motifs and domains of mammalian PIAS proteins. A Dd-PIAS null mutant strain displays a normal terminal morphology but with accelerated development once cells are aggregated. In contrast, Dd-PIAS overexpressor strains demonstrate delayed aggregation, almost no slug phototaxis, impaired slug motility, and a prolonged slug migration period. This strain is a near phenocopy of the Dd-STATa null mutant, although it eventually forms a fruiting body, albeit inefficiently. The expression of several Dd-STATa-activated genes is upregulated in the Dd-PIAS null mutant and there is ectopic expression of pstAB makers. The concentration of a PIAS-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein, expressed under the PIAS promoter, is greatest in the pstO cells and gradually decreases with proximity to the tip of the slug and culminant: a pattern diametrically opposite to that of Dd-STATa. Our results suggest a functional interrelationship between Dd-PIAS and Dd-STATa that influences gene expression and development.

  8. LaBr3:Ce small FOV gamma camera with excellent energy resolution for multi-isotope imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Fabbri, A.; Cinti, M. N.; Orlandi, C.; Pellegrini, R.; Scafè, R.; Artibani, M.

    2015-06-01

    The simultaneous administration of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with more than one radioisotope is becoming of increasing interest in clinical practice. Because the photon energies of the utilized radioisotopes could be very close (less than 15% difference), a gamma camera with adequate energy resolution is required. The availability of scintillation crystals with high light yield, as lanthanum tri-bromide (LaBr3:Ce), is particularly appealing for these applications. In this work, a new small field of view gamma camera prototype is presented, based on a planar LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystal with surfaces treatment typical of spectrometric devices, in order to enhance energy resolution performances. The crystal has round shape and has been optically coupled with a position sensitive photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency. The presented gamma camera shows outstanding energy resolution results in the investigated energy range (32-662 keV). These relevant performances have been obtained through the application of uniformity correction on the raw data, necessary due to the presence of position sensitive phototube, characterized by a spread of anodic gain values. In spite of position linearity degradation at crystal edges, due to reflective treatment of surfaces, intrinsic spatial resolution values are satisfactory on the useful field of view.The characterization of the presented gamma camera, based on a continuous LaBr3:Ce scintillation crystal with reflective surfaces, indicates good performances in multi-isotope imaging due to the excellent energy resolution results, also in comparison with similar detectors.

  9. Quantitative imaging of cells with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS)—Nanoautography with stable isotope tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Greg; Glassner, Brian J.; Lechene, Claude P.

    2006-07-01

    We describe some technical aspects of the application of multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) to biological research, particularly the use of isotopic tags to localize and measure their incorporation into intracellular compartments. We touch on sample preparation, on image formation, on drift correction and on extraction of quantitative data from isotope ratio imaging. We insist on the wide variety of sample types that can be used, ranging from whole cells prepared directly on Si supports, to thin sections of cells and tissues on Si supports, to ultrathin TEM sections on carbon-coated grid. We attempt to dispel the myth of difficulties in sample preparation, which we view as a needless deterrent to the application of MIMS to the general biological community. We present protocols for the extraction of isotope ratio data from mass images. We illustrate the benefits of using sequential image plane acquisition followed by the application of an autocorrelation algorithm (nanotracking) to remove the effects of specimen drift. We insist on the advantages to display the isotope ratios as hue saturation intensity images.

  10. Preparation of a multi-isotope plutonium AMS standard and preliminary results of a first inter-lab comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, B.-A.; Dunai, T. J.; Dewald, A.; Heinze, S.; Feuerstein, C.; Strub, E.; Fifield, L. K.; Froehlich, M. B.; Tims, S. G.; Wallner, A.; Christl, M.

    2015-10-01

    The motivation of this work is to establish a new multi-isotope plutonium standard for isotopic ratio measurements with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), since stocks of existing solutions are declining. To this end, certified reference materials (CRMs) of each of the individual isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu were obtained from JRC IRMM (Joint Research Center Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements). These certified reference materials (IRMM-081a, IRMM-083, IRMM-043 and IRMM-042a) were diluted with nitric acid and mixed to obtain a stock standard solution with an isotopic ratio of approximately 1.0:1.0:1.0:0.1 (239Pu:240Pu:242Pu:244Pu). From this stock solution, samples were prepared for measurement of the plutonium isotopic composition by AMS. These samples have been measured in a round-robin exercise between the AMS facilities at CologneAMS, at the ANU Canberra and ETH Zurich to verify the isotopic ratio and to demonstrate the reproducibility of the measurements. The results show good agreement both between the different AMS measurements and with the gravimetrically determined nominal ratios.

  11. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - DD Form 214

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 214 A Appendix A to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. A Appendix A to...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 45 - DD Form 215

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 215 C Appendix C to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 45 - DD Form 215

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 215 C Appendix C to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. C Appendix C to...

  14. D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called "D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention" and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX® to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX® is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX® chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX®, it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX® will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated. Encapsulation Technologies, LLC has developed a

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dd of... - Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD 2 Table 2 to Subpart DD of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. DD, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart DD of Part 63—Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63—General Provisions...

  16. A Multi-isotope Tracer Approach Linking Land Use With Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in the San Joaquin River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. B.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Stringfellow, W. T.

    2008-12-01

    The San Joaquin River (SJR) is a large hypereutrophic river located in the Central Valley, California, a major agricultural region. Nutrient subsidies, algae, and other organic material from the San Joaquin River contribute to periods of low dissolved oxygen in the Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel, inhibiting salmon migration. We used a multi-isotope approach to link nitrate and particulate organic matter (POM) to different sources and related land uses. The isotope data was also used to better understand the physical and biological processes controlling the distribution of nitrate and POM throughout the river system. Samples collected from the mainstem SJR and tributaries twice-monthly to monthly between March 2005 and December 2007 were analyzed for nitrate, POM, and water isotopes. There are many land uses surrounding the SJR and its tributaries, including multiple types of agriculture, dairies, wetlands, and urban areas. Samples from SJR tributaries containing both major and minor contributions of wetland discharge generally had distinct nitrate and POM isotope signatures compared to other tributaries. Unique nitrate and POM isotope signatures associated with wetland discharges may reflect anaerobic biological processes occurring in flooded soils. For the mainstem SJR, we applied an isotope mass balance approach using nitrate and water isotopes to calculate the expected downstream isotope values based upon measured inputs from known water sources such as drains and tributaries. Differences between the calculated downstream isotope values and the measured values indicate locations and time periods when either biological processes such as algal uptake, or physical process such as the input of unidentified water sources, significantly altered the isotope signatures of water, POM, or nitrate within the SJR. This research will provide a better understanding of how different land uses affect the delivery of carbon and nitrogen to the SJR, and will provide a better

  17. Multi isotopic characterization (Li-Cu-Zn-Pb) of waste waters pollution in a small watershed (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study is to use multi-isotopic signature to track the pollution in surface waters, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in the environment. In the present study, we investigate waste water releases from a hospital water treatment plant and its potential impact in a small river basin near Orléans in France (Egoutier watershed: 15 km²and 5 km long). We decided to monitor this small watershed which is poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is located in a pristine area (forested area), while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. A sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Isotopic ratios were measured using a MC-ICP-MS at BRGM, after a specific protocol of purification for each isotopic systematics. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters along the main course of the stream. The waste water signal is very different from the natural background with significant heavy lithium contribution (high δ7Li). Lead isotopic compositions are rather homogenous in river waters and sediments with values close to geologic background. For Zn, the sediments with high concentrations and depleted isotopic compositions (low δ66Zn), typical of an anthropic pollution, are strongly impacted. The analyses of Cu isotopes in sediments show the impact of waster waters, but also isotopic fractionations due to redox processes in the watershed. To better understand these processes controlling the release of metals in water, sequential extractions on sediments are in progress under laboratory conditions and will provide important constraints for metal distribution in this river basin.

  18. The multi-isotope process monitor: Non-destructive, near-real-time nuclear safeguards monitoring at a reprocessing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Christopher Robert

    The IAEA will require advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at envisioned large scale nuclear reprocessing plants. This dissertation describes results from simulations and experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel safeguards approach for process monitoring in reprocessing plants. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams, nondestructively and in near-real time (NRT). Three different models were used to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate chemical distribution during separation, and simulate spectra from a variety of gamma detectors in product and raffinate streams for processed fuel. This was done for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Experiments were performed to validate the results from the model. Three segments of commercial spent nuclear fuel with variations in burnup and cooling time were dissolved and subjected to a batch PUREX method to separate the uranium and plutonium from fission and activation products. Gamma spectra were recorded by high purity germanium (HPGe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. Hierarchal Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied to spectra from both model and experiment to investigate spectral variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup level and cooling time. Partial Least Squares was utilized to extract quantitative information about process variables, such as acid concentration or burnup. The MIP Monitor was found to be sensitive to the induced variations of the process and was capable of extracting quantitative process information from the analyzed spectra.

  19. Origins and processes of groundwater salinization in the urban coastal aquifers of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil): A multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Bertrand, Guillaume; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc; Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Hélène; Chatton, Eliot; Franzen, Melissa; Aurouet, Axel

    2015-10-15

    In the coastal multilayer aquifer system of a highly urbanized southern city (Recife, Brazil), where groundwaters are affected by salinization, a multi-isotope approach (Sr, B, O, H) was used to investigate the sources and processes of salinization. The high diversity of the geological bodies, built since the Atlantic opening during the Cretaceous, highly constrains the heterogeneity of the groundwater chemistry, e.g. Sr isotope ratios, and needs to be integrated to explain the salinization processes and groundwater pathways. A paleoseawater intrusion, most probably the 120 kyB.P. Pleistocene marine transgression, and cationic exchange are clearly evidenced in the most salinized parts of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. All (87)Sr/(86)Sr values are above the past and present-day seawater signatures, meaning that the Sr isotopic signature is altered due to additional Sr inputs from dilution with different freshwaters, and water-rock interactions. Only the Cabo aquifer presents a well-delimitated area of Na-HCO3 water typical of a freshening process. The two deep aquifers also display a broad range of B concentrations and B isotope ratios with values among the highest known to date (63-68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays and mixing with wastewater. The highly fractionated B isotopic values were explained by infiltration of relatively salty water with B interacting with clays, pointing out the major role played by (palaeo)-channels for the deep Beberibe aquifer recharge. Based on an increase of salinity at the end of the dry season, a present-day seawater intrusion is identified in the surficial Boa Viagem aquifer. Our conceptual model presents a comprehensive understanding of the major groundwater salinization pathways and processes, and should be of benefit for other southern Atlantic coastal aquifers to better address groundwater management issues. Copyright © 2015

  20. Study of muon catalyzed dd-fusion in HD gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenchuk, G. G.; Balin, D. V.; Case, T.; Crowe, K. M.; Ganzha, V. A.; Hartmann, F. J.; Kozlov, S. M.; Lauss, B.; Maev, E. M.; Mühlbauer, M.; Petitjean, C.; Petrov, G. E.; Sadetsky, S. M.; Schapkin, G. N.; Schott, W.; Smirenin, Yu. V.; Soroka, M. A.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Voropaev, N. I.; Zmeskal, J.

    1999-06-01

    The results of an experiment on muon catalyzed dd-fussion in HD gas are presented. The experiment was performed at the muon beam of PSI using a high-pressure ionization chamber filled with pure HD-gas of low D2 concentration on the level 1%, at temperatures 50, 150 and 300 K. The non-resonant character of ddμ-molecule formation on HD molecules was confirmed by measuring the ratio of yields of the two ddμ-fusion channels, R=Y(3He,n)/Y(3H,p), which proved to be close to unity. The ddμ formation rate was found to vary from λddμ-HD=0.05· 106 s-1 at T=50 K to λddμ-HD=0.12· 106 s-1 at T=300 K, in agreement with the theoretical prediction. A prominent peak at t<60 ns was observed in the time spectrum of fusion neutrons indicating a resonant contribution of ddμ formation from epithermal dμ atoms.

  1. D&D TECHNOLOGIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia L.

    2003-02-27

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called ''D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention'' and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX{reg_sign} to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX{reg_sign} is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX{reg_sign} chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign}, it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign} will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated

  2. DD-PREF: a language for expressing preferences over sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; desJardins, Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present a representation language, DD-PREF (for Diversity and Depth PREFrences), for specifying the desired diversity and depth of sets of objects where each object is represented as a vector of feature values.

  3. Disentangling the complexity of nitrous oxide cycling in coastal sediments: Results from a novel multi-isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankel, S. D.; Buchwald, C.; Charoenpong, C.; Ziebis, W.

    2014-12-01

    with water in influencing the O isotope composition of N2O from the sediment-water interface. A steady-state multi-isotope flux model will help to constraining rates and isotope effects of these processes and improve our understanding of the dynamics and pathways of N2O production and emission under varying scenarios of environmental change.

  4. Evaluation of risks of groundwater quality alteration in Recife urban area (Pernambuco, Brazil) using a multi-isotopic approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Guillaume; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Batista, Jonathan; Bertolo, Reginaldo; Santos, Jeane-Glaucia; Montenegro, Suzanna; Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Pauwels, Hélène; Picot, Géraldine; Braibant, Gilles; Chatton, Eliot; Aquilina, Luc; Labasque, Thierry; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Aurouet, Axel; Franzen, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR) is a heavily urbanized area located in a estuary zone and over a multi-layered sedimentary system on the Brazilian Atlantic coast. In a context of increasing land use pressures, involving aquifer overexploitation and surface water contamination, and repeated droughts, the identification of groundwater quality risks in RMR is a necessary management requirement. In this perspective, this work focused on the two shallow aquifer systems, named Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers, located at the interface between the city (the consumers) and the deeper semi-confined Cretaceous Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. The Holocenic Boa Viagem and Tertiary Barreiras formations conform unconfined sedimentary aquifers, with no more than 80 m of thickness. Cabo is the most important groundwater body for Recife private complementary water supply and it has experienced an intense exploitation in the last three decades. In contrast, Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers are more restrictively used, but it is important to understand their water quality degradation,because of hydraulic connections with deeper aquifers, mainly in the littoral part of Recife, where hydraulic potentiometric head of the Cabo aquifer is 60 m below sea water level in some places, with conditions for recharge from shallower aquifers. Through a multi-isotopic characterization (87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) of sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters, carried out during two field campaigns with additional geochemical parameters (major ions, noble and major gases, CFC' s and SF6), the spatio-temporal variability of groundwater quality was investigated. The detection of CFC' s, implying a modern recharge component, highlighted the vulnerability of Boa Viagem and Barreiras to surface contaminations. The increasing mineralization and decreasing 87Sr/86Sr from the inland sector wells to the wells located close to the coast or estuary, with higher well and population densities, were

  5. A spatially explicit multi-isotope approach to map influence regions of plant-plant interactions after exotic plant invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Christine; Oldeland, Jens; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions impose profound alterations to native ecosystems, including changes of water, carbon and nutrient cycles. However, explicitly quantifying these impacts remains a challenge. Stable isotopes, by providing natural tracers of biogeochemical processes, can help to identify and measure such alterations in space and time. Recently, δ15N isoscapes, i.e. spatially continuous representations of isotopic values, derived from native plant foliage, enabled to accurately trace nitrogen introduced by the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia into a native Portuguese dune system. It could be shown that the area of the system which was altered by the invasive species exceeded the area which was covered by the invader by far. But still, definition of clear regions of influence is to some extent ambiguous. Here, we present an approach using multiple isoscapes derived from measured foliar δ13C and δ15N values of a native, non-fixing species, Corema album. By clustering isotopic information, we obtained an objective classification of the study area. Properties and spatial position of clusters could be interpreted to distinguish areas that were or were not influenced by A. longifolia. Spatial clusters at locations where A. longifolia was present had δ15N values that were enriched, i.e. close to the atmospheric signal of 0 o compared to the depleted values of the uninvaded system (ca. -11 o). Furthermore, C. album individuals in these clusters were characterized by higher foliar N content and enriched δ13C. These results indicate that the N2-fixing A. longifolia added nitrogen to the system which originated from the atmosphere and was used by the native C. album, inducing functional changes, i.e. an increase in WUE. Additionally, clusters were identified that were presumably determined by inherent properties of the native system. Thus, combining isotope ecology with geostatistical methods is a promising approach for mapping regions of influence in multi-isotope

  6. A multi-isotope investigation of sources and cycling of nitrate and organic matter in the San Joaquin River, Delta, and northern San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Silva, S. R.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Stringfellow, W. T.

    2008-12-01

    The San Joaquin River is a eutrophic, heavily impacted river which drains extensive agricultural areas and receives waste water discharge from rapidly growing urban areas. The Delta-San Francisco Bay region is hydrodynamically complex, drains a watershed covering approximately 40% of the area of California, and is considered to be one of the most anthropogenically altered estuaries in the world. As part of a 3-year project aimed at identifying temporal and spatial changes in sources of nutrients and organics in the San Joaquin River, the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, and northern San Francisco Bay, samples were collected from several dozen sites at intervals ranging from twice-weekly to quarterly. These samples were analyzed for a large suite of parameters including d15N and d18O of nitrate; d13C, d15N, and C:N of particulate organic matter; d18O and d2H of water; and d13C of dissolved organic carbon. Subsets were also analyzed for sulfate, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved oxygen, and phosphate isotopes. We find that the temporal and spatial variation in isotopic compositions provides unique insights into sources of nutrients, organics, water, and other salts that could not have been gained with standard chemical and hydrological measurements. This presentation will focus on examples of the usefulness of the isotope data for answering questions related to 2 major environmental issues in this ecosystem: low dissolved oxygen levels in the Deep Water Shipping Channel section of the lower San Joaquin River that are inhibiting salmon migration, and pelagic organism decline in the Delta and northern San Francisco Bay.

  7. 48 CFR 1846.673 - Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distribution of DD Forms... Reports 1846.673 Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c. (a) DD Forms 250 and 250c shall be distributed in accordance with installation procedures. (b) The contractor is responsible for distributing DD Forms 250...

  8. Multi-Isotope Analysis as a Natural Reaction Probe of Biodegradation Mechanisms of 1,2- Dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschorn, S. K.; Dinglasan-Panlilio, M.; Edwards, E. A.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.

    2006-12-01

    1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), a chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon, is an EPA priority pollutant and a widespread groundwater contaminant. Stable isotope fractionation during biodegradation of 1,2-DCA occurs due to differences in the reaction rates of heavy versus light atoms present at a reacting bond in the 1,2-DCA molecule. In general, light isotopic bonds react more quickly, producing a relative enrichment in the heavy isotope in the remaining contaminant pool. Compound specific isotope analysis has the potential to demonstrate the occurrence and extent of biodegradation at chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater sites. In this study, stable carbon isotope fractionation was used as a novel reaction probe to provide information about the mechanism of 1,2-DCA biodegradation. Isotopic fractionation was measured during 1,2-DCA degradation by a microbial culture capable of degrading 1,2-DCA under O2-reducing and NO3-reducing conditions. The microbial culture produced isotopic enrichment values that are not only large and reproducible, but are the same whether O2 or NO3 was used as an electron acceptor. The mean isotopic enrichment value of -25.8 permil measured for the microbial culture during 1,2-DCA degradation under both O2 and NO3- reducing conditions can be converted into a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) value to relate the observed isotopic fractionation to the mechanism of degradation. This KIE value (1.05) is consistent with degradation via a hydrolysis (SN2) reaction under both electron-accepting conditions. Isotope analysis was able to provide a first line of evidence for the reaction mechanism of 1,2-DCA biodegradation by the microbial culture. Using a multi-isotope approach incorporating both carbon and hydrogen isotopic data, compound specific isotope analysis also has the potential to determine degradation mechanisms for 1,2-DCA under aerobic conditions where 1,2-DCA is known to be degraded by two distinct enzymatic pathways. Biodegradation of 1

  9. Constraints of costal aquifer functioning in a deeply antropized area through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Recife, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Bertrand, Guillaume; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Hélène; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) went through large changes of water and land uses over the last decades due to an increasing demographic pressure (1.5 M of inhabitants). These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the water levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand that is also punctually amplified by drought periods, inducing the construction of thousands of private wells. Recife city was built on an estuarine area, at the geological limits of the two sedimentary basins of Pernambuco (north of the city) and Paraíba (south of the city) separated by a famous shear zone (the Pernambuco lineament). Tectonic and sedimentary events involved in the genesis and evolution of these basins were mainly controlled by the opening of the Atlantic Ocean leading to the deposition of cretaceous sediments which now constitute the two main exploited aquifers, the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers. These two deep aquiferous formations are topped by the unconfined Boa Viagem aquifer of quaternary sediments. It is the most directly exposed to contamination, since it is connected to mangroves, rivers, estuaries and highly urbanized areas. Both the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers contain large clay levels and are separated by a rather continuous clayed formation which seems to play a consistent role of screen and to interfere in the hydraulic connections between the three aquifers. Previous isotopic studies have shown that recharge processes are similar in the aquifers, suggesting that exchanges may occur and may be modified or amplified by overexploitation. This very complex aquifer system is studied through more than 60 water samples, including some surface water samples from the main rivers. A methodology based on multi-isotopes fingerprinting is applied, including stable isotopes of the water molecule, strontium isotopes, boron isotopes, sulfur

  10. Remote Manipulation for D&D Exhibiting Teleautonomy and Telecollaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, Thomas J.; Colgate, J. Edward; Park, Young S.; Ewing, Thomas F.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the work is to enhance remote operations of robotic systems for D&D tasks by extending teleoperation with semi-autonomous functions. The work leverages the $1.2M dual-arm work platform (DAWP) developed with broad participation for the CP5 D&D, as well as 2,000 hr DAWP D&D operational experience. We propose to develop a reactive, agent-based control architecture well suited to unstructured and unpredictable environments, and robot control technology, which implements a virtual fixture that can be used to guide the application of tools with force-feedback control. Developed methodologies will be implemented using a structured light sensor and robot hand controller on the dual-arm system.

  11. Remote Manipulation for D&D Exhibiting Teleautonomy and Telecollaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young S.; Colgate, J. Edward; Ewing, Thomas F.; Kang, Hyoisig; Peshkin, Michael

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the work is to enhance remote operations of robotic systems for D&D tasks by extending teleoperation with semi-autonomous functions. The work leverages the $1.2M dual-arm work platform (DAWP) developed with broad participation for the CP5 D&D, as well as 2,000 hr DAWP D&D operational experience. We propose to develop a reactive, agent-based control architecture well suited to unstructured and unpredictable environments, and cobot control technology, which implements a virtual fixture that can be used to guide the application of tools with force-feedback control. Developed methodologies will be implemented using a structured light sensor and cobot hand controller on the dual-arm system.

  12. Remote Manipulation for D&D Exhibiting Teleautonomy and Telecollaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Thomas F.; Colgate, J. Edward; Park, Young S.; Peshkin, Michael A.

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the work is to enhance remote operations of robotic systems for D&D tasks by extending teleoperation with semi-autonomous functions. The work leverages the $1.2M dual-arm work platform (DAWP) developed with broad participation for the CP5 D&D, as well as 2,000 hr DAWP D&D operational experience. We propose to develop a reactive, agent-based control architecture well suited to unstructured and unpredictable environments, and robot control technology, which implements a virtual fixture that can be used to guide the application of tools with force-feedback control. Developed methodologies will be implemented using a structured light sensor and robot hand controller on the dual-arm system.

  13. Credit BG. Looking northwest at the Dd stand complex. To ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Looking northwest at the Dd stand complex. To the left is the Test Stand "D" tower with steam-driven ejectors and interstage condenser visible along with steam lines. The steam accumulator appears in the left foreground (sphere); steam lines emerging from the top conduct steam to the Dv, Dd, and Dy stand ejectors. The T-shaped vertical pipes atop the accumulator are burst-disk type safety valves. The ejector ends of the Dd and Dy trains are visible to the right. Tracks permitted each train to expand and contract with temperature or equipment changes - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. The C-Terminal SynMuv/DdDUF926 Domain Regulates the Function of the N-Terminal Domain of DdNKAP

    PubMed Central

    Burgute, Bhagyashri D.; Peche, Vivek S.; Müller, Rolf; Matthias, Jan; Gaßen, Berthold; Eichinger, Ludwig; Glöckner, Gernot; Noegel, Angelika A.

    2016-01-01

    NKAP (NF-κB activating protein) is a highly conserved SR (serine/arginine-rich) protein involved in transcriptional control and splicing in mammals. We identified DdNKAP, the Dictyostelium discoideum ortholog of mammalian NKAP, as interacting partner of the nuclear envelope protein SUN-1. DdNKAP harbors a number of basic RDR/RDRS repeats in its N-terminal domain and the SynMuv/DUF926 domain at its C-terminus. We describe a novel and direct interaction between DdNKAP and Prp19 (Pre mRNA processing factor 19) which might be relevant for the observed DdNKAP ubiquitination. Genome wide analysis using cross-linking immunoprecipitation-high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq) revealed DdNKAP association with intergenic regions, exons, introns and non-coding RNAs. Ectopic expression of DdNKAP and its domains affects several developmental aspects like stream formation, aggregation, and chemotaxis. We conclude that DdNKAP is a multifunctional protein, which might influence Dictyostelium development through its interaction with RNA and RNA binding proteins. Mutants overexpressing full length DdNKAP and the N-terminal domain alone (DdN-NKAP) showed opposite phenotypes in development and opposite expression profiles of several genes and rRNAs. The observed interaction between DdN-NKAP and the DdDUF926 domain indicates that the DdDUF926 domain acts as negative regulator of the N-terminus. PMID:27997579

  15. Four-body calculation of 4He binding energy and tensor analysing powers for dddd and dd → p 3H reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, A. C.

    1990-02-01

    Four-body integral equations are used to calculate the binding energy of 4He as well as dddd and dd → p 3H amplitudes using a single term separable nucleon-nucleon potential in channels 1S 0 and 3S 1- 3D 1, together with the energy dependent pole expansion to set up an N term representation of all (3)+1 subamplitudes of interest. The (2)+(2) subamplitudes are treated exactly by convolution. The 4He binding energy is obtained from the exact solution of the equations. In the scattering region first order perturbation theory is used to separate the contribution of the s-wave components of the N-N t-matrix and s- and p-wave three-nucleon channels to the tour-nucleon Kernel, from the contribution of d-wave two- and three-nucleon channel components that result from the tensor-force. Cross sections and analysing powers are calculated using all positive and negative parity four-body amplitudes with total angular momentum J⩽4. Comparison with data is presented.

  16. 32. SECTIONS AA, BB, CC, DD, AND EE WASTE CALCINATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SECTIONS A-A, B-B, C-C, D-D, AND E-E WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS OF DIFFERENT FLOOR LEVELS TO ONE ANOTHER. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106353. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. The Work on Aging/DD in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Charlotte

    This conference presentation describes New York State programs serving elderly mentally retarded (MR) and developmentally disabled (DD) persons. These service providers offer programming that is sensitive to the impact of the aging process, or provide the opportunity to access community aging programs, or a combination. Linkages are being…

  18. D-D neutron generator development at LBNL.

    PubMed

    Reijonen, J; Gicquel, F; Hahto, S K; King, M; Lou, T-P; Leung, K-N

    2005-01-01

    The plasma and ion source technology group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is developing advanced, next generation D-D neutron generators. There are three distinctive developments, which are discussed in this presentation, namely, multi-stage, accelerator-based axial neutron generator, high-output co-axial neutron generator and point source neutron generator. These generators employ RF-induction discharge to produce deuterium ions. The distinctive feature of RF-discharge is its capability to generate high atomic hydrogen species, high current densities and stable and long-life operation. The axial neutron generator is designed for applications that require fast pulsing together with medium to high D-D neutron output. The co-axial neutron generator is aimed for high neutron output with cw or pulsed operation, using either the D-D or D-T fusion reaction. The point source neutron generator is a new concept, utilizing a toroidal-shaped plasma generator. The beam is extracted from multiple apertures and focus to the target tube, which is located at the middle of the generator. This will generate a point source of D-D, T-T or D-T neutrons with high output flux. The latest development together with measured data will be discussed in this article.

  19. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, view west into Dd ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, view west into Dd or Dy ejector, showing steam nozzles which drive the ejector to evacuate the test cell to which it is connected. (JPL negative no. 344-2516-B, 29 August 1977) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as delineated in paragraph (g) of this section. When other than written communication is made to... Center per paragraph (j) of this section. (B) Explain to the patient or other responsible family member... responsible family member, instructions 1 through 6 on the face of the DD 1251 and have the patient...

  1. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Newborn infant(s) remaining in hospital after discharge of mother. A newborn infant remaining in the... by a valid DD 1251 issued in the infant's name. This is due to the fact that the infant becomes a patient in his or her own right (the episode of care for the infant after discharge of the mother is...

  2. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Newborn infant(s) remaining in hospital after discharge of mother. A newborn infant remaining in the... by a valid DD 1251 issued in the infant's name. This is due to the fact that the infant becomes a patient in his or her own right (the episode of care for the infant after discharge of the mother is...

  3. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Newborn infant(s) remaining in hospital after discharge of mother. A newborn infant remaining in the... by a valid DD 1251 issued in the infant's name. This is due to the fact that the infant becomes a patient in his or her own right (the episode of care for the infant after discharge of the mother is...

  4. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Newborn infant(s) remaining in hospital after discharge of mother. A newborn infant remaining in the... by a valid DD 1251 issued in the infant's name. This is due to the fact that the infant becomes a patient in his or her own right (the episode of care for the infant after discharge of the mother is...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium succinicans Strain DD5b

    PubMed Central

    Najdenski, Hristo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the first 3.315-Mbp assembled draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium succinicans strain DD5b. This bacterium is a phosphite-assimilating representative of the genus Flavobacterium isolated from guts of the zooplankton Daphnia magna. PMID:28082509

  6. The Work on Aging/DD in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Charlotte

    This conference presentation describes New York State programs serving elderly mentally retarded (MR) and developmentally disabled (DD) persons. These service providers offer programming that is sensitive to the impact of the aging process, or provide the opportunity to access community aging programs, or a combination. Linkages are being…

  7. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes.

    PubMed

    Palau, Jordi; Marchesi, Massimo; Chambon, Julie C C; Aravena, Ramon; Canals, Àngels; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-03-15

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon, showed a wide range in δ(13)C values from -15.6 to -40.5‰ for TCE and from -18.5 to -32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ(37)Cl values for TCE in the contaminant sources, ranging from +0.53 to +0.66‰. Variations of δ(37)Cl and δ(13)C in the different contaminant plumes were used to investigate the role of biodegradation in groundwater. Moreover, the isotopic data were incorporated into a reactive transport model for determination of whether the isotope pattern observed downstream from the tank's source could be explained by the simultaneous effect of mixing and biodegradation. The results demonstrate that a multi-isotope approach is a valuable tool for characterization of complex sites such as fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by multiple sources, providing important information which can be used by consultants and site managers to prioritize and design more successful remediation strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterizing sources and natural attenuation of nitrate contamination in the Baix Ter aquifer system (NE Spain) using a multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Puig, Roger; Soler, Albert; Widory, David; Mas-Pla, Josep; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus

    2017-02-15

    Nitrate pollution is a widespread issue affecting global water resources with significant economic and health effects. Knowledge of both the corresponding pollution sources and of processes naturally attenuating them is thus of crucial importance in assessing water management policies and the impact of anthropogenic activities. In this study, an approach combining hydrodynamic, hydrochemical and multi-isotope systematics (8 isotopes) is used to characterize the sources of nitrate pollution and potential natural attenuation processes in a polluted basin of NE Spain. δ(2)H and δ(18)O isotopes were used to further characterize the sources of recharge of the aquifers. Results show that NO3(-) is not homogeneously distributed and presents a large range of concentrations, from no NO3(-) to up to 480mgL(-1). δ(15)N and δ(18)O of dissolved NO3(-) identified manure as the main source of nitrate, although sewage and mineral fertilizers can also be isotopically detected using boron isotopes (δ(11)B) and δ(34)S and δ(18)O of dissolved sulphate, respectively. The multi-isotope approach proved that natural denitrification is occurring, especially in near-river environments or in areas hydrologically related to fault zones. δ(34)S and δ(18)O indicated that denitrification is not driven by pyrite oxidation but rather by the oxidation of organic matter. This could not be confirmed by the study of δ(13)CHCO3 that was buffered by the entanglement of other processes and sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 79275 - Truth in Savings (Regulation DD)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...Title X of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) transferred rulemaking authority for a number of consumer financial protection laws from seven federal agencies to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) as of July 21, 2011. The Bureau is in the process of republishing the regulations implementing those laws with technical and conforming changes to reflect the transfer of authority and certain other changes made by the Dodd-Frank Act. In light of the transfer of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System's (Board's) rulemaking authority for the Truth in Savings Act (TISA) to the Bureau, the Bureau is publishing for public comment an interim final rule establishing a new Regulation DD (Truth in Savings). This interim final rule does not impose any new substantive obligations on persons subject to the existing Regulation DD, previously published by the Board.

  10. Modelling distractor devaluation (DD) and its neurophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Fragopanagos, Nickolaos; Cristescu, Tamara; Goolsby, Brian A; Kiss, Monika; Eimer, Martin; Nobre, Anna C; Raymond, Jane E; Shapiro, Kimron L; Taylor, John G

    2009-10-01

    A series of recent studies have shown that selective attention can influence the emotional value of both selected as well as ignored items. Specifically, ignored items (distractors) were consistently rated less positively in emotional evaluations, following attentional selection, relative to (typically) simultaneously presented items (targets). Furthermore, a known electrophysiological index of attentional selectivity (N2pc) was shown to correlate with the magnitude of the observed 'distractor devaluation' (DD). A neural model is presented here to account for these findings by means of a plausible mechanism linking attentional processes to emotional evaluations. This mechanism relies on the transformation of attentional inhibition of the distractor into a reduction of the value of that distractor. The model is successful in reproducing the existent behavioural results as well as the observed link between the magnitude of the attentional N2pc and the magnitude of DD. Moreover, the model proposes a series of testable hypotheses as well as specific predictions that call for further experimental investigation.

  11. Long-term photopolarimetric variability of DD Ser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, S. P.; Shakhovskoy, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    We present some results of UBVRI-photopolarimetric observations of DD Ser, a poorly studied and understood Ae-star. The long-term component of light variation is detected, with the period of about fifteen years. Variability of the degree and positional angle of linear polarization is observed as well. Analysis of correlation between photometric and polarimetric data shows that observed light minima are likely caused by variability of circumstellar extinction produced by dust.

  12. 48 CFR 253.213-70 - Completion of DD Form 1155, Order for Supplies or Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Completion of DD Form 1155... Forms 253.213-70 Completion of DD Form 1155, Order for Supplies or Services. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.213-70 for completion of DD Form 1155....

  13. 48 CFR 247.371 - DD Form 1653, Transportation Data for Solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1653... Supply Contracts 247.371 DD Form 1653, Transportation Data for Solicitations. The transportation specialist prepares the DD Form 1653 to accompany requirements for the acquisition of supplies. The...

  14. 48 CFR 253.208-2 - DD Form 448-2, Acceptance of MIPR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 448-2, Acceptance... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 253.208-2 DD Form 448-2, Acceptance of MIPR. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-2 for use of DD Form 448-2....

  15. 48 CFR 245.7206 - Transmitting DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitting DD Form 1342... Instructions 245.7206 Transmitting DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record. As a minimum, the plant clearance officer will provide the following information in a letter forwarding DD Forms 1342 to DSCR— (a) Number of...

  16. 48 CFR 245.7101-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use for... DD Form 1149. This form may also be used to consolidate contractor inventory redistribution...

  17. 48 CFR 215.404-70 - DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1547, Record of... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-70 DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-70 for use of DD Form 1547 whenever a...

  18. 48 CFR 247.371 - DD Form 1653, Transportation Data for Solicitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1653... Supply Contracts 247.371 DD Form 1653, Transportation Data for Solicitations. The transportation specialist prepares the DD Form 1653 to accompany requirements for the acquisition of supplies. The...

  19. 48 CFR 215.404-70 - DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1547, Record of... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-70 DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Method Application. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.404-70 for use of DD Form 1547 whenever a...

  20. 48 CFR 247.372 - DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1654, Evaluation... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.372 DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors. Contracting personnel may use the DD Form 1654 to furnish information to the transportation office for development...

  1. 48 CFR 247.370 - DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1384... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.370 DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document. The transportation office of the shipping activity prepares the DD Form 1384 to accompany all shipments made...

  2. 48 CFR 247.372 - DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1654, Evaluation... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.372 DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors. Contracting personnel may use the DD Form 1654 to furnish information to the transportation office for development...

  3. 48 CFR 253.215-70 - DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1547, Record of... Forms 253.215-70 DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Application. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.215-70 for completing DD Form 1547....

  4. 48 CFR 253.213-70 - Completion of DD Form 1155, Order for Supplies or Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Completion of DD Form 1155... Forms 253.213-70 Completion of DD Form 1155, Order for Supplies or Services. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.213-70 for completion of DD Form 1155....

  5. 48 CFR 253.208-2 - DD Form 448-2, Acceptance of MIPR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 448-2, Acceptance... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 253.208-2 DD Form 448-2, Acceptance of MIPR. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-2 for use of DD Form 448-2....

  6. 48 CFR 253.215-70 - DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1547, Record of... Forms 253.215-70 DD Form 1547, Record of Weighted Guidelines Application. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.215-70 for completing DD Form 1547....

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dd of... - Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Subpart DD Subpart A reference Applies to Subpart DD Explanation 63.1(a)(1) Yes 63.1(a)(2) Yes 63.1(a)(3) Yes 63.1(a)(4) No Subpart DD (this table) specifies applicability of each paragraph in subpart A to subpart DD. 63.1(a)(5)-63.1(a)(9) No 63.1(a)(10) Yes 63.1(a)(11) Yes 63.1(a)(12) Yes 63.1(a)(13) Yes 63.1...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dd of... - Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subpart DD Subpart A reference Applies to Subpart DD Explanation 63.1(a)(1) Yes 63.1(a)(2) Yes 63.1(a)(3) Yes 63.1(a)(4) No Subpart DD (this table) specifies applicability of each paragraph in subpart A to subpart DD. 63.1(a)(5)-63.1(a)(9) No 63.1(a)(10) Yes 63.1(a)(11) Yes 63.1(a)(12) Yes 63.1(a)(13) Yes 63.1...

  9. Identifying source and formation altitudes of nitrates in drinking water from Réunion Island, France, using a multi-isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; Nicolini, Eric; Gauthier, Virginie

    2012-09-01

    Nitrate concentrations, water isotopes (δ(2)H and δ(18)O(water)) and associated nitrate isotopes (δ(15)N(nitrate) and δ(18)O(nitrate)) from 10 drinking water wells, 5 fresh water springs and the discharge from 3 wastewater treatment stations in Réunion Island, located in the Indian Ocean, were analysed. We used a multi isotopic approach to investigate the extent of nitrate contamination, nitrate formation altitude and source of nitrates in Réunion Island's principal aquifer. Water from these study sites contained between 0.1 and 85.3 mg/L nitrate. δ(15)N(nitrate) values between +6 and +14‰ suggested the main sources of contamination were animal and/or human waste, rather than inorganic (synthetic) fertilisers, infiltrating through the subsurface into the saturated zone, due to rainfall leaching of the unsaturated zone at various altitudes of precipitation. Based on δ(15)N(nitrate) values alone, it was not possible to distinguish between animal and human activities responsible for the contamination of each specific catchment. However, using a multi isotope approach (δ(18)O(water) and δ(15)N(nitrate)), it was possible to relate the average altitude of rainfall infiltration (δ(18)O(water)) associated with the nitrate contamination (δ(18)O(nitrate)). This relationship between land use, rainfall recharge altitude and isotopic composition (δ(15)N(nitrate) and δ(18)O(water)) discriminated between the influences of human waste at lower (below 600 m elevation) or animal derived contamination (at elevations between 600 and 1300 m). By further comparing the theoretical altitude of nitrate formation calculated by the δ(18)O(nitrate), it was possible to determine that only 5 out of 15 fresh water wells and springs followed the conservative nitrate formation mechanism of 2/3δ(18)O(water)+1/3δ(18)O(air), to give nitrate formation altitudes which corresponded to land use activities.

  10. THE MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR: A NEAR-REAL-TIME, NON-DESTRUCTIVE, INDICATOR OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Douglas, Matthew; Christensen, Richard

    2010-05-07

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and The Ohio State University are working to develop a system for monitoring spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities on-line, non-destructively, and in near-real-time. This method, known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, is based upon the measurement of distribution patterns of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Signatures from these indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. By targeting gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. In addition, utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, increases the likelihood that attempts to divert material via process manipulation would be detected. Proof-of-principle modeling exercises simulating changes in acid strength have been completed and the results are promising. Laboratory validation is currently under way and significant results are available. The latest experimental results, along with an overview of the method will be presented.

  11. MONITORING SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING CONDITIONS NON-DESTRUCTIVELY AND IN NEAR-REAL-TIME USING THE MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Douglas, Matthew; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2010-05-07

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and The Ohio State University are working to develop a system for monitoring spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities on-line, nondestructively, and in near-real-time. This method, known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, is based upon the measurement of distribution patterns of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Signatures from these indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. By targeting gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. In addition, utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, increases the likelihood that attempts to divert material via process manipulation would be detected. Proof-of-principle modeling exercises simulating changes in acid strength have been completed and the results are promising. Laboratory testing is currently under way and significant results are available. Recent experimental results, along with an overview of the method are presented.

  12. Identifying the African wintering grounds of hybrid flycatchers using a multi-isotope (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) assignment approach.

    PubMed

    Veen, Thor; Hjernquist, Mårten B; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L; Hobson, Keith A; Folmer, Eelke; Font, Laura; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different sub-Saharan regions have distinct migratory routes on the eastern and western sides of the Sahara desert, respectively. In an earlier paper, we showed that hybrids of the two species did not incur reduced winter survival, which would be expected if their migration strategy had been a mix of the parent species' strategies potentially resulting in an intermediate route crossing the Sahara desert to different wintering grounds. Previously, we compared isotope ratios and found no significant difference in stable-nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) in winter-grown feathers between the parental species and hybrids, but stable-carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in hybrids significantly clustered only with those of pied flycatchers. We followed up on these findings and additionally analyzed the same feathers for stable-hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) and conducted spatially explicit multi-isotope assignment analyses. The assignment results overlapped with presumed wintering ranges of the two species, highlighting the efficacy of the method. In contrast to earlier findings, hybrids clustered with both parental species, though most strongly with pied flycatcher.

  13. Proof of concept simulations of the Multi-Isotope Process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near-real-time safeguards monitor for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard N.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency will require the development of advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of nondestructive, near-real-time, autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes recent results from model simulations designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) monitor, a novel addition to a safeguards system for reprocessing facilities. The MIP monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in near-real-time. Three computer models including ORIGEN-ARP, AMUSE, and SYNTH were used in series to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate element partitioning during separation, and simulate spectra from product and raffinate streams using a variety of gamma detectors, respectively. Simulations were generated for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup, and cooling time. Hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least squares (PLS) were also used in the analysis. The MIP monitor was found to be sensitive to induced variations of several operating parameters including distinguishing ±2.5% variation from normal process acid concentrations. The ability of PLS to predict burnup levels from simulated spectra was also demonstrated to be within 3.5% of measured values.

  14. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd test cell with VO (Viking Orbiter)-75 spacecraft engine mounted for testing. (Viking was a Mars orbiter and lander mission.) The end of the engine nozzle is inserted into a diffuser in order to conduct exhaust gases out of the chamber. All piping and tubing is stainless steel. Note ports in background through which instrumentation wiring passes. Nozzles at top of view are part of an internal fire suppression (or "Firex") system. (JPL negative no. 384-9428, 24 April 1972) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. Linkage analyses in Darier disease (DD) and Halley-Halley disease (HHD): Fine mapping of the DD locus on chromosome 12q and rejection of the hypothesis that HHD is allelic to DD

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, G.; Wright, A.R.; Compton, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    DD and HHD are rare autosomal dominant genodermatoses. These disorders of cornification share some clinical and histologic features and for many years were thought to be variants of the same disease. DD presents as hyperkeratotic papules and plaques, usually in a seborrheic distribution; rarely, blisters can occur. Mucous membranes and nails may also be involved. Skin involvement in HHD includes erythematous and scaly plaques, and vesicular or crusted lesions, often in intertriginous areas. Both diseases have age-dependent penetrance and are characterized histologically by a focal loss of cell adhesion in the suprabasal epidermis leading to lacunaes (acantholysis) and premature keratinization (dyskeratosis). We analyzed linkage of DD in ten families with markers in 12q23-q24.1, the region to which it has been mapped. Detailed genotype analysis of recombinant chromosomes in our families, along with previously reported data, refine the location of the DD gene to about a 4 cM interval flanked by the loci D12S129 and D12S105. We have excluded two genes in 12q22-q24, PLA2A and PAH, as candidate loci for DD. Three other gene loci (PPP1C, PMCH and PMCA1) mapping in 12q21-q24, remain potential candidates. The region containing the DD gene is an obvious candidate location to test for HHD. We investigated four multigeneration families with HHD for linkage to the DD gene locus using several tightly linked microsatellite markers. Obligate recombination with each marker tested was observed, and the HHD locus was excluded from about 37 cM around the DD locus, proving that DD and HHD are not allelic disorders.

  16. Manufacture and evaluation of Li/BCX DD cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S.; Takeuchi, E.

    1990-06-01

    This project is divided into four main tasks: cell manufacture, acceptance, and lot certification of cells, performance testing of cells, and abuse testing of cells. Lithium/bromine chloride in thionyl chloride (Li/BCX) 149 DD cells (PN 3B2085-XA) were built according to the provisions of Electrochem Industries Quality Plan 17096. Acceptance and lot certification testing was performed according to NASA JSC Document EP5-83-025, Revision B. Acceptance testing included open circuit and load voltage check, visual examination, size and weight measurements, and high temperature exposure. Lot certification tests were performed for capacity performance and for performance under conditions of thermal and electrical abuse. These tests included 149 C exposure, capacity discharge, fuse check, high temperature exposure, high rate discharge, short circuit, vibration, and overdischarge testing. A quantity of 200 cells was delivered to Johnson Space Center for life test evaluation. A parametric evaluation of the capacity discharge of Li/BCX DD cells was performed over a variety of temperatures and discharge rates. This testing served to map the performance capability of the cell. Tests were also performed over a variety of electrical and thermal abuse conditions. Abuse tests included short circuit, charging, overdischarge, high temperature exposure, shock, and vibration.

  17. Manufacture and evaluation of Li/BCX DD cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, S.; Takeuchi, E.

    1990-01-01

    This project is divided into four main tasks: cell manufacture, acceptance, and lot certification of cells, performance testing of cells, and abuse testing of cells. Lithium/bromine chloride in thionyl chloride (Li/BCX) 149 DD cells (PN 3B2085-XA) were built according to the provisions of Electrochem Industries Quality Plan 17096. Acceptance and lot certification testing was performed according to NASA JSC Document EP5-83-025, Revision B. Acceptance testing included open circuit and load voltage check, visual examination, size and weight measurements, and high temperature exposure. Lot certification tests were performed for capacity performance and for performance under conditions of thermal and electrical abuse. These tests included 149 C exposure, capacity discharge, fuse check, high temperature exposure, high rate discharge, short circuit, vibration, and overdischarge testing. A quantity of 200 cells was delivered to Johnson Space Center for life test evaluation. A parametric evaluation of the capacity discharge of Li/BCX DD cells was performed over a variety of temperatures and discharge rates. This testing served to map the performance capability of the cell. Tests were also performed over a variety of electrical and thermal abuse conditions. Abuse tests included short circuit, charging, overdischarge, high temperature exposure, shock, and vibration.

  18. Evidence for X(3872) from DD* Scattering on the Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelovsek, Sasa; Leskovec, Luka

    2013-11-01

    A candidate for the charmonium(like) state X(3872) is found 11±7MeV below the DD¯* threshold using dynamical Nf=2 lattice simulation with JPC=1++ and I=0. This is the first lattice simulation that establishes a candidate for X(3872) in addition to the nearby scattering states DD¯* and J/ψω, which inevitably have to be present in dynamical QCD. We extract large and negative DD¯* scattering length a0DD*=-1.7±0.4fm and the effective range r0DD*=0.5±0.1fm, but their reliable determination will have to wait for a simulation on a larger volume. In I=1 channel, only the DD¯* and J/ψρ scattering states are found and no candidate for X(3872). This is in agreement with the interpretation that X(3872) is dominantly I=0, while its small I=1 component arises solely from the isospin breaking and is therefore absent in our simulation with mu=md.

  19. D-D fusion experiments using fast Z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Baldwin, G.T.; Cooper, G.

    1998-03-01

    The development of high current (I > 10 MA) drivers provides the authors with a new tool for the study of neutron-producing plasmas in the thermal regime. The imploded deuterium mass (or collisionality) increases as I{sup 2} and the ability of the driver to heat the plasma to relevant fusion temperatures improves as the power of the driver increases. Additionally, fast (<100 ns) implosions are more stable to the usual MHD instabilities that plagued the traditional slower implosions. The authors describe experiments in which deuterium gas puffs or CD{sub 2} fiber arrays were imploded in a fast z-pinch configuration on Sandia`s Saturn facility generating up to 3 {times} 10{sup 12} D-D neutrons. These experiments were designed to explore the physics of neutron-generating plasmas in a z-pinch geometry. Specifically, the authors intended to produce neutrons from a nearly thermal plasma where the electrons and ions have a nearly Maxwellian distribution. This is to be clearly differentiated from the more usual D-D beam-target neutrons generated in many dense plasma focus (DPF) devices.

  20. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10-002 Public Health Research on Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-003 Public Health Research on Children and Adults Living With Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-004 Developing a... Health Research on Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-003 Public Health Research on Children and Adults Living...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 45 - DD Form 214ws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 214ws B Appendix B to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. B Appendix B to Part 45—DD Form 214ws...

  2. D-D Fusion in the Interior of Jupiter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Fundamenski, Wojciech R.; Cripps, Gregory R.; Sutherland, Peter G.

    1998-07-01

    One of the still uncertain and debated questions about Jupiter is the origin of its excess heat. Understanding the source of such heat will certainly shed some light on the physics of the interior of the planet and on scenarios of its formation. Recent measurements of sound velocities in Jupiter show substantial disagreement with the existing models for the Jovian interior. Analysis of these measurements suggests that helium (He) sedimentation (through H-He phase separation) is plausible in the planet's interior, contrary to what is believed from numerical calculations of H-He mixture at conditions prevailing in Jupiter's deep interior. This signals the need for a revision of the existing models of Jupiter and allows for new models to be explored. While He sedimentation might help shift the calculated sound velocities toward the observed ones, we find that it cannot explain the excess heat. Here, we analyze the consequences of deuterium (D) sedimentation on Jupiter's excess heat and discuss its effects on the sound profiles. Such a sedimentation is assumed to have occurred in the early stages of planet formation (here the core-instability model) through planetesimal vaporization in the deeper parts of the envelope. Our interest in investigating D sedimentation resulted from the recent extrapolations of D-D, D-T, D-3He, and p-D fusion to electron volt temperatures, which indicate that D-D fusion largely dominates the other reactions under conditions thought to prevail in the interior of early Jupiter. We find that with a modest degree of interior stratification of D (5%-15% of the total D of the planet), D-D burning naturally explains the excess heat given off by the planet. For our model to operate, we find that D sedimentation must occur during the early stages of planet formation (core-instability scenario) when interior temperatures of 16-18 eV where available. Our model is applied to the family of the Jovian planets as a whole.

  3. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: a hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S).

    PubMed

    Kloppmann, W; Bromblet, P; Vallet, J M; Vergès-Belmin, V; Rolland, O; Guerrot, C; Gosselin, C

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the δ(34)S and δ(18)O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called "Paris plaster"). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in (34)S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Proof of concept experiments of the multi-isotope process monitor: An online, nondestructive, near real-time monitor for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard N.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-01

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the multi-isotope process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to monitoring and safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of ±1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  5. WILDCAT: a catalyzed D-D tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed D-D, tokamak, commercial, fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing D-T designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete, conceptual design.

  6. Anti-MRSA Activities of Enterocins DD28 and DD93 and Evidences on Their Role in the Inhibition of Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Al Atya, Ahmed K.; Belguesmia, Yanath; Chataigne, Gabrielle; Ravallec, Rozenn; Vachée, Anne; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a worrisome superbug. This work aimed at studying the effects of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93 as anti-MRSA agents. Thus, these bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chromatography and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-Staphylococcal activity was shown in vitro by the assessment of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), followed by a checkerboard and time-kill kinetics experiments. The data unveiled a clear synergistic effect of enterocins DD28 and DD93 in combination with erythromycin or kanamycin against the clinical MRSA-S1 strain. Besides, these combinations impeded as well the MRSA-S1 clinical strain to setup biofilms on stainless steel and glace devices. PMID:27303396

  7. Anti-MRSA Activities of Enterocins DD28 and DD93 and Evidences on Their Role in the Inhibition of Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Al Atya, Ahmed K; Belguesmia, Yanath; Chataigne, Gabrielle; Ravallec, Rozenn; Vachée, Anne; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a worrisome superbug. This work aimed at studying the effects of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93 as anti-MRSA agents. Thus, these bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chromatography and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-Staphylococcal activity was shown in vitro by the assessment of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), followed by a checkerboard and time-kill kinetics experiments. The data unveiled a clear synergistic effect of enterocins DD28 and DD93 in combination with erythromycin or kanamycin against the clinical MRSA-S1 strain. Besides, these combinations impeded as well the MRSA-S1 clinical strain to setup biofilms on stainless steel and glace devices.

  8. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 77 - DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration B Appendix B to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROGRAM TO ENCOURAGE PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Pt. 77, App. B Appendix B to Part 77—DD Form 2581,...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 45 - DD Form 214ws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 214ws B Appendix B to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. B Appendix B to...

  10. 48 CFR 245.7001-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. 245.7001-2 Section 245.7001-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7001-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use...

  11. 48 CFR 1846.672 - Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c. 1846.672 Section 1846.672 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... DD Forms 250 and 250c....

  12. 48 CFR 245.7001-5 - DD Form 1641, Disposal Determination/Approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1641, Disposal Determination/Approval. 245.7001-5 Section 245.7001-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION....7001-5 DD Form 1641, Disposal Determination/Approval. Use to record rationale for the...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral...

  14. 48 CFR 245.7001-6, - DD Form 1822, End Use Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1822, End Use Certificate. 245.7001-6, Section 245.7001-6, Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION....7001-6, DD Form 1822, End Use Certificate. Use when directed by the plant clearance officer....

  15. 48 CFR 245.7001-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. 245.7001-4 Section 245.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Forms 245.7001-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral System...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral System...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral System...

  19. 48 CFR 247.370 - DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document. 247.370 Section 247.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.370 DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document....

  20. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1...

  1. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1...

  2. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1...

  3. 48 CFR 245.7001-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. 245.7001-2 Section 245.7001-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7001-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use for...

  4. 48 CFR 245.7001-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. 245.7001-2 Section 245.7001-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7001-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use for...

  5. 48 CFR 245.7001-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. 245.7001-2 Section 245.7001-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7001-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use for...

  6. 48 CFR 247.370 - DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document. 247.370 Section 247.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.370 DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document....

  7. 48 CFR 247.370 - DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document. 247.370 Section 247.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.370 DD Form 1384, Transportation Control and Movement Document. The...

  8. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1 for...

  9. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1 for...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 45 - DD Form 214ws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 214ws B Appendix B to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. B Appendix B to Part...

  11. Functional analysis of a novel gene, DD3-3, from Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuragi, N.; Ogasawara, N.; Tanesaka, E.; Yoshida, M. . E-mail: yoshida_m@nara.kindai.ac.jp

    2005-06-17

    A novel gene, DD3-3, from Dictyostelium discoideum has been isolated by an mRNA differential display between a wild-type strain AX2 and a mutant HG794 which is defective in O-glycosylation. Functional analysis of the novel gene, DD3-3, was conducted by preparing a knockout mutant, DD3-3KO, and a GST:DD3-3 fusion protein. The mutant DD3-3KO cells were allowed to develop about 1.5 h earlier than the wild-type strain AX2 cells. Northern blotting analysis of the knockout mutant cells showed a remarkable downregulation of Reg A, cAMP-dependent phosphodiesterase, and overexpression of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) during early development and its shutdown during late development. The relationship between O-glycosylation and phosphorylation involving Reg A gene is discussed.

  12. Using Multi-Isotope Tracer Methods to Understand the Sources of Nitrate in Aerosols, Fog and River Water in Podocarpus National Forest, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, L. A.; Dominguez, G.; Fabian, P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    sulfate and nitrate concentrations in rain and fog water by standard methods to investigate water and nutrient pathways along with data from satellite and ground based remote sensing, observations and numerical models. We hope to pair this with a multi-isotope tracer method and NOAA Hysplit Back trajectories, and satellite imagery for information about the number of fires burning in the region to help identify sources of the high nitrate deposition.

  13. Use of a multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach including organic matter isotopes for quantifying nutrient contributions from agricultural vs wastewater sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Young, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    While nutrient isotopes are a well-established tool for quantifying nutrients inputs from agricultural vs wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sources, we have found that combining nutrient isotopes with the C, N, and S isotopic compositions of dissolved and particulate organic matter, as part of a comprehensive multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach, is a much more diagnostic approach. The main reasons why organic matter C-N-S isotopes are a useful adjunct to studies of nutrient sources and biogeochemical processes are that the dissolved and particulate organic matter associated with (1) different kinds of animals (e.g., humans vs cows) often have distinctive isotopic compositions reflecting the different diets of the animals, and (2) the different processes associated with the different land uses (e.g., in the WWTP or associated with different crop types) often result in significant differences in the isotopic compositions of the organics. The analysis of the δ34S of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been found to be especially useful for distinguishing and quantifying water, nutrient, and organic contributions from different land uses in aquatic systems where much of the organic matter is aquatic in origin. In such environments, the bacteria and algae incorporate S from sulfate and sulfide that is isotopically labeled by the different processes associated with different land uses. We have found that there is ~35 permil range in δ34S of POM along the river-estuary continuum in the San Joaquin/Sacramento River basin, with low values associated with sulfate reduction in the upstream wetlands and high values associated with tidal inputs of marine water into the estuary. Furthermore, rice agriculture results in relatively low δ34S values whereas WWTP effluent in the Sacramento River produces distinctly higher values than upstream of the WWTP, presumably because SO2 is used to treat chlorinated effluent. The fish living

  14. Inhibition of DD-peptidases by a specific trifluoroketone: crystal structure of a complex with the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase.

    PubMed

    Dzhekieva, Liudmila; Adediran, S A; Herman, Raphael; Kerff, Frédéric; Duez, Colette; Charlier, Paulette; Sauvage, Eric; Pratt, R F

    2013-03-26

    Inhibitors of bacterial DD-peptidases represent potential antibiotics. In the search for alternatives to β-lactams, we have investigated a series of compounds designed to generate transition state analogue structures upon reaction with DD-peptidases. The compounds contain a combination of a peptidoglycan-mimetic specificity handle and a warhead capable of delivering a tetrahedral anion to the enzyme active site. The latter includes a boronic acid, two alcohols, an aldehyde, and a trifluoroketone. The compounds were tested against two low-molecular mass class C DD-peptidases. As expected from previous observations, the boronic acid was a potent inhibitor, but rather unexpectedly from precedent, the trifluoroketone [D-α-aminopimelyl(1,1,1-trifluoro-3-amino)butan-2-one] was also very effective. Taking into account competing hydration, we found the trifluoroketone was the strongest inhibitor of the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase, with a subnanomolar (free ketone) inhibition constant. A crystal structure of the complex between the trifluoroketone and the R39 enzyme showed that a tetrahedral adduct had indeed formed with the active site serine nucleophile. The trifluoroketone moiety, therefore, should be considered along with boronic acids and phosphonates as a warhead that can be incorporated into new and effective DD-peptidase inhibitors and therefore, perhaps, antibiotics.

  15. 48 CFR 245.606-70 - Instructions for completing DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... completing DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record. 245.606-70 Section 245.606-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations... completing DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record. (a) The contractor shall list excess industrial plant equipment (IPE) on DD Form 1342, DoD Property Record, and submit it to the Government property administrator...

  16. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T.; Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A.; Jones, G.

    2013-04-19

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 {mu}s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  17. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T.; Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A.; Jones, G.

    2013-04-01

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 × 109 n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 μs have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  18. The DD Check App for prevention and control of digital dermatitis in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Bennett, Tom; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-09-15

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disease in the cattle industry causing outbreaks of lameness. The clinical course of disease can be classified using 5 clinical stages. M-stages represent not only different disease severities but also unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. Monitoring the proportions of cows per M-stage is needed to better understand and address DD and factors influencing risks of DD in a herd. Changes in the proportion of cows per M-stage over time or between groups may be attributed to differences in management, environment, or treatment and can have impact on the future claw health of the herd. Yet trends in claw health regarding DD are not intuitively noticed without statistical analysis of detailed records. Our specific aim was to develop a mobile application (app) for persons with less statistical training, experience or supporting programs that would standardize M-stage records, automate data analysis including trends of M-stages over time, the calculation of predictions and assignments of Cow Types (i.e., Cow Types I-III are assigned to cows without active lesions, single and repeated cases of active DD lesions, respectively). The predictions were the stationary distributions of transitions between DD states (i.e., M-stages or signs of chronicity) in a class-structured multi-state Markov chain population model commonly used to model endemic diseases. We hypothesized that the app can be used at different levels of record detail to discover significant trends in the prevalence of M-stages that help to make informed decisions to prevent and control DD on-farm. Four data sets were used to test the flexibility and value of the DD Check App. The app allows easy recording of M-stages in different environments and is flexible in terms of the users' goals and the level of detail used. Results show that this tool discovers trends in M-stage proportions, predicts potential outbreaks of DD, and makes comparisons among

  19. Study of BB ¯*/DD ¯* bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun

    2014-10-01

    In this work the BB ¯*/DD ¯* system is studied in the Bethe-Salpeter approach with quasipotential approximation. In our calculation both direct and cross diagrams are included in the one-boson-exchange potential. The numerical results indicate the existence of an isoscalar bound state DD ¯* with JPC=1++, which may be related to the X(3872). In the isovector sector, no bound state is produced from the interactions of DD ¯* and BB ¯*, which suggests the molecular state explanations for Zb(10610) and Zc(3900) are excluded.

  20. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Torben

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the determination and results of pure-tone equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for the Interacoustics DD 45 audiometric earphone equipped with standard Model 51 cushions. The size and shape of the DD 45 transducer resembles the classic Telephonics TDH 39 earphone. Pure-tone hearing threshold measurements were performed for both ears of 29 test subjects. All audiometric frequencies from 125 to 8000 Hz were used. The data are intended for inclusion in future standardized reference equivalent threshold sound pressure levels. The results show that the DD 45 may be a good substitute for the THD 39 without the traditional 5-dB problem at 6000 Hz.

  1. Study of DD Neutrons and their Transmission in Iron Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sushil

    The Deuterium-Deuteron (DD) reaction has been used as a neutron source to study the transport of neutrons in natural iron. The scattering targets are used in the form of spheres and the neutron transmission measurement has been done at 7-MeV incident deuteron beam energy. The purpose of this study is to test the elastic and non-elastic neutron scattering cross sections for iron in the ENDF/B-VII data library, as some indications about the inaccuracy of those cross sections have been found from previous studies. The experiment has been carried out using the 4.5-MV tandem accelerator at Edwards Accelerator Laboratory at Ohio University, Athens, Ohio. The DD source reaction has been measured at 5- and 7-MeV deuteron beam energy. The D(d,n)3He monoenergetic reaction cross section has been measured from 0° to 135° at both 5- and 7-MeV beam energy and the D(d,np)D breakup reaction cross section has been measured up to 60° laboratory angles at 7-MeV beam energy. The target used is a deuterium gas cell of 3-cm length at approximately 2 atmosphere absolute pressure. The neutron energy is determined using the time of flight method. A NE213 liquid scintillation detector is used for neutron detection and the thick-target 27Al(d,n) reaction is used for the determination of neutron detector efficiency. The monoenergetic reaction cross section has been found to be in reasonable agreement with previous evaluations. The neutron transmission studies through iron spheres is done using two natural iron spheres with thicknesses of 3 and 8 cm. The DD source measurement (sphere-off) were repeated for the transmission studies and the neutron source was covered with the spheres for the transmission measurements. The experimental transmitted neutron spectrum is compared with the calculation done using Monte Carlo simulation code MCNP6.1 developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. MCNP uses ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated iron cross section for the simulation. The calculated and experimental

  2. Combined Use of GIS, Hydrostratigraphic, Geochemical, and Multi-Isotope Analysis for Groundwater Preservation and Development in a Complex Karst Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulet, D.; Cook, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    The complex stratigraphy and geologic structure characteristic to fractured karst aquifers underlying an urban part of the north-central Alabama Valley and Ridge Setting make the development and protection of groundwater sources difficult. In this area, population growth accompanied by increased impervious surfaces, storm water runoff, contaminants, subsidence, and pumping rates have rendered the groundwater resource. The potential for aquifer recharge and flow conditions were evaluated in order to determine the current and future alternative water sources available in this area. Geochemical and multi-isotope techniques were coupled with hydrostratigraphic and geomorphic spatial (GIS) analyses to determine the primary mechanisms controlling recharge and flow and evaluate seasonal impacts on groundwater resources and recharge environments. Groundwater samples, collected in summer and fall (2010) from wells developed in the Bangor Limestone and Tuscumbia Fort Payne aquifers (north-central Alabama), were analyzed for major ions, stable isotopes of oxygen (δ^18O), hydrogen (δD), and carbon (δ^13C), and anthropogenic isotopes such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF_6). Stable isotope investigations suggest that recharge occurs under relatively closed conditions, with fast percolation rates in short periods (characteristic to karst aquifers) and low evaporation rates during the colder seasons. The average δ^13C value (-11.4±2% PDB, n=9) lies near the combined average δ^13C values of soil CO_2 and the carbonate. Therefore, groundwater δ^13C signature is mainly controlled by two factors: soil CO_2 and carbonate dissolution. Static water levels decrease over the summer causing drawdowns (2 to 5.2 meters) in all the production wells and a slight shift of the δ^18O and δD values towards a more positive member (summer range--δ^18O: -5.1±0.1 to -5.7±0.1% VSMOW, n=11; δD: -25.0±1 to -30.6±1% VSMOW, n=11 and fall range--δ^18O: -4.8±0.1 to

  3. Geochemical disparity of d13C and d18O in gryphaeidae oysters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videt, B.; Bentaleb, I.; Néraudeau, D.

    2003-04-01

    Several geochemical analyses of stable isotopes have been made on the group of the oysters in the past. However the majority of the studies are often focused on the sole family of Ostreidea which constituted a minority in the oyster diversity during Mesozoic times. The purpose of this study is to improve knowledge of the modality of isotopic signal record in the group of Gryphaeidae, notable for its abundance and its omnipresence within the Mesozoic outcropts. In this way, a high resolution isotopic study was carried out on the genera Pycnodonte and Ceratostreon. Each microgrowth increment was sampled with the aim of following the variations of the isotopic ratios during ontogenis. It was then possible to reveal a cyclicity of the signal for these two genera which is ascribable to a saisonnality. With end to test the validity of our results, the studies were lead on individuals coming from two lineage of Cenomanian and Campanian Gryphaeidae. For each period the individuals were obviously collected in the same thin layer, and thus subjected to same the environmental conditions during their life. The respective signal of Ceratostreon flabellatum and Pycnodonte biauriculata of upper Cenomanian are compared and then respectively confronted with Ceratostreon pliciferum and Pycnodonte vesicularis of final Campanian. Thus it is possible to observe a systematic shift of about of 1 per mil for δ13C -relative to PDB- between the two genera. More surprising, range of values of δ18O is strongly exaggerated for Ceratostreon genus. Also, these values could not be directly translated into term of palaeotemperature. An observation of the isotopic curves reveals a progressive shift of about of +0.5 ppm during ontogenesis of the two Ceratostreon species. The previous works showsthat the fossil oysters have a good aptitude to record fluctuation of the environmental conditions. But this study shows too that the previous results are not generalizable. At beyond this study warns against abusive and systematic use of geochemical tools without a preliminary solid knowledge of the studied groups.

  4. Isotopic tracing (D, 18O and 29Si) to understand the alteration on historic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verney-Carron, Aurélie; Saheb, Mandana; Valle, Nathalie; Mangin, Denis; Remusat, Laurent; Loisel, Claudine

    2015-04-01

    In order to better preserve historic glasses, e.g. stained glass windows, the understanding of their alteration mechanisms and of what controls the kinetics corresponding to each process is required. The ancient stained glasses are characterized by thick alteration layers, continuous or as pits, that are cracked or lost. Therefore, if a passivating role of the alteration layer has been proved on some other kinds of glass (such as basaltic or nuclear glass) in aqueous medium, the issue can be addressed for low durable stained glass weathered in varying atmospheric conditions. The mechanism of alteration layer formation was first investigated by performing dynamic and static experiments on model medieval glasses altered with a solution doped in 29Si at different concentrations (or saturation degrees). Solid analyses were carried out by SIMS and solution by HR-ICP-MS. Medieval stained glass has mainly a potash-lime-silica composition with a low content in alumina. The alkaline and alkaline-earth elements have thus a modifier role in the glassy network. This structural difference compared to boro- or alumino-silicate glasses could induce differences in the alteration mechanisms. However, the analysis of the Si isotopic signature of the gel layer highlighted that diffusion, but also hydrolysis/condensation reactions, are also involved in the gel layer formation process, leading to a structural and textural reorganization. The second objective was to determine the kinetic role of the alteration layer, and especially to trace the circulation of water once the altered layer is formed. For that, ancient glasses were exposed to simulated rainfall events / drying periods cycles during 3 months by using a solution doped in D and 18O. NanoSIMS analyses have shown that the transport in the alteration layer is mainly driven by diffusion in the porosity despite the presence of cracks that could have been preferential ways of circulation. This demonstrates also a potential protective role of the alteration layer formed on stained glasses in atmospheric medium. All these results will contribute to improve the knowledge of glass alteration processes and to develop appropriate conservation / restoration strategies of these historical artefacts.

  5. Age differences between Atlantic and Pacific benthic d18O change at terminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, L. E.; Raymo, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Because a large fraction of benthic δ18O change is due to global ice volume change, benthic δ18O is often used as stratigraphic tool to place marine records on a common age model and as a proxy for the timing of ice volume/sea level change. These applications require the assumptions that δ18O change is rapidly transmitted throughout the deep ocean and that the effects of hydrographic changes are in phase with ice volume. Recently, Skinner and Shackleton [2005] found that the timing of benthic δ18O change at the last termination differed by 4500 years between two sites in the Atlantic and Pacific. Based on Mg/Ca paleothermometry, they argued that these age discrepancies resulted from a late temperature increase in the Pacific and millennial-scale circulation changes in the Atlantic. Do these results imply that benthic δ18O change may not accurately record the timing of terminations? We compare benthic δ18O records from 34 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific to evaluate the impact of ocean mixing rates and deep water changes on the relative timing of terminations recorded in benthic δ18O. Statistical analysis of sedimentation rates derived from the alignment of benthic δ18O suggests an Atlantic lead over Pacific benthic δ18O change for all terminations of the last 600 kyr. The magnitude of sedimentation rate change suggests an average termination age difference of 1000-1500 years between the Atlantic and Pacific, consistent with or slightly greater than the delay expected due to ocean mixing rates, given that most glacial meltwater probably enters the North Atlantic.

  6. DD 13 - A very young and heavily reddened early O star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the Large Magellanic Cloud star DD 13, which is likely the major ionizing source of the nebula N159A. New optical spectroscopy and new estimates of the broadband photometric properties of DD 13 are obtained. A spectral type of O3-O6 V, E(B-V) = 0.64, and M(V) = -6.93 is found. The spectral type cannot be more precisely defined due to contamination of the spectral data by nebular emission, obliterating the important He I classification lines. These results, plus a published estimate of the Lyman continuum photon injection rate into N159A, suggest that DD 13 actually consists of about 2-4 young, early O stars still enshrouded by their natal dust cloud. The star DD 13 may be a younger example of the type of tight cluster represented by the LMC 'star' Sk-66 deg 41, recently revealed to be composed of six or more components.

  7. Section CC PreRehabilitation 2009; Section DD PostRehabilitation Gilpin's Falls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section C-C Pre-Rehabilitation 2009; Section D-D Post-Rehabilitation - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  8. Development of the DD-136 Strain of Neoaplectana carpocapsae at Constant Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Harry K.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the DD-136 strain of Neoaplectana carpocapsae was studied on three food sources at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35, and 37 C. No growth occurred at 10 or above 33 C. At 15, 20. and 25 C, growth and reproduction occurred. The most favorable growth occurred at 25 C. At 30 C, N. carpocapsae developed to adults but did not reproduce. Key Words: temperature-growth effects, DD-136 strain. PMID:19305622

  9. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... Part 113—Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application” ER05JA95.002 ER05JA95.003...

  10. Genome Sequence of Microbulbifer mangrovi DD-13(T) Reveals Its Versatility to Degrade Multiple Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Imran, Md; Pant, Poonam; Shanbhag, Yogini P; Sawant, Samir V; Ghadi, Sanjeev C

    2017-02-01

    Microbulbifer mangrovi strain DD-13(T) is a novel-type species isolated from the mangroves of Goa, India. The draft genome sequence of strain DD-13 comprised 4,528,106 bp with G+C content of 57.15%. Out of 3479 open reading frames, functions for 3488 protein coding sequences were predicted on the basis of similarity with the cluster of orthologous groups. In addition to protein coding sequences, 34 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA genes were detected. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of predicted gene using a Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes) Analysis Toolkit indicates that strain DD-13 encodes a large set of CAZymes including 255 glycoside hydrolases, 76 carbohydrate esterases, 17 polysaccharide lyases, and 113 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Many genes from strain DD-13 were annotated as carbohydrases specific for degradation of agar, alginate, carrageenan, chitin, xylan, pullulan, cellulose, starch, β-glucan, pectin, etc. Some of polysaccharide-degrading genes were highly modular and were appended at least with one CBM indicating the versatility of strain DD-13 to degrade complex polysaccharides. The cell growth of strain DD-13 was validated using pure polysaccharides such as agarose or alginate as carbon source as well as by using red and brown seaweed powder as substrate. The homologous carbohydrase produced by strain DD-13 during growth degraded the polysaccharide, ensuring the production of metabolizable reducing sugars. Additionally, several other polysaccharides such as carrageenan, xylan, pullulan, pectin, starch, and carboxymethyl cellulose were also corroborated as growth substrate for strain DD-13 and were associated with concomitant production of homologous carbohydrase.

  11. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Crystallographic Studies of RAIDD Death-Domain (DD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, T.; Park, H

    2009-01-01

    Caspase-2 activation by formation of PIDDosome is critical for genotoxic stress induced apoptosis. PIDDosome is composed of three proteins, RAIDD, PIDD, and Caspase-2. RAIDD is an adaptor protein containing an N-terminal Caspase-Recruiting-Domain (CARD) and a C-terminal Death-Domain (DD). Its interactions with Caspase-2 and PIDD through CARD and DD respectively and formation of PIDDosome are important for the activation of Caspase-2. RAIDD DD cloned into pET26b vector was expressed in E. coli cells and purified by nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration. Although it has been known that the most DDs are not soluble in physiological condition, RAIDD DD was soluble and interacts tightly with PIDD DD in physiological condition. The purified RAIDD DD alone has been crystallized. Crystals are trigonal and belong to space group P3121 (or its enantiomorph P3221) with unit-cell parameters a = 56.3, b = 56.3, c = 64.9 and ? = 120 degrees. The crystals were obtained at room temperature and diffracted to 2.0 A resolution.

  12. Properties of the Kinesin-1 motor DdKif3 from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Röhlk, Christian; Rohlfs, Meino; Leier, Sven; Schliwa, Manfred; Liu, Xiao; Parsch, John; Woehlke, Günther

    2008-04-01

    The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum possesses genes for 13 different kinesins. Here we characterize DdKif3, a member of the Kinesin-1 family. Kinesin-1 motors form homodimers that can move micrometer-long distances on microtubules using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. We expressed recombinant motors in Escherichia coli and tested them in different in vitro assays. Full-length and truncated Kif3 motors were active in gliding and ATPase assays. They showed a strong dependence on ionic strength. Like the full-length motor, the truncated DdKif3-592 motor (aa 1-592; comprising motor domain, neck, and partial stalk) reached its maximum speed of around 2.0micrcom s(-1) at a potassium acetate concentration of 200mM. The shortened DdKif3-342 motor (aa 1-342; comprising motor domain, partial neck) showed a high ATP turnover, comparable to that of the fungal Kinesin-1, Nkin. Results from the duty cycle calculations and gliding assays indicate that DdKif3 is a processive motor. A GFP-fusion protein revealed a mainly cytoplasmic localization of DdKif3. Immunofluorescence staining makes an association with the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria unlikely. Despite a similar phylogenetic distance to both metazoa and fungi, in terms of its biochemical properties DdKif3 revealed a closer similarity to fungal than animal kinesins.

  13. Sensitive and accurate quantification of human malaria parasites using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)

    PubMed Central

    Koepfli, Cristian; Nguitragool, Wang; Hofmann, Natalie E.; Robinson, Leanne J.; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Felger, Ingrid; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Accurate quantification of parasite density in the human host is essential for understanding the biology and pathology of malaria. Semi-quantitative molecular methods are widely applied, but the need for an external standard curve makes it difficult to compare parasite density estimates across studies. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) allows direct quantification without the need for a standard curve. ddPCR was used to diagnose and quantify P. falciparum and P. vivax in clinical patients as well as in asymptomatic samples. ddPCR yielded highly reproducible measurements across the range of parasite densities observed in humans, and showed higher sensitivity than qPCR to diagnose P. falciparum, and equal sensitivity for P. vivax. Correspondence in quantification was very high (>0.95) between qPCR and ddPCR. Quantification between technical replicates by ddPCR differed 1.5–1.7-fold, compared to 2.4–6.2-fold by qPCR. ddPCR facilitates parasite quantification for studies where absolute densities are required, and will increase comparability of results reported from different laboratories. PMID:27982132

  14. Novel series of [ddN]-[TSAO-T] heterodimers as potential bi-functional inhibitors of HIV-1 RT. Studies in the linker and ddN region.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, S; Tuñón, V; Jimeno, M L; Pérez-Pérez, M J; San-Félix, A; Chamorro, C; Lobatón, E; Esteban-Gamboa, A; De Clercq, E; Balzarini, J; Camarasa, M J

    1999-01-01

    Novel series of [ddN]-(CH2)n-[TSAO-T] heterodimers have been prepared and tested for their anti-HIV-1 and HIV-2 activity. The most active compound of this series was the [d4T]-(CH2)3-[TSAO-T] heterodimer (EC50 = 0.018 +/- 0.03 microM).

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dd of... - Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. DD, Table 2 Table 2 to...

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dd of... - Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Off-Site Waste and Recovery Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. DD, Table 2 Table 2 to...

  17. Functional malignant cell heterogeneity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors revealed by targeting of PDGF-DD.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Eliane; Gladh, Hanna; Braun, Sebastian; Bocci, Matteo; Cordero, Eugenia; Björkström, Niklas K; Miyazaki, Hideki; Michael, Iacovos P; Eriksson, Ulf; Folestad, Erika; Pietras, Kristian

    2016-02-16

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most human cancers and has profound implications for cancer therapy. As a result, there is an emergent need to explore previously unmapped mechanisms regulating distinct subpopulations of tumor cells and to understand their contribution to tumor progression and treatment response. Aberrant platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling in cancer has motivated the development of several antagonists currently in clinical use, including imatinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib. The discovery of a novel ligand for PDGFRβ, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-DD, opened the possibility of a previously unidentified signaling pathway involved in tumor development. However, the precise function of PDGF-DD in tumor growth and invasion remains elusive. Here, making use of a newly generated Pdgfd knockout mouse, we reveal a functionally important malignant cell heterogeneity modulated by PDGF-DD signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). Our analyses demonstrate that tumor growth was delayed in the absence of signaling by PDGF-DD. Surprisingly, ablation of PDGF-DD did not affect the vasculature or stroma of PanNET; instead, we found that PDGF-DD stimulated bulk tumor cell proliferation by induction of paracrine mitogenic signaling between heterogeneous malignant cell clones, some of which expressed PDGFRβ. The presence of a subclonal population of tumor cells characterized by PDGFRβ expression was further validated in a cohort of human PanNET. In conclusion, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized heterogeneity in PanNET characterized by signaling through the PDGF-DD/PDGFRβ axis.

  18. Functional malignant cell heterogeneity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors revealed by targeting of PDGF-DD

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Eliane; Gladh, Hanna; Braun, Sebastian; Bocci, Matteo; Cordero, Eugenia; Björkström, Niklas K.; Miyazaki, Hideki; Michael, Iacovos P.; Eriksson, Ulf; Folestad, Erika; Pietras, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most human cancers and has profound implications for cancer therapy. As a result, there is an emergent need to explore previously unmapped mechanisms regulating distinct subpopulations of tumor cells and to understand their contribution to tumor progression and treatment response. Aberrant platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling in cancer has motivated the development of several antagonists currently in clinical use, including imatinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib. The discovery of a novel ligand for PDGFRβ, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-DD, opened the possibility of a previously unidentified signaling pathway involved in tumor development. However, the precise function of PDGF-DD in tumor growth and invasion remains elusive. Here, making use of a newly generated Pdgfd knockout mouse, we reveal a functionally important malignant cell heterogeneity modulated by PDGF-DD signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). Our analyses demonstrate that tumor growth was delayed in the absence of signaling by PDGF-DD. Surprisingly, ablation of PDGF-DD did not affect the vasculature or stroma of PanNET; instead, we found that PDGF-DD stimulated bulk tumor cell proliferation by induction of paracrine mitogenic signaling between heterogeneous malignant cell clones, some of which expressed PDGFRβ. The presence of a subclonal population of tumor cells characterized by PDGFRβ expression was further validated in a cohort of human PanNET. In conclusion, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized heterogeneity in PanNET characterized by signaling through the PDGF-DD/PDGFRβ axis. PMID:26831065

  19. A tale of two rivers: studies in the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers using a multi-isotope and chemical approach to investigate linkages between hydrology, nutrients, and algae (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Silva, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers are the main rivers draining the northern and southern parts of California’s Central Valley. Both watersheds are underlain by similar sediments, are dominated by similar agricultural and urban land uses, and water supplies are highly regulated in both rivers. While agricultural land uses are major sources of nutrients in the non-tidal parts of the rivers, waste water treatments plants (WWTPs) located near large cities at the upstream ends of the tidal zones are important sources of nutrients to the tidal rivers, the delta, and San Francisco Bay. The nutrients have strongly affected algal production in both rivers, but largely because of differences in the WWTPs on the two rivers, the impacts on algal productivity and ecosystem health in the two rivers have been very different. As part of several studies over the last decade, we have analyzed samples from ~50 mainstem sites and over a dozen tributaries for major chemistry and a suite of isotope tools including water, nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and seston isotopes, with sites sampled 15-70 times each over 1-3 years, depending on study. The main focus of these studies has been investigating the linkages between hydrology, nutrient sources, biogeochemical processes, and algal production in these large rivers. In specific, the research has been aimed at testing hypotheses about controls on algal production in the rivers as related to hypoxia in the deep water shipping channel in the lower San Joaquin River and foodweb problems in the lower Sacramento River. Water chemistry, d2H, and d18O have proved useful in determining the temporal and spatial changes in water sources. However, since WWTPs are a major source of nutrients to the rivers, nitrification of ammonium from the WWTPs strongly affects the nitrate d15N and d18O of nitrate and the d15N of seston in the tidal portions of both rivers, tributaries show large seasonal changes in water amounts and

  20. Stable isotopes (C, N, O, H) of feathers collected in an Italian alpine region, during postbreeding migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempo, Luana; Ceppa, Florencia; Pedrini, Paolo; Tenan, Simone; Camin, Federica

    2013-04-01

    strongly affected by the geographical characteristics of the regions in which the birds grown or emigrated. The specie Troglodytes troglodytes, which is mainly sedentary, showed the higher dD values, whereas Carduelis spinus, which during autumn migrates from the north of Europe to the Mediterranean area, presented the lower values. As regards d18O, interesting was the very high values presented by Anthus pratensis specie. Further elaborations/studies by adopting a multi-isotope approach could surely increase the resolution of migratory origins.

  1. Validation and Development of the GPCP Experimental One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset has been developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and is currently in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. The 1DD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for the period 1997 through early 2000 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40N-40S the 1DD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the pixel-level T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSM/I product and by, the precipitation amount in the GPCP monthly satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40N-40S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has month-by-month adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. Early validation results are encouraging. The 1DD shows relatively large scatter about the daily validation values in individual grid boxes, as expected for a technique that depends on cloud-sensing schemes such as the TMPI and TOVS. On the other hand, the time series of 1DD shows good correlation with validation in individual boxes. For example, the 1997-1998 time series of 1DD and Oklahoma Mesonet values in a grid box in northeastern Oklahoma have the correlation coefficient = 0.73. Looking more carefully at these two time series, the number of raining days for the 1DD is within 7% of the Mesonet value, while the distribution of daily rain values is very similar. Other tests indicate that area- or time-averaging improve the error characteristics, making the data set highly attractive to users interested in stream flow, short-term regional climatology, and model comparisons. The second generation of the 1DD product is currently under development; it is designed to directly incorporate TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. These data are generally sparse because they are

  2. Validation and Development of the GPCP Experimental One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset has been developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and is currently in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. The 1DD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for the period 1997 through early 2000 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40N-40S the 1DD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the pixel-level T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSM/I product and by, the precipitation amount in the GPCP monthly satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40N-40S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has month-by-month adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. Early validation results are encouraging. The 1DD shows relatively large scatter about the daily validation values in individual grid boxes, as expected for a technique that depends on cloud-sensing schemes such as the TMPI and TOVS. On the other hand, the time series of 1DD shows good correlation with validation in individual boxes. For example, the 1997-1998 time series of 1DD and Oklahoma Mesonet values in a grid box in northeastern Oklahoma have the correlation coefficient = 0.73. Looking more carefully at these two time series, the number of raining days for the 1DD is within 7% of the Mesonet value, while the distribution of daily rain values is very similar. Other tests indicate that area- or time-averaging improve the error characteristics, making the data set highly attractive to users interested in stream flow, short-term regional climatology, and model comparisons. The second generation of the 1DD product is currently under development; it is designed to directly incorporate TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. These data are generally sparse because they are

  3. Experimental Determination of DT Yield in High Current DD Dense Plasma Focii

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, D. R.; Hagen, E. C.; Meehan, B. T.; Springs, R. K.; O'Brien, R. J.

    2013-06-18

    Dense Plasma Focii (DPF), which utilize deuterium gas to produce 2.45 MeV neutrons, may in fact also produce DT fusion neutrons at 14.1 MeV due to the triton production in the DD reaction. If beam-target fusion is the primary producer of fusion neutrons in DPFs, it is possible that ejected tritons from the first pinch will interact with the second pinch, and so forth. The 2 MJ DPF at National Security Technologies’ Losee Road Facility is able to, and has produced, over 1E12 DD neutrons per pulse, allowing an accurate measurement of the DT/DD ratio. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally verified by using the (n,2n) reaction in a large piece of praseodymium metal, which has a threshold reaction of 8 MeV, and is widely used as a DT yield measurement system1. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally determined for over 100 shots, and then compared to independent variables such as tube pressure, number of pinches per shot, total current, pinch current and charge voltage.

  4. DD3(PCA3) gene expression in cancer and prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Floriano-Sánchez, E; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, N; Castro-Marín, M; Alvarez-Grave, P; Lara-Padilla, E

    2009-12-01

    DD3(PCA3) is a novel gene with characteristics that indicate its potentially valuable role in early identification and diagnosis of malignancy and highly upregulated in transformed cells in PCa. The aim of this work was to validate and analyze, by real-time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), the expression of the DD3(PCA3)gene in a Mexican population, both in intratumoral tissue with PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Human samples from patients with PCa (40 cases) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (40 cases) were analyzed for the mRNA expression of DD3(PCA3)by RT-PCR RESULTS: The GAPDH gene showed better stability with a Pearson correlation of 0.953 (P < 0.007) for the determination of housekeeping gene. DD3(PCA3)gene expression was 29.74 times higher in PCa tissue (P < 0.0001) than in BPH. The gene expression for the PCa and BPH was 1731+/-280 and 58.23+/-9.9 fold, respectively. Determination of DD3(PCA3)gene expression by RT-PCR could be a potentially tool for the early detection of PCa in clinical specimens.

  5. Workforce mobilization for D&D at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.W.; Easdon, R.C.; Bourgeois, T.G.

    1997-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was a nuclear production facility. Products from RFP included nuclear and non-nuclear parts used by other plants to assemble weapons. Operations at the plant generally included metal recovery, processing, machining, assembly, and the physical and administrative support functions associated with this type of production. Construction of the Site began in the early 1950`s. The Site was an active production facility through the Cold War. After nuclear production operations ceased, the Site was renamed to become the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site). Labor policies and precedence began to evolve from the time of initial construction. This paper reviews the labor situation at the plants at the commencement of D&D activities, the problems that were created by that environment, and the efforts made to adjust labor policies to aid effective implementation of D&D activities. Mobilization of the D&D workforce required specific planning for effective implementation. Work assignments for D&D activities had to receive approval prior to performing activities. Once established, the appropriate funding was secured to allow hiring, training and deployment of the workforce. An infrastructure was established to manage activities and control work on a day to day basis. The result of the Site effort in this area provided for an immediate positive impact to D&D activities.

  6. Fusion product studies via fast ion D-D and D-3He fusion on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Hellsten, T.; Kiptily, V. G.; Craciunescu, T.; Eriksson, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Girardo, J.-B.; Goloborod'ko, V.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Johnson, T.; Kazakov, Y.; Koskela, T.; Mantsinen, M.; Monakhov, I.; Nabais, F.; Nocente, M.; Perez von Thun, C.; Rimini, F.; Santala, M.; Schneider, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Tsalas, M.; Yavorskij, V.; Zoita, V.; Contributors, JET

    2016-11-01

    Dedicated fast ion D-D and D-3He fusion experiments were performed on JET with carbon wall (2008) and ITER-like wall (2014) for testing the upgraded neutron and energetic ion diagnostics of fusion products. Energy spectrum of D-D neutrons was the focus of the studies in pure deuterium plasmas. A significant broadening of the energy spectrum of neutrons born in D-D fast fusion was observed, and dependence of the maximum D and D-D neutron energies on plasma density was established. Diagnostics of charged products of aneutronic D-3He fusion reactions, 3.7 MeV alpha-particles similar to those in D-T fusion, and 14.6 MeV protons, were the focus of the studies in D-3He plasmas. Measurements of 16.4 MeV gamma-rays born in the weak secondary branch of D(3He, γ)5Li reaction were used for assessing D-3He fusion power. For achieving high yield of D-D and D-3He reactions at relatively low levels of input heating power, an acceleration of D beam up to the MeV energy range was used employing 3rd harmonic (f=3{{f}CD} ) ICRH technique. These results were compared to the techniques of D beam injection into D-3He mixture, and 3He-minority ICRH in D plasmas.

  7. Extracellular matrix family proteins that are potential targets of Dd-STATa in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nao; Nishio, Keiko; Maeda, Mineko; Urushihara, Hideko; Kawata, Takefumi

    2004-10-01

    Dd-STATa is a functional Dictyostelium homologue of metazoan STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins, which is activated by cAMP and is thereby translocated into the nuclei of anterior tip cells of the prestalk region of the slug. By using in situ hybridization analyses, we found that the SLF308 cDNA clone, which contains the ecmF gene that encodes a putative extracellular matrix protein and is expressed in the anterior tip cells, was greatly down-regulated in the Dd-STATa-null mutant. Disruption of the ecmF gene, however, resulted in almost no phenotypic change. The absence of any obvious mutant phenotype in the ecmF-null mutant could be due to a redundancy of similar genes. In fact, a search of the Dictyostelium whole genome database demonstrates the existence of an additional 16 homologues, all of which contain a cellulose-binding module. Among these homologues, four genes show Dd-STATa-dependent expression, while the others are Dd-STATa-independent. We discuss the potential role of Dd-STATa in morphogenesis via its effect on the interaction between cellulose and these extracellular matrix family proteins.

  8. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute.

  9. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0-->D(*)+/-D+/- decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Macfarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Buono, L Del; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-09-23

    We present a first measurement of CP asymmetries in neutral B decays to D+D-, and updated CP asymmetry measurements in decays to D(*+)D- and D(*-)D+. We use fully reconstructed decays collected in a data sample of (232+/-3) x 10(6) gamma(4S)-->BB events in the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We determine the time-dependent asymmetry parameters to be SD(*+)(D-)=-0.54+/-0.35+/-0.07, CD(*+)(D-)=0.09+/-0.25+/-0.06, SD(*-)(D+)=-0.29+/-0.33+/-0.07, CD(*-)(D+)=0.17+/-0.24+/-0.04, SD+(D-)=-0.29+/-0.63+/-0.06, and CD+(D-)=0.11+/-0.35+/-0.06, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  10. The Feasibility Of Fusion Reactors Fueled With D-{sup 3}He And D-D

    SciTech Connect

    Stott, Peter

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we discuss the feasibility of fusion reactors based on D-{sup 3}He and D-D fuel mixtures. The low reactivity of the D-{sup 3}He and D-D fusion reactions and the large energy losses due to bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation at high plasma temperatures severely restricts the choice of fuel mixtures that can be brought to ignition. These fuel mixtures are extremely sensitive to impurities and to helium ash retention and they would require reactor conditions (plasma density, temperature, beta and energy confinement time) that are much more demanding than the requirements for D-T. A reactor burning D-{sup 3}He or D-D would be far beyond the most optimistic extrapolations of known magnetic confinement schemes, it would have problems with sustainable fuel supplies and it would produce substantial numbers of neutrons. Our conclusion is that these fuels cannot be considered as realistic alternatives to D-T.

  11. A double-DD blind equalizer for PolMux QAM optical coherent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhili; Zhan, Yiju; Ruan, Xiukai; Cai, Qibo; Cui, Guihua; Zhu, Guijun

    2017-01-01

    In polarization-multiplexed (PolMux) coherent system, adaptive blind equalization is efficient in demultiplexing and mitigating inter-symbol interference (ISI). We propose a double decision-directed (double-DD) blind algorithm which combines the output of soft decision-directed (SDD) algorithm with that of the equalizer in variable step size decision-directed (VSS-DD) mode. In our scheme, two equalizers can softly switch when the mean-square error (MSE) is sufficiently low and it can achieve fast convergence rate and small steady MSE in steady state. By simulation in PolMux-16QAM/64QAM coherent systems, we show that the double-DD algorithm outperforms existing blind equalizers.

  12. First PGAA and NAA experimental results from a compact high intensity D-D neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Firestone, R.B.; English, J.A.; Perry, D.L.; Smith, A.; Gicquel, F.; Sun, M.; Bandong, B.; Garabedian, G.; Revay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Molnar, G.

    2003-05-13

    Various types of neutron generator systems have been designed and tested at the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These generators are based on a D-D fusion reaction. These high power D-D neutron generators can provide neutron fluxes in excess of the current state of the art D-T neutron generators, without the use of pre-loaded targets or radioactive tritium gas. Safe and reliable long-life operations are the typical features of these D-D generators. All of the neutron generators developed in the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group are utilizing powerful RF-induction discharge to generate the deuterium plasma. One of the advantages of using the RF-induction discharge is it's ability to generate high fraction of atomic ions from molecular gases, and the ability to generate high plasma densities for high extractable ion current from relatively small discharge volume.

  13. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and CP Content for the Decay B0-->D*+D*-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Lynch, G.; Oddone, P. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; O'Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Goetzen, K.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Barlow, N. R.; Bhimji, W.; Chevalier, N.; Clark, P. J.; Cottingham, W. N.; Foster, B.; Mackay, C.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Jolly, S.; McKemey, A. K.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Bukin, D. A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Telnov, V. I.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Chao, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; McMahon, S.; Stoker, D. P.; Arisaka, K.; Buchanan, C.; Chun, S.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Prell, S.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Raven, G.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hart, P. A.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A. M.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Lockman, W. S.; Pulliam, T.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Oyang, J.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Devmal, S.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Barillari, T.; Bloom, P.; Ford, W. T.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Zhang, L.; Blouw, J.; Harton, J. L.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Ferrag, S.; T'jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Tinslay, J.; Falbo, M.; Borean, C.; Bozzi, C.; Piemontese, L.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Xie, Y.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Morii, M.; Bartoldus, R.; Hamilton, R.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Fischer, P.-A.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Yi, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Wormser, G.; Bionta, R. M.; Brigljević, V.; Lange, D. J.; Mugge, M.; van Bibber, K.; Wright, D. M.; Bevan, A. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, M.; Kay, M.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Morton, G. W.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Smith, D.; Back, J. J.; Bellodi, G.; Dixon, P.; Harrison, P. F.; Potter, R. J. L.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Cowan, G.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Vaitsas, G.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Boyd, J. T.; Forti, A. C.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Savvas, N.; Weatherall, J. H.; Williams, J. C.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Lillard, V.; Olsen, J.; Roberts, D. A.; Schieck, J. R.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. B.; Moore, T. B.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Brau, B.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Hast, C.; Nief, J. Y.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; Cartaro, C.; Cavallo, N.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Losecco, J. M.; Alsmiller, J. R. G.; Gabriel, T. A.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Grauges, E.; Iwasaki, M.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Colecchia, F.; dal Corso, F.; Dorigo, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Michelon, G.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Torassa, E.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; de Vaissière, Ch.; del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Pivk, M.; Roos, L.; Stark, J.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Frank, E. D.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bucci, F.; Campagna, E.; Carpinelli, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Paick, K.; Turnbull, L.; Wagoner, D. E.; Albert, J.; Lu, C.; Miftakov, V.; Schaffner, S. F.; Smith, A. J. S.; Tumanov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Cavoto, G.; del Re, D.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Serra, M.; Voena, C.; Christ, S.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; de Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; Hamel Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Serfass, B.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Purohit, M. V.; Singh, H.; Weidemann, A. W.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Adam, I.; Aston, D.; Berger, N.; Boyarski, A. M.; Calderini, G.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Dong, D.; Dorfan, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Haas, T.; Halyo, V.; Himel, T.; Hryn'ova, T.; Huffer, M. E.; Innes, W. R.; Jessop, C. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Marsiske, H.; Menke, S.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Quinn, H.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Robertson, S. H.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schietinger, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, S. R.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wright, D. H.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Cheng, C. H.; Meyer, T. I.; Roat, C.; Henderson, R.; Bugg, W.; Cohn, H.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gamba, D.; Bosisio, L.; della Ricca, G.; Dittongo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Vuagnin, G.; Panvini, R. S.; Brown, C. M.; Jackson, P. D.; Kowalewski, R.; Roney, J. M.; Band, H. R.; Charles, E.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Liu, R.; di Lodovico, F.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Scott, I. J.; Sekula, S. J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Kordich, T. M. B.; Neal, H.

    2002-07-01

    We report a measurement of the branching fraction of the decay B0-->D*+D*- and of the CP-odd component of its final state using the BABAR detector. With data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.4 fb -1 collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance during 1999-2000, we have reconstructed 38candidate signal events in the mode B0-->D*+D*- with an estimated background of 6.2+/-0.5 events. From these events, we determine the branching fraction to be B(B0-->D*+D*- )=[8.3+/-1.6(stat)+/-1.2(syst)]×10-4. The measured CP-odd fraction of the final state is 0.22+/-0.18(stat)+/-0.03(syst).

  14. The Feasibility Of Fusion Reactors Fueled With D-3He And D-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, Peter

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the feasibility of fusion reactors based on D-3He and D-D fuel mixtures. The low reactivity of the D-3He and D-D fusion reactions and the large energy losses due to bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation at high plasma temperatures severely restricts the choice of fuel mixtures that can be brought to ignition. These fuel mixtures are extremely sensitive to impurities and to helium ash retention and they would require reactor conditions (plasma density, temperature, beta and energy confinement time) that are much more demanding than the requirements for D-T. A reactor burning D-3He or D-D would be far beyond the most optimistic extrapolations of known magnetic confinement schemes, it would have problems with sustainable fuel supplies and it would produce substantial numbers of neutrons. Our conclusion is that these fuels cannot be considered as realistic alternatives to D-T.

  15. Power-efficient method for IM-DD optical transmission of multiple OFDM signals.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Frank; Liu, Xiang

    2015-05-18

    We propose a power-efficient method for transmitting multiple frequency-division multiplexed (FDM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) optical systems. This method is based on quadratic soft clipping in combination with odd-only channel mapping. We show, both analytically and experimentally, that the proposed approach is capable of improving the power efficiency by about 3 dB as compared to conventional FDM OFDM signals under practical bias conditions, making it a viable solution in applications such as optical fiber-wireless integrated systems where both IM-DD optical transmission and OFDM signaling are important.

  16. Utilization of the catalyzed-DD fuel cycle in reversed-field pinch reactors (RFPRs)

    SciTech Connect

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of deuterium-based fuels offers the potential advantages of greater flexibility in blanket design, significantly reduced tritium inventory, potential reduction in radioactivity level, and utilization of an inexhaustible fuel supply. The extension of the conventional DT-fueled Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) designs to advanced-fuel (catalyzed-DD) operation has recently been reported. Attractive and economically competitive DD/RFPR systems are identified having power densities and plasma parameters comparable to the DT systems. These designs are compared to other fusion reactor designs.

  17. Absolute monitoring of DD and DT neutron fluences using the associated-particle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, N. E.; Wehring, B. W.

    1980-06-01

    An associated-particle system was constructed for use with a Texas Nuclear neutron generator. Associated-particle and neutron energy spectra were measured simultaneously using this system and an NE-213 proton recoil spectrometer, respectively. The associated-particle system proved to be not only an accurate monitor of DT neutron fluence, but also an accurate monitor of DD contamination in the DT spectrum. The DD and DT neutron fluences calculated from the measured associated-particle counting rates showed the best agreement with the measured neutron fluences when the laboratory distributions were assumed to be isotropic.

  18. Comparative study between DD-HMM and RBF in ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation recognition.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Diogo; Fagundes, Rubem D R; Russomano, Thaís; Zwetsch, Iuberi Carson

    2008-03-01

    This paper deals with automatic recognition of cardiac arrhythmias that require immediate electrical defibrillation therapy (ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia), through ECG (electrocardiogram) samples. The DD-HMM (discrete density hidden Markov model) and RBF (radial basis function) neural network algorithms were compared in the following aspects: precision, defined as correct recognition percentage and process time, defined as the delay since the ECG input until the result, indicating shock or non-shock events. The results show that RBF is more precise than DD-HMM but not so fast to evaluate. PhysioNet database files were used to train and to validate the algorithms.

  19. Accumulation of acyl-enzyme in DD-peptidase-catalysed reactions with analogues of peptide substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Jamin, M; Adam, M; Damblon, C; Christiaens, L; Frère, J M

    1991-01-01

    Thioester substrates can be used to study the hydrolysis and transfer reactions catalysed by beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases. With the latter enzymes, accumulation of the acyl-enzyme can be detected directly. The efficiency of various amines as acceptor substrates was in excellent agreement with previous results obtained with peptide substrates of the DD-peptidases. The results indicated the presence of a specific binding site for the acceptor substrates. Although most of the results agreed well with a simple partition model, more elaborate hypotheses will be needed to account for all the data presented. PMID:1747125

  20. Dd-antigen-antibody system in five caste groups in north India.

    PubMed

    Berry, V; Kaur, H

    1991-12-01

    Antigen Dd, a polymorphic antigen found in extracts of certain human dandruff specimens, was investigated in five caste groups of north India. The incidence of antigen Dd-positive type varied from 21.21 per cent in Brahmins to 29.08 per cent in the Jat Sikhs of Punjab. However, a high frequency (45%) was observed in the Sunni Muslims of Kashmir, which differed significantly, when compared with different caste groups of Punjab. Family studies on 44 families indicated its inherited nature, the mode of inheritance being autosomal dominant.

  1. Crisis in the Community: Waiting Lists for MR/DD Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasko, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Waiting lists for people with intellectual disabilities who seek services from Mental Retardation (MR) or Development Disability (DD) systems are a very visible problem across the country and have forced people with disabilities, families and caregivers to respond by pressing their states into action. People living at home with their parents or…

  2. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 77 - DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration B Appendix B to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROGRAM TO ENCOURAGE PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Pt. 77, App. B Appendix...

  3. Digital droplet multiple displacement amplification (ddMDA) for whole genome sequencing of limited DNA samples

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan

    2016-05-04

    Here, multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology.

  4. Digital droplet multiple displacement amplification (ddMDA) for whole genome sequencing of limited DNA samples

    DOE PAGES

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Meagher, Robert J.; ...

    2016-05-04

    Here, multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently,more » the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology.« less

  5. Selected Trends in Public Spending for MR/DD Services and the State Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary Catherine; Braddock, David

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes mental retardation/developmental disabilities (MR/DD) spending since 1977, with emphasis on spending from 1995-2000. The change in state economic conditions, from strong growth in recent years to fiscal constraints in 2002, is addressed. Tables provide data trends in MR spending by type of placement and state and changes in…

  6. An inactivated yellow fever 17DD vaccine cultivated in Vero cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata C; Silva, Andrea N M R; Souza, Marta Cristina O; Silva, Marlon V; Neves, Patrícia P C C; Silva, Andrea A M V; Matos, Denise D C S; Herrera, Miguel A O; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Freire, Marcos S; Gaspar, Luciane P; Caride, Elena

    2015-08-20

    Yellow fever is an acute infectious disease caused by prototype virus of the genus Flavivirus. It is endemic in Africa and South America where it represents a serious public health problem causing epidemics of hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates ranging from 20% to 50%. There is no available antiviral therapy and vaccination is the primary method of disease control. Although the attenuated vaccines for yellow fever show safety and efficacy it became necessary to develop a new yellow fever vaccine due to the occurrence of rare serious adverse events, which include visceral and neurotropic diseases. The new inactivated vaccine should be safer and effective as the existing attenuated one. In the present study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated 17DD vaccine in C57BL/6 mice was evaluated. The yellow fever virus was produced by cultivation of Vero cells in bioreactors, inactivated with β-propiolactone, and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum). Mice were inoculated with inactivated 17DD vaccine containing alum adjuvant and followed by intracerebral challenge with 17DD virus. The results showed that animals receiving 3 doses of the inactivated vaccine (2 μg/dose) with alum adjuvant had neutralizing antibody titers above the cut-off of PRNT50 (Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test). In addition, animals immunized with inactivated vaccine showed survival rate of 100% after the challenge as well as animals immunized with commercial attenuated 17DD vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROGRAM TO ENCOURAGE PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Pt. 77, App. A Appendix...

  8. Psychometric Properties of the ASPeCT-DD: Measuring Positive Traits in Persons with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Cooper

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Assessment Scale for Positive Character Traits-Developmental Disabilities (ASPeCT-DD) was designed to measure the presence and strength of selected positive or strength-based traits in persons with developmental disabilities. These traits may help to determine level of happiness or value associated with the more commonly measured…

  9. Psychometric Properties of the ASPeCT-DD: Measuring Positive Traits in Persons with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Cooper

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Assessment Scale for Positive Character Traits-Developmental Disabilities (ASPeCT-DD) was designed to measure the presence and strength of selected positive or strength-based traits in persons with developmental disabilities. These traits may help to determine level of happiness or value associated with the more commonly measured…

  10. Genome Sequence of Blastococcus saxobsidens DD2, a Stone-Inhabiting Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Chouaia, Bessem; Crotti, Elena; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Daffonchio, Daniele; Essoussi, Imen; Nouioui, Imen; Sbissi, Imed; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Gtari, Maher; Vacherie, Benoit; Barbe, Valérie; Médigue, Claudine; Gury, Jerome; Pujic, Petar

    2012-01-01

    Members of the genus Blastococcus have been isolated from sandstone monuments, as well as from sea, soil, plant, and snow samples. We report here the genome sequence of a member of this genus, Blastococcus saxobsidens strain DD2, isolated from below the surface of a Sardinian wall calcarenite stone sample. PMID:22535935

  11. 48 CFR 245.7101-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Plant Clearance. 245.7101-4 Section 245.7101-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance...

  12. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-11-29

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  13. Crisis in the Community: Waiting Lists for MR/DD Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasko, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Waiting lists for people with intellectual disabilities who seek services from Mental Retardation (MR) or Development Disability (DD) systems are a very visible problem across the country and have forced people with disabilities, families and caregivers to respond by pressing their states into action. People living at home with their parents or…

  14. Selected Trends in Public Spending for MR/DD Services and the State Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary Catherine; Braddock, David

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes mental retardation/developmental disabilities (MR/DD) spending since 1977, with emphasis on spending from 1995-2000. The change in state economic conditions, from strong growth in recent years to fiscal constraints in 2002, is addressed. Tables provide data trends in MR spending by type of placement and state and changes in…

  15. Chromogenic depsipeptide substrates for beta-lactamases and penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M; Damblon, C; Plaitin, B; Christiaens, L; Frère, J M

    1990-01-01

    Various ester and thioester derivatives of hippuric acid have been prepared which were substrates of both beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases. The thioesters were more rapidly hydrolysed by nearly all the enzymes. Surprisingly, the enzymes acted rather efficiently on substrates which did not contain any chiral centre. PMID:2400398

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN INDEBTEDNESS PROCEDURES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL Pt. 113, App. C Appendix C...

  17. 48 CFR 1846.673 - Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c. 1846.673 Section 1846.673 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving...

  18. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA) for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology. PMID:27144304

  19. 48 CFR 1846.672 - Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c. 1846.672 Section 1846.672 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports 1846.672 Preparing...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN INDEBTEDNESS PROCEDURES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL Pt. 113, App. C Appendix C...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 77 - DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration B Appendix B to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROGRAM TO ENCOURAGE PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Pt. 77, App. B Appendix B...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 286 - DD Form 2086, “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2086, âRecord of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Costâ C Appendix C to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 286, App. C Appendix C to Part 286—DD Form 2086, “Record of Freedom...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 286 - DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information Act”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2564, âAnnual Report Freedom of Information Actâ E Appendix E to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... REGULATION Pt. 286, App. E Appendix E to Part 286—DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 286 - DD Form 2086, “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2086, âRecord of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Costâ C Appendix C to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 286, App. C Appendix C to Part 286—DD Form 2086, “Record of Freedom...

  8. 32 CFR 169a.8 - Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Symbol DD-P&L(A)). 169a.8 Section 169a.8 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)). (a) Information in each DoD Component's... (DIA) Shall be submitted to the Assistant Secretary of Defense Production and Logistics)...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 286 - DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information Act”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 2564, âAnnual Report Freedom of Information Actâ E Appendix E to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... REGULATION Pt. 286, App. E Appendix E to Part 286—DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information Act...

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 286 - DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information Act”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2564, âAnnual Report Freedom of Information Actâ E Appendix E to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... REGULATION Pt. 286, App. E Appendix E to Part 286—DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  1. Sensor Technology Integration for Efficient and Cost-Effective D&D

    SciTech Connect

    Varona, J. M.; Lagos, L. E.

    2002-02-25

    The deactivation and decommissioning of radiologically contaminated facilities require the use of a multitude of technologies to perform characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, and waste management. Current baseline technologies do not provide adequate tools to perform this work in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of such tasks that can be modified to enhance the D&D work include: floor and wall decontamination, pipe decontamination, and surveillance and monitoring. FIU-HCET's Technology Development, Integration and Deployment (TDID) group aims to enhance the D&D process by integrating sensor technology to existing decontamination and remote surveillance tools. These integrated systems have been demonstrated throughout the DOE Complex and commercial nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Finding new ways of integrating technologies utilized in the decommissioning and surveillance & monitoring process has been a goal of this group during the past several years. Current and previous integration projects include: Mobile Integrated Piping Decontamination and Characterization System, On-Line Decontamination and Characterization System, In-Situ Pipe Decontamination and Unplugging System, Remote Hazardous Environment Surveyor (RHES), and the Online Handheld grit blasting decontamination system As a result of integrating sensors with D&D tools, the resulting technologies have removed the downtime currently found in baseline processes by allowing operators and project managers to have real-time contamination data during the specified D&D process. This added component allows project managers to verify that full decontamination and surveillance has been conducted. Through successful demonstration and deployments of the TDID-developed technologies, FIU-HCET has provided tools that can impact the cost, schedule and health and safety of D&D operations in a positive way, leading to shorter downtimes and significant cost-savings. This paper will

  2. Subdoses of 17DD yellow fever vaccine elicit equivalent virological/immunological kinetics timeline.

    PubMed

    Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; de Almeida Estevam, Paula; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Villela-Rezende, Gabriela; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Maia, Maria de Lourdes Sousa; Farias, Roberto Henrique Guedes; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando Carvalho; Lima, Sheila Maria Barbosa; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Silva Sá, Gloria Regina; Hokama, Darcy Akemi; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar Villanova; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins, Reinaldo Menezes; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2014-07-15

    The live attenuated 17DD Yellow Fever vaccine is one of the most successful prophylactic interventions for controlling disease expansion ever designed and utilized in larger scale. However, increase on worldwide vaccine demands and manufacturing restrictions urge for more detailed dose sparing studies. The establishment of complementary biomarkers in addition to PRNT and Viremia could support a secure decision-making regarding the use of 17DD YF vaccine subdoses. The present work aimed at comparing the serum chemokine and cytokine kinetics triggered by five subdoses of 17DD YF Vaccine. Neutralizing antibody titers, viremia, cytokines and chemokines were tested on blood samples obtained from eligible primary vaccinees. The results demonstrated that a fifty-fold lower dose of 17DD-YF vaccine (587 IU) is able to trigger similar immunogenicity, as evidenced by significant titers of anti-YF PRNT. However, only subdoses as low as 3,013 IU elicit viremia kinetics with an early peak at five days after primary vaccination equivalent to the current dose (27,476 IU), while other subdoses show a distinct, lower in magnitude and later peak at day 6 post-vaccination. Although the subdose of 587 IU is able to trigger equivalent kinetics of IL-8/CXCL-8 and MCP-1/CCL-2, only the subdose of 3,013 IU is able to trigger similar kinetics of MIG/CXCL-9, pro-inflammatory (TNF, IFN-γ and IL-2) and modulatory cytokines (IL-5 and IL-10). The analysis of serum biomarkers IFN-γ and IL-10, in association to PRNT and viremia, support the recommendation of use of a ten-fold lower subdose (3,013 IU) of 17DD-YF vaccine.

  3. Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test Using ddPCR (SMART-ddPCR): An Accurate Method for Assessment of Preferential Allelic Imbalance in Tumor DNA

    PubMed Central

    de Smith, Adam J.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Hansen, Helen M.; Endicott, Alyson A.; Wiencke, John K.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which heritable genetic variants can affect tumor development has yet to be fully elucidated. Tumor selection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles, a phenomenon called preferential allelic imbalance (PAI), has been demonstrated in some cancer types. We developed a novel application of digital PCR termed Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test using Droplet Digital PCR (SMART-ddPCR) for accurate assessment of tumor PAI, and have applied this method to test the hypothesis that heritable SNPs associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may demonstrate tumor PAI. These SNPs are located at CDKN2A (rs3731217) and IKZF1 (rs4132601), genes frequently lost in ALL, and at CEBPE (rs2239633), ARID5B (rs7089424), PIP4K2A (rs10764338), and GATA3 (rs3824662), genes located on chromosomes gained in high-hyperdiploid ALL. We established thresholds of AI using constitutional DNA from SNP heterozygotes, and subsequently measured allelic copy number in tumor DNA from 19–142 heterozygote samples per SNP locus. We did not find significant tumor PAI at these loci, though CDKN2A and IKZF1 SNPs showed a trend towards preferential selection of the risk allele (p = 0.17 and p = 0.23, respectively). Using a genomic copy number control ddPCR assay, we investigated somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) underlying AI at CDKN2A and IKZF1, revealing a complex range of alterations including homozygous and hemizygous deletions and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, with varying degrees of clonality. Copy number estimates from ddPCR showed high agreement with those from multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays. We demonstrate that SMART-ddPCR is a highly accurate method for investigation of tumor PAI and for assessment of the somatic alterations underlying AI. Furthermore, analysis of publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas identified 16 recurrent SCNA loci that contain heritable cancer risk SNPs associated with a

  4. The Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) study: expected outcome from the DD2 project and two intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Solomon, Thomas PJ; Lauridsen, Jørgen; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K; Johnsen, Søren P; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Kryger, Tine Bjerregaard; Sortsø, Camilla; Vaag, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) is to near-normalize metabolic control in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) using an individualized treatment approach. We hypothesize that this will not only prevent complications and improve quality of life for T2D patients but also result in increased cost efficiency compared with current treatment modalities. This paper provides an overview of the expected outcomes from DD2, focusing on the two main intervention studies. The main data for the DD2 project are collected during patient enrollment and stored using the individual civil registration number. This enables subsequent linking to other national databases where supplemental data can be obtained. All data will be used for designing treatment guidelines and continuously monitoring the development of diabetic complications, thereby obtaining knowledge about predictors for the long-term outcome and identifying targets for new interventions. Further data are being collected from two intervention studies. The aim of the first intervention study is to improve T2D treatment using an individualized treatment modality optimizing medication according to individual metabolic responses and phenotypic characteristics. The aim of the second intervention study is to develop an evidence-based training protocol to be implemented as a treatment modality for T2D and used for initiating lifelong changes in physical activity levels in patients with T2D. An initial pilot study evaluating an interval-based walking protocol is ongoing, and preliminary results indicate that this protocol is an optimal “free-living” training intervention. An initial health-economic analysis will also be performed as a basis for analysis of the data collected during the project. A cost-benefit analysis of the two intervention studies will be conducted. The DD2 project is expected to lead to improved treatment modalities and increased knowledge

  5. The safe enterocin DD14 is a leaderless two-peptide bacteriocin with anti-Clostridium perfringens activity.

    PubMed

    Caly, Delphine L; Chevalier, Mickaël; Flahaut, Christophe; Cudennec, Benoit; Al Atya, Ahmed Khassaf; Chataigné, Gabrielle; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel

    2017-03-01

    Enterococcus faecalis 14, a strain previously isolated from meconium, displayed activity against four Clostridium perfringens isolates when co-cultured on agar plates. The anti-Clostridium activity was ascribed to the production of enterocin DD14, which was subsequently purified. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of enterocin DD14 against one collection strain and one clinical C. perfringens strain was determined at 50 µg/mL. Furthermore, using the intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-1, it was shown that E. faecalis 14 was not cytotoxic after 24 h of contact, and no cytotoxicity was observed when IPEC-1 cells were incubated with pure enterocin DD14 for 4 h. Enterocin DD14 was characterised using mass spectrometry and was shown to consist of two small proteins of 5200.74 Da and 5206.41 Da, respectively. The two peptides (DD14A and DD14B) have highly similar amino acid sequences and no signal peptide, which classifies enterocin DD14 as a class IIb leaderless two-peptide bacteriocin. The genes encoding DD14A and DD14B were sequenced and were shown to be 100% identical to other previously described enterocins MR10A and MR10B, in contrast to the producing strains, which are different. Consequently, the present in vitro study supports the potential of this E. faecalis 14 strain and/or its purified enterocin DD14 as putative anti-C. perfringens compounds in chickens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The cell adhesion molecule DdCAD-1 regulates morphogenesis through differential spatiotemporal expression in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Zhu, Yingyue; Manoharan, Kumararaaj; Yang, Chunxia; Siu, Chi-Hung

    2011-06-01

    During development of Dictyostelium, multiple cell types are formed and undergo a coordinated series of morphogenetic movements guided by their adhesive properties and other cellular factors. DdCAD-1 is a unique homophilic cell adhesion molecule encoded by the cadA gene. It is synthesized in the cytoplasm and transported to the plasma membrane by contractile vacuoles. In chimeras developed on soil plates, DdCAD-1-expressing cells showed greater propensity to develop into spores than did cadA-null cells. When development was performed on non-nutrient agar, wild-type cells sorted from the cadA-null cells and moved to the anterior zone. They differentiated mostly into stalk cells and eventually died, whereas the cadA-null cells survived as spores. To assess the role of DdCAD-1 in this novel behavior of wild-type and mutant cells, cadA-null cells were rescued by the ectopic expression of DdCAD-1-GFP. Morphological studies have revealed major spatiotemporal changes in the subcellular distribution of DdCAD-1 during development. Whereas DdCAD-1 became internalized in most cells in the post-aggregation stages, it was prominent in the contact regions of anterior cells. Cell sorting was also restored in cadA(-) slugs by exogenous recombinant DdCAD-1. Remarkably, DdCAD-1 remained on the surface of anterior cells, whereas it was internalized in the posterior cells. Additionally, DdCAD-1-expressing cells migrated slower than cadA(-) cells and sorted to the anterior region of chimeric slugs. These results show that DdCAD-1 influences the sorting behavior of cells in slugs by its differential distribution on the prestalk and prespore cells.

  7. Multi-isotope labelling of organic matter by diffusion of 2H/18O-H2O vapour and 13C-CO2 into the leaves and its distribution within the plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, M. S.; Siegwolf, R. T. W.; Leuenberger, M.; Abiven, S.

    2015-03-01

    Isotope labelling is a powerful tool to study elemental cycling within terrestrial ecosystems. Here we describe a new multi-isotope technique to label organic matter (OM). We exposed poplars (Populus deltoides × nigra) for 14 days to an atmosphere enriched in 13CO2 and depleted in 2H218O. After 1 week, the water-soluble leaf OM (δ13C = 1346 ± 162‰) and the leaf water were strongly labelled (δ18O = -63 ± 8, δ2H = -156 ± 15‰). The leaf water isotopic composition was between the atmospheric and stem water, indicating a considerable back-diffusion of vapour into the leaves (58-69%) in the opposite direction to the net transpiration flow. The atomic ratios of the labels recovered (18O/13C, 2H/13C) were 2-4 times higher in leaves than in the stems and roots. This could be an indication of the synthesis of more condensed compounds in roots and stems (e.g. lignin vs. cellulose) or might be the result of O and H exchange and fractionation processes during phloem transport and biosynthesis. We demonstrate that the three major OM elements (C, O, H) can be labelled and traced simultaneously within the plant. This approach could be of interdisciplinary interest in the fields of plant physiology, palaeoclimatic reconstruction or soil science.

  8. Caring for people with dementia disease (DD) and working in a private not-for-profit residential care facility for people with DD.

    PubMed

    Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Larsson, Lise-Lotte Franklin; Norberg, Astrid

    2014-06-01

    Caring for people with dementia and working in dementia care is described as having both rewarding and unpleasant aspects and has been studied to a minor extent. This study aims to explore care providers' narrated experiences of caring for people with dementia disease (DD) and working in a private not-for-profit residential care facility for people with DD. Nine care providers were interviewed about their experiences, the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that participants were struggling to perform person-centred care, which meant trying to see the person behind the disease, dealing with troublesome situations in the daily care, a two-edged interaction with relatives, feelings of shortcomings and troubled conscience, and the need for improvements in dementia care. The analysis also revealed an ambiguous work situation, which meant a challenging value base, the differently judged work environment, feelings of job satisfaction and the need for a functional leadership and management. The results illuminate participants' positive as well as negative experiences and have identified areas requiring improvements. It seems of great importance to strive for a supportive and attendant leadership, a leadership which aims to empower care providers in their difficult work. Using conscience as a driving force together in the work group may benefit care providers' health.

  9. Evidence that noncoding RNA dutA is a multicopy suppressor of Dictyostelium discoideum STAT protein Dd-STATa.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2007-06-01

    Dd-STATa, a Dictyostelium discoideum homologue of metazoan STAT transcription factors, is necessary for culmination. We created a mutant strain with partial Dd-STATa activity and used it to screen for unlinked suppressor genes. We screened approximately 450,000 clones from a slug-stage cDNA library for their ability to rescue the culmination defect when overexpressed. There were 12 multicopy suppressors of Dd-STATa, of which 4 encoded segments of a known noncoding RNA, dutA. Expression of dutA is specific to the pstA zone, the region where Dd-STATa is activated. In suppressed strains the expression patterns of several putative Dd-STATa target genes become similar to the wild-type strain. In addition, the amount of the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of Dd-STATa is significantly increased in the suppressed strain. These results indicate that partial copies of dutA may act upstream of Dd-STATa to regulate tyrosine phosphorylation by an unknown mechanism.

  10. hypoDD-A Program to Compute Double-Difference Hypocenter Locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldhauser, Felix

    2001-01-01

    HypoDD is a Fortran computer program package for relocating earthquakes with the double-difference algorithm of Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000). This document provides a brief introduction into how to run and use the programs ph2dt and hypoDD to compute double-difference (DD) hypocenter locations. It gives a short overview of the DD technique, discusses the data preprocessing using ph2dt, and leads through the earthquake relocation process using hypoDD. The appendices include the reference manuals for the two programs and a short description of auxiliary programs and example data. Some minor subroutines are presently in the c language, and future releases will be in c. Earthquake location algorithms are usually based on some form of Geiger’s method, the linearization of the travel time equation in a first order Taylor series that relates the difference between the observed and predicted travel time to unknown adjustments in the hypocentral coordinates through the partial derivatives of travel time with respect to the unknowns. Earthquakes can be located individually with this algorithm, or jointly when other unknowns link together the solutions to indivdual earthquakes, such as station corrections in the joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method, or the earth model in seismic tomography. The DD technique (described in detail in Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) takes advantage of the fact that if the hypocentral separation between two earthquakes is small compared to the event-station distance and the scale length of velocity heterogeneity, then the ray paths between the source region and a common station are similar along almost the entire ray path (Fréchet, 1985; Got et al., 1994). In this case, the difference in travel times for two events observed at one station can be attributed to the spatial offset between the events with high accuracy. DD equations are built by differencing Geiger’s equation for earthquake location. In this way, the residual between

  11. Implications of the DD fuel cycle on tokamak reactor technology considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Evans, K. Jr.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Stevens, H.C.; Turner, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The initial results of a study to develop a conceptual design of a DD tokamak reactor are reported in this paper. A comprehensive steady-state power and particle balance code has been used to survey a variety of design points. A reference set of parameters (R/sub 0/ = 8.6 m, B/sub max/ = 14 T, ..beta.. = 11%, P/sub th/ = 2500 to 2700 MW) has been selected for further study. The concepts of rf driven currents and a limiter-vacuum system have been examined and appear to offer promise. However, the penalty of rf current drive, in terms of recirculating power, is relatively larger for DD than for DT reactors. Blanket engineering studies have emphasized the optimization of energy multiplication and inboard blanket thickness.

  12. Recent progress on MHD-induced loss of D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Budny, R.V.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Herrmann, H.; Mynick, H.E.; Schivell, J.; Chang, Z.

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress made toward understanding the MHD-induced loss of D-D fusion products which has been seen on TFTR since 1988. These measurements have been made using the ``lost alpha`` diagnostic, which is described briefly. The largest MHD- induced loss occurs with coherent 3/2 or 2/1 MHD activity (kink/tearing modes), which can cause up to {approx}3--5 times the first-orbit loss at I{approx}1.6--1.8 MA, roughly a {approx}20--30% global los of D-D fusion products. Modeling of these MHD-induced losses has progressed to the point where the basic loss mechanism can be accounted for qualitatively, but the experimental results can not yet be understood quantitatively. Several alpha loss codes are being developed to improve the quantitative comparison between experiment and theory.

  13. Effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 isolate from Korea on ddY suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Bang, Hyojin; Kang, Bongjo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 spores on ddY suckling mice. Purified Kudoa septempunctata spores were administered into the stomachs of the mice at 5 × 10(6) or 5 × 10(7) spores/mouse, with inactivated Kudoa (5 × 10(6) spores/mouse) or vehicle as controls. No abnormal clinical symptoms were observed and there were no variations in fluid accumulation ratio and cytokine gene expression in all groups. In addition, intact Kudoa spores and the 18S rDNA gene were only detected (by microscopy and quantitative PCR, respectively) in the groups administered such spores. This study thus confirms that spores from the ST3 strain of Kudoa septempunctata were excreted in the faeces without infecting the gastrointestinal tract in ddY suckling mice. © Y. Jang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  14. Design of a Neutron Temporal Diagnostic for measuring DD or DT burn histories at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Sio, H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bradley, D. K.; Le Pape, S.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Isumi, N.; Macphee, A.; Zayas, C.; Spears, B. K.; Hermann, H.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The DD or DT burn history in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions provides essential information about implosion performance and helps to constrain numerical modeling. The capability of measuring this burn history is thus important for the NIF in its pursuit of ignition. Currently, the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is the only system capable of measuring the burn history for DT implosions with yields greater than ~ 1e14. To complement GRH, a new NIF Neutron Temporal Diagnostic (NTD) is being designed for measuring the DD or DT burn history with yields greater than ~ 1e10. A traditional scintillator-based design and a pulse-dilation-based design are being considered. Using MCNPX simulations, both designs have been optimized, validated and contrasted for various types of implosions at the NIF. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  15. Effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 isolate from Korea on ddY suckling mice

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Bang, Hyojin; Kang, Bongjo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 spores on ddY suckling mice. Purified Kudoa septempunctata spores were administered into the stomachs of the mice at 5 × 106 or 5 × 107 spores/mouse, with inactivated Kudoa (5 × 106 spores/mouse) or vehicle as controls. No abnormal clinical symptoms were observed and there were no variations in fluid accumulation ratio and cytokine gene expression in all groups. In addition, intact Kudoa spores and the 18S rDNA gene were only detected (by microscopy and quantitative PCR, respectively) in the groups administered such spores. This study thus confirms that spores from the ST3 strain of Kudoa septempunctata were excreted in the faeces without infecting the gastrointestinal tract in ddY suckling mice. PMID:27067108

  16. Shutdown Dose Rate Analysis for the long-pulse D-D Operation Phase in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Hun; Han, Jung-Hoon; Kim, D. H.; Joo, K. S.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2017-09-01

    KSTAR is a medium size fully superconducting tokamak. The deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reaction in the KSTAR tokamak generates neutrons with a peak yield of 3.5x1016 per second through a pulse operation of 100 seconds. The effect of neutron generation from full D-D high power KSTAR operation mode to the machine, such as activation, shutdown dose rate, and nuclear heating, are estimated for an assurance of safety during operation, maintenance, and machine upgrade. The nuclear heating of the in-vessel components, and neutron activation of the surrounding materials have been investigated. The dose rates during operation and after shutdown of KSTAR have been calculated by a 3D CAD model of KSTAR with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 (neutron flux and decay photon), the inventory code FISPACT (activation and decay photon) and the FENDL 2.1 nuclear data library.

  17. Prostate Cancer-Specific and Potent Antitumor Effect of a DD3-Controlled Oncolytic Virus Harboring the PTEN Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Miao; Cao, Xin; Xu, Hai-neng; Fan, Jun-kai; Huang, Hong-ling; Yang, Dong-qin; Li, Yu-hua; Wang, Jian; Li, Runsheng; Liu, Xin-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a major health problem for men in Western societies. Here we report a Prostate Cancer-Specific Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy (CTGVT-PCa), in which PTEN was inserted into a DD3-controlled oncolytic viral vector (OV) to form Ad.DD3.E1A.E1B(Δ55)-(PTEN) or, briefly, Ad.DD3.D55-PTEN. The woodchuck post-transcriptional element (WPRE) was also introduced at the downstream of the E1A coding sequence, resulting in much higher expression of the E1A gene. DD3 is one of the most prostate cancer-specific genes and has been used as a clinical bio-diagnostic marker. PTEN is frequently inactivated in primary prostate cancers, which is crucial for prostate cancer progression. Therefore, the Ad.DD3.D55-PTEN has prostate cancer specific and potent antitumor effect. The tumor growth rate was almost completely inhibited with the final tumor volume after Ad.DD3.D55-PTEN treatment less than the initial volume at the beginning of Ad.DD3.D55-PTEN treatment, which shows the powerful antitumor effect of Ad.DD3.D55-PTEN on prostate cancer tumor growth. The CTGVT-PCa construct reported here killed all of the prostate cancer cell lines tested, such as DU145, 22RV1 and CL1, but had a reduced or no killing effect on all the non-prostate cancer cell lines tested. The mechanism of action of Ad.DD3.D55-PTEN was due to the induction of apoptosis, as detected by TUNEL assays and flow cytometry. The apoptosis was mediated by mitochondria-dependent and -independent pathways, as determined by caspase assays and mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:22509396

  18. Spectral study of the irregular variables SV Cep, UX Ori, and DD Ser

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshenko, L.V.

    1985-07-01

    Nineteen spectrograms for three variables with periodic fadings of the, namely, SV Cep, UX Ori, and DD Ser, obtained on the two meter telescope of the Shemakha Astrophysical Observatory with a reciprocal dispersion of 94 A/mm in H..gamma.., were used to compile a two dimensional quantitative spectral classification of those variables. On the basis of certain classification criteria based on the lines of the metals, the mean spectral classes were determined for each star: A0 for SV Cep, A3 for UX Ori, and A5 for DD Ser. It was discovered that the spectral class of SV Cep varied from A0 to A3 from night to night; this may possibly be connected with the presence of cold regions on the surface of the star. The mean values of the absolute magnitudes found from the spectra of SV Cep, UX Ori, and DD Ser are, respectively, M /sub V/ = -0 /sup m/ .5, M /sub V/ = 0 /sup m/ .6, and M /sub V/ = 0 /sup m/ .2, which corresponds to giants of luminosity class III. The depths of the hydrogen lines and of K Ca II markedly exceed the depths in the spectra of standard stars of the same spectral class and luminosity class, and the explanation for this is the contribution of the additional absorption in the envelope. A consideration of the photographic observations available in the literature for DD Ser, which cover a period of 25 years, suggests a cyclicity of the fadings of about 4 yr.

  19. Photometric Study of the Very Short Period Shallow Contact Binary DD Comae Berenices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Mikulášek, Z.; Zejda, M.; Zvěřina, P.; Diethelm, R.

    2010-07-01

    The first photometric solutions of the very short period (VSP) close binary DD Comae Berenices (P = 0fd26920811) based on our new complete (IR)C light curves are derived by the 2003 version Wilson-Van Hamme code. They show that the system belongs to shallow contact W-type W UMa systems with a degree of overcontact of 8.7%. The observed light curve distortions are explained by employing the spots model due to the late-type nature of both components. We have collected all available photometric data about the system with emphasis on the individual observational data, which we treated simultaneously using our own method based on the usage of computed model light curves as templates. We recalculated published times of light minimum and added new ones of our own to construct an O - C diagram that spans over 70 years. Using a least squares method orthogonal quadratic model function, we found that the orbital period of DD Com is continuously increasing with \\dot{P}=0.00401(22) s yr-1. The period increase may be caused by the mass transfer from the less-massive component to the more-massive one. With the period increase, the binary is evolving from the present shallow contact phase to the broken stage predicted by the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) theory. Compared with other VSP systems, DD Com is a rare system that lies on the expanding phase of the TRO cycle. Until now, only four such systems including DD Com are found in this stage. Thus, this target is another good observational proof of the TRO theory in a very short period region.

  20. Temperature derivatives for fusion reactivity of D-D and D-T

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R.; Makaruk, Hanna Ewa

    2016-11-29

    Deuterium-tritium (D-T) and deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction rates are observable using leakage gamma flux. A direct measurement of γ-rays with equipment that exhibits fast temporal response could be used to infer temperature, if the detector signal is amenable for taking the logarithmic time-derivative, alpha. We consider the temperature dependence for fusion cross section reactivity.

  1. Evidence for an oxyanion hole in serine beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B P; Pratt, R F

    1988-12-01

    A thionocephalosporin is shown to be a much poorer substrate of representative serine beta-lactamases of class A (RTEM-2) and class C (Enterobacter cloacae P99) and a much poorer inhibitor of the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase than is the analogous oxo beta-lactam. These results provide kinetic evidence for the existence of a catalytic oxyanion hole in these enzymes.

  2. Thermal analysis of titanium drive-in target for D-D neutron generation.

    PubMed

    Jung, N S; Kim, I J; Kim, S J; Choi, H D

    2010-01-01

    Thermal analysis was performed for a titanium drive-in target of a D-D neutron generator. Computational fluid dynamics code CFX-5 was used in this study. To define the heat flux term for the thermal analysis, beam current profile was measured. Temperature of the target was calculated at some of the operating conditions. The cooling performance of the target was evaluated by means of the comparison of the calculated maximum target temperature and the critical temperature of titanium.

  3. Evidence for an oxyanion hole in serine beta-lactamases and DD-peptidases.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, B P; Pratt, R F

    1988-01-01

    A thionocephalosporin is shown to be a much poorer substrate of representative serine beta-lactamases of class A (RTEM-2) and class C (Enterobacter cloacae P99) and a much poorer inhibitor of the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase than is the analogous oxo beta-lactam. These results provide kinetic evidence for the existence of a catalytic oxyanion hole in these enzymes. PMID:3066349

  4. Accelerating D&D at Fernald: The fast track remediation design/bid package

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, S.M.; Albertin, M.F.; Borgman, T.D.; Zebick, W.A.

    1995-01-31

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department Of Energy (DOE) facility near Cincinnati, Ohio which provided high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were halted in 1989 to focus available resources on environmental restoration activities at the facility. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) is the designation given to the production area and production-associated facilities and equipment, including, but not limited to, all above and below ground structures, equipment, and utilities. In late spring of 1994, two decisions were made that established the long range strategy on how remedial designs (RD) and the bidding of remedial actions (RA) are approached for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Fernald facilities. The first was to fast track the remediation design and bidding process for the first three D&D packages; and the second was to use standard performance specifications to streamline the decontamination and decommissioning process. This paper describes these strategies, identifies the key elements involved, and discusses the lessons learned that were associated with the approaches. A brief synopsis of these elements follows: (1) A facility complex grouping facilities into blocks of work was used for bid packages. (2) A task force approach involving required functional organizations was used to fast track the design and bidding process. (3) Standard Performance Specifications have been developed for each task to establish minimum acceptable criteria and provide the subcontractor flexibility. This approach also dramatically decreases costs for future D&D packages. (4) A key feature of value engineering has been the use of construction methods and techniques to drive the D&D cost significantly lower. (5) The bid package was structured around a modified IFB approach. This provides the successful bidder the opportunity to incorporate innovative ideas within the performance.

  5. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  6. Cancer-targeted BikDD gene therapy elicits protective antitumor immunity against lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chang, Chun-Mien; Lien, Shu-Pei; Chen, Chien-Hua; Han, Zhenbo; Li, Long-Yuan; Chen, Jin-Shing; Wu, Cheng-Wen; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2011-04-01

    Targeted cancer-specific gene therapy is a promising strategy for treating metastatic lung cancer, which is a leading cause of lung cancer-related deaths. Previously, we developed a cancer-targeted gene therapy expression system with high tumor specificity and strong activity that selectively induced lung cancer cell killing without affecting normal cells in immunocompromised mice. Here, we found this cancer-targeted gene therapy, SV-BikDD, composed of the survivin promoter in the VP16-GAL4-WPRE integrated systemic amplifier system to drive the apoptotic gene BikDD, not only caused cytotoxic effects in cancer cells but also elicited a cancer-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to synergistically increase the therapeutic effect and further develop an effective systemic antitumoral immunity against rechallenges of tumorigenic dose of parental tumor cells inoculated at distant sites in immunocompetent mice. In addition, this cancer-targeted gene therapy does not elicit an immune response against normal tissues, but CMV-BikDD treatment does. The therapeutic vector could also induce proinflammatory cytokines to activate innate immunity and provide some benefits in antitumor gene therapy. Thus, this study provides a promising strategy with benefit of antitumoral immune response worthy of further development in clinical trials for treating lung cancer via cancer-targeted gene therapy.

  7. Photometric study of two β Lyr-type binaries: DD Aqr and RR Lep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Öztürk, O.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents detailed analysis of photometric observations of two eclipsing binary systems, DD Aqr and RR Lep. The V light curve of the neglected binary star DD Aqr from the All Sky Automated Survey was solved for the first time. The 1982-1987 UBV light curves of RR Lep from Vyas and Abhyankar (1989) were re-analysed. The final solutions give these two β Lyr-type binary stars as having near contact configurations in which the secondary components almost fill their Roche limiting lobes. Using O-C residuals formed by the updated minima times, orbital period changes of the systems were analysed. The O-C diagram of DD Aqr displays a cyclic variation, while that of RR Lep shows a quasi-sinusoidal variation superimposed on a downward parabolic form. The parabolic variation, which suggests a secular orbital period decrease in RR Lep, was interpreted in terms of the combined effect of mass transfer and loss. The cyclic O-C variations were interpreted in terms of the light travel time effect due to unseen components in these two systems. The absolute parameters of the components of the systems were estimated, and their present evolutionary status is also discussed.

  8. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos.

    PubMed

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E P Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; Dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha Dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

  9. Mutations in the mariner transposase: The D,D(35)E consensus sequence is nonfunctional

    PubMed Central

    Lohe, Allan R.; De Aguiar, Daniel; Hartl, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic analysis of eukaryote transposases and comparison with their prokaryote counterparts have been greatly hindered by difficulty in isolating mutations. We describe a simple eye-color screen that facilitates isolation and analysis of mutations in the mariner transposase in Drosophila melanogaster. Use of ethyl methanesulfonate and site-directed mutagenesis has identified 18 residues that are critical for in vivo excision of a target mariner element. When the mutations were examined in heterozygous mutant/nonmutant genotypes, more than half of the mutant transposase proteins were found to reduce the activity of the wild-type transposase, as assayed by the frequency of germline excision of a target element. Remarkably, transposase function is obliterated when the D,D(34)D acidic, ion-binding domain is replaced with the consensus sequence D,D(34)E found in the nematode Tc1 transposase and in many other transposases in the superfamily. A number of mutations strongly complement wild-type transposase in a dominant-negative manner, suggestive of subunit interactions in the excision reaction; these mutations are located in a small region that includes part of the D,D(34)D motif. Transposase function also is eliminated by a mutation in the inferred initiation codon and by a mutation in a putative nuclear localization signal. PMID:9037046

  10. Efficiency of ddRAD target enriched sequencing across spiny rock lobster species (Palinuridae: Jasus).

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla A; Murphy, Nicholas; Villacorta-Rath, Cecilia; Woodings, Laura N; Ilyushkina, Irina; Hernandez, Cristian E; Green, Bridget S; Bell, James J; Strugnell, Jan M

    2017-07-28

    Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) and target capture sequencing methods are used to explore population and phylogenetic questions in non-model organisms. ddRADseq offers a simple and reliable protocol for population genomic studies, however it can result in a large amount of missing data due to allelic dropout. Target capture sequencing offers an opportunity to increase sequencing coverage with little missing data and consistent orthologous loci across samples, although this approach has generally been applied to conserved markers for deeper evolutionary questions. Here, we combine both methods to generate high quality sequencing data for population genomic studies of all marine lobster species from the genus Jasus. We designed probes based on ddRADseq libraries of two lobster species (Jasus edwardsii and Sagmariasus verreauxi) and evaluated the captured sequencing data in five other Jasus species. We validated 4,465 polymorphic loci amongst these species using a cost effective sequencing protocol, of which 1,730 were recovered from all species, and 4,026 were present in at least three species. The method was also successfully applied to DNA samples obtained from museum specimens. This data will be further used to assess spatial-temporal genetic variation in Jasus species found in the Southern Hemisphere.

  11. The mechanism of action of DD-peptidases: the role of tyrosine-159 in the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, J M; Jamin, M; Damblon, C; Zhao, G H; Joris, B; Duez, C; Frère, J M

    1993-01-01

    Tyrosine-159 of the Streptomyces R61 penicillin-sensitive DD-peptidase was replaced by serine or phenylalanine. The second mutation yielded a very poorly active protein whose rate of penicillin binding was also drastically decreased, except for the reactions with nitrocefin and methicillin. The consequences of the first mutation were more surprising, since a large proportion of the thiolesterase activity was retained, together with the penicillin-binding capacity. Conversely, the peptidase properties was severely affected. In both cases, a drastic decrease in the transferase activity was observed. The results are compared with those obtained by mutation of the corresponding residue in the class A beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G. PMID:8484734

  12. Multi-isotope (C - O - S - H - B - Mg - Ca - Ba) and trace element variations along a vertical pore water profile across a brackish-fresh water transition, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Lapham, Laura; Gussone, Nikolaus; Struck, Ulrich; Buhl, Dieter; Immenhauser, Adrian; Moeller, Kirsten; Pretet, Chloé; Nägler, Thomas F.; Dellwig, Olaf; Schnetger, Bernhard; Huckriede, Hermann; Halas, Stan; Samankassou, Elias

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene Baltic Sea has been switched several times between fresh water and brackish water modes. Modern linear sedimentation rates, based on 210-Pb, 137-Cs, and Hg dating of surface sediments, are between 0.1 and 0.2 mm per year. The change in paleo-environmental conditions caused downcore gradients in the concentrations of dissolved species from modern brackish waters towards fresh paleo-pore waters, interrupted by the brief brackish Yoldia stage. These strong physico-chemical changes had consequences for e.g., microbial activity and further physical and chemical water-solid interactions associated with multiple stable isotope fractionation processes, and, in turn, have strong implications for isotope and trace element partitioning upon early diagenetic mineral (trans)formations. In this communication, we present the results from the first integrated multi-isotope and trace element investigation conducted in this type of salinity-gradient system. It is found that concentrations of conservative elements (e.g., Na, Cl) decrease with depth due to diffusion of ions from brackish waters into underlying fresh waters. This is associated with pronounced depletions in H-2 and O-18 of pore water with depth. Covariations of both isotope systems are close to the meteoric water line as defined by modern Baltic Sea surface waters. A downward increase and decrease of Ca and Mg concentrations, respectively, is associated with decreasing Ca-44 and Mg-26 isotope values. B-11 isotope values decrease in the limnic part of the sediments, too. On the other hand, an increase in Ba concentrations with depth is associated with an increase in Ba-137/134 isotope values. Microbial sulfate reduction and organic matter oxidation lead to an increase in DIC, but a decrease in sulfate concentrations and in C-13 contents of DIC with depth. Suess (1981) was probably the first to propose, that desorption of Ca and Ba from glacial sediments due to downward diffusing ions may be responsible for a

  13. Assessment of Quality of Life (QOL) in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Dysthymic Disorder (DD): A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Vasudev, Roopesh Gopal Nariyandada; Yallappa, Sudarshan Chikkanayakanahalli; Saya, Ganesh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    There is paucity of data on Quality of Life (QOL) in non-psychotic mental disorders. To assess the Quality of Life (QOL) in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and compare it with Dysthymic Disorder (DD). This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 patients each diagnosed to have OCD and DD during October 2009 to September 2011 in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic statistical manual-IV-Text Revised) criteria was used for diagnosis of OCD and DD. Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and WHO QOL BREF (brief form) scales were used. Data was analysed by independent sample t-test. Overall QOL score was 51.07(SD=11.47) and 50.91(SD=7.41) in OCD and DD groups respectively. QOL score was comparatively low in psychological domain with score of 44.12(SD=14.14) and 45.10(12.35) in OCD and DD respectively. There was no significant difference in the QOL score of the two groups with respect to socio demographic variables in OCD group, but it was different with respect to place of residence in DD group (p<0.05). In Q1(perception on quality of life) and Q2 (perception on quality of health) domain, QOL score was marginally higher than average in both the groups. In Y-BOCS scale, no statistical significant association was found between severity of OCD and QOL score in each of the domains (p>0.05). Overall QOL score was average and there was no significant difference of QOL score between the OCD and DD groups implying that both these non-psychotic mental disorders may have same influence or effect on QOL of the subjects. Further analytical studies will explore the associated factors of QOL in OCD and DD.

  14. Identification of new modes of Dd-STATa regulation of gene expression in Dictyostelium by in situ hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nao; Maeda, Mineko; Urushihara, Hideko; Kawata, Takefumi

    2004-09-01

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are transcription factors which lie at the end of cytokine and growth signal transduction pathways. Dictyostelium Dd-STATa is a functional homologue of metazoan STATs. It is activated by cAMP and, at the slug stage, it translocates into the nuclei of the tip cells, which are a subset of the anterior, prestalk A (pstA) cells. Here we searched for novel Dd-STATa regulated genes by in situ hybridisation. A set of 54 cDNA clones whose gene expression patterns are known to be prestalk-specific (Maeda et al., 2003), were chosen as probes and we compared their expression patterns in parental and Dd-STATa-null strains. We identified 13 genes which are candidates for direct induction by Dd-STATa. In the parental strain, most of these genes are expressed in the cone shaped mass of pstAB cells which is located within the prestalk region. These cDNAs show little or no expression in the Dd-STATa-null strain. This contrasts markedly with the paradigmatic ecmB gene which is expressed in pstAB cells in parental cells, but which is expressed throughout the prestalk zone in the Dd-STATa-null strain. We also identified several genes which are normally expressed in pstA cells, or throughout the prestalk region, but whose expression is markedly down-regulated in the null mutant. Again, this contrasts with markers derived from the paradigmatic, ecmA gene which are expressed normally in the Dd-STATa-null strain. The identification of these novel genes provides valuable tools to investigate the role of Dd-STATa.

  15. Booster dose after 10 years is recommended following 17DD-YF primary vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Antonelli, Lis R; Fonseca, Cristina T; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Villela-Rezende, Gabriela; Santos, Raiany A; Batista, Maurício A; Campos, Fernanda M; Pacheco-Porto, Luiza; Melo Júnior, Otoni A; Hossell, Débora MSH; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Costa-Silva, Matheus F; de Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Farias, Roberto H; Noronha, Tatiana G; Lemos, Jandira A; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos R; Simões, Marisol; de Souza, Mirian M; Malaquias, Luiz C; Persi, Harold R; Pereira, Jorge M; Martins, José A; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Vinhas, Aline de A; Alves, Tatiane R; Maia, Maria de L; Freire, Marcos da S; Martins, Reinaldo de M; Homma, Akira; Romano, Alessandro PM; Domingues, Carla M; Tauil, Pedro L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Rios, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya R; Camacho, Luiz A; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2016-01-01

    A single vaccination of Yellow Fever vaccines is believed to confer life-long protection. In this study, results of vaccinees who received a single dose of 17DD-YF immunization followed over 10 y challenge this premise. YF-neutralizing antibodies, subsets of memory T and B cells as well as cytokine-producing lymphocytes were evaluated in groups of adults before (NVday0) and after (PVday30-45, PVyear1-4, PVyear5-9, PVyear10-11, PVyear12-13) 17DD-YF primary vaccination. YF-neutralizing antibodies decrease significantly from PVyear1-4 to PVyear12-13 as compared to PVday30-45, and the seropositivity rates (PRNT≥2.9Log10mIU/mL) become critical (lower than 90%) beyond PVyear5-9. YF-specific memory phenotypes (effector T-cells and classical B-cells) significantly increase at PVday30-45 as compared to naïve baseline. Moreover, these phenotypes tend to decrease at PVyear10-11 as compared to PVday30-45. Decreasing levels of TNF-α+ and IFN-γ+ produced by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells along with increasing levels of IL-10+CD4+T-cells were characteristic of anti-YF response over time. Systems biology profiling represented by hierarchic networks revealed that while the naïve baseline is characterized by independent micro-nets, primary vaccinees displayed an imbricate network with essential role of central and effector CD8+ memory T-cell responses. Any putative limitations of this cross-sectional study will certainly be answered by the ongoing longitudinal population-based investigation. Overall, our data support the current Brazilian national immunization policy guidelines that recommend one booster dose 10 y after primary 17DD-YF vaccination. PMID:26360663

  16. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    DOE PAGES

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; ...

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods inmore » Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.« less

  17. Anomalous DD and TT yields relative to the DT yield in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Daniel T.

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the D(d,p)T (DD), T(t,2n)4He (TT) and D(t,n)4He (DT) reactions have been conducted using deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In these experiments, which were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility, absolute spectral measurements of the DD protons and TT neutrons were conducted and compared to neutron-time-of-flight measured DT-neutron yields. From these measurements, it is concluded that the DD yield is anomalously low and the TT yield is anomalously high relative to the DT yield, an effect that is enhanced with increasing ion temperature. These results can be explained by an enrichment of tritium in the core of an ICF implosion, which may be present in ignition experiments planned on the National Ignition Facility. In addition, the spectral measurements of the TT-neutron spectrum were conducted for the first time at reactant central-mass energies in the range of 15-30 keV. The results from these measurements indicate that the TT reaction proceeds primarily through the direct three-body reaction channel, producing a continuous TT-neutron spectrum in the range 0 - 9.5 MeV. This work was conducted in collaboration with J. A. Frenje, M. Gatu Johnson, M. J.-E. Manuel, H. G. Rinderknecht, N. Sinenian, F. H. Seguin, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, P. B. Radha, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, D. P. McNabb, P. A. Amendt, R. N. Boyd, J. R. Rygg, H. W. Herrmann, Y. H. Kim, G. P. Grim and A. D. Bacher. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG03-03SF22691), LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974).

  18. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.

  19. HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTRUM OF THE HALO PLANETARY NEBULA DdDm 1

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Hyung, Siek; Lee, Seong-Jae; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Tajitsu, Akito

    2009-11-01

    Using the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) at the Subaru Telescope, we secured the high-resolution line spectra in the 3600-7500 A wavelength range of the Galactic halo planetary nebula DdDm 1. We also analyzed the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph data in the 1200-6730 A wavelength range. The diagnostic results indicate the electron temperatures of T {sub e}psilonapprox 11,000-14,000 K and the electron number densities of N {sub e}psilonapprox 2000-10,500 cm{sup -3}. In spite of high gaseous temperatures, we have not detected high excitation lines, e.g., He II. We derived abundance based on the ionic concentration of permitted and forbidden lines and the photoionization model. A comparison of the ionic concentrations from forbidden lines to recombination lines shows the abundance discrepancy between them. We tested various possibilities, e.g., temperature fluctuation and high-density blob components, to explain the discrepancy. The high-density components or density fluctuation might be partly responsible for the discrepancy. DdDm 1 shows a low carbon abundance that corresponds to metal-poor stars, [Fe/H] <=-1. Assuming a distance of 10 kpc to DdDm 1, theoretical models suggest that the central star has T {sub eff}approx = 39,000 K and Lapprox = 2000-3000 L {sub sun}. The relatively high gas temperatures appear to be caused by very low heavy elemental abundances or insufficient coolants in the shell gas. Its progenitor, born in an extremely carbon-poor environment as an initial mass of about 0.9 M {sub sun}, had probably experienced only the first dredge-up.

  20. DD-ligases as a potential target for antibiotics: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, I; Colacino, E; Tulkens, P M; Poupaert, J H; Prévost, M; Van Bambeke, F

    2009-01-01

    DD-ligases catalyze the synthesis of the D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Ser dipeptides or the D Ala-D-Lac depsipeptide in an early step of peptidoglycan synthesis. Their function is essential for bacterial growth and specific to bacteria, making them attractive targets for the development of novel antibiotics. This review examines the biochemical and structural features of these enzymes and presents the main families of inhibitors described so far. Over the last 20 years, 7 structures of DD-ligases have been solved by X-ray crystallography, giving a detailed view of the general topology of the active site and of the residues in the catalytic pocket that play a central role in substrate recognition. This has paved the way to the rational design of inhibitors, which can be classified as (i) analogues of substrates, (ii) analogues of the product of the reaction, (iii) analogues of the transition state, and (iv) original scaffolds discovered by screening or by rational computer-aided design. The three first strategies have led to molecules that are polar by nature and have therefore poor access to their cytosolic target. The fourth one is potentially most promising as it yields more diverse structures. The most active molecules show affinity constants in the microM range, but microbiological evaluation remains scarce (typical MIC 1-8 mg/L for the tested compounds). These data strongly suggest targeting DD-ligases is a promising approach for discovery of new antibiotics. Future research should, however, aim at finding more potent inhibitors endowed with the appropriate pharmacokinetic properties that ensure access to their intracellular target.

  1. Booster dose after 10 years is recommended following 17DD-YF primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Antonelli, Lis R; Fonseca, Cristina T; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Villela-Rezende, Gabriela; Santos, Raiany A; Batista, Maurício A; Campos, Fernanda M; Pacheco-Porto, Luiza; Melo Júnior, Otoni A; Hossell, Débora M S H; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Costa-Silva, Matheus F; de Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Farias, Roberto H; Noronha, Tatiana G; Lemos, Jandira A; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos R; Simões, Marisol; de Souza, Mirian M; Malaquias, Luiz C; Persi, Harold R; Pereira, Jorge M; Martins, José A; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Vinhas, Aline de A; Alves, Tatiane R; Maia, Maria de L; Freire, Marcos da S; Martins, Reinaldo de M; Homma, Akira; Romano, Alessandro P M; Domingues, Carla M; Tauil, Pedro L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Rios, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya R; Camacho, Luiz A; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2016-01-01

    A single vaccination of Yellow Fever vaccines is believed to confer life-long protection. In this study, results of vaccinees who received a single dose of 17DD-YF immunization followed over 10 y challenge this premise. YF-neutralizing antibodies, subsets of memory T and B cells as well as cytokine-producing lymphocytes were evaluated in groups of adults before (NVday0) and after (PVday30-45, PVyear1-4, PVyear5-9, PVyear10-11, PVyear12-13) 17DD-YF primary vaccination. YF-neutralizing antibodies decrease significantly from PVyear1-4 to PVyear12-13 as compared to PVday30-45, and the seropositivity rates (PRNT≥2.9Log10mIU/mL) become critical (lower than 90%) beyond PVyear5-9. YF-specific memory phenotypes (effector T-cells and classical B-cells) significantly increase at PVday30-45 as compared to naïve baseline. Moreover, these phenotypes tend to decrease at PVyear10-11 as compared to PVday30-45. Decreasing levels of TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) produced by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells along with increasing levels of IL-10(+)CD4(+)T-cells were characteristic of anti-YF response over time. Systems biology profiling represented by hierarchic networks revealed that while the naïve baseline is characterized by independent micro-nets, primary vaccinees displayed an imbricate network with essential role of central and effector CD8(+) memory T-cell responses. Any putative limitations of this cross-sectional study will certainly be answered by the ongoing longitudinal population-based investigation. Overall, our data support the current Brazilian national immunization policy guidelines that recommend one booster dose 10 y after primary 17DD-YF vaccination.

  2. 17DD and 17D-213/77 Yellow Fever Substrains Trigger a Balanced Cytokine Profile in Primary Vaccinated Children

    PubMed Central

    Luiza-Silva, Maria; Batista, Maurício Azevedo; Martins, Marina Angela; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; de Lourdes de Sousa Maia, Maria; Farias, Roberto Henrique Guedes; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Galler, Ricardo; Homma, Akira; Ribeiro, José Geraldo Leite; Lemos, Jandira Aparecida Campos; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the cytokine-mediated immune response in children submitted to primary vaccination with the YF-17D-213/77 or YF-17DD yellow fever (YF) substrains. Methods A non-probabilistic sample of eighty healthy primary vaccinated (PV) children was selected on the basis of their previously known humoral immune response to the YF vaccines. The selected children were categorized according to their YF-neutralizing antibody titers (PRNT) and referred to as seroconverters (PV-PRNT+) or nonseroconverters (PV-PRNT−). Following revaccination with the YF-17DD, the PV-PRNT− children (YF-17D-213/77 and YF-17DD groups) seroconverted and were referred as RV-PRNT+. The cytokine-mediated immune response was investigated after short-term in vitro cultures of whole blood samples. The results are expressed as frequency of high cytokine producers, taking the global median of the cytokine index (YF-Ag/control) as the cut-off. Results The YF-17D-213/77 and the YF-17DD substrains triggered a balanced overall inflammatory/regulatory cytokine pattern in PV-PRNT+, with a slight predominance of IL-12 in YF-17DD vaccinees and a modest prevalence of IL-10 in YF-17D-213/77. Prominent frequency of neutrophil-derived TNF-α and neutrophils and monocyte-producing IL-12 were the major features of PV-PRNT+ in the YF-17DD, whereas relevant inflammatory response, mediated by IL-12+CD8+ T cells, was the hallmark of the YF-17D-213/77 vaccinees. Both substrains were able to elicit particular but relevant inflammatory events, regardless of the anti-YF PRNT antibody levels. PV-PRNT− children belonging to the YF-17DD arm presented gaps in the inflammatory cytokine signature, especially in terms of the innate immunity, whereas in the YF-17D-213/77 arm the most relevant gap was the deficiency of IL-12-producing CD8+T cells. Revaccination with YF-17DD prompted a balanced cytokine profile in YF-17DD nonresponders and a robust inflammatory profile in YF-17D-213/77 nonresponders

  3. Re-ranking via User Feedback: Georgetown University at TREC 2015 DD Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    experience on three different domains. We index them using Indri. All stopwords are removed and terms are stemmed using Krovetz Stemmer [2]. Ebola . This...dataset talks about the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in Africa. It contains 497,362 web pages, 19,834 PDFs and 164,961 tweets in total. Illicit Goods...Statistics Table for TREC DD 2015 Datasets Ebola Local Politics Illicit Goods Corpus Size (GB) 12.6 58 8.30 Corpus Size in # of Tokens (109) 0.62

  4. Mitigation of timing offset effect in IM/DD based OFDMA-PON uplink multiple access.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Jung, Sang-Min; Park, Hyoung-Joon; Han, Sang-Kook

    2015-06-01

    In orthogonal frequency division multiple access based passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) uplink, synchronization between optical network units (ONUs) is very important to maintain orthogonality. The synchronization among uplink signals is considered as one of the main challenges in OFDMA-PON due to optical path difference. In this paper, the performance degradation according to timing offset between ONUs is experimentally analyzed. And we propose and demonstrate timing offset effect reduction in asynchronous multiple access by using CP extension and filter bank based multicarrier (FBMC) system in intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) based OFDMA-PON uplink transmission.

  5. Proceedings of the 2007 ANS Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization - DD and R 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization (DD and R 2007), 'Capturing Decommissioning Lessons Learned', is sponsored by the ANS Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization; Environmental Sciences; and Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Divisions. This meeting provides a forum for an international exchange of technical knowledge and project management experience gained from the ongoing process of decommissioning nuclear facilities. Of particular note is the number of projects that are approaching completion. This document gathers 113 presentations given at this meeting.

  6. The Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) study: implementation of a nationwide patient enrollment system.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Thomsen, Reimar W; Steffensen, Charlotte; Christiansen, Jens S

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the patient enrollment system and implementation strategy for the new nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. The paper will also describe the design, current content, and pilot testing of the DD2 registration form. The challenge of the DD2 project was to construct a registration system functioning in the entire Danish health care system, where new type 2 diabetes patients are initially met, and with the capacity to enroll 200 newly diagnosed diabetes patients per week nationwide. This requires a fast and simple registration that is part of everyday clinical practice in hospital outpatient clinics and general practitioner (GP) clinics. The enrollment system is thus built on a tested, rational design where patients need only one visit and only specific limited data about physical activity, anthropometric measures, and family history of diabetes are collected during a brief patient interview. Later, supplemental data will be extracted by computerized linkage with existing databases. The feasibility of this strategy was verified in a pilot study. For maximum flexibility, three different ways to fill in the DD2 registration form were provided and an interactive webpage was constructed. The DD2 project also involves collection of blood and urine samples from each diabetes patient, to be stored in a biobank. Clinicians may obtain the samples themselves or refer patients to the nearest clinical biochemical department. GPs have the additional option of referring patients to the nearest hospital outpatient diabetes clinic to obtain interview data, clinical data, and samples. At present, the enrollment system is in use at 17 hospital outpatient diabetes clinics and 45 GP clinics nationwide, together enrolling 40 new type 2 diabetes patients per week in the DD2 project. A total of 990 patients have now been enrolled and the DD2 is ready to expand nationwide.

  7. Upregulation of expression of the reticulocyte homology gene 4 in the Plasmodium falciparum clone Dd2 is associated with a switch in the erythrocyte invasion pathway.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Deepak; Furuya, Tetsuya; Mu, Jianbing; Jiang, Lu-bin; Su, Xin-zhuan; Miller, Louis H

    2006-02-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum clone, Dd2, that requires sialic acid for invasion can switch to a sialic acid independent pathway, Dd2(NM). To elucidate the molecular basis of the switch in invasion phenotype of Dd2 to Dd2(NM), we performed expression profiling of the parasites using an oligonucleotide microarray and real-time RT-PCR. We found that four genes were upregulated in Dd2(NM) by microarray analysis, only two of which could be confirmed by real time RT-PCR. One gene, PfRH4, is a member of the reticulocyte homology family and the other, PEBL, is a pseudogene of the Duffy binding-like family. The two genes are contiguous but transcribed in opposite directions. The DNA sequence of these ORFs, their 5'-intergenic region and a 1.1kb region 3' to each ORF are identical between Dd2 and Dd2(NM), suggesting that their transcription upregulation relates to transactivating factors. The transcription upregulation of PfRH4 was reflected at the protein level as PfRH4 protein expression was detected in Dd2(NM) and not in Dd2. Other sialic acid independent and dependent clones of P. falciparum showed variable transcript levels of PfRH4 and PEBL, unrelated to their dependence on sialic acid for invasion, suggesting that different P. falciparum clones use different receptors for sialic acid independent invasion. As Dd2(NM) is a selected subclone of Dd2, the marked upregulation of PfRH4 expression in Dd2(NM) suggests its role in erythrocyte invasion through the sialic acid independent pathway of Dd2(NM).

  8. Nuclear Recoil Calibrations in the LUX Detector Using Direct and Backscattered D-D Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyne, Casey; LUX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. I will discuss the latest calibration of the nuclear recoil (NR) response in liquid xenon (LXe), performed in-situ in the LUX detector using mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons produced via the Adelphi Technologies, Inc. DD108 D-D neutron generator. The calibration measured the NR charge yield in LXe (Qy) to 0.7 keVnr recoil energy with an absolute determination of deposited energy and the NR light yield in LXe (Ly) to recoil energies of 1.1 keVnr, both of which improve upon all previous measurements. I will then focus in depth on the extension of this calibration using a new technique for generating a beam of sub-300 keV quasi-mono-energetic neutrons via the backscatter of 2.45 MeV neutrons off a deuterium-based reflector. Current simulations work optimizing the technique, its advantages, and its impact on future research will be discussed, including the extension of the NR Qy calibration down to 0.14 keVnr, an independent NR Ly calibration, and an a priori estimate of the expected 8B solar neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering signal in the upcoming LUX-ZEPLIN experiment.

  9. A Novel Nuclear Recoil Calibration in the LUX Detector Using a D-D Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbus, James; LUX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. I will describe a novel calibration of nuclear recoils (NR) in liquid xenon (LXe) performed in-situ in the LUX detector using mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons produced by a D-D neutron generator. This technique was used to measure the NR charge yield in LXe (Qy) to < 1 keV recoil energy with an absolute determination of the deposited energy. The LUX Qy result is a factor of × 5 lower in energy compared to any other previous measurement in the field, and provides a significant improvement in calibration uncertainties. We also present a measurement of the NR light yield in LXe (Leff) to recoil energies as low as ~ 2 keV using the LUX D-D data. The Leff result is also lower in energy with smaller uncertainties than has been previously achieved. These absolute, ultra-low energy calibrations of the NR signal yields in LXe are a clear confirmation of the detector response used for the first LUX WIMP search analysis. Strategies for extending this calibration technique to even lower energies and smaller uncertainties will be discussed.

  10. Risk of fatal adverse events associated with 17DD yellow fever vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Struchiner, C. J.; Luz, P. M.; Dourado, I.; Sato, H. K.; Aguiar, S. G.; Ribeiro, J. G. L.; Soares, R. C. R.; Codeço, C. T.

    2004-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF), an acute infectious disease, is endemic in the north and central-west of Brazil. This disease can be prevented by the use of a vaccine. In Brazil, four fatal adverse events have been associated with the YF vaccine used in the country (17DD vaccine). We briefly describe the last two fatalities, and estimate the risk of 17DD-associated fatal adverse events under different epidemiological scenarios. Controversies regarding the appropriate denominator that enters the estimation of risk serve as a motivation for each proposed scenario. The statistical procedures used show optimum behaviour when assessing the risk of rare events. Risk estimates vary from 0.043 (95 % CI 0.017-0.110) to 2.131 (95 % CI 0.109-12.071) fatalities per million doses administered. The robust estimates of the risk of fatal adverse events we present constitute an important element in future risk-benefit analysis and point to the need for good quality vaccine coverage and adverse-events surveillance data to assess the risk of vaccination. Although vaccination of YF endemic regions is necessary to maintain low disease prevalence, preventive administration of YF vaccine to the entire population should be cautiously analysed. PMID:15473158

  11. Description of a Prospective 17DD Yellow Fever Vaccine Cohort in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Andréa Barbosa; da Silva, Maria da Paz C.; Magalhães, Maria Cecília F.; Gonzales Gil, Laura Helena Vega; Freese de Carvalho, Eduardo M.; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M.; Bertani, Giovani Rota; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório

    2011-01-01

    From September 2005 to March 2007, 238 individuals being vaccinated for the first time with the yellow fever (YF) -17DD vaccine were enrolled in a cohort established in Recife, Brazil. A prospective study indicated that, after immunization, anti-YF immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-YF IgG were present in 70.6% (IgM) and 98.3% (IgG) of the vaccinated subjects. All vaccinees developed protective immunity, which was detected by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) with a geometric mean titer of 892. Of the 238 individuals, 86.6% had IgG antibodies to dengue virus; however, the presence of anti-dengue IgG did not interfere significantly with the development of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies. In a separate retrospective study of individuals immunized with the 17DD vaccine, the PRNT values at 5 and 10 years post-vaccination remained positive but showed a significant decrease in neutralization titer (25% with PRNT titers < 100 after 5 years and 35% after 10 years). PMID:21976581

  12. Free-field correction values for Interacoustics DD 45 supra-aural audiometric earphones.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Torben

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports free-field correction values for the Interacoustics DD 45 audiometric earphone. The free-field correction values for earphones provide the loudness based equivalence to loudspeaker presentation. Correction values are especially used for the calibration of audiometric equipment for speech audiometry performed with headphones. Calibration values may be found in, e.g. the ISO 389 series of standards. The free-field correction values were determined by means of loudness balance measurements of one-third octave noises (centre frequencies 125 Hz to 8000 Hz) presented alternately from a loudspeaker in a free field and from the earphones. The procedure was essentially in accordance with the free-field frequency response procedure described in IEC 60268-7: Headphones and earphones. Four earphones and 14 test subjects. Free field correction values are reported for the acoustic coupler IEC 60318-3 (NBS 9-A) and for the ear simulator IEC 60318-1. The results are in good agreement with the results of another independent investigation. The reported free-field correction values may be used as part of the basis for future standardization of the DD 45 earphone.

  13. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa.

    PubMed

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry.

  14. TFTR D&D Project: Final Examination and Testing of the TFTR TF-Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Irving J. Zatz

    2003-01-31

    In operation for nearly 15 years, TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) was not only a fusion science milestone, but a milestone of achievement in engineering as well. The TFTR D&D (Decommissioning and Decontamination) program provided a rare opportunity to examine machine components that had been exposed to a unique performance environment of greater than 100,000 mechanical and thermal load cycles. In particular, the possible examination of the TFTR toroidal-field (TF) coils, which met, then exceeded, the 5.2 Tesla magnetic field machine specification, could supply the answers to many questions that have been asked and debated since the coils were originally designed and built. A test program conducted in parallel with the D&D effort was the chance to look inside and examine, in detail, the TFTR TF coils for the first time since they were delivered encased to PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory). The results from such a program would provide data and insight that would not only be nefit PPPL and the fusion community, but the broader scientific community as well.

  15. Shock formation in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe on DD gas puff implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Ney, P.; Beg, F.

    2016-10-01

    1- and 2-D simulations of a 1-cm radius, gas-puff implosion of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe liners onto a DD target are conducted using the discharge parameters for the Univ. Nevada, Reno, Zebra (1 MA, 125 ns) voltage driver and the resistive MHD code MACH2. During the run-in phase, initial†shock heating preheats the DD plasma, with subsequent stable, adiabatic compression heating the target to high energy density. The dynamics of the former in both the liner and target are investigated. It is shown that magnetic field transport to the liner/target interface does not occur prior to the run-in phase in Ne and Ar liners, yet does occur in Kr and Xe liners, and that magnetic field transport to the interface is a requirement for shock initiation, thus demonstrating the necessity for using a high-Z material in the Staged Z-pinch. Shock reflection off the axis and subsequent collision with the interface results in partial transmission into the liner, which manifests as current reversal, and consequently an enhanced Bθ gradient. 2-D simulations show that magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth decreases with increasing Z, with shock formation providing sufficient isolation to reproduce the current reversal and enhanced Bθ gradient observed in 1-D simulations. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  16. Phase 1 Study of Intravenous Oncolytic Poxvirus (vvDD) in Patients With Advanced Solid Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Downs-Canner, Stephanie; Guo, Zong Sheng; Ravindranathan, Roshni; Breitbach, Caroline J; O'Malley, Mark E; Jones, Heather L; Moon, Anne; McCart, Judith Andrea; Shuai, Yongli; Zeh, Herbert J; Bartlett, David L

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a phase 1 study of intravenous vvDD, a Western Reserve strain oncolytic vaccinia virus, on 11 patients with standard treatment-refractory advanced colorectal or other solid cancers. The primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose and associated toxicity while secondary endpoints were pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immune responses, and antitumor activity. No dose-limiting toxicities and treatment related severe adverse events were observed. The most common adverse events were grades 1/2 flu-like symptoms. Virus genomes were detectable in the blood 15–30 minutes after virus administration in a dose-dependent manner. There was evidence of a prolonged virus replication in tumor tissues in two patients, but no evidence of virus replication in non-tumor tissues, except a healed injury site and an oral thrush. Over 100-fold of anti-viral antibodies were induced in patients' sera. A strong induction of inflammatory and Th1, but not Th2 cytokines, suggested a potent Th1-mediated immunity against the virus and possibly the cancer. One patient showed a mixed response on PET-CT with resolution of some liver metastases, and another patient with cutaneous melanoma demonstrated clinical regression of some lesions. Given the confirmed safety, further trials evaluating intravenous vvDD in combination with therapeutic transgenes, immune checkpoint blockade or complement inhibitors, are warranted. PMID:27203445

  17. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa

    PubMed Central

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array’s construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. ×ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. ×ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry. PMID:26398886

  18. Myth and Reality in Hydrogeological Site Characterization at DD and R Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2008-01-15

    The science of hydrogeological site characterization has made significant progress over the last twenty years. Progress has been made in modeling of flow and transport in the heterogeneous subsurface, in understanding of the complex patterns of geological heterogeneity and in measurement technologies. Modeling of uncertainty has also advanced significantly, in recognition of the inherent limitations of subsurface characterization. Much less progress has been made in transforming this progress into practice, where characterization is determined to a large extent by regulations. Environmental regulations have not progressed as much as the science, for example, in recognizing uncertainty. As such, practitioners are less inclined to adopt advanced, science-based solutions, this opening the door for myths and conflicts. Myths develop where the science base is perceived to be weak, whereas conflicts arise in the face of a disconnect between the science and the regulations. Myths translate to ad-hoc solutions and misplaced empiricism, as well as to unjustified reliance on field experience, to the detriment of D and DR. This paper explores the roots for this situation and identifies ideas that may help in bridging the gap between research and applications. A rational approach for DD and R is needed that will encourage innovation in site characterization, reduce costs and accelerate completion. Such an approach needs to include several elements. DD and R regulations need to recognize the various aspects of uncertainty inherent to site characterization, and as such, should be formulated using probabilistic concepts. One of the immediate benefits will be in allowing a gradual approach for data acquisition in DD and R sites: decisions can be made even under the most severe data limitations, and can be modified as additional data become available. The definition of risk is another major element. There is no universal definition of risk or of a methodology to define risk

  19. A multi-isotope (radium, boron,strontium, sulfur, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen) investigation of fossil groundwater from the Disi Aquifer in southern Jordan: tracing water sources, water-rock interactions, and residence time (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.; Rimawi, O.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Marie, A.; Ganor, J.

    2010-12-01

    The rise in population, consecutive droughts induced from climate change, and associated increased water demands in the Middle East have placed an increasing pressure on available water resources, which in turn has accelerated the rates of their depletion and contamination. In addition to desalination and recycling waste water, exploitation of non-renewable (“fossil”) groundwater has become an alternative water source. Most of the fossil groundwater in the Middle East and Northern Africa occupies confined sandstone aquifers and is typically characterized by high water quality. Recent findings have shown, however, that fossil groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone aquifers in southern Jordan and Israel has high levels of naturally occurring and carcinogenic radium isotopes that largely exceed the international drinking water standards, and poses a health risk upon long-term utilization. Here we present the results of a multi-isotope study of low-saline (TDS=250-450 mg/L) groundwater from the Cambro-Ordovician Disi-Mudawarra sandstone aquifer systems in southern Jordan. The δ18O, δ2H, and 14C variations show at least three recharge phases into the confined and unconfined zones of the aquifer. High δ11B values (34-47‰) and B/Cl ratios (>>seawater ratio) suggests that the recharge water originated from rainwater of an early stage of air mass evolution, with negligible water-rock interaction in the aquifer. This meteoric composition is consistent with 87Sr/86Sr (70804 to 0.70860) and δ34S (9-16‰) values, and infers minimum dissolution of diagenetic carbonates that could have contributed depleted 11B, high 87Sr/86Sr, and dead carbon. The uncorrected 14C ages point to three major recharge episodes to the northwestern Arabian Peninsula: (1) >30 ka (Khrein aquifer); (2) 15-29 ka (confined Disi aquifer); and (3) 8-12 ka (unconfined Disi aquifer), in which the latter coincide with the “pluvial maximum” of Early Holocene. The stable isotope composition of the

  20. Sourcing explosives: a multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Widory, David; Minet, Jean-Jacques; Barbe-Leborgne, Martine

    2009-06-01

    Although explosives are easily identified with current instrumental techniques, it is generally impossible to distinguish between sources of the same substance. To alleviate this difficulty, we present a multi-stable isotope (delta13C, delta15N, delta18O, deltaD) approach for appraising the possibility of discriminating explosives. The results from 30 distinct PETN, TNT and ANFO samples show that the different families of explosives are clearly differentiated by both their specific isotope signatures and their combination with corresponding element concentrations. Coupling two or more of the studied isotope systematics yields an even more precise differentiation on the basis of their raw-material origin and/or manufacturing process.

  1. Multi-substrate biodegradation interaction of 1, 4-dioxane and BTEX mixtures by Acinetobacter baumannii DD1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, YuYang; Huang, Huanlin; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated substrate interactions during the aerobic biodegradation of 1, 4-dioxane and BTEX mixtures by a pure culture, Acinetobacter baumannii DD1, which is capable of utilizing 1, 4-dioxane for growth. A. baumannii DD1 could utilize BTEX as a sole carbon source, but could not utilize m-xylene and p-xylene. In binary mixtures, there was a lag of about 14 h before the degradation of BTE, and 1, 4-dioxane only started to be utilized when BTE was completely degraded by 1, 4-dioxane-grown DD1. Furthermore, the biodegradation rate of 1, 4-dioxane decreased from 73.33 to 40.74 mg/(h g dry weight) after the biodegradation of benzene. 1, 4-dioxane could not be degraded after the biodegradation of o-xylene in 80 h. DD1 could also not degrade m-xylene and p-xylene coexisting with 1, 4-dioxane. The ability of DD1 to degrade BTEX occurred in the following order: benzene > ethylbenzene > toluene > o-xylene > m-xylene = p-xylene. The biodegradation of 1, 4-dioxane was not activated in the mixture with o-xylene, primarily because of the accumulation of the specific toxic intermediate, 2, 3-dimethylphenol. The lag in BTE degradation was presumably because of the induction of enzymes necessary for BTE degradation. Additionally, SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that there were different proteins during the degradation of benzene and 1, 4-dioxane.

  2. An Improved Nuclear Recoil Calibration in the LUX Detector Using a Pulsed D-D Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 370 kg (250 kg active mass) two-_phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. The first absolute charge (Qy) and light (Ly) measurement performed in situ in the LUX detector with a D-D calibration technique for nuclear recoil spanning 0.7 to 74 keV and 1.1 to 74 keV respectively have been reported in. The D-D calibration has subsequently been further improved by incorporating pulsing technique, i.e. the D-D neutron production is concentrated within narrow pulses (20 us / 250 Hz) with the timing information recorded. This technique allows the suppression of accidental backgrounds in D-D neutron data and also provides increased sensitivity for the lower energy NR calibrations. I will report the improved NR absolute Qy and Ly measurements using the pulsed D-D calibration technique performed in situ in the LUX detector. Brown University, Large Underground Xenon(LUX) Collaboration.

  3. Active Neutron-Based Interrogation System with D-D Neutron Source for Detection of Special Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Misawa, T.; Yagi, T.; Pyeon, C. H.; Kimura, M.; Masuda, K.; Ohgaki, H.

    2015-10-01

    The detection of special nuclear materials (SNM) is an important issue for nuclear security. The interrogation systems used in a sea port and an airport are developed in the world. The active neutron-based interrogation system is the one of the candidates. We are developing the active neutron-based interrogation system with a D-D fusion neutron source for the nuclear security application. The D-D neutron source is a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IEC (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) device which provides 2.45 MeV neutrons. The nuclear materials emit the highenergy neutrons by fission reaction. High-energy neutrons with energies over 2.45 MeV amount to 30% of all the fission neutrons. By using the D-D neutron source, the detection of SNMs is considered to be possible with the attention of fast neutrons if there is over 2.45 MeV. Ideally, neutrons at En>2.45 MeV do not exist if there is no nuclear materials. The detection of fission neutrons over 2.45 MeV are hopeful prospect for the detection of SNM with a high S/N ratio. In the future, the experiments combined with nuclear materials and a D-D neutron source will be conducted. Furthermore, the interrogation system will be numerically investigated by using nuclear materials, a D-D neutron source, and a steel container.

  4. Limited replication of yellow fever 17DD and 17D-Dengue recombinant viruses in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Gisela F; Marchevsky, Renato S; Fillipis, Ana M B de; Nogueira, Rita M R; Bonaldo, Myrna C; Acero, Pedro C; Caride, Elena; Freire, Marcos S; Galler, Ricardo

    2008-06-01

    For the development of safe live attenuated flavivirus vaccines one of the main properties to be established is viral replication. We have used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and virus titration by plaque assay to determine the replication of yellow fever 17DD virus (YFV 17DD) and recombinant yellow fever 17D viruses expressing envelope proteins of dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 (17D-DENV-2 and 17D-DENV-4). Serum samples from rhesus monkeys inoculated with YFV 17DD and 17D-DENV chimeras by intracerebral or subcutaneous route were used to determine and compare the viremia induced by these viruses. Viral load quantification in samples from monkeys inoculated by either route with YFV 17DD virus suggested a restricted capability of the virus to replicate reaching not more than 2.0 log10 PFU mL(-1) or 3.29 log10 copies mL(-1). Recombinant 17D-dengue viruses were shown by plaquing and real-time PCR to be as attenuated as YF 17DD virus with the highest mean peak titer of 1.97 log10 PFU mL(-1) or 3.53 log10 copies mL(-1). These data serve as a comparative basis for the characterization of other 17D-based live attenuated candidate vaccines against other diseases.

  5. A novel non-toxic combined CTA1-DD and ISCOMS adjuvant vector for effective mucosal immunization against influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Dubravka Grdic; Helgeby, Anja; Schön, Karin; Nygren, Caroline; El-Bakkouri, Karim; Fiers, Walter; Saelens, Xavier; Lövgren, Karin Bengtsson; Nyström, Ida; Lycke, Nils Y

    2011-05-23

    Here we demonstrate that by using non-toxic fractions of saponin combined with CTA1-DD we can achieve a safe and above all highly efficacious mucosal adjuvant vector. We optimized the construction, tested the requirements for function and evaluated proof-of-concept in an influenza A virus challenge model. We demonstrated that the CTA1-3M2e-DD/ISCOMS vector provided 100% protection against mortality and greatly reduced morbidity in the mouse model. The immunogenicity of the vector was superior to other vaccine formulations using the ISCOM or CTA1-DD adjuvants alone. The versatility of the vector was best exemplified by the many options to insert, incorporate or admix vaccine antigens with the vector. Furthermore, the CTA1-3M2e-DD/ISCOMS could be kept 1 year at 4°C or as a freeze-dried powder without affecting immunogenicity or adjuvanticity of the vector. Strong serum IgG and mucosal IgA responses were elicited and CD4 T cell responses were greatly enhanced after intranasal administration of the combined vector. Together these findings hold promise for the combined vector as a mucosal vaccine against influenza virus infections including pandemic influenza. The CTA1-DD/ISCOMS technology represents a breakthrough in mucosal vaccine vector design which successfully combines immunomodulation and targeting in a safe and stable particulate formation.

  6. Brain neurochemical and hemodynamic findings in the NY1DD mouse model of mild sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min-Hui; Suzuka, Sandra M; Branch, Nicholas A; Ambadipudi, Kamalakar; Thangaswamy, Sangeetha; Acharya, Seetharama A; Billett, Henny H; Branch, Craig A

    2017-02-10

    To characterize the cerebral profile associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), we used in vivo proton MRI and MRS to quantify hemodynamics and neurochemicals in the thalamus of NY1DD mice, a mild model of SCD, and compared them with wild-type (WT) control mice. Compared with WT mice, NY1DD mice at steady state had elevated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), alanine, total creatine and N-acetylaspartylglutamate. Concentrations of glutathione (GSH) at steady state showed a negative correlation with BOLD signal change in response to 100% oxygen, a marker for oxidative stress, and mean diffusivity assessed using diffusion-tensor imaging, a marker for edematous inflammation. In NY1DD mice, elevated basal CBF was correlated negatively with [NAA], but positively with concentration of glutamine ([Gln]). Immediately after experimental hypoxia (at reoxygenation after 18 hours of 8% O2 ), concentrations of NAA, Glu, GSH, Gln and taurine (Tau) increased only in NY1DD mice. [NAA], [Glu], [GSH] and [Tau] all returned to baseline levels two weeks after the hypoxic episode. The altered neurochemical profile in the NY1DD mouse model of SCD at steady state and following experimental hypoxia/reoxygenation suggests a state of chronic oxidative stress leading to compensatory cerebral metabolic adjustments.

  7. Recent experimental study of DD fusion in the potential well of a virtual cathode at nanosecond vacuum discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oginov, A. V.; Kurilenkov, Yu K.; Samoylov, I. S.; Shpakov, K. V.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Ostashev, V. E.; Rodionov, A. A.; Karpukhin, V. T.

    2016-11-01

    Processes of nuclear burning of various elements in the scheme of a compact inertial electrostatic confinement implemented on the basis of a nanosecond vacuum discharge (NVD) with low-energy hollow cathode were investigated experimentally earlier. This paper presents the results of a recent series of DD fusion experiments on the newly created experimental set-up NVD-2 combined with x-ray and neutron yield diagnostics. The voltage-current (VA) characteristics of the discharge, and the regimes of generation of x-ray and DD neutrons realized experimentally are presented and discussed. The experimental results are compared with the results of particle-in-cell simulation of the nuclear DD fusion processes in NVD using electrodynamic code KARAT. Recent series of DD fusion experiments have reproducing in TOF scheme some basic features of DD neutrons yield observed earlier. Meanwhile, the analysis of V-A characteristics and anode erosion shows that efficiency of energy deposition at initial stage of discharge is still insufficient, and the ways to optimize the electrophysical processes at NVD-2 are clarified.

  8. Possible measurements of the spin one observables in elastic dN, dd collisions at the NICA deuteron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharov, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    The report shows the possibilities of studying the spin one observables in the elastic dN and dd interactions at the NICA collider of the VBLHEP JINR. The use of the colliding deuteron beams would allow us to carry out the measurements of the differential cross sections I0(dN, dd) of the elastic scattering of unpolarized deuterons and the differential cross sections Ipol(dN,dd) and the vector Ay(Ed,θ) and tensor Ayy(Ed,θ) and Axx(Ed.θ) analyzing powers in elastic collisions of the vector and tensor polarized deuterons. The planned luminosity of the colliding polarized deuteron beams will provide sufficiently high elastic events counting rate. The use of the colliding beams of the polarized deuterons for the spin one >dN and dd observables research has a number of significant advantages in comparison with the experiments with the “fixed” target. The angular acceptance of the collider detector covers the full solid angle 4π radians while the wide ranges of the energies of the dN, dd interactions and the 4-momentum transfer squared are available.

  9. The chronology for the d18O record from Devils Hole, Nevada, extended into the Mid-Holocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landwehr, J.M.; Sharp, W.D.; Coplen, T.B.; Ludwig, K. R.; Winograd, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the numeric values for the chronology of the paleoclimatically relevant mid-to-late Pleistocene record of the ratios of stable oxygen isotope (delta18O) in vein calcite from Devils Hole, Nev., which recently had been extended into the mid-Holocene. Dating was obtained using 230Th-234U-238U thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Devils Hole is a subaqueous cave of tectonic origin, which developed in the discharge zone of a regional aquifer in south-central Nevada. The primary groundwater recharge source area is the Spring Mountains, the highest mountain range in southern Nevada [altitude 3,630 meters (m)], approximately 80 kilometers to the east of the cavern. The walls of the open fault zone comprising the cave system are coated with dense vein calcite precipitated from the through-flowing groundwater. The calcite, up to 40 centimeters (cm) thick, contains a continuous record of the sequential variation of the composition of stable oxygen isotopes in the ground water over time. The vein calcite has also proven to be a suitable material for precise uranium-series dating via thermal ionization mass spectrometry utilizing the 230Th-234U-238U decay clock. Earlier work has presented data from the Devils Hole core DH-11, a 36-cm-long core of vein calcite recovered from a depth of about 30 m below the water table (about 45 m beneath the ground surface). The DH-11 core provided a continuous record of isotopic oxygen variation from 567,700 to 59,800 years before present. Recent work has extended this record up to 4,500 years before present, into the mid-Holocene epoch.

  10. Decade-Scale Trend in Sea Water Salinity Revealed through d18O Analysis of Montastraea Annularis Annual Growth Bands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Swart, Peter K.; Dodge, Richard E.; Hudson, J. Harold

    1994-01-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (18O) of coral skeletons are influenced by ambient water temperature and by the oxygen isotope ratio in the surrounding sea water, which, in turn, is linked to evaporation (salinity) and precipitation. To investigate this relationship more thoroughly, we collected hourly temperature data from the Hen and Chickens Reef in the Florida Keys between 1975 and 1988 and compared them to the 18O of Montastraea annularis skeleton that grew during the same interval. To ensure that we obtained the correct oxygen isotopic range in the skeleton we typically sampled the coral at a resolution of 20-30 samples in 1 year; in 1 year we sampled the coral at a resolution of 70 samples x year-1. Despite our high-resolution sampling, we were unable to obtain the full temperature-induced 18O range in the skeleton. Our data suggest that, during the summer, evaporation causes isotopic enrichment in the water, partially masking the temperature-induced signal. Our data also show that oxygen isotopic composition of seawater at the reef has increased since 1981. This increase indicates that salinity has increased slightly during the past decade, perhaps as a result of increased evaporation in waters of Florida Bay and the Keys. This phenomenon is probably not caused by a decrease in the outflow of freshwater into Florida Bay from the Everglades but may be related to the measured deficit in precipitation that has occurred over the past decade.

  11. Statistical Analyses of d18O in Meteoric Waters From the Western US and East Asia: Implications for Paleoaltimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechler, A. R.; Niemi, N. A.

    2008-12-01

    Questions on the timing of Tibetan Plateau uplift and its associated influence on the development of the Indian and Asian monsoons are best addressed through accurate determinations of regional paleoelevation. Previous determinations of paleoaltimetry utilized the stable isotopic composition of paleo-meteoric waters as recorded in various proxies (authigenic minerals, fossils, etc.), in combination with empirically and model determined elevation isotopic lapse rates. However, the applicability of these lapse rates, derived principally from orogenic settings, to high continental plateaus remains uncertain. Our research aims to gain a better understanding of the potential controls on the δ18O composition of meteoric waters over continental plateaus through a principal component analysis (PCA) of modern waters from eastern Asia and the western US. In particular, we investigate how various environmental parameters (elevation, latitude, longitude, MAP, and MAT) influence the δ18O composition of these waters. First, these analyses reveal that elevation and latitude are the primary controls on isotopic composition in all regions investigated, as expected. Second, PCA results yield elevation lapse rates from orogenic settings (i.e. Sierra Nevada, Himalaya) of ~ -3‰/km, in strong agreement with both empirical and Rayleigh distillation model derived lapse rates. The Great Plains of the US, although not an orogenic setting, represents a monotonic topographic rise, and is also characterized by a ~ -3‰/km lapse rate. In high, arid plateau regions (Basin and Range, Tibet), however, elevation lapse rates are ~ -1.5‰/km, half that of orogenic settings. An empirically derived lapse rate from small source area springs collected over a 2 km elevation change from a single mountain range in the Basin and Range yields an identical rate. One clue as to the source of this lowered lapse rate is eastern China, which also displays an elevation lapse rate of ~ -1.5‰/km, despite being a relatively low elevation, humid region. All three regions of lowered lapse rates are dominated by convective storms, which violate basic assumptions of simple Rayleigh distillation. The similarity of lapse rates between these regions suggests that convective storm systems may result in a predictable change in elevation lapse rates. Third, the effect of latitude changes on isotopic composition should be considered in major orogenic systems. In the western US, best-fit linear models reveal latitude lapse rates of ~ -0.5‰/°N, thus significant northward or southward tectonic translations may be misinterpreted as elevation changes. The mixing of multiple moisture sources over eastern Asia appears to result in a polynomial function for latitude lapse rate. The determination of the effects of this latitude lapse rate on paleoelevation histories is ongoing. Finally, comparison of PCA models of modern isotopic composition with actual meteoric water values offers an opportunity to assess the accuracy of paleoelevation estimates. Predictive capabilites of our derived models are significantly better in orogenic settings (± ~950m 2σ) than over continental plateaus (± ~1950m 2σ). These statistical models enhance our understanding, and the predictive capability, of stable isotopes over high, arid plateaus. In particular, they point to the controlling effect of convective storms on elevation lapse rates, and thus the potential effect of the growth of the Tibetan Plateau, and onset of monsoonal climate conditions, in driving time-dependent elevation isotopic lapse rates.

  12. Eocene high-latitude temperature gradients over time and space based on d18O values of fossil shark teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeichner, S. S.; Kim, S.; Colman, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Early-Mid Eocene (56.0-33.9Mya) is characterized by a temperate Antarctic climate and shallower latitudinal temperature gradients than those in present day. The warmer waters off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula provided suitable habitats for taxa (i.e., sharks) that live today at lower latitudes. Stable isotope analysis of Eocene shark teeth provides a proxy to understand high latitude temperature gradients. However, shark ecology, in particular migration and occupation of tidal versus pelagic habitats, must be considered in the interpretation of stable isotope data. In this study, we analyze d18OPO4 values from the enameloid of Striatolamia (synonymized with Carcharias) shark teeth from the La Meseta formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica) to estimate paleotemperature in Early-Mid Eocene Antarctica, and assess the impact of ecology versus environmental signals on d18OPO4 values. We compare the ranges and offsets between our measured shark tooth d18OPO4 and published bivalve d18OCO3 values to test whether shark teeth record signals of migration across latitudinal temperature gradients, or instead reflect seasonal and long-term temporal variation across La Meseta stratigraphic units.

  13. Pathways for nitrate release from an alpine watershed: determination using d15N and d18O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Donald H.; Kendall, Carol; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Silva, Steven R.; Tonnessen, Kathy A.

    2002-01-01

    [1] Snowpack, snowmelt, precipitation, surface water, and groundwater samples from the Loch Vale watershed in Colorado were analyzed for ??15N and ??18O of nitrate to determine the processes controlling the release of atmospherically deposited nitrogen from alpine and subalpine ecosystems. Although overlap was found between the ??15N(NO3) values for all water types (-4 to +6???), the ??18O(NO3) values for surface water and groundwater (+10 to +30???) were usually distinct from snowpack, snowmelt, and rainfall values (+40 to +70???). During snowmelt, ??18O(NO3) indicated that about half of the nitrate in stream water was the product of microbial nitrification; at other times that amount was greater than half. Springs emerging from talus deposits had high nitrate concentrations and a seasonal pattern in ??18O(NO3) that was similar to the pattern in the streams, indicating that shallow groundwater in talus deposits is a likely source of stream water nitrate. Only a few samples of surface water and groundwater collected during early snowmelt and large summer rain events had isotopic compositions that indicated most of the nitrate came directly from atmospheric deposition with no biological assimilation and release. This study demonstrates the value of the nitrate double-isotope technique for determining nitrogen-cycling processes and sources of nitrate in small, undisturbed watersheds that are enriched with inorganic nitrogen.

  14. Development of Sr/Ca-d18O Temperature Calibrations of a Siderastrea siderea Coral from the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A. J.; DeLong, K. L.; Kilbourne, H.; Slowey, N. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is sensitive to oceanic and atmospheric variability in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (i.e., Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific North American pattern (PNA), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)). The major GOM current, the Loop Current, feeds the Gulf Stream as it transports oceanic heat to the northern Atlantic Ocean. The northern GOM is the northernmost summer extent of the western hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) that drives oceanic moisture flux and precipitation into the Americas. Decadally-resolved foraminifera reconstructions from the northern GOM indicates SST was 2 to 4ºC colder on average than today during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1850), whereas a subannually-resolved coral reconstruction from the southeastern GOM find 1.5 to 2ºC colder intervals and reduced areal extent of the WHWP on interannual time scales during some intervals of the LIA. However, records capable of resolving annual and subannual SST variability from the northern GOM, necessary for investigating WHWP northern extent, are still lacking. Here we present a new temperature reconstruction for the northern GOM derived from strontium-to-calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios of approximately monthly samples milled from a Siderastrea siderea coral core collected from the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS; 27° 52.5'N, 93° 49'W) growing at a water depth of 20 m. Coral Sr/Ca and δ18O is calibrated to reef temperature data from FGBNMS Hobotemp data loggers near the reef cap in 22 m water depth (1986-2004) and to NOAA OISST (1981-2004). Coral Sr/Ca co-varies with the reef temperature (r=0.95, p<0.05, n=146) and consistently captures winter values in reef temperature with slightly warmer summers (0.9ºC on average). Pseudocoral analysis is used to assess the relationships between SST and SSS in coral δ18O.

  15. Incorporating TRMM and Other High-Quality Estimates into the One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.

    1999-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset was recently developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The IDD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg x 1 deg grid for the period 1997 through late 1999 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40 N - 40 S the IDD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSNU product and by the precipitation amount in the GPCP satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40 N - 40 S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. This first-generation 1DD has been in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. In this paper we discuss further development of the 1DD framework to allow the direct incorporation of TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. First, these data are generally sparse (typically from low-orbit satellites), so a fair amount of work was devoted to data boundaries. Second, these data are not the same as the original 1DD estimates, so we had to give careful consideration to the best scheme for forcing the 1DD to sum to the SG for the month. Finally, the non-sun-synchronous, low-inclination orbit occupied by TRMM creates interesting variations against the sun-synchronous, high-inclination orbits occupied by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites that carry the SSM/I. Examples will be given of each of the development issues, then comparisons will be made to daily raingauge analyses.

  16. Incorporating TRMM and Other High-Quality Estimates into the One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.

    1999-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset was recently developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The IDD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg x 1 deg grid for the period 1997 through late 1999 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40 N - 40 S the IDD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSNU product and by the precipitation amount in the GPCP satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40 N - 40 S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. This first-generation 1DD has been in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. In this paper we discuss further development of the 1DD framework to allow the direct incorporation of TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. First, these data are generally sparse (typically from low-orbit satellites), so a fair amount of work was devoted to data boundaries. Second, these data are not the same as the original 1DD estimates, so we had to give careful consideration to the best scheme for forcing the 1DD to sum to the SG for the month. Finally, the non-sun-synchronous, low-inclination orbit occupied by TRMM creates interesting variations against the sun-synchronous, high-inclination orbits occupied by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites that carry the SSM/I. Examples will be given of each of the development issues, then comparisons will be made to daily raingauge analyses.

  17. Evidence that the Dictyostelium Dd-STATa protein is a repressor that regulates commitment to stalk cell differentiation and is also required for efficient chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, S; Jermyn, K A; Early, A; Kawata, T; Aubry, L; Ceccarelli, A; Schaap, P; Williams, J G; Firtel, R A

    1999-08-01

    Dd-STATa is a structural and functional homologue of the metazoan STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) proteins. We show that Dd-STATa null cells exhibit several distinct developmental phenotypes. The aggregation of Dd-STATa null cells is delayed and they chemotax slowly to a cyclic AMP source, suggesting a role for Dd-STATa in these early processes. In Dd-STATa null strains, slug-like structures are formed but they have an aberrant pattern of gene expression. In such slugs, ecmB/lacZ, a marker that is normally specific for cells on the stalk cell differentiation pathway, is expressed throughout the prestalk region. Stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium has been proposed to be under negative control, mediated by repressor elements present in the promoters of stalk cell-specific genes. Dd-STATa binds these repressor elements in vitro and the ectopic expression of ecmB/lacZ in the null strain provides in vivo evidence that Dd-STATa is the repressor protein that regulates commitment to stalk cell differentiation. Dd-STATa null cells display aberrant behavior in a monolayer assay wherein stalk cell differentiation is induced using the stalk cell morphogen DIF. The ecmB gene, a general marker for stalk cell differentiation, is greatly overinduced by DIF in Dd-STATa null cells. Also, Dd-STATa null cells are hypersensitive to DIF for expression of ST/lacZ, a marker for the earliest stages in the differentiation of one of the stalk cell sub-types. We suggest that both these manifestations of DIF hypersensitivity in the null strain result from the balance between activation and repression of the promoter elements being tipped in favor of activation when the repressor is absent. Paradoxically, although Dd-STATa null cells are hypersensitive to the inducing effects of DIF and readily form stalk cells in monolayer assay, the Dd-STATa null cells show little or no terminal stalk cell differentiation within the slug. Dd-STATa null slugs remain

  18. Dynamical study of the X(3915) as a D*D* bound state in a quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Youchang; Ping Jialun

    2010-06-01

    Considering the coupling of color 1 x 1 and 8 x 8 structures, we calculate the energy of the newly observed X(3915) as an S-wave D*D* state in the Bhaduri, Cohler, and Nogami quark model by the Gaussian expansion method. Because of the color coupling, the bound state of D*D* with J{sup PC}=0{sup ++} is found, which is well consonant with the experimental data of the X(3915). The bound states of B*B* with J{sup PC}=0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} are also predicted in this work.

  19. ddClone: joint statistical inference of clonal populations from single cell and bulk tumour sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Sohrab; Steif, Adi; Roth, Andrew; Aparicio, Samuel; Bouchard-Côté, Alexandre; Shah, Sohrab P

    2017-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of bulk tumour tissue can identify constituent cell populations in cancers and measure their abundance. This requires computational deconvolution of allelic counts from somatic mutations, which may be incapable of fully resolving the underlying population structure. Single cell sequencing (SCS) is a more direct method, although its replacement of NGS is impeded by technical noise and sampling limitations. We propose ddClone, which analytically integrates NGS and SCS data, leveraging their complementary attributes through joint statistical inference. We show on real and simulated datasets that ddClone produces more accurate results than can be achieved by either method alone.

  20. Pulsed D-D Neutron Generator Measurements of HEU Oxide Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    McConchie, Seth; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John; Blackburn, Brandon; Chichester, David

    2009-03-10

    Pulsed neutron interrogation measurements have been performed on highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium (DU) metal using a D-D neutron generator (2x10{sup 6} neutrons-s{sup -1}) and moderated {sup 3}He tubes at the Idaho National Laboratory Power Burst Facility. These measurements demonstrate the ability to distinguish HEU from DU by coincidence counting using a pulsed source. The amount of HEU measured was 8 kg in a sealed 55-gallon drum compared to 31 kg of DU. Neutron events were counted during and after the pulse with the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) and used to calculate the neutron coincidence time distributions. Passive measurements were also performed for comparison with the pulsed measurements. This paper presents the neutron coincidence time distribution and Feynman variance results from the measurements.

  1. Preliminary measurements of neutrons from the D-D reaction in the COMPASS tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Dankowski, J. Kurowski, A.; Twarog, D.; Janky, F.; Stockel, J.

    2014-08-21

    Recent results of measured fast neutrons created in the D-D reaction on the COMPASS tokamak during ohmic discharges are presented in this paper. Two different type detectors were used during experiment. He-3 detectors and bubble detectors as a support. The measurements are an introduction for neutron diagnostic on tokamak COMPASS and monitoring neutrons during discharges with Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The He-3 counters and bubble detectors were located in two positions near tokamak vacuum chamber at a distance less than 40 cm to the centre of plasma. The neutrons flux was observed in ohmic discharges. However, analysis of our results does not indicate any clear source of neutrons production during ohmic discharges.

  2. Association of D/D translocations with fetal wastage and aneuploidy. A report of four families.

    PubMed Central

    Fernhoff, P M; Singh, D N; Hanson, J; Trusler, S; Dumont, C R; Chen, A T

    1976-01-01

    Four families are described with a t(13q14q) segregating. Two of them were identified through index cases with Down's syndrome; their karotypes revealed the unusual 46,XY, -13, -14, +t(13q14q), +21. The other two families were identified through a chromosomal study of parents with repeated spontaneous abortions. Analysis of data on 3 of these 4 families and on 7 other from the published reports showed no evidence of increased fetal wastage among 13/14 carriers. However, the risk of producing offspring with various types of aneuploidy may be greater among carriers than among persons with a normal chromosome pattern. Qualitative and quantitative differences in D/D translocations may account for the observed variation in clinical findings. These differences add to the problem of determining genetic risks from an analysis of grouped data. Images PMID:137318

  3. DD3MAT - a code for yield criteria anisotropy parameters identification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, P. D.; Carvalho, P. D.; Alves, J. L.; Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the main strategies and algorithms adopted in the DD3MAT inhouse code, specifically developed for identifying the anisotropy parameters. The algorithm adopted is based on the minimization of an error function, using a downhill simplex method. The set of experimental values can consider yield stresses and r -values obtained from in-plane tension, for different angles with the rolling direction (RD), yield stress and r -value obtained for biaxial stress state, and yield stresses from shear tests performed also for different angles to RD. All these values can be defined for a specific value of plastic work. Moreover, it can also include the yield stresses obtained from in-plane compression tests. The anisotropy parameters are identified for an AA2090-T3 aluminium alloy, highlighting the importance of the user intervention to improve the numerical fit.

  4. Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.

    1993-02-01

    A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by [approximately] 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90[degrees] below the midplane for plasma currents. I[ge] 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found.

  5. Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.

    1993-02-01

    A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by {approximately} 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90{degrees} below the midplane for plasma currents. I{ge} 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found.

  6. The INTERPRET-DD study of diabetes and depression: a protocol.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, C E; Sartorius, N; Cimino, L C; Alvarez, A; Guinzbourg de Braude, M; Rabbani, G; Uddin Ahmed, H; Papelbaum, M; Regina de Freitas, S; Ji, L; Yu, X; Gaebel, W; Müssig, K; Chaturvedi, S K; Srikanta, S S; Burti, L; Bulgari, V; Musau, A; Ndetei, D; Heinze, G; Romo Nava, F; Taj, R; Khan, A; Kokoszka, A; Papasz-Siemieniuk, A; Starostina, E G; Bobrov, A E; Lecic-Tosevski, D; Lalic, N M; Udomratn, P; Tangwongchai, S; Bahendeka, S; Basangwa, D; Mankovsky, B

    2015-07-01

    People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing depression and other psychological disorders. However, little is known about the prevalence, correlates or care pathways in countries other than the UK and the USA. A new study, the International Prevalence and Treatment of Diabetes and Depression Study (INTERPRET-DD) aims to address this dearth of knowledge and identify optimal pathways to care across the globe. INTERPRET-DD is a 2-year longitudinal study, taking place in 16 countries' diabetes outpatients' facilities, investigating the recognition and management of depressive disorders in people with Type 2 diabetes. Clinical interviews are used to diagnose depression, with clinical and other data obtained from medical records and through patient interviews. Pathways to care and the impact of treatment for previously unrecognized (undocumented) depression on clinical outcomes and emotional well-being are being investigated. Initial evidence indicates that a range of pathways to care exist, with few of them based on available recommendations for treatment. Pilot data indicates that the instruments we are using to measure both the symptoms and clinical diagnosis of depression are acceptable in our study population and easy to use. Our study will increase the understanding of the impact of comorbid diabetes and depression and identify the most appropriate (country-specific) pathways via which patients receive their care. It addresses an important public health problem and leads to recommendations for best practice relevant to the different participating centres with regard to the identification and treatment of people with comorbid diabetes and depression. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  7. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Results of the DD inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Oki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

    2004-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) had been performed from June 2003 until April 2004, which is a part of the MARGINS program funded by the NSF. Prior to this observation, a pilot long-term seismic array observation was conducted in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs from Oct. 2001 until Feb. 2003. By using seven LTOBS's data, those are about 11 months long, hypocenter determination was performed at first and more than 3000 local events were found, although the PDE list contains only 59. A 1D velocity structure based on the iasp91 model was used, and a systematic shift of epicenters between the PDE list and this study was seen. To investigate the detail of hypocenter distribution and the 3D velocity structure, the DD inversion (tomoDD: Zhang and Thurber, 2003) was applied for this data set with a 1D structure initial model except for the crust, which has been surveyed by using a dense airgun-OBS system (Takahashi et al., 2003). The result of relocated hypocenters shows double seismic zones until about 200km depth and a lined focuses along the current ridge axis in the back-arc basin, and the result of the tomographic inversion shows a image of subducting slab and a low-Vs region below the Pagan island erupted in 1981 at 80km depth. The mantle structure beneath the back-arc basin was not clearly resolved due to the inadequate source-receiver coverage, which is cleared in the recent experiment.

  8. Inhibitory effect of CuSO₄ on α-glucosidase activity in ddY mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Hirata, Ryoko; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Masakazu; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of divalent alkaline earth and first-row transition metal and zinc ions on α-glucosidase activity in vitro and in vivo. CuSO₄ and ZnSO₄ exhibited a high α-glucosidase inhibitory effect in vitro. The IC(50) values of CuSO₄ were 0.77 ± 0.01 (substrate; maltose) and 0.78 ± 0.01 (substrate; sucrose), and those of ZnSO₄ were 5.49 ± 0.14 (substrate; maltose) and 4.70 ± 0.06 (substrate; sucrose) for yeast α-glucosidase. On the basis of Lineweaver-Burk plots, both CuSO₄ and ZnSO₄ exhibited different modes of inhibition against α-glucosidase. Subsequently, oral glucose and sucrose tolerance tests (OGTT and OSTT) were performed on non-diabetic ddY mice to examine the effect of the metal ions on their blood glucose levels. As a result of single oral administration of CuSO₄ in non-diabetic ddY mice, a significant and potent lowering of the blood glycemic response toward disaccharide, sucrose, ingestion was observed at 45 min after doses of 0.08 and 0.24 mmol kg(-1) body weight. In contrast, the CuSO₄ administration showed no suppression of the elevation of blood glucose levels in mice after a monosaccharide, glucose, administration. These results indicate that CuSO₄ suppresses disaccharide digestion by inhibiting α-glucosidase activity in the epithelium of the small intestine, suggesting that antidiabetic Cu complexes with some ligands have a similar action mechanism to that of α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, currently used for clinical purposes.

  9. Targeted BikDD expression kills androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaoming; Kong, Yanan; Tang, Hailin; Yang, Lu; Hsu, Jennifer L; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Targeted gene therapy is a promising approach for treating prostate cancer after the discovery of prostate cancer-specific promoters such as prostate-specific antigen, rat probasin, and human glandular kallikrein. However, these promoters are androgen-dependent, and after castration or androgen ablation therapy, they become much less active or sometimes inactive. Importantly, the disease will inevitably progress from androgen-dependent (ADPC) to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) at which treatments fail and high mortality ensues. Therefore, it is critical to develop a targeted gene therapy strategy that is effective in both ADPC and CRPC to eradicate recurrent prostate tumors. The human telomerase reverse transcriptase-VP16-Gal4-WPRE integrated systemic amplifier composite (T-VISA) vector we previously developed which targets transgene expression in ovarian and breast cancer is also active in prostate cancer. To further improve its effectiveness based on androgen response in ADPC progression, the ARR2 element (two copies of androgen response region from rat probasin promoter) was incorporated into T-VISA to produce AT-VISA. Under androgen analog (R1881) stimulation, the activity of AT-VISA was increased to a level greater than or comparable to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in ADPC and CRPC cells, respectively. Importantly, AT-VISA demonstrated little or no expression in normal cells. Systemic administration of AT-VISA-BikDD encapsulated in liposomes repressed prostate tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival in orthotopic animal models as well as in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model, indicating that AT-VISA-BikDD has therapeutic potential to treat ADPC and CRPC safely and effectively in preclinical setting. PMID:24785255

  10. Search for η-mesic 4He in the dd →3He nπ0 and dd →3He pπ- reactions with the WASA-at-COSY facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlarson, P.; Augustyniak, W.; Bardan, W.; Bashkanov, M.; Bergmann, F. S.; Berłowski, M.; Bhatt, H.; Bondar, A.; Büscher, M.; Calén, H.; Ciepał, I.; Clement, H.; Czerwiński, E.; Demmich, K.; Engels, R.; Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Eyrich, W.; Fedorets, P.; Föhl, K.; Fransson, K.; Goldenbaum, F.; Goswami, A.; Grigoryev, K.; Gullström, C.-O.; Heijkenskjöld, L.; Hejny, V.; Hüsken, N.; Jarczyk, L.; Johansson, T.; Kamys, B.; Kelkar, N. G.; Kemmerling, G.; Khatri, G.; Khoukaz, A.; Khreptak, O.; Kirillov, D. A.; Kistryn, S.; Kleines, H.; Kłos, B.; Krzemień, W.; Kulessa, P.; Kupść, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lalwani, K.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Magiera, A.; Maier, R.; Marciniewski, P.; Mariański, B.; Morsch, H.-P.; Moskal, P.; Ohm, H.; Perez del Rio, E.; Piskunov, N. M.; Prasuhn, D.; Pszczel, D.; Pysz, K.; Pyszniak, A.; Ritman, J.; Roy, A.; Rudy, Z.; Rundel, O.; Sawant, S.; Schadmand, S.; Schätti-Ozerianska, I.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Shwartz, B.; Sitterberg, K.; Skorodko, T.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Sopov, V.; Stassen, R.; Stepaniak, J.; Stephan, E.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Szczurek, A.; Trzciński, A.; Varma, R.; Wolke, M.; Wrońska, A.; Wüstner, P.; Yamamoto, A.; Zabierowski, J.; Zieliński, M. J.; Złomańczuk, J.; Żuprański, P.; Żurek, M.

    2017-03-01

    The search for 4He- η bound states was performed with the WASA-at-COSY facility via the measurement of the excitation function for the dd →3He nπ0 and dd →3He pπ- processes. The deuteron beam momentum was varied continuously between 2.127 GeV/c and 2.422 GeV/c, corresponding to the excess energy for the dd →4He η reaction ranging from Q = - 70 MeV to Q = 30 MeV. The luminosity was determined based on the dd →3He n reaction and the quasi-free proton-proton scattering via dd → ppnspectatornspectator reactions. The excitation functions, determined independently for the measured reactions, do not reveal a structure which could be interpreted as a narrow mesic nucleus. Therefore, the upper limits of the total cross sections for the bound state production and decay in dd →(4He- η) bound →3He nπ0 and dd →(4He- η) bound →3He pπ- processes were determined taking into account the isospin relation between the both of the considered channels. The results of the analysis depend on the assumptions of the N*(1535) momentum distribution in the anticipated mesic-4He. Assuming, as in the previous works, that this is identical with the distribution of nucleons bound with 20 MeV in 4He, we determined that (for the mesic bound state width in the range from 5 MeV to 50 MeV) the upper limits at 90% confidence level are about 3 nb and about 6 nb for nπ0 and pπ- channels, respectively. However, based on the recent theoretical findings of the N*(1535) momentum distribution in the N*-3He nucleus bound by 3.6 MeV, we find that the WASA-at-COSY detector acceptance decreases and hence the corresponding upper limits are 5 nb and 10 nb for nπ0 and pπ- channels respectively.

  11. A Multi-isotope (B, Sr, O, H) and Age-Dating (3H-3He, 14C) Study of Saline- Water Intrusion and Cross-Formational Flow in the Southern High Plains Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langman, J. B.; Ellis, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    Identification of aquifer source waters can be difficult with traditional geochemical tracers such as solute concentrations because of the variability of rock-water interactions and complex recharge pathways. The growing use of traditional and non-traditional stable isotopes for identification of hydrologic processes allows the coupling of multiple stable isotopes and ion concentrations for cross-validation and better constraint of influences within an aquifer. A multi-isotope and age-dating study of ground water along the Western Caprock Escarpment of the Southern High Plains was implemented to identify saline-water intrusion and cross-formational flow in the Southern High Plains aquifer. This study coupled major ion and trace element concentrations with the stable isotopes of boron, strontium, hydrogen, and oxygen along with tritium-helium and carbon-14 age dating to identify potential source waters through differences in rock-water interactions and recharge pathways. Ground-water samples were collected from 16 wells, 13 of which were completed in the Ogallala Formation (primary formation of the Southern High Plains aquifer) and three that were completed in a minor aquifer of the underlying Dockum Group. Within the study area, a separate, local flow system originates at a topographic high and flows into a regional flow system defined by a large paleochannel. At a recharge area atop the topographic high and within the regional flow system, ground water is composed of a mixed cation-bicarbonate water, but a sodium-chloride type is present in parts of the local flow system and in ground water from the underlying aquifer in the Dockum Group. Major ion and trace element concentrations and the stable isotope composition of water (δ2H of -43.29 to -71.74 ‰ and δ18O of -5.85 to -9.95 ‰) do not indicate a simple two member mixing scenario but likely multiple sources and cross-formational flow between three formation deposits-- Permian salts, Dockum shales, and

  12. The Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2): organization of diabetes care in Denmark and supplementary data sources for data collection among DD2 study participants.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Friborg, Søren; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Schroll, Henrik; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a short overview of the Danish health care system and the organization of care for type 2 diabetes patients in Denmark. It also describes the supplementary data sources that are used for collection of baseline data in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) Project. The Danish National Health Service provides tax-funded medical care for all 5.6 million Danish residents. The health care system is characterized by extensive individual-level registration of data used for planning, administration, quality improvement, and research. It is estimated that there are currently at least 250,000 individuals with known diabetes in Denmark (approximately 4.5% of the Danish population), of which an estimated 80% are followed and treated by their general practitioners and approximately 20% are followed at hospital specialist outpatient clinics. These health care providers form the basis for recruiting diabetes patients in the DD2 project, and the data sources that these providers use in clinical practice give access to important supplementary patient data. The DD2's patient-enrollment system is designed to be fast and simple, and thus only collects primary interview data that cannot be extracted from already existing data sources. Thus, in addition to an online DD2 questionnaire filled out by general practitioners and hospital physicians at the time of patient enrollment, supplementary data are obtained from the Danish Diabetes Database for Adults, a nationwide clinical quality improvement registry. Both hospital physicians and a growing number of general practitioners routinely report data to this database. For general practitioners, the Danish General Practice Database acts as an important feeder database for the Danish Diabetes Database for Adults and thereby also for the DD2 project.

  13. R.E.DD.B.: a database for RESP and ESP atomic charges, and force field libraries.

    PubMed

    Dupradeau, François-Yves; Cézard, Christine; Lelong, Rodolphe; Stanislawiak, Elodie; Pêcher, Julien; Delepine, Jean Charles; Cieplak, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The web-based RESP ESP charge DataBase (R.E.DD.B., http://q4md-forcefieldtools.org/REDDB) is a free and new source of RESP and ESP atomic charge values and force field libraries for model systems and/or small molecules. R.E.DD.B. stores highly effective and reproducible charge values and molecular structures in the Tripos mol2 file format, information about the charge derivation procedure, scripts to integrate the charges and molecular topology in the most common molecular dynamics packages. Moreover, R.E.DD.B. allows users to freely store and distribute RESP or ESP charges and force field libraries to the scientific community, via a web interface. The first version of R.E.DD.B., released in January 2006, contains force field libraries for molecules as well as molecular fragments for standard residues and their analogs (amino acids, monosaccharides, nucleotides and ligands), hence covering a vast area of relevant biological applications.

  14. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Han, W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hahn, K. D.; Jones, B.

    2016-11-01

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. These results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  15. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z.

    PubMed

    Lahmann, B; Milanese, L M; Han, W; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Frenje, J A; Petrasso, R D; Hahn, K D; Jones, B

    2016-11-01

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. These results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  16. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z

    SciTech Connect

    Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Han, W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hahn, K. D.; Jones, B.

    2016-07-20

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. In conclusion, these results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  17. A New Approach for the Control of Cockroaches Utilizing the Entomophilic Nematode DD-136 in Conjunction with Attractants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    are several sorts, and 2) food substances. Two types of pheromones have been isolated from the German cockroach Blatella germanica . They are the sex...German cockroach, Blattella germanica . Initial investigations focused on the potential and capacity of the DD-136 strain of Neoaplectana carpocapsae

  18. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z

    SciTech Connect

    Lahmann, B. Milanese, L. M.; Han, W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hahn, K. D.; Jones, B.

    2016-11-15

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. These results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  19. R.E.DD.B.: A database for RESP and ESP atomic charges, and force field libraries

    PubMed Central

    Dupradeau, François-Yves; Cézard, Christine; Lelong, Rodolphe; Stanislawiak, Élodie; Pêcher, Julien; Delepine, Jean Charles; Cieplak, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    The web-based RESP ESP charge DataBase (R.E.DD.B., http://q4md-forcefieldtools.org/REDDB) is a free and new source of RESP and ESP atomic charge values and force field libraries for model systems and/or small molecules. R.E.DD.B. stores highly effective and reproducible charge values and molecular structures in the Tripos mol2 file format, information about the charge derivation procedure, scripts to integrate the charges and molecular topology in the most common molecular dynamics packages. Moreover, R.E.DD.B. allows users to freely store and distribute RESP or ESP charges and force field libraries to the scientific community, via a web interface. The first version of R.E.DD.B., released in January 2006, contains force field libraries for molecules as well as molecular fragments for standard residues and their analogs (amino acids, monosaccharides, nucleotides and ligands), hence covering a vast area of relevant biological applications. PMID:17962302

  20. The Breakup Cross Section of the D+D Reaction at 6.94 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, A. L.; Brune, C. R.; Ingram, D. C.; Dhakal, S.; Karki, A.; Massey, T. N.; O'Donnell, J. E.; Parker, C. E.

    2016-03-01

    The D+D reactions are well known and widely used for a variety of purposes, mainly because of the use of the D(d, n)3He reaction as a mono-energetic neutron source. The least studied of the D+D reactions is the D(d, n)pD reaction known as the deuteron breakup reaction, which produces a continuum of neutrons at energies below the monoenergetic peak. The neutron energy distribution as a function of angle for the cross section, {{{d^2}σ } over {dΩ dE}}, of the D(d,n)pD reaction has been measured using a 6.94-MeV pulsed deuteron beam incident upon a D2 gas target. The time-of-flight technique was used to determine the energy of the neutrons detected in an array of two lithium glass scintillators and one NE-213 scintillator. The breakup cross section was determined as low as 225-keV neutron energy in the lithium glass detectors.

  1. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z

    SciTech Connect

    Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Han, W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hahn, K. D.; Jones, B.

    2016-07-20

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. In conclusion, these results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  2. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z

    DOE PAGES

    Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Han, W.; ...

    2016-07-20

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protonsmore » at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. In conclusion, these results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.« less

  3. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 286 - DD Form 2086-1, “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Data”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2086-1, âRecord of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Dataâ D Appendix D to Part 286 National Defense Department of... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 286, App. D Appendix D to Part 286—DD Form...

  4. 48 CFR 245.7001-3 - DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document. 245.7001-3 Section 245.7001-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7001-3 DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt...

  5. 48 CFR 245.7101-3 - DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document. 245.7101-3 Section 245.7101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROPERTY Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-3 DD Form 1348-1, DoD Single Line Item Release/Receipt...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 286 - DD Form 2086-1, “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Data”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2086-1, âRecord of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Dataâ D Appendix D to Part 286 National Defense Department of... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 286, App. D Appendix D to Part 286—DD Form...

  7. Mutant DD genotype of NFKB1 gene is associated with the susceptibility and severity of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun-Yi; Li, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Yun; Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Bang-Dang; Liu, Fen; Chen, Xiao-Cui; Zheng, Hong; Ma, Yi-Tong; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear factor κappa B (NF-κB) is an important transcription factor in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). Recent evidence suggests that -94 ATTG ins/del mutant in the promoter of NFKB1 gene is an essential functional mutant. The present study demonstrated the frequencies of the del/del (DD) genotype and del (D) allele were significantly higher in CAD patients than in controls. CAD patients carrying mutant DD genotype had worse stenosis of diseased coronary arteries compared to those carrying ins/ins (II) or ins/del (ID) genotype. Plasma levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were lower, while inflammatory cytokine incnterlukin-6 (IL-6) was higher in CAD patients with DD genotype than those with II or ID genotype (both P<0.05). In vitro study showed that mutant human umbilical vein endothelial cells (DD genotype HUVECs) were more susceptible to H2O2-induced apoptosis, which was accompanied with a decreased Bcl-2 expression. Further, mutant HUVECs had lower eNOS but higher IL-6 mRNA levels and decreased phosphorylation of eNOS under H2O2-stimulation (both P<0.05). Compared to wild type cells (II genotype), significantly downregulated protein expression of total NF-κB p50 subunit were observed in mutant HUVECs with or without oxidative stress, and a lower expression of unclear p50 was associated with a decreased p50 nuclear translocation in mutant HUVECs versus wild type cells under H2O2-stimulation (both P<0.05). In conclusion, mutant DD genotype of NFKB1 gene is associated with the risk and severity of CAD. Dwonregulation of NF-κB p50 subunit leads to exacerbated endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis and enhanced inflammatory response that is the potential underlying mechanism.

  8. Identification and quantification of ice nucleation active microorganisms by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Martin; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Several bioaerosol types, including bacteria, fungi, pollen and lichen, have been identified as sources of biological ice nucleators (IN) which induce ice formation already at temperatures as high as -10 °C or above. Accordingly, they potentially contribute widely to environmental ice nucleation in the atmosphere and are of great interest in the study of natural heterogenous ice nucleation processes. Ice nucleation active microorganisms have been found and studied among bacteria (Proteobacteria) and fungi (phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota). The mechanisms enabling the microorganisms to ice nucleation are subject to ongoing research. While it has been demonstrated that whole cells can act as ice nucleators in the case of bacteria due to the presence of specific membrane proteins, cell-free ice nucleation active particles seem to be responsible for this phenomenon in fungi and lichen. The identification and quantification of these ice nucleation active microorganisms and their IN in atmospheric samples is crucial to understand their contribution to the pool of atmospheric IN. This is not a trivial task since the respective microorganisms are often prevalent in lowest concentrations and a variety of states, be it viable cells, spores or cell debris from dead cells. Molecular biology provides tools to identify and quantify ice nucleation active microorganisms independent of their state by detecting genetic markers specific for the organism of interest. Those methods are not without their drawbacks in terms of sample material concentration required or reliable standardization. Digital Droplet Polymerase Chain Reaction (ddPCR) was chosen for our demands as a more elegant, quick and specific method in the investigation of ice nucleation active microorganisms in atmospheric samples. The advantages of ddPCR lie in the simultaneous detection and quantification of genetic markers and their original copy numbers in a sample. This is facilitated by the fractionation of the

  9. A putative low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding protein (PBP) of Mycobacterium smegmatis exhibits prominent physiological characteristics of DD-carboxypeptidase and beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankita; Kar, Debasish; Murugan, Rajagopal A; Mallick, Sathi; Dutta, Mouparna; Pandey, Satya Deo; Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-05-01

    DD-carboxypeptidases (DD-CPases) are low-molecular-mass (LMM) penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that are mainly involved in peptidoglycan remodelling, but little is known about the dd-CPases of mycobacteria. In this study, a putative DD-CPase of Mycobacterium smegmatis, MSMEG_2433 is characterized. The gene for the membrane-bound form of MSMEG_2433 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in its active form, as revealed by its ability to bind to the Bocillin-FL (fluorescent penicillin). Interestingly, in vivo expression of MSMEG_2433 could restore the cell shape oddities of the septuple PBP mutant of E. coli, which was a prominent physiological characteristic of DD-CPases. Moreover, expression of MSMEG_2433 in trans elevated beta-lactam resistance in PBP deletion mutants (ΔdacAdacC) of E. coli, strengthening its physiology as a dd-CPase. To confirm the biochemical reason behind such physiological behaviours, a soluble form of MSMEG_2433 (sMSMEG_2433) was created, expressed and purified. In agreement with the observed physiological phenomena, sMSMEG_2433 exhibited DD-CPase activity against artificial and peptidoglycan-mimetic DD-CPase substrates. To our surprise, enzymic analyses of MSMEG_2433 revealed efficient deacylation for beta-lactam substrates at physiological pH, which is a unique characteristic of beta-lactamases. In addition to the MSMEG_2433 active site that favours dd-CPase activity, in silico analyses also predicted the presence of an omega-loop-like region in MSMEG_2433, which is an important determinant of its beta-lactamase activity. Based on the in vitro, in vivo and in silico studies, we conclude that MSMEG_2433 is a dual enzyme, possessing both DD-CPase and beta-lactamase activities.

  10. Performance analysis of passive optical network systems based on the IM/DD OFDM modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wchir, Besma; Ben Abdallah, Abderrazek; Mhatli, Sofien; Jarajreh, Mutsam; Yang, Sigang; Attia, Rabah

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the robust immunity to interference as well as the higher spectrum efficiency, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely considered as one of the strongest contenders for high-speed Next- Generation Passive Optical Networks (NG-PONs), which satisfies the huge surge in demand for high-speed broadband services. In the other hand, OFDM systems suffer from a high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) at the transmitted signal resulting in signal degradation. The simplest method to deal with the PAPR problem consists in applying deliberate clipping to the transmitted signal which significantly reduces the requirement of the received optical power. In this paper, an analytical evaluation for the performance of an IM/DD optical OFDM system is shown, this is while accounting for clipping distortion and quantification noise caused by the limited bit resolution of DAC converter. Moreover, the paper demonstrates that applying digital signal restoration at the system receiver enables further improvements in the system performances in terms of enhanced effective Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduced optical power that is required to achieve specified Bit-Error-Rate (BER).

  11. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  12. Measurement of the Neutron Spectrum of a DD Electronic Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; J. T. Johnson; E. H. Seabury

    2010-08-01

    A Cuttler-Shalev (C-S) 3He proportional counter has been used to measure the energy spectrum of neutrons from a portable deuterium-deuterium electronic neutron generator. To improve the analysis of results from the C-S detector digital pulse shape analysis techniques have been used to eliminate neutron recoil artifacts in the recorded data. Data was collected using a 8-GHz, 10-bit waveform digitizer with its full scale corresponding to approximately 6-MeV neutrons. The measurements were made with the detector axis perpendicular to the direction of ions in the ENG in a plane 0.5-m to the side of the ENG, measuring neutrons emitted at an angle from 87.3? to 92.7? with respect to the path of ions in the ENG. The system demonstrated an energy resolution of approximately 0.040 MeV for the thermal peak and approximately 0.13 MeV at the DD neutron energy. In order to achieve the ultimate resolution capable with this type of detector it is clear that a higher-precision digitizer will be needed.

  13. Development and characterization of a D-D fast neutron generator for imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert; Bort, Lorenz; Zboray, Robert; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2015-02-01

    The experimental characterization of a pulsed D-D fast neutron generator designed for fan-beam tomography applications is presented. Using Monte Carlo simulations the response of an LB6411 neutron probe was related to the neutron generator output. The yield was measured to be up to ∼10(7) neutrons/s. An aluminum block was moved stepwise between the source and a BC400 plastic scintillator detector in order to measure an edge response. This edge response was related to the neutron emitting spot size using Monte Carlo simulations and a simplified geometry-based model. The experimentally determined spot size of 2.2 mm agreed well with the simulated value of 1.5 mm. The time-dependence of pulsed output for various operating conditions was also measured. The neutron generator was found to satisfy design requirements for a planned fast neutron tomography arrangement based on a plastic scintillator detector array which is expected to be capable of producing 2D tomograms with a resolution of ∼1.5 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DD-HDS: A method for visualization and exploration of high-dimensional data.

    PubMed

    Lespinats, Sylvain; Verleysen, Michel; Giron, Alain; Fertil, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    Mapping high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space, for example, for visualization, is a problem of increasingly major concern in data analysis. This paper presents data-driven high-dimensional scaling (DD-HDS), a nonlinear mapping method that follows the line of multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach, based on the preservation of distances between pairs of data. It improves the performance of existing competitors with respect to the representation of high-dimensional data, in two ways. It introduces (1) a specific weighting of distances between data taking into account the concentration of measure phenomenon and (2) a symmetric handling of short distances in the original and output spaces, avoiding false neighbor representations while still allowing some necessary tears in the original distribution. More precisely, the weighting is set according to the effective distribution of distances in the data set, with the exception of a single user-defined parameter setting the tradeoff between local neighborhood preservation and global mapping. The optimization of the stress criterion designed for the mapping is realized by "force-directed placement" (FDP). The mappings of low- and high-dimensional data sets are presented as illustrations of the features and advantages of the proposed algorithm. The weighting function specific to high-dimensional data and the symmetric handling of short distances can be easily incorporated in most distance preservation-based nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods.

  15. Measurement Of The Neutron Spectrum Of A DD Electronic Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichester, David L.; Johnson, James T.; Seabury, Edward H.

    2011-06-01

    A Cuttler-Shalev (C-S) 3He proportional counter has been used to measure the energy spectrum of neutrons from a portable deuterium-deuterium electronic neutron generator. To improve the analysis of results from the C-S detector digital pulse shape analysis techniques have been used to eliminate neutron recoil artifacts in the recorded data. Data was collected using a 8-GHz, 10-bit waveform digitizer with its full scale corresponding to approximately 6-MeV neutrons. The measurements were made with the detector axis perpendicular to the direction of ions in the ENG in a plane 0.5-m to the side of the ENG, measuring neutrons emitted at an angle from 87.3° to 92.7° with respect to the path of ions in the ENG. The system demonstrated an energy resolution of approximately 0.040 MeV for the thermal peak and approximately 0.13 MeV at the DD neutron energy. In order to achieve the ultimate resolution capable with this type of detector it is clear that a higher-precision digitizer will be needed.

  16. The Effect of Post-heat Treatment on the Microstructures of Single Crystal DD6 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongfan; Gao, Hangshan; Wen, Zhixun; Li, Zhenwei; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-09-01

    Various thermal cycles at the end of solution heat treatment and their influences on microstructure of single crystal superalloy DD6 were studied by experiments. During various thermal cycles, the qualitative and quantitative microstructure of samples quenched of the transformations is microscopically characterized. This completely includes the large changes in volume fraction, size distribution and morphology of gamma prime precipitate experienced in the upper temperature transformation. Noticeable deviation from the equilibrium volume fraction of γ' phase is detected in both the dissolution and precipitation processes above 1,120°C for both moderate cooling and heating rate; differences were mainly attributed to the unsteady nature of the turbulent flow. The growth and alignment of the γ' precipitates are deeply influenced by several factors, e.g. ageing time, cooling rate and quenching temperature. In addition, interesting findings such as "labyrinth" and "cluster" morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope. During precipitation processes, the complicated microstructure evolution is illustrated by considering the consecutive equilibrium shapes of a coherent precipitate, which grows under the interaction with its neighbors and the coherency of the precipitates improves their potential to resist dissolution.

  17. Kaon pair production in pp, pd and dd collisions at COSY

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, M.; Dzyuba, A.; Keshelashvili, I.; Maeda, Y.; Polyanskiy, A.; Wilkin, C.; Yuan, X.

    2010-08-05

    The near-threshold production of kaon-pairs has been investigated in proton-proton, proton-deuteron and deuteron-deuteron collisions at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. The excitation function for the pp{yields}ppK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction and the invariant K{sup -}p, K{sup -}pp, and K{sup +}K{sup -} mass distributions indicate the presence of both K{sup -}p and K{sup +}K{sup -} final state interactions. Analogous final-state interactions of antikaons with deuterons has been found in the pp{yields}dK{sup +}K{sup 0}-bar reaction as well as in the pn{yields}dK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction, measured in the quasi-free pd{yields}p{sub sp}dK{sup +}K{sup -} process with a 'spectator' proton (p{sub sp}). The existing COSY data on the pd{yields}{sup 3}HeK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction are not yet sufficient to study the K{sup -3}He and K{sup +}K{sup -} final state interactions. A very small total cross section was found for the dd{yields}{sup 4}HeK{sup +}K{sup -} reaction.

  18. ORNL Soils Remediation and Slabs Removal The Bridge from D&D to Redevelopment

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, M Malinda; Schneider, Ken R

    2012-01-01

    The landscape of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has dramatically changed over the past 2 years with demolition of aging facilities in the Central Campus. Removal of these infrastructure legacies was possible due to an influx of DOE-Environmental Management funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). Facility D&D traditionally removes everything down to the building slab, and the Soils and Sediments Program is responsible for slabs, below-grade footers, abandoned waste utilities, and soils contaminated above certain risk levels that must be removed before the site can be considered for redevelopment. , DOE-EM has used a combination of base and ARRA funding to facilitate the clean-up process in ORNL s 2000 Area. Demolition of 13 buildings in the area was funded by the ARRA. Characterization of the remaining slabs, underground pipelines and soils was funded by DOE-EM base funding. Additional ARRA funding was provided for the removal of the slabs, pipelines and contaminated soils. Removal work is in progress and consists of removing and disposing of approximately 10,000 cubic yards (CY) of concrete, 2,500 CY of debris, and 500 CY of contaminated soil. The completion of this work will allow the site to be available for redevelopment and site reuse efforts at ORNL.

  19. A practical beryllium activation detector for measuring DD neutron yield from ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    A neutron activation detector based on the reaction {sup 9}Be(n,{alpha}){sup 6}He({beta}{sup {minus}}){sup 6}Li has been designed which could potentially allow DD yield determinations within a few minutes after an ICF implosion or other pulsed neutron event with precision comparable to methods currently in use in ICF experiments. The detector is based on previous work, but has been redesigned to allow use in a reentrant tube less than six inches in diameter, and to increase detection efficiency. The detector consists of beryllium rods imbedded in plastic scintillator and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Neutrons interact with the beryllium to produce {sup 6}He, which decays by emission of a {beta}{sup {minus}} particle with a maximum energy of 3.51 MeV with a half life of 808 ms. The {beta}{sup {minus}} particles are counted, and a neutron yield is determined for the total activity produced. The short half life of {sup 6}He will result in high specific activity and allow quick determination of the amount of {sup 6}He produced.

  20. Analytical formulation of directly modulated OOFDM signals transmitted over an IM/DD dispersive link.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Tang, J; Capmany, J

    2013-03-25

    We provide an analytical study on the propagation effects of a directly modulated OOFDM signal through a dispersive fiber and subsequent photo-detection. The analysis includes the effects of the laser operation point and the interplay between chromatic dispersion and laser chirp. The final expression allows to understand the physics behind the transmission of a multi-carrier signal in the presence of residual frequency modulation and the description of the induced intermodulation distortion gives us a detailed insight into the diferent intermodulation products which impair the recovered signal at the receiver-end side. Numerical comparisons between transmission simulations results and those provided by evaluating the expression obtained are carried out for different laser operation points. Results obtained by changing the fiber length, laser parameters and using single mode fiber with negative and positive dispersion are calculated in order to demonstrate the validity and versatility of the theory provided in this paper. Therefore, a novel analytical formulation is presented as a versatile tool for the description and study of IM/DD OOFDM systems with variable design parameters.

  1. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C E P; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system.

  2. D-D neutron-scatter measurements for a novel explosives-detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, A. L.; Flaska, M.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2012-11-01

    A series of measurements has been completed that provides a benchmark for Monte Carlo simulations related to an algorithm for explosives detection using active neutron interrogation. The original simulations used in algorithm development, based on land-sea cargo container screening, have been adapted to model active neutron interrogation of smaller targets. These smaller-scale measurements are easily accomplished in a laboratory environment. Benchmarking measurements were completed using a D-D neutron generator, two neutron detectors, as well as a variety of scatter media including the explosives surrogate melamine (C3H6N6). Measurements included 90°, 120°, or 150° neutron scatter geometries and variations in source-detector shielding, target presence, and target identity. Comparisons of measured and simulated neutron fluxes were similar, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.7. The simulated detector responses also matched very closely with the measured photon and neutron pulse height distributions, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.9. The experiments and simulations also provided insight into potential application of the new method to the problem of explosives detection in small objects such as luggage and small packages.

  3. Absolute quantification of olive oil DNA by droplet digital-PCR (ddPCR): Comparison of isolation and amplification methodologies.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Francesco; Egea, Leticia A; Gentile, Alessandra; La Malfa, Stefano; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2016-12-15

    Olive oil is considered a premium product for its nutritional value and health benefits, and the ability to define its origin and varietal composition is a key step towards ensuring the traceability of the product. However, isolating the DNA from such a matrix is a difficult task. In this study, the quality and quantity of olive oil DNA, isolated using four different DNA isolation protocols, was evaluated using the qRT-PCR and ddPCR techniques. The results indicate that CTAB-based extraction methods were the best for unfiltered oil, while Nucleo Spin-based extraction protocols showed greater overall reproducibility. The use of both qRT-PCR and ddPCR led to the absolute quantification of the DNA copy number. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of the choice of DNA-isolation protocol, which should take into consideration the qualitative aspects of DNA and the evaluation of the amplified DNA copy number.

  4. Inhibition of Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x and Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase activities by ceftaroline.

    PubMed

    Zervosen, Astrid; Zapun, André; Frère, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Although the rate of acylation of a penicillin-resistant form of Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) by ceftaroline is 80-fold lower than that of its penicillin-sensitive counterpart, it remains sufficiently high (k(2)/K = 12,600 M(-1) s(-1)) to explain the sensitivity of the penicillin-resistant strain to this new cephalosporin. Surprisingly, the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase is not very sensitive to ceftaroline.

  5. EVALUATION OF PROMPT DOSE ENVIRONMENT IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY DURING D-D AND THD SHOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, H; Dauffy, L; Sitaraman, S; Brereton, S

    2009-04-28

    Evaluation of the prompt dose environment expected in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) during Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) and Tritium-Hydrogen-Deuterium (THD) shots have been completed. D-D shots resulting in the production of an annual fusion yield of up to 2.4 kJ (200 shots with 10{sup 13} neutrons per shot) are considered. During the THD shot campaign, shots generating a total of 2 x 10{sup 14} neutrons per shot are also planned. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate prompt dose values inside the facility as well as at different locations outside the facility shield walls. The Target Chamber shielding, along with Target Bay and Switchyard walls, roofs, and shield doors (when needed) will reduce dose levels in occupied areas to acceptable values during these shot campaigns. The calculated dose values inside occupied areas are small, estimated at 25 and 85 {micro}rem per shot during the D-D and THD shots, respectively. Dose values outside the facility are insignificant. The nearest building to the NIF facility where co-located workers may reside is at a distance of about 100 m from the Target Chamber Center (TCC). The dose in such a building is estimated at a fraction of a ?rem during a D-D or a THD shot. Dose at the nearest site boundary location (350 m from TCC), is caused by skyshine and to a lesser extent by direct radiation. The maximum off-site dose during any of the shots considered is less than 10 nano rem.

  6. Robotic dismantlement systems at the CP-5 reactor D&D project.

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, L. S.

    1998-10-28

    The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Research Reactor Facility is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Illinois site. CP-5 was the principle nuclear reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research at Argonne from 1954 to 1979. The CP-5 reactor was a heavy-water cooled and moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor with a graphite reflector. The CP-5 D&D project includes the disassembly, segmentation and removal of all the radioactive components, equipment and structures associated with the CP-5 facility. The Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program and the Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown Office provided teleoperated, remote systems for use in the dismantlement of the CP-5 reactor assembly for tasks requiring remote dismantlement as part of the EM-50 Large-Scale Demonstration Program (LSDP). The teleoperated systems provided were the Dual Arm Work Platform (DAWP), the Rosie Mobile Teleoperated Robot Work System (ROSIE), and a remotely-operated crane control system with installed swing-reduction control system. Another remotely operated apparatus, a Brokk BM250, was loaned to ANL by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). This machine is not teleoperated and was not part of the LSDP, but deserves some mention in this discussion. The DAWP is a robotic dismantlement system that includes a pair of Schilling Robotic Systems Titan III hydraulic manipulator arms mounted to a specially designed support platform: a hydraulic power unit (HPU) and a remote operator console. The DAWP is designed to be crane-suspended for remote positioning. ROSIE, developed by RedZone Robotics, Inc. is a mobile, electro-hydraulic, omnidirectional platform with a heavy-duty telescoping boom mounted to the platform's deck. The work system includes the mobile platform (locomotor), a power distribution unit (PDU) and a remote operator console. ROSIE moves about the reactor building floor

  7. BNCT dose distribution in liver with epithermal D-D and D-T fusion-based neutron beams.

    PubMed

    Koivunoro, H; Bleuel, D L; Nastasi, U; Lou, T P; Reijonen, J; Leung, K-N

    2004-11-01

    Recently, a new application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatment has been introduced. Results have indicated that liver tumors can be treated by BNCT after removal of the liver from the body. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, compact neutron generators based on (2)H(d,n)(3)He (D-D) or (3)H(t,n)(4)He (D-T) fusion reactions are being developed. Preliminary simulations of the applicability of 2.45 MeV D-D fusion and 14.1 MeV D-T fusion neutrons for in vivo liver tumor BNCT, without removing the liver from the body, have been carried out. MCNP simulations were performed in order to find a moderator configuration for creating a neutron beam of optimal neutron energy and to create a source model for dose calculations with the simulation environment for radiotherapy applications (SERA) treatment planning program. SERA dose calculations were performed in a patient model based on CT scans of the body. The BNCT dose distribution in liver and surrounding healthy organs was calculated with rectangular beam aperture sizes of 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm. Collimator thicknesses of 10 and 15 cm were used. The beam strength to obtain a practical treatment time was studied. In this paper, the beam shaping assemblies for D-D and D-T neutron generators and dose calculation results are presented.

  8. A compact DD neutron generator–based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H.

    2015-01-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator–based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*109 neutrons/second was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R2 = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg/g dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans. PMID:25154883

  9. A compact DD neutron generator-based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2014-09-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*10(9) neutrons s(-1) was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R(2) = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans.

  10. Angiotensin I converting enzyme gene polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus: decreased prevalence of DD genotype in African American patients.

    PubMed

    Tassiulas, I O; Aksentijevich, I; Salmon, J E; Kim, Y; Yarboro, C H; Vaughan, E M; Davis, J C; Scott, D L; Austin, H A; Klippel, J H; Balow, J E; Gourley, M F; Boumpas, D T

    1998-07-01

    The presence of the D (deletion) allele at the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with a) adverse vascular events contributing to early mortality and b) progressive deterioration of renal function in a variety of chronic glomerular diseases. We investigated the potential role of ACE polymorphisms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Two hundred and sixteen (216) SLE patients (121 Caucasians; 78 African Americans; and 17 other) and 200 normal controls were studied; 134 patients had evidence of renal disease. ACE genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction based assay. The frequency of genotype DD was increased in African American normal controls compared to Caucasians (55% vs. 37%, p = 0.017) and in African American normal controls vs. African American lupus patients (55% vs. 30%, p = 0.008). Trend analysis of the genotype distribution across the three African American groups (renal, non-renal, controls) revealed a trend of increased frequency of I and decreased frequency of D as likelihood of renal disease increases (p = 0.008). No association between any ACE genotype with parameters of renal disease and/or response to therapy was identified. African American patients with lupus have a lower frequency of DD genotype as compared to African American normal controls. Further studies will be necessary to address whether this is due to decreased survival of these patients, a protective effect of DD genotype from developing the disease or a chance sample effect.

  11. Frequency and genetic characterization of V(DD)J recombinants in the human peripheral blood antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Briney, Bryan S; Willis, Jordan R; Hicar, Mark D; Thomas, James W; Crowe, James E

    2012-09-01

    Antibody heavy-chain recombination that results in the incorporation of multiple diversity (D) genes, although uncommon, contributes substantially to the diversity of the human antibody repertoire. Such recombination allows the generation of heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) regions of extreme length and enables junctional regions that, because of the nucleotide bias of N-addition regions, are difficult to produce through normal V(D)J recombination. Although this non-classical recombination process has been observed infrequently, comprehensive analysis of the frequency and genetic characteristics of such events in the human peripheral blood antibody repertoire has not been possible because of the rarity of such recombinants and the limitations of traditional sequencing technologies. Here, through the use of high-throughput sequencing of the normal human peripheral blood antibody repertoire, we analysed the frequency and genetic characteristics of V(DD)J recombinants. We found that these recombinations were present in approximately 1 in 800 circulating B cells, and that the frequency was severely reduced in memory cell subsets. We also found that V(DD)J recombination can occur across the spectrum of diversity genes, indicating that virtually all recombination signal sequences that flank diversity genes are amenable to V(DD)J recombination. Finally, we observed a repertoire bias in the diversity gene repertoire at the upstream (5') position, and discovered that this bias was primarily attributable to the order of diversity genes in the genomic locus.

  12. Large-scale Demonstration and Deployment Project for D&D of Fuel Storage Canals and Associated Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), sponsored a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under management of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The INEEL LSDDP is one of several LSDDPs sponsored by DOE. The LSDDP process integrates field demonstrations into actual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations by comparing new or improved technologies against existing baseline technologies using a side-by-side comparison. The goals are (a) to identify technologies that are cheaper, safer, faster, and cleaner (produce less waste), and (b) to incorporate those technologies into D&D baseline operations. The INEEL LSDDP reviewed more than 300 technologies, screened 141, and demonstrated 17. These 17 technologies have been deployed a total of 70 times at facilities other than those where the technology was demonstrated, and 10 have become baseline at the INEEL. Fifteen INEEL D&D needs have been modified or removed from the Needs Management System as a direct result of using these new technologies. Conservatively, the ten-year projected cost savings at the INEEL resulting from use of the technologies demonstrated in this INEEL LSDDP exceeds $39 million dollars.

  13. A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Influencing Droplet Rain in the Listeria monocytogenes prfA Assay - Reduction of Ambiguous Results in ddPCR.

    PubMed

    Witte, Anna Kristina; Mester, Patrick; Fister, Susanne; Witte, Matthias; Schoder, Dagmar; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) determines DNA amounts based upon the pattern of positive and negative droplets, according to Poisson distribution, without the use of external standards. However, division into positive and negative droplets is often not clear because a part of the droplets has intermediate fluorescence values, appearing as "rain" in the plot. Despite the droplet rain, absolute quantification with ddPCR is possible, as shown previously for the prfA assay in quantifying Listeria monocytogenes. Nevertheless, reducing the rain, and thus ambiguous results, promotes the accuracy and credibility of ddPCR. In this study, we extensively investigated chemical and physical parameters for optimizing the prfA assay for ddPCR. While differences in the concentration of all chemicals and the dye, quencher and supplier of the probe did not alter the droplet pattern, changes in the PCR cycling program, such as prolonged times and increased cycle numbers, improved the assay.

  14. Hydro*Star: A Directed Water-Cooled DD-Fueled IFE Fusion-Chamber Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2001-04-01

    We introduce a new IFE fusion-chamber concept called Hydro*Star that uses DT-ignited DD targets and a water blanket. The driver can be either a 13 to 16-MJ diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) with fast ignition, or a 4-MJ heavy-ion accelerator operating at a reprate 10 times faster than the fusion chamber to accumulate sufficient energy in storage rings to direct 40 MJ at the target. The driver employs a prepulse system to burn an ionized path through the ambient fusion-chamber vapors, whose operating pressure is about 20 atm. We assume that the targets, which have a yield of about 2800 MJ, can be indirectly driven with two-sided illumination. The blanket, which is 1 to 2-m thick and placed immediately inside the structural wall, is operated just over 100 C either in a liquid or frothed-liquid state, the latter being preferred to reduce stresses in the structural wall. The structural wall, at a radius of 4 to 5 m, is composed of low-carbon steels to avoid the stress-corrosion cracking problems that have plagued certain light-water-reactor (LWR) systems. The functions of the blanket are (1) to shield the structural wall and exterior components from neutron and gamma-ray target emissions, and (2) to supply water for the direct generation of steam. Each fusion pulse vaporizes nearly one-half centimeter of the inside surface of the water blanket, thereby creating hot steam which is vented directly from the fusion chamber into ordinary steam turbines. Thus, Hydro*Star operates just like a simple steam engine, with a basic reprate of only 0.8 Hz per GWe of net output. Because the steam temperature is 900 to 1200 K, the plant thermal efficiency is nearly 50%. This efficiency is much better than the typical 35-40% now being achieved in commercial reactors, and much better than the efficiencies estimated for previous fusion-chamber concepts except CASCADE (55%). Other advantages for the new concept include reduced plant radioactivity (reduced radionuclides inventory

  15. Impaired Protofibril Formation in Fibrinogen γN308K Is Due to Altered D:D and "A:a" Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowley, S.; Okumura, N; Lord, S

    2009-01-01

    'A:a' knob-hole interactions and D:D interfacial interactions are important for fibrin polymerization. Previous studies with recombinant ?N308K fibrinogen, a substitution at the D:D interface, showed impaired polymerization. We examined the molecular basis for this loss of function by solving the crystal structure of ?N308K fragment D. In contrast to previous fragment D crystals, the ?N308K crystals belonged to a tetragonal space group with an unusually long unit cell (a = b = 95 Angstroms, c = 448.3 Angstroms). Alignment of the normal and ?N308K structures showed the global structure of the variant was not changed and the knob 'A' peptide GPRP was bound as usual to hole 'a'. The substitution introduced an elongated positively charged patch in the D:D region. The structure showed novel, symmetric D:D crystal contacts between ?N308K molecules, indicating the normal asymmetric D:D interface in fibrin would be unstable in this variant. We examined GPRP binding to ?N308K in solution by plasmin protection assay. The results showed weaker peptide binding, suggesting that 'A:a' interactions were altered. We examined fibrin network structures by scanning electron microscopy and found the variant fibers were thicker and more heterogeneous than normal fibers. Considered together, our structural and biochemical studies indicate both 'A:a' and D:D interactions are weaker. We conclude that stable protofibrils cannot assemble from ?N308K monomers, leading to impaired polymerization.

  16. Modified Proofreading PCR for Detection of Point Mutations, Insertions and Deletions Using a ddNTP-Blocked Primer.

    PubMed

    Hao, Weiming; Fan, Lujuan; Chen, Qianqian; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Sichao; Lan, Ke; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Chiyu

    2015-01-01

    The development of simple, accurate, rapid and cost-effective technologies for mutation detection is crucial to the early diagnosis and prevention of numerous genetic diseases, pharmacogenetics, and drug resistance. Proofreading PCR (PR-PCR) was developed for mutation detection in 1998 but is rarely applied due to its low efficiency in allele discrimination. Here we developed a modified PR-PCR method using a ddNTP-blocked primer and a mixture of DNA polymerases with and without the 3'-5' proofreading function. The ddNTP-blocked primer exhibited the best blocking efficiency to avoid nonspecific primer extension while the mixture of a tiny amount of high-fidelity DNA polymerase with a routine amount of Taq DNA polymerase provided the best discrimination and amplification effects. The modified PR-PCR method is quite capable of detecting various mutation types, including point mutations and insertions/deletions (indels), and allows discrimination amplification when the mismatch is located within the last eight nucleotides from the 3'-end of the ddNTP-blocked primer. The modified PR-PCR has a sensitivity of 1-5 × 102 copies and a selectivity of 5 × 10-5 mutant among 107 copies of wild-type DNA. It showed a 100% accuracy rate in the detection of P72R germ-line mutation in the TP53 gene among 60 clinical blood samples, and a high potential to detect rifampin-resistant mutations at low frequency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using an adaptor and a fusion-blocked primer. These results suggest that the modified PR-PCR technique is effective in detection of various mutations or polymorphisms as a simple, sensitive and promising approach.

  17. Modified Proofreading PCR for Detection of Point Mutations, Insertions and Deletions Using a ddNTP-Blocked Primer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Sichao; Lan, Ke; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Chiyu

    2015-01-01

    The development of simple, accurate, rapid and cost-effective technologies for mutation detection is crucial to the early diagnosis and prevention of numerous genetic diseases, pharmacogenetics, and drug resistance. Proofreading PCR (PR-PCR) was developed for mutation detection in 1998 but is rarely applied due to its low efficiency in allele discrimination. Here we developed a modified PR-PCR method using a ddNTP-blocked primer and a mixture of DNA polymerases with and without the 3'-5' proofreading function. The ddNTP-blocked primer exhibited the best blocking efficiency to avoid nonspecific primer extension while the mixture of a tiny amount of high-fidelity DNA polymerase with a routine amount of Taq DNA polymerase provided the best discrimination and amplification effects. The modified PR-PCR method is quite capable of detecting various mutation types, including point mutations and insertions/deletions (indels), and allows discrimination amplification when the mismatch is located within the last eight nucleotides from the 3'-end of the ddNTP-blocked primer. The modified PR-PCR has a sensitivity of 1-5 × 102 copies and a selectivity of 5 × 10-5 mutant among 107 copies of wild-type DNA. It showed a 100% accuracy rate in the detection of P72R germ-line mutation in the TP53 gene among 60 clinical blood samples, and a high potential to detect rifampin-resistant mutations at low frequency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis using an adaptor and a fusion-blocked primer. These results suggest that the modified PR-PCR technique is effective in detection of various mutations or polymorphisms as a simple, sensitive and promising approach. PMID:25915410

  18. Pilot-aided sampling frequency offset estimation and compensation using DSP technique in DD-OOFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Chen, Lin

    2014-06-01

    To improve the outage performance of an optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system under the frequency offset between the sampling clocks in the transmitter and receiver, a pilot-aided sampling frequency offset (SFO) estimation and compensation scheme for the optical OFDM system with intensity-modulation and direct-detection (DD-OOFDM) is experimentally demonstrated. The experimental and simulated results show that the scheme can work effectively even with large sampling frequency offsets. In addition, it can achieve a good bit error rate (BER) performance without the sampling clock frequency synchronization in the receiver.

  19. Novel insights into the lipidome of glioblastoma cells based on a combined PLSR and DD-HDS computational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespinats, S.; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; He, Huan; Marshall, Alan G.; Conrad, Charles A.; Emmett, Mark R.

    2009-05-01

    Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Data-Driven High Dimensional Scaling (DD-HDS) are employed for the prediction and the visualization of changes in polar lipid expression induced by different combinations of wild-type (wt) p53 gene therapy and SN38 chemotherapy of U87 MG glioblastoma cells. A very detailed analysis of the gangliosides reveals that certain gangliosides of GM3 or GD1-type have unique properties not shared by the others. In summary, this preliminary work shows that data mining techniques are able to determine the modulation of gangliosides by different treatment combinations.

  20. Implementation of DOE/NFDI D&D Cost Estimating Tool (POWERtool) for Initiative Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W. E.; WSRC; Baker, S. B. III, Cutshall, C. M.; Crouse, J. L.

    2003-02-26

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has embarked on an aggressive D&D program to reduce the footprint of excess facilities. Key to the success of this effort is the preparation of accurate cost estimates for decommissioning. SRS traditionally uses ''top-down'' rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) estimating for decommissioning cost estimates. A second cost estimating method (POWERtool) using a ''bottoms-up'' approach has been applied to many of the SRS excess facilities in the T and D-area. This paper describes the use of both estimating methods and compares the estimated costs to actual costs of 5 facilities that were decommissioned in 2002.

  1. Navy DD(X), CG(X), and LCS Ship Acquisition Programs: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-28

    page 7 . Table 3. Funding for LCS Program As Shown in FY2006 Budget (millions of then-year dollars; totals may not add due to rounding) 03 04 05 06 07...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional...cruiser, and a smaller surface combatant called the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). The Navy reportedly wants to procure a total of 7 DD(X)s, 19 CG(X)s

  2. Navy DD(X), CG(X), and LCS Ship Acquisition Programs: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-28

    on page 7 . Table 3. Funding for LCS Program As Shown in FY2006 Budget (millions of then-year dollars; totals may not add due to rounding) 03 04 05 06...NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional...cruiser, and a smaller surface combatant called the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). The Navy reportedly wants to procure a total of 7 DD(X)s, 19 CG(X)s

  3. Effect of Beam Smoothing and Pulse Shape on the Implosion of DD-Filled CH Shell Targets on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    1999-11-01

    Over the past two years several implosion experiments were carried out on the 60-beam OMEGA laser in which DD-filled CH shells (some with a CHTi layer imbedded) were irradiated with various laser pulse shapes and smoothing conditions. Target CH shell thicknesses varied from 20 μm to 27 μm with DD-fill variations from 3 to 20 atm, sometimes mixed with ^3He. Two pulse shapes---a 1-ns square pulse and a 2.5-ns pulse with a 10%, 1-ns foot, with and without SSD---provide several levels of laser imprint. Diagnostics include measured neutron yields, fuel ion temperatures, fuel ρR, and shell ρR. Simulations for these experimental conditions were carried out with the 2-D hydrocode ORCHID. The results are compared with the experimental results. The degradation of target performance due to laser nonuniformity is analyzed by comparing the 2-D results with those of 1-D simulations. The effects of pulse shape, target thickness, convergence ratio, and smoothing are presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator.

    PubMed

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    An explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma emission (10.82MeV) following radiative neutron capture by (14)N nuclei. The explosive detection system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D-D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF) driven ion source and nominal yield of about 10(10) fast neutrons per second (E=2.5MeV). Polyethylene and paraffin were used as moderators with borated polyethylene and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The shape and the thickness of the moderators and shields are optimized to produce the highest thermal neutron flux at the position of the explosive and the minimum total dose at the outer surfaces of the explosive detection system walls. In addition, simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3-based γ-ray detectors to different explosives is described.

  5. The Preferable F2dd Phase for Ca(BH4)2 Crystal Under Hydrostatic Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Tuan; Do, Phu Manh

    2017-06-01

    Calcium borohydride (Ca(BH4)2) belongs to a series of widely spread, cheap metal borohydrides that are promising for the mobile hydrogen economy, but with some properties still in open discussions. In particular, for the experimental Ca(BH4)2 α-phase both space groups F2dd and Fddd have been proposed. This work presents the analysis of enthalpy and bonding length changes in Ca(BH4)2 over the hydrostatic pressure range of 0-40 GPa, which shows a preference for the F2dd phase of Ca(BH4)2 over the Fddd one. The validity of the calculations, based on density functional theory implemented by the ABINIT package with the GGA method, is supported by the accordance of the results with experimental data for the α'-, β-, and δ-phases of Ca(BH4)2. The phonon spectra show the stability of the Ca(BH4)2 phases, where B- and H-ions provide the dominant part of the optical phonon bands, whereas the Ca-, B-, H-ions contribute to the acoustic bands.

  6. Increased D-D Fusion Reaction Boosted by Electron Screening at the Inner Shell of Metal Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Nie; Miley, George

    2004-10-01

    Recent experiments indicate an abnormally high electron screening effect on the D-D fusion cross-section during low energy (< 10 keV) bombardment of select deuterated metals [1]. The authors attribute this effect to a contribution from core electrons ignored in normal screening calculations [2]. This research studies the contribution of the atomic potential distribution on the classical dynamics of keV deuterons in a host metal, taken here as Pd. A standard atomic code is used to obtain the atomic electron charge density and the potential profile in the metal atom. Using these results, the deuterons are found to spend most of their penetration time near the Pd M shell. This effect drastically increases the probability of a rendezvous between two deuterons in a rather confined area roughly 0.1 angstrom from the Pd nucleus. This mechanism, combined with the increased tunneling rate due to screening from the high electron density at M-shell, enhances the low energy D-D fusion cross-section for metal hydrides. Results from these calculations and comparisons with experimental data will be presented. [1] F. Strieder, C. Rolfs, C. Spitaleri, and P.Corvisiero, Naturwissenschaften, 88 (2001) 461. [2] G. H. Miley, H. Hora, N. Luo, ¡°Screening in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions of Importance to Nuclear Astrophysics¡±, APS April Mtg. (2004), Denver, CO.

  7. Crustal Structure of Lower Yangtze Block/zone Using TomoDD and Its Relation to Strong Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Wen, Y.; Zhang, H.; Lina, G.

    2016-12-01

    By using the double difference topography method (tomoDD), we obtained 3-D crustal structure of Vp and Vs of Lower Yangtze Zone, the relocated hypocenters were also received at the same time. There are about 1600 events from 1983-2015 recorded by 53 seismic stations in eastern China, which was utilized in this study. The checkboard test showed that it can be resolved well in the study area with 0.5° grid meshed, except for the marginal zone. The results of tomoDD indicate that there are a lower P and S wave velocity layer in the 10-20Km depth underneath the northern Lower Yangtze Zone, and it's coincide with the active epicenters zone. From the horizontal slices of 3-D Crustal velocity images we found that, the three modern strong earthquakes(1979 M6.0, 1984 M6.2,1996 M6.1) in the Lower Yangtze Zone occurred all inside or the border of the lower velocity layer. The research suggest again that, crustal shallow strong earthquakes are not irregular distributed but tend to nuclear inside or around the crustal lower velocity layer.

  8. LIDT-DD: A new hybrid model to understand debris discs observations - The case of massive collisions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, Q.; Thébault, P.; Augereau, J.-C.; Boccaletti, A.; Charnoz, S.

    2014-12-01

    LIDT-DD is a new hybrid model coupling the collisional and dynamical evolution in debris discs in a self-consistent way. It has been developed in a way that allows to treat a large number of different astrophysical cases where collisions and dynamics have an important role. This interplay was often totally neglected in previous studies whereas, even for the simplest configurations, the real physics of debris discs imposes strong constraints and interactions between dynamics and collisions. After presenting the LIDT-DD model, we will describe the evolution of violent stochastic collisional events with this model. These massive impacts have been invoked as a possible explanation for some debris discs displaying pronounced azimuthal asymmetries or having a luminosity excess exceeding that expected for systems at collisional steady-state. So far, no thorough modelling of the consequences of such stochastic events has been carried out, mainly because of the extreme numerical challenge of coupling the dynamical and collisional evolution of the released dust. We follow the collisional and dynamical evolution of dust released after the breakup of a Ceres-sized body at 6 AU from its central star. We investigate the duration, magnitude and spatial structure of the signature left by such a violent event, as well as its observational detectability. We use the GRaTer package to estimate the system's luminosity at different wavelengths and derive synthetic images for the SPHERE/VLT and MIRI/JWST instruments.

  9. The Preferable F2dd Phase for Ca(BH4)2 Crystal Under Hydrostatic Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Tuan; Do, Phu Manh

    2017-02-01

    Calcium borohydride (Ca(BH4)2) belongs to a series of widely spread, cheap metal borohydrides that are promising for the mobile hydrogen economy, but with some properties still in open discussions. In particular, for the experimental Ca(BH4)2 α-phase both space groups F2dd and Fddd have been proposed. This work presents the analysis of enthalpy and bonding length changes in Ca(BH4)2 over the hydrostatic pressure range of 0-40 GPa, which shows a preference for the F2dd phase of Ca(BH4)2 over the Fddd one. The validity of the calculations, based on density functional theory implemented by the ABINIT package with the GGA method, is supported by the accordance of the results with experimental data for the α'-, β-, and δ-phases of Ca(BH4)2. The phonon spectra show the stability of the Ca(BH4)2 phases, where B- and H-ions provide the dominant part of the optical phonon bands, whereas the Ca-, B-, H-ions contribute to the acoustic bands.

  10. Crystal structure of the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase reveals new domains in penicillin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Eric; Herman, Raphaël; Petrella, Stephanie; Duez, Colette; Bouillenne, Fabrice; Frère, Jean-Marie; Charlier, Paulette

    2005-09-02

    Actinomadura sp. R39 produces an exocellular DD-peptidase/penicillin-binding protein (PBP) whose primary structure is similar to that of Escherichia coli PBP4. It is characterized by a high beta-lactam-binding activity (second order rate constant for the acylation of the active site serine by benzylpenicillin: k2/K = 300 mm(-1) s(-1)). The crystal structure of the DD-peptidase from Actinomadura R39 was solved at a resolution of 1.8 angstroms by single anomalous dispersion at the cobalt resonance wavelength. The structure is composed of three domains: a penicillin-binding domain similar to the penicillin-binding domain of E. coli PBP5 and two domains of unknown function. In most multimodular PBPs, additional domains are generally located at the C or N termini of the penicillin-binding domain. In R39, the other two domains are inserted in the penicillin-binding domain, between the SXXK and SXN motifs, in a manner similar to "Matryoshka dolls." One of these domains is composed of a five-stranded beta-sheet with two helices on one side, and the other domain is a double three-stranded beta-sheet inserted in the previous domain. Additionally, the 2.4-angstroms structure of the acyl-enzyme complex of R39 with nitrocefin reveals the absence of active site conformational change upon binding the beta-lactams.

  11. Inertial electrostatic confinement and DD fusion at interelectrode media of nanosecond vacuum discharge. PIC simulations and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilenkov, Yu K.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Skowronek, M.; Guskov, S. Yu; Dufty, J.

    2009-05-01

    The generation of energetic ions and DD neutrons from microfusion at the interelectrode space of a low-energy nanosecond vacuum discharge has been demonstrated recently [1, 2]. However, the physics of fusion processes and some results regarding the neutron yield from the database accumulated were poorly understood. The present work presents a detailed particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of the discharge experimental conditions using a fully electrodynamic code. The dynamics of all charge particles was reconstructed in time and anode-cathode (AC) space. The principal role of a virtual cathode (VC) and the corresponding single and double potential wells formed in the interelectrode space are recognized. The calculated depth of the quasistationary potential well (PW) of the VC is about 50-60 keV, and the D+ ions being trapped by this well accelerate up to energy values needed to provide collisional DD nuclear synthesis. The correlation between the calculated potential well structures (and dynamics) and the neutron yield observed is discussed. In particular, ions in the potential well undergo high-frequency (~80 MHz) harmonic oscillations accompanied by a corresponding regime of oscillatory neutron yield. Both experiment and PIC simulations illustrate favorable scaling of the fusion power density for the chosen IECF scheme based on nanosecond vacuum discharge.

  12. Analytical validation of a reverse transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) for quantitative detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jia, Peng; Purcell, Maureen; Pan, Guang; Wang, Jinjin; Kan, Shifu; Liu, Yin; Zheng, Xiaocong; SHi, Xiujie; He, Junqiang; Yu, Li; Hua, Qunyi; Lu, Tikang; Lan, Wensheng; Winton, James; Jin, Ningyi; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an important pathogen of salmonid fishes. A validated universal reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay that can quantify levels of IHNV in fish tissues has been previously reported. In the present study, we adapted the published set of IHNV primers and probe for use in a reverse-transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) assay for quantification of the virus in fish tissue samples. The RT-ddPCR and RT-qPCR assays detected 13 phylogenetically diverse IHNV strains, but neither assay produced detectable amplification when RNA from other fish viruses was used. The RT-ddPCR assay had a limit of detection (LOD) equating to 2.2 plaque forming units (PFU)/μl while the LOD for the RT-qPCR was 0.2 PFU/μl. Good agreement (69.4–100%) between assays was observed when used to detect IHNV RNA in cell culture supernatant and tissues from IHNV infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Estimates of RNA copy number produced by the two assays were significantly correlated but the RT-qPCR consistently produced higher estimates than the RT-ddPCR. The analytical properties of the N gene RT-ddPCR test indicated that this method may be useful to assess IHNV RNA copy number for research and diagnostic purposes. Future work is needed to establish the within and between laboratory diagnostic performance of the RT-ddPCR assay.

  13. Experimental search for the radiative capture reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} from the dd{mu} muonic molecule state J = 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baluev, V. V.; Bogdanova, L. N.; Bom, V. R.; Demin, D. L.; Eijk, C. W. E. van; Filchenkov, V. V.; Grafov, N. N.; Grishechkin, S. K.; Gritsaj, K. I.; Konin, A. D.; Mikhailyukov, K. L.; Rudenko, A. I.; Vinogradov, Yu. I.; Volnykh, V. P.; Yukhimchuk, A. A.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.

    2011-07-15

    A search for the muon-catalyzed fusion reaction d + d {yields} {sup 4}He + {gamma} in the dd{mu} muonic molecule was performed using the experimental installation TRITON with BGO detectors for {gamma}-quanta. A high-pressure target filled with deuterium was exposed to the negative muon beam of the JINR Phasotron to detect {gamma}-quanta with the energy 23.8 MeV. An experimental estimation for the yield of radiative deuteron capture from the dd{mu} state J = 1 was obtained at the level of {eta}{sub {gamma}} {<=} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} per fusion.

  14. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Kabadi, N V; Sio, H; Glebov, V; Gatu Johnson, M; MacPhee, A; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Seguin, F; Petrasso, R; Forrest, C; Knauer, J; Rinderknecht, H G

    2016-11-01

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF's absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF's sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At the NIF pTOF's sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. Some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.

  15. Agenesis of the corpus callosum in ddN strain mouse associated with unusual facial appearance (flat-face).

    PubMed

    Ozaki, H S; Murakami, T H; Toyoshima, T; Shimada, M

    1984-02-01

    In the course of an experiment involving brother-sister matings between ddN strain mice, mice occurred with an unusual facial appearance (flat-face). Subsequently, 4 mice with flat-face were bred from the litters of the second birth (ca. 10% frequency). This flat-face was assumed to be the result of a malformed short nose, hypoplastic maxilla and mandible, and hypertelorism. These 4 flat-face mice exhibited no significant delays in growth, motor ability or the development of learning ability. Histologically, they were all characterized by an almost total absence of callosal fibers and the presence of abnormal longitudinal neuromatous bundles. Therefore, the flat-face mice may be useful as experimental animals for brain research, as one can easily judge that they lack the corpus callosum from the facial appearance.

  16. Pathogenetic and therapeutic approaches to IgA nephropathy using a spontaneous animal model, the ddY mouse.

    PubMed

    Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2011-02-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common primary chronic glomerulonephritis in the world and was first described by Berger et al. (J Urol Nephrol 74:694-695;1968). Histopathologically, IgA nephropathy is characterized by expansion of the glomerular mesangial matrix with mesangial cell proliferation. Glomeruli typically contain generalized diffuse granular mesangial deposits of IgA (mainly IgA1), IgG and C3. In advanced patients, global glomerular sclerosis, crescent formation and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis are marked in light microscopy. IgA nephropathy is generally considered to be an immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis. Although more than 40 years have passed since this disease was firstly described, the pathogenesis/initiation factors of IgA nephropathy are still obscure. The objective of this review is to explain the pathogenesis and treatment based on our previous data of ddY mouse, a spontaneous animal model for IgA nephropathy.

  17. Comparison of DD, DT and Cf-252 neutron excitation of light and medium mass nuclei for field PGNAA applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Blackburn, B. W.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2007-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron activation analysis can offer significant cost and safety advantages in the identification of explosives and toxic chemicals. As an example, the US military examined over a thousand suspect chemical munitions with Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System last year. PGNAA requires, of course, a neutron source to excite the atomic nuclei of the item under test via neutron capture and inelastic neutron scattering reactions and the choice of neutron source can drastically affect PGNAA system performance. We have carried out Monte Carlo and laboratory experiments comparing DD, DT and Cf-252 neutrons incident on light and medium mass chemical elements, toward optimizing the design of future neutron-generator-based PGNAA systems for field use. We report the excitation of (n, γ) and (n, n‧) gamma rays from these elements by each type of neutron source.

  18. Design and performance investigation of LDPC-coded upstream transmission systems in IM/DD OFDM-PONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaoxue; Guo, Lei; Wu, Jingjing; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-12-01

    In Intensity-Modulation Direct-Detection (IM/DD) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Networks (OFDM-PONs), aside from Subcarrier-to-Subcarrier Intermixing Interferences (SSII) induced by square-law detection, the same laser frequency for data sending from Optical Network Units (ONUs) results in ONU-to-ONU Beating Interferences (OOBI) at the receiver. To mitigate those interferences, we design a Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC)-coded and spectrum-efficient upstream transmission system. A theoretical channel model is also derived, in order to analyze the detrimental factors influencing system performances. Simulation results demonstrate that the receiver sensitivity is improved 3.4 dB and 2.5 dB under QPSK and 8QAM, respectively, after 100 km Standard Single-Mode Fiber (SSMF) transmission. Furthermore, the spectrum efficiency can be improved by about 50%.

  19. OFDM and PAM comparison using a high baudrate low resolution IM/DD interface for 400G Ethernet access.

    PubMed

    André, Nuno Sequeira; Louchet, Hadrien; Filsinger, Volker; Hansen, Erik; Richter, André

    2016-05-30

    We compare OFDM and PAM for 400G Ethernet based on a 3-bit high baudrate IM/DD interface at 1550nm. We demonstrate 27Gb/s and 32Gb/s transmission over 10km SSMF using OFDM and PAM respectively. We show that capacity can be improved through adaptation/equalization to achieve 42Gb/s and 64Gb/s for OFDM and PAM respectively. Experimental results are used to create realistic simulations to extrapolate the performance of both modulation formats under varied conditions. For the considered interface we found that PAM has the best performance, OFDM is impaired by quantization noise. When the resolution limitation is relaxed, OFDM shows better performance.

  20. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Glebov, V.; Gatu Johnson, M.; MacPhee, A.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.

    2016-11-01

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF's absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF's sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At the NIF pTOF's sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. Some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.

  1. Challenges in the extrapolation from DD to DT plasmas: experimental analysis and theory based predictions for JET-DT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Challis, C.; Gallart, D.; Garzotti, L.; Görler, T.; King, D.; Mantsinen, M.; contributors, JET

    2017-01-01

    A strong modelling program has been started in support of the future JET-DT campaign with the aim of guiding experiments in deuterium (D) towards maximizing fusion energy production in Deuterium-Tritium (DT). Some of the key elements have been identified by using several of the most updated and sophisticated models for predicting heat and particle transport, pedestal pressure and heating sources in an integrated modelling framework. For the high beta and low gas operational regime, the density plays a critical role and a trend towards higher fusion power is obtained at lower densities. Additionally, turbulence stabilization by E  ×  B flow shear is shown to generate an isotope effect leading to higher confinement for DT than DD and therefore plasmas with high torque are suitable for maximizing fusion performance. Future JET campaigns will benefit from this modelling activity by defining clear priorities on their scientific program.

  2. Enhanced performance of visible light communication employing 512-QAM N-SC-FDE and DD-LMS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanquan; Huang, Xingxing; Zhang, Junwen; Wang, Yiguang; Chi, Nan

    2014-06-30

    In this paper, a novel hybrid time-frequency adaptive equalization algorithm based on a combination of frequency domain equalization (FDE) and decision-directed least mean square (DD-LMS) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in a Nyquist single carrier visible light communication (VLC) system. Adopting this scheme, as well with 512-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (512-QAM) and wavelength multiplexing division (WDM), an aggregate data rate of 4.22-Gb/s is successfully achieved employing a single commercially available red-green-blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) with low bandwidth. The measured Q-factors for 3 wavelength channels are all above the Q-limit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved by employing a commercially available RGB-LED.

  3. Secretion by overexpression and purification of the water-soluble Streptomyces K15 DD-transpeptidase/penicillin-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Palomeque-Messia, P; Quittre, V; Leyh-Bouille, M; Nguyen-Distèche, M; Gershater, C J; Dacey, I K; Dusart, J; Van Beeumen, J; Ghuysen, J M

    1992-01-01

    Though synthesized with a cleavable signal peptide and devoid of membrane anchors, the 262-amino-acid-residue Streptomyces K15 DD-transpeptidase/penicillin-binding protein is membrane-bound. Overexpression in Streptomyces lividans resulted in the export of an appreciable amount of the synthesized protein (4 mg/litre of culture supernatant). The water-soluble enzyme was purified close to protein homogeneity with a yield of 75%. It requires the presence of 0.5 M-NaCl to remain soluble. It is indistinguishable from the detergent-extract wild-type enzyme with respect to molecular mass, thermostability, transpeptidase activity and penicillin-binding capacity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:1445284

  4. A droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay to detect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in bulk trap samples

    PubMed Central

    Tembrock, Luke R.; Timm, Alicia E.; Farris, Roxanne E.; Perera, Omaththage P.; Gilligan, Todd M.

    2017-01-01

    Moths in the genus Helicoverpa are some of the most important agricultural pests in the world. Two species, H. armigera (Hübner) and H. zea (Boddie), cause the majority of damage to crops and millions of dollars are spent annually on control of these pests. The recent introduction of H. armigera into the New World has prompted extensive survey efforts for this species in the United States. Surveys are conducted using bucket traps baited with H. armigera pheromone, and, because the same pheromone compounds attract both species, these traps often capture large numbers of the native H. zea. Adult H. armigera and H. zea are very similar and can only be separated morphologically by minor differences in the genitalia. Thus, a time consuming genitalic dissection by a trained specialist is necessary to reliably identify either species, and every specimen must be dissected. Several molecular methods are available for differentiating and identifying H. armigera and H. zea, including two recently developed rapid protocols using real-time PCR. However, none of the published methods are capable of screening specimens in large batches. Here we detail a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay that is capable of detecting a single H. armigera in a background of up to 999 H. zea. The assay has been tested using bulk extractions of 1,000 legs from actual trap samples and is effective even when using poor quality samples. This study provides an efficient, rapid, reproducible, and scalable method for processing H. armigera survey trap samples in the U.S. and demonstrates the potential for applying ddPCR technology to screen and diagnose invasive species. PMID:28562660

  5. Identification and Characterization of Noncovalent Interactions That Drive Binding and Specificity in DD-Peptidases and β-Lactamases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to standard (i.e., β-lactam-based) antibiotics has become a global pandemic. Simultaneously, research into the underlying causes of resistance has slowed substantially, although its importance is universally recognized. Key to unraveling critical details is characterization of the noncovalent interactions that govern binding and specificity (DD-peptidases, antibiotic targets, versus β-lactamases, the evolutionarily derived enzymes that play a major role in resistance) and ultimately resistance as a whole. Herein, we describe a detailed investigation that elicits new chemical insights into these underlying intermolecular interactions. Benzylpenicillin and a novel β-lactam peptidomimetic complexed to the Stremptomyces R61 peptidase are examined using an arsenal of computational techniques: MD simulations, QM/MM calculations, charge perturbation analysis, QM/MM orbital analysis, bioinformatics, flexible receptor/flexible ligand docking, and computational ADME predictions. Several key molecular level interactions are identified that not only shed light onto fundamental resistance mechanisms, but also offer explanations for observed specificity. Specifically, an extended π–π network is elucidated that suggests antibacterial resistance has evolved, in part, due to stabilizing aromatic interactions. Additionally, interactions between the protein and peptidomimetic substrate are identified and characterized. Of particular interest is a water-mediated salt bridge between Asp217 and the positively charged N-terminus of the peptidomimetic, revealing an interaction that may significantly contribute to β-lactam specificity. Finally, interaction information is used to suggest modifications to current β-lactam compounds that should both improve binding and specificity in DD-peptidases and their physiochemical properties. PMID:24803854

  6. Polymerase recognition of 2-thio-iso-guanine·5-methyl-4-pyrimidinone (iGs·P)--A new DD/AA base pair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kye; Switzer, Christopher

    2016-02-15

    Polymerase specificity is reported for a previously unknown base pair with a non-standard DD/AA hydrogen bonding pattern: 2-thio-iso-guanine·5-methyl-4-pyrimidinone. Our findings suggest that atomic substitution may provide a solution for low fidelity previously associated with enzymatic copying of iso-guanine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  8. dacD, an Escherichia coli gene encoding a novel penicillin-binding protein (PBP6b) with DD-carboxypeptidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, M R; Bouzon, M; Quintela, J C; Ayala, J A; Moreno, F

    1996-01-01

    In the course of a study of genes located at min 44 of the Escherichia coli genome, we identified an open reading frame with the capacity to encode a 43-kDa polypeptide whose predicted amino acid sequence is strikingly similar to those of the well-known DD-carboxipeptidases penicillin-binding proteins PBP5 and PBP6. The gene product was shown to bind [3H]benzylpenicillin and to have DD-carboxypeptidase activity on pentapeptide muropeptides in vivo. Therefore, we called the protein PBP6b and the gene dacD. As with other E. coli DD-carboxypeptidases, PBP6b is not essential for cell growth. A quadruple dacA dacB dacC dacD mutant was constructed and shown to grow as well as its isogenic wild-type strain, indicating that the loss of any known PBP-associated DD-carboxypeptidase activity is not deleterious for E. coli. We also identified the homologous gene of dacD in Salmonella typhimurium as one of the components of the previously described phsBCDEF gene cluster. PMID:8955390

  9. A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Influencing Droplet Rain in the Listeria monocytogenes prfA Assay - Reduction of Ambiguous Results in ddPCR

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Anna Kristina; Mester, Patrick; Fister, Susanne; Witte, Matthias; Schoder, Dagmar; Rossmanith, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) determines DNA amounts based upon the pattern of positive and negative droplets, according to Poisson distribution, without the use of external standards. However, division into positive and negative droplets is often not clear because a part of the droplets has intermediate fluorescence values, appearing as “rain” in the plot. Despite the droplet rain, absolute quantification with ddPCR is possible, as shown previously for the prfA assay in quantifying Listeria monocytogenes. Nevertheless, reducing the rain, and thus ambiguous results, promotes the accuracy and credibility of ddPCR. In this study, we extensively investigated chemical and physical parameters for optimizing the prfA assay for ddPCR. While differences in the concentration of all chemicals and the dye, quencher and supplier of the probe did not alter the droplet pattern, changes in the PCR cycling program, such as prolonged times and increased cycle numbers, improved the assay. PMID:27992475

  10. Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis system design: Effects of D-T versus D-D neutron generator source selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) analysis is used for the non-invasive measurement of human body composition. Advancements in portable, compact neutron generator design have made those devices attractive as neutron sources. Two distinct generators are available: D-D with 2.5 MeV and D-T with...

  11. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reserve component or student taking military training. 1630.13 Section 1630.13 National Defense Other...: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military training. In Class 1-D-D... (entire college level) Army Reserve Officer's Training Corps, or the Air Force Reserve Officer's...

  12. Acquisition and Competition Strategy Options for the DD(X): The U.S. Navy’s 21st Century Destroyer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    assistance. F. Scott DiLisio, deputy program manager; Leon Godfrey; and Clayton Aherns were especially helpful, providing back- ground on the DD(X...Strategy Proposal: Schedule, Cost, and AP Implications,” brief to Kathleen Peroff , Office of Man- agement and Budget, April 27, 2005. Department of the

  13. Primary and predicted secondary structures of the Actinomadura R39 extracellular DD-peptidase, a penicillin-binding protein (PBP) related to the Escherichia coli PBP4.

    PubMed Central

    Granier, B; Duez, C; Lepage, S; Englebert, S; Dusart, J; Dideberg, O; Van Beeumen, J; Frère, J M; Ghuysen, J M

    1992-01-01

    As derived from gene cloning and sequencing, the 489-amino-acid DD-peptidase/penicillin-binding protein (PBP) produced by Actinomadura R39 has a primary structure very similar to that of the Escherichia coli PBP4 [Mottl, Terpstra & Keck (1991) FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 78, 213-220]. Hydrophobic-cluster analysis of the two proteins shows that, providing that a large 174-amino-acid stretch is excluded from the analysis, the bulk of the two polypeptide chains possesses homologues of the active-site motifs and secondary structures found in the class A beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G of known three-dimensional structure. The 174-amino-acid insert occurs at equivalent places in the two PBPs, between helices alpha 2 and alpha 3, away from the active site. Such an insert is unique among the penicilloyl serine transferases. It is proposed that the Actinomadura R39 PBP and E. coli PBP4 form a special class, class C, of low-Mr PBPs/DD-peptidases. A vector has been constructed and introduced by electrotransformation in the original Actinomadura R39 strain, allowing high-level expression and secretion of the DD-peptidase/PBP (250 mg.l-1). The gene encoding the desired protein is processed differently in Actinomadura R39 and Streptomyces lividans. Incorrect processing in Streptomyces lividans leads to a secreted protein which is inert in terms of DD-peptidase activity and penicillin-binding capacity. Images Fig. 5. PMID:1554361

  14. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; ...

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,more » comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.« less

  15. Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis system design: effects of D-T versus D-D neutron generator source selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is used for the non-invasive measurement of human body composition. Advancements in portable, compact neutron generator design have made those devices attractive as neutron sources. Two distinct generators are available: D-D with 2.5 MeV, and D-T wi...

  16. State Trends in Employment Services for People with Developmental Disabilities: Multiyear Comparisons Based on State MR/DD Agency and Vocational Rehabilitation (RSA) Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, John; Gilmore, Dana S.; Kiernan, William E.; Schalock, Robert

    This monograph summarizes national and state level changes in employment patterns for individuals with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities. It presents longitudinal data from state mental retardation/developmental disability (MR/DD) agencies covering 8 years between FY88 and FY96, and for federal/state vocational rehabilitation…

  17. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J. Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-15

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  18. A comparison of DNA methylation specific droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and real time qPCR with flow cytometry in characterizing human T cells in peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Wiencke, John K; Bracci, Paige M; Hsuang, George; Zheng, Shichun; Hansen, Helen; Wrensch, Margaret R; Rice, Terri; Eliot, Melissa; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-01-01

    Quantitating the copy number of demethylated CpG promoter sites of the CD3Z gene can be used to estimate the numbers and proportions of T cells in human blood and tissue. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qPCR) is useful for studying T cells but requires extensive calibration and is imprecise at low copy numbers. Here we compared the performance of a new digital PCR platform (droplet digital PCR or ddPCR) to qPCR using bisulfite converted DNA from 157 blood specimens obtained from ambulatory care controls and patients with primary glioma. We compared both ddPCR and qPCR with conventional flow cytometry (FACS) evaluation of CD3 positive T cells. Repeated measures on the same blood sample revealed ddPCR to be less variable than qPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR correlated significantly with FACS evaluation of peripheral blood CD3 counts and CD3/total leukocyte values. However, statistical measures of agreement showed that linear concordance was stronger for ddPCR than for qPCR and the absolute values were closer to FACS for ddPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR could distinguish clinically significant differences in T cell proportions and performed similarly to FACS. Given the higher precision, greater accuracy, and technical simplicity of ddPCR, this approach appears to be a superior DNA methylation based method than conventional qPCR for the assessment of T cells. PMID:25437051

  19. A comparison of DNA methylation specific droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and real time qPCR with flow cytometry in characterizing human T cells in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Wiencke, John K; Bracci, Paige M; Hsuang, George; Zheng, Shichun; Hansen, Helen; Wrensch, Margaret R; Rice, Terri; Eliot, Melissa; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-10-01

    Quantitating the copy number of demethylated CpG promoter sites of the CD3Z gene can be used to estimate the numbers and proportions of T cells in human blood and tissue. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qPCR) is useful for studying T cells but requires extensive calibration and is imprecise at low copy numbers. Here we compared the performance of a new digital PCR platform (droplet digital PCR or ddPCR) to qPCR using bisulfite converted DNA from 157 blood specimens obtained from ambulatory care controls and patients with primary glioma. We compared both ddPCR and qPCR with conventional flow cytometry (FACS) evaluation of CD3 positive T cells. Repeated measures on the same blood sample revealed ddPCR to be less variable than qPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR correlated significantly with FACS evaluation of peripheral blood CD3 counts and CD3/total leukocyte values. However, statistical measures of agreement showed that linear concordance was stronger for ddPCR than for qPCR and the absolute values were closer to FACS for ddPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR could distinguish clinically significant differences in T cell proportions and performed similarly to FACS. Given the higher precision, greater accuracy, and technical simplicity of ddPCR, this approach appears to be a superior DNA methylation based method than conventional qPCR for the assessment of T cells.

  20. Detection and removal of PCR duplicates in population genomic ddRAD studies by addition of a degenerate base region (DBR) in sequencing adapters.

    PubMed

    Schweyen, Hannah; Rozenberg, Andrey; Leese, Florian

    2014-10-01

    Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD) has emerged as a powerful marker system for studying genome-wide DNA polymorphisms using next-generation sequencing. A recent technical facilitation of RAD is double-digest RAD (ddRAD), which utilizes two restriction enzymes for library preparation. The more flexible and balanced ddRAD allows analysis of genomic loci in hundreds of individuals. However, in contrast to paired-end sequencing of traditional RAD libraries, PCR duplicates cannot be detected with ddRAD. This is a concern because duplicates can contribute substantially to read coverage data and erroneously inflate the proportion of homozygous loci (allele dropout). Allele dropout can bias population genetic parameter inference and complicate the detection of outlier loci under selection. Here we outline a simple and straightforward approach to detecting PCR duplicates from ddRAD libraries. Our approach introduces a degenerate base region (DBR, 12,288 unique combinations) in the sequencing adapter. We demonstrate the high efficiency and low rate of false positives in simulations. In addition, a pilot study was performed to test this approach on six aquatic invertebrates, sequenced on a HiSeq 2500 sequencer. The reads of the ddRAD libraries consisted of 33.48% PCR duplicates distributed on 19.40% of the loci. A disproportionate number of PCR duplicates were detected in only 4.66% of the loci. While this should not be a concern for general parameter inference, outlier loci detection in particular would be improved by the DBR technique. Given the easy and straightforward application of the technique in other RAD protocols as well, we suggest that DBR regions should generally be included in PCR-based RAD studies. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  1. Glacial to Holocene dynamics of Indonesian precipitation - New insights from plant-wax dD off Northwest Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeyer, E. M.; Mohtadi, M.; Sessions, A. L.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We used the stable hydrogen and stable carbon isotopic composition (dD and d13C, respectively) of terrestrial plant leaf waxes as a proxy for past rainfall variations over northwestern Indonesia. Our study site lies within the western boundary of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), a key evaporative site for the global hydrologic cycle. At present, rainfall intensity in tropical Indonesia is influenced by the Pacific Ocean El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (see Kirono et al., 1999), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode (Saji et al., 1999), and to some extend by the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (e.g. Koutavas and Lynch-Stieglitz, 2005). Paleoclimate studies show that these systems have varied in the past, however, the impact of these changes on regional paelo-hydrology of Indonesia is yet unknown. We worked on marine sediment core SO189-144KL (1°09,300 N; 98°03,960 E) retrieved at 480 m water depth off Northwest Sumatra from the eastern Indian Ocean. Sediments consist of material from marine and terrestrial sources, and radiocarbon dating indicates an age of ~300 years at the core top and of ~24,000 years at the base. We used d13C and dD values of the n-C30 alkanoic acid as proxies for changes in vegetation composition (C3 vs. C4 plants) and rainfall variability on land, respectively. Values of d13C show only little variation and suggest persistent dominance of tropical trees throughout the past 24,000 years. Values of dD display distinct variability throughout the record, however, mean rainfall intensities during the late Last Glacial compare to those during the Holocene. This is in agreement with rather consistent vegetation at the study site but in sharp contrast with reconstructions of contemporaneous rainfall patterns at the nearby islands Borneo (Partin et al., 2007) and Flores (Griffiths et al., 2009), indicating multiple controls on regional hydrology of Indonesia. In combination with previous studies of late Pleistocene to Holocene

  2. Coastal lagoons as a natural sewage treatment plant and their impact on the natural stable isotope signature in nitrate (d 15N, d 18O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, M.; Pastuszak, M.; Sitek, S.; Schulte, U.

    2003-04-01

    Eutrophication is one of the major threats to the Baltic Sea ecosystems and, therefore, various possibilities for nutrient removal scenarios are currently discussed. One approach considers a 50% decrease in nutrient inputs by all riparian countries, however, this would cost 380 Mio Euro/yr. Some countries already discharge highly treated sewage waters and any further reduction would be very costly, while other countries use only basic (mechanical) treatment procedures and further treatment could be done cost efficiently. One natural way that reduces nutrient loads and minimize inputs of nitrate, ammonium and phosphate is their transfer through coastal lagoons that act as a natural treatment plant. The residence time of river water is prolonged and that enables settlement of particles and bacterial removal of nitrate and ammonium. This study made it possible to investigate the effect the Szczecin Lagoon has on nutrient concentrations by comparing two stations - one located ca. 100 km upstream, and the other in the Swina Canal, the major outlet of the lagoon. Biweekly samples were taken at both stations. A drop in nitrate concentrations occasionally reached 90%, while the annual removal of nitrate amounted to 55%. The delta 15N and delta 18O data of nitrate were used to investigate the processes responsible for the drop in concentration. Surprisingly, the theoretical delta 15N values (calculated after Rayleigh equation) were negatively correlated with the measured ones, and delta 18O values were unusually high for the river nitrate. We therefore conclude that part of the nitrate was denitrified without fractionation as suggested by Brandes and Devol (1997). However, an additional nitrate source with low delta 15N and high delta 18O values might be also considered. For phosphate the removal was lower, reaching only 15% annually. It seems that the lagoon was more efficiently retaining nitrogen thus changing the N/P ratio of the outflowing water towards N-limitation.

  3. Far-Travelled High-Grade Ignimbrites or Widespread Generation of Low-d18O Magma? The Problem of the West Bennett Hills, Snake River Plain, ID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkel, W. A.; Bonnichsen, B.; Godchaux, M.; Boroughs, S.; Wolff, J.

    2006-12-01

    The West Bennett Hills (WBH), on the north side of the Snake River Plain (SRP) of southern Idaho, consist of a sequence of rhyolitic volcanic units known to share similar ages and chemistry with upper units of the Cougar Point Tuff (CPT), a series of high-grade ignimbrites associated with the Bruneau-Jarbidge (BJ) eruptive center 120 km south of WBH. The CPT and associated BJ rocks represent the largest known low- δ18O rhyolite province in the world (Boroughs et al., 2005). Detailed WBH-BJ correlations have not been made, hence there are two possible origins for the WBH, with very different significance. First, if correlations at the resolution of single eruptive units can be confirmed through stratigraphic, geochronological and petrological studies, it will have been established that individual high-temperature, high-grade rheomorphic pyroclastic flows can leave lava-like deposits over distances in excess of 100 km. Second, preliminary analyses have established that the WBH rocks have a low-δ18O signature, similar to the CPT. If this study shows that the WBH flows do not correlate with the CPT but are locally erupted, then the area beneath which low-δ18O magma has been generated is considerably increased, with implications for petrogenesis. Preliminary whole-rock chemical data show that large abundance discrepancies exist for some trace elements (notably Ba and Zr) when WBH eruptive units are compared with candidate correlatives at BJ, despite overall similarity in composition, mineral assemblages, and eruptive style. Hence, the WBH rhyolites appear to have been generated at the same time, and from near-identical sources and/or via near-identical processes as the BJ, but at a distance on the order of 100 km away. This uniformity of character across the width of the central SRP is a striking feature of Snake River Plain silicic melt generation and volcanism. Reference: Boroughs et al. (2005) Geology 33, 821.

  4. Intra-shell d18O in Cultured Benthic Foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera and the Influence of Seawater Carbonate Chemistry and Temperature on this Isotopic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, C.; Erez, J.; Zilberman, T.; Segev, E.

    2006-12-01

    Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) we looked at the natural variability in the oxygen isotope ratio of the shallow water, symbionts bearing foraminiferan A. lobifera. Live foraminifera were collected in June 2005 in the Gulf of Eilat, Israel. Vertical section exposing the knob area of this species represents the growth history of this species from December 2004 to June 2005. SIMS profile at a resolution of ~ 2 weeks yielded δ^1^8O changes of ~ 1.5 ‰, (from -0.1 ‰ to 1.45 ‰) that are compatible with the known temperature changes for the Gulf of Eilat for this period (20 to 25° C). Natural variability between primary and secondary calcite at the knob area were obtained on horizontal section of the upper knob area. The primary calcite is on average 2 ‰ more negative then the secondary calcite that represents the bulk of the skeleton (more then 95 % by weight). The δ^1^8O in the margin keel area of A. lobifera is also lower compared to the bulk secondary calcite. Specimens that were cultured in the laboratory at a constant temperature and inorganic carbon but at different pH have increased their CaCO3 weight by roughly a factor of 8. Single specimen from each pH (ranging between 7.9 and 8.5) was investigated with the SIMS at the knob area. While there is some variability within each specimen (perhaps related to the primary calcite), the general trend was a decrease in δ^1^8O with increasing pH (or CO32^- concentration), in agreement with previous studies on planktonic foraminifera. Specimens cultured in laboratory at a constant pH, but different temperature were also analysed in the knob area. The temperature range is between 21 and 33° C (experiments at 21, 24, 27 and 33° C). While there is also some variability within each specimen, the trend was a decrease in δ^1^8O with increasing temperature. The decrease measured is 2.7 ± 0.7 ‰ for the entire temperature range, which is completely in agreement with the theoretical value (-0.2 ‰ per ° C).

  5. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Glebov, V.; Gatu Johnson, M.; MacPhee, A.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.

    2016-08-09

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF’s absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF’s sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At the NIF pTOF’s sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. Some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.

  6. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Glebov, V.; Gatu Johnson, M.; MacPhee, A.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.

    2016-08-09

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF’s absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF’s sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At the NIF pTOF’s sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. As a result, some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.

  7. A novel power-efficient scheme asymmetrically and symmetrically clipping optical (ASCO)-OFDM for IM/DD optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Bar-Ness, Yeheskel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. By using this novel scheme of an OFDM optical system, not only odd subcarriers but also even subcarriers can be modulated to transmit a clipping optical signal. A conventional asymmetrically clipping optical (ACO)-OFDM is applied to modulate odd subcarriers while even subcarriers are modulated by a novel technique called a symmetrically clipping optical (SCO)-OFDM. Although both the asymmetrically clipping noise caused by ACO-OFDM and the symmetrically clipping noise caused by SCO-OFDM fall onto the even subcarriers, the former interference can be estimated and removed at the receiver. Thus, SCO-OFDM symbols carried on the even subcarriers can be recovered by subtracting the estimated ACO-OFDM clipping noise from the received signal. Then the SCO-OFDM clipping noise can be removed by subtraction due to its special transmission format. Note that no DC bias added on all subcarriers makes this novel scheme achieve better performance in terms of both power efficiency and symbol error rate (SER).

  8. Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M.

    1997-04-01

    Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state.

  9. D-D Neutron Generator Calibrations and Hardware in the LUX-ZEPLIN Dark Matter Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Will; Lux-Zeplin Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) dark matter search experiment will be a two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber with 7 tonnes of active liquid xenon (LXe) located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. LZ will utilize an in-situ, absolute calibration of nuclear recoils (NR) in LXe using mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons produced by a D-D neutron generator. This technique was used in the LUX detector to measured the NR charge yield in LXe (Qy) to 0.7 keV recoil energy and the NR light yield in LXe (Ly) to recoil energies of 1.1 keV - both of which were the lowest energy measurements achieved in the field. These absolute, ultra-low energy calibrations of the NR signal yields in LXe provide clear measurements of the detector response used for the WIMP search analysis. The improvements made for LZ will include shorter neutron pulse times, multiple neutron conduit configurations, and lower energy neutrons. The upgrades allow for even lower energy measurements of the nuclear recoil response in LXe and an independent measurement of Ly, as well as providing less uncertainty in energy reconstruction. In addition to discussing the physics of the neutron calibrations, I will describe the hardware systems used to implement them.

  10. Evaluation of Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern and Association Study on Seed Oil Content in Brassica napus Using ddRAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhikun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xun; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J.; Xiao, Yingjie; Liu, Kede

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are the prerequisite for understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex traits in crops. To evaluate the LD pattern in oilseed rape, we sequenced a previous association panel containing 189 B. napus inbred lines using double-digested restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) and genotyped 19,327 RAD tags. A total of 15,921 RAD tags were assigned to a published genetic linkage map and the majority (71.1%) of these tags was uniquely mapped to the draft reference genome “Darmor-bzh.” The distance of LD decay was 1,214 kb across the genome at the background level (r2 = 0.26), with the distances of LD decay being 405 kb and 2,111 kb in the A and C subgenomes, respectively. A total of 361 haplotype blocks with length > 100 kb were identified in the entire genome. The association panel could be classified into two groups, P1 and P2, which are essentially consistent with the geographical origins of varieties. A large number of group-specific haplotypes were identified, reflecting that varieties in the P1 and P2 groups experienced distinct selection in breeding programs to adapt their different growth habitats. GWAS repeatedly detected two loci significantly associated with oil content of seeds based on the developed SNPs, suggesting that the high-density SNPs were useful for understanding the genetic determinants of complex traits in GWAS. PMID:26730738

  11. D.D. Palmer: the origins of the Palmer School and the itinerant schoolman, 1897-1913.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, R W

    1998-12-01

    For the last sixteen years of his life, Daniel David Palmer was involved in at least ten institutions in four states offering a course in chiropractic. In a five year period spanning the end of nineteenth and the start of the twentieth centuries, D.D. began the chiropractic educational experience with the Chiropractic School and Cure in Davenport's Ryan Building, suceeded by the Palmer School and Infirmary of Chiropractic (PSIC), followed by the Palmer School of Chiropractic. Further documentation is needed to place Palmer in the East during late 1900, where he may have engaged in the first of his preceptor schools. The Discoverer went to California in 1902 where he presided over the Chiropractic School and Infirmary first in Pasadena and then in Santa Barbara. Returning to Davenport, he joined his son B.J. at the school until he sold his interest in 1906 and moved to Oklahoma City. Between 1907 and 1908, he was part of the Palmer-Gregory College and then his own Palmer College, moving to Portland, Oregon. This involved two institutions through 1911, when the senior Palmer settled in Los Angeles, conducted his own school and lectured at the Ratledge and Universal colleges until his death.

  12. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Glebov, V.; Gatu Johnson, M.; MacPhee, A.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.

    2016-08-09

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF’s absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF’s sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At the NIF pTOF’s sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. As a result, some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.

  13. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Glebov, V.; ...

    2016-08-09

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF’s absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF’s sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At themore » NIF pTOF’s sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. As a result, some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.« less

  14. Development of a new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    A new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been developed by Adelphi Technology for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and fast neutron radiography. The generator makes an excellent fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron source for laboratories and industrial applications that require the safe production of neutrons, a small footprint, low cost, and small regulatory burden. The generator has three major components: a Radio Frequency Induction Ion Source, a Secondary Electron Shroud, and a Diode Accelerator Structure and Target. Monoenergetic neutrons (2.5MeV) are produced with a yield of 10(10)n/s using 25-50mA of deuterium ion beam current and 125kV of acceleration voltage. The present study characterizes the performance of the neutron generator with respect to neutron yield, neutron production efficiency, and the ionic current as a function of the acceleration voltage at various RF powers. In addition the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) simulation code was used to optimize the setup with respect to thermal flux and radiation protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tomographic images of the Ionian slab beneath the Calabrian Arc by using the TomoDD algorithm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo', M.; Davi', R.; Dorbath, C.; Luzio, D.

    2006-12-01

    In the present study a seismic wave velocity tomography has been performed in the sector of the Tyrrhenian sea including the intermediate and deep epicenters of events recorded from 1988 to 2002. The dataset selected is relative to 1428 earthquakes and it is constituted by 23392 P and 7492 S arrival times recorded by national and local netwoks. The dataset was inverted using the double-difference code TomoDD (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) for the simultaneous determination of hypocenter coordinates and Vp and Vs three-dimensional distributions. The reliability of the final velocity models was assessed by tests made using synthetic and experimental data. The shape of the velocity distributions suggests the possible presence in this region of a layer with thickness less than 25-30 km characterized, at least up to about 340 km depth by a lower velocity than the surrounding mantle. The intermediate and deep earthquakes turn out mainly distributed inside a thin layer which has the same shape and a slightly lower depth than the velocity anomaly. Our results seem to match with the geological model of roll-back subduction of the Ionian slab.

  16. A Comparison of 1D and 2D (Unbiased) Experimental Methods for Measuring CSAsolarDD Cross-Correlated Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batta, Gy.; Kövér, K. E.; Kowalewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional and enhanced 1D experiments and different NOESY experiments (the 2D unbiased method) were performed for measuring CSA/DD cross-correlated relaxation on trehalose, a compound which could be approximated as a spherical top, and on simple model compounds comprisingC3vsymmetry (CHCl3, triphenylsilane (TPSi)). The comparison gives experimental evidence for the equivalence of the methods within the limits of the two-spin approach. 1D data are evaluated with both the simple initial rate and the Redfield relaxation matrix approach. The 2D data are obtained from the so-called transfer matrix using the Perrin-Gipe eigenvalue/eigenvector method. For the improved performance of the 2D method, anX-filtered (HHH) NOESY is suggested at the natural abundance of13C (or other dilute, low γ species). Also, experimental parameters crucial for reliable CSA data are tested (e.g., the impact of insufficient relaxation delay). Error estimation is carried out for fair comparison of methods. Revised liquid state1H and13C (29Si) CSA data are presented for chloroform and TPSi.

  17. Evaluation of Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern and Association Study on Seed Oil Content in Brassica napus Using ddRAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhikun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xun; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Xiao, Yingjie; Liu, Kede

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are the prerequisite for understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex traits in crops. To evaluate the LD pattern in oilseed rape, we sequenced a previous association panel containing 189 B. napus inbred lines using double-digested restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) and genotyped 19,327 RAD tags. A total of 15,921 RAD tags were assigned to a published genetic linkage map and the majority (71.1%) of these tags was uniquely mapped to the draft reference genome "Darmor-bzh." The distance of LD decay was 1,214 kb across the genome at the background level (r2 = 0.26), with the distances of LD decay being 405 kb and 2,111 kb in the A and C subgenomes, respectively. A total of 361 haplotype blocks with length > 100 kb were identified in the entire genome. The association panel could be classified into two groups, P1 and P2, which are essentially consistent with the geographical origins of varieties. A large number of group-specific haplotypes were identified, reflecting that varieties in the P1 and P2 groups experienced distinct selection in breeding programs to adapt their different growth habitats. GWAS repeatedly detected two loci significantly associated with oil content of seeds based on the developed SNPs, suggesting that the high-density SNPs were useful for understanding the genetic determinants of complex traits in GWAS.

  18. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assays integrated with an internal control for quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey species in food and feed

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Hanan R.; Li, Jiping; Redda, Helen; Cheng, Shumei; Tabujara, Nicole; Li, Honghong; Warriner, Keith; Hanner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Food adulteration and feed contamination are significant issues in the food/feed industry, especially for meat products. Reliable techniques are needed to monitor these issues. Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) assays were developed and evaluated for detection and quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey DNA in food and feed samples. The ddPCR methods were designed based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and integrated with an artificial recombinant plasmid DNA to control variabilities in PCR procedures. The specificity of the ddPCR assays was confirmed by testing both target species and additional 18 non-target species. Linear regression established a detection range between 79 and 33200 copies of the target molecule from 0.26 to 176 pg of fresh animal tissue DNA with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.997–0.999. The quantification ranges of the methods for testing fortified heat-processed food and feed samples were 0.05–3.0% (wt/wt) for the bovine and turkey targets, and 0.01–1.0% (wt/wt) for pork and chicken targets. Our methods demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility for the analytical process for food and feed samples. Internal validation of the PCR process was monitored using a control chart for 74 consecutive ddPCR runs for quantifying bovine DNA. A matrix effect was observed while establishing calibration curves with the matrix type under testing, and the inclusion of an internal control in DNA extraction provides a useful means to overcome this effect. DNA degradation caused by heating, sonication or Taq I restriction enzyme digestion was found to reduce ddPCR readings by as much as 4.5 fold. The results illustrated the applicability of the methods to quantify meat species in food and feed samples without the need for a standard curve, and to potentially support enforcement activities for food authentication and feed control. Standard reference materials matching typical manufacturing processes are needed for future

  19. Changes in PCDD/PCDF formation processes during instationary phases of combustor operation--exemplified by the use of Cl4DD isomer patterns.

    PubMed

    Neuer-Etscheidt, K; Orasche, J; Nordsieck, H; Streibel, T; Zimmermann, R; Kettrup, A

    2007-04-01

    In this paper results of various measurement campaigns at different municipal waste incineration (MWI) plants concerning the change of the PCDD/PCDF isomer distribution in the crude gas during transiently impaired combustion conditions are presented. The focus is on the Cl4DD isomer distributions exemplarily for all other homologue groups to demonstrate the change in PCDD/PCDF formation mechanism at transient combustion conditions. Additionally to crude gas samples, at one plant filter and boiler ash were investigated simultaneously to determine if there is any difference in the isomer distribution between the matrices. For the ash from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP ash), the boiler ash and the corresponding crude gas sample, nearly identical changes in the Cl4DD isomer distribution under transient combustion conditions in relation to the normal operation process could be detected. By comparing the Cl4DD isomer distributions from different incineration plants (two municipal waste incinerators and one little incinerator burning wood chips for heating domestic household) under transient combustion conditions, in all cases the 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-Cl4DD were dominating the isomer distribution, whereas under normal operation other isomers were predominant. Obviously PCDD/PCDF formation mechanisms under transient combustion conditions are independent from the type of incinerator and of the burned fuel, respectively. Data sets were analyzed with respect to the possible reaction mechanism via chlorophenols and a good correlation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol during the second phase of a start-up process and during a CO experiment was found. To get more detailed information about possible formation mechanisms, at one plant the dependence of the PCDD/PCDF isomer distribution on the different matrices was studied. Separate analysis of fly ash collected at the boiler exit, subsequent gas phase, ESP ash and boiler ash under normal operation conditions showed that, apart from

  20. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assays integrated with an internal control for quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey species in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Hanan R; Li, Jiping; Chen, Shu; Redda, Helen; Cheng, Shumei; Tabujara, Nicole; Li, Honghong; Warriner, Keith; Hanner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Food adulteration and feed contamination are significant issues in the food/feed industry, especially for meat products. Reliable techniques are needed to monitor these issues. Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) assays were developed and evaluated for detection and quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey DNA in food and feed samples. The ddPCR methods were designed based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and integrated with an artificial recombinant plasmid DNA to control variabilities in PCR procedures. The specificity of the ddPCR assays was confirmed by testing both target species and additional 18 non-target species. Linear regression established a detection range between 79 and 33200 copies of the target molecule from 0.26 to 176 pg of fresh animal tissue DNA with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.997-0.999. The quantification ranges of the methods for testing fortified heat-processed food and feed samples were 0.05-3.0% (wt/wt) for the bovine and turkey targets, and 0.01-1.0% (wt/wt) for pork and chicken targets. Our methods demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility for the analytical process for food and feed samples. Internal validation of the PCR process was monitored using a control chart for 74 consecutive ddPCR runs for quantifying bovine DNA. A matrix effect was observed while establishing calibration curves with the matrix type under testing, and the inclusion of an internal control in DNA extraction provides a useful means to overcome this effect. DNA degradation caused by heating, sonication or Taq I restriction enzyme digestion was found to reduce ddPCR readings by as much as 4.5 fold. The results illustrated the applicability of the methods to quantify meat species in food and feed samples without the need for a standard curve, and to potentially support enforcement activities for food authentication and feed control. Standard reference materials matching typical manufacturing processes are needed for future validation

  1. The Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) study: Collection of baseline data from the first 580 patients

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Ulrichsen, Sinna Pilgaard; Pedersen, Lars; Hansen, Anne-Marie Sigsgaard; Nilsson, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the baseline data collected in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. The paper presents descriptive data from the first 580 patients enrolled in the DD2. The DD2 database will contain detailed interview data, clinical examination data, and urine and blood samples from up to 10,000 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes each year, collected from general practitioners and hospital outpatient clinics in all of Denmark. Of the first DD2 patients enrolled, blood and urine samples have been obtained from 97%. The median age of the first 580 patients was 59 years and 322 (56%) were men. Median weight gain from age 20 to maximum lifetime weight was 29 kg for men and 31 kg for women, and 364 patients (63%) did not currently participate in regular sports activities. Two hundred and ninety two patients (50%) had a known family history of diabetes. Two hundred fifty (43%) of the 580 DD2 patients have also been enrolled in the Danish Diabetes Database for Adults from which additional clinical data can be obtained. Among these 250 patients (154 of whom were men, 96 women), 75 (49%) men were currently obese, and 63 (41%) were overweight, whereas 62 (65%) women were obese, and another 21 (22%) were overweight. Twenty-nine patients (12%) received insulin, 164 patients (66%) received oral antidiabetics only, and 57 (23%) received no antidiabetic treatment. Glycemic regulation was modest (the glycosylated hemoglobin A of 46% was ≥7.5%). Two thirds of the patients received antihypertensive and hypolipidemic treatment. Self-reported daily tobacco smoking (23%) and alcohol overuse (6%) seemed comparable to occurrence in the general Danish population. One quarter of the patients with newly diagnosed diabetes had a history of hospital-diagnosed comorbidity at baseline as included in the Charlson comorbidity index, in particular prior myocardial infarction (5%), cerebrovascular disease (5

  2. The study of in vivo quantification of aluminum (Al) in human bone with a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick; Mostafaei, Farshad; Liu, Yingzi; Blake, Scott P; Koltick, David; Nie, Linda H

    2016-05-01

    The feasibility and methodology of using a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis system to measure aluminum in hand bone has been investigated. Monte Carlo simulations were used to simulate the moderator, reflector, and shielding assembly and to estimate the radiation dose. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to detect the Al gamma ray signals. The minimum detectable limit (MDL) was found to be 11.13 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm). An additional HPGe detector would improve the MDL by a factor of 1.4, to 7.9 ppm. The equivalent dose delivered to the irradiated hand was calculated by Monte Carlo to be 11.9 mSv. In vivo bone aluminum measurement with the DD generator was found to be feasible among general population with an acceptable dose to the subject.

  3. Optimization of Beam-Shaping Assemblies for BNCS Using the High-Energy Neutron Sources D-D and D-T

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.; Chen, Allen S.; Vujic, Jasmina L.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2001-06-15

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy is a novel approach for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in articulating joints. The treatment of knee joints is the focus of this work. A method was developed, as discussed previously, to predict the dose distribution in a knee joint from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method is validated and used to design moderators for the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron sources. Treatment times >2 h were obtained with the D-D reaction. They could potentially be reduced if the {sup 10}B concentration in the synovium was increased. For D-T neutrons, high therapeutic ratios and treatment times <5 min were obtained for neutron yields of 10{sup 14} s{sup -1}. This treatment time makes the D-T reaction attractive for boron neutron capture synovectomy.

  4. dd excitations in CPO-27-Ni metal-organic framework: comparison between resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and UV-vis spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Erik; Lamberti, Carlo; Glatzel, Pieter

    2013-05-20

    We identify the dd excitations in the metal-organic framework CPO-27-Ni by coupling resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and UV-vis spectroscopy, and we show that the element selectivity of RIXS is crucial to observing the full dd multiplet structure, which is not visible in UV-vis. The combination of calculations using crystal-field multiplet theory and density functional theory can reproduce the RIXS spectral features, crucially improving interpretation of the experimental data. We obtain the crystal-field splitting and magnitude of the electron-electron interactions and correct previously reported values. RIXS instruments at synchrotron radiation sources are accessible to all researchers, and the technique can be applied to a broad range of systems.

  5. Preliminary design studies for a (D-D) or (D-T) driven cold fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor with metallic uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, S. ); Baltacioglu, E.; Yapici, H. )

    1991-01-01

    Based on the possibility of (D,D) fusion at room temperature in a heavy metal (palladium) matrix, a cold fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor design has been evaluated in this paper. The reactor is composed of a number of modular and uniform fuel lattices. The cold fusion neutrons induce fission reactions in the natural metallic uranium fuel, imbedded in the lattice. The neutron spectrum, and consequently the fission power density are nearly constant in the reactor core so that the rector performance becomes almost independent on the reactor size. The energy multiplication for each fusion neutron production in the (D,T) and (D,D) reactors are about 3.3 and 7.0, respectively. The (D,T) reactor mode is self-sufficient in respect to tritium breeding ratio (TBR = 1.2).

  6. Activation/modulation of adaptive immunity emerges simultaneously after 17DD yellow fever first-time vaccination: is this the key to prevent severe adverse reactions following immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Martins, M Â; Silva, M L; Marciano, A P V; Peruhype-Magalhães, V; Eloi-Santos, S M; Ribeiro, J G L; Correa-Oliveira, R; Homma, A; Kroon, E G; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Martins-Filho, O A

    2007-01-01

    Over past decades the 17DD yellow fever vaccine has proved to be effective in controlling yellow fever and promises to be a vaccine vector for other diseases, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which it elicits such broad-based immunity are still unclear. In this study we describe a detailed phenotypic investigation of major and minor peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations aimed at characterizing the kinetics of the adaptive immune response following primary 17DD vaccination. Our major finding is a decreased frequency of circulating CD19+ cells at day 7 followed by emerging activation/modulation phenotypic features (CD19+interleukin(IL)10R+/CD19+CD32+) at day 15. Increased frequency of CD4+human leucocyte antigen D-related(HLA-DR+) at day 7 and CD8+HLA-DR+ at day 30 suggest distinct kinetics of T cell activation, with CD4+ T cells being activated early and CD8+ T cells representing a later event following 17DD vaccination. Up-regulation of modulatory features on CD4+ and CD8+ cells at day 15 seems to be the key event leading to lower frequency of CD38+ T cells at day 30. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the co-existence of phenotypic features associated with activation events and modulatory pathways. Positive correlations between CD4+HLA-DR+ cells and CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells and the association between the type 0 chemokine receptor CCR2 and the activation status of CD4+ and CD8+ cells further support this hypothesis. We hypothesize that this controlled microenviroment seems to be the key to prevent the development of serious adverse events, and even deaths, associated with the 17DD vaccine reported in the literature. PMID:17309541

  7. Geologic Cross Section D-D' Through the Appalachian Basin from the Findlay Arch, Sandusky County, Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Hardy County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Crangle, Robert D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Lentz, Erika E.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hope, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic cross section D-D' is the second in a series of cross sections constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian basin. Cross section D-D' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Appalachian basin from the Findlay arch in northwestern Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in eastern West Virginia, a distance of approximately 290 miles. The information shown on the cross section is based on geological and geophysical data from 13 deep drill holes, several of which penetrate the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the basin and bottom in Mesoproterozoic (Grenville-age) crystalline basement rocks. This cross section is a companion to cross section E-E' (Ryder and others, 2008) that is located about 25 to 50 mi to the southwest. Although specific petroleum systems in the Appalachian basin are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on information shown on the cross section. Cross section D-D' lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank), but it does provide a general geologic framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section. Also, cross section D-D' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste or for the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  8. Dissociative recombination of H+(H2O)3 and D+(D2O)3 water cluster ions with electrons: Cross sections and branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öjekull, J.; Andersson, P. U.; Nâgârd, M. B.; Pettersson, J. B. C.; Marković, N.; Derkatch, A. M.; Neau, A.; Al Khalili, A.; Rosén, S.; Larsson, M.; Semaniak, J.; Danared, H.; Källberg, A.; Österdahl, F.; af Ugglas, M.

    2007-11-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of the water cluster ions H+(H2O)3 and D+(D2O)3 with electrons has been studied at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING (Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University). For the first time, absolute DR cross sections have been measured for H+(H2O)3 in the energy range of 0.001-0.8eV, and relative cross sections have been measured for D+(D2O)3 in the energy range of 0.001-1.0eV. The DR cross sections for H+(H2O)3 are larger than previously observed for H+(H2O)n (n=1,2), which is in agreement with the previously observed trend indicating that the DR rate coefficient increases with size of the water cluster ion. Branching ratios have been determined for the dominating product channels. Dissociative recombination of H+(H2O)3 mainly results in the formation of 3H2O+H (probability of 0.95±0.05) and with a possible minor channel resulting in 2H2O+OH+H2 (0.05±0.05). The dominating channels for DR of D+(D2O)3 are 3D2O+D (0.88±0.03) and 2D2O+OD+D2 (0.09±0.02). The branching ratios are comparable to earlier DR results for H+(H2O)2 and D+(D2O)2, which gave 2X2O+X (X=H,D) with a probability of over 0.9.

  9. Analysis of a homologue of the adducin head gene which is a potential target for the Dictyostelium STAT protein Dd-STATa.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Ryota; Hiraoka, Rieko; Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    A Dd-STATa-null mutant, which is defective in expression of a Dictyostelium homologue of the metazoan STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins, fails to culminate and this phenotype correlates with the loss of expression of various prestalk (pst) genes. An EST clone, SSK395, encodes a close homologue of the adducin amino-terminal head domain and harbors a putative actin-binding domain. We fused promoter fragments of the cognate gene, ahhA (adducin head homologue A), to a lacZ reporter and determined their expression pattern. The proximal promoter region is necessary for the expression of ahhA at an early (pre-aggregative) stage of development and this expression is Dd-STATa independent. The distal promoter region is necessary for expression at later stages of development in pstA cells, of the slug and in upper cup and pstAB cells during culmination. The distal region is partly Dd-STATa-dependent. The ahhA-null mutant develops almost normally until culmination, but it forms slanting culminants that tend to collapse on to the substratum. The mutant also occasionally forms fruiting bodies with swollen papillae and with constrictions in the prestalk region. The AhhA protein localizes to the stalk tube entrance and also to the upper cup cells and in cells at or near to the constricted region where an F-actin ring is localized. These findings suggest that Dd-STATa regulates culmination and may be necessary for straight downward elongation of the stalk, via the putative actin-binding protein AhhA.

  10. Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mizukoshi, Izumi; Hanawa, Masanori

    2015-01-26

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate wireless transmission of optical intensity modulation/direct detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (IM/DD-OFDM) signals in an underwater channel using a field programmable gate array based real-time transmitter. The real-time transmission of a 405 nm 1.45 Gbit/s optical OFDM signal through a 4.8 m underwater channel with an error vector magnitude of approximately 10% was successfully achieved.

  11. Active and passive surveillance of yellow fever vaccine 17D or 17DD-associated serious adverse events: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roger E; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Spragins, Wendy; Jackson, Dave; Williamson, Tyler

    2011-06-20

    To identify the rate of serious adverse events attributable to yellow fever vaccination with 17D and 17DD strains reported in active and passive surveillance data. We conducted a systematic review of published literature on adverse events associated with yellow fever. We searched 9 electronic databases for peer reviewed and grey literature in all languages. There were no restrictions on date of publication. Reference lists of key studies were also reviewed to identify additional studies. We identified 66 relevant studies: 24 used active, 17 a combination of passive and active (15 of which were pharmacovigilance databases), and 25 passive surveillance. ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE: A total of 2,660,929 patients in general populations were followed for adverse events after vaccination, heavily weighted (97.7%) by one large Brazilian study. There were no observed cases of viscerotropic or neurotropic disease, one of anaphylaxis and 26 cases of urticaria (hypersensitivity). We also identified four studies of infants and children (n=2199), four studies of women (n=1334), and one study of 174 HIV+, and no serious adverse events were observed. PHARMACOVIGILANCE DATABASES: 10 of the 15 databases contributed data to this review, with 107,621,154 patients, heavily weighted (94%) by the Brazilian database. The estimates for Australia were low at 0/210,656 for "severe neurological disease" and 1/210,656 for YEL-AVD, and also low for Brazil with 9 hypersensitivity events, 0.23 anaphylactic shock events, 0.84 neurologic syndrome events and 0.19 viscerotropic events cases/million doses. The five analyses of partly overlapping periods for the US VAERS database provided an estimate of 6.6 YEL-AVD and YEL-AND cases per million, and estimates between 11.1 and 15.6 of overall "serious adverse events" per million. The estimates for the UK were higher at 34 "serious adverse events" and also for Switzerland with 14.6 "neurologic events" and 40 "serious events not neurological"/million doses

  12. Observed Multi-Decade DD and DT Z-Pinch Fusion Rate Scaling in 5 Dense Plasma Focus Fusion Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, E. C.; Lowe, D. R.; O'Brien, R.; Meehan, B. T.

    2013-06-18

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) machines are in use worldwide or a wide variety of applications; one of these is to produce intense, short bursts of fusion via r-Z pinch heating and compression of a working gas. We have designed and constructed a series of these, ranging from portable to a maximum energy storage capacity of 2 MJ. Fusion rates from 5 DPF pulsed fusion generators have been measured in a single laboratory using calibrated activation detectors. Measured rates range from ~ 1015 to more than 1019 fusions per second have been measured. Fusion rates from the intense short (20 – 50 ns) periods of production were inferred from measurement of neutron production using both calibrated activation detectors and scintillator-PMT neutron time of flight (NTOF) detectors. The NTOF detectors are arranged to measure neutrons versus time over flight paths of 30 Meters. Fusion rate scaling versus energy and current will be discussed. Data showing observed fusion cutoff at D-D fusion yield levels of approximately 1*1012, and corresponding tube currents of ~ 3 MA will be shown. Energy asymmetry of product neutrons will also be discussed. Data from the NTOF lines of sight have been used to measure energy asymmetries of the fusion neutrons. From this, center of mass energies for the D(d,n)3He reaction are inferred. A novel re-entrant chamber that allows extremely high single pulse neutron doses (> 109 neutrons/cm2 in 50 ns) to be supplied to samples will be described. Machine characteristics and detector types will be discussed.

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity among four orchids based on ddRAD sequencing data for conservation purposes.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhas Chandra; Moitra, Kaushik; De Sarker, Dilip

    2017-01-01

    Genetic diversity was assessed in the four orchid species using NGS based ddRAD sequencing data. The assembled nucleotide sequences (fastq) were deposited in the SRA archive of NCBI Database with accession number (SRP063543 for Dendrobium, SRP065790 for Geodorum, SRP072201 for Cymbidium and SRP072378 for Rhynchostylis). Total base pair read was 1.1 Mbp in case of Dendrobium sp., 553.3 Kbp for Geodorum sp., 1.6 Gbp for Cymbidium, and 1.4 Gbp for Rhynchostylis. Average GC% was 43.9 in Geodorum, 43.7% in Dendrobium, 41.2% in Cymbidium and 42.3% in Rhynchostylis. Four partial gene sequences were used in DnaSP5 program for nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationship determination (Ycf2 gene of Dendrobium, matK gene of Geodorum, psbD gene of Cymbidium and Ycf2 gene of Ryhnchostylis). Nucleotide diversity (per site) Pi (π) was 0.10560 in Dendrobium, 0.03586 in Geodorum, 0.01364 in Cymbidium and 0.011344 in Rhynchostylis. Neutrality test statistics showed the negative value in all the four orchid species (Tajima's D value -2.17959 in Dendrobium, -2.01655 in Geodorum, -2.12362 in Rhynchostylis and -1.54222 in Cymbidium) indicating the purifying selection. Result for these gene sequences (matK and Ycf2 and psbD) indicate that they were not evolved neutrally, but signifying that selection might have played a role in evolution of these genes in these four groups of orchids. Phylogenetic relationship was analyzed by reconstructing dendrogram based on the matK, psbD and Ycf2 gene sequences using maximum likelihood method in MEGA6 program.

  14. Selection of reference genes for qPCR- and ddPCR-based analyses of gene expression in Senescing Barley leaves.

    PubMed

    Zmienko, Agnieszka; Samelak-Czajka, Anna; Goralski, Michal; Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, Ewa; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a tightly regulated developmental or stress-induced process. It is accompanied by dramatic changes in cell metabolism and structure, eventually leading to the disintegration of chloroplasts, the breakdown of leaf proteins, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA and ultimately cell death. In light of the global and intense reorganization of the senescing leaf transcriptome, measuring time-course gene expression patterns in this model is challenging due to the evident problems associated with selecting stable reference genes. We have used oligonucleotide microarray data to identify 181 genes with stable expression in the course of dark-induced senescence of barley leaf. From those genes, we selected 5 candidates and confirmed their invariant expression by both reverse transcription quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). We used the selected reference genes to normalize the level of the expression of the following senescence-responsive genes in ddPCR assays: SAG12, ICL, AGXT, CS and RbcS. We were thereby able to achieve a substantial reduction in the data variability. Although the use of reference genes is not considered mandatory in ddPCR assays, our results show that it is advisable in special cases, specifically those that involve the following conditions: i) a low number of repeats, ii) the detection of low-fold changes in gene expression or iii) series data comparisons (such as time-course experiments) in which large sample variation greatly affects the overall gene expression profile and biological interpretation of the data.

  15. 17DD yellow fever vaccine: a double blind, randomized clinical trial of immunogenicity and safety on a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Martins, Reinaldo M; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; Farias, Roberto Henrique G; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Freire, Marcos S; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C; Lima, Sheila Maria B; Nogueira, Rita Maria R; Sá, Gloria Regina S; Hokama, Darcy A; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V; Pereira Filho, Edson; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-04-01

    To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. INTERNATIONAL REGISTER: ISRCTN 38082350.

  16. Study of the yield of D-D, D-3He fusion reactions produced by the interaction of intense ultrafast laser pulses with molecular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbui, Marina; Bang, Woosuk; Bonasera, Aldo; Hagel, Kris; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Natowitz, Joseph; Giuliani, Gianluca; Barbarino, Matteo; Dyer, Gilliss; Quevedo, Hernan; Gaul, Erhard; Borger, Ted; Bernstein, Aaron; Martinez, Mikael; Donovan, Michael; Ditmire, Todd; Kimura, Sachie; Mazzocco, Marco; Consoli, Fabrizio; De Angelis, Riccardo; Andreoli, Pierluigi

    2013-03-01

    The interaction of intense ultrafast laser pulses with molecular clusters produces a Coulomb explosion of the clusters. In this process, the positive ions from the clusters might gain enough kinetic energy to drive nuclear reactions. An experiment to measure the yield of D-D and D-3He fusion reactions was performed at University of Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science. Laser pulses of energy ranging from 100 to 180 J and duration 150fs were delivered by the Petawatt laser. The temperature of the energetic deuterium ions was measured using a Faraday cup, whereas the yields of the D-D reactions were measured by detecting the characteristic 2.45 MeV neutrons and 3.02 MeV protons. In order to allow the simultaneous measurement of 3He(D,p)4He and D-D reactions, different concentrations of D2 and 3He or CD4 and 3He were mixed in the gas jet target. The 2.45 MeV neutrons from the D(D,n)3He reaction were detecteded as well as the 14.7 MeV protons from the 3He(D,p)4He reaction. The preliminary results will be shown.

  17. Multi-Isotopic evidence from West Eifel Xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemens, M. M.; Sprung, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle Xenoliths from the West Eifel intraplate volcanic field of Germany provide insights into the nature and evolution of the regional continental lithospheric mantle. Previous isotope studies have suggested a primary Paleoproterozoic depletion age, a second partial melting event in the early Cambrian, and a Variscan metasomatic overprint. Textural and Sr-Nd isotopic observations further suggest two episodes of melt infiltration of early Cretaceous and Quaternary age. We have investigated anhydrous, vein-free lherzolites from this region, focusing on the Dreiser Weiher and Meerfelder Maar localities. Hand separated spinel, olivine, ortho- and clinopryoxene, along with host and bulk rocks were dissolved and purified for Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Lu-Hf analysis on the Cologne/Bonn Neptune MC-ICP-MS. We find an unexpected discontinuity between mineral separates and whole rocks. While the latter have significantly more radiogenic ɛNd and ɛHf, mineral separates imply close-to chondritic compositions. Our Lu-Hf data imply resetting of the Lu-Hf systematic after 200 Ma. Given the vein-free nature of the lherzolites, this appears to date to the second youngest metasomatic episode. We suggest that markedly radiogenic Nd and Hf were introduced during the Quarternary metasomatic episode and most likely reside on grain boundaries.

  18. Diffusion of multi-isotopic chemical species in molten silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, James M.; Liang, Yan; Richter, Frank; Ryerson, Frederick J.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2014-08-01

    Diffusion experiments in a simplified Na2O-CaO-SiO2 liquid system are used to develop a general formulation for the fractionation of Ca isotopes during liquid-phase diffusion. Although chemical diffusion is a well-studied process, the mathematical description of the effects of diffusion on the separate isotopes of a chemical element is surprisingly underdeveloped and uncertain. Kinetic theory predicts a mass dependence on isotopic mobility, but it is unknown how this translates into a mass dependence on effective binary diffusion coefficients, or more generally, the chemical diffusion coefficients that are housed in a multicomponent diffusion matrix. Our experiments are designed to measure Ca mobility, effective binary diffusion coefficients, the multicomponent diffusion matrix, and the effects of chemical diffusion on Ca isotopes in a liquid of single composition. We carried out two chemical diffusion experiments and one self-diffusion experiment, all at 1250 °C and 0.7 GPa and using a bulk composition for which other information is available from the literature. The self-diffusion experiment is used to determine the mobility of Ca in the absence of diffusive fluxes of other liquid components. The chemical diffusion experiments are designed to determine the effect on Ca isotope fractionation of changing the counter-diffusing component from fast-diffusing Na2O to slow-diffusing SiO2. When Na2O is the main counter-diffusing species, CaO diffusion is fast and larger Ca isotopic effects are generated. When SiO2 is the main counter-diffusing species, CaO diffusion is slow and smaller Ca isotopic effects are observed. In both experiments, the liquid is initially isotopically homogeneous, and during the experiment Ca isotopes become fractionated by diffusion. The results are used as a test of a new general expression for the diffusion of isotopes in a multicomponent liquid system that accounts for both self diffusion and the effects of counter-diffusing species. Our results show that (1) diffusive isotopic fractionations depend on the direction of diffusion in composition space, (2) diffusive isotopic fractionations scale with effective binary diffusion coefficient, as previously noted by Watkins et al. (2011), (3) self-diffusion is not decoupled from chemical diffusion, (4) self diffusion can be faster than or slower than chemical diffusion and (5) off-diagonal terms in the chemical diffusion matrix have isotopic mass-dependence. The results imply that relatively large isotopic fractionations can be generated by multicomponent diffusion even in the absence of large concentration gradients of the diffusing element. The new formulations for isotope diffusion can be tested with further experimentation and provide an improved framework for interpreting mass-dependent isotopic variations in natural liquids.

  19. Subpart DD Training Presentations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has produced the following training presentation(s) for reporters subject to this subpart. Generally, these presentations explain the rule or show how to use the reporting system e-GGRT to submit annual GHG reports to EPA.

  20. THE CREATIVE APPLICATION OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & WORK FORCE INNOVATIONS TO THE D&D OF PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material for fabrication into a nuclear device for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race. PFP has now completed its mission and is fully engaged in deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). At this time the PFP buildings are planned to be reduced to ground level (slab-on-grade) and the site remediated to satisfy national, Department of Energy (DOE) and Washington state requirements. The D&D of a highly contaminated plutonium processing facility presents a plethora of challenges. PFP personnel approached the D&D mission with a can-do attitude. They went into D&D knowing they were facing a lot of challenges and unknowns. There were concerns about the configuration control associated with drawings of these old process facilities. There were unknowns regarding the location of electrical lines and process piping containing chemical residues such as strong acids and caustics. The gloveboxes were highly contaminated with plutonium and chemical residues. Most of the glovebox windows were opaque with splashed process chemicals that coated the windows or etched them, reducing visibility to near zero. Visibility into the glovebox was a serious worker concern. Additionally, all the gloves in the gloveboxes were degraded and unusable. Replacing gloves in gloveboxes was necessary to even begin glovebox cleanout. The sheer volume of breathing air needed was also an issue. These and other challenges and PFP's approach to overcome these challengers are

  1. SU-E-T-21: A D-D Based Neutron Generator System for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, M; Liu, Y; Nie, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator for application in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain cancer Methods: MCNP simulations were performed using a head phantom and a monoenergetic neutron source, which resembles the point source in a DD generator that emits 2.45-MeV neutrons. Source energies ranging from 5eV to 2.45MeV were simulated to determine the optimal treatment energy. The phantom consisted of soft tissue, brain tissue, skull, skin layer, and a brain tumor of 5 cm in diameter. Tumor depth was varied from 5–10 cm. Boron-10 concentrations of 10 ppm, 15 ppm, and 30 ppm were used in the soft/brain tissues, skin, and tumor, respectively. The neutron flux required to deliver 60 Gy to the tumor as well as the normal tissue doses were determined. Results: Beam energies between 5eV and 10keV obtained doses with the highest dose ratios (3.3–25.9) between the tumor and the brain at various depths. The dose ratio with 2.45-MeV neutrons ranged from 0.8–6.6. To achieve the desired tumor dose in 40 minutes, the required neutron flux for a DD generator was between 8.8E10 and 5.2E11 n/s and the resulting brain dose was between 2.3 and 18 Gy, depending on the tumor depth. The skin and soft tissue doses were within acceptable tolerances. The boron-neutron interaction accounted for 54–58% of the total dose. Conclusion: This study shows that the DD neutron generator can be a feasible neutron source for BNCT. The required neutron flux for treatment is achievable with the current DD neutron technology. With a well-designed beam shaping assembly and treatment geometry, the neutron flux can be further improved and a 60-Gy prescription can be accurately delivered to the target while maintaining tolerable normal tissue doses. Further experimental studies will be developed and conducted to validate the simulation results.

  2. Type II Cepheids in the Milky Way disc. Chemical composition of two new W Virginis stars: DD Vel and HQ Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasle, B.; Kovtyukh, V.; Bono, G.; François, P.; Saviane, I.; Yegorova, I.; Genovali, K.; Inno, L.; Galazutdinov, G.; da Silva, R.

    2015-07-01

    Context. A robust classification of Cepheids into their different sub-classes and, in particular, between classical and Type II Cepheids, is necessary to properly calibrate the period-luminosity relations and for populations studies in the Galactic disc. Type II Cepheids are, however, very diverse, and classifications based either on intrinsic (period, light curve) or external parameters (e.g., [Fe/H], | z |) do not provide a unique classification. Aims: We want to ascertain the classification of two Cepheids, HQ Car and DD Vel, that are sometimes classified as classical Cepheids and sometimes as Type II Cepheids. Methods: To achieve this goal, we examine both their chemical composition and the presence of specific features in their spectra. Results: We find emission features in the Hα and in the 5875.64 Å He I lines that are typical of W Vir stars. The [Na/Fe] (or [Na/Zn]) abundances are typical of thick-disc stars, while BL Her stars are Na-overabundant ([Na/Fe] > +0.5 dex). Finally, the two Cepheids show a possible (HQ Car) or probable (DD Vel) signature of mild dust-gas separation that is usually observed only in long-period type II Cepheids and RV Tau stars. Conclusions: These findings clearly indicate that HQ Car and DD Vel are both Type II Cepheids from the W Vir sub-class. Several studies have reported an increase in the Cepheids' abundance dispersion towards the outer (thin) disc. A detailed inspection of the Cepheid classification, in particular for those located in the outer disc, will indicate whether this feature is real or simply an artefact of the inclusion of type II Cepheids belonging to the thick disc in the current samples. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (prog. ID: 060.A-9120 and 082.D-0901).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. ddRAD-seq phylogenetics based on nucleotide, indel, and presence-absence polymorphisms: Analyses of two avian genera with contrasting histories.

    PubMed

    DaCosta, Jeffrey M; Sorenson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) methods have revolutionized the field of molecular ecology, but their application in molecular phylogenetics remains somewhat limited. In addition, most phylogenetic studies based on large GBS data sets have relied on analyses of concatenated data rather than species tree methods that explicitly account for genealogical stochasticity among loci. We explored the utility of "double-digest" restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) for phylogenetic analyses of the Lagonosticta firefinches (family Estrildidae) and the Vidua brood parasitic finches (family Viduidae). As expected, the number of homologous loci shared among samples was negatively correlated with genetic distance due to the accumulation of restriction site polymorphisms. Nonetheless, for each genus, we obtained data sets of ∼3000 loci shared in common among all samples, including a more distantly related outgroup taxon. For all samples combined, we obtained >1000 homologous loci despite ∼20my divergence between estrildid and parasitic finches. In addition to nucleotide polymorphisms, the ddRAD-seq data yielded large sets of indel and locus presence-absence polymorphisms, all of which had higher consistency indices than mtDNA sequence data in the context of concatenated parsimony analyses. Species tree methods, using individual gene trees or single nucleotide polymorphisms as input, generated results broadly consistent with analyses of concatenated data, particularly for Lagonosticta, which appears to have a well resolved, bifurcating history. Results for Vidua were also generally consistent across methods and data sets, although nodal support and results from different species tree methods were more variable. Lower gene tree congruence in Vidua is likely the result of its unique evolutionary history, which includes rapid speciation by host shift and occasional hybridization and introgression due to incomplete reproductive isolation. We conclude that dd

  4. Whole exome sequencing is necessary to clarify ID/DD cases with de novo copy number variants of uncertain significance: Two proof-of-concept examples.

    PubMed

    Giorgio, Elisa; Ciolfi, Andrea; Biamino, Elisa; Caputo, Viviana; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Belligni, Elga Fabia; Calcia, Alessandro; Gaidolfi, Elena; Bruselles, Alessandro; Mancini, Cecilia; Cavalieri, Simona; Molinatto, Cristina; Cirillo Silengo, Margherita; Ferrero, Giovanni Battista; Tartaglia, Marco; Brusco, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful tool to identify clinically undefined forms of intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD), especially in consanguineous families. Here we report the genetic definition of two sporadic cases, with syndromic ID/DD for whom array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) identified a de novo copy number variant (CNV) of uncertain significance. The phenotypes included microcephaly with brachycephaly and a distinctive facies in one proband, and hypotonia in the legs and mild ataxia in the other. WES allowed identification of a functionally relevant homozygous variant affecting a known disease gene for rare syndromic ID/DD in each proband, that is, c.1423C>T (p.Arg377*) in the Trafficking Protein Particle Complex 9 (TRAPPC9), and c.154T>C (p.Cys52Arg) in the Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (VLDLR). Four mutations affecting TRAPPC9 have been previously reported, and the present finding further depicts this syndromic form of ID, which includes microcephaly with brachycephaly, corpus callosum hypoplasia, facial dysmorphism, and overweight. VLDLR-associated cerebellar hypoplasia (VLDLR-CH) is characterized by non-progressive congenital ataxia and moderate-to-profound intellectual disability. The c.154T>C (p.Cys52Arg) mutation was associated with a very mild form of ataxia, mild intellectual disability, and cerebellar hypoplasia without cortical gyri simplification. In conclusion, we report two novel cases with rare causes of autosomal recessive ID, which document how interpreting de novo array-CGH variants represents a challenge in consanguineous families; as such, clinical WES should be considered in diagnostic testing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dynamics of the C(1D)+D2 reaction: a comparison of crossed molecular-beam experiments with quasiclassical trajectory and accurate statistical calculations.

    PubMed

    Balucani, Nadia; Capozza, Giovanni; Segoloni, Enrico; Russo, Andrea; Bobbenkamp, Rolf; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Gonzalez-Lezana, Tomas; Rackham, Edward J; Bañares, Luis; Aoiz, F Javier

    2005-06-15

    In this paper we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the dynamics of the insertion reaction C((1)D)+D(2) at 15.5 kJ mol(-1) collision energy. Product angular and velocity distributions have been obtained in crossed beam experiments and quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) and rigorous statistical calculations have been performed on the recent and accurate ab initio potential energy surface of Bussery-Honvault, Honvault, and Launay at the energy of the experiment. The molecular-beam results have been simulated using the theoretical calculations. Good agreement between experiment and both QCT and statistical predictions is found.

  6. Monte Carlo modelling of distributions of the d-d and d-t reaction products in a dedicated measuring chamber at the fast neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, U.; Dankowski, J.

    2015-04-01

    A fast neutron generator with a tritium target can be used to generate d-d and d-t reaction products corresponding to thermonuclear reactions in tokamaks or stellarators. In this way, convenient laboratory conditions for tests of spectrometric detectors - prior to their installation at the big fusion devices - can be achieved. Distributions of the alpha particles, protons, deuterons, and tritons generated by the fast neutron generator operating at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN in Cracow, Poland, were calculated by means of the Monte Carlo (MC) codes. Results of this MC modelling are presented.

  7. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the detection and quantification of HPV 16, 18, 33 and 45 - a short report.

    PubMed

    Lillsunde Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela

    2017-07-26

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is associated with several anogenital malignancies. Here, we set out to evaluate digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) as a tool for HPV 16, 18, 33 and 45 viral load quantification and, in addition, to compare the efficacy of the ddPCR assay for HPV 16 detection with that of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Clinical samples, positive for HPV genotypes 16, 18, 33 and 45 were analyzed for viral load using ddPCR. Sample DNA was cleaved before droplet generation and PCR. Droplets positive for VIC and FAM fluorescence were read in a QX200 Droplet reader™ (BIO-RAD) after which the viral load was calculated using Quantasoft software. We found that DNAs extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples yielded lower amplification signals compared to those obtained from liquid based cytology (LBC) samples, but they were clearly distinguishable from negative background signals. The viral limit of detection was 1.6 copies of HPV 16, 2.8 copies of HPV 18, 4.6 copies of HPV 33 and 1.6 copies of HPV 45. The mean inter-assay coefficients of variability (CV) for the assays ranged from 3.4 to 7.0%, and the mean intra-assay CV from 2.6 to 8.2%. The viral load in the different cohorts of tumor samples ranged from 154 to 340,200 copies for HPV 16, 244 to 31,300 copies for HPV 18 and 738 to 69,100 copies for HPV 33. One sample positive for HPV 45 contained 1331 viral copies. When comparing qPCR data with ddPCR copy number data, the qPCR values were found to be 1 to 31 times higher. Separation of fragments in nanodroplets may facilitate the amplification of fragmented human and viral DNA. The method of digital droplet PCR may, thus, provide a new and promising tool for evaluating the HPV viral load in clinical samples.

  8. Multiplexed Single Intact Cell Droplet Digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) Method for Specific Detection of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in Food Enrichment Cultures.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Tanis C; Blais, Burton W; Wong, Alex; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E. coli, but no EHEC with both markers in a single cell. To reduce false-positive detection of EHEC in food enrichment samples, a Multiplexed, Single Intact Cell droplet digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) assay capable of detecting the co-occurrence of the stx and eae genes in a single bacterial cell was developed. This method requires: (1) dispersal of intact bacteria into droplets; (2) release of genomic DNA (gDNA) by heat lysis; and (3) amplification and detection of genetic targets (stx and eae) using standard TaqMan chemistries with ddPCR. Performance of the method was tested with panels of EHEC and non-target E. coli. By determining the linkage (i.e., the proportion of droplets in which stx and eae targets were both amplified), samples containing EHEC (typically greater than 20% linkage) could be distinguished from samples containing mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E. coli (0-2% linkage). The use of intact cells was necessary as this linkage was not observed with gDNA extracts. EHEC could be accurately identified in enrichment broth cultures containing excess amounts of background E. coli and in enrichment cultures derived from ground beef/pork and leafy-green produce samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dual-target detection in single bacterial cells using ddPCR. The application of MuSIC ddPCR to enrichment-culture screening would reduce false-positives, thereby improving the cost, speed, and accuracy of

  9. Multiplexed Single Intact Cell Droplet Digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) Method for Specific Detection of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) in Food Enrichment Cultures

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Tanis C.; Blais, Burton W.; Wong, Alex; Carrillo, Catherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne illness attributed to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a highly pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), is increasingly recognized as a significant public health issue. Current microbiological methods for identification of EHEC in foods often use PCR-based approaches to screen enrichment broth cultures for characteristic gene markers [i.e., Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae)]. However, false positives arise when complex food matrices, such as beef, contain mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E. coli, but no EHEC with both markers in a single cell. To reduce false-positive detection of EHEC in food enrichment samples, a Multiplexed, Single Intact Cell droplet digital PCR (MuSIC ddPCR) assay capable of detecting the co-occurrence of the stx and eae genes in a single bacterial cell was developed. This method requires: (1) dispersal of intact bacteria into droplets; (2) release of genomic DNA (gDNA) by heat lysis; and (3) amplification and detection of genetic targets (stx and eae) using standard TaqMan chemistries with ddPCR. Performance of the method was tested with panels of EHEC and non-target E. coli. By determining the linkage (i.e., the proportion of droplets in which stx and eae targets were both amplified), samples containing EHEC (typically greater than 20% linkage) could be distinguished from samples containing mixtures of eae-negative STEC and eae-positive E. coli (0–2% linkage). The use of intact cells was necessary as this linkage was not observed with gDNA extracts. EHEC could be accurately identified in enrichment broth cultures containing excess amounts of background E. coli and in enrichment cultures derived from ground beef/pork and leafy-green produce samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dual-target detection in single bacterial cells using ddPCR. The application of MuSIC ddPCR to enrichment-culture screening would reduce false-positives, thereby improving the cost, speed, and accuracy of

  10. Fission-detector determination of D-D triton burnup fraction in beam-heated TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Hendel, H.W.; Barnes, C.W.; Bosch, S.; Cecil, F.E.; McCune, D.C.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Strachan, J.D.

    1987-06-01

    After the end of a neutral-beam injection pulse into a low-density TFTR plasma, once the beam-injected deuterons have thermalized, the neutron emission is dominated by the 14-MeV neutron production from D-D triton burnup. Ordinary fission detectors can measure the 14-MeV emission rate, which can be extrapolated back in time to estimate the equilibrium triton burnup fraction. The fractional burnup determined by this method is in the range of 0.3 to 1.5% for TFTR discharges to date, and is consistent with classical confinement and slowing down. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  11. The fate of Nitrate under the natural groundwater flow system in a volcanic aquifer composed by pyroclastic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, K.; Shimada, J.; Tashiro, S.

    2008-12-01

    inorganic water chemistry, dD and d18O stable isotopes in water andd15N and d18O in Nitrate. We intend to report this result and related discussion at the meeting.

  12. BVRI Photometric 2015 WD Analysis of the Southern Totally Eclipsing, Solar-type, Shallow-contact W UMa Binary, DD Indus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, Ronald G.; Norris, Cody L.; Van Hamme, Walter; Faulkner, Danny R.; Hill, Robert L.

    2016-12-01

    Observations and a 2015 Wilson-Devinney Program analysis are undertaken for the first precision observations of DD Indi. DD Indi is of solar-type (T 1 ˜ 5750 K) and was determined to be a shallow-contact eclipsing binary. It was observed from 2013 June through September at Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory in remote mode. The 24 inch Boller and Chivens reflector, now under management by The Southeastern Association for Resarch in Astronomomy (SARA) was used. Five new eclipse timings were obtained, for three primary and two secondary eclipses. Seven more eclipse timings were calculated from All Sky Automated Survey data. A possibly increasing period was found from all available eclipse timings with a 5 ± 2 × 10-11 × E 2 quadratic term. A BVR c I c simultaneous synthetic light-curve analysis reveals that the system has a mass ratio of ˜0.46, a ˜ 140 K component temperature difference, and two weak cool spots. The Roche Lobe fill-out of this W-type binary is only ˜11%, and an inclination of ˜86° was determined. A time of constant light of ˜16 minutes is measured around phase zero. More detail is included in this report.

  13. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Lattice Confinement Effect on Ion Dynamics in Condensed Matter and Lattice Effect on the D-D Nuclear Reaction Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Violante, Vittorio; Torre, Amalia; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Miley, George H.

    2001-03-15

    A three-dimensional analysis of the dynamics of hydrogen isotopes confined within a metal lattice, like palladium or nickel, is presented. It is assumed that the concentration of the hydrogen isotopes, as an atomic fraction, is close to unity and that coherent oscillations of the metal atom electrons near to the Fermi level take place. Coherent oscillations of the Fermi-level electrons in the metal lattice can produce an oscillating electric field within the cell and hence produce a radio-frequency oscillation of ions like protons or deuterons. The trajectories of the ions can be studied by means of the equations of motion. The results show that under proper initial conditions, the closest distance of approach between two ions or between an ion and the nucleus of an atom of the host metal lattice can be reduced below 0.1 Angst. An evaluation of the excess of heat production has been done for the D-D reaction within a Pd lattice by approximating the reaction both to an s-wave and a d-wave process, respectively. Last, the effect of the lattice field, which causes the collisions between ions, on the nuclear reaction channel for the D-D reaction is investigated by evaluating the transition probability for a stimulated decay.

  14. 1 λ × 1.44 Tb/s free-space IM-DD transmission employing OAM multiplexing and PDM.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yixiao; Zou, Kaiheng; Zheng, Zhennan; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-22

    We report the experimental demonstration of single wavelength terabit free-space intensity modulation direct detection (IM-DD) system employing both orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing and polarization division multiplexing (PDM). In our experiment, 12 OAM modes with two orthogonal polarization states are used to generate 24 channels for transmission. Each channel carries 30 Gbaud Nyquist PAM-4 signal. Therefore an aggregate gross capacity record of 1.44 Tb/s (12 × 2 × 30 × 2 Gb/s) is acheived with a modulation efficiency of 48 bits/symbol. After 0.8m free-space transmission, the bit error rates (BERs) of all the channels are below the 20% hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 1.5 × 10(-2). After applying the decision directed recursive least square (DD-RLS) based filter and post filter, the BERs of two polarizations can be reduced from 5.3 × 10(-3) and 7.3 × 10(-3) to 2.2 × 10(-3) and 3.4 × 10(-3), respectively.

  15. Improved characterization of the CR-39 efficiency for detecting DD neutrons based on data from OMEGA, NIF and the MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanese, L. M.; Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Bionta, R.; Yeamans, C.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.

    2016-10-01

    CR-39 nuclear track detectors are extensively used to measure fluences and spectra of charged particles produced in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions. An accurate determination of the CR-39 response to neutrons is important both to perform direct neutron fluence measurements and to estimate the level of neutron-induced background impacting charged-particle measurements. The CR-39 efficiency for detecting neutrons depends on several factors, including the manufacturing process of the CR-39, etching conditions and characteristics of the scanning system employed to detect the neutron-induced tracks. The CR-39 response to DD neutrons has been characterized using implosions at OMEGA and the NIF as well as a neutron generator at the MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility. A new approach provides significantly better precision than previously demonstrated in the literature. This method will be used to characterize DD fusion isotropy at the Z Facility. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF), LLNL and SNL.

  16. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA): Interplay of discourses (D/D1) as third grade urban and suburban science students engage in hypothesis formulation and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carmen Irene Reyes

    This qualitative research project is a comparative analysis of Discourses (D/D1) while focused upon the science processes of hypothesis generation and observation in an urban versus suburban elementary science classroom. D designates the instructional and formal academic science Discourse and D1 represents the students' informal, social or home language D1iscourses. In particular, this research study is a critical discourse analysis that examines how the science processes of hypothesis formulation and observation are constituted through the interplay of classroom Discourses (D/D1) as two third grade science teachers teach the same kit-based, inquiry science lessons with their respective urban and suburban students. The research also considers ethnicity, social class, language, and the central role science teachers play mediating between children's everyday world and the world of science. Communicative approach and distinctive patterns of interaction between the European American teachers and their respective students are analyzed through a critical lens to examine underlying issues of equity and power embedded in the instructional Discourse of science. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) provides both the theoretical framework and analytical lens. The research informs development of linguistic-based "best" practices to contribute toward promoting greater science teacher awareness in creating linguistic environments that support all students' learning science Discourse and to serve as a springboard for future educational science researchers' use of CDA.

  17. Basic Engineering Research for D&D of R Reactor Storage Pond Sludge: Electrokinetics, Carbon Dioxide Extraction, and Supercritical Water Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Michael A.

    2001-06-01

    Large quantities of mixed low level waste (MLLW) that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) exist and will continue to be generated during D&D operations at DOE sites across the country. Currently, the volume of these wastes is 23,500 m3, and the majority of these wastes (i.e., almost 19,000 m3) consist of PCBs and PCB-contaminated materials. No proposed process for the recovery and/or destruction of these persistent pollutants has emerged as the preferred choice for DOE cleanup. Collaborating researchers at the University of South Carolina (USC), Clemson University (Clemson University), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), under the direction of the South Carolina Universities Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF), have performed initial research and development on a combined PCB extraction/destruction process for the PCB-contaminated solids that are generated during D&D activities. Extraction is performed using either supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) or hot, pressurized water. Destruction is accomplished by oxidation in supercritical or near-critical water. Two key aspects of the proposed process are that it isolates and concentrates the PCBs from the solid matrices (thereby reducing waste volume greatly), and little if any secondary solvent or solid wastes are generated.

  18. Performance investigation on clipping and RIN induced degradation for a single- and two-tone IM-DD SCM optical link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, Gausia; Sharma, Ajay K.; Shah (Smieee), H. Najeeb-Ud-Din; Uddin, Moin

    2014-05-01

    Subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) is preferred multiplexing approach for its simplicity and cost effectiveness in optical broadband transmission. In this work four basic SCM based intensity modulation direct detection (IM-DD) systems models have been devised to investigate laser source induced noise mechanisms. These system models reveal unique spectral behavioural characteristics associated to harmonic distortion (HD), inter-modulation distortion (IMD), clipping and random intensity noise (RIN) mechanisms. Response of clipping and RIN mechanisms to changes in system operational and laser design parameters show a direct dependence of clipping spillover on modulation current and an insensitivity of the RIN spectrum to changes in carrier amplitude. High bias currents are shown to reduce negative influence of clipping and RIN peak power while shifting RIN peak above subcarrier operating range of frequencies but increases RIN spectrum width. Low laser quantum efficiency is observed to favor clipping and RIN induced distortion while RIN peak position is insensitive to laser quantum efficiency. With active layer volume there will exists a tradeoff between clipping spillover and RIN peak power on one hand and RIN peak position and RIN spectral width on the other hand. High laser carrier lifetime will favor clipping spillover reduction. All the results so obtained can be exploited for identifying a suitable laser design in a suitable system model for achieving better system performance for the SCM based IM-DD systems.

  19. Role of an expansin-like molecule in Dictyostelium morphogenesis and regulation of its gene expression by the signal transducer and activator of transcription protein Dd-STATa.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Shun; Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2009-02-01

    Expansins are proteins involved in plant morphogenesis, exerting their effects on cellulose to extend cell walls. Dictyostelium is an organism that possesses expansin-like molecules, but their functions are not known. In this study, we analyzed the expL7 (expansin-like 7) gene, which has been identified as a putative target of Dd-STATa, a Dictyostelium homolog of the metazoan signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. Promoter fragments of the expL7 were fused to a lacZ reporter and the expression patterns determined. As expected from the behavior of the endogenous expL7 gene, the expL7/lacZ fusion gene was downregulated in Dd-STATa null slugs. In the parental strain, the expL7 promoter was activated in the anterior tip region. Mutational analysis of the promoter identified a sequence that was necessary for expression in tip cells. In addition, an activator sequence for pstAB cells was identified. These sequences act in combination with the repressor region to prevent ectopic expL7 expression in the prespore and prestalk regions of the slug and culminant. Although the expL7 null mutant showed no phenotypic change, the expL7 overexpressor showed aberrant stalk formation. These results indicate that the expansin-like molecule is important for morphogenesis in Dictyostelium.

  20. Effect of pd and dd reactions enhancement in deuterides TiD2, ZrD2 and Ta2D in the astrophysical energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritskii, V. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Filipowicz, M.; Huran, J.; Krylov, A. R.; Nechayev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Pen'kov, F. M.; Philippov, A. V.; Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the pd-and dd-reactions in the ultralow energy (~keV) range is of great interest in the aspect of nuclear physics and astrophysics for developing of correct models of burning and evolution of stars. This report presents compendium of experimental results obtained at the pulsed plasma Hall accelerator (TPU, Tomsk). Most of those results are new, such as • temperature dependence of the neutron yield in the D( d, n)3He reaction in the ZrD2, Ta2D, TiD2 • potentials of electron screening and respective dependence of astrophysical S-factors in the dd-reaction for the deuteron collision energy in the range of 3-6 keV, with ZrD2, Ta2D temperature in the range of 20-200°C [1] • characteristics of the reaction d( p, γ)3He in the ultralow collision proton-deuterons energy range of 4-13 keV [2, 3] in ZrD2, Ta2D and TiD2 • observation of the neutron yield enhancement in the reaction D( d, n)3He at the ultralow deuteron collision energy due to channeling of deuterons in microscopic TiD2 with a face-centered cubic lattice type TiD1.73, oriented in the [100] direction [4]. The report includes discussion and comparison of the collected experimental results with the global data and calculations.