Science.gov

Sample records for multi-isotope dd d18o

  1. Isolating relative humidity: dual isotopes d18O and dD as deuterium deviations from the global meteoric water line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose d18O and dD can provide insights on climates and hydrological cycling in the distant past and how these factors differ spatially. However, most studies of plant cellulose have used only one isotope, most commonly d18O, resulting in difficulties partitioning variation in d18O of precipitati...

  2. A precise method for the analysis of d18O of dissolved inorganic phosphate in seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, K.; Silva, S.; Kendall, C.; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Paytan, A.

    2004-01-01

    A method for preparation and analysis of the oxygen isotope composition (d18O) of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) has been developed and preliminary results for water samples from various locations are reported. Phosphate is extracted from seawater samples by coprecipitation with magnesium hydroxide. Phosphate is further purified through a series of precipitations and resin separation and is ultimately converted to silver phosphate. Silver phosphate samples are pyrolitically decomposed to carbon monoxide and analyzed for d18O. Silver phosphate samples weighing 0.7 mg (3.5 mol oxygen) can be analyzed routinely with an average standard deviation of about 0.3. There is no isotope fractionation during extraction and blanks are negligible within analytical error. Reproducibility was determined for both laboratory standards and natural samples by multiple analyses. A comparison between filtered and unfiltered natural seawater samples was also conducted and no appreciable difference was observed for the samples tested. The d18O values of DIP in seawater determined using this method range from 18.6 to 22.3, suggesting small but detectable natural variability in seawater. For the San Francisco Bay estuary DIP d18O is more variable, ranging from 11.4 near the San Joaquin River to 20.1 near the Golden Gate Bridge, and was well correlated with salinity, phosphate concentration, and d18O of water.

  3. Patterns of d18O in fish tissues in two Oregon Coast range streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. As part of this work we have examined changes in d18O in coho salmon juveniles (from eggs to smolting) and sculpin (from 0.5 to 20 gm.). For fish...

  4. Sources of nitrate in the Arno River waters: Constraints from d15N and d18O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nisi, Barbara; Vaselli, Orlando; Buccianti, Antonella; Silva, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Running waters in anthropogenically affected areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination. Source identification is a fundamental step for the development of effective remediation. Previous studies pointed to pollution by nitrogen-bearing contaminants in the Arno Basin. In this paper, eleven surface water samples have been analysed for main and trace components and 15N/14N and 18O/16O ratios, with the aim of identifying for the first time the origin of nitrate in the Arno River Basin so that further investigations can appropriately be designed. d18O(NO3)and d15N(NO3) values have allowed to hypothesise the main sources of nitrate, as follows: i) mineralized fertilizer, ii) soil-organic nitrogen, iii) manure and septic waste. The anomalously high d15N and d18O values in the Chiana (d15N=24.9‰ and d18O=15.5‰) and Usciana tributaries (d15N=30.1‰ and d18O=7.2‰) show a low probability of belonging to the same population as that of the other samples and can be related to denitrification process of nitrate from animal waste/sewage and/or an industrial process (e.g. tanneries).

  5. Correlation Between Miocene Global Climatic Changes (d18O) and Magnetic Properties, Using Neuro Fuzzy Logic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, Vincenzo; da Silva, Ana; Hurtado, Nuri

    2010-05-01

    We have used the hybrid algorithm of neuro fuzzy logic (NFL), to establish a correlation between global climatic changes (benthic foraminiferal d18O data), experimental S-ratios and magnetic susceptibility (χ), in 44 samples of the Colombian stratigraphic well Saltarín 1A (Llanos foreland basin). χ and S-ratios were linked to global d18O data based on a constant accumulation rate for the stratigraphic interval flanked by the two age constrains available. A good inference (over 64%) is obtained using 4 fuzzy clusters or TKS type relationships. A stronger correlation is perhaps prevented by the likely influence of local and regional tectonic events and climatic changes that could have affected the Colombian Llanos foreland basin during Miocene times. For the Guayabo and León lithologies, it seems that the late diagenesis of the primary magnetic minerals and the assumption of a constant accumulation rate might have a minor influence on these results.

  6. FY09 PROGRESS: MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Laspe, Amy R.; Ward, Rebecca M.

    2009-10-18

    Model and experimental estimates of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor performance for determining burnup after dissolution and acid concentration during solvent extraction steps during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are presented.

  7. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for d18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Bohlke, Johnkarl F.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Brand, Willi A.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groning, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    IAEA-602 benzoic acid +71.28?±?0.36‰ USGS35 sodium nitrate +56.81?±?0.31‰ IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate +25.32?±?0.29‰ IAEA-601 benzoic acid +23.14?±?0.19‰ IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate +12.13?±?0.33‰ NBS 127 barium sulfate +8.59?±?0.26‰ VSMOW2 water 0‰ IAEA-600 caffeine -3.48?±?0.53‰ IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate -11.35?±?0.31‰ USGS34 potassium nitrate -27.78?±?0.37‰ SLAP water -55.5‰ The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for d18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (d18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the d18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA-SO-6, and NBS 127), or organic material (IAEA-601 benzoic acid, IAEA-602 benzoic acid, and IAEA-600 caffeine), as appropriate to the material being analyzed, had these reference materials been analyzed with unknowns. This procedure ensures that readers will be able to normalize the d18O values at a later time should it become necessary. The high-temperature reduction technique for analyzing d18O and d2H is not as widely applicable as the well-established combustion technique for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope determination. To obtain the most reliable stable isotope data, materials should be treated in an identical fashion; within the same sequence of analyses, samples should be compared with working reference materials that are as similar in nature and in isotopic composition as feasible."

  8. Toward the Inference of Deglacial Ocean Dynamics from the Spatial Pattern of LGM-to-Modern d13C and d18O Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, G.; Peterson, C. D.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Spero, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of the whole-ocean d13C change between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the modern-day are converging to values of about 0.4 per mil, and are of great use in partitioning land versus ocean contributions to the deglacial carbon cycle. To determine which specific oceanic processes are at play, however, knowledge of the spatial pattern of LGM-to-modern d13C and d18O change is critical. Spatial maps have mostly focused on Atlantic d13C, with less progress for d18O and the Pacific and Indian sectors, due to the concentration of sediment-core observations in the Atlantic and the difficulty in making meaningful maps from sparse data. Here, we demonstrate that a state estimation (or data assimilation) method based on recently compiled data and a simple kinematic ocean model simultaneously produces reasonable results for: 1) global maps of d13C and d18O, 2) uncertainty in the estimated properties, and 3) oceanic water-mass geometry. The observations include benthic d13C and d18O data from 493 marine sediment cores that were collected from the scientific literature and NOAA, PANGEA, and Delphi databases. The kinematic model permits each data point to have influence both up- and downstream along a water-mass pathway, typically allowing a larger geographical range than a statistical interpolation method. No assumption regarding the state of the circulation is necessary, and the modern-day circulation need not be assumed to be representative of the LGM. With this method, meridional (or other) sections can be compared between ocean basins. Furthermore, the internally-consistent d18O and d13C maps are used to determine the LGM-to-modern spatial changes that are robust given the uncertainty and sparsity of data. Rather than simply focus on property maps, we suggest that the link between observations and circulation changes (as reflected by the paths that water travels), points the way toward dynamical processes that must be explained. A particular application of our

  9. Oxygen isotopes of Pacific seawater, 0-40 kyr, based on d18O and Mg/Ca of benthic and planktic foraminifera: relation to deglacial sealevel rise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, A. C.; Klinkhammer, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    Combining high resolution (~200 year sample resolution) oxygen and carbon isotope measurements and Mg/Ca analyses in planktic (G. ruber and N. dutertrei) and benthic foraminifera (Uvigerina sp.; use of infaunal benthics minimizes likely CO3= effects) from the mid-depth eastern Pacific provides for detailed estimates of changing d18O of seawater over the past 40 kyr at ODP Site 1242. The key to this analysis is improved precision of the Mg/Ca analyses based on a new generation of high precision flow-through time-resolved analysis (FT-TRA) (e.g., average internal precision for Mg/Ca is now +/-0.005 benthic, and +/-0.015 planktic). This method is relatively insensitive to mild dissolution of heterogeneous shells, and thus requires no corrections for preservation. The change in seawater d18O (at 1364 m depth) between the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum is 1.2 +/- 0.04 permil when averaged over the stages, consistent with pore-water diffusion estimates; however, millennial scale events (which the pore-water data cannot detect) bring the total range up to about 1.6 permil. Are such short-term events related to sealevel change, or do they reflect changing watermasses? Measurements of d13C data (C. wuellerstorfi), sensitive to modern subsurface watermass gradients, are not highly correlated to short- term changes in d18Oseawater suggesting a transient response to ice volume changes. Glacial weakening of AAIW (salty, high d18O, high d13C) relative to north Pacific watermasses (fresher, lower d18O, low d13C) suggest that the benthic d18Oseawater may underestimate total local changes related to ice volume (with a caveat regarding proper scaling of benthic Mg/Ca to temperature). Benthic d18Oseawater falls through the deglaciation in steps, starting at 18 cal ka, with maximum rates of change at 14-15 ka, and with secondary rapid steps at 16-17 ka and 10-11 kar. Planktic foraminifera yield smaller glacial-interglacial d18Oseawater values, with Holocene-to-LGM stage- average

  10. DD correlations in photoproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, M. P.; Barate, R.; Bloch, D.; Bonamy, P.; Borgeaud, P.; Burchell, M.; Burmeister, H.; Brunet, J. M.; Calvino, F.; Cattaneo, M.; Crespo, J. M.; D'Almagne, B.; David, M.; di Ciaccio, L.; Dixon, J.; Druet, P.; Duane, A.; Engel, J. P.; Ferrer, A.; Filippas, T. A.; Fokitis, E.; Forty, R. W.; Foucault, P.; Gazis, E. N.; Gerber, J. P.; Giomataris, Y.; Hofmokl, T.; Katsoufis, E. C.; Koratzinos, M.; Krafft, C.; Lefievre, B.; Lemoigne, Y.; Lopez, A.; Lui, W. K.; Magneville, C.; Maltezos, A.; McEwen, J. G.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pattison, B.; Poutot, D.; Primout, M.; Rahmani, H.; Roudeau, P.; Seez, C.; Six, J.; Strub, R.; Treille, D.; Triscos, P.; Tristram, G.; Villet, G.; Volte, A.; Wayne, M.; Websdale, D. M.; Wormser, G.; Zolnierowski, Y.

    1992-03-01

    Kinematic correlations between the charmed D and D mesons produced by a photon beam of mean energy 100 GeV/c have been measured by the NA14/2 experiment at CERN using a sample of almost background-free fully reconstructed DD events. The observed D and DD distributions are compared to the predictions of production models using different parameters for the charm fragmentation function and for the intrinsic transverse momentum of the partons.

  11. Experimental Validation of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Douglas, Matthew; Christensen, Richard

    2010-05-13

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with personnel from The Ohio State University, are working to develop a system for monitoring spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities on-line, non-destructively, and in near-real-time. This method, known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, is based upon the measurement of distribution patterns of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within particular process streams. Distribution patterns, monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry, are then compared in near-real-time to patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. By targeting gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout the facility. In addition, utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, increases the likelihood that attempts to divert material via process manipulation would be detected. Proof-of-principle modeling exercises simulating changes in acid strength have been completed and the results are promising. Laboratory validation is currently under way and significant results are available. The latest experimental results, along with an overview of the method will be presented.

  12. 10. DD and GG breaker building and associated conveyors. DD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DD and GG breaker building and associated conveyors. DD is coke transfer hous ein foreground; GG is breaker building in center. Coal bunker is tall building to left; 2-story coke conveyor on left brought coal to powerhouse pulverizer. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  13. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164...

  14. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164...

  15. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164...

  16. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164...

  17. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-441 - Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. 53.303-DD-441 Section 53.303-DD-441 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-DD-441 Department of Defense DD Form 441, Security Agreement. EC01MY91.163 EC01MY91.164...

  18. Physiological responses of a young Picea Sitchensis stand to long-term nitrogen and sulphur deposition: a lesson from d13C, d18O and d15N in tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Borghetti, Marco; Levy, Peter; Perks, Mike; Saurer, Matthias; Sheppard, Lucy; Sutton, Mark

    2010-05-01

    deposition on tree physiological traits were investigated in a young Picea Sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. plantation on an acid peat soil (Deepsyke forest, Scotland, UK). The Deepsyke experiment is unique in providing the opportunity to evaluate the long-term effects of frequent aerial N and S spraying onto a forest canopy for a period of 5 to 8 years. The adopted approach was based on the measurements of stable carbon (d13C), oxygen (d18O) and nitrogen (d15N) isotope composition in tree rings. We used d13C for assessing changes in WUEi, while the degree of photosynthetic and stomatal responses to the different treatments were investigated using a conceptual model, combining variations of d13C and d18O. The differences between canopy vs. soil N applications were evaluated as magnitude of changes in WUEi and underlying mechanisms involved. Furthermore, physiological responses were also assessed in relation to leaf nutrient status. Finally, changes in tree internal N cycle in relation to canopy nitrogen uptake and the relative contribution to variation of WUEi were detected by d15N in tree rings.

  19. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security...

  20. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security...

  1. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security...

  2. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security...

  3. 48 CFR 53.303-DD-254 - Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security Classification Specification. 53.303-DD-254 Section 53.303-DD-254 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-DD-254 Department of Defense DD Form 254, Contract Security...

  4. Quantitative imaging of subcellular metabolism with stable isotopes and multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Matthew L; Lechene, Claude P

    2013-01-01

    Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) is the quantitative imaging of stable isotope labels in cells with a new type of secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS). The power of the methodology is attributable to (i) the immense advantage of using non-toxic stable isotope labels, (ii) high resolution imaging that approaches the resolution of usual transmission electron microscopy and (iii) the precise quantification of label down to 1 part-per-million and spanning several orders of magnitude. Here we review the basic elements of MIMS and describe new applications of MIMS to the quantitative study of metabolic processes including protein and nucleic acid synthesis in model organisms ranging from microbes to humans.

  5. Quantitative imaging of subcellular metabolism with stable isotopes and multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Lechene, Claude P.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) is the quantitative imaging of stable isotope labels in cells with a new type of secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS). The power of the methodology is attributable to (i) the immense advantage of using non-toxic stable isotope labels, (ii) high resolution imaging that approaches the resolution of usual transmission electron microscopy and (iii) the precise quantification of label down to 1 part-per-million and spanning several orders of magnitude. Here we review the basic elements of MIMS and describe new applications of MIMS to the quantitative study of metabolic processes including protein and nucleic acid synthesis in model organisms ranging from microbes to humans. PMID:23660233

  6. 100% DD Energy Model Update

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-06-30

    The Miami Science Museum energy model has been used during DD to test the building's potential for energy savings as measured by ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Appendix G. This standard compares the designed building's yearly energy cost with that of a code-compliant building. The building is currently on track show 20% or better improvement over the ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Appendix G baseline; this performance would ensure minimum compliance with both LEED 2.2 and current Florida Energy Code, which both reference a less strict version of ASHRAE 90.1. In addition to being an exercise in energy code compliance, the energy model has been used as a design tool to show the relative performance benefit of individual energy conservation measures (ECMs). These ECMs are areas where the design team has improved upon code-minimum design paths to improve the energy performance of the building. By adding ECMs one a time to a code-compliant baseline building, the current analysis identifies which ECMs are most effective in helping the building meet its energy performance goals.

  7. D-D tokamak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K.E. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Finn, P.A.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Stevens, H.C.

    1980-11-01

    A tokamak D-D reactor design, utilizing the advantages of a deuterium-fueled reactor but with parameters not unnecessarily extended from existing D-T designs, is presented. Studies leading to the choice of a design and initial studies of the design are described. The studies are in the areas of plasma engineering, first-wall/blanket/shield design, magnet design, and tritium/fuel/vacuum requirements. Conclusions concerning D-D tokamak reactors are stated.

  8. Identification of the geographical place of origin of an unidentified individual by multi-isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Font, Laura; van der Peijl, Gerard; van Leuwen, Carina; van Wetten, Isis; Davies, Gareth R

    2015-01-01

    A multi-isotope investigation (Sr and Pb isotopes and δ18O, δ13C and δ15N) was applied to bone and teeth from an unidentified male found drowned in the"IJ" Ruyterkade in Amsterdam, The Netherlands in March of 1999. The individual remained unidentified until mid 2013, after the isotope study was completed. Coupled δ13C and δ15N values in bone collagen recovered from rib and femur are consistent with an omnivore living in a region where C3-type diet dominates (i.e. Europe). Integrated Sr and Pb isotopes and δ18O values in canine and third molar teeth and femur and rib bone data exclude extended residence in north-west Europe and particularly The Netherlands. Characteristic Pb isotope ratios coupled with inferred δ18O values of drinking water argue for a most probable place of origin for the unidentified individual in west and south Poland, south-east Slovakia and the region of Ukraine-Romania-Bulgaria, specifically the region associated with the Carpathian Mountains. Independent of the isotope study, the Cold Case Team made a positive identification with an individual from south-west Poland, validating the results of the multiple-isotopic approach.

  9. Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor: A Near-Real-Time Monitor For Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Douglas, Matthew; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard

    2008-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The threat of protracted diversion of Pu from commercial reprocessing operations is perhaps the greatest concern to national and international agencies tasked with safeguarding these facilities. While it is generally understood that a method for direct monitoring of process on-line and in near-real time (NRT) would be the best defense against protracted diversion scenarios, an effective method with these qualities has yet to be developed. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by proposing an on-line NRT process monitoring method that should be sensitive to minor alterations in process conditions and compatible with small, easily deployable, detection systems. This Approach is known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and involves the determination and recognition of the contaminant pattern within a process stream for a suite of indicator (radioactive) elements present in the spent fuel as a function of process variables. Utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, decreases the likelihood that attempts to divert Pu by altering the ReDox environment within the process would go undetected. In addition, by identifying gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, this Approach might eliminate the need for bulky neutron detection systems, relying instead on small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors easily deployable throughout the facility.

  10. The Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: Multivariate Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Rutherford, Crystal E.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-10-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). The time delay between sampling and subsequent DA provides a potential opportunity to divert the material out of the appropriate chemical stream. Leveraging new on-line nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for MC&A verification at such facilities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and pattern recognition software to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. Recent efforts have been made to explore the basic limits of using multivariate analysis techniques on gamma-ray spectra. This paper will provide an overview of the methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technology.

  11. The Multi-Isotope Process Monitor Project: FY11 Progress and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Hayes, John W.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Bender, Sarah E.; Unlu, Kenan; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Schreiber, S. S.; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2012-08-01

    Summary The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor represents a potentially new and efficient approach to monitoring process conditions in reprocessing facilities with the high-level goal of aiding in the “...(minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism” (Office of Technology Assessment 1995). This approach relies on multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy of spent fuel product and waste streams to automatically and simultaneously monitor a variety of process conditions (e.g., acid concentrations, burnup, cooling time, etc.) in near real-time (NRT). While the conceptual basis for the MIP Monitor has been shown to be effective in an aqueous reprocessing system, the fundamental approach should also be viable in a pyro-processing recycle system. The MIP Monitor may be calibrated to provide online quantitative information about process variables for process control or domestic safeguards applications; or it can simply monitor, with a built-in information barrier, for off-normal conditions in process streams, making the approach well-suited for applications were it is necessary to respect proprietary information or for international safeguards applications. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments were performed in previous years demonstrating the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting. This report details follow-on research and development efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) related to the MIP Monitor for fiscal year 2011 (FY11).

  12. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY13 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Coble, Jamie B.; Jordan, David V.; Mcdonald, Luther W.; Forrester, Joel B.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Reilly, Dallas D.

    2013-09-01

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of “… (minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism.” The MIP Monitor measures the distribution of the radioactive isotopes in product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These isotopes are monitored online by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing “normal” process conditions using multivariate analysis and pattern recognition algorithms. The combination of multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy allows us to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting for systems representing aqueous reprocessing facilities. However, pyroprocessing is emerging as an alternative to aqueous reprocessing techniques.

  13. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The...

  14. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The...

  15. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The...

  16. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The...

  17. 48 CFR 53.204-1 - Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). 53.204-1 Section 53.204-1 Federal Acquisition....204-1 Safeguarding classified information within industry (DD Form 254, DD Form 441). The...

  18. The DD Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2005-12-01

    LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and three-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D Bloch+ periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D Bloch+ -> {}4 He Bloch2+. Overlap between {}4 He Bloch2+ and surface Cs leads to alpha absorption. In the Iwamura et al. studies active deuterium is created by scattering at diffusion barriers.

  19. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  20. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY12 Progress and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Orton, Christopher R.; Jordan, David V.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2012-09-27

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of "...(minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism." The MIP Monitor measures distributions of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. The monitor utilizes this multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy of reprocessing streams to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. Multivariate analysis methods common in chemometrics, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS), act as pattern recognition techniques, which can detect small deviations from the expected, nominal condition. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting. Development of the MIP Monitor approach continues to evaluate the efficacy of the monitor for automated, real-time or near-real-time application. This report details follow-on research and development efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development related to the MIP Monitor for fiscal year

  1. Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    metal pollutants. The main objective of this study is to characterize the sources and the behavior of these heavy metals in the aquatic environment, and their spatial distribution using a multi-isotope approach. Each of these isotope systematics on their own reveals important information about their geogenic or anthropogenic origin but, considered together, provide a more integrated understanding of the budgets of these pollutants within the Loire River Basin.

  2. Low impact plutonium glovebox D&D

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    A dilemma often encountered in decontamination and decommissioning operations is the lack of choice as to the location where the work is to be performed. Facility siting, laboratory location, and adjacent support areas were often determined based on criteria, which while appropriate at the time, are not always the most conducive to a D&D project. One must learn to adapt and cope with as found conditions. High priority research activities, which cannot be interrupted, may be occurring in adjacent non-radiological facilities in the immediate vicinity where highly contaminated materials must be handled in the course of a D&D operation. The execution of a project within such an environment involves a high level of coordination, cooperation, professionalism and flexibility among the project, the work force and the surrounding occupants. Simply moving occupants from the potentially affected area is not always an option and much consideration must be given in the selection of the D&D methodology to be employed and the processes to be implemented. Determining project boundaries and the ensuring that adjacent occupants are included in the planning/scheduling of specific operations which impact their work area are important in the development of the safety envelope. Such was the case in the recent D&D of 61 gloveboxes contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic nuclides at the Argonne National Laboratory-East site. The gloveboxes, which were used in Department of Energy research and development program activities over the past 30 years, were decontaminated to below transuranic waste criteria, size reduced, packaged and removed from Building 212 by Argonne National Laboratory personnel in conjunction with Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. with essentially no impact to adjacent occupants.

  3. 76 FR 50771 - Submission for Review: DD 1918 Establishment Information Form, DD 1919 Wage Data Collection Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: DD 1918 Establishment Information Form, DD 1919 Wage Data Collection Form, DD 1919C Wage Data Collection Continuation Form AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)...

  4. INEL D&D long-range plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  5. Catalyzed D-D stellarator reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald A.

    2016-05-12

    The advantages of using the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) approach for a fusion reactor—lower and less energetic neutron flux and no need for a tritium breeding blanket—have been evaluated in previous papers, giving examples of both tokamak and stellarator reactors. This paper presents an update for the stellarator example, taking account of more recent empirical transport scaling results and design studies of lower-aspect-ratio stellarators. We use a modified version of the Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor model to cost a stellarator-type reactor. Recently, this model has been updated to reflect the improved science and technology base and costs in the magnetic fusionmore » program. Furthermore, it is shown that an interesting catalyzed D-D, stellarator power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved: R/ ≈ 4, required improvement factor to ISS04 scaling, FR = 0.9 to 1.15, <β> ≈ 8.0% to 11.5%, Zeff ≈ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ≈ 0.07, Bm ≈ 14 to 16 T, and R ≈ 18 to 24 m.« less

  6. Is it really organic?--multi-isotopic analysis as a tool to discriminate between organic and conventional plants.

    PubMed

    Laursen, K H; Mihailova, A; Kelly, S D; Epov, V N; Bérail, S; Schjoerring, J K; Donard, O F X; Larsen, E H; Pedentchouk, N; Marca-Bell, A D; Halekoh, U; Olesen, J E; Husted, S

    2013-12-01

    Novel procedures for analytical authentication of organic plant products are urgently needed. Here we present the first study encompassing stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium and sulphur as well as compound-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate for discrimination of organically and conventionally grown plants. The study was based on wheat, barley, faba bean and potato produced in rigorously controlled long-term field trials comprising 144 experimental plots. Nitrogen isotope analysis revealed the use of animal manure, but was unable to discriminate between plants that were fertilised with synthetic nitrogen fertilisers or green manures from atmospheric nitrogen fixing legumes. This limitation was bypassed using oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate in potato tubers, while hydrogen isotope analysis allowed complete discrimination of organic and conventional wheat and barley grains. It is concluded, that multi-isotopic analysis has the potential to disclose fraudulent substitutions of organic with conventionally cultivated plants.

  7. Using Multi-Isotopic Analysis To Track The Origin Of NO3 In Groundwater And To Trace Natural Attenuation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Soler, A.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrate pollution has become a major threat to groundwater quality as the maximum nitrate concentration allowed by the European Directive 98/83/CE in waters for human consumption, 50 mg/L, is reached in most of the regional aquifers in Europe. In Catalonia, according to the nitrate directive, nine areas have been declared as vulnerable to nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. Five of these areas have been studied coupling hydro chemical data with a multi-isotopic approach, in an ongoing research project looking for an integrated application of classical hydrochemistry data, with a comprehensive isotopic characterisation (δ15N and δ18O of dissolved nitrate, δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ D and δ18O of water) in order to assess groundwater management in this area. The nitrogen isotopes have allowed to determine the origin of nitrate pollution for the different areas: fertilisers in the Maresme area, animal manure in the Osona and Empordà areas, and a mixed origin in Selva and Garrotxa areas. The coupled use of δ15N and δ18O permitted to determine the existence of denitrification processes (natural attenuation of pollution), and showed that this process is effective in the Osona, Selva and the Empordà areas, but not significant in the Maresme and Garrotxa areas. The multi-isotopic approach, coupling δ15N and δ18O of nitrate, with the isotopic composition of the ions involved in denitrification reactions (δ34S, δ18O, and δ13C ), showed the relationship between sulphide oxidation and nitrate attenuation in the Osona area. In the Empordà and Selva areas, the denitrification is not linked to sulphide oxidation, and organic matter must be the electron donor for denitrification, though further research is needed to confirm the role of organic matter. The observed denitrification processes reveal optional strategies for nitrogen attenuation.

  8. INEL D&D Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility.

  9. Evidence for a functional link between Dd-STATa and Dd-PIAS, a Dictyostelium PIAS homologue.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Takefumi; Hirano, Tatsunori; Ogasawara, Shun; Aoshima, Ryota; Yachi, Ayako

    2011-09-01

    Several mammalian protein families inhibit the activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) was initially identified through its ability to interact with human STAT proteins. We isolated a gene (pisA) encoding a Dictyostelium orthologue of PIAS, Dd-PIAS, which possesses almost all the representative motifs and domains of mammalian PIAS proteins. A Dd-PIAS null mutant strain displays a normal terminal morphology but with accelerated development once cells are aggregated. In contrast, Dd-PIAS overexpressor strains demonstrate delayed aggregation, almost no slug phototaxis, impaired slug motility, and a prolonged slug migration period. This strain is a near phenocopy of the Dd-STATa null mutant, although it eventually forms a fruiting body, albeit inefficiently. The expression of several Dd-STATa-activated genes is upregulated in the Dd-PIAS null mutant and there is ectopic expression of pstAB makers. The concentration of a PIAS-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein, expressed under the PIAS promoter, is greatest in the pstO cells and gradually decreases with proximity to the tip of the slug and culminant: a pattern diametrically opposite to that of Dd-STATa. Our results suggest a functional interrelationship between Dd-PIAS and Dd-STATa that influences gene expression and development.

  10. Neutron suppression in polarized dd fusion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.S.; Liu, K.F.; Shuy, G.W.

    1999-11-01

    We report a model-independent partial-wave analysis of polarized dd fusion reactions at low energies. The radial transition amplitudes, designated by the central, spin-orbit, and tensor forces, are determined by fitting angular distributions of the tensor and vector analyzing powers A{sub XZ}({theta}), A{sub ZZ}({theta}), A{sub XX-YY}({theta}), and A{sub Y}({theta}), and the unpolarized cross section {sigma}{sub 0}({theta}). The polarized fusion cross section {sigma}{sub 1,1}({theta}) is then predicted from these radial transition amplitudes. We stress that this is feasible only when these amplitudes are separated according to the tensor rank of the interaction. This study includes the {ital D}-state components of the deuteron, triton, and {sup 3}He, and the partial-wave expansion is done up to the {ital d} wave for both the entrance and exit channels. Experimental data at E{sub lab}=30, 50, 70, and 90 keV for the d(d,p)t reaction are very well fitted with this method. It is found that the ratio of polarized to unpolarized cross sections is about 86{percent} at 30 keV and goes down to 22{percent} at 90 keV. The implication of the suppression of a polarized dd fusion reaction is discussed in the context of the neutron-lean fusion reactor with polarized {ital D}-{sup 3}He fuel. It turns out that the important range of energy for suppressing the d(d,p)t and d(d,n){sup 3}He reactions at the plasma temperature T=60 keV is E{sub d}=80{endash}600 keV. More experimental data are needed in this range to make a detailed study of the neutron suppression. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 45 - DD Form 215

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 215 C Appendix C to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. C Appendix C to...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 45 - DD Form 215

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 215 C Appendix C to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. C Appendix C to...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 45 - DD Form 215

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 215 C Appendix C to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. C Appendix C to...

  14. Multi-isotope approach: a tool to better constrain both sources and processes affecting NO3 pollution in watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.

    2006-12-01

    Nitrate is one of the major pollutants of drinking water resources worldwide. Recent European directives reduced inputs from intensive agriculture, but in most places NO3 levels are approaching the potable limit of 50 mg.l-1 in groundwater. Determining the source(s) of contamination in groundwater is an important first step for improving its quality by emission control. It is with this aim that we review here the benefit of using a multi- isotope approach (d15N, d180, d11B and 87Sr/86Sr), in addition to conventional hydrogeological analysis, to both constrain the watersheds hydrology and trace the origin of their NO3 pollution. Watersheds presented here include both fractured bedrock and alluvial (subsurface and deep) hydrogeological contexts. The strontium budget in watersheds is mainly controlled by the water-rock interactions (human inputs usually represents negligible fluxes). With the example of the Allier river (Central France), we show that, even on a very small watershed, the main water flows can usually be determined by the use of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, thus helping understanding the hydrology controlling pollution processes. The characterisation of the different usual nitrate sources of pollution in groundwater (mineral fertilisers, wastewater and animals manure) shows that they can clearly be discriminated using isotopes. The isotopic composition of the dissolved nitrogen species has been used extensively to better constrain the sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater. The possibility of quantifying both origin and secondary processes affecting N concentrations by means of a single tracer appears more limited however. Nitrogen cannot be considered conservative because it is biologically modified through nitrification and denitrification reactions, both during infiltration of the water and in the groundwater body, causing isotopic fractionation that modifies the d15N-n signatures of the dissolved N species. Discriminating multiple NO3 sources by their N

  15. Multi-isotope labelling (13C, 18O, 2H) for studying organic matter cycling within plant-soil systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, M. S.; Abiven, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.; Siegwolf, R. T. W.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon cycling has become of major interest for the understanding and mitigation of global climatic change. Terrestrial ecosystems have a large carbon sequestration potential, but many processes and fluxes of organic matter (OM) cycling within the plant-soil system are not yet well understood [1]. The dynamics of OM cycling within the plant soil-system are determined by environmental parameters, as well as chemical quality of OM input. A well-known technique to study OM dynamics is to label OM inputs with stable isotopes (e.g 13C). Changes in OM quality in the plant and in the soil can be assessed by compound specific isotopic analysis [2]. These techniques give a precise insight of the OM composition, but are laborious and expensive. Here we suggest a new multi-isotope labelling technique using stable 13C in combination with stable 18O and 2H isotopes, which provides information on OM quality by simple bulk material analysis. The method is based on the creation of an isotopic van Krevelen diagram, which is used to describe different compound groups by plotting the atomic ratios of O/C vs. H/C [3]. We could show that new assimilates can be labelled with 13C, 18O and 2H by adding the stable isotopes (continuously) in the gaseous phase (CO2 and water vapour) to the plants atmosphere. The label has been traced within the bulk material of different compartments of the plant-soil system (e.g. leaves, stems, roots, bulk soil). Our first results showed that after 2, 8 and 14 days of labelling the 18O/13C(new) ratio was notably different in leaf, stem and root tissue (0.0024, 0.0011 and 0.0007, respectively), suggesting a change in OM quality towards more C-rich compounds. d2H analysis will follow and an isotopic van Krevelen diagram will be produced (18O/13C(new) vs. 2H/13C(new)) to describe the changes in OM quality. The new multi-isotope labelling approach represent a powerful tool to address open questions in plant and soil research such as the allocation of organic

  16. D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called "D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention" and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX® to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX® is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX® chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX®, it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX® will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated. Encapsulation Technologies, LLC has developed a

  17. Study of muon catalyzed dd-fusion in HD gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenchuk, G. G.; Balin, D. V.; Case, T.; Crowe, K. M.; Ganzha, V. A.; Hartmann, F. J.; Kozlov, S. M.; Lauss, B.; Maev, E. M.; Mühlbauer, M.; Petitjean, C.; Petrov, G. E.; Sadetsky, S. M.; Schapkin, G. N.; Schott, W.; Smirenin, Yu. V.; Soroka, M. A.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Voropaev, N. I.; Zmeskal, J.

    1999-06-01

    The results of an experiment on muon catalyzed dd-fussion in HD gas are presented. The experiment was performed at the muon beam of PSI using a high-pressure ionization chamber filled with pure HD-gas of low D2 concentration on the level 1%, at temperatures 50, 150 and 300 K. The non-resonant character of ddμ-molecule formation on HD molecules was confirmed by measuring the ratio of yields of the two ddμ-fusion channels, R=Y(3He,n)/Y(3H,p), which proved to be close to unity. The ddμ formation rate was found to vary from λddμ-HD=0.05· 106 s-1 at T=50 K to λddμ-HD=0.12· 106 s-1 at T=300 K, in agreement with the theoretical prediction. A prominent peak at t<60 ns was observed in the time spectrum of fusion neutrons indicating a resonant contribution of ddμ formation from epithermal dμ atoms.

  18. Preparation of a multi-isotope plutonium AMS standard and preliminary results of a first inter-lab comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, B.-A.; Dunai, T. J.; Dewald, A.; Heinze, S.; Feuerstein, C.; Strub, E.; Fifield, L. K.; Froehlich, M. B.; Tims, S. G.; Wallner, A.; Christl, M.

    2015-10-01

    The motivation of this work is to establish a new multi-isotope plutonium standard for isotopic ratio measurements with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), since stocks of existing solutions are declining. To this end, certified reference materials (CRMs) of each of the individual isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu were obtained from JRC IRMM (Joint Research Center Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements). These certified reference materials (IRMM-081a, IRMM-083, IRMM-043 and IRMM-042a) were diluted with nitric acid and mixed to obtain a stock standard solution with an isotopic ratio of approximately 1.0:1.0:1.0:0.1 (239Pu:240Pu:242Pu:244Pu). From this stock solution, samples were prepared for measurement of the plutonium isotopic composition by AMS. These samples have been measured in a round-robin exercise between the AMS facilities at CologneAMS, at the ANU Canberra and ETH Zurich to verify the isotopic ratio and to demonstrate the reproducibility of the measurements. The results show good agreement both between the different AMS measurements and with the gravimetrically determined nominal ratios.

  19. D&D TECHNOLOGIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia L.

    2003-02-27

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called ''D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention'' and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX{reg_sign} to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX{reg_sign} is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX{reg_sign} chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign}, it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign} will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated

  20. DD-PREF: a language for expressing preferences over sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; desJardins, Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present a representation language, DD-PREF (for Diversity and Depth PREFrences), for specifying the desired diversity and depth of sets of objects where each object is represented as a vector of feature values.

  1. Section BB, Section DD, Plan AA, Plan CC, Typical Framing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B, Section D-D, Plan A-A, Plan C-C, Typical Framing Detail of Upper Stringers, Typical Framing Detail of Lower Stringers - Covered Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River, Orford, Grafton County, NH

  2. Origins and processes of groundwater salinization in the urban coastal aquifers of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil): A multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Bertrand, Guillaume; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc; Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Hélène; Chatton, Eliot; Franzen, Melissa; Aurouet, Axel

    2015-10-15

    In the coastal multilayer aquifer system of a highly urbanized southern city (Recife, Brazil), where groundwaters are affected by salinization, a multi-isotope approach (Sr, B, O, H) was used to investigate the sources and processes of salinization. The high diversity of the geological bodies, built since the Atlantic opening during the Cretaceous, highly constrains the heterogeneity of the groundwater chemistry, e.g. Sr isotope ratios, and needs to be integrated to explain the salinization processes and groundwater pathways. A paleoseawater intrusion, most probably the 120 kyB.P. Pleistocene marine transgression, and cationic exchange are clearly evidenced in the most salinized parts of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. All (87)Sr/(86)Sr values are above the past and present-day seawater signatures, meaning that the Sr isotopic signature is altered due to additional Sr inputs from dilution with different freshwaters, and water-rock interactions. Only the Cabo aquifer presents a well-delimitated area of Na-HCO3 water typical of a freshening process. The two deep aquifers also display a broad range of B concentrations and B isotope ratios with values among the highest known to date (63-68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays and mixing with wastewater. The highly fractionated B isotopic values were explained by infiltration of relatively salty water with B interacting with clays, pointing out the major role played by (palaeo)-channels for the deep Beberibe aquifer recharge. Based on an increase of salinity at the end of the dry season, a present-day seawater intrusion is identified in the surficial Boa Viagem aquifer. Our conceptual model presents a comprehensive understanding of the major groundwater salinization pathways and processes, and should be of benefit for other southern Atlantic coastal aquifers to better address groundwater management issues.

  3. A Multi-isotope Tracer Approach Linking Land Use With Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in the San Joaquin River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. B.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Stringfellow, W. T.

    2008-12-01

    The San Joaquin River (SJR) is a large hypereutrophic river located in the Central Valley, California, a major agricultural region. Nutrient subsidies, algae, and other organic material from the San Joaquin River contribute to periods of low dissolved oxygen in the Stockton Deep Water Ship Channel, inhibiting salmon migration. We used a multi-isotope approach to link nitrate and particulate organic matter (POM) to different sources and related land uses. The isotope data was also used to better understand the physical and biological processes controlling the distribution of nitrate and POM throughout the river system. Samples collected from the mainstem SJR and tributaries twice-monthly to monthly between March 2005 and December 2007 were analyzed for nitrate, POM, and water isotopes. There are many land uses surrounding the SJR and its tributaries, including multiple types of agriculture, dairies, wetlands, and urban areas. Samples from SJR tributaries containing both major and minor contributions of wetland discharge generally had distinct nitrate and POM isotope signatures compared to other tributaries. Unique nitrate and POM isotope signatures associated with wetland discharges may reflect anaerobic biological processes occurring in flooded soils. For the mainstem SJR, we applied an isotope mass balance approach using nitrate and water isotopes to calculate the expected downstream isotope values based upon measured inputs from known water sources such as drains and tributaries. Differences between the calculated downstream isotope values and the measured values indicate locations and time periods when either biological processes such as algal uptake, or physical process such as the input of unidentified water sources, significantly altered the isotope signatures of water, POM, or nitrate within the SJR. This research will provide a better understanding of how different land uses affect the delivery of carbon and nitrogen to the SJR, and will provide a better

  4. A multi-isotope investigation of sources and cycling of nitrate and organic matter in the San Joaquin River, Delta, and northern San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Silva, S. R.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Stringfellow, W. T.

    2008-12-01

    The San Joaquin River is a eutrophic, heavily impacted river which drains extensive agricultural areas and receives waste water discharge from rapidly growing urban areas. The Delta-San Francisco Bay region is hydrodynamically complex, drains a watershed covering approximately 40% of the area of California, and is considered to be one of the most anthropogenically altered estuaries in the world. As part of a 3-year project aimed at identifying temporal and spatial changes in sources of nutrients and organics in the San Joaquin River, the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, and northern San Francisco Bay, samples were collected from several dozen sites at intervals ranging from twice-weekly to quarterly. These samples were analyzed for a large suite of parameters including d15N and d18O of nitrate; d13C, d15N, and C:N of particulate organic matter; d18O and d2H of water; and d13C of dissolved organic carbon. Subsets were also analyzed for sulfate, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved oxygen, and phosphate isotopes. We find that the temporal and spatial variation in isotopic compositions provides unique insights into sources of nutrients, organics, water, and other salts that could not have been gained with standard chemical and hydrological measurements. This presentation will focus on examples of the usefulness of the isotope data for answering questions related to 2 major environmental issues in this ecosystem: low dissolved oxygen levels in the Deep Water Shipping Channel section of the lower San Joaquin River that are inhibiting salmon migration, and pelagic organism decline in the Delta and northern San Francisco Bay.

  5. Evaluation of risks of groundwater quality alteration in Recife urban area (Pernambuco, Brazil) using a multi-isotopic approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Guillaume; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Batista, Jonathan; Bertolo, Reginaldo; Santos, Jeane-Glaucia; Montenegro, Suzanna; Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Pauwels, Hélène; Picot, Géraldine; Braibant, Gilles; Chatton, Eliot; Aquilina, Luc; Labasque, Thierry; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Aurouet, Axel; Franzen, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR) is a heavily urbanized area located in a estuary zone and over a multi-layered sedimentary system on the Brazilian Atlantic coast. In a context of increasing land use pressures, involving aquifer overexploitation and surface water contamination, and repeated droughts, the identification of groundwater quality risks in RMR is a necessary management requirement. In this perspective, this work focused on the two shallow aquifer systems, named Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers, located at the interface between the city (the consumers) and the deeper semi-confined Cretaceous Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. The Holocenic Boa Viagem and Tertiary Barreiras formations conform unconfined sedimentary aquifers, with no more than 80 m of thickness. Cabo is the most important groundwater body for Recife private complementary water supply and it has experienced an intense exploitation in the last three decades. In contrast, Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers are more restrictively used, but it is important to understand their water quality degradation,because of hydraulic connections with deeper aquifers, mainly in the littoral part of Recife, where hydraulic potentiometric head of the Cabo aquifer is 60 m below sea water level in some places, with conditions for recharge from shallower aquifers. Through a multi-isotopic characterization (87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) of sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters, carried out during two field campaigns with additional geochemical parameters (major ions, noble and major gases, CFC' s and SF6), the spatio-temporal variability of groundwater quality was investigated. The detection of CFC' s, implying a modern recharge component, highlighted the vulnerability of Boa Viagem and Barreiras to surface contaminations. The increasing mineralization and decreasing 87Sr/86Sr from the inland sector wells to the wells located close to the coast or estuary, with higher well and population densities, were

  6. Origin and evolution of groundwater collected by a desalination plant (Tordera, Spain): A multi-isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Soler, A.; Corp, R. M.; Mas-Pla, J.; Garcia-Solsona, E.; Masqué, P.

    2011-01-01

    SummaryThe Tordera Desalination Plant located in Blanes (NE Spain) has seawater intake through 10 beach wells located a few meters inland on the shoreline at the Tordera River Delta. Between October 2002 and October 2003, the extracted groundwater showed a decrease in conductivity, especially in the wells located in the northern area, prompting the present study. A multi-isotopic approach (δD, δ 18OO, 3H, δ 34S, 87Sr/ 86Sr and 228Ra/ 226Ra) coupled with chemical data was applied in order to assess the origin of the water collected for the desalination plant and to quantify the extent of freshwater collection from the Tordera aquifer, when applicable. Three multi-piezometers located in the Tordera aquifer were also sampled in order to characterize the freshwater end-member. A seasonal survey was performed in order to assess the evolution of mixed freshwater-seawater intake. Tritium isotopes showed values ranging from 0.6 to 2.5 TU indicating recent origin of the collected waters. This was further confirmed using radium isotopes ( 226Ra and 228Ra), as the 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratio (AR) indicated a continuous input of seawater on a yearly time scale. The water extracted from the beach wells was at least 95% seawater, except for wells 8-10. The latter two were extracting up to 15% of freshwater from the Tordera aquifer system. From a methodological point of view, while δ 34S of dissolved sulphate and the ratio 87Sr/ 86Sr are good tracers of seawater mixing with freshwaters, the isotopic composition of water (δD and δ 18OO) and the Cl -/Br - ratio are conservative tracers that allow for quantifying the contribution of freshwater to the extracted water. Although slight variations linked to seasonality were observed in all wells during the 3-year study period (November 2003 to December 2006), wells 1 and 7 showed an increase in freshwater contribution from 4% to 11% and well 10 a decrease from 15% to 10% over this period.

  7. A spatially explicit multi-isotope approach to map influence regions of plant-plant interactions after exotic plant invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Christine; Oldeland, Jens; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions impose profound alterations to native ecosystems, including changes of water, carbon and nutrient cycles. However, explicitly quantifying these impacts remains a challenge. Stable isotopes, by providing natural tracers of biogeochemical processes, can help to identify and measure such alterations in space and time. Recently, δ15N isoscapes, i.e. spatially continuous representations of isotopic values, derived from native plant foliage, enabled to accurately trace nitrogen introduced by the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia into a native Portuguese dune system. It could be shown that the area of the system which was altered by the invasive species exceeded the area which was covered by the invader by far. But still, definition of clear regions of influence is to some extent ambiguous. Here, we present an approach using multiple isoscapes derived from measured foliar δ13C and δ15N values of a native, non-fixing species, Corema album. By clustering isotopic information, we obtained an objective classification of the study area. Properties and spatial position of clusters could be interpreted to distinguish areas that were or were not influenced by A. longifolia. Spatial clusters at locations where A. longifolia was present had δ15N values that were enriched, i.e. close to the atmospheric signal of 0 o compared to the depleted values of the uninvaded system (ca. -11 o). Furthermore, C. album individuals in these clusters were characterized by higher foliar N content and enriched δ13C. These results indicate that the N2-fixing A. longifolia added nitrogen to the system which originated from the atmosphere and was used by the native C. album, inducing functional changes, i.e. an increase in WUE. Additionally, clusters were identified that were presumably determined by inherent properties of the native system. Thus, combining isotope ecology with geostatistical methods is a promising approach for mapping regions of influence in multi-isotope

  8. Credit BG. Looking northwest at the Dd stand complex. To ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Looking northwest at the Dd stand complex. To the left is the Test Stand "D" tower with steam-driven ejectors and interstage condenser visible along with steam lines. The steam accumulator appears in the left foreground (sphere); steam lines emerging from the top conduct steam to the Dv, Dd, and Dy stand ejectors. The T-shaped vertical pipes atop the accumulator are burst-disk type safety valves. The ejector ends of the Dd and Dy trains are visible to the right. Tracks permitted each train to expand and contract with temperature or equipment changes - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Newborn infant(s) remaining in hospital after discharge of mother. A newborn infant remaining in the... by a valid DD 1251 issued in the infant's name. This is due to the fact that the infant becomes a patient in his or her own right (the episode of care for the infant after discharge of the mother is...

  10. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Newborn infant(s) remaining in hospital after discharge of mother. A newborn infant remaining in the... by a valid DD 1251 issued in the infant's name. This is due to the fact that the infant becomes a patient in his or her own right (the episode of care for the infant after discharge of the mother is...

  11. The Work on Aging/DD in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Charlotte

    This conference presentation describes New York State programs serving elderly mentally retarded (MR) and developmentally disabled (DD) persons. These service providers offer programming that is sensitive to the impact of the aging process, or provide the opportunity to access community aging programs, or a combination. Linkages are being…

  12. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of DEERS. Where this system is operational, it provides for transmitting quarterly reports to the... users should refer to their DEERS/NAS Users Manual for specific guidance on the use of the automated system. At activities where the DEER/NAS automated system is not operational, prepare each DD 1251...

  13. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application of DEERS. Where this system is operational, it provides for transmitting quarterly reports to the... users should refer to their DEERS/NAS Users Manual for specific guidance on the use of the automated system. At activities where the DEER/NAS automated system is not operational, prepare each DD 1251...

  14. 32 CFR 728.33 - Nonavailability statement (DD 1251).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of DEERS. Where this system is operational, it provides for transmitting quarterly reports to the... users should refer to their DEERS/NAS Users Manual for specific guidance on the use of the automated system. At activities where the DEER/NAS automated system is not operational, prepare each DD 1251...

  15. 32. SECTIONS AA, BB, CC, DD, AND EE WASTE CALCINATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SECTIONS A-A, B-B, C-C, D-D, AND E-E WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY SHOWING RELATIONSHIPS OF DIFFERENT FLOOR LEVELS TO ONE ANOTHER. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106353. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. D-D neutron generator development at LBNL.

    PubMed

    Reijonen, J; Gicquel, F; Hahto, S K; King, M; Lou, T-P; Leung, K-N

    2005-01-01

    The plasma and ion source technology group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is developing advanced, next generation D-D neutron generators. There are three distinctive developments, which are discussed in this presentation, namely, multi-stage, accelerator-based axial neutron generator, high-output co-axial neutron generator and point source neutron generator. These generators employ RF-induction discharge to produce deuterium ions. The distinctive feature of RF-discharge is its capability to generate high atomic hydrogen species, high current densities and stable and long-life operation. The axial neutron generator is designed for applications that require fast pulsing together with medium to high D-D neutron output. The co-axial neutron generator is aimed for high neutron output with cw or pulsed operation, using either the D-D or D-T fusion reaction. The point source neutron generator is a new concept, utilizing a toroidal-shaped plasma generator. The beam is extracted from multiple apertures and focus to the target tube, which is located at the middle of the generator. This will generate a point source of D-D, T-T or D-T neutrons with high output flux. The latest development together with measured data will be discussed in this article.

  17. Constraints of costal aquifer functioning in a deeply antropized area through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Recife, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Bertrand, Guillaume; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Hélène; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) went through large changes of water and land uses over the last decades due to an increasing demographic pressure (1.5 M of inhabitants). These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the water levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand that is also punctually amplified by drought periods, inducing the construction of thousands of private wells. Recife city was built on an estuarine area, at the geological limits of the two sedimentary basins of Pernambuco (north of the city) and Paraíba (south of the city) separated by a famous shear zone (the Pernambuco lineament). Tectonic and sedimentary events involved in the genesis and evolution of these basins were mainly controlled by the opening of the Atlantic Ocean leading to the deposition of cretaceous sediments which now constitute the two main exploited aquifers, the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers. These two deep aquiferous formations are topped by the unconfined Boa Viagem aquifer of quaternary sediments. It is the most directly exposed to contamination, since it is connected to mangroves, rivers, estuaries and highly urbanized areas. Both the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers contain large clay levels and are separated by a rather continuous clayed formation which seems to play a consistent role of screen and to interfere in the hydraulic connections between the three aquifers. Previous isotopic studies have shown that recharge processes are similar in the aquifers, suggesting that exchanges may occur and may be modified or amplified by overexploitation. This very complex aquifer system is studied through more than 60 water samples, including some surface water samples from the main rivers. A methodology based on multi-isotopes fingerprinting is applied, including stable isotopes of the water molecule, strontium isotopes, boron isotopes, sulfur

  18. Muon-catalyzed [ital dd] fusion between 25 and 150 K: Theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Scrinzi, A.; Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Breunlich, W.H.; Marton, J. ); Faifman, M.P.; Ponomarev, L.I. ); Strizh, T.A. )

    1993-06-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of experimental rates for [ital dd][mu] molecular formation and [ital d][mu] hyperfine transitions at temperatures 25.5--150 K, which were reported by Zmeskal [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. A 42, 1165 (1990)]. Theoretical effective [ital dd][mu] formation rates are fitted to the observed rates by adjusting the [ital dd][mu] binding energy [var epsilon][sub 11], the effective [ital dd] fusion rate [tilde [lambda

  19. H-2Dd exploits a four residue peptide binding motif

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have characterized the amino acid sequences of over 20 endogenous peptides bound by a soluble analog of H-2Dd, H-2Dds. Synthetic analogs corresponding to self, viral, tumor, or motif peptides were then tested for their ability to bind to H-2Dd by serologic epitope induction assays using both purified soluble protein and cell surface H-2Dd. The dominant primary sequence motif included glycine at position 2, proline at position 3, and a hydrophobic COOH terminus: leucine, isoleucine, or phenylalanine at position 9 or 10. Ancillary support for high affinity binding was contributed by a positively charged residue at position 5. Three-dimensional computer models of H-2Dds/peptide complexes, based on the crystallographic structure of the human HLA-B27/peptide complex, showed that the basic residue at position 5 was in position to form a salt bridge with aspartic acid at position 156, a polymorphic residue of the H-2Dd heavy (H) chain. Analysis of 28 such models, including 17 based on nonamer self-peptides, revealed considerable variation in the structure of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) surrounding peptide residue 1, depending on the size and charge of the side chain. Interactions between the side chains of peptide residues 5 and 7, and 6 and 8 commonly occurred. Those peptide positions with limited sequence variability and least solvent accessibility may satisfy structural requirements for high affinity binding of the peptide to the MHC class I H chain, whereas the highly variable positions of the peptide (such as positions 4, 6, and 8) may contribute more to the T cell epitopes. PMID:8245770

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dd of... - Applicability of Paragraphs in Subpart A of This Part 63-General Provisions to Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart DD Subpart A reference Applies to Subpart DD Explanation 63.1(a)(1) Yes 63.1(a)(2) Yes 63.1(a)(3) Yes 63.1(a)(4) No Subpart DD (this table) specifies applicability of each paragraph in subpart A to subpart DD. 63.1(a)(5)-63.1(a)(9) No 63.1(a)(10) Yes 63.1(a)(11) Yes 63.1(a)(12) Yes 63.1(a)(13) Yes...

  1. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes.

    PubMed

    Palau, Jordi; Marchesi, Massimo; Chambon, Julie C C; Aravena, Ramon; Canals, Àngels; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-03-15

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon, showed a wide range in δ(13)C values from -15.6 to -40.5‰ for TCE and from -18.5 to -32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ(37)Cl values for TCE in the contaminant sources, ranging from +0.53 to +0.66‰. Variations of δ(37)Cl and δ(13)C in the different contaminant plumes were used to investigate the role of biodegradation in groundwater. Moreover, the isotopic data were incorporated into a reactive transport model for determination of whether the isotope pattern observed downstream from the tank's source could be explained by the simultaneous effect of mixing and biodegradation. The results demonstrate that a multi-isotope approach is a valuable tool for characterization of complex sites such as fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by multiple sources, providing important information which can be used by consultants and site managers to prioritize and design more successful remediation strategies.

  2. Identifying source and formation altitudes of nitrates in drinking water from Réunion Island, France, using a multi-isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Karyne M.; Nicolini, Eric; Gauthier, Virginie

    2012-09-01

    Nitrate concentrations, water isotopes (δ2H and δ18Owater) and associated nitrate isotopes (δ15Nnitrate and δ18Onitrate) from 10 drinking water wells, 5 fresh water springs and the discharge from 3 wastewater treatment stations in Réunion Island, located in the Indian Ocean, were analysed. We used a multi isotopic approach to investigate the extent of nitrate contamination, nitrate formation altitude and source of nitrates in Réunion Island's principal aquifer. Water from these study sites contained between 0.1 and 85.3 mg/L nitrate. δ15Nnitrate values between + 6 and + 14‰ suggested the main sources of contamination were animal and/or human waste, rather than inorganic (synthetic) fertilisers, infiltrating through the subsurface into the saturated zone, due to rainfall leaching of the unsaturated zone at various altitudes of precipitation. Based on δ15Nnitrate values alone, it was not possible to distinguish between animal and human activities responsible for the contamination of each specific catchment. However, using a multi isotope approach (δ18Owater and δ15Nnitrate), it was possible to relate the average altitude of rainfall infiltration (δ18Owater) associated with the nitrate contamination (δ18Onitrate). This relationship between land use, rainfall recharge altitude and isotopic composition (δ15Nnitrate and δ18Owater) discriminated between the influences of human waste at lower (below 600 m elevation) or animal derived contamination (at elevations between 600 and 1300 m). By further comparing the theoretical altitude of nitrate formation calculated by the δ18Onitrate, it was possible to determine that only 5 out of 15 fresh water wells and springs followed the conservative nitrate formation mechanism of 2/3δ18Owater + 1/3δ18Oair, to give nitrate formation altitudes which corresponded to land use activities.

  3. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes.

    PubMed

    Palau, Jordi; Marchesi, Massimo; Chambon, Julie C C; Aravena, Ramon; Canals, Àngels; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-03-15

    The use of compound specific multi-isotope approach (C and Cl) in the characterization of a chlorinated ethenes contaminated fractured aquifer allows the identification of several sources and contaminant plumes, as well as the occurrence of biodegradation and mixing processes. The study site is located in Spain with contamination resulting in groundwater concentrations of up to 50mg/L of trichloroethene (TCE), the most abundant chlorinated ethene, and 7 mg/L of tetrachloroethene (PCE). The potential sources of contamination including abandoned barrels, an underground tank, and a disposal lagoon, showed a wide range in δ(13)C values from -15.6 to -40.5‰ for TCE and from -18.5 to -32.4‰ for PCE, allowing the use of isotope fingerprinting for tracing of the origin and migration of these contaminants in the aquifer. In contrast, there is no difference between the δ(37)Cl values for TCE in the contaminant sources, ranging from +0.53 to +0.66‰. Variations of δ(37)Cl and δ(13)C in the different contaminant plumes were used to investigate the role of biodegradation in groundwater. Moreover, the isotopic data were incorporated into a reactive transport model for determination of whether the isotope pattern observed downstream from the tank's source could be explained by the simultaneous effect of mixing and biodegradation. The results demonstrate that a multi-isotope approach is a valuable tool for characterization of complex sites such as fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by multiple sources, providing important information which can be used by consultants and site managers to prioritize and design more successful remediation strategies. PMID:24419287

  4. Study of the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD in e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}DD scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Li Haibo; Qin Xiaoshuai; Yang Maozhi

    2010-01-01

    Based on the data of BES and Belle, the production of DD in the e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}DD scattering process is studied in this paper. We analyze the continuum and resonant contributions in the energy region from 3.7 to 4.4 GeV. In the {chi}{sup 2} fit to data, we obtain the resonance parameters of {psi}(3770), the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD decay by confronting the data to the theoretical formula where both the contributions of the resonances, continuum and interference effects are included. We obtain the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD decay is 97.2%{+-}8.9%, as well as the branching ratio of {psi}(4040), {psi}(4160){yields}DD decays.

  5. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd test cell with VO (Viking Orbiter)-75 spacecraft engine mounted for testing. (Viking was a Mars orbiter and lander mission.) The end of the engine nozzle is inserted into a diffuser in order to conduct exhaust gases out of the chamber. All piping and tubing is stainless steel. Note ports in background through which instrumentation wiring passes. Nozzles at top of view are part of an internal fire suppression (or "Firex") system. (JPL negative no. 384-9428, 24 April 1972) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Manufacture and evaluation of Li/BCX DD cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, S.; Takeuchi, E.

    1990-01-01

    This project is divided into four main tasks: cell manufacture, acceptance, and lot certification of cells, performance testing of cells, and abuse testing of cells. Lithium/bromine chloride in thionyl chloride (Li/BCX) 149 DD cells (PN 3B2085-XA) were built according to the provisions of Electrochem Industries Quality Plan 17096. Acceptance and lot certification testing was performed according to NASA JSC Document EP5-83-025, Revision B. Acceptance testing included open circuit and load voltage check, visual examination, size and weight measurements, and high temperature exposure. Lot certification tests were performed for capacity performance and for performance under conditions of thermal and electrical abuse. These tests included 149 C exposure, capacity discharge, fuse check, high temperature exposure, high rate discharge, short circuit, vibration, and overdischarge testing. A quantity of 200 cells was delivered to Johnson Space Center for life test evaluation. A parametric evaluation of the capacity discharge of Li/BCX DD cells was performed over a variety of temperatures and discharge rates. This testing served to map the performance capability of the cell. Tests were also performed over a variety of electrical and thermal abuse conditions. Abuse tests included short circuit, charging, overdischarge, high temperature exposure, shock, and vibration.

  7. D-D fusion experiments using fast z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Baldwin, G.T.; Cooper, G.

    1994-04-01

    The development of high current (I > 10 MA) drivers provides us with a new tool for the study of neutron-producing plasmas in the thermal regime. The imploded deuterium mass (or collisionality) increases as I{sup 2} and the ability of the driver to heat the plasma to relevant fusion temperatures improves as the power of the driver increases. Additionally, fast (< 100 ns) implosions are more stable to the usual MHD instabilities that plagued the traditional slower implosions. We describe experiments in which deuterium gas puffs or CD{sub 2} fiber arrays were imploded in a fast z-pinch configuration on Sandia`s Saturn facility generating up to 3 {times} 10{sup 12} D-D neutrons. These experiments were designed to explore the physics of neutron-generating plasmas in a z-pinch geometry. Specifically, we intended to produce neutrons from a nearly thermal plasma where the electrons and ions have a nearly Maxwellian distribution. This is to be clearly differentiated from the more usual D-D beam-target neutrons generated in many dense plasma focus (DPF) devices.

  8. D-D fusion experiments using fast Z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Baldwin, G.T.; Cooper, G.

    1998-03-01

    The development of high current (I > 10 MA) drivers provides the authors with a new tool for the study of neutron-producing plasmas in the thermal regime. The imploded deuterium mass (or collisionality) increases as I{sup 2} and the ability of the driver to heat the plasma to relevant fusion temperatures improves as the power of the driver increases. Additionally, fast (<100 ns) implosions are more stable to the usual MHD instabilities that plagued the traditional slower implosions. The authors describe experiments in which deuterium gas puffs or CD{sub 2} fiber arrays were imploded in a fast z-pinch configuration on Sandia`s Saturn facility generating up to 3 {times} 10{sup 12} D-D neutrons. These experiments were designed to explore the physics of neutron-generating plasmas in a z-pinch geometry. Specifically, the authors intended to produce neutrons from a nearly thermal plasma where the electrons and ions have a nearly Maxwellian distribution. This is to be clearly differentiated from the more usual D-D beam-target neutrons generated in many dense plasma focus (DPF) devices.

  9. Identifying source and formation altitudes of nitrates in drinking water from Réunion Island, France, using a multi-isotopic approach.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; Nicolini, Eric; Gauthier, Virginie

    2012-09-01

    Nitrate concentrations, water isotopes (δ(2)H and δ(18)O(water)) and associated nitrate isotopes (δ(15)N(nitrate) and δ(18)O(nitrate)) from 10 drinking water wells, 5 fresh water springs and the discharge from 3 wastewater treatment stations in Réunion Island, located in the Indian Ocean, were analysed. We used a multi isotopic approach to investigate the extent of nitrate contamination, nitrate formation altitude and source of nitrates in Réunion Island's principal aquifer. Water from these study sites contained between 0.1 and 85.3 mg/L nitrate. δ(15)N(nitrate) values between +6 and +14‰ suggested the main sources of contamination were animal and/or human waste, rather than inorganic (synthetic) fertilisers, infiltrating through the subsurface into the saturated zone, due to rainfall leaching of the unsaturated zone at various altitudes of precipitation. Based on δ(15)N(nitrate) values alone, it was not possible to distinguish between animal and human activities responsible for the contamination of each specific catchment. However, using a multi isotope approach (δ(18)O(water) and δ(15)N(nitrate)), it was possible to relate the average altitude of rainfall infiltration (δ(18)O(water)) associated with the nitrate contamination (δ(18)O(nitrate)). This relationship between land use, rainfall recharge altitude and isotopic composition (δ(15)N(nitrate) and δ(18)O(water)) discriminated between the influences of human waste at lower (below 600 m elevation) or animal derived contamination (at elevations between 600 and 1300 m). By further comparing the theoretical altitude of nitrate formation calculated by the δ(18)O(nitrate), it was possible to determine that only 5 out of 15 fresh water wells and springs followed the conservative nitrate formation mechanism of 2/3δ(18)O(water)+1/3δ(18)O(air), to give nitrate formation altitudes which corresponded to land use activities.

  10. [Search for host specificity systems in Shigella using DD-series phages].

    PubMed

    Tediashvili, M I; Nikol'skaia, I I; Chanishvili, T G; Debov, S S

    1979-05-01

    A total of 712 Shigella strains were studied with the use of dysentery diagnostic phages DD II, DD VI and DD VII in order to reveal the systems of host DNA specificity. The study comprised 4 tests: mass screening by the intensity of phagolytic reaction of phages in various strains; and the determination of the parameters of adsorption. As a result, an effective modification and restriction systems were revealed in Sh. sonnei 311 with the use of phage DD II. Bacteriophage DD VII was effectively restricted in E. coli CK, BB and BB/T4. Cross titration showed that the modification and restriction systems of E. coli BB and BB/T4 differed from the specificity system of E. coli CK. Phage DD VI had an exceptionally broad spectrum of activity and was not sensitive to any known restriction system.

  11. THE MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR: A NEAR-REAL-TIME, NON-DESTRUCTIVE, INDICATOR OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Douglas, Matthew; Christensen, Richard

    2010-05-07

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and The Ohio State University are working to develop a system for monitoring spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities on-line, non-destructively, and in near-real-time. This method, known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, is based upon the measurement of distribution patterns of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Signatures from these indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. By targeting gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. In addition, utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, increases the likelihood that attempts to divert material via process manipulation would be detected. Proof-of-principle modeling exercises simulating changes in acid strength have been completed and the results are promising. Laboratory validation is currently under way and significant results are available. The latest experimental results, along with an overview of the method will be presented.

  12. Proof of Concept Simulations of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near-Real-Time Safeguards Monitor for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2011-02-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will require the development of advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of nondestructive, near-real-time, autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes recent results from model simulations designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing plants. The MIP monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in near-real-time. Three computer models including ORIGEN-ARP, AMUSE, and SYNTH were used in series to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate element partitioning during separation, and simulate spectra from product and raffinate streams using a variety of gamma detectors, respectively. Simulations were generated for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup, and cooling time. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were also used in the analysis. The MIP monitor was found to be sensitive to induced variations of several operating parameters including distinguishing ±2.5% variation from normal process acid concentrations. The ability of PLS to predict burnup levels from simulated spectra was also demonstrated to be within 3.5% of measured values.

  13. Identifying the African wintering grounds of hybrid flycatchers using a multi-isotope (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) assignment approach.

    PubMed

    Veen, Thor; Hjernquist, Mårten B; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L; Hobson, Keith A; Folmer, Eelke; Font, Laura; Klaassen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different sub-Saharan regions have distinct migratory routes on the eastern and western sides of the Sahara desert, respectively. In an earlier paper, we showed that hybrids of the two species did not incur reduced winter survival, which would be expected if their migration strategy had been a mix of the parent species' strategies potentially resulting in an intermediate route crossing the Sahara desert to different wintering grounds. Previously, we compared isotope ratios and found no significant difference in stable-nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) in winter-grown feathers between the parental species and hybrids, but stable-carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in hybrids significantly clustered only with those of pied flycatchers. We followed up on these findings and additionally analyzed the same feathers for stable-hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) and conducted spatially explicit multi-isotope assignment analyses. The assignment results overlapped with presumed wintering ranges of the two species, highlighting the efficacy of the method. In contrast to earlier findings, hybrids clustered with both parental species, though most strongly with pied flycatcher.

  14. MONITORING SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING CONDITIONS NON-DESTRUCTIVELY AND IN NEAR-REAL-TIME USING THE MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Douglas, Matthew; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2010-05-07

    Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and The Ohio State University are working to develop a system for monitoring spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities on-line, nondestructively, and in near-real-time. This method, known as the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, is based upon the measurement of distribution patterns of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. Signatures from these indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. By targeting gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. In addition, utilization of a suite of radio-elements, including ones with multiple oxidation states, increases the likelihood that attempts to divert material via process manipulation would be detected. Proof-of-principle modeling exercises simulating changes in acid strength have been completed and the results are promising. Laboratory testing is currently under way and significant results are available. Recent experimental results, along with an overview of the method are presented.

  15. Fine mapping of epitopes by intradomain Kd/Dd recombinants

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    11 intradomain recombinants between H-2Kd and H-2Dd were produced using an original technique based on in vivo recombination in Escherichia coli. After transfection into mouse L cells, all these recombinants were expressed at high levels on the cell surface. The specificities of 77 mAbs were examined on these cell lines. mAbs could be organized in 12 groups. In each group, a small number of amino acids participating in the recognized epitope(s) were identified. In a few instances, noncontinuous epitopes comprising amino acids belonging to different domains of the antigen were found. The data thus obtained are compatible with those produced in previous exon-shuffling experiments, but permit a much more precise definition of recognized epitope(s). PMID:2439641

  16. WILDCAT: a catalyzed D-D tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed D-D, tokamak, commercial, fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing D-T designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete, conceptual design.

  17. Anti-MRSA Activities of Enterocins DD28 and DD93 and Evidences on Their Role in the Inhibition of Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Al Atya, Ahmed K; Belguesmia, Yanath; Chataigne, Gabrielle; Ravallec, Rozenn; Vachée, Anne; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a worrisome superbug. This work aimed at studying the effects of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93 as anti-MRSA agents. Thus, these bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chromatography and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-Staphylococcal activity was shown in vitro by the assessment of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), followed by a checkerboard and time-kill kinetics experiments. The data unveiled a clear synergistic effect of enterocins DD28 and DD93 in combination with erythromycin or kanamycin against the clinical MRSA-S1 strain. Besides, these combinations impeded as well the MRSA-S1 clinical strain to setup biofilms on stainless steel and glace devices.

  18. Anti-MRSA Activities of Enterocins DD28 and DD93 and Evidences on Their Role in the Inhibition of Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Al Atya, Ahmed K.; Belguesmia, Yanath; Chataigne, Gabrielle; Ravallec, Rozenn; Vachée, Anne; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a worrisome superbug. This work aimed at studying the effects of two class IIb bacteriocins, enterocins DD28 and DD93 as anti-MRSA agents. Thus, these bacteriocins were purified, from the cultures supernatants of Enterococcus faecalis 28 and 93, using a simplified purification procedure consisting in a cation exchange chromatography and a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-Staphylococcal activity was shown in vitro by the assessment of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), followed by a checkerboard and time-kill kinetics experiments. The data unveiled a clear synergistic effect of enterocins DD28 and DD93 in combination with erythromycin or kanamycin against the clinical MRSA-S1 strain. Besides, these combinations impeded as well the MRSA-S1 clinical strain to setup biofilms on stainless steel and glace devices. PMID:27303396

  19. The Light Echoes around V838 Monocerotis: Cycle 16 DD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Howard

    2007-07-01

    This is a DD program in which we propose to obtain WFPC2 imaging of the light echo around V838 Mon in late 2008 or early 2009. We were awarded Cycle 17 time to image the echo with ACS at 2 epochs {3+4 orbits}. To obtain data of similar quality with WFPC2 requires 7 orbits at 2 different pointings. Because of the SM4 delay, we are therefore requesting a 14-orbit DD program for Cycle 16, leaving the Cycle 17 allocation unchanged for continued monitoring of the event in late 2009 and 2010.V838 Monocerotis, which burst upon the astronomical scene in early 2002, is a completely unanticipated new object. It underwent a large-amplitude and very luminous outburst, during which its spectrum remained that of an extremely cool supergiant. A rapidly evolving set of light echoes around V838 Mon was discovered soon after the outburst, quickly becoming the most spectacular display of the phenomenon yet seen. These light echoes provide the means to accomplish three unique types of measurements based on continued HST imaging: {1} study MHD turbulence at high resolution and in 3 dimensions; {2} construct the first unambiguous and fully 3-D map of a circumstellar dust envelope; {3} study dust physics in a unique setting where the spectrum and light curve of the illumination, and the scattering angle, are unambiguously known. We have also used our HST data to determine the distance to V838 Mon through a novel geometric technique. Because of the extreme rarity of light echoes, this program of regular monitoring provides the only opportunity to achieve such results during the HST lifetime. We propose WFPC2 imaging in late 2008/early 2009, in order to continue the mapping of the circumstellar dust and to accomplish the other goals listed above.

  20. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 45 - DD Form 214ws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 214ws B Appendix B to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. B Appendix B to...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 45 - DD Form 214ws

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 214ws B Appendix B to Part 45 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. B Appendix B to...

  2. Issues in environmental control data used in DD&ER worker dose exposures

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.G.

    1995-06-01

    Sites for decontamination and decommissioning (DD) or environmental remediation (ER) are often from US DOE operations that began during and shortly after World War II. This paper discusses selected problems in the use of environmental data for DD and ER worker dose exposure calculations.

  3. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1...

  4. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1...

  5. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1...

  6. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1...

  7. 48 CFR 253.208-1 - DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. 253.208-1 Section 253.208-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.208-1...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 77 - DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense A Appendix A to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE... to Part 77—DD Form 2580, Operation Transition Department of Defense Outplacement and Referral...

  13. 48 CFR 245.7001-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. 245.7001-2 Section 245.7001-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7001-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use...

  14. 48 CFR 245.7101-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. 245.7101-2 Section 245.7101-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7101-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use...

  15. 48 CFR 245.7001-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. 245.7001-2 Section 245.7001-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7001-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use...

  16. 48 CFR 245.7001-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. 245.7001-2 Section 245.7001-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7001-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use...

  17. 48 CFR 245.7001-2 - DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. 245.7001-2 Section 245.7001-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Plant Clearance Forms 245.7001-2 DD Form 1149, Requisition and Invoice Shipping Document. Use...

  18. Proof of Concept Experiments of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor: An Online, Nondestructive, Near Real-Time Monitor for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-04-21

    Operators, national regulatory agencies and the IAEA will require the development of advanced technologies to efficiently control and safeguard nuclear material at increasingly large-scale nuclear recycling facilities. Ideally, the envisioned technologies would be capable of non-destructive, near-real-time (NRT), autonomous process monitoring. This paper describes results from proof-of-principle experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel approach to safeguarding reprocessing facilities. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams nondestructively and in NRT. Commercial spent nuclear fuel of various irradiation histories was dissolved and separated using a PUREX-based batch solvent extraction. Extractions were performed at various nitric acid concentrations to mimic both normal and off-normal industrial plant operating conditions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the simulated gamma spectra to investigate pattern variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup and cooling time. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was applied to attempt to quantify both the acid concentration and burnup of the dissolved spent fuel during the initial separation stage of recycle. The MIP Monitor demonstrated sensitivity to induced variations of acid concentration, including the distinction of {+-} 1.3 M variation from normal process conditions by way of PCA. Acid concentration was predicted using measurements from the organic extract and PLS resulting in predictions with <0.7 M relative error. Quantification of burnup levels from dissolved fuel spectra using PLS was demonstrated to be within 2.5% of previously measured values.

  19. Multi-Isotopic (o, H, Sr, Li) Tracing of the Fluxes Involved in the Water Status of a Peatland (la Sauvetat, Massif Central, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès, B.; Negrel, P. J.; Millot, R.; Clotilde, B.

    2010-12-01

    The bio-diversity (vegetation and fauna) of peatlands, like all wetlands ecosystems, are strongly fragile as they are requiring very specific wet conditions. In the past 20 years, increasing efforts were engaged to restore degraded wetlands, to create new wetlands where they have been totally lost and to manage wetlands sustainably in order to assess their multiple benefits. However, engaging specific actions to restore and preserve wetlands require an important knowledge on the water cycle in such systems. In this study, we propose to use chemical and multi-isotopic approaches combined with hydrological measurements (piezometric level and stream flow measurements) to trace the fluxes of water and dissolved element involved in the “Narces de la Sauvetat” peatland (France) and for the stream draining the area. Aims are to evaluate the water status of this ecosystem as well as the origin of dissolved elements and possible anthropogenic impacts. These approaches clearly demonstrated their effectiveness to improve the knowledge on the hydrological functioning of wetlands ecosystems. Main results are (1) at least three fluxes with distinct chemical and isotopic signatures are providing water supplies to peatland (Sr and stable isotopes), (2) water flow that comes out of the peatland through the stream is certainly negligible (Li isotopes) and 3) water within the peat land exhibits Sr and Li -isotopes values consistent with carbonate amendments inputs used in local agriculture. The outcomes of this study are that peatland ecosystem water balance is poorly affected by its outlet but are strongly controlled by groundwater replenishment. This could lead to a better adjustment of decision maker choices to maintain the water balance of the peatland, which is essential for the preservation of this fragile ecosystem. This study also opens a new field for Li isotope investigations in hydro-systems and highlights the possibility of using Li isotopes as environmental tracers.

  20. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: a hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S).

    PubMed

    Kloppmann, W; Bromblet, P; Vallet, J M; Vergès-Belmin, V; Rolland, O; Guerrot, C; Gosselin, C

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the δ(34)S and δ(18)O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called "Paris plaster"). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in (34)S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources. PMID:21329964

  1. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: a hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S).

    PubMed

    Kloppmann, W; Bromblet, P; Vallet, J M; Vergès-Belmin, V; Rolland, O; Guerrot, C; Gosselin, C

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the δ(34)S and δ(18)O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called "Paris plaster"). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in (34)S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources.

  2. 75 FR 13560 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): RFA DD 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Public Health Research on Children and Adults Living With Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-004 Developing a... Health Research on Spina Bifida, RFA DD 10-003 Public Health Research on Children and Adults Living...

  3. Proteasome inhibition enhances the killing effect of BikDD gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Ponz-Sarvise, Mariano; Chang, Shih-Shin; Chang, Wei-Chao; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hsu, Jennifer L; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    BikDD, a phosphorylation-mimic mutant of pro-apoptotic protein Bik, elicits strong apoptosis in cancer cells when introduced via an expression platform termed VP16-GAL4-WPRE integrated systemic amplifier (VISA) under the control of a cancer-specific promoter both in vitro and in vivo. C-VISA-BikDD expression plasmid encapsulated in liposomes is currently in the process to initiate a phase I clinical trial for pancreatic cancer. In this study, we report a potential combination approach of BikDD with proteasome inhibitors on the basis of our findings that exogenously expressed BikDD protein undergoes proteasome-mediated degradation via both ubiquitin-dependent and -independent pathways. Inhibition of proteasome increases the protein stability of BikDD, enhancing the apoptotic effect of BikDD. Hence, high proteasome activity may be a mechanism by which intrinsic and acquired resistance occurs in BikDD gene therapy, and a combination therapy with current clinically approved proteasome inhibitor may overcome resistance. PMID:25901200

  4. Inhibition of DD-Peptidases by a Specific Trifluoroketone: Crystal Structure of a Complex with the Actinomadura R39 DD-Peptidase†

    PubMed Central

    Dzhekieva, Liudmila; Adediran, S. A.; Herman, Raphael; Kerff, Frédéric; Duez, Colette; Charlier, Paulette; Sauvage, Eric; Pratt, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of bacterial DD-peptidases represent potential antibiotics. In the search for alternatives to β-lactams, we have investigated a series of compounds designed to generate transition state analogue structures on reaction with DD-peptidases. The compounds contain a combination of a peptidoglycan-mimetic specificity handle and a warhead capable of delivering a tetrahedral anion to the enzyme active site. The latter include a boronic acid, two alcohols, an aldehyde and a trifluoroketone. The compounds were tested against two low molecular mass class C DD-peptidases. As expected from previous observations, the boronic acid was a potent inhibitor, but, rather unexpectedly from precedent, the trifluoroketone [D-α-aminopimelyl-(1,1,1-trifluoro-3-amino)butan-2-one] was also very effective. Taking into account competing hydration, the trifluoroketone was the strongest inhibitor of the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase, with a subnanomolar (free ketone) inhibition constant. A crystal structure of the complex between the trifluoroketone and the R39 enzyme showed that a tetrahedral adduct had indeed formed with the active site serine nucleophile. The trifluoroketone moiety, therefore, should be considered along with boronic acids and phosphonates, as a warhead that can be incorporated into new and effective DD-peptidase inhibitors and therefore, perhaps, antibiotics. PMID:23484909

  5. The DD Check App for prevention and control of digital dermatitis in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Bennett, Tom; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-09-15

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disease in the cattle industry causing outbreaks of lameness. The clinical course of disease can be classified using 5 clinical stages. M-stages represent not only different disease severities but also unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. Monitoring the proportions of cows per M-stage is needed to better understand and address DD and factors influencing risks of DD in a herd. Changes in the proportion of cows per M-stage over time or between groups may be attributed to differences in management, environment, or treatment and can have impact on the future claw health of the herd. Yet trends in claw health regarding DD are not intuitively noticed without statistical analysis of detailed records. Our specific aim was to develop a mobile application (app) for persons with less statistical training, experience or supporting programs that would standardize M-stage records, automate data analysis including trends of M-stages over time, the calculation of predictions and assignments of Cow Types (i.e., Cow Types I-III are assigned to cows without active lesions, single and repeated cases of active DD lesions, respectively). The predictions were the stationary distributions of transitions between DD states (i.e., M-stages or signs of chronicity) in a class-structured multi-state Markov chain population model commonly used to model endemic diseases. We hypothesized that the app can be used at different levels of record detail to discover significant trends in the prevalence of M-stages that help to make informed decisions to prevent and control DD on-farm. Four data sets were used to test the flexibility and value of the DD Check App. The app allows easy recording of M-stages in different environments and is flexible in terms of the users' goals and the level of detail used. Results show that this tool discovers trends in M-stage proportions, predicts potential outbreaks of DD, and makes comparisons among

  6. The DD Check App for prevention and control of digital dermatitis in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marlène; Bennett, Tom; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-09-15

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious claw disease in the cattle industry causing outbreaks of lameness. The clinical course of disease can be classified using 5 clinical stages. M-stages represent not only different disease severities but also unique clinical characteristics and outcomes. Monitoring the proportions of cows per M-stage is needed to better understand and address DD and factors influencing risks of DD in a herd. Changes in the proportion of cows per M-stage over time or between groups may be attributed to differences in management, environment, or treatment and can have impact on the future claw health of the herd. Yet trends in claw health regarding DD are not intuitively noticed without statistical analysis of detailed records. Our specific aim was to develop a mobile application (app) for persons with less statistical training, experience or supporting programs that would standardize M-stage records, automate data analysis including trends of M-stages over time, the calculation of predictions and assignments of Cow Types (i.e., Cow Types I-III are assigned to cows without active lesions, single and repeated cases of active DD lesions, respectively). The predictions were the stationary distributions of transitions between DD states (i.e., M-stages or signs of chronicity) in a class-structured multi-state Markov chain population model commonly used to model endemic diseases. We hypothesized that the app can be used at different levels of record detail to discover significant trends in the prevalence of M-stages that help to make informed decisions to prevent and control DD on-farm. Four data sets were used to test the flexibility and value of the DD Check App. The app allows easy recording of M-stages in different environments and is flexible in terms of the users' goals and the level of detail used. Results show that this tool discovers trends in M-stage proportions, predicts potential outbreaks of DD, and makes comparisons among

  7. Isotopic tracing (D, 18O and 29Si) to understand the alteration on historic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verney-Carron, Aurélie; Saheb, Mandana; Valle, Nathalie; Mangin, Denis; Remusat, Laurent; Loisel, Claudine

    2015-04-01

    In order to better preserve historic glasses, e.g. stained glass windows, the understanding of their alteration mechanisms and of what controls the kinetics corresponding to each process is required. The ancient stained glasses are characterized by thick alteration layers, continuous or as pits, that are cracked or lost. Therefore, if a passivating role of the alteration layer has been proved on some other kinds of glass (such as basaltic or nuclear glass) in aqueous medium, the issue can be addressed for low durable stained glass weathered in varying atmospheric conditions. The mechanism of alteration layer formation was first investigated by performing dynamic and static experiments on model medieval glasses altered with a solution doped in 29Si at different concentrations (or saturation degrees). Solid analyses were carried out by SIMS and solution by HR-ICP-MS. Medieval stained glass has mainly a potash-lime-silica composition with a low content in alumina. The alkaline and alkaline-earth elements have thus a modifier role in the glassy network. This structural difference compared to boro- or alumino-silicate glasses could induce differences in the alteration mechanisms. However, the analysis of the Si isotopic signature of the gel layer highlighted that diffusion, but also hydrolysis/condensation reactions, are also involved in the gel layer formation process, leading to a structural and textural reorganization. The second objective was to determine the kinetic role of the alteration layer, and especially to trace the circulation of water once the altered layer is formed. For that, ancient glasses were exposed to simulated rainfall events / drying periods cycles during 3 months by using a solution doped in D and 18O. NanoSIMS analyses have shown that the transport in the alteration layer is mainly driven by diffusion in the porosity despite the presence of cracks that could have been preferential ways of circulation. This demonstrates also a potential protective role of the alteration layer formed on stained glasses in atmospheric medium. All these results will contribute to improve the knowledge of glass alteration processes and to develop appropriate conservation / restoration strategies of these historical artefacts.

  8. Age differences between Atlantic and Pacific benthic d18O change at terminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisiecki, L. E.; Raymo, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Because a large fraction of benthic δ18O change is due to global ice volume change, benthic δ18O is often used as stratigraphic tool to place marine records on a common age model and as a proxy for the timing of ice volume/sea level change. These applications require the assumptions that δ18O change is rapidly transmitted throughout the deep ocean and that the effects of hydrographic changes are in phase with ice volume. Recently, Skinner and Shackleton [2005] found that the timing of benthic δ18O change at the last termination differed by 4500 years between two sites in the Atlantic and Pacific. Based on Mg/Ca paleothermometry, they argued that these age discrepancies resulted from a late temperature increase in the Pacific and millennial-scale circulation changes in the Atlantic. Do these results imply that benthic δ18O change may not accurately record the timing of terminations? We compare benthic δ18O records from 34 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific to evaluate the impact of ocean mixing rates and deep water changes on the relative timing of terminations recorded in benthic δ18O. Statistical analysis of sedimentation rates derived from the alignment of benthic δ18O suggests an Atlantic lead over Pacific benthic δ18O change for all terminations of the last 600 kyr. The magnitude of sedimentation rate change suggests an average termination age difference of 1000-1500 years between the Atlantic and Pacific, consistent with or slightly greater than the delay expected due to ocean mixing rates, given that most glacial meltwater probably enters the North Atlantic.

  9. Use of a multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach including organic matter isotopes for quantifying nutrient contributions from agricultural vs wastewater sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Young, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    While nutrient isotopes are a well-established tool for quantifying nutrients inputs from agricultural vs wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sources, we have found that combining nutrient isotopes with the C, N, and S isotopic compositions of dissolved and particulate organic matter, as part of a comprehensive multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach, is a much more diagnostic approach. The main reasons why organic matter C-N-S isotopes are a useful adjunct to studies of nutrient sources and biogeochemical processes are that the dissolved and particulate organic matter associated with (1) different kinds of animals (e.g., humans vs cows) often have distinctive isotopic compositions reflecting the different diets of the animals, and (2) the different processes associated with the different land uses (e.g., in the WWTP or associated with different crop types) often result in significant differences in the isotopic compositions of the organics. The analysis of the δ34S of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been found to be especially useful for distinguishing and quantifying water, nutrient, and organic contributions from different land uses in aquatic systems where much of the organic matter is aquatic in origin. In such environments, the bacteria and algae incorporate S from sulfate and sulfide that is isotopically labeled by the different processes associated with different land uses. We have found that there is ~35 permil range in δ34S of POM along the river-estuary continuum in the San Joaquin/Sacramento River basin, with low values associated with sulfate reduction in the upstream wetlands and high values associated with tidal inputs of marine water into the estuary. Furthermore, rice agriculture results in relatively low δ34S values whereas WWTP effluent in the Sacramento River produces distinctly higher values than upstream of the WWTP, presumably because SO2 is used to treat chlorinated effluent. The fish living

  10. Using Multi-Isotope Tracer Methods to Understand the Sources of Nitrate in Aerosols, Fog and River Water in Podocarpus National Forest, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, L. A.; Dominguez, G.; Fabian, P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    sulfate and nitrate concentrations in rain and fog water by standard methods to investigate water and nutrient pathways along with data from satellite and ground based remote sensing, observations and numerical models. We hope to pair this with a multi-isotope tracer method and NOAA Hysplit Back trajectories, and satellite imagery for information about the number of fires burning in the region to help identify sources of the high nitrate deposition.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Serratia sp. Strain DD3, Isolated from the Guts of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Poehlein, Anja; Freese, Heike M; Daniel, Rolf; Simeonova, Diliana D

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain DD3, a gammaproteobacterium from the family Enterobacteriaceae. It was isolated from homogenized guts of Daphnia magna. The genome size is 5,274 Mb.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Serratia sp. Strain DD3, Isolated from the Guts of Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Poehlein, Anja; Freese, Heike M.; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain DD3, a gammaproteobacterium from the family Enterobacteriaceae. It was isolated from homogenized guts of Daphnia magna. The genome size is 5,274 Mb. PMID:25212623

  13. Identification and characterization of DdPDE3, a cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase from Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Kuwayama, H; Snippe, H; Derks, M; Roelofs, J; Van Haastert, P J

    2001-01-01

    In Dictyostelium cAMP and cGMP have important functions as first and second messengers in chemotaxis and development. Two cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterases (DdPDE 1 and 2) have been identified previously, an extracellular dual-specificity enzyme and an intracellular cAMP-specific enzyme (encoded by the psdA and regA genes respectively). Biochemical data suggest the presence of at least one cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) that is activated by cGMP. Using bioinformatics we identified a partial sequence in the Dictyostelium expressed sequence tag database that shows a high degree of amino acid sequence identity with mammalian PDE catalytic domains (DdPDE3). The deduced amino acid sequence of a full-length DdPDE3 cDNA isolated in this study predicts a 60 kDa protein with a 300-residue C-terminal PDE catalytic domain, which is preceded by approx. 200 residues rich in asparagine and glutamine residues. Expression of the DdPDE3 catalytic domain in Escherichia coli shows that the enzyme has Michaelis-Menten kinetics and a higher affinity for cGMP (K(m)=0.22 microM) than for cAMP (K(m)=145 microM); cGMP does not stimulate enzyme activity. The enzyme requires bivalent cations for activity; Mn(2+) is preferred to Mg(2+), whereas Ca(2+) yields no activity. DdPDE3 is inhibited by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine with an IC(50) of approx. 60 microM. Overexpression of the DdPDE3 catalytic domain in Dictyostelium confirms these kinetic properties without indications of its activation by cGMP. The properties of DdPDE3 resemble those of mammalian PDE9, which also shows the highest sequence similarity within the catalytic domains. DdPDE3 is the first cGMP-selective PDE identified in lower eukaryotes. PMID:11171061

  14. Stable isotopes (C, N, O, H) of feathers collected in an Italian alpine region, during postbreeding migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempo, Luana; Ceppa, Florencia; Pedrini, Paolo; Tenan, Simone; Camin, Federica

    2013-04-01

    strongly affected by the geographical characteristics of the regions in which the birds grown or emigrated. The specie Troglodytes troglodytes, which is mainly sedentary, showed the higher dD values, whereas Carduelis spinus, which during autumn migrates from the north of Europe to the Mediterranean area, presented the lower values. As regards d18O, interesting was the very high values presented by Anthus pratensis specie. Further elaborations/studies by adopting a multi-isotope approach could surely increase the resolution of migratory origins.

  15. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Crystallographic Studies of RAIDD Death-Domain (DD)

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, T.; Park, H

    2009-01-01

    Caspase-2 activation by formation of PIDDosome is critical for genotoxic stress induced apoptosis. PIDDosome is composed of three proteins, RAIDD, PIDD, and Caspase-2. RAIDD is an adaptor protein containing an N-terminal Caspase-Recruiting-Domain (CARD) and a C-terminal Death-Domain (DD). Its interactions with Caspase-2 and PIDD through CARD and DD respectively and formation of PIDDosome are important for the activation of Caspase-2. RAIDD DD cloned into pET26b vector was expressed in E. coli cells and purified by nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration. Although it has been known that the most DDs are not soluble in physiological condition, RAIDD DD was soluble and interacts tightly with PIDD DD in physiological condition. The purified RAIDD DD alone has been crystallized. Crystals are trigonal and belong to space group P3121 (or its enantiomorph P3221) with unit-cell parameters a = 56.3, b = 56.3, c = 64.9 and ? = 120 degrees. The crystals were obtained at room temperature and diffracted to 2.0 A resolution.

  16. GxcDD, a putative RacGEF, is involved in Dictyostelium development

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Subhanjan; Neelamegan, Dhamodharan; Rivero, Francisco; Noegel, Angelika A

    2007-01-01

    Background Rho subfamily GTPases are implicated in a large number of actin-related processes. They shuttle from an inactive GDP-bound form to an active GTP-bound form. This reaction is catalysed by Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEFs). GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) help the GTPase return to the inactive GDP-bound form. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum lacks a Rho or Cdc42 ortholog but has several Rac related GTPases. Compared to our understanding of the downstream effects of Racs our understanding of upstream mechanisms that activate Rac GTPases is relatively poor. Results We report on GxcDD (Guanine exchange factor for Rac GTPases), a Dictyostelium RacGEF. GxcDD is a 180-kDa multidomain protein containing a type 3 CH domain, two IQ motifs, three PH domains, a RhoGEF domain and an ArfGAP domain. Inactivation of the gene results in defective streaming during development under different conditions and a delay in developmental timing. The characterization of single domains revealed that the CH domain of GxcDD functions as a membrane association domain, the RhoGEF domain can physically interact with a subset of Rac GTPases, and the ArfGAP-PH tandem accumulates in cortical regions of the cell and on phagosomes. Our results also suggest that a conformational change may be required for activation of GxcDD, which would be important for its downstream signaling. Conclusion The data indicate that GxcDD is involved in proper streaming and development. We propose that GxcDD is not only a component of the Rac signaling pathway in Dictyostelium, but is also involved in integrating different signals. We provide evidence for a Calponin Homology domain acting as a membrane association domain. GxcDD can bind to several Rac GTPases, but its function as a nucleotide exchange factor needs to be studied further. PMID:17584488

  17. Functional malignant cell heterogeneity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors revealed by targeting of PDGF-DD

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Eliane; Gladh, Hanna; Braun, Sebastian; Bocci, Matteo; Cordero, Eugenia; Björkström, Niklas K.; Miyazaki, Hideki; Michael, Iacovos P.; Eriksson, Ulf; Folestad, Erika; Pietras, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most human cancers and has profound implications for cancer therapy. As a result, there is an emergent need to explore previously unmapped mechanisms regulating distinct subpopulations of tumor cells and to understand their contribution to tumor progression and treatment response. Aberrant platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling in cancer has motivated the development of several antagonists currently in clinical use, including imatinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib. The discovery of a novel ligand for PDGFRβ, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-DD, opened the possibility of a previously unidentified signaling pathway involved in tumor development. However, the precise function of PDGF-DD in tumor growth and invasion remains elusive. Here, making use of a newly generated Pdgfd knockout mouse, we reveal a functionally important malignant cell heterogeneity modulated by PDGF-DD signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). Our analyses demonstrate that tumor growth was delayed in the absence of signaling by PDGF-DD. Surprisingly, ablation of PDGF-DD did not affect the vasculature or stroma of PanNET; instead, we found that PDGF-DD stimulated bulk tumor cell proliferation by induction of paracrine mitogenic signaling between heterogeneous malignant cell clones, some of which expressed PDGFRβ. The presence of a subclonal population of tumor cells characterized by PDGFRβ expression was further validated in a cohort of human PanNET. In conclusion, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized heterogeneity in PanNET characterized by signaling through the PDGF-DD/PDGFRβ axis. PMID:26831065

  18. Combined Use of GIS, Hydrostratigraphic, Geochemical, and Multi-Isotope Analysis for Groundwater Preservation and Development in a Complex Karst Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulet, D.; Cook, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    The complex stratigraphy and geologic structure characteristic to fractured karst aquifers underlying an urban part of the north-central Alabama Valley and Ridge Setting make the development and protection of groundwater sources difficult. In this area, population growth accompanied by increased impervious surfaces, storm water runoff, contaminants, subsidence, and pumping rates have rendered the groundwater resource. The potential for aquifer recharge and flow conditions were evaluated in order to determine the current and future alternative water sources available in this area. Geochemical and multi-isotope techniques were coupled with hydrostratigraphic and geomorphic spatial (GIS) analyses to determine the primary mechanisms controlling recharge and flow and evaluate seasonal impacts on groundwater resources and recharge environments. Groundwater samples, collected in summer and fall (2010) from wells developed in the Bangor Limestone and Tuscumbia Fort Payne aquifers (north-central Alabama), were analyzed for major ions, stable isotopes of oxygen (δ^18O), hydrogen (δD), and carbon (δ^13C), and anthropogenic isotopes such as chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF_6). Stable isotope investigations suggest that recharge occurs under relatively closed conditions, with fast percolation rates in short periods (characteristic to karst aquifers) and low evaporation rates during the colder seasons. The average δ^13C value (-11.4±2% PDB, n=9) lies near the combined average δ^13C values of soil CO_2 and the carbonate. Therefore, groundwater δ^13C signature is mainly controlled by two factors: soil CO_2 and carbonate dissolution. Static water levels decrease over the summer causing drawdowns (2 to 5.2 meters) in all the production wells and a slight shift of the δ^18O and δD values towards a more positive member (summer range--δ^18O: -5.1±0.1 to -5.7±0.1% VSMOW, n=11; δD: -25.0±1 to -30.6±1% VSMOW, n=11 and fall range--δ^18O: -4.8±0.1 to

  19. Validation and Development of the GPCP Experimental One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset has been developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and is currently in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. The 1DD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid for the period 1997 through early 2000 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40N-40S the 1DD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the pixel-level T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSM/I product and by, the precipitation amount in the GPCP monthly satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40N-40S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has month-by-month adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. Early validation results are encouraging. The 1DD shows relatively large scatter about the daily validation values in individual grid boxes, as expected for a technique that depends on cloud-sensing schemes such as the TMPI and TOVS. On the other hand, the time series of 1DD shows good correlation with validation in individual boxes. For example, the 1997-1998 time series of 1DD and Oklahoma Mesonet values in a grid box in northeastern Oklahoma have the correlation coefficient = 0.73. Looking more carefully at these two time series, the number of raining days for the 1DD is within 7% of the Mesonet value, while the distribution of daily rain values is very similar. Other tests indicate that area- or time-averaging improve the error characteristics, making the data set highly attractive to users interested in stream flow, short-term regional climatology, and model comparisons. The second generation of the 1DD product is currently under development; it is designed to directly incorporate TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. These data are generally sparse because they are

  20. Fusion product studies via fast ion D-D and D-3He fusion on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Hellsten, T.; Kiptily, V. G.; Craciunescu, T.; Eriksson, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Girardo, J.-B.; Goloborod'ko, V.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Johnson, T.; Kazakov, Y.; Koskela, T.; Mantsinen, M.; Monakhov, I.; Nabais, F.; Nocente, M.; Perez von Thun, C.; Rimini, F.; Santala, M.; Schneider, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Tsalas, M.; Yavorskij, V.; Zoita, V.; Contributors, JET

    2016-11-01

    Dedicated fast ion D-D and D-3He fusion experiments were performed on JET with carbon wall (2008) and ITER-like wall (2014) for testing the upgraded neutron and energetic ion diagnostics of fusion products. Energy spectrum of D-D neutrons was the focus of the studies in pure deuterium plasmas. A significant broadening of the energy spectrum of neutrons born in D-D fast fusion was observed, and dependence of the maximum D and D-D neutron energies on plasma density was established. Diagnostics of charged products of aneutronic D-3He fusion reactions, 3.7 MeV alpha-particles similar to those in D-T fusion, and 14.6 MeV protons, were the focus of the studies in D-3He plasmas. Measurements of 16.4 MeV gamma-rays born in the weak secondary branch of D(3He, γ)5Li reaction were used for assessing D-3He fusion power. For achieving high yield of D-D and D-3He reactions at relatively low levels of input heating power, an acceleration of D beam up to the MeV energy range was used employing 3rd harmonic (f=3{{f}CD} ) ICRH technique. These results were compared to the techniques of D beam injection into D-3He mixture, and 3He-minority ICRH in D plasmas.

  1. Experimental Determination of DT Yield in High Current DD Dense Plasma Focii

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, D. R.; Hagen, E. C.; Meehan, B. T.; Springs, R. K.; O'Brien, R. J.

    2013-06-18

    Dense Plasma Focii (DPF), which utilize deuterium gas to produce 2.45 MeV neutrons, may in fact also produce DT fusion neutrons at 14.1 MeV due to the triton production in the DD reaction. If beam-target fusion is the primary producer of fusion neutrons in DPFs, it is possible that ejected tritons from the first pinch will interact with the second pinch, and so forth. The 2 MJ DPF at National Security Technologies’ Losee Road Facility is able to, and has produced, over 1E12 DD neutrons per pulse, allowing an accurate measurement of the DT/DD ratio. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally verified by using the (n,2n) reaction in a large piece of praseodymium metal, which has a threshold reaction of 8 MeV, and is widely used as a DT yield measurement system1. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally determined for over 100 shots, and then compared to independent variables such as tube pressure, number of pinches per shot, total current, pinch current and charge voltage.

  2. Workforce mobilization for D&D at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.W.; Easdon, R.C.; Bourgeois, T.G.

    1997-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was a nuclear production facility. Products from RFP included nuclear and non-nuclear parts used by other plants to assemble weapons. Operations at the plant generally included metal recovery, processing, machining, assembly, and the physical and administrative support functions associated with this type of production. Construction of the Site began in the early 1950`s. The Site was an active production facility through the Cold War. After nuclear production operations ceased, the Site was renamed to become the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site). Labor policies and precedence began to evolve from the time of initial construction. This paper reviews the labor situation at the plants at the commencement of D&D activities, the problems that were created by that environment, and the efforts made to adjust labor policies to aid effective implementation of D&D activities. Mobilization of the D&D workforce required specific planning for effective implementation. Work assignments for D&D activities had to receive approval prior to performing activities. Once established, the appropriate funding was secured to allow hiring, training and deployment of the workforce. An infrastructure was established to manage activities and control work on a day to day basis. The result of the Site effort in this area provided for an immediate positive impact to D&D activities.

  3. Extracellular matrix family proteins that are potential targets of Dd-STATa in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nao; Nishio, Keiko; Maeda, Mineko; Urushihara, Hideko; Kawata, Takefumi

    2004-10-01

    Dd-STATa is a functional Dictyostelium homologue of metazoan STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins, which is activated by cAMP and is thereby translocated into the nuclei of anterior tip cells of the prestalk region of the slug. By using in situ hybridization analyses, we found that the SLF308 cDNA clone, which contains the ecmF gene that encodes a putative extracellular matrix protein and is expressed in the anterior tip cells, was greatly down-regulated in the Dd-STATa-null mutant. Disruption of the ecmF gene, however, resulted in almost no phenotypic change. The absence of any obvious mutant phenotype in the ecmF-null mutant could be due to a redundancy of similar genes. In fact, a search of the Dictyostelium whole genome database demonstrates the existence of an additional 16 homologues, all of which contain a cellulose-binding module. Among these homologues, four genes show Dd-STATa-dependent expression, while the others are Dd-STATa-independent. We discuss the potential role of Dd-STATa in morphogenesis via its effect on the interaction between cellulose and these extracellular matrix family proteins.

  4. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: general implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy.

    PubMed

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Frisch, Michael J; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute. PMID:25399133

  5. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-14

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute.

  6. Quantum, classical, and hybrid QM/MM calculations in solution: General implementation of the ddCOSMO linear scaling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Scalmani, Giovanni; Lagardère, Louis; Stamm, Benjamin; Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Frisch, Michael J.; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2014-11-01

    We present the general theory and implementation of the Conductor-like Screening Model according to the recently developed ddCOSMO paradigm. The various quantities needed to apply ddCOSMO at different levels of theory, including quantum mechanical descriptions, are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on how to compute the integrals needed to evaluate the ddCOSMO solvation energy and its derivatives. The overall computational cost of a ddCOSMO computation is then analyzed and decomposed in the various steps: the different relative weights of such contributions are then discussed for both ddCOSMO and the fastest available alternative discretization to the COSMO equations. Finally, the scaling of the cost of the various steps with respect to the size of the solute is analyzed and discussed, showing how ddCOSMO opens significantly new possibilities when cheap or hybrid molecular mechanics/quantum mechanics methods are used to describe the solute.

  7. A tale of two rivers: studies in the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers using a multi-isotope and chemical approach to investigate linkages between hydrology, nutrients, and algae (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Silva, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers are the main rivers draining the northern and southern parts of California’s Central Valley. Both watersheds are underlain by similar sediments, are dominated by similar agricultural and urban land uses, and water supplies are highly regulated in both rivers. While agricultural land uses are major sources of nutrients in the non-tidal parts of the rivers, waste water treatments plants (WWTPs) located near large cities at the upstream ends of the tidal zones are important sources of nutrients to the tidal rivers, the delta, and San Francisco Bay. The nutrients have strongly affected algal production in both rivers, but largely because of differences in the WWTPs on the two rivers, the impacts on algal productivity and ecosystem health in the two rivers have been very different. As part of several studies over the last decade, we have analyzed samples from ~50 mainstem sites and over a dozen tributaries for major chemistry and a suite of isotope tools including water, nitrate, ammonium, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and seston isotopes, with sites sampled 15-70 times each over 1-3 years, depending on study. The main focus of these studies has been investigating the linkages between hydrology, nutrient sources, biogeochemical processes, and algal production in these large rivers. In specific, the research has been aimed at testing hypotheses about controls on algal production in the rivers as related to hypoxia in the deep water shipping channel in the lower San Joaquin River and foodweb problems in the lower Sacramento River. Water chemistry, d2H, and d18O have proved useful in determining the temporal and spatial changes in water sources. However, since WWTPs are a major source of nutrients to the rivers, nitrification of ammonium from the WWTPs strongly affects the nitrate d15N and d18O of nitrate and the d15N of seston in the tidal portions of both rivers, tributaries show large seasonal changes in water amounts and

  8. Pre- and Postsynaptic Role of Dopamine D2 Receptor DD2R in Drosophila Olfactory Associative Learning.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cheng; Lee, Daewoo

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila play critical roles in diverse brain functions such as motor control, arousal, learning, and memory. Using genetic and behavioral approaches, it has been firmly established that proper dopamine signaling is required for olfactory classical conditioning (e.g., aversive and appetitive learning). Dopamine mediates its functions through interaction with its receptors. There are two different types of dopamine receptors in Drosophila: D1-like (dDA1, DAMB) and D2-like receptors (DD2R). Currently, no study has attempted to characterize the role of DD2R in Drosophila learning and memory. Using a DD2R-RNAi transgenic line, we have examined the role of DD2R, expressed in dopamine neurons (i.e., the presynaptic DD2R autoreceptor), in larval olfactory learning. The function of postsynaptic DD2R expressed in mushroom body (MB) was also studied as MB is the center for Drosophila learning, with a function analogous to that of the mammalian hippocampus. Our results showed that suppression of presynaptic DD2R autoreceptors impairs both appetitive and aversive learning. Similarly, postsynaptic DD2R in MB neurons appears to be involved in both appetitive and aversive learning. The data confirm, for the first time, that DD2R plays an important role in Drosophila olfactory learning. PMID:25422852

  9. Pre- and Postsynaptic Role of Dopamine D2 Receptor DD2R in Drosophila Olfactory Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Cheng; Lee, Daewoo

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila play critical roles in diverse brain functions such as motor control, arousal, learning, and memory. Using genetic and behavioral approaches, it has been firmly established that proper dopamine signaling is required for olfactory classical conditioning (e.g., aversive and appetitive learning). Dopamine mediates its functions through interaction with its receptors. There are two different types of dopamine receptors in Drosophila: D1-like (dDA1, DAMB) and D2-like receptors (DD2R). Currently, no study has attempted to characterize the role of DD2R in Drosophila learning and memory. Using a DD2R-RNAi transgenic line, we have examined the role of DD2R, expressed in dopamine neurons (i.e., the presynaptic DD2R autoreceptor), in larval olfactory learning. The function of postsynaptic DD2R expressed in mushroom body (MB) was also studied as MB is the center for Drosophila learning, with a function analogous to that of the mammalian hippocampus. Our results showed that suppression of presynaptic DD2R autoreceptors impairs both appetitive and aversive learning. Similarly, postsynaptic DD2R in MB neurons appears to be involved in both appetitive and aversive learning. The data confirm, for the first time, that DD2R plays an important role in Drosophila olfactory learning. PMID:25422852

  10. First PGAA and NAA experimental results from a compact high intensity D-D neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Firestone, R.B.; English, J.A.; Perry, D.L.; Smith, A.; Gicquel, F.; Sun, M.; Bandong, B.; Garabedian, G.; Revay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Molnar, G.

    2003-05-13

    Various types of neutron generator systems have been designed and tested at the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These generators are based on a D-D fusion reaction. These high power D-D neutron generators can provide neutron fluxes in excess of the current state of the art D-T neutron generators, without the use of pre-loaded targets or radioactive tritium gas. Safe and reliable long-life operations are the typical features of these D-D generators. All of the neutron generators developed in the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group are utilizing powerful RF-induction discharge to generate the deuterium plasma. One of the advantages of using the RF-induction discharge is it's ability to generate high fraction of atomic ions from molecular gases, and the ability to generate high plasma densities for high extractable ion current from relatively small discharge volume.

  11. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0-->D(*)+/-D+/- decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Macfarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Buono, L Del; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Strube, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2005-09-23

    We present a first measurement of CP asymmetries in neutral B decays to D+D-, and updated CP asymmetry measurements in decays to D(*+)D- and D(*-)D+. We use fully reconstructed decays collected in a data sample of (232+/-3) x 10(6) gamma(4S)-->BB events in the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We determine the time-dependent asymmetry parameters to be SD(*+)(D-)=-0.54+/-0.35+/-0.07, CD(*+)(D-)=0.09+/-0.25+/-0.06, SD(*-)(D+)=-0.29+/-0.33+/-0.07, CD(*-)(D+)=0.17+/-0.24+/-0.04, SD+(D-)=-0.29+/-0.63+/-0.06, and CD+(D-)=0.11+/-0.35+/-0.06, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  12. Rational primer design greatly improves differential display-PCR (DD-PCR).

    PubMed Central

    Graf, D; Fisher, A G; Merkenschlager, M

    1997-01-01

    Since its conception in 1992, differential display PCR (DD-PCR) has attracted widespread interest. Theoretically an attractive cloning approach, it combines the comparative analysis of several samples with the sensitivity of PCR. Although a large number of studies embracing this technology have been initiated, few novel genes of interest have been identified, suggesting that the method has not realised its potential. The present report shows that by modifying primer design, sampling of differentially expressed genes can be greatly enhanced and relevant genes can be isolated. Using our modified conditions DD-PCR efficiently screens a wide range of gene expression levels, in which differences are represented on a linear scale. PMID:9153330

  13. 'Free to be' peer group supports patients with MPD/DD.

    PubMed

    Dallam, S; Manderino, M A

    1997-05-01

    1. During the last decade, dissociative identity disorder increasingly has been recognized as a relatively common post-traumatic syndrome. 2. Individuals with MPD/DD often are estranged from abusive families and have difficulty with social connection; an urgent therapeutic task is the re-creation of a sense of human interdependency and community. 3. Group therapy can be a useful and successful adjunct to individual psychotherapy for relatively stable clients with MPD/DD; the group's focus should be here-and-now, supportive, and psychoeducative in nature.

  14. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-11-29

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  15. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 77 - DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration B Appendix B to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROGRAM TO ENCOURAGE PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Pt. 77, App. B Appendix...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 77 - DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2581, Operation Transition Employer Registration B Appendix B to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROGRAM TO ENCOURAGE PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Pt. 77, App. B Appendix...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2653, “Involuntary Allotment Application”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2653, âInvoluntary Allotment Applicationâ C Appendix C to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN INDEBTEDNESS PROCEDURES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL Pt. 113, App. C Appendix C...

  18. An inactivated yellow fever 17DD vaccine cultivated in Vero cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata C; Silva, Andrea N M R; Souza, Marta Cristina O; Silva, Marlon V; Neves, Patrícia P C C; Silva, Andrea A M V; Matos, Denise D C S; Herrera, Miguel A O; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Freire, Marcos S; Gaspar, Luciane P; Caride, Elena

    2015-08-20

    Yellow fever is an acute infectious disease caused by prototype virus of the genus Flavivirus. It is endemic in Africa and South America where it represents a serious public health problem causing epidemics of hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates ranging from 20% to 50%. There is no available antiviral therapy and vaccination is the primary method of disease control. Although the attenuated vaccines for yellow fever show safety and efficacy it became necessary to develop a new yellow fever vaccine due to the occurrence of rare serious adverse events, which include visceral and neurotropic diseases. The new inactivated vaccine should be safer and effective as the existing attenuated one. In the present study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated 17DD vaccine in C57BL/6 mice was evaluated. The yellow fever virus was produced by cultivation of Vero cells in bioreactors, inactivated with β-propiolactone, and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum). Mice were inoculated with inactivated 17DD vaccine containing alum adjuvant and followed by intracerebral challenge with 17DD virus. The results showed that animals receiving 3 doses of the inactivated vaccine (2 μg/dose) with alum adjuvant had neutralizing antibody titers above the cut-off of PRNT50 (Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test). In addition, animals immunized with inactivated vaccine showed survival rate of 100% after the challenge as well as animals immunized with commercial attenuated 17DD vaccine.

  19. Genome sequence of Shinella sp. strain DD12, isolated from homogenized guts of starved Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Poehlein, Anja; Freese, Heike; Daniel, Rolf; Simeonova, Diliana D

    2016-01-01

    Shinella sp. strain DD12, a novel phosphite assimilating bacterium, has been isolated from homogenized guts of 4 days starved zooplankton Daphnia magna. Here we report the draft genome of this bacterium, which comprises 7,677,812 bp and 7505 predicted protein-coding genes.

  20. Digital droplet multiple displacement amplification (ddMDA) for whole genome sequencing of limited DNA samples

    DOE PAGES

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan

    2016-05-04

    Here, multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently,more » the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology.« less

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DD Mon BV light curves (Qian+ 1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.; Liu, Q.; Yang, Y.; Gu, S.; Huang, Z.

    1997-04-01

    New BV light curves of the short-period eclipsing binary system DD Mon have been obtained. Light-curve variability is seen in both B and V bands as compared with the light curves obtained in 1986 by Yamasaki et al. (1990AJ.....99.1218Y). The light curves are analyzed by using Wilson-Devinney's synthetic light-curve program, and the present photometric solution reveals that DD Mon is a near-contact binary with the secondary component filling the Roche lobe. Combined with Yamasaki et al.'s (1990AJ.....99.1218Y) spectroscopic results, absolute quantities of DD Mon are derived: mass of the primary M1=1.05+/-0.08M⊙, mass of the secondary M2=0.47+/-0.04M⊙, radius of the primary R1=1.36+/-0.04R⊙, radius of the secondary R2=1.03+/-0.03R⊙. These results show that the components of DD Mon have evolved away from the ZAMS and through a mass-transfer process to the present semi-detached state. The variation in shape of the light curve may be caused by the evolution of the system and the activity of dark spots. (2 data files).

  2. D&D of the French High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    BEHAR, Christophe; GUIBERTEAU, Philippe; DUPERRET, Bernard; TAUZIN, Claude

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the D&D program that is being implemented at France's High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant, which was designed to supply France's Military with Highly Enriched Uranium. This plant was definitively shut down in June 1996, following French President Jacques Chirac's decision to end production of Highly Enriched Uranium and dismantle the corresponding facilities.

  3. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 1290 - Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805, Violation Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... DISTRICT COURTS Pt. 1290, App. A Appendix A to Part 1290—Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805, Violation... issuing location code number (as determined by local Magistrate/District Court). Examples are shown at... weight. All mailable disposition offenses—amount of fine (collateral). All mandatory court...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 1290 - Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805, Violation Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805, Violation Notice A Appendix A to Part 1290 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO...

  5. Post-decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) characterization report for CFA-669 site

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents results of post-decontamination and dismantling (D&D) characterization surveys performed by EG&G Idaho, Inc. (EG&G Idaho), at Central Facilities Area (CFA)-669, which was the Hot Laundry Facility. The site was characterized to determine and document the radiological and chemical conditions of the site following D&D and to determine if the site satisfies the release criteria. Constructed in 1950, CFA-669 served as the ``hot`` and ``cold`` laundry for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site contractors until the boiler exploded in 1981. The building was shut down at that time. Before D&D activities began in 1992, the facility was characterized and the results documented. D&D activities were completed in July 1994. The post-D&D radiological characterization consisted of radiation measurements and analyses of soil samples to identify man-made radionuclides and determine the specific activity of each sample. The chemical characterization consisted of toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis for metals and for volatile and semivolatile organic contamination.

  6. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA) for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology. PMID:27144304

  7. 48 CFR 1846.673 - Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Distribution of DD Forms 250 and 250c. 1846.673 Section 1846.673 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and...

  8. 48 CFR 1846.672 - Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Preparing DD Forms 250 and 250c. 1846.672 Section 1846.672 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports 1846.672...

  9. Selected Trends in Public Spending for MR/DD Services and the State Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary Catherine; Braddock, David

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes mental retardation/developmental disabilities (MR/DD) spending since 1977, with emphasis on spending from 1995-2000. The change in state economic conditions, from strong growth in recent years to fiscal constraints in 2002, is addressed. Tables provide data trends in MR spending by type of placement and state and changes in…

  10. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA) for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K; Meagher, Robert J; Singh, Anup K

    2016-01-01

    Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology. PMID:27144304

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service... OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROGRAM TO ENCOURAGE PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Pt. 77, App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 286 - DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information Act”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 2564, âAnnual Report Freedom of Information Actâ E Appendix E to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... REGULATION Pt. 286, App. E Appendix E to Part 286—DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 286 - DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information Act”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2564, âAnnual Report Freedom of Information Actâ E Appendix E to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... REGULATION Pt. 286, App. E Appendix E to Part 286—DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  17. 32 CFR 169a.8 - Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Symbol DD-P&L(A)). 169a.8 Section 169a.8 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)). (a) Information in each DoD Component's... (DIA) Shall be submitted to the Assistant Secretary of Defense Production and Logistics)...

  18. 32 CFR 169a.8 - Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Symbol DD-P&L(A)). 169a.8 Section 169a.8 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)). (a) Information in each DoD Component's... (DIA) Shall be submitted to the Assistant Secretary of Defense Production and Logistics)...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 286 - DD Form 2086, “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2086, âRecord of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Costâ C Appendix C to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 286, App. C Appendix C to Part 286—DD Form 2086, “Record of Freedom...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 286 - DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information Act”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2564, âAnnual Report Freedom of Information Actâ E Appendix E to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... REGULATION Pt. 286, App. E Appendix E to Part 286—DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 113 - Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and Processing”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample DD Form 2654, âInvoluntary Allotment Notice and Processingâ D Appendix D to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE..., App. D Appendix D to Part 113—Sample DD Form 2654, “Involuntary Allotment Notice and...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service... OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROGRAM TO ENCOURAGE PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY SERVICE Pt. 77, App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization...

  8. Sensor Technology Integration for Efficient and Cost-Effective D&D

    SciTech Connect

    Varona, J. M.; Lagos, L. E.

    2002-02-25

    The deactivation and decommissioning of radiologically contaminated facilities require the use of a multitude of technologies to perform characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, and waste management. Current baseline technologies do not provide adequate tools to perform this work in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of such tasks that can be modified to enhance the D&D work include: floor and wall decontamination, pipe decontamination, and surveillance and monitoring. FIU-HCET's Technology Development, Integration and Deployment (TDID) group aims to enhance the D&D process by integrating sensor technology to existing decontamination and remote surveillance tools. These integrated systems have been demonstrated throughout the DOE Complex and commercial nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Finding new ways of integrating technologies utilized in the decommissioning and surveillance & monitoring process has been a goal of this group during the past several years. Current and previous integration projects include: Mobile Integrated Piping Decontamination and Characterization System, On-Line Decontamination and Characterization System, In-Situ Pipe Decontamination and Unplugging System, Remote Hazardous Environment Surveyor (RHES), and the Online Handheld grit blasting decontamination system As a result of integrating sensors with D&D tools, the resulting technologies have removed the downtime currently found in baseline processes by allowing operators and project managers to have real-time contamination data during the specified D&D process. This added component allows project managers to verify that full decontamination and surveillance has been conducted. Through successful demonstration and deployments of the TDID-developed technologies, FIU-HCET has provided tools that can impact the cost, schedule and health and safety of D&D operations in a positive way, leading to shorter downtimes and significant cost-savings. This paper will

  9. The Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) study: expected outcome from the DD2 project and two intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Solomon, Thomas Pj; Lauridsen, Jørgen; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K; Johnsen, Søren P; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Kryger, Tine Bjerregaard; Sortsø, Camilla; Vaag, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) is to near-normalize metabolic control in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) using an individualized treatment approach. We hypothesize that this will not only prevent complications and improve quality of life for T2D patients but also result in increased cost efficiency compared with current treatment modalities. This paper provides an overview of the expected outcomes from DD2, focusing on the two main intervention studies. The main data for the DD2 project are collected during patient enrollment and stored using the individual civil registration number. This enables subsequent linking to other national databases where supplemental data can be obtained. All data will be used for designing treatment guidelines and continuously monitoring the development of diabetic complications, thereby obtaining knowledge about predictors for the long-term outcome and identifying targets for new interventions. Further data are being collected from two intervention studies. The aim of the first intervention study is to improve T2D treatment using an individualized treatment modality optimizing medication according to individual metabolic responses and phenotypic characteristics. The aim of the second intervention study is to develop an evidence-based training protocol to be implemented as a treatment modality for T2D and used for initiating lifelong changes in physical activity levels in patients with T2D. An initial pilot study evaluating an interval-based walking protocol is ongoing, and preliminary results indicate that this protocol is an optimal "free-living" training intervention. An initial health-economic analysis will also be performed as a basis for analysis of the data collected during the project. A cost-benefit analysis of the two intervention studies will be conducted. The DD2 project is expected to lead to improved treatment modalities and increased knowledge about

  10. Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test Using ddPCR (SMART-ddPCR): An Accurate Method for Assessment of Preferential Allelic Imbalance in Tumor DNA

    PubMed Central

    de Smith, Adam J.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Hansen, Helen M.; Endicott, Alyson A.; Wiencke, John K.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which heritable genetic variants can affect tumor development has yet to be fully elucidated. Tumor selection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles, a phenomenon called preferential allelic imbalance (PAI), has been demonstrated in some cancer types. We developed a novel application of digital PCR termed Somatic Mutation Allelic Ratio Test using Droplet Digital PCR (SMART-ddPCR) for accurate assessment of tumor PAI, and have applied this method to test the hypothesis that heritable SNPs associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may demonstrate tumor PAI. These SNPs are located at CDKN2A (rs3731217) and IKZF1 (rs4132601), genes frequently lost in ALL, and at CEBPE (rs2239633), ARID5B (rs7089424), PIP4K2A (rs10764338), and GATA3 (rs3824662), genes located on chromosomes gained in high-hyperdiploid ALL. We established thresholds of AI using constitutional DNA from SNP heterozygotes, and subsequently measured allelic copy number in tumor DNA from 19–142 heterozygote samples per SNP locus. We did not find significant tumor PAI at these loci, though CDKN2A and IKZF1 SNPs showed a trend towards preferential selection of the risk allele (p = 0.17 and p = 0.23, respectively). Using a genomic copy number control ddPCR assay, we investigated somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) underlying AI at CDKN2A and IKZF1, revealing a complex range of alterations including homozygous and hemizygous deletions and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, with varying degrees of clonality. Copy number estimates from ddPCR showed high agreement with those from multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays. We demonstrate that SMART-ddPCR is a highly accurate method for investigation of tumor PAI and for assessment of the somatic alterations underlying AI. Furthermore, analysis of publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas identified 16 recurrent SCNA loci that contain heritable cancer risk SNPs associated with a

  11. Caring for people with dementia disease (DD) and working in a private not-for-profit residential care facility for people with DD.

    PubMed

    Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Larsson, Lise-Lotte Franklin; Norberg, Astrid

    2014-06-01

    Caring for people with dementia and working in dementia care is described as having both rewarding and unpleasant aspects and has been studied to a minor extent. This study aims to explore care providers' narrated experiences of caring for people with dementia disease (DD) and working in a private not-for-profit residential care facility for people with DD. Nine care providers were interviewed about their experiences, the interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that participants were struggling to perform person-centred care, which meant trying to see the person behind the disease, dealing with troublesome situations in the daily care, a two-edged interaction with relatives, feelings of shortcomings and troubled conscience, and the need for improvements in dementia care. The analysis also revealed an ambiguous work situation, which meant a challenging value base, the differently judged work environment, feelings of job satisfaction and the need for a functional leadership and management. The results illuminate participants' positive as well as negative experiences and have identified areas requiring improvements. It seems of great importance to strive for a supportive and attendant leadership, a leadership which aims to empower care providers in their difficult work. Using conscience as a driving force together in the work group may benefit care providers' health.

  12. Properties of cell wall-associated DD-carboxypeptidase of Enterococcus hirae (Streptococcus faecium) ATCC 9790 extracted with alkali.

    PubMed Central

    Kariyama, R; Massidda, O; Daneo-Moore, L; Shockman, G D

    1990-01-01

    DD-Carboxypeptidase (DD-CPase) activity of Enterococcus hirae (Streptococcus faecium) ATCC 9790 was extracted from intact bacteria and from the insoluble residue (crude cell wall fraction) of mechanically disrupted bacteria by a brief treatment at pH 10.0 (10 mM glycine-NaOH) at 0 degrees C or by extraction with any of several detergents. Extractions with high salt concentrations failed to remove DD-CPase activity from the crude wall fraction. In contrast to N-acetylmuramoylhydrolase (both muramidase 2 and muramidase 1) activities, DD-CPase activity failed to bind to insoluble cell walls or peptidoglycan matrices. Thus, whereas muramidase 1 and muramidase 2 activities can be considered to be cell wall proteins, the bulk of the data are consistent with the interpretation that the DD-CPase of this species is a membrane protein that is sometimes found in the cell wall fraction, presumably because of hydrophobic interactions with other proteins and cell wall polymers. The binding of [14C]penicillin to penicillin-binding protein 6 (43 kilodaltons) was proportional to DD-CPase activity. Kinetic parameters were also consistent with the presence of only one DD-CPase (penicillin-binding protein 6) in E. hirae. Images PMID:2361945

  13. Evidence that noncoding RNA dutA is a multicopy suppressor of Dictyostelium discoideum STAT protein Dd-STATa.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2007-06-01

    Dd-STATa, a Dictyostelium discoideum homologue of metazoan STAT transcription factors, is necessary for culmination. We created a mutant strain with partial Dd-STATa activity and used it to screen for unlinked suppressor genes. We screened approximately 450,000 clones from a slug-stage cDNA library for their ability to rescue the culmination defect when overexpressed. There were 12 multicopy suppressors of Dd-STATa, of which 4 encoded segments of a known noncoding RNA, dutA. Expression of dutA is specific to the pstA zone, the region where Dd-STATa is activated. In suppressed strains the expression patterns of several putative Dd-STATa target genes become similar to the wild-type strain. In addition, the amount of the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of Dd-STATa is significantly increased in the suppressed strain. These results indicate that partial copies of dutA may act upstream of Dd-STATa to regulate tyrosine phosphorylation by an unknown mechanism.

  14. Recent progress on MHD-induced loss of D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Budny, R.V.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Herrmann, H.; Mynick, H.E.; Schivell, J.; Chang, Z.

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress made toward understanding the MHD-induced loss of D-D fusion products which has been seen on TFTR since 1988. These measurements have been made using the ``lost alpha`` diagnostic, which is described briefly. The largest MHD- induced loss occurs with coherent 3/2 or 2/1 MHD activity (kink/tearing modes), which can cause up to {approx}3--5 times the first-orbit loss at I{approx}1.6--1.8 MA, roughly a {approx}20--30% global los of D-D fusion products. Modeling of these MHD-induced losses has progressed to the point where the basic loss mechanism can be accounted for qualitatively, but the experimental results can not yet be understood quantitatively. Several alpha loss codes are being developed to improve the quantitative comparison between experiment and theory.

  15. D&D of a reactor, hot cells and gloveboxes - an integrated experience

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, T.J.; Fellhauer, C.R.; Rose, R.W.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    Performing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations at a multi-use laboratory containing small sites which run the gamut of nuclear facility types within the DOE Complex provides engaging challenges, as well as many unique opportunities. While the relatively small scale of the D&D work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-E) does not present the significant environmental, safety and health risks which might be encountered at large production sites, the types of issues are representative of the most significant problems. Being a small site with relatively low risks and an exceptional rapport with local stakeholders provides for the development and demonstration of technologies and methodologies which could be utilized at the larger sites.

  16. Measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in B0-->D*(+/-)D(-/+).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-08-17

    We present updated measurements of CP-violating asymmetries in the decays B0-->D*(+/-)D(-/+) and B0-->D+D- using (383+/-4) x 10(6)B(B) pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B factory. We determine the time-integrated CP asymmetry A(D*(+/-)D(-/+))=0.12+/-0.06+/-0.02, and the time-dependent asymmetry parameters to be C(D*+D-)=0.18+/-0.15+/-0.04, S(D*+D-)=-0.79+/-0.21+/-0.06, C(D*-D+)=0.23+/-0.15+/-0.04, S(D*-D+)=-0.44+/-0.22+/-0.06, C(D+D-)=0.11+/-0.22+/-0.07, and S(D+D-)=-0.54+/-0.34+/-0.06, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:17930885

  17. hypoDD-A Program to Compute Double-Difference Hypocenter Locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldhauser, Felix

    2001-01-01

    HypoDD is a Fortran computer program package for relocating earthquakes with the double-difference algorithm of Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000). This document provides a brief introduction into how to run and use the programs ph2dt and hypoDD to compute double-difference (DD) hypocenter locations. It gives a short overview of the DD technique, discusses the data preprocessing using ph2dt, and leads through the earthquake relocation process using hypoDD. The appendices include the reference manuals for the two programs and a short description of auxiliary programs and example data. Some minor subroutines are presently in the c language, and future releases will be in c. Earthquake location algorithms are usually based on some form of Geiger’s method, the linearization of the travel time equation in a first order Taylor series that relates the difference between the observed and predicted travel time to unknown adjustments in the hypocentral coordinates through the partial derivatives of travel time with respect to the unknowns. Earthquakes can be located individually with this algorithm, or jointly when other unknowns link together the solutions to indivdual earthquakes, such as station corrections in the joint hypocenter determination (JHD) method, or the earth model in seismic tomography. The DD technique (described in detail in Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) takes advantage of the fact that if the hypocentral separation between two earthquakes is small compared to the event-station distance and the scale length of velocity heterogeneity, then the ray paths between the source region and a common station are similar along almost the entire ray path (Fréchet, 1985; Got et al., 1994). In this case, the difference in travel times for two events observed at one station can be attributed to the spatial offset between the events with high accuracy. DD equations are built by differencing Geiger’s equation for earthquake location. In this way, the residual between

  18. Effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 isolate from Korea on ddY suckling mice

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeounghwan; Ahn, Meejung; Bang, Hyojin; Kang, Bongjo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 spores on ddY suckling mice. Purified Kudoa septempunctata spores were administered into the stomachs of the mice at 5 × 106 or 5 × 107 spores/mouse, with inactivated Kudoa (5 × 106 spores/mouse) or vehicle as controls. No abnormal clinical symptoms were observed and there were no variations in fluid accumulation ratio and cytokine gene expression in all groups. In addition, intact Kudoa spores and the 18S rDNA gene were only detected (by microscopy and quantitative PCR, respectively) in the groups administered such spores. This study thus confirms that spores from the ST3 strain of Kudoa septempunctata were excreted in the faeces without infecting the gastrointestinal tract in ddY suckling mice. PMID:27067108

  19. Design of a Neutron Temporal Diagnostic for measuring DD or DT burn histories at the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Sio, H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bradley, D. K.; Le Pape, S.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Isumi, N.; Macphee, A.; Zayas, C.; Spears, B. K.; Hermann, H.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The DD or DT burn history in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions provides essential information about implosion performance and helps to constrain numerical modeling. The capability of measuring this burn history is thus important for the NIF in its pursuit of ignition. Currently, the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is the only system capable of measuring the burn history for DT implosions with yields greater than ~ 1e14. To complement GRH, a new NIF Neutron Temporal Diagnostic (NTD) is being designed for measuring the DD or DT burn history with yields greater than ~ 1e10. A traditional scintillator-based design and a pulse-dilation-based design are being considered. Using MCNPX simulations, both designs have been optimized, validated and contrasted for various types of implosions at the NIF. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  20. Towards a Dynamical Understanding of the Non-DD Decay of {psi}(3770)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yuanjiang; Li Gang; Zhao Qiang

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the {psi}(3770) non-DD decays into VP, where V and P denote vector and pseudoscalar mesons, respectively, via Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-rule-evading intermediate meson rescatterings in an effective Lagrangian theory. By identifying the leading meson loop transitions and constraining the model parameters with the available experimental data for {psi}(3770){yields}J/{psi}{eta}, {phi}{eta}, and {rho}{pi}, we succeed in making a quantitative prediction for all {psi}(3770){yields}VP with BR{sub VP} from 0.41% to 0.64%. It indicates that the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-rule-evading long-range interactions play a role in {psi}(3770) strong decays, and could be a key towards a full understanding of the mysterious {psi}(3770) non-DD decay mechanism.

  1. Improving D&D Planning and Waste Management with Cutting and Packaging Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Richard H. Meservey; Jean-Louis Bouchet

    2005-08-01

    The increased amount of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) being performed throughout the world not only strains nuclear cleanup budgets, but places severe demands on the capacities of nuclear waste disposal sites. Although budgets and waste disposal sites have been able to accommodate the demand thus far, the increasing number of large facilities being decommissioned will cause major impacts to the waste disposal process. It is thus imperative that new and innovative technologies are applied within the D&D industry to reduce costs and waste disposal requirements for the decommissioning of our inventory of large and aging nuclear facilities. One of the most significant problems reactor owner’s deal with is the accurate determination of the types and volumes of wastes that will be generated during decommissioning of their facilities. Waste disposal costs, restrictions, and transportation issues can account for as much as 30% of the total costs to decommission a facility and thus it is very important to have accurate waste volume estimates. The use of simulation technologies to estimate and reduce decommissioning waste volumes provides a new way to manage risks associated with this work. Simulation improves the process by allowing facility owners to obtain accurate estimates of the types and amounts of waste prior to starting the actual D&D work. This reduces risk by permitting earlier and better negotiations with the disposal sites, and more time to resolve transportation issues. While simulation is a tool to be used by the D&D contractors, its real value is in reducing risks and costs to the reactor owners.

  2. Microstructural study of transient liquid phase bonded DD98 and K465 superalloys at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jide Jin Tao; Zhao Nairen; Wang Zhihui; Sun Xiaofeng; Guan Hengrong; Hu Zhuangqi

    2011-05-15

    Microstructure of a transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded joint between single crystal DD98 and polycrystalline K465 superalloys was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. After bonding at 1190 deg. C for 2 h, many phases formed in the centerline of the bonding zone due to an incompletely solidified liquid interlayer. There are script-like, tree-like and blocky compounds besides solid solution {gamma} phase in this region. The script-like phase is CrB boride that is rich in Cr, the tree-like compound rich in Ni is M{sub 23}B{sub 6} with FCC structure, and the blocky phase enriched in Ti, Ta, and Nb, is MC carbide that resulted from the interdiffusion of C atoms between dissimilar base metals. After TLP bonding, many blocky and fine M{sub 6}C particles rich in Cr and W appeared in the diffusion zone of the K465 side. A number of blocky and platelet M{sub 3}B{sub 2} borides rich in W, Cr and Mo precipitated in the diffusion zone of the DD98 side. - Research Highlights: {yields} DD98 and K465 alloy was TLP bonded. {yields} The microstructure changes of different parts were studied. {yields} CrB, M{sub 23}B{sub 6} and MC formed in the bonding zone. {yields} M{sub 6}C appeared in diffusion zone of K465 side and M{sub 3}B{sub 2} existed in diffusion zone of DD98 side.

  3. Spectral study of the irregular variables SV Cep, UX Ori, and DD Ser

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshenko, L.V.

    1985-07-01

    Nineteen spectrograms for three variables with periodic fadings of the, namely, SV Cep, UX Ori, and DD Ser, obtained on the two meter telescope of the Shemakha Astrophysical Observatory with a reciprocal dispersion of 94 A/mm in H..gamma.., were used to compile a two dimensional quantitative spectral classification of those variables. On the basis of certain classification criteria based on the lines of the metals, the mean spectral classes were determined for each star: A0 for SV Cep, A3 for UX Ori, and A5 for DD Ser. It was discovered that the spectral class of SV Cep varied from A0 to A3 from night to night; this may possibly be connected with the presence of cold regions on the surface of the star. The mean values of the absolute magnitudes found from the spectra of SV Cep, UX Ori, and DD Ser are, respectively, M /sub V/ = -0 /sup m/ .5, M /sub V/ = 0 /sup m/ .6, and M /sub V/ = 0 /sup m/ .2, which corresponds to giants of luminosity class III. The depths of the hydrogen lines and of K Ca II markedly exceed the depths in the spectra of standard stars of the same spectral class and luminosity class, and the explanation for this is the contribution of the additional absorption in the envelope. A consideration of the photographic observations available in the literature for DD Ser, which cover a period of 25 years, suggests a cyclicity of the fadings of about 4 yr.

  4. SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605) sections and details. Section DD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605) sections and details. Section D-D shows relationship between pit and roof elevation of the building. Profile of earth fill between Pit Building and Instrument Cell Building. Details of valve and sump pits. Idaho Operations Office PER-605-IDO-2. INEEL index no. 761-0605-60-396-109182 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Fault detection in digital and analog circuits using an i(DD) temporal analysis technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J.; Magallanes, D.; Vridhagiri, A.; Ramamurthy, Hema; Deyong, Mark

    1993-01-01

    An i(sub DD) temporal analysis technique which is used to detect defects (faults) and fabrication variations in both digital and analog IC's by pulsing the power supply rails and analyzing the temporal data obtained from the resulting transient rail currents is presented. A simple bias voltage is required for all the inputs, to excite the defects. Data from hardware tests supporting this technique are presented.

  6. Charge symmetry breaking in dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Podkopal, Pawel

    2007-11-07

    Charge Symmetry Breaking reactions are an excellent tool to study the symmetries of QCD in the non-perturbative regime. Following first high precision experiments at IUCF and TRIUMF and triggered by the ongoing theoretical analysis, it is proposed to measure the reaction dd{yields}{alpha}{pi}{sup 0} with WASA-at-COSY at beam momentum 1.2 GeV/c.

  7. Photometric study of two β Lyr-type binaries: DD Aqr and RR Lep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Öztürk, O.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents detailed analysis of photometric observations of two eclipsing binary systems, DD Aqr and RR Lep. The V light curve of the neglected binary star DD Aqr from the All Sky Automated Survey was solved for the first time. The 1982-1987 UBV light curves of RR Lep from Vyas and Abhyankar (1989) were re-analysed. The final solutions give these two β Lyr-type binary stars as having near contact configurations in which the secondary components almost fill their Roche limiting lobes. Using O-C residuals formed by the updated minima times, orbital period changes of the systems were analysed. The O-C diagram of DD Aqr displays a cyclic variation, while that of RR Lep shows a quasi-sinusoidal variation superimposed on a downward parabolic form. The parabolic variation, which suggests a secular orbital period decrease in RR Lep, was interpreted in terms of the combined effect of mass transfer and loss. The cyclic O-C variations were interpreted in terms of the light travel time effect due to unseen components in these two systems. The absolute parameters of the components of the systems were estimated, and their present evolutionary status is also discussed.

  8. Species identification and quantification in meat and meat products using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).

    PubMed

    Floren, C; Wiedemann, I; Brenig, B; Schütz, E; Beck, J

    2015-04-15

    Species fraud and product mislabelling in processed food, albeit not being a direct health issue, often results in consumer distrust. Therefore methods for quantification of undeclared species are needed. Targeting mitochondrial DNA, e.g. CYTB gene, for species quantification is unsuitable, due to a fivefold inter-tissue variation in mtDNA content per cell resulting in either an under- (-70%) or overestimation (+160%) of species DNA contents. Here, we describe a reliable two-step droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay targeting the nuclear F2 gene for precise quantification of cattle, horse, and pig in processed meat products. The ddPCR assay is advantageous over qPCR showing a limit of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) in different meat products of 0.01% and 0.001%, respectively. The specificity was verified in 14 different species. Hence, determining F2 in food by ddPCR can be recommended for quality assurance and control in production systems.

  9. Measurements of DT and DD neutron yields by neutron activation on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Larson, A.R.; LeMunyan, G.; Loughlin, M.J.

    1994-05-05

    A variety of elemental foils have been activated by neutron fluence from TFTR under conditions with the DT neutron yield per shot ranging from 10{sup 12} to over 10{sup 18}, and with the DT/(DD+DT) neutron ratio varying from 0.5% (from triton burnup) to unity. Linear response over this large dynamic range is obtained by reducing the mass of the foils and increasing the cooling time, all while accepting greatly improved counting statistics. Effects on background gamma-ray lines from foil-capsule-material contaminants. and the resulting lower limits on activation foil mass, have been determined. DT neutron yields from dosimetry standard reactions on aluminum, chromium, iron, nickel, zirconium, and indium are in agreement within the {plus_minus}9% (one-sigma,) accuracy of the measurements: also agreeing are yields from silicon foils using the ACTL library cross-section. While the ENDF/B-V library has too low a cross-section. Preliminary results from a variety of other threshold reactions are presented. Use of the {sup 115}In(n,n) {sup 115m}In reaction (0.42 times as sensitive to DT neutrons as DD neutrons) in conjunction with pure-DT reactions allows a determination of the DT/(DD+DT) ratio in trace tritium or low-power tritium beam experiments.

  10. Kinetic Study of Yellow Fever 17DD Viral Infection in Gallus gallus domesticus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; E. P. Dias de Oliveira, Bárbara Cristina; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Rodrigues Maia de Souza, Yuli; dos Santos Ferro, Jessica Maria; da Silva, Igor José; Gonçalves Caputo, Luzia Fátima; Tavares Guedes, Priscila; Araujo Cunha dos Santos, Alexandre; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo Machado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos. PMID:27158977

  11. Neutron Yield and Ion Temperature from DD and DT Fusion in National Ignition Facility High-Foot Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, J. P.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Doeppner, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Munro, D. H.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Yeamans, C. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous measures of neutrons emitted from DT fusion implosions are postulated to provide insight into the fuel conditions during neutron emission. Neutron spectral diagnostics of National Ignition Facility ``high-foot'' implosions measure both the DT and DD fusion neutron spectra. Equivalent ion temperature is measured from the width of the DT and DD neutron emission and the respective yields from the peak areas. This work has focused on reasons for differing inferred temperatures from the DT and DD spectra and the yield ratio. Spatial and temporal averages of the DT and DD reactivities as corrections to the homogeneous and static temperature distributions are shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  12. Tracking atmospheric sulphur pollution from the study of Racomitrium lanuginosum mosses in Iceland: A multi-isotope approach (δ34S, 206Pb/204Pb, δ13C and δ15N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proust, E.; Widory, D.; Gautason, B.; Rogers, K.; Morrison, J.

    2010-12-01

    Among terrestrial plants, the applicability of mosses as monitoring organisms of atmospheric pollutants is a world-wide accepted technique due to their special biological and morphologic characteristics as nonvascular plants. They are commonly regarded as the best bioindicators of air quality because they can accumulate sulphur (S) and other elements to a far greater level than is necessary for their physiological needs. This study aims at using different isotope systematics δ34S, 206Pb/204Pb, δ13C and δ15N) to help understand the origin of S in the atmophsere of Reykjavik and its vicinity, and especially the potential contribution of surrounding geothermal plants. The selected Icelandic woolly fringe moss (Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid.) is extremely common in lava fields and gravely and stony areas. Samples were taken in four distinct sampling sites around the city of Reykjavik: Bláfjöll area (south-eastern suburb of the city), and close to three power plants: Hellisheioarvirkjun (northern suburb of the city), Svartsengi (south-western suburb of the city) and Nesjavellir (north-eastern suburb of the city). Results show that, whatever the sampling context is, S is controlled by a binary mixing, between i) a high δ34S (around 16‰) end-member, characteristic of mosses from Hellisheioarvirkjun, and ii) a low δ34S (around -2‰) end-member, characteristic of mosses from Nesjavellir. The multi-isotope approach, confirms this binary relation and helps to constrain the different end-members involved.

  13. Identification of new modes of Dd-STATa regulation of gene expression in Dictyostelium by in situ hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nao; Maeda, Mineko; Urushihara, Hideko; Kawata, Takefumi

    2004-09-01

    Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs) are transcription factors which lie at the end of cytokine and growth signal transduction pathways. Dictyostelium Dd-STATa is a functional homologue of metazoan STATs. It is activated by cAMP and, at the slug stage, it translocates into the nuclei of the tip cells, which are a subset of the anterior, prestalk A (pstA) cells. Here we searched for novel Dd-STATa regulated genes by in situ hybridisation. A set of 54 cDNA clones whose gene expression patterns are known to be prestalk-specific (Maeda et al., 2003), were chosen as probes and we compared their expression patterns in parental and Dd-STATa-null strains. We identified 13 genes which are candidates for direct induction by Dd-STATa. In the parental strain, most of these genes are expressed in the cone shaped mass of pstAB cells which is located within the prestalk region. These cDNAs show little or no expression in the Dd-STATa-null strain. This contrasts markedly with the paradigmatic ecmB gene which is expressed in pstAB cells in parental cells, but which is expressed throughout the prestalk zone in the Dd-STATa-null strain. We also identified several genes which are normally expressed in pstA cells, or throughout the prestalk region, but whose expression is markedly down-regulated in the null mutant. Again, this contrasts with markers derived from the paradigmatic, ecmA gene which are expressed normally in the Dd-STATa-null strain. The identification of these novel genes provides valuable tools to investigate the role of Dd-STATa.

  14. EppA, a Putative Substrate of DdERK2, Regulates Cyclic AMP Relay and Chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songyang; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2006-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase DdERK2 is critical for cyclic AMP (cAMP) relay and chemotaxis to cAMP and folate, but the details downstream of DdERK2 are unclear. To search for targets of DdERK2 in Dictyostelium discoideum,32PO43−-labeled protein samples from wild-type and Dderk2− cells were resolved by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry was used to identify a novel 45-kDa protein, named EppA (ERK2-dependent phosphoprotein A), as a substrate of DdERK2 in Dictyostelium. Mutation of potential DdERK2 phosphorylation sites demonstrated that phosphorylation on serine 250 of EppA is DdERK2 dependent. Changing serine 250 to alanine delayed development of Dictyostelium and reduced Dictyostelium chemotaxis to cAMP. Although overexpression of EppA had no significant effect on the development or chemotaxis of Dictyostelium, disruption of the eppA gene led to delayed development and reduced chemotactic responses to both cAMP and folate. Both eppA gene disruption and overexpression of EppA carrying the serine 250-to-alanine mutation led to inhibition of intracellular cAMP accumulation in response to chemoattractant cAMP, a pivotal process in Dictyostelium chemotaxis and development. Our studies indicate that EppA regulates extracellular cAMP-induced signal relay and chemotaxis of Dictyostelium. PMID:16835457

  15. Alternative processing of H-2Dd pre-mRNAs results in membrane expression of differentially phosphorylated protein products.

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, J; Boyd, L F; Maloy, W L; Coligan, J E; Margulies, D H

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct mRNA species encoding the mouse major histocompatibility antigen H-2Dd have been identified in BALB/c spleen cells as well as in cultured cell lines expressing this cell surface glycoprotein. The alternate transcripts of H-2Dd arise from either removal or inclusion of exon VII (encoding I2) during pre-mRNA processing. The relative levels of each kind of H-2Dd transcript varied considerably between different cell types, and in all cells examined both forms of alloantigen were expressed on the cell membrane. Antigen derived from both types of transcript reacted with H-2Dd-specific monoclonal antibodies, whereas only protein lacking the 13 amino acids of I2 reacted with a specific antiserum raised against a predicted exon VI/VIII fusion peptide. Those H-2Dd proteins translated from full length, but not smaller, transcripts were phosphorylated in resting and phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated BALB/c spleen cells, suggesting that the major site of in vivo phosphorylation is within the highly conserved sequence encoded by exon VII. Thus alternative splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts is a mechanism which leads to membrane expression of two forms of H-2Dd, one of which lacks a major site of phosphorylation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:3640710

  16. 17DD and 17D-213/77 Yellow Fever Substrains Trigger a Balanced Cytokine Profile in Primary Vaccinated Children

    PubMed Central

    Luiza-Silva, Maria; Batista, Maurício Azevedo; Martins, Marina Angela; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; da Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; de Lourdes de Sousa Maia, Maria; Farias, Roberto Henrique Guedes; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Galler, Ricardo; Homma, Akira; Ribeiro, José Geraldo Leite; Lemos, Jandira Aparecida Campos; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya Rodrigues; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to compare the cytokine-mediated immune response in children submitted to primary vaccination with the YF-17D-213/77 or YF-17DD yellow fever (YF) substrains. Methods A non-probabilistic sample of eighty healthy primary vaccinated (PV) children was selected on the basis of their previously known humoral immune response to the YF vaccines. The selected children were categorized according to their YF-neutralizing antibody titers (PRNT) and referred to as seroconverters (PV-PRNT+) or nonseroconverters (PV-PRNT−). Following revaccination with the YF-17DD, the PV-PRNT− children (YF-17D-213/77 and YF-17DD groups) seroconverted and were referred as RV-PRNT+. The cytokine-mediated immune response was investigated after short-term in vitro cultures of whole blood samples. The results are expressed as frequency of high cytokine producers, taking the global median of the cytokine index (YF-Ag/control) as the cut-off. Results The YF-17D-213/77 and the YF-17DD substrains triggered a balanced overall inflammatory/regulatory cytokine pattern in PV-PRNT+, with a slight predominance of IL-12 in YF-17DD vaccinees and a modest prevalence of IL-10 in YF-17D-213/77. Prominent frequency of neutrophil-derived TNF-α and neutrophils and monocyte-producing IL-12 were the major features of PV-PRNT+ in the YF-17DD, whereas relevant inflammatory response, mediated by IL-12+CD8+ T cells, was the hallmark of the YF-17D-213/77 vaccinees. Both substrains were able to elicit particular but relevant inflammatory events, regardless of the anti-YF PRNT antibody levels. PV-PRNT− children belonging to the YF-17DD arm presented gaps in the inflammatory cytokine signature, especially in terms of the innate immunity, whereas in the YF-17D-213/77 arm the most relevant gap was the deficiency of IL-12-producing CD8+T cells. Revaccination with YF-17DD prompted a balanced cytokine profile in YF-17DD nonresponders and a robust inflammatory profile in YF-17D-213/77 nonresponders

  17. Anomalous DD and TT yields relative to the DT yield in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Daniel T.

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the D(d,p)T (DD), T(t,2n)4He (TT) and D(t,n)4He (DT) reactions have been conducted using deuterium-tritium gas-filled inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. In these experiments, which were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility, absolute spectral measurements of the DD protons and TT neutrons were conducted and compared to neutron-time-of-flight measured DT-neutron yields. From these measurements, it is concluded that the DD yield is anomalously low and the TT yield is anomalously high relative to the DT yield, an effect that is enhanced with increasing ion temperature. These results can be explained by an enrichment of tritium in the core of an ICF implosion, which may be present in ignition experiments planned on the National Ignition Facility. In addition, the spectral measurements of the TT-neutron spectrum were conducted for the first time at reactant central-mass energies in the range of 15-30 keV. The results from these measurements indicate that the TT reaction proceeds primarily through the direct three-body reaction channel, producing a continuous TT-neutron spectrum in the range 0 - 9.5 MeV. This work was conducted in collaboration with J. A. Frenje, M. Gatu Johnson, M. J.-E. Manuel, H. G. Rinderknecht, N. Sinenian, F. H. Seguin, C. K. Li, R. D. Petrasso, P. B. Radha, J. A. Delettrez, V. Yu Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, T. C. Sangster, D. P. McNabb, P. A. Amendt, R. N. Boyd, J. R. Rygg, H. W. Herrmann, Y. H. Kim, G. P. Grim and A. D. Bacher. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG03-03SF22691), LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974).

  18. Booster dose after 10 years is recommended following 17DD-YF primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Antonelli, Lis R; Fonseca, Cristina T; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Villela-Rezende, Gabriela; Santos, Raiany A; Batista, Maurício A; Campos, Fernanda M; Pacheco-Porto, Luiza; Melo Júnior, Otoni A; Hossell, Débora M S H; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Costa-Silva, Matheus F; de Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Farias, Roberto H; Noronha, Tatiana G; Lemos, Jandira A; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos R; Simões, Marisol; de Souza, Mirian M; Malaquias, Luiz C; Persi, Harold R; Pereira, Jorge M; Martins, José A; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Vinhas, Aline de A; Alves, Tatiane R; Maia, Maria de L; Freire, Marcos da S; Martins, Reinaldo de M; Homma, Akira; Romano, Alessandro P M; Domingues, Carla M; Tauil, Pedro L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Rios, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya R; Camacho, Luiz A; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2016-01-01

    A single vaccination of Yellow Fever vaccines is believed to confer life-long protection. In this study, results of vaccinees who received a single dose of 17DD-YF immunization followed over 10 y challenge this premise. YF-neutralizing antibodies, subsets of memory T and B cells as well as cytokine-producing lymphocytes were evaluated in groups of adults before (NVday0) and after (PVday30-45, PVyear1-4, PVyear5-9, PVyear10-11, PVyear12-13) 17DD-YF primary vaccination. YF-neutralizing antibodies decrease significantly from PVyear1-4 to PVyear12-13 as compared to PVday30-45, and the seropositivity rates (PRNT≥2.9Log10mIU/mL) become critical (lower than 90%) beyond PVyear5-9. YF-specific memory phenotypes (effector T-cells and classical B-cells) significantly increase at PVday30-45 as compared to naïve baseline. Moreover, these phenotypes tend to decrease at PVyear10-11 as compared to PVday30-45. Decreasing levels of TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) produced by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells along with increasing levels of IL-10(+)CD4(+)T-cells were characteristic of anti-YF response over time. Systems biology profiling represented by hierarchic networks revealed that while the naïve baseline is characterized by independent micro-nets, primary vaccinees displayed an imbricate network with essential role of central and effector CD8(+) memory T-cell responses. Any putative limitations of this cross-sectional study will certainly be answered by the ongoing longitudinal population-based investigation. Overall, our data support the current Brazilian national immunization policy guidelines that recommend one booster dose 10 y after primary 17DD-YF vaccination. PMID:26360663

  19. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    DOE PAGES

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods inmore » Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.« less

  20. DD-ligases as a potential target for antibiotics: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, I; Colacino, E; Tulkens, P M; Poupaert, J H; Prévost, M; Van Bambeke, F

    2009-01-01

    DD-ligases catalyze the synthesis of the D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Ser dipeptides or the D Ala-D-Lac depsipeptide in an early step of peptidoglycan synthesis. Their function is essential for bacterial growth and specific to bacteria, making them attractive targets for the development of novel antibiotics. This review examines the biochemical and structural features of these enzymes and presents the main families of inhibitors described so far. Over the last 20 years, 7 structures of DD-ligases have been solved by X-ray crystallography, giving a detailed view of the general topology of the active site and of the residues in the catalytic pocket that play a central role in substrate recognition. This has paved the way to the rational design of inhibitors, which can be classified as (i) analogues of substrates, (ii) analogues of the product of the reaction, (iii) analogues of the transition state, and (iv) original scaffolds discovered by screening or by rational computer-aided design. The three first strategies have led to molecules that are polar by nature and have therefore poor access to their cytosolic target. The fourth one is potentially most promising as it yields more diverse structures. The most active molecules show affinity constants in the microM range, but microbiological evaluation remains scarce (typical MIC 1-8 mg/L for the tested compounds). These data strongly suggest targeting DD-ligases is a promising approach for discovery of new antibiotics. Future research should, however, aim at finding more potent inhibitors endowed with the appropriate pharmacokinetic properties that ensure access to their intracellular target.

  1. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.

  2. New national Biobank of The Danish Center for Strategic Research on Type 2 Diabetes (DD2).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Henry; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Sørensen, Karina Meden; Melbye, Mads; Brandslund, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Long-term storage of biological samples from patients has become increasingly important in studies of disease control and treatment. The first nationwide Danish diabetes project, ie, The Danish Center for Strategic Research in Type II Diabetes (DD2), aims to improve treatment and the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). The DD2 project includes establishment of a biobank with samples from 50,000 patients with newly diagnosed T2D. This paper describes how blood and urine samples from 10,000 patients per year are collected, handled, and stored. The biobank includes whole blood, DNA, and plasma and urine samples, all frozen at -80°C. Sampling tubes have been standardized and are sent to hospital outpatient clinics and general practitioners where samples are taken, handled, aliquoted, and returned by mail overnight in standardized cryostorage tubes. When received at the biobank, samples are frozen without further treatment. From each patient, 24 cryostorage tubes are stored. Each tube is labeled with a barcode that links the data to other information available in a clinical databank registry. When patients are enrolled in DD2, a questionnaire is filled out and a quality monitoring system ensures that patients, samples, and questionnaires can be linked together at all times. The biobank is located at Vejle Hospital and the Danish National Biobank at Statens Serum Institut. As of the end of March 2012, samples from 1186 patients have been stored, and currently samples from 8-10 patients arrive per day. We have established the first national biobank in Denmark where blood, DNA, and plasma and urine samples from patients with newly diagnosed T2D are systematically collected and stored. This biobank enables sophisticated analysis of genetic variation and response to treatment, as well as disease marker studies that better classify disease status, progression, and complications.

  3. Booster dose after 10 years is recommended following 17DD-YF primary vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Antonelli, Lis R; Fonseca, Cristina T; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Villela-Rezende, Gabriela; Santos, Raiany A; Batista, Maurício A; Campos, Fernanda M; Pacheco-Porto, Luiza; Melo Júnior, Otoni A; Hossell, Débora MSH; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Costa-Silva, Matheus F; de Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Farias, Roberto H; Noronha, Tatiana G; Lemos, Jandira A; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos R; Simões, Marisol; de Souza, Mirian M; Malaquias, Luiz C; Persi, Harold R; Pereira, Jorge M; Martins, José A; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Vinhas, Aline de A; Alves, Tatiane R; Maia, Maria de L; Freire, Marcos da S; Martins, Reinaldo de M; Homma, Akira; Romano, Alessandro PM; Domingues, Carla M; Tauil, Pedro L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Rios, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya R; Camacho, Luiz A; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2016-01-01

    A single vaccination of Yellow Fever vaccines is believed to confer life-long protection. In this study, results of vaccinees who received a single dose of 17DD-YF immunization followed over 10 y challenge this premise. YF-neutralizing antibodies, subsets of memory T and B cells as well as cytokine-producing lymphocytes were evaluated in groups of adults before (NVday0) and after (PVday30-45, PVyear1-4, PVyear5-9, PVyear10-11, PVyear12-13) 17DD-YF primary vaccination. YF-neutralizing antibodies decrease significantly from PVyear1-4 to PVyear12-13 as compared to PVday30-45, and the seropositivity rates (PRNT≥2.9Log10mIU/mL) become critical (lower than 90%) beyond PVyear5-9. YF-specific memory phenotypes (effector T-cells and classical B-cells) significantly increase at PVday30-45 as compared to naïve baseline. Moreover, these phenotypes tend to decrease at PVyear10-11 as compared to PVday30-45. Decreasing levels of TNF-α+ and IFN-γ+ produced by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells along with increasing levels of IL-10+CD4+T-cells were characteristic of anti-YF response over time. Systems biology profiling represented by hierarchic networks revealed that while the naïve baseline is characterized by independent micro-nets, primary vaccinees displayed an imbricate network with essential role of central and effector CD8+ memory T-cell responses. Any putative limitations of this cross-sectional study will certainly be answered by the ongoing longitudinal population-based investigation. Overall, our data support the current Brazilian national immunization policy guidelines that recommend one booster dose 10 y after primary 17DD-YF vaccination. PMID:26360663

  4. Proceedings of the 2007 ANS Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization - DD and R 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-15

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination, and Reutilization (DD and R 2007), 'Capturing Decommissioning Lessons Learned', is sponsored by the ANS Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization; Environmental Sciences; and Fuel Cycle and Waste Management Divisions. This meeting provides a forum for an international exchange of technical knowledge and project management experience gained from the ongoing process of decommissioning nuclear facilities. Of particular note is the number of projects that are approaching completion. This document gathers 113 presentations given at this meeting.

  5. Applicability of TOWRS to support the D&D of the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, R.A.

    2003-02-05

    Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) personnel are completing baseline strategic planning for the deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantlement (D&D) of the 234-52 Building and associated ancillary buildings and facilities within the PFP Complex. As part of the planning phase, alternatives for the current baseline are being identified and evaluated to determine their ability to accelerate the schedule, reduce the overall project costs and/or result in improved personnel safety. There are a number of areas within the PFP complex that have the need to utilize remote capabilities and/or ''size reduce'' oversized transuranic (TRU) contaminated metal objects. Areas that may require remote/robotic capabilities include the main PFP structure (234-52), the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) Canyon, the Americium Recovery Facility (242-Z), the incinerator facility (232-Z), and the ventilation exhaust facility (291-2). Current planning would require manned entries into contamination zones in these areas with the personnel dressed in multiple layers of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), including plastic, supplied-air bubble suits. The TOWRS (Transportable Oversized Waste Reduction System) is being evaluated to determine whether alignment exists between the remote/robotic capabilities of this system and the needs of the PFP D&D Project. Of specific consideration are the unique D&D needs associated with the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF). TOWS is a completely portable remote control robotic tool handling system that can be brought to the job site and it is ideal to meet a variety of D&D needs. The system has been assembled and integrated into a transportable semi-trailer. The system and all of its components have been successfully tested against representative performance standards and it can be readily deployed at a number of worksites. Other than equipment leasing and operations personnel, the cost for each worksite would generally be limited to the

  6. Parameters of REP DD's plasma formed during the pulse and pulse-periodic modes in dense gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Dmitry A.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2015-12-01

    Main parameters of plasma formed during the pulse and pulse-periodic runaway electron preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) in argon, nitrogen and air at high pressure were measured. An electron concentration in the plasma of pulse and pulse-periodic REP DD in the elevated pressure argon was determined. Average for pulse value of electron density in the argon plasma of pulse REP DD was ~ 3.1015 cm-3. Dynamics of electron density in the atmospheric-pressure plasma of the argon during the REP DD was determined. Measured average values of an electron concentration in the plasma of the pulse-periodic REP DD in atmospheric-pressure air and nitrogen were ~ 3.1014 and ~ 4.1014 cm-3, respectively. In addition, for the plasma formed during the pulse-periodic REP DD in atmospheric-pressure nitrogen and air average values of an electron temperature and reduced electric field, as well their dynamics were determined. Average value of an electron temperature during the pulse duration for nitrogen and air plasmas was ~ 2 eV. Dynamics of an electron temperature and reduced electric field strength was registered. Data on rotational and gas temperatures in the discharge plasma of atmospheric-pressure nitrogen formed in pulse (Tr ≍ 350 K, Tg ≍ 380 K) and pulse-periodic (Tr ≍ 750 K, Tg ≍ 820 K) modes were obtained. In addition, measured value of vibrational temperature in REP DD's plasma formed in pulse mode in nitrogen at pressure of 1 bar was Tv ≍ 3000 K.

  7. Multi-isotope (C - O - S - H - B - Mg - Ca - Ba) and trace element variations along a vertical pore water profile across a brackish-fresh water transition, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Lapham, Laura; Gussone, Nikolaus; Struck, Ulrich; Buhl, Dieter; Immenhauser, Adrian; Moeller, Kirsten; Pretet, Chloé; Nägler, Thomas F.; Dellwig, Olaf; Schnetger, Bernhard; Huckriede, Hermann; Halas, Stan; Samankassou, Elias

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene Baltic Sea has been switched several times between fresh water and brackish water modes. Modern linear sedimentation rates, based on 210-Pb, 137-Cs, and Hg dating of surface sediments, are between 0.1 and 0.2 mm per year. The change in paleo-environmental conditions caused downcore gradients in the concentrations of dissolved species from modern brackish waters towards fresh paleo-pore waters, interrupted by the brief brackish Yoldia stage. These strong physico-chemical changes had consequences for e.g., microbial activity and further physical and chemical water-solid interactions associated with multiple stable isotope fractionation processes, and, in turn, have strong implications for isotope and trace element partitioning upon early diagenetic mineral (trans)formations. In this communication, we present the results from the first integrated multi-isotope and trace element investigation conducted in this type of salinity-gradient system. It is found that concentrations of conservative elements (e.g., Na, Cl) decrease with depth due to diffusion of ions from brackish waters into underlying fresh waters. This is associated with pronounced depletions in H-2 and O-18 of pore water with depth. Covariations of both isotope systems are close to the meteoric water line as defined by modern Baltic Sea surface waters. A downward increase and decrease of Ca and Mg concentrations, respectively, is associated with decreasing Ca-44 and Mg-26 isotope values. B-11 isotope values decrease in the limnic part of the sediments, too. On the other hand, an increase in Ba concentrations with depth is associated with an increase in Ba-137/134 isotope values. Microbial sulfate reduction and organic matter oxidation lead to an increase in DIC, but a decrease in sulfate concentrations and in C-13 contents of DIC with depth. Suess (1981) was probably the first to propose, that desorption of Ca and Ba from glacial sediments due to downward diffusing ions may be responsible for a

  8. A Novel Nuclear Recoil Calibration in the LUX Detector Using a D-D Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbus, James; LUX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. I will describe a novel calibration of nuclear recoils (NR) in liquid xenon (LXe) performed in-situ in the LUX detector using mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons produced by a D-D neutron generator. This technique was used to measure the NR charge yield in LXe (Qy) to < 1 keV recoil energy with an absolute determination of the deposited energy. The LUX Qy result is a factor of × 5 lower in energy compared to any other previous measurement in the field, and provides a significant improvement in calibration uncertainties. We also present a measurement of the NR light yield in LXe (Leff) to recoil energies as low as ~ 2 keV using the LUX D-D data. The Leff result is also lower in energy with smaller uncertainties than has been previously achieved. These absolute, ultra-low energy calibrations of the NR signal yields in LXe are a clear confirmation of the detector response used for the first LUX WIMP search analysis. Strategies for extending this calibration technique to even lower energies and smaller uncertainties will be discussed.

  9. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa.

    PubMed

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry. PMID:26398886

  10. Optical Lattice Bose-Einstein Condensates and the dd Fusion - Iwamura Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot

    2003-03-01

    My conjecture: LENR dd fusion occurs in PdDx when a subset of the interstitial deuterons occupy tetrahedral sites in a PdDx crystallite. The tetrahedral deuterons(d's), which occupy shallow potential wells, behave as a superfluid, similar to ultracold Na atoms in shallow-well optical traps, as modeled by Jaksch et al.(D. Jaksch, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 3108 (1998).) The tetrahedral d's form a deuteron (d) subsystem, which is neutralized by an electron subsystem containing an equal number of electrons. In the superfluid all the properties of each quasiparticle d are partitioned among N_s_i_te equivalent sites. The partitioning of the d point charge reduces the Coulomb self-repulsion within each quasiparticle pair, which causes wave function overlap at large N_s_i_t_e, allowing d-d fusion. Similarly, partitioning of the point charge of each single quasiparticle d reduces the Coulomb repulsion between it and an obstructing impurity atom, which causes wave function overlap between quasiparticle and atom at large N_s_i_t_e, allowing transmutation of the impurity atom. The Iwamura reaction(Y. Iwamura, et al, Japan J. of Appl. Physics, 41A, 4642 (2002).) is 4 ^2D^+_B_l_o_ch + 4 e^-_B_l_o_ch + ^1^3^3Cs arrow ^1^4^1Pr, with the reaction energy incoherently transferred to the lattice.

  11. Description of a Prospective 17DD Yellow Fever Vaccine Cohort in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Andréa Barbosa; da Silva, Maria da Paz C.; Magalhães, Maria Cecília F.; Gonzales Gil, Laura Helena Vega; Freese de Carvalho, Eduardo M.; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M.; Bertani, Giovani Rota; Marques, Ernesto T. A.; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório

    2011-01-01

    From September 2005 to March 2007, 238 individuals being vaccinated for the first time with the yellow fever (YF) -17DD vaccine were enrolled in a cohort established in Recife, Brazil. A prospective study indicated that, after immunization, anti-YF immunoglobulin M (IgM) and anti-YF IgG were present in 70.6% (IgM) and 98.3% (IgG) of the vaccinated subjects. All vaccinees developed protective immunity, which was detected by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) with a geometric mean titer of 892. Of the 238 individuals, 86.6% had IgG antibodies to dengue virus; however, the presence of anti-dengue IgG did not interfere significantly with the development of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies. In a separate retrospective study of individuals immunized with the 17DD vaccine, the PRNT values at 5 and 10 years post-vaccination remained positive but showed a significant decrease in neutralization titer (25% with PRNT titers < 100 after 5 years and 35% after 10 years). PMID:21976581

  12. Nuclear Recoil Calibrations in the LUX Detector Using Direct and Backscattered D-D Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhyne, Casey; LUX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The LUX dark matter search experiment is a 350 kg two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. I will discuss the latest calibration of the nuclear recoil (NR) response in liquid xenon (LXe), performed in-situ in the LUX detector using mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons produced via the Adelphi Technologies, Inc. DD108 D-D neutron generator. The calibration measured the NR charge yield in LXe (Qy) to 0.7 keVnr recoil energy with an absolute determination of deposited energy and the NR light yield in LXe (Ly) to recoil energies of 1.1 keVnr, both of which improve upon all previous measurements. I will then focus in depth on the extension of this calibration using a new technique for generating a beam of sub-300 keV quasi-mono-energetic neutrons via the backscatter of 2.45 MeV neutrons off a deuterium-based reflector. Current simulations work optimizing the technique, its advantages, and its impact on future research will be discussed, including the extension of the NR Qy calibration down to 0.14 keVnr, an independent NR Ly calibration, and an a priori estimate of the expected 8B solar neutrino-nucleus coherent scattering signal in the upcoming LUX-ZEPLIN experiment.

  13. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa.

    PubMed

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry.

  14. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, G H; Duez, C; Lepage, S; Forceille, C; Rhazi, N; Klein, D; Ghuysen, J M; Frère, J M

    1997-01-01

    The role of various residues in the conserved structural elements of the Actinomadura R39 penicillin-sensitive dd-peptidase has been studied by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Ser-298 of the 'SDN loop' by Ala or Gly significantly decreased the kcat/Km value for the peptide substrate, but only by a factor of 15 and had little effect on the other catalytic properties. Mutations of Asn-300 of the same loop and of Lys-410 of the KTG triad yielded very unstable proteins. However, the N300S mutant could be purified as a fusion protein with thioredoxin that exhibited decreased rates of acylation by the peptide substrate and various cephalosporins. Similar fusion proteins obtained with the N300A, K410H and K410N mutants were unstable and their catalytic and penicillin-binding properties were very strongly affected. In transpeptidation reactions, the presence of the acceptor influenced the kcat/Km values, which suggested a catalytic pathway more complex than a simple partition of the acyl-enzyme between hydrolysis and aminolysis. These results are compared with those obtained with two other penicillin-sensitive enzymes, the Streptomyces R61 dd-peptidase and Escherichia coli penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 5. PMID:9359404

  15. TFTR D&D Project: Final Examination and Testing of the TFTR TF-Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Irving J. Zatz

    2003-01-31

    In operation for nearly 15 years, TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) was not only a fusion science milestone, but a milestone of achievement in engineering as well. The TFTR D&D (Decommissioning and Decontamination) program provided a rare opportunity to examine machine components that had been exposed to a unique performance environment of greater than 100,000 mechanical and thermal load cycles. In particular, the possible examination of the TFTR toroidal-field (TF) coils, which met, then exceeded, the 5.2 Tesla magnetic field machine specification, could supply the answers to many questions that have been asked and debated since the coils were originally designed and built. A test program conducted in parallel with the D&D effort was the chance to look inside and examine, in detail, the TFTR TF coils for the first time since they were delivered encased to PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory). The results from such a program would provide data and insight that would not only be nefit PPPL and the fusion community, but the broader scientific community as well.

  16. Phase 1 Study of Intravenous Oncolytic Poxvirus (vvDD) in Patients With Advanced Solid Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Downs-Canner, Stephanie; Guo, Zong Sheng; Ravindranathan, Roshni; Breitbach, Caroline J; O'Malley, Mark E; Jones, Heather L; Moon, Anne; McCart, Judith Andrea; Shuai, Yongli; Zeh, Herbert J; Bartlett, David L

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a phase 1 study of intravenous vvDD, a Western Reserve strain oncolytic vaccinia virus, on 11 patients with standard treatment-refractory advanced colorectal or other solid cancers. The primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose and associated toxicity while secondary endpoints were pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immune responses, and antitumor activity. No dose-limiting toxicities and treatment related severe adverse events were observed. The most common adverse events were grades 1/2 flu-like symptoms. Virus genomes were detectable in the blood 15–30 minutes after virus administration in a dose-dependent manner. There was evidence of a prolonged virus replication in tumor tissues in two patients, but no evidence of virus replication in non-tumor tissues, except a healed injury site and an oral thrush. Over 100-fold of anti-viral antibodies were induced in patients' sera. A strong induction of inflammatory and Th1, but not Th2 cytokines, suggested a potent Th1-mediated immunity against the virus and possibly the cancer. One patient showed a mixed response on PET-CT with resolution of some liver metastases, and another patient with cutaneous melanoma demonstrated clinical regression of some lesions. Given the confirmed safety, further trials evaluating intravenous vvDD in combination with therapeutic transgenes, immune checkpoint blockade or complement inhibitors, are warranted. PMID:27203445

  17. DDG4 A Simulation Framework based on the DD4hep Detector Description Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaede, F.; Nikiforou, N.; Petric, M.; Sailer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The detector description is an essential component that has to be used to analyse and simulate data resulting from particle collisions in high energy physics experiments. Based on the DD4hep detector description toolkit a flexible and data driven simulation framework was designed using the Geant4 tool-kit. We present this framework and describe the guiding requirements and the architectural design, which was strongly driven by ease of use. The goal was, given an existing detector description, to simulate the detector response to particle collisions in high energy physics experiments with minimal effort, but not impose restrictions to support enhanced or improved behaviour. Starting from the ROOT based geometry implementation used by DD4hep an automatic conversion mechanism to Geant4 was developed. The physics response and the mechanism to input particle data from generators was highly formalized and can be instantiated on demand using known factory patterns. A palette of components to model the detector response is provided by default, but improved or more sophisticated components may easily be added using the factory pattern. Only the final configuration of the instantiated components has to be provided by end-users using either C++ or python scripting or an XML based description.

  18. Statistical Analyses of d18O in Meteoric Waters From the Western US and East Asia: Implications for Paleoaltimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechler, A. R.; Niemi, N. A.

    2008-12-01

    Questions on the timing of Tibetan Plateau uplift and its associated influence on the development of the Indian and Asian monsoons are best addressed through accurate determinations of regional paleoelevation. Previous determinations of paleoaltimetry utilized the stable isotopic composition of paleo-meteoric waters as recorded in various proxies (authigenic minerals, fossils, etc.), in combination with empirically and model determined elevation isotopic lapse rates. However, the applicability of these lapse rates, derived principally from orogenic settings, to high continental plateaus remains uncertain. Our research aims to gain a better understanding of the potential controls on the δ18O composition of meteoric waters over continental plateaus through a principal component analysis (PCA) of modern waters from eastern Asia and the western US. In particular, we investigate how various environmental parameters (elevation, latitude, longitude, MAP, and MAT) influence the δ18O composition of these waters. First, these analyses reveal that elevation and latitude are the primary controls on isotopic composition in all regions investigated, as expected. Second, PCA results yield elevation lapse rates from orogenic settings (i.e. Sierra Nevada, Himalaya) of ~ -3‰/km, in strong agreement with both empirical and Rayleigh distillation model derived lapse rates. The Great Plains of the US, although not an orogenic setting, represents a monotonic topographic rise, and is also characterized by a ~ -3‰/km lapse rate. In high, arid plateau regions (Basin and Range, Tibet), however, elevation lapse rates are ~ -1.5‰/km, half that of orogenic settings. An empirically derived lapse rate from small source area springs collected over a 2 km elevation change from a single mountain range in the Basin and Range yields an identical rate. One clue as to the source of this lowered lapse rate is eastern China, which also displays an elevation lapse rate of ~ -1.5‰/km, despite being a relatively low elevation, humid region. All three regions of lowered lapse rates are dominated by convective storms, which violate basic assumptions of simple Rayleigh distillation. The similarity of lapse rates between these regions suggests that convective storm systems may result in a predictable change in elevation lapse rates. Third, the effect of latitude changes on isotopic composition should be considered in major orogenic systems. In the western US, best-fit linear models reveal latitude lapse rates of ~ -0.5‰/°N, thus significant northward or southward tectonic translations may be misinterpreted as elevation changes. The mixing of multiple moisture sources over eastern Asia appears to result in a polynomial function for latitude lapse rate. The determination of the effects of this latitude lapse rate on paleoelevation histories is ongoing. Finally, comparison of PCA models of modern isotopic composition with actual meteoric water values offers an opportunity to assess the accuracy of paleoelevation estimates. Predictive capabilites of our derived models are significantly better in orogenic settings (± ~950m 2σ) than over continental plateaus (± ~1950m 2σ). These statistical models enhance our understanding, and the predictive capability, of stable isotopes over high, arid plateaus. In particular, they point to the controlling effect of convective storms on elevation lapse rates, and thus the potential effect of the growth of the Tibetan Plateau, and onset of monsoonal climate conditions, in driving time-dependent elevation isotopic lapse rates.

  19. Pathways for nitrate release from an alpine watershed: determination using d15N and d18O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Donald H.; Kendall, Carol; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Silva, Steven R.; Tonnessen, Kathy A.

    2002-01-01

    [1] Snowpack, snowmelt, precipitation, surface water, and groundwater samples from the Loch Vale watershed in Colorado were analyzed for ??15N and ??18O of nitrate to determine the processes controlling the release of atmospherically deposited nitrogen from alpine and subalpine ecosystems. Although overlap was found between the ??15N(NO3) values for all water types (-4 to +6???), the ??18O(NO3) values for surface water and groundwater (+10 to +30???) were usually distinct from snowpack, snowmelt, and rainfall values (+40 to +70???). During snowmelt, ??18O(NO3) indicated that about half of the nitrate in stream water was the product of microbial nitrification; at other times that amount was greater than half. Springs emerging from talus deposits had high nitrate concentrations and a seasonal pattern in ??18O(NO3) that was similar to the pattern in the streams, indicating that shallow groundwater in talus deposits is a likely source of stream water nitrate. Only a few samples of surface water and groundwater collected during early snowmelt and large summer rain events had isotopic compositions that indicated most of the nitrate came directly from atmospheric deposition with no biological assimilation and release. This study demonstrates the value of the nitrate double-isotope technique for determining nitrogen-cycling processes and sources of nitrate in small, undisturbed watersheds that are enriched with inorganic nitrogen.

  20. Eocene high-latitude temperature gradients over time and space based on d18O values of fossil shark teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeichner, S. S.; Kim, S.; Colman, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Early-Mid Eocene (56.0-33.9Mya) is characterized by a temperate Antarctic climate and shallower latitudinal temperature gradients than those in present day. The warmer waters off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula provided suitable habitats for taxa (i.e., sharks) that live today at lower latitudes. Stable isotope analysis of Eocene shark teeth provides a proxy to understand high latitude temperature gradients. However, shark ecology, in particular migration and occupation of tidal versus pelagic habitats, must be considered in the interpretation of stable isotope data. In this study, we analyze d18OPO4 values from the enameloid of Striatolamia (synonymized with Carcharias) shark teeth from the La Meseta formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica) to estimate paleotemperature in Early-Mid Eocene Antarctica, and assess the impact of ecology versus environmental signals on d18OPO4 values. We compare the ranges and offsets between our measured shark tooth d18OPO4 and published bivalve d18OCO3 values to test whether shark teeth record signals of migration across latitudinal temperature gradients, or instead reflect seasonal and long-term temporal variation across La Meseta stratigraphic units.

  1. The chronology for the d18O record from Devils Hole, Nevada, extended into the Mid-Holocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landwehr, J.M.; Sharp, W.D.; Coplen, T.B.; Ludwig, K. R.; Winograd, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the numeric values for the chronology of the paleoclimatically relevant mid-to-late Pleistocene record of the ratios of stable oxygen isotope (delta18O) in vein calcite from Devils Hole, Nev., which recently had been extended into the mid-Holocene. Dating was obtained using 230Th-234U-238U thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Devils Hole is a subaqueous cave of tectonic origin, which developed in the discharge zone of a regional aquifer in south-central Nevada. The primary groundwater recharge source area is the Spring Mountains, the highest mountain range in southern Nevada [altitude 3,630 meters (m)], approximately 80 kilometers to the east of the cavern. The walls of the open fault zone comprising the cave system are coated with dense vein calcite precipitated from the through-flowing groundwater. The calcite, up to 40 centimeters (cm) thick, contains a continuous record of the sequential variation of the composition of stable oxygen isotopes in the ground water over time. The vein calcite has also proven to be a suitable material for precise uranium-series dating via thermal ionization mass spectrometry utilizing the 230Th-234U-238U decay clock. Earlier work has presented data from the Devils Hole core DH-11, a 36-cm-long core of vein calcite recovered from a depth of about 30 m below the water table (about 45 m beneath the ground surface). The DH-11 core provided a continuous record of isotopic oxygen variation from 567,700 to 59,800 years before present. Recent work has extended this record up to 4,500 years before present, into the mid-Holocene epoch.

  2. Decade-Scale Trend in Sea Water Salinity Revealed through d18O Analysis of Montastraea Annularis Annual Growth Bands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Swart, Peter K.; Dodge, Richard E.; Hudson, J. Harold

    1994-01-01

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (18O) of coral skeletons are influenced by ambient water temperature and by the oxygen isotope ratio in the surrounding sea water, which, in turn, is linked to evaporation (salinity) and precipitation. To investigate this relationship more thoroughly, we collected hourly temperature data from the Hen and Chickens Reef in the Florida Keys between 1975 and 1988 and compared them to the 18O of Montastraea annularis skeleton that grew during the same interval. To ensure that we obtained the correct oxygen isotopic range in the skeleton we typically sampled the coral at a resolution of 20-30 samples in 1 year; in 1 year we sampled the coral at a resolution of 70 samples x year-1. Despite our high-resolution sampling, we were unable to obtain the full temperature-induced 18O range in the skeleton. Our data suggest that, during the summer, evaporation causes isotopic enrichment in the water, partially masking the temperature-induced signal. Our data also show that oxygen isotopic composition of seawater at the reef has increased since 1981. This increase indicates that salinity has increased slightly during the past decade, perhaps as a result of increased evaporation in waters of Florida Bay and the Keys. This phenomenon is probably not caused by a decrease in the outflow of freshwater into Florida Bay from the Everglades but may be related to the measured deficit in precipitation that has occurred over the past decade.

  3. A coupled D/18O approach to reconstruct the paleohumidity during the Younger Dryas in the Eifel, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wüthrich, Lorenz; Hepp, Johannes; Bromm, Tobias; Kathrin Schäfer, Imke; Zech, Jana; Sirocko, Frank; Zech, Michael; Zech, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Leaf waxes, such as long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids, and their D/H isotopic composition, are increasingly used in lake, marine and eolian sediments to reconstruct past changes in vegetation, as well as the isotopic composition of precipitation. However, evaporative enrichment of leaf water might compromise such reconstructions, and it remains difficult to quantitatively reconstruct past climate changes. For the present study, we have analyzed samples from the Gemündener Maar, a lake situated in the western Eifel, Germany, for their isotopic composition of n-alkanes (D) and sugars (18O). Combination of both isotopes allows calculating not only the isotopic composition of paleo-precipitation, but also relative humidity (rh), based on reconstructed d-excess of leaf water. Our results suggest that the Younger Dryas was not particularly dry compared to the Alleröd. The onset of the Holocene, on the other hand, seems to have been very dry, except for one humid spell. Only with the transition Preboreal/Boreal, rh increased again.

  4. Dideoxy nucleoside triphosphate (ddNTP) analogues: Synthesis and polymerase substrate activities of pyrrolidinyl nucleoside triphosphates (prNTPs).

    PubMed

    Gade, Chandrasekhar Reddy; Dixit, Manjusha; Sharma, Nagendra K

    2016-09-15

    The dideoxynucleoside triphosphates (ddNTPs) terminate the bio-polymerization of DNA and become essential chemical component of DNA sequencing technology which is now basic tool for molecular biology research. In this method the radiolabeled or fluorescent dye labeled ddNTP analogues are being used for DNA sequencing by detection of the terminated DNA fragment after single labeled ddNTP incorporation into DNA under PCR conditions. This report describes the syntheses of rationally designed novel amino-functionalized ddNTP analogue such as Pyrrolidine nucleoside triphosphates (prNTPs), and their polymerase activities with DNA polymerase by LC-MS and Gel-electrophoretic techniques. The Mass and PAGE analyses strongly support the incorporation of prNTPs into DNA oligonucleotide with Therminator DNA polymerase as like control substrate ddNTP. As resultant the DNA oligonucleotide are functionalized as amine group by prNTP incorporation with polymerase. Hence prNTPs provide opportunities to prepare demandable conjugated DNA with other biomolecules/dyes/fluorescence molecule without modifying nucleobase structure. PMID:27377861

  5. Possible measurements of the spin one observables in elastic dN, dd collisions at the NICA deuteron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharov, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    The report shows the possibilities of studying the spin one observables in the elastic dN and dd interactions at the NICA collider of the VBLHEP JINR. The use of the colliding deuteron beams would allow us to carry out the measurements of the differential cross sections I0(dN, dd) of the elastic scattering of unpolarized deuterons and the differential cross sections Ipol(dN,dd) and the vector Ay(Ed,θ) and tensor Ayy(Ed,θ) and Axx(Ed.θ) analyzing powers in elastic collisions of the vector and tensor polarized deuterons. The planned luminosity of the colliding polarized deuteron beams will provide sufficiently high elastic events counting rate. The use of the colliding beams of the polarized deuterons for the spin one >dN and dd observables research has a number of significant advantages in comparison with the experiments with the “fixed” target. The angular acceptance of the collider detector covers the full solid angle 4π radians while the wide ranges of the energies of the dN, dd interactions and the 4-momentum transfer squared are available.

  6. Limited replication of yellow fever 17DD and 17D-Dengue recombinant viruses in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Gisela F; Marchevsky, Renato S; Fillipis, Ana M B de; Nogueira, Rita M R; Bonaldo, Myrna C; Acero, Pedro C; Caride, Elena; Freire, Marcos S; Galler, Ricardo

    2008-06-01

    For the development of safe live attenuated flavivirus vaccines one of the main properties to be established is viral replication. We have used real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and virus titration by plaque assay to determine the replication of yellow fever 17DD virus (YFV 17DD) and recombinant yellow fever 17D viruses expressing envelope proteins of dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 (17D-DENV-2 and 17D-DENV-4). Serum samples from rhesus monkeys inoculated with YFV 17DD and 17D-DENV chimeras by intracerebral or subcutaneous route were used to determine and compare the viremia induced by these viruses. Viral load quantification in samples from monkeys inoculated by either route with YFV 17DD virus suggested a restricted capability of the virus to replicate reaching not more than 2.0 log10 PFU mL(-1) or 3.29 log10 copies mL(-1). Recombinant 17D-dengue viruses were shown by plaquing and real-time PCR to be as attenuated as YF 17DD virus with the highest mean peak titer of 1.97 log10 PFU mL(-1) or 3.53 log10 copies mL(-1). These data serve as a comparative basis for the characterization of other 17D-based live attenuated candidate vaccines against other diseases.

  7. Multi-substrate biodegradation interaction of 1, 4-dioxane and BTEX mixtures by Acinetobacter baumannii DD1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, YuYang; Huang, Huanlin; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated substrate interactions during the aerobic biodegradation of 1, 4-dioxane and BTEX mixtures by a pure culture, Acinetobacter baumannii DD1, which is capable of utilizing 1, 4-dioxane for growth. A. baumannii DD1 could utilize BTEX as a sole carbon source, but could not utilize m-xylene and p-xylene. In binary mixtures, there was a lag of about 14 h before the degradation of BTE, and 1, 4-dioxane only started to be utilized when BTE was completely degraded by 1, 4-dioxane-grown DD1. Furthermore, the biodegradation rate of 1, 4-dioxane decreased from 73.33 to 40.74 mg/(h g dry weight) after the biodegradation of benzene. 1, 4-dioxane could not be degraded after the biodegradation of o-xylene in 80 h. DD1 could also not degrade m-xylene and p-xylene coexisting with 1, 4-dioxane. The ability of DD1 to degrade BTEX occurred in the following order: benzene > ethylbenzene > toluene > o-xylene > m-xylene = p-xylene. The biodegradation of 1, 4-dioxane was not activated in the mixture with o-xylene, primarily because of the accumulation of the specific toxic intermediate, 2, 3-dimethylphenol. The lag in BTE degradation was presumably because of the induction of enzymes necessary for BTE degradation. Additionally, SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that there were different proteins during the degradation of benzene and 1, 4-dioxane.

  8. Myth and Reality in Hydrogeological Site Characterization at DD and R Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2008-01-15

    The science of hydrogeological site characterization has made significant progress over the last twenty years. Progress has been made in modeling of flow and transport in the heterogeneous subsurface, in understanding of the complex patterns of geological heterogeneity and in measurement technologies. Modeling of uncertainty has also advanced significantly, in recognition of the inherent limitations of subsurface characterization. Much less progress has been made in transforming this progress into practice, where characterization is determined to a large extent by regulations. Environmental regulations have not progressed as much as the science, for example, in recognizing uncertainty. As such, practitioners are less inclined to adopt advanced, science-based solutions, this opening the door for myths and conflicts. Myths develop where the science base is perceived to be weak, whereas conflicts arise in the face of a disconnect between the science and the regulations. Myths translate to ad-hoc solutions and misplaced empiricism, as well as to unjustified reliance on field experience, to the detriment of D and DR. This paper explores the roots for this situation and identifies ideas that may help in bridging the gap between research and applications. A rational approach for DD and R is needed that will encourage innovation in site characterization, reduce costs and accelerate completion. Such an approach needs to include several elements. DD and R regulations need to recognize the various aspects of uncertainty inherent to site characterization, and as such, should be formulated using probabilistic concepts. One of the immediate benefits will be in allowing a gradual approach for data acquisition in DD and R sites: decisions can be made even under the most severe data limitations, and can be modified as additional data become available. The definition of risk is another major element. There is no universal definition of risk or of a methodology to define risk

  9. Evidence that the Dictyostelium Dd-STATa protein is a repressor that regulates commitment to stalk cell differentiation and is also required for efficient chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, S; Jermyn, K A; Early, A; Kawata, T; Aubry, L; Ceccarelli, A; Schaap, P; Williams, J G; Firtel, R A

    1999-08-01

    Dd-STATa is a structural and functional homologue of the metazoan STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) proteins. We show that Dd-STATa null cells exhibit several distinct developmental phenotypes. The aggregation of Dd-STATa null cells is delayed and they chemotax slowly to a cyclic AMP source, suggesting a role for Dd-STATa in these early processes. In Dd-STATa null strains, slug-like structures are formed but they have an aberrant pattern of gene expression. In such slugs, ecmB/lacZ, a marker that is normally specific for cells on the stalk cell differentiation pathway, is expressed throughout the prestalk region. Stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium has been proposed to be under negative control, mediated by repressor elements present in the promoters of stalk cell-specific genes. Dd-STATa binds these repressor elements in vitro and the ectopic expression of ecmB/lacZ in the null strain provides in vivo evidence that Dd-STATa is the repressor protein that regulates commitment to stalk cell differentiation. Dd-STATa null cells display aberrant behavior in a monolayer assay wherein stalk cell differentiation is induced using the stalk cell morphogen DIF. The ecmB gene, a general marker for stalk cell differentiation, is greatly overinduced by DIF in Dd-STATa null cells. Also, Dd-STATa null cells are hypersensitive to DIF for expression of ST/lacZ, a marker for the earliest stages in the differentiation of one of the stalk cell sub-types. We suggest that both these manifestations of DIF hypersensitivity in the null strain result from the balance between activation and repression of the promoter elements being tipped in favor of activation when the repressor is absent. Paradoxically, although Dd-STATa null cells are hypersensitive to the inducing effects of DIF and readily form stalk cells in monolayer assay, the Dd-STATa null cells show little or no terminal stalk cell differentiation within the slug. Dd-STATa null slugs remain

  10. Incorporating TRMM and Other High-Quality Estimates into the One-Degree Daily (1DD) Global Precipitation Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.

    1999-01-01

    The One-Degree Daily (1DD) precipitation dataset was recently developed for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). The IDD provides a globally-complete, observation-only estimate of precipitation on a daily 1 deg x 1 deg grid for the period 1997 through late 1999 (by the time of the conference). In the latitude band 40 N - 40 S the IDD uses the Threshold-Matched Precipitation Index (TMPI), a GPI-like IR product with the T(sub b) threshold and (single) conditional rain rate determined locally for each month by the frequency of precipitation in the GPROF SSNU product and by the precipitation amount in the GPCP satellite-gauge (SG) combination. Outside 40 N - 40 S the 1DD uses a scaled TOVS precipitation estimate that has adjustments based on the TMPI and the SG. This first-generation 1DD has been in beta test preparatory to release as an official GPCP product. In this paper we discuss further development of the 1DD framework to allow the direct incorporation of TRMM and other high-quality precipitation estimates. First, these data are generally sparse (typically from low-orbit satellites), so a fair amount of work was devoted to data boundaries. Second, these data are not the same as the original 1DD estimates, so we had to give careful consideration to the best scheme for forcing the 1DD to sum to the SG for the month. Finally, the non-sun-synchronous, low-inclination orbit occupied by TRMM creates interesting variations against the sun-synchronous, high-inclination orbits occupied by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites that carry the SSM/I. Examples will be given of each of the development issues, then comparisons will be made to daily raingauge analyses.

  11. A molecular hybrid of the H-2Dd and H-2Ld genes expressed in the dm1 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, S S; Hunt, P; Ozato, K; Sears, D W

    1984-01-01

    Sequential immunoprecipitates show that H-2dm1 mutant cells express a hybrid "H-2D/L" antigen exhibiting determinants normally associated with two different gene products of the parental d haplotype-i.e., the H-2Dd and H-2Ld antigens. The hybrid H-2D/Ldm1 antigen appears to consist of a portion of the NH2-terminal extracellular half of the H-2Dd antigen "fused" to a portion of the COOH-terminal extracellular half of the H-2Ld antigen. This structure is inferred from the reactivity of dm1 antigens with cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for H-2Ld determinants and with monoclonal antibodies specific for determinants in the structural domains of H-2Ld or H-2Dd. The H-2D/Ldm1 molecule apparently retains all of the third external domain (C2 or alpha 3) and part of the second external domain (C1 or alpha 2) of H-2Ld, but its first external domain (N or alpha 1) derives from H-2Dd. From these findings and from previous peptide mapping studies, we propose that the H-2D/Ldm1 antigen is the product of a hybrid gene that has resulted from an unequal crossover between the parental H-2Dd and H-2Ld genes, leaving the N exon and part of the C1 exon of the H-2Dd gene joined to the H-2Ld gene beginning somewhere within its C1 exon. PMID:6206494

  12. Dynamical study of the X(3915) as a D*D* bound state in a quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Youchang; Ping Jialun

    2010-06-01

    Considering the coupling of color 1 x 1 and 8 x 8 structures, we calculate the energy of the newly observed X(3915) as an S-wave D*D* state in the Bhaduri, Cohler, and Nogami quark model by the Gaussian expansion method. Because of the color coupling, the bound state of D*D* with J{sup PC}=0{sup ++} is found, which is well consonant with the experimental data of the X(3915). The bound states of B*B* with J{sup PC}=0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} are also predicted in this work.

  13. DD3MAT - a code for yield criteria anisotropy parameters identification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, P. D.; Carvalho, P. D.; Alves, J. L.; Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the main strategies and algorithms adopted in the DD3MAT inhouse code, specifically developed for identifying the anisotropy parameters. The algorithm adopted is based on the minimization of an error function, using a downhill simplex method. The set of experimental values can consider yield stresses and r -values obtained from in-plane tension, for different angles with the rolling direction (RD), yield stress and r -value obtained for biaxial stress state, and yield stresses from shear tests performed also for different angles to RD. All these values can be defined for a specific value of plastic work. Moreover, it can also include the yield stresses obtained from in-plane compression tests. The anisotropy parameters are identified for an AA2090-T3 aluminium alloy, highlighting the importance of the user intervention to improve the numerical fit.

  14. Preliminary measurements of neutrons from the D-D reaction in the COMPASS tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Dankowski, J. Kurowski, A.; Twarog, D.; Janky, F.; Stockel, J.

    2014-08-21

    Recent results of measured fast neutrons created in the D-D reaction on the COMPASS tokamak during ohmic discharges are presented in this paper. Two different type detectors were used during experiment. He-3 detectors and bubble detectors as a support. The measurements are an introduction for neutron diagnostic on tokamak COMPASS and monitoring neutrons during discharges with Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The He-3 counters and bubble detectors were located in two positions near tokamak vacuum chamber at a distance less than 40 cm to the centre of plasma. The neutrons flux was observed in ohmic discharges. However, analysis of our results does not indicate any clear source of neutrons production during ohmic discharges.

  15. Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.

    1993-02-01

    A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by {approximately} 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90{degrees} below the midplane for plasma currents. I{ge} 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found.

  16. Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.

    1993-02-01

    A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by [approximately] 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90[degrees] below the midplane for plasma currents. I[ge] 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found.

  17. PAPR reduction based on chaos combined with SLM technique in optical OFDM IM/DD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yaoqiang; Chen, Ming; Li, Fan; Tang, Jin; Liu, Yi; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to decrease the PAPR of 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16QAM) orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal. The method is to combine chaos with selected mapping (CSLM) technique so that the chaotic sequences are able to control generation of phase rotation factors. The research has utilized this method to transmit OFDM signal along 100 km long single-mode fiber in an IM/DD system to test OFDM signal performance. Our experimental results show that the receiver sensitivity is improved by about 1.4 dB when a 3.28 GB/s OFDM signal at a bit error rate of 1 × 10-3 is launched by transmission power at 2, 6, 8 and 10 dBm, respectively. Moreover, comparison with traditional SLM technique, the CSLM technique can improve the BER of the system.

  18. Inhibitory effect of CuSO₄ on α-glucosidase activity in ddY mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Hirata, Ryoko; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Masakazu; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of divalent alkaline earth and first-row transition metal and zinc ions on α-glucosidase activity in vitro and in vivo. CuSO₄ and ZnSO₄ exhibited a high α-glucosidase inhibitory effect in vitro. The IC(50) values of CuSO₄ were 0.77 ± 0.01 (substrate; maltose) and 0.78 ± 0.01 (substrate; sucrose), and those of ZnSO₄ were 5.49 ± 0.14 (substrate; maltose) and 4.70 ± 0.06 (substrate; sucrose) for yeast α-glucosidase. On the basis of Lineweaver-Burk plots, both CuSO₄ and ZnSO₄ exhibited different modes of inhibition against α-glucosidase. Subsequently, oral glucose and sucrose tolerance tests (OGTT and OSTT) were performed on non-diabetic ddY mice to examine the effect of the metal ions on their blood glucose levels. As a result of single oral administration of CuSO₄ in non-diabetic ddY mice, a significant and potent lowering of the blood glycemic response toward disaccharide, sucrose, ingestion was observed at 45 min after doses of 0.08 and 0.24 mmol kg(-1) body weight. In contrast, the CuSO₄ administration showed no suppression of the elevation of blood glucose levels in mice after a monosaccharide, glucose, administration. These results indicate that CuSO₄ suppresses disaccharide digestion by inhibiting α-glucosidase activity in the epithelium of the small intestine, suggesting that antidiabetic Cu complexes with some ligands have a similar action mechanism to that of α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, currently used for clinical purposes. PMID:21072376

  19. Sourcing explosives: a multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Widory, David; Minet, Jean-Jacques; Barbe-Leborgne, Martine

    2009-06-01

    Although explosives are easily identified with current instrumental techniques, it is generally impossible to distinguish between sources of the same substance. To alleviate this difficulty, we present a multi-stable isotope (delta13C, delta15N, delta18O, deltaD) approach for appraising the possibility of discriminating explosives. The results from 30 distinct PETN, TNT and ANFO samples show that the different families of explosives are clearly differentiated by both their specific isotope signatures and their combination with corresponding element concentrations. Coupling two or more of the studied isotope systematics yields an even more precise differentiation on the basis of their raw-material origin and/or manufacturing process.

  20. A multi-isotope (radium, boron,strontium, sulfur, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen) investigation of fossil groundwater from the Disi Aquifer in southern Jordan: tracing water sources, water-rock interactions, and residence time (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.; Rimawi, O.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Marie, A.; Ganor, J.

    2010-12-01

    The rise in population, consecutive droughts induced from climate change, and associated increased water demands in the Middle East have placed an increasing pressure on available water resources, which in turn has accelerated the rates of their depletion and contamination. In addition to desalination and recycling waste water, exploitation of non-renewable (“fossil”) groundwater has become an alternative water source. Most of the fossil groundwater in the Middle East and Northern Africa occupies confined sandstone aquifers and is typically characterized by high water quality. Recent findings have shown, however, that fossil groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone aquifers in southern Jordan and Israel has high levels of naturally occurring and carcinogenic radium isotopes that largely exceed the international drinking water standards, and poses a health risk upon long-term utilization. Here we present the results of a multi-isotope study of low-saline (TDS=250-450 mg/L) groundwater from the Cambro-Ordovician Disi-Mudawarra sandstone aquifer systems in southern Jordan. The δ18O, δ2H, and 14C variations show at least three recharge phases into the confined and unconfined zones of the aquifer. High δ11B values (34-47‰) and B/Cl ratios (>>seawater ratio) suggests that the recharge water originated from rainwater of an early stage of air mass evolution, with negligible water-rock interaction in the aquifer. This meteoric composition is consistent with 87Sr/86Sr (70804 to 0.70860) and δ34S (9-16‰) values, and infers minimum dissolution of diagenetic carbonates that could have contributed depleted 11B, high 87Sr/86Sr, and dead carbon. The uncorrected 14C ages point to three major recharge episodes to the northwestern Arabian Peninsula: (1) >30 ka (Khrein aquifer); (2) 15-29 ka (confined Disi aquifer); and (3) 8-12 ka (unconfined Disi aquifer), in which the latter coincide with the “pluvial maximum” of Early Holocene. The stable isotope composition of the

  1. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Han, W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hahn, K. D.; Jones, B.

    2016-11-01

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protons at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. These results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.

  2. On the substrate specificity of bacterial DD-peptidases: evidence from two series of peptidoglycan-mimetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John W; Adediran, Suara A; Charlier, Paulette; Nguyen-Distèche, Martine; Frère, Jean-Marie; Nicholas, Robert A; Pratt, Rex F

    2003-01-01

    The reactions between bacterial DD-peptidases and beta-lactam antibiotics have been studied for many years. Less well understood are the interactions between these enzymes and their natural substrates, presumably the peptide moieties of peptidoglycan. In general, remarkably little activity has previously been demonstrated in vitro against potential peptide substrates, although in many cases the peptides employed were non-specific and not homologous with the relevant peptidoglycan. In this paper, the specificity of a panel of DD-peptidases against elements of species-specific D-alanyl-D-alanine peptides has been assessed. In two cases, those of soluble, low-molecular-mass DD-peptidases, high activity against the relevant peptides has been demonstrated. In these cases, the high specificity is towards the free N-terminus of the peptidoglycan fragment. With a number of other enzymes, particularly high-molecular-mass DD-peptidases, little or no activity against these peptides was observed. In separate experiments, the reactivity of the enzymes against the central, largely invariant, peptide stem was examined. None of the enzymes surveyed showed high activity against this structural element although weak specificity in the expected direction towards the one structural variable (D-gammaGln versus D-gammaGlu) was observed. The current state of understanding of the activity of these enzymes in vitro is discussed. PMID:12723972

  3. Application of the coincidence counting technique to DD neutron spectrometry data at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z

    DOE PAGES

    Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Han, W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hahn, K. D.; Jones, B.

    2016-07-20

    A compact neutron spectrometer, based on a CH foil for the production of recoil protons and CR-39 detection, is being developed for the measurements of the DD-neutron spectrum at the NIF, OMEGA, and Z facilities. As a CR-39 detector will be used in the spectrometer, the principal sources of background are neutron-induced tracks and intrinsic tracks (defects in the CR-39). To reject the background to the required level for measurements of the down-scattered and primary DD-neutron components in the spectrum, the Coincidence Counting Technique (CCT) must be applied to the data. Using a piece of CR-39 exposed to 2.5-MeV protonsmore » at the MIT HEDP accelerator facility and DD-neutrons at Z, a significant improvement of a DD-neutron signal-to-background level has been demonstrated for the first time using the CCT. In conclusion, these results are in excellent agreement with previous work applied to DT neutrons.« less

  4. 32 CFR 169a.8 - Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)). 169a.8 Section 169a.8 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.8 Inventory and review schedule (Report Control...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 286 - DD Form 2086-1, “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Data”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DD Form 2086-1, âRecord of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Dataâ D Appendix D to Part 286 National Defense Department of... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 286, App. D Appendix D to Part 286—DD Form...

  6. 32 CFR 1630.13 - Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military training. In Class 1-D-D... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 1-D-D: Deferment for certain members of a reserve component or student taking military training. 1630.13 Section 1630.13 National Defense...

  7. A putative low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding protein (PBP) of Mycobacterium smegmatis exhibits prominent physiological characteristics of DD-carboxypeptidase and beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankita; Kar, Debasish; Murugan, Rajagopal A; Mallick, Sathi; Dutta, Mouparna; Pandey, Satya Deo; Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2015-05-01

    DD-carboxypeptidases (DD-CPases) are low-molecular-mass (LMM) penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that are mainly involved in peptidoglycan remodelling, but little is known about the dd-CPases of mycobacteria. In this study, a putative DD-CPase of Mycobacterium smegmatis, MSMEG_2433 is characterized. The gene for the membrane-bound form of MSMEG_2433 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in its active form, as revealed by its ability to bind to the Bocillin-FL (fluorescent penicillin). Interestingly, in vivo expression of MSMEG_2433 could restore the cell shape oddities of the septuple PBP mutant of E. coli, which was a prominent physiological characteristic of DD-CPases. Moreover, expression of MSMEG_2433 in trans elevated beta-lactam resistance in PBP deletion mutants (ΔdacAdacC) of E. coli, strengthening its physiology as a dd-CPase. To confirm the biochemical reason behind such physiological behaviours, a soluble form of MSMEG_2433 (sMSMEG_2433) was created, expressed and purified. In agreement with the observed physiological phenomena, sMSMEG_2433 exhibited DD-CPase activity against artificial and peptidoglycan-mimetic DD-CPase substrates. To our surprise, enzymic analyses of MSMEG_2433 revealed efficient deacylation for beta-lactam substrates at physiological pH, which is a unique characteristic of beta-lactamases. In addition to the MSMEG_2433 active site that favours dd-CPase activity, in silico analyses also predicted the presence of an omega-loop-like region in MSMEG_2433, which is an important determinant of its beta-lactamase activity. Based on the in vitro, in vivo and in silico studies, we conclude that MSMEG_2433 is a dual enzyme, possessing both DD-CPase and beta-lactamase activities.

  8. Identification and quantification of ice nucleation active microorganisms by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Martin; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Several bioaerosol types, including bacteria, fungi, pollen and lichen, have been identified as sources of biological ice nucleators (IN) which induce ice formation already at temperatures as high as -10 °C or above. Accordingly, they potentially contribute widely to environmental ice nucleation in the atmosphere and are of great interest in the study of natural heterogenous ice nucleation processes. Ice nucleation active microorganisms have been found and studied among bacteria (Proteobacteria) and fungi (phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota). The mechanisms enabling the microorganisms to ice nucleation are subject to ongoing research. While it has been demonstrated that whole cells can act as ice nucleators in the case of bacteria due to the presence of specific membrane proteins, cell-free ice nucleation active particles seem to be responsible for this phenomenon in fungi and lichen. The identification and quantification of these ice nucleation active microorganisms and their IN in atmospheric samples is crucial to understand their contribution to the pool of atmospheric IN. This is not a trivial task since the respective microorganisms are often prevalent in lowest concentrations and a variety of states, be it viable cells, spores or cell debris from dead cells. Molecular biology provides tools to identify and quantify ice nucleation active microorganisms independent of their state by detecting genetic markers specific for the organism of interest. Those methods are not without their drawbacks in terms of sample material concentration required or reliable standardization. Digital Droplet Polymerase Chain Reaction (ddPCR) was chosen for our demands as a more elegant, quick and specific method in the investigation of ice nucleation active microorganisms in atmospheric samples. The advantages of ddPCR lie in the simultaneous detection and quantification of genetic markers and their original copy numbers in a sample. This is facilitated by the fractionation of the

  9. The Effect of Post-heat Treatment on the Microstructures of Single Crystal DD6 Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongfan; Gao, Hangshan; Wen, Zhixun; Li, Zhenwei; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-09-01

    Various thermal cycles at the end of solution heat treatment and their influences on microstructure of single crystal superalloy DD6 were studied by experiments. During various thermal cycles, the qualitative and quantitative microstructure of samples quenched of the transformations is microscopically characterized. This completely includes the large changes in volume fraction, size distribution and morphology of gamma prime precipitate experienced in the upper temperature transformation. Noticeable deviation from the equilibrium volume fraction of γ' phase is detected in both the dissolution and precipitation processes above 1,120°C for both moderate cooling and heating rate; differences were mainly attributed to the unsteady nature of the turbulent flow. The growth and alignment of the γ' precipitates are deeply influenced by several factors, e.g. ageing time, cooling rate and quenching temperature. In addition, interesting findings such as "labyrinth" and "cluster" morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope. During precipitation processes, the complicated microstructure evolution is illustrated by considering the consecutive equilibrium shapes of a coherent precipitate, which grows under the interaction with its neighbors and the coherency of the precipitates improves their potential to resist dissolution.

  10. Improving Computational Performance through HPC Techniques: case study using DD3IMP in-house code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, L. F.; Neto, D. M.; Oliveira, M. C.; Alves, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    The computational efficiency of the FEA is strongly dependent on the algorithmic and numerical efficiency of the FE solver. This is particularly important in case of implicit FE codes, such as DD3IMP, the in-house static implicit FE solver under analysis in this work. This study describes the procedure adopted to identify the main computational bottlenecks of the FE solver in order to introduce the OpenMP directives and, consequently, to achieve a major speedup of the whole algorithm. The different parallelized branches of the code are tested using the well-known square cup deep drawing example, considering different FE discretizations. The analysis of the preliminary results, concerning the CPU wall time, allows to demonstrate that the adoption of HPC techniques, such as the abovementioned OpenMP directives, enables to: (i) achieve a speedup factor close to the number of cores (in a single computer); (ii) solve a problem in a shorter time; (iii) solve a bigger problem in the same amount of time and, thus, (iv) achieve a better solution in a given amount of time.

  11. DPSSL pumped 20-TW Ti:sapphire laser system for DD fusion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, T.; Hatano, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kawashima, T.

    2016-03-01

    A diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) pumped 20-TW output Ti:sapphire laser system has been developed. A diode-pumped Nd:glass laser with output energy of 12.7 J in 527 nm was used as a pump source for a 20-TW Ti:sapphire amplifier. A CeLiB6O10 nonlinear optical crystal was used as a frequency doubler of the Nd:glass DPSSL[1]. Figure 1 shows typical output pulse energy of the 20-TW amplifier as a function of pumping energy and a near field pattern. A 1.65 J pulse energy was obtained by 4.5 J pump energy. The amplified seed pulse is compressed to typically 60 fs as shown in Fig. 1 by a vacuumed pulse compressor with 80% of transmissivity. Encircled energy ratio, into a circled with 8 μm diameter area, of far field pattern focused by off-axis parabolic mirror with F# of 3 is numerically evaluated to 40% at TW class output condition. Then focal intensity would reach to 1018W/cm2. This all- DPSSL system contributes for stable and continual investigation of laser induced plasma experiment. We have succeeded continual and high efficient generation of DD fusion neutron from CD nano-particles by cluster fusion scheme using the 20-TW laser. A yield of ∼105 neutrons per shot was stably observed during continuous 100 shots with repetition rate of 0.1Hz.

  12. Development and characterization of a D-D fast neutron generator for imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert; Bort, Lorenz; Zboray, Robert; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2015-02-01

    The experimental characterization of a pulsed D-D fast neutron generator designed for fan-beam tomography applications is presented. Using Monte Carlo simulations the response of an LB6411 neutron probe was related to the neutron generator output. The yield was measured to be up to ∼10(7) neutrons/s. An aluminum block was moved stepwise between the source and a BC400 plastic scintillator detector in order to measure an edge response. This edge response was related to the neutron emitting spot size using Monte Carlo simulations and a simplified geometry-based model. The experimentally determined spot size of 2.2 mm agreed well with the simulated value of 1.5 mm. The time-dependence of pulsed output for various operating conditions was also measured. The neutron generator was found to satisfy design requirements for a planned fast neutron tomography arrangement based on a plastic scintillator detector array which is expected to be capable of producing 2D tomograms with a resolution of ∼1.5 mm. PMID:25481677

  13. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos.

    PubMed

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C E P; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  14. Yellow Fever 17DD Vaccine Virus Infection Causes Detectable Changes in Chicken Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874

  15. Beam-plasma instabilities and their impact on D-D reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necas, Ales; Magee, R.; Tajima, T.; Nicks, B.; Seggebruch, M.; Garate, E.; Allfrey, I.; Valentine, T.; entire TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the C-2U program is to achieve 5 +ms steady state FRC sustainment via beam injection. In support, we simulate possible beam driven instabilities that are non-destructive, but transfer energy from fast ions to the plasma, causing phase space bunching. Such a mechanism may explain an experimentally observed anomalous neutron signal (10-100 × greater than the predicted thermonuclear component and peaking between 1-2 ms, correlated with a 1 ms beam slowing down time), as other explanations have been eliminated (D in the beams, fast-thermal ion head-on collisions, and miscalculation of Ti). We propose that the hydrogen beam generates an energetic ion population that then drives collective modes in the plasma, giving rise to an instability and increased fusion rate. A two-body correlation function is employed to determine DD reactivity enhancements. The instability changes character from electrostatic (ES; phase velocity is 70% of the beam velocity) in the low beta edge to fully electromagnetic (EM; at magnetosonic speeds) in the core, with an associated reduction in growth rates. A 1D ES analytical dispersion relation will be compared with a 1D3V PIC code (full EM study only performed with PIC code). Results from simulations are consistent with the observed neutron yield.

  16. Development and characterization of a D-D fast neutron generator for imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert; Bort, Lorenz; Zboray, Robert; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2015-02-01

    The experimental characterization of a pulsed D-D fast neutron generator designed for fan-beam tomography applications is presented. Using Monte Carlo simulations the response of an LB6411 neutron probe was related to the neutron generator output. The yield was measured to be up to ∼10(7) neutrons/s. An aluminum block was moved stepwise between the source and a BC400 plastic scintillator detector in order to measure an edge response. This edge response was related to the neutron emitting spot size using Monte Carlo simulations and a simplified geometry-based model. The experimentally determined spot size of 2.2 mm agreed well with the simulated value of 1.5 mm. The time-dependence of pulsed output for various operating conditions was also measured. The neutron generator was found to satisfy design requirements for a planned fast neutron tomography arrangement based on a plastic scintillator detector array which is expected to be capable of producing 2D tomograms with a resolution of ∼1.5 mm.

  17. Analytical formulation of directly modulated OOFDM signals transmitted over an IM/DD dispersive link.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Tang, J; Capmany, J

    2013-03-25

    We provide an analytical study on the propagation effects of a directly modulated OOFDM signal through a dispersive fiber and subsequent photo-detection. The analysis includes the effects of the laser operation point and the interplay between chromatic dispersion and laser chirp. The final expression allows to understand the physics behind the transmission of a multi-carrier signal in the presence of residual frequency modulation and the description of the induced intermodulation distortion gives us a detailed insight into the diferent intermodulation products which impair the recovered signal at the receiver-end side. Numerical comparisons between transmission simulations results and those provided by evaluating the expression obtained are carried out for different laser operation points. Results obtained by changing the fiber length, laser parameters and using single mode fiber with negative and positive dispersion are calculated in order to demonstrate the validity and versatility of the theory provided in this paper. Therefore, a novel analytical formulation is presented as a versatile tool for the description and study of IM/DD OOFDM systems with variable design parameters. PMID:23546148

  18. Absolute quantification of olive oil DNA by droplet digital-PCR (ddPCR): Comparison of isolation and amplification methodologies.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Francesco; Egea, Leticia A; Gentile, Alessandra; La Malfa, Stefano; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2016-12-15

    Olive oil is considered a premium product for its nutritional value and health benefits, and the ability to define its origin and varietal composition is a key step towards ensuring the traceability of the product. However, isolating the DNA from such a matrix is a difficult task. In this study, the quality and quantity of olive oil DNA, isolated using four different DNA isolation protocols, was evaluated using the qRT-PCR and ddPCR techniques. The results indicate that CTAB-based extraction methods were the best for unfiltered oil, while Nucleo Spin-based extraction protocols showed greater overall reproducibility. The use of both qRT-PCR and ddPCR led to the absolute quantification of the DNA copy number. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of the choice of DNA-isolation protocol, which should take into consideration the qualitative aspects of DNA and the evaluation of the amplified DNA copy number. PMID:27451195

  19. Absolute quantification of olive oil DNA by droplet digital-PCR (ddPCR): Comparison of isolation and amplification methodologies.

    PubMed

    Scollo, Francesco; Egea, Leticia A; Gentile, Alessandra; La Malfa, Stefano; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2016-12-15

    Olive oil is considered a premium product for its nutritional value and health benefits, and the ability to define its origin and varietal composition is a key step towards ensuring the traceability of the product. However, isolating the DNA from such a matrix is a difficult task. In this study, the quality and quantity of olive oil DNA, isolated using four different DNA isolation protocols, was evaluated using the qRT-PCR and ddPCR techniques. The results indicate that CTAB-based extraction methods were the best for unfiltered oil, while Nucleo Spin-based extraction protocols showed greater overall reproducibility. The use of both qRT-PCR and ddPCR led to the absolute quantification of the DNA copy number. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of the choice of DNA-isolation protocol, which should take into consideration the qualitative aspects of DNA and the evaluation of the amplified DNA copy number.

  20. Development of Measurement Methods for Detection of Special Nuclear Materials using D-D Pulsed Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Takahiro; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Kimura, Masaharu; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2015-10-01

    For detection of hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs), we have developed an active neutron-based interrogation system combined with a D-D fusion pulsed neutron source and a neutron detection system. In the detection scheme, we have adopted new measurement techniques simultaneously; neutron noise analysis and neutron energy spectrum analysis. The validity of neutron noise analysis method has been experimentally studied in the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), and was applied to a cargo container inspection system by simulation.

  1. Observation of a {chi}{sub c2}{sup '} Candidate in {gamma}{gamma}{yields}DD Production at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, S.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Dragic, J.; Gershon, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nishida, S.; Sakai, Y.; Stamen, R.; Takasaki, F.; Tamai, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tsukamoto, T.

    2006-03-03

    We report on a search for new resonant states in the process {gamma}{gamma}{yields}DD. A candidate C-even charmonium state is observed in the vicinity of 3.93 GeV/c{sup 2}. The production rate and the angular distribution in the {gamma}{gamma} center-of-mass frame suggest that this state is the previously unobserved {chi}{sub c2}{sup '}, the 2{sup 3}P{sub 2} charmonium state.

  2. A compact DD neutron generator–based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H.

    2015-01-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator–based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*109 neutrons/second was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R2 = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg/g dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans. PMID:25154883

  3. Large-scale Demonstration and Deployment Project for D&D of Fuel Storage Canals and Associated Facilities at INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    2001-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), sponsored a Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) under management of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The INEEL LSDDP is one of several LSDDPs sponsored by DOE. The LSDDP process integrates field demonstrations into actual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations by comparing new or improved technologies against existing baseline technologies using a side-by-side comparison. The goals are (a) to identify technologies that are cheaper, safer, faster, and cleaner (produce less waste), and (b) to incorporate those technologies into D&D baseline operations. The INEEL LSDDP reviewed more than 300 technologies, screened 141, and demonstrated 17. These 17 technologies have been deployed a total of 70 times at facilities other than those where the technology was demonstrated, and 10 have become baseline at the INEEL. Fifteen INEEL D&D needs have been modified or removed from the Needs Management System as a direct result of using these new technologies. Conservatively, the ten-year projected cost savings at the INEEL resulting from use of the technologies demonstrated in this INEEL LSDDP exceeds $39 million dollars.

  4. A compact DD neutron generator-based NAA system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingzi; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Koltick, David; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2014-09-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (DD) neutron generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system has been developed to quantify metals, including manganese (Mn), in bone in vivo. A DD neutron generator with a flux of up to 3*10(9) neutrons s(-1) was set up in our lab for this purpose. Optimized settings, including moderator, reflector, and shielding material and thickness, were selected based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations conducted in our previous work. Hand phantoms doped with different Mn concentrations were irradiated using the optimized DD neutron generator irradiation system. The Mn characteristic γ-rays were collected by an HPGe detector system with 100% relative efficiency. The calibration line of the Mn/calcium (Ca) count ratio versus bone Mn concentration was obtained (R(2) = 0.99) using the hand phantoms. The detection limit (DL) was calculated to be about 1.05 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm) with an equivalent dose of 85.4 mSv to the hand. The DL can be reduced to 0.74 ppm by using two 100% HPGe detectors. The whole body effective dose delivered to the irradiated subject was calculated to be about 17 μSv. Given the average normal bone Mn concentration of 1 ppm in the general population, this system is promising for in vivo bone Mn quantification in humans.

  5. Robotic dismantlement systems at the CP-5 reactor D&D project.

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, L. S.

    1998-10-28

    The Chicago Pile 5 (CP-5) Research Reactor Facility is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Illinois site. CP-5 was the principle nuclear reactor used to produce neutrons for scientific research at Argonne from 1954 to 1979. The CP-5 reactor was a heavy-water cooled and moderated, enriched uranium-fueled reactor with a graphite reflector. The CP-5 D&D project includes the disassembly, segmentation and removal of all the radioactive components, equipment and structures associated with the CP-5 facility. The Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program and the Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown Office provided teleoperated, remote systems for use in the dismantlement of the CP-5 reactor assembly for tasks requiring remote dismantlement as part of the EM-50 Large-Scale Demonstration Program (LSDP). The teleoperated systems provided were the Dual Arm Work Platform (DAWP), the Rosie Mobile Teleoperated Robot Work System (ROSIE), and a remotely-operated crane control system with installed swing-reduction control system. Another remotely operated apparatus, a Brokk BM250, was loaned to ANL by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). This machine is not teleoperated and was not part of the LSDP, but deserves some mention in this discussion. The DAWP is a robotic dismantlement system that includes a pair of Schilling Robotic Systems Titan III hydraulic manipulator arms mounted to a specially designed support platform: a hydraulic power unit (HPU) and a remote operator console. The DAWP is designed to be crane-suspended for remote positioning. ROSIE, developed by RedZone Robotics, Inc. is a mobile, electro-hydraulic, omnidirectional platform with a heavy-duty telescoping boom mounted to the platform's deck. The work system includes the mobile platform (locomotor), a power distribution unit (PDU) and a remote operator console. ROSIE moves about the reactor building floor

  6. Selective expression of constitutively active pro-apoptotic protein BikDD gene in primary mammary tumors inhibits tumor growth and reduces tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Omar M; Nie, Lei; Chan, Li-Chuan; Li, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Jennifer; Yu, Dihua; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that specifically delivering BikDD, a constitutive active mutant of pro-apoptotic protein Bik, to breast cancer cell xenografts in immunocompromised mice has a potent activity against tumor initiating cells (TICs), and that the combination between tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and BikDD gene therapy yielded synergistic effect on EGFR and HER2 positive breast cancer cells in immunodeficient nude mice. Those encouraging results have allowed us to propose a clinical trial using the liposome-complexing plasmid DNA expressing BikDD gene which has been approved by the NIH RAC Advisory committee. However, it is imperative to test whether systemic delivery of BikDD-expressing plasmid DNAs with liposomes into immunocompetent mice has therapeutic efficacy and tolerable side effects as what we observed in the nude mice model. In this study, we investigated the effects of BikDD gene-therapy on the primary mammary tumors, especially on tumor initiating cells (TICs), of a genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse harboring normal microenvironment and immune response. The effects on TIC population in tumors were determined by FACS analysis with different sets of murine specific TIC markers, CD49f(high)CD61(high) and CD24(+)Jagged1(-). First we showed in vitro that ectopic expression of BikDD in murine N202 cells derived from MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mouse tumors induced apoptosis and decreased the number of TICs. Consistently, systemic delivery of VISA-Claudin4-BikDD by liposome complexes significantly inhibited mammary tumor growth and slowed down residual tumor growth post cessation of therapy in MMTV-HER2/Neu transgenic mice compared to the controls. In addition, the anti-tumor effects of BikDD in vivo were consistent with decreased TIC population assessed by FACS analysis and in vitro tumorsphere formation assay of freshly isolated tumor cells. Importantly, systemic administration of BikDD did not cause significant cytotoxic response in

  7. Measurement of the near-threshold e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}DD cross section using initial-state radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhlova, G.; Balagura, V.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Liventsev, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mizuk, R.; Pakhlov, P.; Tikhomirov, I.; Uglov, T.; Adachi, I.; Brodzicka, J.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kibayashi, A.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.

    2008-01-01

    We report measurements of the exclusive cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}DD, where D=D{sup 0} or D{sup +}, in the center-of-mass energy range from the DD threshold to 5 GeV with initial-state radiation. The analysis is based on a data sample collected with the Belle detector with an integrated luminosity of 673 fb{sup -1}.

  8. Impaired Protofibril Formation in Fibrinogen γN308K Is Due to Altered D:D and "A:a" Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowley, S.; Okumura, N; Lord, S

    2009-01-01

    'A:a' knob-hole interactions and D:D interfacial interactions are important for fibrin polymerization. Previous studies with recombinant ?N308K fibrinogen, a substitution at the D:D interface, showed impaired polymerization. We examined the molecular basis for this loss of function by solving the crystal structure of ?N308K fragment D. In contrast to previous fragment D crystals, the ?N308K crystals belonged to a tetragonal space group with an unusually long unit cell (a = b = 95 Angstroms, c = 448.3 Angstroms). Alignment of the normal and ?N308K structures showed the global structure of the variant was not changed and the knob 'A' peptide GPRP was bound as usual to hole 'a'. The substitution introduced an elongated positively charged patch in the D:D region. The structure showed novel, symmetric D:D crystal contacts between ?N308K molecules, indicating the normal asymmetric D:D interface in fibrin would be unstable in this variant. We examined GPRP binding to ?N308K in solution by plasmin protection assay. The results showed weaker peptide binding, suggesting that 'A:a' interactions were altered. We examined fibrin network structures by scanning electron microscopy and found the variant fibers were thicker and more heterogeneous than normal fibers. Considered together, our structural and biochemical studies indicate both 'A:a' and D:D interactions are weaker. We conclude that stable protofibrils cannot assemble from ?N308K monomers, leading to impaired polymerization.

  9. Insight into the light-induced spin crossover of [Fe(bpy)3](2+) in aqueous solution from molecular dynamics simulation of d-d excited states.

    PubMed

    Iuchi, Satoru; Koga, Nobuaki

    2016-02-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for d-d excited states of the aqueous [Fe(bpy)3](2+) system using a previously developed model Hamiltonian. Specifically, the characters of d-d excited states and of transitions among these states are explored to gain clues about electronic relaxation during the photo-excited metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) to the lowest quintet d-d states. By evaluating the spin-orbit couplings in various nuclear configurations through MD simulations, strong mixing among low-lying d-d states with different spin multiplicities is found not to be expected in most of the sampled nuclear configurations except for surface crossing regions. The lifetimes of triplet d-d states are evaluated by Fermi's golden rule using equilibrium MD simulations. The internal conversion from upper-lying triplet to lower-lying triplet states is estimated to occur with a lifetime of order 100 fs accompanied by the distortion of the [Fe(bpy)3](2+) complex structure. This result is consistent with the discussion in another computational study, which evaluated the intersystem crossing rates by Fermi's golden rule using electronic structure calculations. In contrast, the present MD simulations cannot provide a clear picture of intersystem crossings from the lowest triplet d-d state after the above-mentioned internal conversion. Based on this result, possible relaxation mechanisms are discussed. PMID:26806402

  10. Hydro*Star: A Directed Water-Cooled DD-Fueled IFE Fusion-Chamber Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2001-04-01

    We introduce a new IFE fusion-chamber concept called Hydro*Star that uses DT-ignited DD targets and a water blanket. The driver can be either a 13 to 16-MJ diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) with fast ignition, or a 4-MJ heavy-ion accelerator operating at a reprate 10 times faster than the fusion chamber to accumulate sufficient energy in storage rings to direct 40 MJ at the target. The driver employs a prepulse system to burn an ionized path through the ambient fusion-chamber vapors, whose operating pressure is about 20 atm. We assume that the targets, which have a yield of about 2800 MJ, can be indirectly driven with two-sided illumination. The blanket, which is 1 to 2-m thick and placed immediately inside the structural wall, is operated just over 100 C either in a liquid or frothed-liquid state, the latter being preferred to reduce stresses in the structural wall. The structural wall, at a radius of 4 to 5 m, is composed of low-carbon steels to avoid the stress-corrosion cracking problems that have plagued certain light-water-reactor (LWR) systems. The functions of the blanket are (1) to shield the structural wall and exterior components from neutron and gamma-ray target emissions, and (2) to supply water for the direct generation of steam. Each fusion pulse vaporizes nearly one-half centimeter of the inside surface of the water blanket, thereby creating hot steam which is vented directly from the fusion chamber into ordinary steam turbines. Thus, Hydro*Star operates just like a simple steam engine, with a basic reprate of only 0.8 Hz per GWe of net output. Because the steam temperature is 900 to 1200 K, the plant thermal efficiency is nearly 50%. This efficiency is much better than the typical 35-40% now being achieved in commercial reactors, and much better than the efficiencies estimated for previous fusion-chamber concepts except CASCADE (55%). Other advantages for the new concept include reduced plant radioactivity (reduced radionuclides inventory

  11. Novel insights into the lipidome of glioblastoma cells based on a combined PLSR and DD-HDS computational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lespinats, S.; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; He, Huan; Marshall, Alan G.; Conrad, Charles A.; Emmett, Mark R.

    2009-05-01

    Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) and Data-Driven High Dimensional Scaling (DD-HDS) are employed for the prediction and the visualization of changes in polar lipid expression induced by different combinations of wild-type (wt) p53 gene therapy and SN38 chemotherapy of U87 MG glioblastoma cells. A very detailed analysis of the gangliosides reveals that certain gangliosides of GM3 or GD1-type have unique properties not shared by the others. In summary, this preliminary work shows that data mining techniques are able to determine the modulation of gangliosides by different treatment combinations.

  12. Infrared spectrum and d-d transition of γ-LiAlO 2:Cr 3+ ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianlong; Du, Maolu; Cui, Ge; Ma, Jian; Huang, Yi

    2011-04-01

    The γ-LiAlO 2:Cr 3+ ceramics were successfully fabricated using multi-mode cavity microwave furnace, and the sample's infrared absorption spectrum was measured at room temperature. There are six bands in the range 1700-2900 cm -1. Using the crystal-field theory and introducing the average covalent factor model, we calculated the d-d transitions of Cr 3+ ions in γ-LiAlO 2 and firstly explained these bands in the infrared region. These calculation results are in good agreement with the optical experiment data.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator.

    PubMed

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    An explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma emission (10.82MeV) following radiative neutron capture by (14)N nuclei. The explosive detection system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D-D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF) driven ion source and nominal yield of about 10(10) fast neutrons per second (E=2.5MeV). Polyethylene and paraffin were used as moderators with borated polyethylene and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The shape and the thickness of the moderators and shields are optimized to produce the highest thermal neutron flux at the position of the explosive and the minimum total dose at the outer surfaces of the explosive detection system walls. In addition, simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3-based γ-ray detectors to different explosives is described.

  14. Effect of Beam Smoothing and Pulse Shape on the Implosion of DD-Filled CH Shell Targets on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    1999-11-01

    Over the past two years several implosion experiments were carried out on the 60-beam OMEGA laser in which DD-filled CH shells (some with a CHTi layer imbedded) were irradiated with various laser pulse shapes and smoothing conditions. Target CH shell thicknesses varied from 20 μm to 27 μm with DD-fill variations from 3 to 20 atm, sometimes mixed with ^3He. Two pulse shapes---a 1-ns square pulse and a 2.5-ns pulse with a 10%, 1-ns foot, with and without SSD---provide several levels of laser imprint. Diagnostics include measured neutron yields, fuel ion temperatures, fuel ρR, and shell ρR. Simulations for these experimental conditions were carried out with the 2-D hydrocode ORCHID. The results are compared with the experimental results. The degradation of target performance due to laser nonuniformity is analyzed by comparing the 2-D results with those of 1-D simulations. The effects of pulse shape, target thickness, convergence ratio, and smoothing are presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  15. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Glebov, V.; Gatu Johnson, M.; MacPhee, A.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.

    2016-11-01

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF's absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF's sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At the NIF pTOF's sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. Some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.

  16. Analyzing powers in the dd{yields}{sup 3}Hen({sup 3}Hp) reactions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ladygin, V. P.; Kiselev, A. S.; Kurilkin, A. K.; Vasiliev, T. A.; Isupov, A. Yu.; Ladygina, N. B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Reznikov, S. G.; Uesaka, T.; Saito, T.; Hatano, M.; Kato, H.; Sakoda, S.; Uchigashima, N.; Yako, K.; Janek, M.; Maeda, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Ohnishi, T.; Sakamoto, N.

    2008-04-29

    Data for the deuteron analyzing powers in the dd{yields}{sup 3}Hen({sup 3}Hp) reactions obtained at 140-270 MeV are discussed. The observed negative sign of the tensor analyzing powers A{sub yy}, A{sub xx} and A{sub xz} at small angles clearly demonstrate the sensitivity to the ratio of the D and S state components of the {sup 3}He wave function. The behavior of the tensor analyzing powers at backward angles is sensitive to the short-range spin structure of the deuteron. However, the one-nucleon exchange calculations using standard {sup 3}He and deuteron wave functions fail to reproduce the strong variation of the tensor analyzing powers as a function of angle in the cms. Sensitivity to relativistic effects is also discussed.

  17. Design and performance investigation of LDPC-coded upstream transmission systems in IM/DD OFDM-PONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaoxue; Guo, Lei; Wu, Jingjing; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-12-01

    In Intensity-Modulation Direct-Detection (IM/DD) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Networks (OFDM-PONs), aside from Subcarrier-to-Subcarrier Intermixing Interferences (SSII) induced by square-law detection, the same laser frequency for data sending from Optical Network Units (ONUs) results in ONU-to-ONU Beating Interferences (OOBI) at the receiver. To mitigate those interferences, we design a Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC)-coded and spectrum-efficient upstream transmission system. A theoretical channel model is also derived, in order to analyze the detrimental factors influencing system performances. Simulation results demonstrate that the receiver sensitivity is improved 3.4 dB and 2.5 dB under QPSK and 8QAM, respectively, after 100 km Standard Single-Mode Fiber (SSMF) transmission. Furthermore, the spectrum efficiency can be improved by about 50%.

  18. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors.

    PubMed

    Waugh, C J; Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C

    2015-05-01

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule. PMID:26026524

  19. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J. Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-15

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  20. Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis system design: Effects of D-T versus D-D neutron generator source selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) analysis is used for the non-invasive measurement of human body composition. Advancements in portable, compact neutron generator design have made those devices attractive as neutron sources. Two distinct generators are available: D-D with 2.5 MeV and D-T with...

  1. Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis system design: effects of D-T versus D-D neutron generator source selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is used for the non-invasive measurement of human body composition. Advancements in portable, compact neutron generator design have made those devices attractive as neutron sources. Two distinct generators are available: D-D with 2.5 MeV, and D-T wi...

  2. Federal and state regulatory requirements for the D&D of the Alpha-4 Building, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; Houlberg, L.M.; Bock, R.E.

    1994-03-04

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) at the Oak Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, The Alpha-4 Building was used from 1953--1962 to house a column exchange (Colex) process for lithium isotope separation. This process involved electrochemical and solvent extraction processes that required substantial quantities of mercury. Presently there is no law or regulation mandating decommissioning at DOE facilites or setting de minimis or ``below regulatory concern`` (BRC) radioactivity levels to guide decommissioning activities at DOE facilities. However, DOE Order 5820.2A, Chap. V (Decommissioning of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities), requires that the regulatory status of each project be identified and that technical engineering planning must assure D&D compliance with all environmental regulations during cleanup activities. To assist in the performance of this requirement, this paper gives a brief overview of potential federal and state regulatory requirements related to D&D activities at Alpha-4. Compliance with other federal, state, and local regulations not addressed here may be required, depending on site characterization, actual D&D activities, and wastes generated.

  3. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,more » comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.« less

  4. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  5. Lineshape of {psi}(3770) and low-lying vector charmonium resonance parameters in e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}DD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yuanjiang; Zhao Qiang

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the DD production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations near threshold in an effective Lagrangian approach. This shows that the lineshape of the cross section near threshold is sensitive to the contributions from {psi}{sup '}, though it is below the DD threshold. The recent experimental data from the BES and Belle collaborations allow us to determine the {psi}{sup '}DD coupling constant, which appears to be consistent with other theoretical studies. As a consequence, the {psi}{sup '}-{psi}(3770) mixing parameter can be extracted around the {psi}(3770) mass region. Resonance parameters for {psi}(3770), X(3900), {psi}(4040), and {psi}(4160) are also investigated. The X(3900) appears as an enhancement at around 3.9 GeV in the Belle data. In addition to treating it as a resonance, we also study the mechanism through which the enhancement is produced by the DD*+c.c. open channel effects. Our result shows that such a possibility cannot be eliminated.

  6. A comparison of DNA methylation specific droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and real time qPCR with flow cytometry in characterizing human T cells in peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Wiencke, John K; Bracci, Paige M; Hsuang, George; Zheng, Shichun; Hansen, Helen; Wrensch, Margaret R; Rice, Terri; Eliot, Melissa; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-01-01

    Quantitating the copy number of demethylated CpG promoter sites of the CD3Z gene can be used to estimate the numbers and proportions of T cells in human blood and tissue. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qPCR) is useful for studying T cells but requires extensive calibration and is imprecise at low copy numbers. Here we compared the performance of a new digital PCR platform (droplet digital PCR or ddPCR) to qPCR using bisulfite converted DNA from 157 blood specimens obtained from ambulatory care controls and patients with primary glioma. We compared both ddPCR and qPCR with conventional flow cytometry (FACS) evaluation of CD3 positive T cells. Repeated measures on the same blood sample revealed ddPCR to be less variable than qPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR correlated significantly with FACS evaluation of peripheral blood CD3 counts and CD3/total leukocyte values. However, statistical measures of agreement showed that linear concordance was stronger for ddPCR than for qPCR and the absolute values were closer to FACS for ddPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR could distinguish clinically significant differences in T cell proportions and performed similarly to FACS. Given the higher precision, greater accuracy, and technical simplicity of ddPCR, this approach appears to be a superior DNA methylation based method than conventional qPCR for the assessment of T cells. PMID:25437051

  7. Detection and removal of PCR duplicates in population genomic ddRAD studies by addition of a degenerate base region (DBR) in sequencing adapters.

    PubMed

    Schweyen, Hannah; Rozenberg, Andrey; Leese, Florian

    2014-10-01

    Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD) has emerged as a powerful marker system for studying genome-wide DNA polymorphisms using next-generation sequencing. A recent technical facilitation of RAD is double-digest RAD (ddRAD), which utilizes two restriction enzymes for library preparation. The more flexible and balanced ddRAD allows analysis of genomic loci in hundreds of individuals. However, in contrast to paired-end sequencing of traditional RAD libraries, PCR duplicates cannot be detected with ddRAD. This is a concern because duplicates can contribute substantially to read coverage data and erroneously inflate the proportion of homozygous loci (allele dropout). Allele dropout can bias population genetic parameter inference and complicate the detection of outlier loci under selection. Here we outline a simple and straightforward approach to detecting PCR duplicates from ddRAD libraries. Our approach introduces a degenerate base region (DBR, 12,288 unique combinations) in the sequencing adapter. We demonstrate the high efficiency and low rate of false positives in simulations. In addition, a pilot study was performed to test this approach on six aquatic invertebrates, sequenced on a HiSeq 2500 sequencer. The reads of the ddRAD libraries consisted of 33.48% PCR duplicates distributed on 19.40% of the loci. A disproportionate number of PCR duplicates were detected in only 4.66% of the loci. While this should not be a concern for general parameter inference, outlier loci detection in particular would be improved by the DBR technique. Given the easy and straightforward application of the technique in other RAD protocols as well, we suggest that DBR regions should generally be included in PCR-based RAD studies.

  8. Intra-shell d18O in Cultured Benthic Foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera and the Influence of Seawater Carbonate Chemistry and Temperature on this Isotopic Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, C.; Erez, J.; Zilberman, T.; Segev, E.

    2006-12-01

    Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) we looked at the natural variability in the oxygen isotope ratio of the shallow water, symbionts bearing foraminiferan A. lobifera. Live foraminifera were collected in June 2005 in the Gulf of Eilat, Israel. Vertical section exposing the knob area of this species represents the growth history of this species from December 2004 to June 2005. SIMS profile at a resolution of ~ 2 weeks yielded δ^1^8O changes of ~ 1.5 ‰, (from -0.1 ‰ to 1.45 ‰) that are compatible with the known temperature changes for the Gulf of Eilat for this period (20 to 25° C). Natural variability between primary and secondary calcite at the knob area were obtained on horizontal section of the upper knob area. The primary calcite is on average 2 ‰ more negative then the secondary calcite that represents the bulk of the skeleton (more then 95 % by weight). The δ^1^8O in the margin keel area of A. lobifera is also lower compared to the bulk secondary calcite. Specimens that were cultured in the laboratory at a constant temperature and inorganic carbon but at different pH have increased their CaCO3 weight by roughly a factor of 8. Single specimen from each pH (ranging between 7.9 and 8.5) was investigated with the SIMS at the knob area. While there is some variability within each specimen (perhaps related to the primary calcite), the general trend was a decrease in δ^1^8O with increasing pH (or CO32^- concentration), in agreement with previous studies on planktonic foraminifera. Specimens cultured in laboratory at a constant pH, but different temperature were also analysed in the knob area. The temperature range is between 21 and 33° C (experiments at 21, 24, 27 and 33° C). While there is also some variability within each specimen, the trend was a decrease in δ^1^8O with increasing temperature. The decrease measured is 2.7 ± 0.7 ‰ for the entire temperature range, which is completely in agreement with the theoretical value (-0.2 ‰ per ° C).

  9. Glacial to Holocene dynamics of Indonesian precipitation - New insights from plant-wax dD off Northwest Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeyer, E. M.; Mohtadi, M.; Sessions, A. L.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We used the stable hydrogen and stable carbon isotopic composition (dD and d13C, respectively) of terrestrial plant leaf waxes as a proxy for past rainfall variations over northwestern Indonesia. Our study site lies within the western boundary of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), a key evaporative site for the global hydrologic cycle. At present, rainfall intensity in tropical Indonesia is influenced by the Pacific Ocean El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (see Kirono et al., 1999), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode (Saji et al., 1999), and to some extend by the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (e.g. Koutavas and Lynch-Stieglitz, 2005). Paleoclimate studies show that these systems have varied in the past, however, the impact of these changes on regional paelo-hydrology of Indonesia is yet unknown. We worked on marine sediment core SO189-144KL (1°09,300 N; 98°03,960 E) retrieved at 480 m water depth off Northwest Sumatra from the eastern Indian Ocean. Sediments consist of material from marine and terrestrial sources, and radiocarbon dating indicates an age of ~300 years at the core top and of ~24,000 years at the base. We used d13C and dD values of the n-C30 alkanoic acid as proxies for changes in vegetation composition (C3 vs. C4 plants) and rainfall variability on land, respectively. Values of d13C show only little variation and suggest persistent dominance of tropical trees throughout the past 24,000 years. Values of dD display distinct variability throughout the record, however, mean rainfall intensities during the late Last Glacial compare to those during the Holocene. This is in agreement with rather consistent vegetation at the study site but in sharp contrast with reconstructions of contemporaneous rainfall patterns at the nearby islands Borneo (Partin et al., 2007) and Flores (Griffiths et al., 2009), indicating multiple controls on regional hydrology of Indonesia. In combination with previous studies of late Pleistocene to Holocene

  10. Changes in PCDD/PCDF formation processes during instationary phases of combustor operation--exemplified by the use of Cl4DD isomer patterns.

    PubMed

    Neuer-Etscheidt, K; Orasche, J; Nordsieck, H; Streibel, T; Zimmermann, R; Kettrup, A

    2007-04-01

    In this paper results of various measurement campaigns at different municipal waste incineration (MWI) plants concerning the change of the PCDD/PCDF isomer distribution in the crude gas during transiently impaired combustion conditions are presented. The focus is on the Cl4DD isomer distributions exemplarily for all other homologue groups to demonstrate the change in PCDD/PCDF formation mechanism at transient combustion conditions. Additionally to crude gas samples, at one plant filter and boiler ash were investigated simultaneously to determine if there is any difference in the isomer distribution between the matrices. For the ash from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP ash), the boiler ash and the corresponding crude gas sample, nearly identical changes in the Cl4DD isomer distribution under transient combustion conditions in relation to the normal operation process could be detected. By comparing the Cl4DD isomer distributions from different incineration plants (two municipal waste incinerators and one little incinerator burning wood chips for heating domestic household) under transient combustion conditions, in all cases the 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-Cl4DD were dominating the isomer distribution, whereas under normal operation other isomers were predominant. Obviously PCDD/PCDF formation mechanisms under transient combustion conditions are independent from the type of incinerator and of the burned fuel, respectively. Data sets were analyzed with respect to the possible reaction mechanism via chlorophenols and a good correlation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol during the second phase of a start-up process and during a CO experiment was found. To get more detailed information about possible formation mechanisms, at one plant the dependence of the PCDD/PCDF isomer distribution on the different matrices was studied. Separate analysis of fly ash collected at the boiler exit, subsequent gas phase, ESP ash and boiler ash under normal operation conditions showed that, apart from

  11. D-D Neutron Generator Calibrations and Hardware in the LUX-ZEPLIN Dark Matter Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Will; Lux-Zeplin Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) dark matter search experiment will be a two-phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chamber with 7 tonnes of active liquid xenon (LXe) located at the 4850 ft level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. LZ will utilize an in-situ, absolute calibration of nuclear recoils (NR) in LXe using mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons produced by a D-D neutron generator. This technique was used in the LUX detector to measured the NR charge yield in LXe (Qy) to 0.7 keV recoil energy and the NR light yield in LXe (Ly) to recoil energies of 1.1 keV - both of which were the lowest energy measurements achieved in the field. These absolute, ultra-low energy calibrations of the NR signal yields in LXe provide clear measurements of the detector response used for the WIMP search analysis. The improvements made for LZ will include shorter neutron pulse times, multiple neutron conduit configurations, and lower energy neutrons. The upgrades allow for even lower energy measurements of the nuclear recoil response in LXe and an independent measurement of Ly, as well as providing less uncertainty in energy reconstruction. In addition to discussing the physics of the neutron calibrations, I will describe the hardware systems used to implement them.

  12. Evaluation of Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern and Association Study on Seed Oil Content in Brassica napus Using ddRAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhikun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xun; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Xiao, Yingjie; Liu, Kede

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are the prerequisite for understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex traits in crops. To evaluate the LD pattern in oilseed rape, we sequenced a previous association panel containing 189 B. napus inbred lines using double-digested restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) and genotyped 19,327 RAD tags. A total of 15,921 RAD tags were assigned to a published genetic linkage map and the majority (71.1%) of these tags was uniquely mapped to the draft reference genome "Darmor-bzh." The distance of LD decay was 1,214 kb across the genome at the background level (r2 = 0.26), with the distances of LD decay being 405 kb and 2,111 kb in the A and C subgenomes, respectively. A total of 361 haplotype blocks with length > 100 kb were identified in the entire genome. The association panel could be classified into two groups, P1 and P2, which are essentially consistent with the geographical origins of varieties. A large number of group-specific haplotypes were identified, reflecting that varieties in the P1 and P2 groups experienced distinct selection in breeding programs to adapt their different growth habitats. GWAS repeatedly detected two loci significantly associated with oil content of seeds based on the developed SNPs, suggesting that the high-density SNPs were useful for understanding the genetic determinants of complex traits in GWAS.

  13. A novel power-efficient scheme asymmetrically and symmetrically clipping optical (ASCO)-OFDM for IM/DD optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Bar-Ness, Yeheskel

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for intensity modulation direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. By using this novel scheme of an OFDM optical system, not only odd subcarriers but also even subcarriers can be modulated to transmit a clipping optical signal. A conventional asymmetrically clipping optical (ACO)-OFDM is applied to modulate odd subcarriers while even subcarriers are modulated by a novel technique called a symmetrically clipping optical (SCO)-OFDM. Although both the asymmetrically clipping noise caused by ACO-OFDM and the symmetrically clipping noise caused by SCO-OFDM fall onto the even subcarriers, the former interference can be estimated and removed at the receiver. Thus, SCO-OFDM symbols carried on the even subcarriers can be recovered by subtracting the estimated ACO-OFDM clipping noise from the received signal. Then the SCO-OFDM clipping noise can be removed by subtraction due to its special transmission format. Note that no DC bias added on all subcarriers makes this novel scheme achieve better performance in terms of both power efficiency and symbol error rate (SER).

  14. Evaluation of Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern and Association Study on Seed Oil Content in Brassica napus Using ddRAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhikun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xun; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J.; Xiao, Yingjie; Liu, Kede

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are the prerequisite for understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex traits in crops. To evaluate the LD pattern in oilseed rape, we sequenced a previous association panel containing 189 B. napus inbred lines using double-digested restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) and genotyped 19,327 RAD tags. A total of 15,921 RAD tags were assigned to a published genetic linkage map and the majority (71.1%) of these tags was uniquely mapped to the draft reference genome “Darmor-bzh.” The distance of LD decay was 1,214 kb across the genome at the background level (r2 = 0.26), with the distances of LD decay being 405 kb and 2,111 kb in the A and C subgenomes, respectively. A total of 361 haplotype blocks with length > 100 kb were identified in the entire genome. The association panel could be classified into two groups, P1 and P2, which are essentially consistent with the geographical origins of varieties. A large number of group-specific haplotypes were identified, reflecting that varieties in the P1 and P2 groups experienced distinct selection in breeding programs to adapt their different growth habitats. GWAS repeatedly detected two loci significantly associated with oil content of seeds based on the developed SNPs, suggesting that the high-density SNPs were useful for understanding the genetic determinants of complex traits in GWAS. PMID:26730738

  15. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Glebov, V.; Gatu Johnson, M.; MacPhee, A.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Forrest, C.; et al

    2016-08-09

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF’s absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF’s sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At themore » NIF pTOF’s sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. As a result, some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.« less

  16. Evaluation of Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern and Association Study on Seed Oil Content in Brassica napus Using ddRAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhikun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xun; Wu, Jiangsheng; King, Graham J; Xiao, Yingjie; Liu, Kede

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic markers are the prerequisite for understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of complex traits in crops. To evaluate the LD pattern in oilseed rape, we sequenced a previous association panel containing 189 B. napus inbred lines using double-digested restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) and genotyped 19,327 RAD tags. A total of 15,921 RAD tags were assigned to a published genetic linkage map and the majority (71.1%) of these tags was uniquely mapped to the draft reference genome "Darmor-bzh." The distance of LD decay was 1,214 kb across the genome at the background level (r2 = 0.26), with the distances of LD decay being 405 kb and 2,111 kb in the A and C subgenomes, respectively. A total of 361 haplotype blocks with length > 100 kb were identified in the entire genome. The association panel could be classified into two groups, P1 and P2, which are essentially consistent with the geographical origins of varieties. A large number of group-specific haplotypes were identified, reflecting that varieties in the P1 and P2 groups experienced distinct selection in breeding programs to adapt their different growth habitats. GWAS repeatedly detected two loci significantly associated with oil content of seeds based on the developed SNPs, suggesting that the high-density SNPs were useful for understanding the genetic determinants of complex traits in GWAS. PMID:26730738

  17. Low-energy d-d excitations in MnO studied by resonant x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.; Magnuson, M.

    1997-04-01

    Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated to possess interesting abilities for studies of electronic structure in various systems, such as symmetry probing, alignment and polarization dependence, sensitivity to channel interference, etc. In the present abstract the authors focus on the feasibility of resonant soft X-ray emission to probe low energy excitations by means of resonant electronic X-ray Raman scattering. Resonant X-ray emission can be regarded as an inelastic scattering process where a system in the ground state is transferred to a low excited state via a virtual core excitation. The energy closeness to a core excitation of the exciting radiation enhances the (generally) low probability for inelastic scattering at these wavelengths. Therefore soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (in resonant electronic Raman mode) can be used to study low energy d-d excitations in transition metal systems. The involvement of the intermediate core state allows one to use the selection rules of X-ray emission, and the appearance of the elastically scattered line in the spectra provides the reference to the ground state.

  18. A Comparison of 1D and 2D (Unbiased) Experimental Methods for Measuring CSAsolarDD Cross-Correlated Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batta, Gy.; Kövér, K. E.; Kowalewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional and enhanced 1D experiments and different NOESY experiments (the 2D unbiased method) were performed for measuring CSA/DD cross-correlated relaxation on trehalose, a compound which could be approximated as a spherical top, and on simple model compounds comprisingC3vsymmetry (CHCl3, triphenylsilane (TPSi)). The comparison gives experimental evidence for the equivalence of the methods within the limits of the two-spin approach. 1D data are evaluated with both the simple initial rate and the Redfield relaxation matrix approach. The 2D data are obtained from the so-called transfer matrix using the Perrin-Gipe eigenvalue/eigenvector method. For the improved performance of the 2D method, anX-filtered (HHH) NOESY is suggested at the natural abundance of13C (or other dilute, low γ species). Also, experimental parameters crucial for reliable CSA data are tested (e.g., the impact of insufficient relaxation delay). Error estimation is carried out for fair comparison of methods. Revised liquid state1H and13C (29Si) CSA data are presented for chloroform and TPSi.

  19. Development of a new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    A new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been developed by Adelphi Technology for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and fast neutron radiography. The generator makes an excellent fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron source for laboratories and industrial applications that require the safe production of neutrons, a small footprint, low cost, and small regulatory burden. The generator has three major components: a Radio Frequency Induction Ion Source, a Secondary Electron Shroud, and a Diode Accelerator Structure and Target. Monoenergetic neutrons (2.5MeV) are produced with a yield of 10(10)n/s using 25-50mA of deuterium ion beam current and 125kV of acceleration voltage. The present study characterizes the performance of the neutron generator with respect to neutron yield, neutron production efficiency, and the ionic current as a function of the acceleration voltage at various RF powers. In addition the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) simulation code was used to optimize the setup with respect to thermal flux and radiation protection.

  20. Optimization of Beam-Shaping Assemblies for BNCS Using the High-Energy Neutron Sources D-D and D-T

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.; Chen, Allen S.; Vujic, Jasmina L.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2001-06-15

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy is a novel approach for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in articulating joints. The treatment of knee joints is the focus of this work. A method was developed, as discussed previously, to predict the dose distribution in a knee joint from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method is validated and used to design moderators for the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron sources. Treatment times >2 h were obtained with the D-D reaction. They could potentially be reduced if the {sup 10}B concentration in the synovium was increased. For D-T neutrons, high therapeutic ratios and treatment times <5 min were obtained for neutron yields of 10{sup 14} s{sup -1}. This treatment time makes the D-T reaction attractive for boron neutron capture synovectomy.

  1. A novel isoquinoline alkaloid, DD-carboxypeptidase inhibitor, with antibacterial activity isolated from Streptomyces sp. 8812. Part I: Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Solecka, Jolanta; Rajnisz, Aleksandra; Laudy, Agnieszka E

    2009-10-01

    A novel isoquinoline alkaloid of molecular formula C10H9NO4, labeled JS-1, was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. 8812. It was purified by acetone protein precipitation from the culture supernatant, followed by anion exchange and C18 RP HPLC columns. JS-1 is an inhibitor of exocellular DD-carboxypeptidases/transpeptidases (DD-peptidases) 64-575 II from Saccharopolyspora erythraea 64-575 II, and R39 from Actinomadura R39. JS-1 exhibits activity against Gram-negative bacteria, such as Bordetella bronchiseptica, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, Burkholderia cepacia and Acinetobacter baumanii, with MIC values 10-160 microg ml(-1), and against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, with MIC values 40-206 microg ml(-1).

  2. The study of in vivo quantification of aluminum (Al) in human bone with a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick; Mostafaei, Farshad; Liu, Yingzi; Blake, Scott P; Koltick, David; Nie, Linda H

    2016-05-01

    The feasibility and methodology of using a compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis system to measure aluminum in hand bone has been investigated. Monte Carlo simulations were used to simulate the moderator, reflector, and shielding assembly and to estimate the radiation dose. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to detect the Al gamma ray signals. The minimum detectable limit (MDL) was found to be 11.13 μg g(-1) dry bone (ppm). An additional HPGe detector would improve the MDL by a factor of 1.4, to 7.9 ppm. The equivalent dose delivered to the irradiated hand was calculated by Monte Carlo to be 11.9 mSv. In vivo bone aluminum measurement with the DD generator was found to be feasible among general population with an acceptable dose to the subject.

  3. Geologic Cross Section D-D' Through the Appalachian Basin from the Findlay Arch, Sandusky County, Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge Province, Hardy County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Crangle, Robert D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Lentz, Erika E.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hope, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic cross section D-D' is the second in a series of cross sections constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey to document and improve understanding of the geologic framework and petroleum systems of the Appalachian basin. Cross section D-D' provides a regional view of the structural and stratigraphic framework of the Appalachian basin from the Findlay arch in northwestern Ohio to the Valley and Ridge province in eastern West Virginia, a distance of approximately 290 miles. The information shown on the cross section is based on geological and geophysical data from 13 deep drill holes, several of which penetrate the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the basin and bottom in Mesoproterozoic (Grenville-age) crystalline basement rocks. This cross section is a companion to cross section E-E' (Ryder and others, 2008) that is located about 25 to 50 mi to the southwest. Although specific petroleum systems in the Appalachian basin are not identified on the cross section, many of their key elements (such as source rocks, reservoir rocks, seals, and traps) can be inferred from lithologic units, unconformities, and geologic structures shown on the cross section. Other aspects of petroleum systems (such as the timing of petroleum generation and preferred migration pathways) may be evaluated by burial history, thermal history, and fluid flow models based on information shown on the cross section. Cross section D-D' lacks the detail to illustrate key elements of coal systems (such as paleoclimate, coal quality, and coal rank), but it does provide a general geologic framework (stratigraphic units and general rock types) for the coal-bearing section. Also, cross section D-D' may be used as a reconnaissance tool to identify plausible geologic structures and strata for the subsurface storage of liquid waste or for the sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  4. Activation/modulation of adaptive immunity emerges simultaneously after 17DD yellow fever first-time vaccination: is this the key to prevent severe adverse reactions following immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Martins, M Â; Silva, M L; Marciano, A P V; Peruhype-Magalhães, V; Eloi-Santos, S M; Ribeiro, J G L; Correa-Oliveira, R; Homma, A; Kroon, E G; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Martins-Filho, O A

    2007-01-01

    Over past decades the 17DD yellow fever vaccine has proved to be effective in controlling yellow fever and promises to be a vaccine vector for other diseases, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which it elicits such broad-based immunity are still unclear. In this study we describe a detailed phenotypic investigation of major and minor peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations aimed at characterizing the kinetics of the adaptive immune response following primary 17DD vaccination. Our major finding is a decreased frequency of circulating CD19+ cells at day 7 followed by emerging activation/modulation phenotypic features (CD19+interleukin(IL)10R+/CD19+CD32+) at day 15. Increased frequency of CD4+human leucocyte antigen D-related(HLA-DR+) at day 7 and CD8+HLA-DR+ at day 30 suggest distinct kinetics of T cell activation, with CD4+ T cells being activated early and CD8+ T cells representing a later event following 17DD vaccination. Up-regulation of modulatory features on CD4+ and CD8+ cells at day 15 seems to be the key event leading to lower frequency of CD38+ T cells at day 30. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the co-existence of phenotypic features associated with activation events and modulatory pathways. Positive correlations between CD4+HLA-DR+ cells and CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells and the association between the type 0 chemokine receptor CCR2 and the activation status of CD4+ and CD8+ cells further support this hypothesis. We hypothesize that this controlled microenviroment seems to be the key to prevent the development of serious adverse events, and even deaths, associated with the 17DD vaccine reported in the literature. PMID:17309541

  5. Analysis of a homologue of the adducin head gene which is a potential target for the Dictyostelium STAT protein Dd-STATa.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Ryota; Hiraoka, Rieko; Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    A Dd-STATa-null mutant, which is defective in expression of a Dictyostelium homologue of the metazoan STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins, fails to culminate and this phenotype correlates with the loss of expression of various prestalk (pst) genes. An EST clone, SSK395, encodes a close homologue of the adducin amino-terminal head domain and harbors a putative actin-binding domain. We fused promoter fragments of the cognate gene, ahhA (adducin head homologue A), to a lacZ reporter and determined their expression pattern. The proximal promoter region is necessary for the expression of ahhA at an early (pre-aggregative) stage of development and this expression is Dd-STATa independent. The distal promoter region is necessary for expression at later stages of development in pstA cells, of the slug and in upper cup and pstAB cells during culmination. The distal region is partly Dd-STATa-dependent. The ahhA-null mutant develops almost normally until culmination, but it forms slanting culminants that tend to collapse on to the substratum. The mutant also occasionally forms fruiting bodies with swollen papillae and with constrictions in the prestalk region. The AhhA protein localizes to the stalk tube entrance and also to the upper cup cells and in cells at or near to the constricted region where an F-actin ring is localized. These findings suggest that Dd-STATa regulates culmination and may be necessary for straight downward elongation of the stalk, via the putative actin-binding protein AhhA.

  6. A PAPR reduction technique using Hadamard transform combined with clipping and filtering based on DCT/IDCT for IM/DD optical OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangone, Fall; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Xiao, Jiangnan; Chen, Ming; Li, Fan; Chen, Lin

    2014-08-01

    In Intensity Modulator/Direct Detection (IM/DD) optical OFDM systems, the high peak-to-power average ratio (PAPR) will cause signal impairments through the nonlinearity of modulator and fiber. In this paper, a joint PAPR reduction technique based on Hadamard transformation and clipping and filtering using DCT/IDCT transform has been proposed for mitigating the impairments in IM/DD optical OFDM system. We then experimentally evaluated the effect of PAPR reduction on the bit error rate (BER) performance and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. At a bit error rate (BER) of 1 × 10-3, the receiver sensitivity of the proposed 2.5 Gb/s IM/DD optical OFDM system after 100-km standard single-mode fiber transmission has been improved by 0.8 dB, 1.3 dB and 3.1 dB for a launch power of 6.4 dBm, 8 dBm and 10 dBm respectively when compared with the classical system.

  7. SSC 17-meter dipole magnet DD000Z test results and investigation of coil failure: The report of the {open_quotes}Z{close_quotes} Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Coombes, R.; Mirk, K.; Tompkins, J.; Zbasnik, J.; Lundy, R.; Schneider, W.; Wanderer, P.

    1988-03-01

    Following the failure of the lower inner coil of magnet DD000Z on November 3, 1987, a committee was formed on November 11 and given the following charges: `To review the events leading up to and including the failure of the coils of magnet DD000Z. The intent of the review will be to determine the cause of the failure and to make recommendations to reduce the likelihood of such failures in the future. Given the fact that this is the first long magnet to be disassembled, the committee may uncover leads which point to other opportunities for improvement. The committee should follow up on these leads. The committee should prepare a plan to serve as an initial guide for the disassembly and provide guidance as the disassembly progresses.` The committee held its first meeting at FNAL on 17 and 18 Nov to review the record of events leading up to the failure and to establish an initial disassembly procedure. This was followed by further meetings at FNAL, BNL, and CDG, leading to this final report. Committee activities included interviewing personnel who had been involved in the design, assembly and testing of DD000Z, reviewing all documents relating to the magnet and its failure, and participating in and providing guidance during the disassembly. The intention of the committee was to report factual findings, to consider well founded hypotheses, not to consider conjecture and to avoid speculation.

  8. DdAlix, an Alix/AIP1 homolog in Dictyostelium discoideum, is required for multicellular development under low Ca2+ conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Susumu; El-Halawany, Medhat S; Aruga, Fumika; Shibata, Hideki; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Maki, Masatoshi

    2004-08-01

    Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) interacting protein X (Alix), also called AIP1, is a widely conserved protein in eukaryotes. Alix and its homologs are involved in various phenomena such as apoptosis, regulation of cell adhesion, protein sorting, adaptation to stress conditions, and budding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To investigate the role of Alix in development, we identified an Alix homolog in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and disrupted the gene by homologous recombination. The growth of DdAlix deletion mutant (alx-) cells was significantly impaired in the presence of 5 mM Li+. On an agar plate, alx- cells underwent normal development and formed fruiting bodies indistinguishable from those formed by wild-type cells. However, alx- cells could not form fruiting bodies in the presence of 5 mM Li+. Similar results were obtained when cells were developed in the presence of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino)octyl ester (TMB-8), which is an antagonist of intracellular Ca2+ store. Furthermore, when the extracellular free Ca2+ was reduced to 10 nM, the ability of alx- cells, but not that of wild-type cells, to form fruiting bodies was impaired. The results indicate that DdAlix is essential for development under low Ca2+ conditions and suggest that DdAlix is involved in Ca2+ signaling during development. PMID:15276209

  9. Study of the yield of D-D, D-3He fusion reactions produced by the interaction of intense ultrafast laser pulses with molecular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbui, Marina; Bang, Woosuk; Bonasera, Aldo; Hagel, Kris; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Natowitz, Joseph; Giuliani, Gianluca; Barbarino, Matteo; Dyer, Gilliss; Quevedo, Hernan; Gaul, Erhard; Borger, Ted; Bernstein, Aaron; Martinez, Mikael; Donovan, Michael; Ditmire, Todd; Kimura, Sachie; Mazzocco, Marco; Consoli, Fabrizio; De Angelis, Riccardo; Andreoli, Pierluigi

    2013-03-01

    The interaction of intense ultrafast laser pulses with molecular clusters produces a Coulomb explosion of the clusters. In this process, the positive ions from the clusters might gain enough kinetic energy to drive nuclear reactions. An experiment to measure the yield of D-D and D-3He fusion reactions was performed at University of Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science. Laser pulses of energy ranging from 100 to 180 J and duration 150fs were delivered by the Petawatt laser. The temperature of the energetic deuterium ions was measured using a Faraday cup, whereas the yields of the D-D reactions were measured by detecting the characteristic 2.45 MeV neutrons and 3.02 MeV protons. In order to allow the simultaneous measurement of 3He(D,p)4He and D-D reactions, different concentrations of D2 and 3He or CD4 and 3He were mixed in the gas jet target. The 2.45 MeV neutrons from the D(D,n)3He reaction were detecteded as well as the 14.7 MeV protons from the 3He(D,p)4He reaction. The preliminary results will be shown.

  10. Role of Cu d-d inter-orbital electron correlation on the out-of-plane conduction in cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajay; Pratap, A.; Joshi, S. K.

    2002-06-01

    In the present paper we study a model which is relevant to an analysis of the effects of the Cu d-d inter-orbital electron correlation on the motion of charge carriers along c-axis in high- Tc cuprates. For this a microscopic model Hamiltonian for the three atom cluster CuO 2 which incorporates the essential features of the basic unit of high- Tc cuprates has been considered. The model Hamiltonian for this three atom cluster includes various in-plane and out-of-plane orbital energies, their intra- and inter-orbital Coulomb interactions relevant for the electrons in the cluster. The out-of-plane correlation which appears when we consider the hopping of a hole from the Cu 3d 3 z2- r2 to apical O 2p z orbitals has been calculated using the Green's function technique. The equation of motion for the relevant Green's function contains higher order Green's functions and we evaluate the correlation parameter relevant to motion for a hole along the c-axis by using suitable decoupling approximations. It has been found through numerical calculations that the out-of-plane correlations depend on the intra- and inter-orbital Coulomb interactions, the out-of-plane orbital energies, hole occupancy and on temperature. Finally, the relevance of the out-of-plane correlation parameter for present three atom CuO 2 cluster model to the c-axis conductivity of the bulk high- Tc cuprate systems has been pointed out.

  11. Observed Multi-Decade DD and DT Z-Pinch Fusion Rate Scaling in 5 Dense Plasma Focus Fusion Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, E. C.; Lowe, D. R.; O'Brien, R.; Meehan, B. T.

    2013-06-18

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) machines are in use worldwide or a wide variety of applications; one of these is to produce intense, short bursts of fusion via r-Z pinch heating and compression of a working gas. We have designed and constructed a series of these, ranging from portable to a maximum energy storage capacity of 2 MJ. Fusion rates from 5 DPF pulsed fusion generators have been measured in a single laboratory using calibrated activation detectors. Measured rates range from ~ 1015 to more than 1019 fusions per second have been measured. Fusion rates from the intense short (20 – 50 ns) periods of production were inferred from measurement of neutron production using both calibrated activation detectors and scintillator-PMT neutron time of flight (NTOF) detectors. The NTOF detectors are arranged to measure neutrons versus time over flight paths of 30 Meters. Fusion rate scaling versus energy and current will be discussed. Data showing observed fusion cutoff at D-D fusion yield levels of approximately 1*1012, and corresponding tube currents of ~ 3 MA will be shown. Energy asymmetry of product neutrons will also be discussed. Data from the NTOF lines of sight have been used to measure energy asymmetries of the fusion neutrons. From this, center of mass energies for the D(d,n)3He reaction are inferred. A novel re-entrant chamber that allows extremely high single pulse neutron doses (> 109 neutrons/cm2 in 50 ns) to be supplied to samples will be described. Machine characteristics and detector types will be discussed.

  12. THE CREATIVE APPLICATION OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & WORK FORCE INNOVATIONS TO THE D&D OF PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material for fabrication into a nuclear device for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race. PFP has now completed its mission and is fully engaged in deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). At this time the PFP buildings are planned to be reduced to ground level (slab-on-grade) and the site remediated to satisfy national, Department of Energy (DOE) and Washington state requirements. The D&D of a highly contaminated plutonium processing facility presents a plethora of challenges. PFP personnel approached the D&D mission with a can-do attitude. They went into D&D knowing they were facing a lot of challenges and unknowns. There were concerns about the configuration control associated with drawings of these old process facilities. There were unknowns regarding the location of electrical lines and process piping containing chemical residues such as strong acids and caustics. The gloveboxes were highly contaminated with plutonium and chemical residues. Most of the glovebox windows were opaque with splashed process chemicals that coated the windows or etched them, reducing visibility to near zero. Visibility into the glovebox was a serious worker concern. Additionally, all the gloves in the gloveboxes were degraded and unusable. Replacing gloves in gloveboxes was necessary to even begin glovebox cleanout. The sheer volume of breathing air needed was also an issue. These and other challenges and PFP's approach to overcome these challengers are

  13. Multi-Isotopic evidence from West Eifel Xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemens, M. M.; Sprung, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle Xenoliths from the West Eifel intraplate volcanic field of Germany provide insights into the nature and evolution of the regional continental lithospheric mantle. Previous isotope studies have suggested a primary Paleoproterozoic depletion age, a second partial melting event in the early Cambrian, and a Variscan metasomatic overprint. Textural and Sr-Nd isotopic observations further suggest two episodes of melt infiltration of early Cretaceous and Quaternary age. We have investigated anhydrous, vein-free lherzolites from this region, focusing on the Dreiser Weiher and Meerfelder Maar localities. Hand separated spinel, olivine, ortho- and clinopryoxene, along with host and bulk rocks were dissolved and purified for Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and Lu-Hf analysis on the Cologne/Bonn Neptune MC-ICP-MS. We find an unexpected discontinuity between mineral separates and whole rocks. While the latter have significantly more radiogenic ɛNd and ɛHf, mineral separates imply close-to chondritic compositions. Our Lu-Hf data imply resetting of the Lu-Hf systematic after 200 Ma. Given the vein-free nature of the lherzolites, this appears to date to the second youngest metasomatic episode. We suggest that markedly radiogenic Nd and Hf were introduced during the Quarternary metasomatic episode and most likely reside on grain boundaries.

  14. Type II Cepheids in the Milky Way disc. Chemical composition of two new W Virginis stars: DD Vel and HQ Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemasle, B.; Kovtyukh, V.; Bono, G.; François, P.; Saviane, I.; Yegorova, I.; Genovali, K.; Inno, L.; Galazutdinov, G.; da Silva, R.

    2015-07-01

    Context. A robust classification of Cepheids into their different sub-classes and, in particular, between classical and Type II Cepheids, is necessary to properly calibrate the period-luminosity relations and for populations studies in the Galactic disc. Type II Cepheids are, however, very diverse, and classifications based either on intrinsic (period, light curve) or external parameters (e.g., [Fe/H], | z |) do not provide a unique classification. Aims: We want to ascertain the classification of two Cepheids, HQ Car and DD Vel, that are sometimes classified as classical Cepheids and sometimes as Type II Cepheids. Methods: To achieve this goal, we examine both their chemical composition and the presence of specific features in their spectra. Results: We find emission features in the Hα and in the 5875.64 Å He I lines that are typical of W Vir stars. The [Na/Fe] (or [Na/Zn]) abundances are typical of thick-disc stars, while BL Her stars are Na-overabundant ([Na/Fe] > +0.5 dex). Finally, the two Cepheids show a possible (HQ Car) or probable (DD Vel) signature of mild dust-gas separation that is usually observed only in long-period type II Cepheids and RV Tau stars. Conclusions: These findings clearly indicate that HQ Car and DD Vel are both Type II Cepheids from the W Vir sub-class. Several studies have reported an increase in the Cepheids' abundance dispersion towards the outer (thin) disc. A detailed inspection of the Cepheid classification, in particular for those located in the outer disc, will indicate whether this feature is real or simply an artefact of the inclusion of type II Cepheids belonging to the thick disc in the current samples. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (prog. ID: 060.A-9120 and 082.D-0901).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Preliminary results for potential climatic signals in dD of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high-elevation alpine larch trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichelmann, Dana F. C.; Greule, Markus; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Tree-rings of high alpine larch trees (Larix decidua) were investigated using a recently established method that measures dD values of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (Greule et al. 2008). The resulting dD time series were tested for their potential to preserve climatic signals. 37 larch trees were sampled at the tree line near Simplon Village (Southern Switzerland). They were analysed for their tree-ring width (TRW), and from five individuals dD of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (dDmethoxyl) were measured at annual resolution from 1971-2009 and at pentadal resolution from 1781-2009. The inter-series correlation of the five annually resolved dDmethoxyl series is 0.53 (p < 0.001). For the five pentadally resolved dDmethoxyl series no significant inter-series correlation could be determined. The dDmethoxyl series (annually and pentadally) show a negative correlation with tree-ring width of r = -0.53 (p < 0.001) and r = -0.32 (p < 0.05), respectively. The climate response of the new dDmethoxyl proxy shows a significant correlation of r = 0.60 for the annually resolved data with June to July precipitation. The pentadally resolved dDmethoxyl series do not show any significant correlation neither with temperature nor precipitation. These results probably indicate dDmethoxyl as a precipitation proxy for high-alpine sites. The missing climate signal in the pentadally resolved series is probably due to absent long term trends in precipitation, which have stronger year to year variability. References: Greule, M., Mosandl, A., Hamilton, J.T.G., Keppler, F., 2008. A rapid and precise method for determination of D/H ratios of plant methoxyl groups. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 22(24): 3983-3988.

  16. What`s an ARAR?: Regulatory requirements for CERCLA remedial activities at D&D sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, L.M.; Etnier, E.L.

    1994-09-01

    Many government-owned facilities that supported early nuclear energy research and defense programs have no current use and have been retired. Some of these facilities have residual radioactive or chemical contamination that require remediation. The Department of Energy (DOE) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program is responsible for managing these surplus facilities. Remedial activities for contaminated environs and inactive land-based units (e.g., landfills, surface impoundments) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are conducted under the direction of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

  17. Fission-detector determination of D-D triton burnup fraction in beam-heated TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Hendel, H.W.; Barnes, C.W.; Bosch, S.; Cecil, F.E.; McCune, D.C.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Strachan, J.D.

    1987-06-01

    After the end of a neutral-beam injection pulse into a low-density TFTR plasma, once the beam-injected deuterons have thermalized, the neutron emission is dominated by the 14-MeV neutron production from D-D triton burnup. Ordinary fission detectors can measure the 14-MeV emission rate, which can be extrapolated back in time to estimate the equilibrium triton burnup fraction. The fractional burnup determined by this method is in the range of 0.3 to 1.5% for TFTR discharges to date, and is consistent with classical confinement and slowing down. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  18. 1 λ × 1.44 Tb/s free-space IM-DD transmission employing OAM multiplexing and PDM.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yixiao; Zou, Kaiheng; Zheng, Zhennan; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-22

    We report the experimental demonstration of single wavelength terabit free-space intensity modulation direct detection (IM-DD) system employing both orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing and polarization division multiplexing (PDM). In our experiment, 12 OAM modes with two orthogonal polarization states are used to generate 24 channels for transmission. Each channel carries 30 Gbaud Nyquist PAM-4 signal. Therefore an aggregate gross capacity record of 1.44 Tb/s (12 × 2 × 30 × 2 Gb/s) is acheived with a modulation efficiency of 48 bits/symbol. After 0.8m free-space transmission, the bit error rates (BERs) of all the channels are below the 20% hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 1.5 × 10(-2). After applying the decision directed recursive least square (DD-RLS) based filter and post filter, the BERs of two polarizations can be reduced from 5.3 × 10(-3) and 7.3 × 10(-3) to 2.2 × 10(-3) and 3.4 × 10(-3), respectively.

  19. Effect of pd and dd reactions enhancement in deuterides TiD2, ZrD2 and Ta2D in the astrophysical energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritskii, V. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Filipowicz, M.; Huran, J.; Krylov, A. R.; Nechayev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Pen'kov, F. M.; Philippov, A. V.; Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the pd-and dd-reactions in the ultralow energy (~keV) range is of great interest in the aspect of nuclear physics and astrophysics for developing of correct models of burning and evolution of stars. This report presents compendium of experimental results obtained at the pulsed plasma Hall accelerator (TPU, Tomsk). Most of those results are new, such as • temperature dependence of the neutron yield in the D( d, n)3He reaction in the ZrD2, Ta2D, TiD2 • potentials of electron screening and respective dependence of astrophysical S-factors in the dd-reaction for the deuteron collision energy in the range of 3-6 keV, with ZrD2, Ta2D temperature in the range of 20-200°C [1] • characteristics of the reaction d( p, γ)3He in the ultralow collision proton-deuterons energy range of 4-13 keV [2, 3] in ZrD2, Ta2D and TiD2 • observation of the neutron yield enhancement in the reaction D( d, n)3He at the ultralow deuteron collision energy due to channeling of deuterons in microscopic TiD2 with a face-centered cubic lattice type TiD1.73, oriented in the [100] direction [4]. The report includes discussion and comparison of the collected experimental results with the global data and calculations.

  20. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA): Interplay of discourses (D/D1) as third grade urban and suburban science students engage in hypothesis formulation and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carmen Irene Reyes

    This qualitative research project is a comparative analysis of Discourses (D/D1) while focused upon the science processes of hypothesis generation and observation in an urban versus suburban elementary science classroom. D designates the instructional and formal academic science Discourse and D1 represents the students' informal, social or home language D1iscourses. In particular, this research study is a critical discourse analysis that examines how the science processes of hypothesis formulation and observation are constituted through the interplay of classroom Discourses (D/D1) as two third grade science teachers teach the same kit-based, inquiry science lessons with their respective urban and suburban students. The research also considers ethnicity, social class, language, and the central role science teachers play mediating between children's everyday world and the world of science. Communicative approach and distinctive patterns of interaction between the European American teachers and their respective students are analyzed through a critical lens to examine underlying issues of equity and power embedded in the instructional Discourse of science. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) provides both the theoretical framework and analytical lens. The research informs development of linguistic-based "best" practices to contribute toward promoting greater science teacher awareness in creating linguistic environments that support all students' learning science Discourse and to serve as a springboard for future educational science researchers' use of CDA.

  1. Role of an expansin-like molecule in Dictyostelium morphogenesis and regulation of its gene expression by the signal transducer and activator of transcription protein Dd-STATa.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Shun; Shimada, Nao; Kawata, Takefumi

    2009-02-01

    Expansins are proteins involved in plant morphogenesis, exerting their effects on cellulose to extend cell walls. Dictyostelium is an organism that possesses expansin-like molecules, but their functions are not known. In this study, we analyzed the expL7 (expansin-like 7) gene, which has been identified as a putative target of Dd-STATa, a Dictyostelium homolog of the metazoan signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. Promoter fragments of the expL7 were fused to a lacZ reporter and the expression patterns determined. As expected from the behavior of the endogenous expL7 gene, the expL7/lacZ fusion gene was downregulated in Dd-STATa null slugs. In the parental strain, the expL7 promoter was activated in the anterior tip region. Mutational analysis of the promoter identified a sequence that was necessary for expression in tip cells. In addition, an activator sequence for pstAB cells was identified. These sequences act in combination with the repressor region to prevent ectopic expL7 expression in the prespore and prestalk regions of the slug and culminant. Although the expL7 null mutant showed no phenotypic change, the expL7 overexpressor showed aberrant stalk formation. These results indicate that the expansin-like molecule is important for morphogenesis in Dictyostelium.

  2. Diurnal Difference Vegetation Water Content (ddVWC) of Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) for assessment of crop water stress at regional level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) derived Vegetation Water Content (VWC) at predawn (01:30 LST, descending pass) and afternoon (13:30 LST; ascending pass) were used to assess crop water stress condition over the selected meteorological subdivisions of India. The temporal profile of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to study the progression of crop growth. The Diurnal Difference Vegetation Water Content (ddVWC) was found to be sensitive to rainfall patterns (wet/dry spell) particularly in moderate to full crop cover condition (NDVI > 0.4). The ddVWC was found to be significantly (p = 0.05) correlated with the rainfall over the rainfed regions. The ddVWC was further characterized to represent different categories of crop water stress considering irrigated flooded rice crop as a benchmark. Inter year comparative analysis of temporal variations of the ddVWC revealed its capability to differentiate normal (2005) and sub-normal years (2008 and 2009) in term of intensity and persistence of crop water stress. Spatio-temporal patterns of ddVWC could capture regional progression of crop water stress at high temporal resolution in near real time.

  3. Diel Variations in Needle Water Isotopic Composition in Two Pine Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diurnal fluctuations of leaf water stable isotopes (d18O and dD) were measured for Jeffrey (Pinus jeffreyi) and lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. Two trees per species were sampled every few hours on October 15-16, 2005 and June 19-20, 2006. Diurnal gas exchange (stomatal conductance, tran...

  4. Compact DD generator-based neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to determine fluorine in human bone in vivo: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott P; Liu, Yingzi; Sowers, Daniel A; Nie, Linda H

    2015-10-01

    The subject of whether fluorine (F) is detrimental to human health has been controversial for many years. Much of the discussion focuses on the known benefits and detriments to dental care and problems that F causes in bone structure at high doses. It is therefore advantageous to have the means to monitor F concentrations in the human body as a method to directly assess exposure. F accumulates in the skeleton making bone a useful biomarker to assess long term cumulative exposure to F. This study presents work in the development of a non-invasive method for the monitoring of F in human bone. The work was based on the technique of in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). A compact deuterium-deuterium (DD) generator was used to produce neutrons. A moderator/reflector/shielding assembly was designed and built for human hand irradiation. The gamma rays emitted through the (19)F(n,γ)(20)F reaction were measured using a HPGe detector. This study was undertaken to (i) find the feasibility of using DD system to determine F in human bone, (ii) estimate the F minimum detection limit (MDL), and (iii) optimize the system using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code in order to improve the MDL of the system. The F MDL was found to be 0.54 g experimentally with a neutron flux of 7   ×   10(8) n s(-1) and an optimized irradiation, decay, and measurement time scheme. The numbers of F counts from the experiment were found to be close to the (MCNPX) simulation results with the same irradiation and detection parameters. The equivalent dose to the irradiated hand and the effective dose to the whole body were found to be 0.9 mSv and 0.33 μSv, respectively. Based on these results, it is feasible to develop a compact DD generator based IVNAA system to measure bone F in a population with moderate to high F exposure.

  5. Investigation of temperature dependence of neutron yield and electron screening potential for the d(d, n){sup 3}He reaction proceeding in deuterides ZrD{sub 2} and TiD{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Bystritskii, Vit. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Filipowicz, M.; Gazi, S.; Huran, J.; Kobzev, A. P.; Mesyats, G. A.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Parzhitskii, S. S.; Pen'kov, F. M.; Philippov, A. V.; Kaminskii, V. L.; Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Wozniak, J.

    2012-08-15

    The temperature dependence of the enhancement factor for the dd reaction proceeding in TiD{sub 2} and ZrD{sub 2} is investigated. The experiments were carried out at the Hall pulsed ion accelerator (INP, Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia) in the deuteron energy interval 7.0-12.0 keV and at temperatures ranging from 20 to 200 Degree-Sign C. The values obtained for the electron screening potentials indicate that the dd reaction enhancement factor does not depend on the target temperature in the range 20-200 Degree-Sign C. This result contradicts the conclusions drawn by the LUNA Collaboration from their work.

  6. Active-site and membrane topology of the DD-peptidase/penicillin-binding protein no. 6 of Enterococcus hirae (Streptococcus faecium) A.T.C.C. 9790.

    PubMed

    el Kharroubi, A; Piras, G; Jacques, P; Szabo, I; Van Beeumen, J; Coyette, J; Ghuysen, J M

    1989-09-01

    The membrane-bound 43,000-Mr penicillin-binding protein no. 6 (PBP6) of Enterococcus hirae consists of a 30,000-Mr DD-peptidase/penicillin-binding domain and a approximately 130-residue C-terminal appendage. Removal of this appendage by trypsin proteolysis has no marked effect on the catalytic activity and penicillin-binding capacity of the PBP. Anchorage of the PBP in the membrane appears to be mediated by a short 15-20-residue stretch at the C-terminal end of the appendage. The sequence of the 50-residue N-terminal region of the PBP shows high degree of homology with the sequences of the corresponding regions of the PBPs5 of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. On this basis the active-site serine residue occurs at position 35 in the enterococcal PBP. PMID:2803261

  7. First analysis of eight Algol-type binaries: EI Aur, XY Dra, BP Dra, DD Her, VX Lac, WX Lib, RZ Lyn, and TY Tri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.

    2016-01-01

    The available photometry from the online databases were used for the first light curve analysis of eight eclipsing binary systems EI Aur, XY Dra, BP Dra, DD Her, VX Lac, WX Lib, RZ Lyn, and TY Tri. All these stars are of Algol-type, having the detached components and the orbital periods from 0.92 to 6.8 days. For the systems EI Aur and BP Dra the large amount of the third light was detected during the light curve solution. Moreover, 468 new times of minima for these binaries were derived, trying to identify the period variations. For the systems XY Dra and VX Lac the third bodies were detected with the periods 17.7, and 49.3 years, respectively.

  8. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D(*+)D(*-).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Forti, A C; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-09-26

    We present a measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and an updated determination of the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D(*+)D(*-) using a data sample of 88x10(6)BB pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.063+/-0.055(stat)+/-0.009(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters Im(lambda(+)) and /lambda(+)/ are determined to be 0.05+/-0.29(stat)+/-0.10(syst) and 0.75+/-0.19(stat)+/-0.02(syst), respectively. The standard model predicts these parameters to be -sin(2beta and 1, respectively, in the absence of penguin diagram contributions.

  9. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D*+D*-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Macfarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Vazquez, W P; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2005-10-01

    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries and the CP-odd fraction in the decay B0-->D*+D*- using 232x10(6)BB pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B factory. We determine the CP-odd fraction to be 0.125+/-0.044(stat)+/-0.007(syst). The time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters C+ and S+ are determined to be 0.06+/-0.17(stat)+/-0.03(syst) and -0.75+/-0.25(stat)+/-0.03(syst), respectively. The standard model predicts these parameters to be 0 and -sin2beta, respectively, in the absence of penguin amplitude contributions.

  10. Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron filters for medical and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, J.M.

    2000-05-10

    This thesis consists of three main parts. The first one relates to boron neutron capture therapy. It summarizes the guidelines obtained by numerical simulations for the treatment of shallow and deep-seated brain tumors, as well as the results on the design of beam-shaping assemblies to moderate D-D and D-T neutrons to epithermal energies. The second part is about boron neutron capture synovectomy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Optimal neutron energy for treatment and beam-shaping assembly designs are summarized in this section. The last part is on the development of the sealed neutron generator, including experimental results on the prototype ion source and the prototype accelerator column.

  11. Whole-Visible-Light Absorption of a Mixed-Valence Silver Vanadate Semiconductor Stemming from an Assistant Effect of d-d Transition.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongjun; Chen, Gang; Sun, Jingxue; Li, Chunmei; Hu, Yidong; Han, Zhonghui

    2015-12-21

    Wide-light absorption is important to semiconductors exploited in many applications such as photocatalysts, photovoltaic devices, and light-emitting diodes, which can effectively improve solar energy utilization. Especially for photocatalysts, the development and design of new semiconductors that harvest the whole-visible-light region (λ = 400-800 nm) is rarely reported, which is still a tremendous challenge up to now. Here we realize whole-visible-light absorption up to 900 nm for a semiconductor by means of construction of a mixed-valence Ag0.68V2O5, which results from an assistant effect of d-d transition. Ag0.68V2O5 serving as a photocatalyst obviously exhibits photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties. Our results provide a brand-new feasible design strategy to broaden the light absorption of semiconductors and highlight a route to further make the best use of the full solar spectrum.

  12. State-to-state dynamics for O(1D)+D2-->OD+D: evidence for a collinear abstraction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Lin, J J; Harich, S A; Yang, X

    2001-01-15

    The O(1D)+D2-->OD+D reaction at two different collisional energies, 2.0 and 3.2 kcal/mol, is investigated by using the H(D) Rydberg "tagging" time-of-flight technique. Experimental results in this study indicate that the OD product is clearly more backward scattered relative to the O(1D) beam direction at the collisional energy of 3.2 kcal/mol. The extra backward scattered OD products are mostly in the highly vibrationally excited states (upsilon = 4,5,6), which is typical of a collinear abstraction mechanism. The experimental results in this work also provide a good testing bed for quantitative theoretical investigations of this benchmark system.

  13. Observation of Electron Cloud Stabilized 1 MeV Beam-Beam d+d Reactons in Self-Colliding Orbits and Feasibility of Electric Isotope Breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglich, Bogdan; Druey, Christian; Iyengar, P. K.; Srinivasan, Mahadeva

    2012-03-01

    D-D Self-Collider ^1,2 is only system in which beam-beam nuclear reactions demonstrated MeV energies. 1.45 MeV DC beam of D2^+ was injected into center of a weak-focusing magnetic field (Ni Ti) B=3.12 Tesla, and dissociated into 2 d^+ stored in Self-Colliding Orbits^3. Energy confinement time T = 23 s (vacuum limited p=10-9 torr), stabilized by driven electron oscillations^4. A simulation^5 shows that 1 DD neutron is produced at an energy cost of 5.36 MeV/n i.e. 140 MWh/g= 8,360/g vs. 160,000/g from beam - target. Simultaneously produced He^3 and T are not only free, but bring 45 fold gain. 5 d's of 0.75 MeV generate 1He^3 +1T +1p+ 1n at cost 5.36 MeV. Hence, it will produce 2 He^3 nuclei (1 He-3, 1 T) plus energy gain of 161 MeV. This will be reduced by the energy gain thus reducing cost to 4.5 from 5.6 MeV. Assumed ion density 5x10 ^14 was achieved in plasmas. Beam injection 100 mA. 1. PRL 54, 796 (1985) NIM A 271 p,.1-167; 2. AIP CP 311, 292 (93); 3. PRL 70, 1818 (93); 4.Part. Acc.1, (70); 5. ``50 Years with Fission'' Symp.Nat. Ac Sci., p. 761 (89)

  14. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. PMID:26921524

  15. Expression and characterization of a recombinant kinesin antigen from an old Indian strain (DD8) of Leishmania donovani and comparing it with a commercially available antigen from a newly isolated (KE16) strain of L. donovani.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Ramu; Dey, Ayan; Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Sarman

    2008-05-01

    Recently we had prepared a recombinant antigen (Ld-rKE16) from a newly isolated Indian strain of Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/KE16/1998) with high sensitivity and specificity and the same has been commercialized. While comparing the sequence data of kinesin gene of this (KE16) strain and its expressed protein with another commercially available recombinant antigen (Lc-rK39) from kinesin gene of L. chagasi we found significant genetic and amino acid variations. This prompted us to undertake the present study to unravel whether the kinesin gene and its expressed protein from another old but Indian isolate of L. donovani (MHOM/IN/DD8/1968) had any genetic and amino acid heterogeneity. Sequencing of the kinesin gene revealed that the kinesin gene of DD8 strain is 3016bp long and has immunodominant region consisting of 4.8 tandem repeats, 117 base pairs each. Further blast analysis of the immunodominant regions of 5 strains of L. donovani revealed that it has only 79% homology with L. chagasi, and 80% homology with L. infantum; while it had 82% homology with Sudan strain of L. donovani, 82% with another (Morena) strain of Indian L. donovani but highest homology of 83% with L. donovani KE16 strain of India. We also evaluated the diagnostic potential of the recombinant DD8 antigen (Ld-rDD8) and compared the results with that of Ld-rKE16. The study revealed that Ld-rKDD8 antigen was less sensitive and specific as compared to rKE16 antigen for the diagnosis of visceral and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. This was probably due to prolong in vitro culture maintenance of the DD8 strain. PMID:18374635

  16. Fishing for divergence in a sea of connectivity: The utility of ddRADseq genotyping in a marine invertebrate, the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    PubMed

    Lal, Monal M; Southgate, Paul C; Jerry, Dean R; Zenger, Kyall R

    2016-02-01

    Population genomic investigations on highly dispersive marine organisms typically require thousands of genome-wide SNP loci to resolve fine-scale population structure and detect signatures of selection. This information is important for species conservation efforts and stock management in both wild and captive populations, as well as genome mapping and genome wide association studies. Double digest Restriction site-Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq) is a recent tool for delivering genome wide SNPs for non-model organisms. However, its application to marine invertebrate taxa has been limited, particularly given the complex and highly repetitive nature of many of these organisms' genomes. This study develops and evaluates an optimised ddRADseq technique together with associated analyses for generating genome-wide SNP data, and performs population genomic analyses to inform aquaculture and fishery management of a marine bivalve, the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. A total of 5243 high-quality genome-wide SNP markers were detected, and used to assess population structure, genome diversity, detect Fst outliers and perform association testing in 156 individuals belonging to three wild and one hatchery produced populations from the Fiji Islands. Shallow but significant population structure was revealed among all wild populations (average pairwise Fst=0.046) when visualised with DAPC and an individual network analysis (NetView P), with clear evidence of a genetic bottleneck in the hatchery population (NeLD=6.1), compared to wild populations (NeLD>192.5). Fst outlier detection revealed 42-62 highly differentiated SNPs (p<0.02), while case-control association discovered up to 152 SNPs (p<0.001). Both analyses were able to successfully differentiate individuals between the orange and black tissue colour morphotypes characteristic of this species. BLAST searches revealed that five of these SNPs were associated with a melanin biosynthesis pathway, demonstrating

  17. Evidence that the Dictyostelium STAT protein Dd-STATa plays a role in the differentiation of inner basal disc cells and identification of a promoter element essential for expression in these cells.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nao; Maruo, Toshinari; Maeda, Mineko; Urushihara, Hideko; Kawata, Takefumi

    2005-02-01

    Dd-STATa, a Dictyostelium homolog of the metazoan STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins, is necessary in the slug for correct entry into culmination. Dd-STATa-null mutant fails to culminate and its phenotype correlates with the loss of a funnel-shaped core region, the pstAB core region, which expresses both the ecmA and ecmB genes. To understand how the differentiation of pstAB core cells is regulated, we identified an EST that is expressed in the core cells of normal slugs but down-regulated in the Dd-STATa-null mutant. This EST, SSK348, encodes a close homolog of the Dictyostelium acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). A promoter fragment of the cognate gene, aslA (acetyl-CoA synthetase-like A), was fused to a lacZ reporter and the expression pattern determined. As expected from the behavior of the endogenous aslA gene, the aslA::lacZ fusion gene is not expressed in Dd-STATa-null slugs. In parental cells, the aslA promoter is first activated in the funnel-shaped core cells located at the slug anterior, the "pstAB core." During culmination, the pstAB core cells move down, through the prespore cells, to form the inner part of the basal disc. As the spore mass climbs the stalk, the aslA gene comes to be expressed in cells of the upper and lower cups, structures that cradle the spore head. Deletion and point mutation analyses of the promoter identified an AT-rich sequence that is necessary for expression in the pstAB core. This acts in combination with repressor regions that prevent ectopic aslA expression in the pre-stalk regions of slugs and the stalks of culminants. Thus, this study confirms that Dd-STATa is necessary for the differentiation of pstAB core cells, by showing that it is needed for the activation of the aslA gene. It also identifies aslA promoter elements that are likely to be regulated, directly or indirectly, by Dd-STATa.

  18. Synthesis, structures, and fluorescence properties of two d-d heterometallic cluster-based complexes constructed by N-(phosphonomethyl) iminodiacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sa-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Two novel d-d heterometallic cluster-based complexes constructed by N-(Phosphonomethyl)imino-diacetic acid (H4PMIDA) multifunctional ligand, [Cu2Zn2(PMIDA)2(H2O)3]·3H2O(1), [ZnNi14(PMIDA)6(H2O)18]·(NO3)6·15H2O(2), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermal analyses, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex 1 is one-dimensional heteronuclear molecular chain, which is further extends into a 3D supramolecular network through very extensive Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The compound 2 is a rare novel zero-dimensional heteronuclear molecular cluster, which is further extends into a 3D supramolecular network through very extensive Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the solid-state fluorescence properties of the two complexes have also been investigated at room temperature.

  19. Screening of eye-position related genes with DD-RT-PCR and RDA in the hybrids between Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanjie; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Sun, Yeying; Zhong, Qiwang; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei

    2009-02-01

    Flatfish or flounder moves one eye to change body proportion into vertebral asymmetry during metamorphosis, during which some become sinistral while others dextral. However, the mechanism behinds the eye-position has not been well understood. In this research, hybrids between Japanese flounder(♀) and stone flounder (♂) show mixed eye-location in both dextral type and sinistral type, and thus become good samples for studying the eye-migration. mRNAs from pro-metamorphosis sinistral and dextral hybrids larvae were screened with classical differential display RT-PCR (DD-RT-PCR) and representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA); 30 and 47 putative fragments were isolated, respectively. The cDNA fragments of creatine kinase and trypsinogen 2 precursor genes isolated by cDNA-RDA exhibited eye-position expression patterns during metamorphosis. However, none of the fragments was proved to be related to flatfishes’ eye-position specifically. Therefore, further studies and more sensitive gene isolated methods are needed to solve the problems.

  20. Platelet-derived growth factor BB and DD and angiopoietin1 are altered in follicular fluid from polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Leopoldina; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; De Zuñiga, Ignacio; Bisioli, Claudio; Pettorossi, Hernan; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2014-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological pathology among women of reproductive age, and is characterized by abnormalities in ovarian angiogenesis, among other features. Consistent with this association, follicular fluid (FF) concentration and ovarian expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are increased in PCOS patients. In this study, we examined the protein levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB and DD (PDGFBB and PDGFDD), angiopoietin 1 and 2 (ANGPT1 and ANGPT2), and their soluble receptor sTIE2 in FF from PCOS and control patients undergoing assisted reproductive techniques. We also analyzed the effect of FF from PCOS and control patients on tight and adherens junction protein expression in an endothelial cell line. PDGFBB and PDGFDD were significantly lower whereas ANGPT1 concentration was significantly higher in FF from PCOS patients than from control patients. No changes were found in the concentration of ANGPT2 or sTIE2. Expression of claudin-5 was significantly increased in endothelial cells incubated for 24 hr in the presence of FF from PCOS versus from control patients, while vascular-endothelial cadherin, β-catenin, and zonula occludens 1 expression were unchanged. The changes observed in the levels of PDGF isoforms and ANGPT1 may prevent VEGF-induced vascular permeability in the PCOS ovary by regulating endothelial-cell-junction protein levels. Restoring the levels of angiogenic factors may provide new insights into PCOS treatment and the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in affected women.

  1. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  2. Optimization of the beam shaping assembly in the D-D neutron generators-based BNCT using the response matrix method.

    PubMed

    Kasesaz, Y; Khalafi, H; Rahmani, F

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of the Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been performed using the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code to shape the 2.45 MeV neutrons that are produced in the D-D neutron generator. Optimal design of the BSA has been chosen by considering in-air figures of merit (FOM) which consists of 70 cm Fluental as a moderator, 30 cm Pb as a reflector, 2mm (6)Li as a thermal neutron filter and 2mm Pb as a gamma filter. The neutron beam can be evaluated by in-phantom parameters, from which therapeutic gain can be derived. Direct evaluation of both set of FOMs (in-air and in-phantom) is very time consuming. In this paper a Response Matrix (RM) method has been suggested to reduce the computing time. This method is based on considering the neutron spectrum at the beam exit and calculating contribution of various dose components in phantom to calculate the Response Matrix. Results show good agreement between direct calculation and the RM method.

  3. Characterization of a Bacillus subtilis sporulation operon that includes genes for an RNA polymerase sigma factor and for a putative DD-carboxypeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J J; Schuch, R; Piggot, P J

    1992-01-01

    At early stages of sporulation, the spoIIA locus is transcribed as a tricistronic (1.7-kb) operon, coding for sigma F and for two proteins that modulate the activity of sigma F. The locus is transcribed as a longer (2.9-kb) transcript at the late stages of sporulation. We show here that the longer transcript contains an additional open reading frame whose product has extensive sequence homology with DD-carboxypeptidases; the corresponding gene is designated dacF. Cotranscription of a morphogene, such as dacF, with the gene for a sigma factor suggests a way to couple transcription regulation with morphogenesis. The predicted N-terminal sequence of the DacF protein and the inhibition of sporulation by a translational dacF-lacZ fusion both suggest that the protein has a signal peptide for transport into or across a membrane. Expression of a dacF-lacZ transcriptional fusion was in the forespore. The 5' end of the 2.9-kb transcript was determined by primer extension analysis. The region 5' to the end showed no homology to promoters recognized by known sigma factors but was homologous to the corresponding region of the forespore-specific 0.3-kb gene of Bacillus subtilis. Images PMID:1629150

  4. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ρR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Waugh, C J; Séguin, F H; Sio, H; Sinenian, N; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Hohenberger, M; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C; Yeamans, C B; LePape, S; Mackinnon, A J; Bionta, R M; Talison, B; Casey, D T; Landen, O L; Moran, M J; Zacharias, R A; Kilkenny, J D; Nikroo, A

    2014-10-01

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ∼1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF. PMID:25362390

  5. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hohenberger, M.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Yeamans, C. B.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Talison, B.; Casey, D. T.; Landen, O. L.; Moran, M. J.; Zacharias, R. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-10-10

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF

  6. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ρR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J. Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hohenberger, M.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Yeamans, C. B.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Talison, B.; and others

    2014-10-01

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF.

  7. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ρR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hohenberger, M.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Yeamans, C. B.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Talison, B.; Casey, D. T.; Landen, O. L.; Moran, M. J.; Zacharias, R. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-10-01

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ˜1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF.

  8. Advanced mask inspection optical system (AMOS) using 198.5-nm wavelength for 65-nm (hp) node and beyond: system development and initial state D/D inspection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tojo, Toru; Hirano, Ryoich; Tsuchiya, Hideo; Oaki, Junji; Nishizaka, Takeshi; Sanada, Yasushi; Matsuki, Kazuto; Isomura, Ikunao; Ogawa, Riki; Kobayashi, Noboru; Nakashima, Kazuhiro; Sugihara, Shinji; Inoue, Hiromu; Imai, Shinichi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Sekine, Akihiko; Taya, Makoto; Miwa, Akemi; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Ohira, Katsumi; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Otaki, Masao

    2004-12-01

    A novel high-resolution mask inspection platform using DUV wavelength has been developed. This platform is designed to enable the defect inspection of high quality masks for 65nm node used in 193nm lithography. In this paper, newly developed optical system and its performance are reported. The system is operated at wavelength of 198.5nm, which wavelength is nearly equal to 193nm-ArF laser exposure tool. Some defect image data and defect inspection sensitivity due to simulation-base die-to-die (D/D) inspection are shown on standard programmed defect test mask. As an initial state D/D inspection performance, 20-60 nm defects are certified. System capabilities for 65nm node inspection and beyond are also discussed.

  9. A ddRAD-based genetic map and its integration with the genome assembly of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) provides insights into genome evolution after the teleost-specific genome duplication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled cost-effective sequencing of whole or partial genomes, permitting the discovery and characterization of molecular polymorphisms. Double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) is a powerful and inexpensive approach to developing numerous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and constructing a high-density genetic map. To enrich genomic resources for Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), we constructed a ddRAD-based genetic map using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine and anchored scaffolds of the current genome assembly to 19 linkage groups of the Japanese eel. Furthermore, we compared the Japanese eel genome with genomes of model fishes to infer the history of genome evolution after the teleost-specific genome duplication. Results We generated the ddRAD-based linkage map of the Japanese eel, where the maps for female and male spanned 1748.8 cM and 1294.5 cM, respectively, and were arranged into 19 linkage groups. A total of 2,672 SNP markers and 115 Simple Sequence Repeat markers provide anchor points to 1,252 scaffolds covering 151 Mb (13%) of the current genome assembly of the Japanese eel. Comparisons among the Japanese eel, medaka, zebrafish and spotted gar genomes showed highly conserved synteny among teleosts and revealed part of the eight major chromosomal rearrangement events that occurred soon after the teleost-specific genome duplication. Conclusions The ddRAD-seq approach combined with the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine sequencing allowed us to conduct efficient and flexible SNP genotyping. The integration of the genetic map and the assembled sequence provides a valuable resource for fine mapping and positional cloning of quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits and for investigating comparative genomics of the Japanese eel. PMID:24669946

  10. Dengue-2 and yellow fever 17DD viruses infect human dendritic cells, resulting in an induction of activation markers, cytokines and chemokines and secretion of different TNF-α and IFN-α profiles.

    PubMed

    Gandini, Mariana; Reis, Sonia Regina Nogueira Ignacio; Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Galler, Ricardo; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes

    2011-08-01

    Flaviviruses cause severe acute febrile and haemorrhagic infections, including dengue and yellow fever and the pathogenesis of these infections is caused by an exacerbated immune response. Dendritic cells (DCs) are targets for dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YF) replication and are the first cell population to interact with these viruses during a natural infection, which leads to an induction of protective immunity in humans. We studied the infectivity of DENV2 (strain 16681), a YF vaccine (YF17DD) and a chimeric YF17D/DENV2 vaccine in monocyte-derived DCs in vitro with regard to cell maturation, activation and cytokine production. Higher viral antigen positive cell frequencies were observed for DENV2 when compared with both vaccine viruses. Flavivirus-infected cultures exhibited dendritic cell activation and maturation molecules. CD38 expression on DCs was enhanced for both DENV2 and YF17DD, whereas OX40L expression was decreased as compared to mock-stimulated cells, suggesting that a T helper 1 profile is favoured. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in cell cultures was significantly higher in DENV2-infected cultures than in cultures infected with YF17DD or YF17D/DENV. In contrast, the vaccines induced higher IFN-α levels than DENV2. The differential cytokine production indicates that DENV2 results in TNF induction, which discriminates it from vaccine viruses that preferentially stimulate interferon expression. These differential response profiles may influence the pathogenic infection outcome.

  11. Anxiety disorders in persons with developmental disabilities: empirically informed diagnosis and treatment. Reviews literature on anxiety disorders in DD population with practical take-home messages for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ervin; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Antonacci, Diana J

    2008-09-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in individuals with developmental disabilities (DDs), although they may not be diagnosed and treated as often as they are in patients without DDs. Patients with mental retardation, autism, and other pervasive developmental disorders may exhibit comorbid anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), phobias, and other anxiety symptoms at much higher rates than in the general population, but identification of these comorbid anxiety disorders may be made more difficult by the presence of the DD and concurrent difficulties with communication, other behavior problems, the lack of standardized assessments specific to diagnosing patients with DDs and psychiatric comorbidities, and the need for greater collateral sources of assessment information. In addition, systematic study of the treatment of anxiety in patients with DD is limited to a relatively small number of empirical studies done specifically in these patients along with case reports and theoretical reviews on the extension and modification of more well-studied treatments used for anxiety in patients without DDs. The present article reviews the literature on the prevalence, features, assessment and diagnosis of anxiety disorders in individuals with DDs, and also reviews empirical studies of pharmacological and psychological treatment of patients with comorbid anxiety and DD and summarizes the findings. Recommendations are made to guide treatment and further research in this area.

  12. LIDT-DD: A new self-consistent debris disc model that includes radiation pressure and couples dynamical and collisional evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, Q.; Thébault, P.; Charnoz, S.

    2013-10-01

    Context. In most current debris disc models, the dynamical and the collisional evolutions are studied separately with N-body and statistical codes, respectively, because of stringent computational constraints. In particular, incorporating collisional effects (especially destructive collisions) into an N-body scheme has proven a very arduous task because of the exponential increase of particles it would imply. Aims: We present here LIDT-DD, the first code able to mix both approaches in a fully self-consistent way. Our aim is for it to be generic enough to be applied to any astrophysical case where we expect dynamics and collisions to be deeply interlocked with one another: planets in discs, violent massive breakups, destabilized planetesimal belts, bright exozodiacal discs, etc. Methods: The code takes its basic architecture from the LIDT3D algorithm for protoplanetary discs, but has been strongly modified and updated to handle the very constraining specificities of debris disc physics: high-velocity fragmenting collisions, radiation-pressure affected orbits, absence of gas that never relaxes initial conditions, etc. It has a 3D Lagrangian-Eulerian structure, where grains of a given size at a given location in a disc are grouped into super-particles or tracers whose orbits are evolved with an N-body code and whose mutual collisions are individually tracked and treated using a particle-in-a-box prescription designed to handle fragmenting impacts. To cope with the wide range of possible dynamics for same-sized particles at any given location in the disc, and in order not to lose important dynamical information, tracers are sorted and regrouped into dynamical families depending on their orbits. A complex reassignment routine that searches for redundant tracers in each family and reassignes them where they are needed, prevents the number of tracers from diverging. Results: The LIDT-DD code has been successfully tested on simplified cases for which robust results have

  13. Training for DD Council Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James, Ed.; And Others

    Provided for Developmental Disabilities Councils is a resource handbook on planning orientation training for council members. The material, including three major presentations on orientation planning, advocacy, and orientation principles, is explained to be drawn from three 1975 regional conferences. Among training techniques analyzed are use of a…

  14. A novel fast-neutron tomography system based on a plastic scintillator array and a compact D-D neutron generator.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert; Zboray, Robert; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Very few experimental imaging studies using a compact neutron generator have been published, and to the knowledge of the authors none have included tomography results using multiple projection angles. Radiography results with a neutron generator, scintillator screen, and camera can be seen in Bogolubov et al. (2005), Cremer et al. (2012), and Li et al. (2014). Comparable results with a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube can be seen in Popov et al. (2011). One study using an array of individual fast neutron detectors in the context of cargo scanning for security purposes is detailed in Eberhardt et al. (2005). In that case, however, the emphasis was on very large objects with a resolution on the order of 1cm, whereas this study focuses on less massive objects and a finer spatial resolution. In Andersson et al. (2014) three fast neutron counters and a D-T generator were used to perform attenuation measurements of test phantoms. Based on the axisymmetry of the test phantoms, the single-projection information was used to calculate radial attenuation distributions of the object, which was compared with the known geometry. In this paper a fast-neutron tomography system based on an array of individual detectors and a purpose-designed compact D-D neutron generator is presented. Each of the 88 detectors consists of a plastic scintillator read out by two Silicon photomultipliers and a dedicated pulse-processing board. Data acquisition for all channels was handled by four single-board microcontrollers. Details of the individual detector design and testing are elaborated upon. Using the complete array, several fast-neutron images of test phantoms were reconstructed, one of which was compared with results using a Co-60 gamma source. The system was shown to be capable of 2mm resolution, with exposure times on the order of several hours per reconstructed tomogram. Details about these measurements and the analysis of the reconstructed images are given, along with a discussion

  15. A novel fast-neutron tomography system based on a plastic scintillator array and a compact D-D neutron generator.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert; Zboray, Robert; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Very few experimental imaging studies using a compact neutron generator have been published, and to the knowledge of the authors none have included tomography results using multiple projection angles. Radiography results with a neutron generator, scintillator screen, and camera can be seen in Bogolubov et al. (2005), Cremer et al. (2012), and Li et al. (2014). Comparable results with a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube can be seen in Popov et al. (2011). One study using an array of individual fast neutron detectors in the context of cargo scanning for security purposes is detailed in Eberhardt et al. (2005). In that case, however, the emphasis was on very large objects with a resolution on the order of 1cm, whereas this study focuses on less massive objects and a finer spatial resolution. In Andersson et al. (2014) three fast neutron counters and a D-T generator were used to perform attenuation measurements of test phantoms. Based on the axisymmetry of the test phantoms, the single-projection information was used to calculate radial attenuation distributions of the object, which was compared with the known geometry. In this paper a fast-neutron tomography system based on an array of individual detectors and a purpose-designed compact D-D neutron generator is presented. Each of the 88 detectors consists of a plastic scintillator read out by two Silicon photomultipliers and a dedicated pulse-processing board. Data acquisition for all channels was handled by four single-board microcontrollers. Details of the individual detector design and testing are elaborated upon. Using the complete array, several fast-neutron images of test phantoms were reconstructed, one of which was compared with results using a Co-60 gamma source. The system was shown to be capable of 2mm resolution, with exposure times on the order of several hours per reconstructed tomogram. Details about these measurements and the analysis of the reconstructed images are given, along with a discussion

  16. Electronic absorption and luminescence spectroscopic studies of kyanite single crystals: differentiation between excitation of FeTi charge transfer and Cr3+ dd transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, A. N.; Tarashchan, A. N.; Langer, K.; Andrut, M.; Partzsch, G.; Matsyuk, S. S.

    A selected set of five different kyanite samples was analysed by electron microprobe and found to contain chromium between <0.001 and 0.055 per formula unit (pfu). Polarized electronic absorption spectroscopy on oriented single crystals, R1, R2-sharp line luminescence and spectra of excitation of λ3- and λ4-components of R1-line of Cr3+-emission had the following results: (1) The Fe2+-Ti4+ charge transfer in c-parallel chains of edge connected M(1) and M(2) octahedra shows up in the electronic absorption spectra as an almost exclusively c(||Z')-polarized, very strong and broad band at 16000 cm-1 if < , in this case the only band in the spectrum, and at an invariably lower energy of 15400 cm-1 in crystals with >= . The energy difference is explained by an expansion of the Of-Ok, and Ob-Om edges, by which the M(1) and M(2) octahedra are interconnected (Burnham 1963), when Cr3+ substitutes for Al compared to the chromium-free case. (2) The Cr3+ is proven in two greatly differing crystal fields a and b, giving rise to two sets of bands, derived from the well known dd transitions of Cr3+4A2g-->4T2g(F)(I), -->4T1g(F)(II), and -->4T1g(P)(III). Band energies in the two sets a and b, as obtained by absorption, A, and excitation, E, agree well: I: 17300(a,A), 17200(a,E), 16000(b,A), 16200(b,E) II: 24800(a,A), 24400(a,E) 22300(b,A), 22200(b,E) III: 28800(b,A) cm-1. Evaluation of crystal field parameters from the bands in the electronic spectra yield Dq(a)=1730 cm-1, Dq(b)=1600 cm-1, B(a)=790 cm-1, B(b)=620 cm-1 (errors ca. +/-10 cm-1), again in agreement with values extracted from the λ3,λ4 excitation spectra. The CF-values of set a are close to those typical of Cr3+ substituting for Al in octahedra of other silicate minerals without constitutional OH- as for sapphirine, mantle garnets or beryl, and are, therefore, interpreted as caused by Cr3+ substituting for Al in some or all of the M(1) to M(4) octaheda of the kyanite structure, which are crystallographically

  17. A river based stable isotope record of orographic precipitation: Taurus Mountains, south central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemmel, Fabian; Mulch, Andreas; Mikes, Tamás.; Schildgen, Taylor

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructing continental precipitation and vegetation patterns has become one of the most rapidly growing fields in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Furthermore, stable isotopes in precipitation within continental plateau regions represent an increasingly important tool for reconstructing the various effects of uplift related climate change within the world's largest plateau regions. With peak elevations of more than 3,000 m the Taurus Mountains represent the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau and must have played a pivotal role in controlling the drainage and sedimentation patterns within the plateau interior. However, their surface uplift history remains largely elusive. We sampled a series of tributaries and rivers along the Ermenek valley that crosscuts the Taurus Mountains in Southern Turkey. The aim of this study is to quantify the modern effect of orographic rainout of the Taurus Mountains on the d18O and dD values of river and spring waters and to compare these values to the d18O and dD of recent precipitation gathered by the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Further we try to study the trends of the recent d18O and dD isotopic composition of local rivers and precipitation in the area to create a set of isotopic data that is comparable to isotopic studies on paleosoils and can therefore be used in future paleoaltimetry and paleoclimate studies. We sampled 6 individual rivers during the fall season 2008 to capture mostly groundwater runoff in the south central Taurus Mountains. All sampled rivers belong to the same local drainage system which drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The total elevation difference within the sampling area exceeds 2,000 m and we were able to collect samples over almost 1,800 m of elevation. Our measurements show that both d18O and dD values follow the same basic trend. d18O and dD values decrease systematically with increasing elevation. The lapse rate of d18O is about -2.2 per mil/km, whereas the

  18. A randomised double-blind clinical trial of two yellow fever vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77 in children nine-23 months old

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, multicentre study with children nine-23 months old evaluated the immunogenicity of yellow fever (YF) vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77. YF antibodies were tittered before and 30 or more days after vaccination. Seropositivity and seroconversion were analysed according to the maternal serological status and the collaborating centre. A total of 1,966 children were randomised in the municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and blood samples were collected from 1,714 mothers. Seropositivity was observed in 78.6% of mothers and 8.9% of children before vaccination. After vaccination, seropositivity rates of 81.9% and 83.2%, seroconversion rates of 84.8% and 85.8% and rates of a four-fold increase over the pre-vaccination titre of 77.6% and 81.8% were observed in the 17D-213/77 and 17DD subgroups, respectively. There was no association with maternal immunity. Among children aged 12 months or older, the seroconversion rates of 69% were associated with concomitant vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. The data were not conclusive regarding the interference of maternal immunity in the immune response to the YF vaccine, but they suggest interference from other vaccines. The failures in seroconversion after vaccination support the recommendation of a booster dose in children within 10 years of the first dose. PMID:26517656

  19. A randomised double-blind clinical trial of two yellow fever vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77 in children nine-23 months old.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    This randomised, double-blind, multicentre study with children nine-23 months old evaluated the immunogenicity of yellow fever (YF) vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77. YF antibodies were titered before and 30 or more days after vaccination. Seropositivity and seroconversion were analysed according to the maternal serological status and the collaborating centre. A total of 1,966 children were randomised in the municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and blood samples were collected from 1,714 mothers. Seropositivity was observed in 78.6% of mothers and 8.9% of children before vaccination. After vaccination, seropositivity rates of 81.9% and 83.2%, seroconversion rates of 84.8% and 85.8% and rates of a four-fold increase over the pre-vaccination titre of 77.6% and 81.8% were observed in the 17D-213/77 and 17DD subgroups, respectively. There was no association with maternal immunity. Among children aged 12 months or older, the seroconversion rates of 69% were associated with concomitant vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. The data were not conclusive regarding the interference of maternal immunity in the immune response to the YF vaccine, but they suggest interference from other vaccines. The failures in seroconversion after vaccination support the recommendation of a booster dose in children within 10 years of the first dose.

  20. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; et al

    2014-10-10

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in themore » filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF« less

  1. Wetting Camphor: Multi-Isotopic Substitution Identifies the Complementary Roles of Hydrogen Bonding and Dispersive Forces.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Krin, Anna; Steber, Amanda L; López, Juan C; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Schnell, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Using broadband rotational spectroscopy, we report here on the delicate interplay between hydrogen bonds and dispersive forces when an unprecedentedly large organic molecule (camphor, C10H16O) is microsolvated with up to three molecules of water. Unambiguous assignment was achieved by performing multi H2(18)O isotopic substitution of clustered water molecules. The observation of all possible mono- and multi-H2(18)O insertions in the cluster structure yielded accurate structural information that is not otherwise achievable with single-substitution experiments. The observed clusters exhibit water chains starting with a strong hydrogen bond to the C═O group and terminated by a mainly van der Waals (dispersive) contact to one of the available sites at the monomer moiety. The effect of hydrogen bond cooperativity is noticeable, and the O···O distances between the clustered water subunits decrease with the number of attached water molecules. The results reported here will further contribute to reveal the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in systems of increasing size. PMID:26689110

  2. Terrestrial-aquatic linkage in stream food webs along a forest chronosequence: multi-isotopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Togashi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiyazu; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ohte, Nobuhito; Tokuchi, Naoko; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecosystem succession provides baseline data for conservation and management, as well as for understanding the dynamics of underlying biogeochemical processes. We examined the effects of deforestation and subsequent afforestation of a riparian forest of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ¹³C) and nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) and natural abundances of radiocarbon (Δ¹⁴C) in stream biota in the Mt. Gomadan Experimental Forest and the Wakayama Forest Research Station, Kyoto University, central Japan. Macroinvertebrates, periphytic algae attached to rock surfaces (periphyton), and leaf litter of terrestrial plants were collected from six headwater streams with similar climate, topography, and bedrock geology, except for the stand ages of riparian forests (from 3 to 49 yr old in five stands and > 90 yr old in one reference stand). Light intensity and δ¹³C values of both periphyton and macroinvertebrates decreased synchronously with forest age in winter. A Bayesian mixing model indicates that periphyton contributions to the stream food webs are maximized in 23-yr-old forests. Except for grazers, most macroinvertebrates showed Δ¹⁴C values similar to those of terrestrial leaf litter, reflecting the influence of modern atmospheric CO₂ Δ¹⁴C values. On the other hand, the Δ¹⁴C values of both periphyton and grazers (i.e., aquatic primary consumers) were significantly lower than that of modern atmospheric CO₂, and were lowest in 23-yr-old forest stands. Previous studies show that root biomass of C. japonica peaks at 15-30 yr after planting. These evidences suggest that soil CO₂ released by root respiration and dispersed by groundwater weathers carbonate substrata, and that dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with low Δ¹⁴C is incorporated into stream periphyton and some macroinvertebrates. The ecological response in the studied streams to clear-cutting and replanting of Japanese cedar is much slower (~20 yr) than the chemical response (< 5 yr). More than 50 yr is required for the food web structure to completely recover from clear-cutting. The ecological delay is attributed to several biogeochemical factors, the understanding of which is critical to integrated management of forest-stream continuum and the prediction of ecosystem resilience in response to environmental change. PMID:27349092

  3. Terrestrial-aquatic linkage in stream food webs along a forest chronosequence: multi-isotopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoto F; Togashi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiyazu; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Ogawa, Nanako O; Ohte, Nobuhito; Tokuchi, Naoko; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecosystem succession provides baseline data for conservation and management, as well as for understanding the dynamics of underlying biogeochemical processes. We examined the effects of deforestation and subsequent afforestation of a riparian forest of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) on stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ¹³C) and nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) and natural abundances of radiocarbon (Δ¹⁴C) in stream biota in the Mt. Gomadan Experimental Forest and the Wakayama Forest Research Station, Kyoto University, central Japan. Macroinvertebrates, periphytic algae attached to rock surfaces (periphyton), and leaf litter of terrestrial plants were collected from six headwater streams with similar climate, topography, and bedrock geology, except for the stand ages of riparian forests (from 3 to 49 yr old in five stands and > 90 yr old in one reference stand). Light intensity and δ¹³C values of both periphyton and macroinvertebrates decreased synchronously with forest age in winter. A Bayesian mixing model indicates that periphyton contributions to the stream food webs are maximized in 23-yr-old forests. Except for grazers, most macroinvertebrates showed Δ¹⁴C values similar to those of terrestrial leaf litter, reflecting the influence of modern atmospheric CO₂ Δ¹⁴C values. On the other hand, the Δ¹⁴C values of both periphyton and grazers (i.e., aquatic primary consumers) were significantly lower than that of modern atmospheric CO₂, and were lowest in 23-yr-old forest stands. Previous studies show that root biomass of C. japonica peaks at 15-30 yr after planting. These evidences suggest that soil CO₂ released by root respiration and dispersed by groundwater weathers carbonate substrata, and that dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with low Δ¹⁴C is incorporated into stream periphyton and some macroinvertebrates. The ecological response in the studied streams to clear-cutting and replanting of Japanese cedar is much slower (~20 yr) than the chemical response (< 5 yr). More than 50 yr is required for the food web structure to completely recover from clear-cutting. The ecological delay is attributed to several biogeochemical factors, the understanding of which is critical to integrated management of forest-stream continuum and the prediction of ecosystem resilience in response to environmental change.

  4. Automated Characterization of Spent Fuel through the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2012-07-31

    This research developed an algorithm for characterizing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) samples based on simulated gamma spectra. The gamma spectra for a variety of light water reactor fuels typical of those found in the United States were simulated. Fuel nuclide concentrations were simulated in ORIGEN-ARP for 1296 fuel samples with a variety of reactor designs, initial enrichments, burn ups, and cooling times. The results of the ORIGEN-ARP simulation were then input to SYNTH to simulate the gamma spectrum for each sample. These spectra were evaluated with partial least squares (PLS)-based multivariate analysis methods to characterize the fuel according to reactor type (pressurized or boiling water reactor), enrichment, burn up, and cooling time. Characterizing some of the features in series by using previously estimated features in the prediction greatly improves the performance. By first classifying the spent fuel reactor type and then using type-specific models, the prediction error for enrichment, burn up, and cooling time improved by a factor of two to four. For some features, the prediction was further improved by including additional information, such as including the predicted burn up in the estimation of cooling time. The optimal prediction flow was determined based on the simulated data. A PLS discriminate analysis model was developed which perfectly classified SNF reactor type. Burn up was predicted within 0.1% root mean squared percent error (RMSPE) and both cooling time and initial enrichment within approximately 2% RMSPE.

  5. Multi isotopic tools to understand selenium origins in groundwaters of the Chalk aquifer in Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, Lise; Gourcy, Laurence; Benabderraziq, Hind; Elkhattabi, Jamal; Laurent, Alexandra; Négrel, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Four field wells exploiting the Chalk aquifer supply Lille city in water. The little catchment area is submitted to quantitative and qualitative pressure from industrial, urban and agriculture origins. Selenium (Se) concentrations are often higher than EU standards (0.12 µmol.L-1) for potable drinking water and can reach 0.4 μmol.L-1 leading to exploitation restrictions. An integrated study was settled to determine the water sources and dynamics of elements, with a focus on Se, with the goal of managing both water quality and quantity. After a large chemical characterisation of the system, a monthly sampling campaign was held in 2012 in four wells and in the close Deûle channel. In situ physical and chemical parameters, chemical analysis of major and trace elements with a special focus on redox-sensitive elements including SeIV, SeVI, FeII, stable water isotopes (δ18O, δ2H) and δ34S and δ18O of sulphates measures were undertaken. The chemical composition of solids sampled at various depths at vicinity of the four wells was analysed. Se concentrations in groundwaters and in the solid phase vary significantly. In the northern part of the Ansereuilles north of the Deûle channel, where the highest Se concentrations in solids was found in a 13 m alluvial clay deposit above the chalk, a first main type of waters can be defined with the variable and locally highest Se concentrations (0.19 to 0.4 µmol.L-1), relatively high and stable sulphate concentrations (2.5 µmol/L), no nitrates, dissolved Fe and Mn, negative δ34S (around -20 ‰) and δ18O typical of evaporated waters. A second main type of waters can be described at Houplin, south of the Deûle channel, where the geological profile show less than 1 mg/kg of Se, with intermediate Se concentrations (0.1 to 0.2 µmol/L), variable nitrate concentrations (0.4 to 1.2 mmol/L), not quantified dissolved Fe and Mn, sulphate concentrations close to 1.5 mmol/L, variable negative δ34S (-8 to -24 ‰) and δ18O in the same trend as previously described. Groundwaters from the two other wells have characteristics relatively close to the Houplin's type. All sampled groundwaters show a variation of the stable isotopes signatures in winter indicating the contribution of evaporated of waters from a different source. Given the negative δ34S, the role of redox processes, and especially of pyrite oxidation, is expected. These two types of groundwaters can be linked to the two local hydrogeological entities of the Chalk aquifer; in the northern edge of the Deûle, the chalk groundwater flux is rather limited under the influence of the Louvil clays. On the contrary, on the southern edge of the Deûle where Houplin and the two other wells are located, the flux gradient is high and the vulnerable groundwaters drain a large cultivated, industrial and urban area. Se may at least have two origins: the lithology in the Ansereuilles can be a clear source of Se whereas different influences can be suggested for the Houplin site in connexion with the hydrogeological and anthropogenic context.

  6. Determination of geographic provenance of cotton fibres using multi-isotope profiles and multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daeid, N. Nic; Meier-Augenstein, W.; Kemp, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of cotton fibres can be particularly challenging within a forensic science context where discrimination of one fibre from another is of importance. Normally cotton fibre analysis examines the morphological structure of the recovered material and compares this with that of a known fibre from a particular source of interest. However, the conventional microscopic and chemical analysis of fibres and any associated dyes is generally unsuccessful because of the similar morphology of the fibres. Analysis of the dyes which may have been applied to the cotton fibre can also be undertaken though this can be difficult and unproductive in terms of discriminating one fibre from another. In the study presented here we have explored the potential for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to be utilised as an additional tool for cotton fibre analysis in an attempt to reveal further discriminatory information. This work has concentrated on un-dyed cotton fibres of known origin in order to expose the potential of the analytical technique. We report the results of a pilot study aimed at testing the hypothesis that multi-element stable isotope analysis of cotton fibres in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis of the resulting isotopic abundance data using well established chemometric techniques permits sample provenancing based on the determination of where the cotton was grown and as such will facilitate sample discrimination. To date there is no recorded literature of this type of application of IRMS to cotton samples, which may be of forensic science relevance.

  7. Li-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A.; Widory, D.; Bourrain, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Loire River in France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117 800 km2. Upstream, the Loire River flows following a south to north direction from the Massif Central down to the city of Orléans, 650 km from its source. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic Ocean. Over time, its basin has been exposed to numerous sources of anthropogenic metal pollutions, such as metal mining, industry, agriculture and domestic inputs. The Loire River basin is thus an excellent study site to develop new isotope systematics for tracking anthropogenic sources of metal pollutions (Zn and Pb) and also to investigate Li isotope tracing that can provide key information on the nature of weathering processes at the Loire River Basin scale. Preliminary data show that Li-Zn-Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions span a wide range in river waters of the Loire River main stream and the main tributaries. There is a clear contrast between the headwaters upstream and rivers located downstream in the lowlands. In addition, one of the major tributaries within the Massif Central (the Allier River) is clearly influenced by inputs resulting from mineralizations and thermomineral waters. The results showed that, on their own, each of these isotope systematics reveals important information about the geogenic or anthropogenic origin Li-Zn-Pb. Considered together, they are however providing a more integrated understanding of the overall budgets of these elements at the scale of the Loire River Basin.

  8. New Applications of Gamma Spectroscopy: Characterization Tools for D&D Process Development, Inventory Reduction Planning & Shipping, Safety Analysis & Facility Management During the Heavy Element Facility Risk Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M; Anderson, B; Gray, L; Vellinger, R; West, M; Gaylord, R; Larson, J; Jones, G; Shingleton, J; Harris, L; Harward, N

    2006-01-23

    Novel applications of gamma ray spectroscopy for D&D process development, inventory reduction, safety analysis and facility management are discussed in this paper. These applications of gamma spectroscopy were developed and implemented during the Risk Reduction Program (RPP) to successfully downgrade the Heavy Element Facility (B251) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from a Category II Nuclear Facility to a Radiological Facility. Non-destructive assay in general, gamma spectroscopy in particular, were found to be important tools in project management, work planning, and work control (''Expect the unexpected and confirm the expected''), minimizing worker dose, and resulted in significant safety improvements and operational efficiencies. Inventory reduction activities utilized gamma spectroscopy to identify and confirm isotopics of legacy inventory, ingrowth of daughter products and the presence of process impurities; quantify inventory; prioritize work activities for project management; and to supply information to satisfy shipper/receiver documentation requirements. D&D activities utilize in-situ gamma spectroscopy to identify and confirm isotopics of legacy contamination; quantify contamination levels and monitor the progress of decontamination efforts; and determine the point of diminishing returns in decontaminating enclosures and glove boxes containing high specific activity isotopes such as {sup 244}Cm and {sup 238}Pu. In-situ gamma spectroscopy provided quantitative comparisons of several decontamination techniques (e.g. TLC-free Stripcoat{trademark}, Radiac{trademark} wash, acid wash, scrubbing) and was used as a part of an iterative process to determine the appropriate level of decontamination and optimal cost to benefit ratio. Facility management followed a formal, rigorous process utilizing an independent, state certified, peer-reviewed gamma spectroscopy program, in conjunction with other characterization techniques, process knowledge, and

  9. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish. PMID:27058532

  10. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq).

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-04-06

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish.

  11. US graphite reactor D&D experience

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, S.M.K.; Williams, N.C.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of the U.S. Graphite Reactor Experience Task for the Decommissioning Strategy Plan for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 1 Study. The work described in this report was performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE).

  12. Citrus nobiletin suppresses bone loss in ovariectomized ddY mice and collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice: possible involvement of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis regulation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Akira; Song, Meiyu; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Bone resorption is known to accelerate during the onset of several disorders, including osteoporosis (OP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some epidemiological surveys have suggested that a high intake of vegetables and fruits has an inverse relation to such disease incidence, though the number of active constituents elucidated thus far is limited. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of various food phytochemicals using two animal models. First, female ddY mice were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (sham), after which five different compounds (phenethyl isothiocyanate, zerumbone, auraptene, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, and nobiletin) were administered separately to OVX mice with a mini-osmotic pump at doses of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/day for 4 weeks, with 17beta-estradiol (E_{2}, 0.03 microg/day) used as a positive control. Nobiletin, in contrast to the other tested phytochemicals, significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the reduction of whole bone mineral density by 61%, which was comparable to or higher than the efficacy of E_{2}. Next, nobiletin given as an i.p. administration at 20 mg/kg of body weight, but not 2 mg/kg, to male DBA/1J mice every 2 days for 12 days led to a marked decrease in type II collagen-induced arthritis by 45% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the flavonoid (4-50 microM) attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis of RAW264.7 cells, as detected by tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and microscopic observations. Of note, nobiletin also suppressed RANKL-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activities, and thereby regulated the promoter activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and activator protein-1, key transcription factors for differentiation. Together, our results suggest that nobiletin is a promising phytochemical for the prevention or treatment of osteoclastogenesis-related disorders, including

  13. Measurement of astrophysical S factors and electron screening potentials for d(d, n){sup 3}He reaction In ZrD{sub 2}, TiD{sub 2}, D{sub 2}O, and CD{sub 2} targets in the ultralow energy region using plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Bystritskii, Vit. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Filipowicz, M.; Gazi, S.; Huran, J.; Kobzev, A. P.; Mesyats, G. A.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Parzhitskii, S. S.; Pen'kov, F. M.; Philippov, A. V.; Kaminskii, V. L.; Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Wozniak, J.

    2012-01-15

    The paper is devoted to study electron screening effect influence on the rate of d(d, n){sup 3}He reaction in the ultralow deuteron collision energy range in the deuterated polyethylene (CD{sub 2}), frozen heavy water (D{sub 2}O) and deuterated metals (ZrD{sub 2} and TiD{sub 2}). The ZrD{sub 2} and TiD{sub 2} targets were fabricated via magnetron sputtering of titanium and zirconium in gas (deuterium) environment. The experiments have been carried out using high-current plasma pulsed accelerator with forming of inverse Z pinch (HCEIRAS, Russia) and pulsed Hall plasma accelerator (NPI at TPU, Russia). The detection of neutrons with energy of 2.5MeV from dd reaction was done with plastic scintillation spectrometers. As a result of the experiments the energy dependences of astrophysical S factor for the dd reaction in the deuteron collision energy range of 2-7 keV and the values of the electron screening potential U{sub e} of interacting deuterons have been measured for the indicated above target: U{sub e}(CD{sub 2}) Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 40 eV; U{sub e}(D{sub 2}O) Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 26 eV; U{sub e}(ZrD{sub 2}) = 157 {+-} 43 eV; U{sub e}(TiD{sub 2}) = 125{+-}34 eV. The value of astrophysical S factor, corresponding to the deuteron collision energy equal to zero, in the experiments with D{sub 2}O target is found: S{sub b}(0) = 58.6 {+-} 3.6 keV b. The paper compares our results with other available published experimental and calculated data.

  14. Geologic cross section D-D' through the Appalachian basin from the Findlay arch, Sandusky County, Ohio, to the Valley and Ridge province, Hardy County, West Virginia: Chapter E.4.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.; Crangle, Robert D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Lentz, Erika E.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hope, Rebecca S.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is a re-release of U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3067, of the same title, by Ryder and others (2009). For this chapter, two appendixes have been added that do not appear with the original version. Appendix A provides Log ASCII Standard (LAS) files for each drill hole along cross-section D-D'; they are text files which encode gamma-ray, neutron, density, and other logs that can be used by most well-logging software. Appendix B provides graphic well-log traces and lithologic descriptions with formation tops from each drill hole.

  15. Mineral inclusions and geochemical characteristics of microdiamonds from the DO27, A154, A21, A418, DO18, DD17 and Ranch Lake kimberlites at Lac de Gras, Slave Craton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rondi M.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Doyle, Buddy J.

    2004-09-01

    A mineral inclusion, carbon isotope, nitrogen content, nitrogen aggregation state and morphological study of 576 microdiamonds from the DO27, A154, A21, A418, DO18, DD17 and Ranch Lake kimberlites at Lac de Gras, Slave Craton, was conducted. Mineral inclusion data show the diamonds are largely eclogitic (64%), followed by peridotitic (25%) and ultradeep (11%). The paragenetic abundances are similar to macrodiamonds from the DO27 kimberlite (Davies, R.M., Griffin, W.L., O'Reilly, S.Y., 1999. Diamonds from the deep: pipe DO27, Slave craton, Canada. In: Gurney, J.J., Gurney, J.L., Pascoe, M.D., Richardson, S.H. (Eds.), The J. B. Dawson Vol., Proc. 7th Internat. Kimberlite Conf., Red Roof Designs, Cape Town, pp. 148-155) but differ to diamonds from nearby kimberlites at Ekati (e.g., Lithos (2004); Tappert, R., Stachel, T., Harris, J.W., Brey, G.P., 2004. Mineral Inclusions in Diamonds from the Panda Kimberlite, S. P., Canada. 8th International Kimberlite Conference, extended abstracts) and Snap Lake to the south (Dokl. Earth Sci. 380 (7) (2001) 806), that are dominated by peridotitic stones. Eclogitic diamonds with variable inclusion compositions and temperatures of formation (1040-1300 °C) crystallised at variable lithospheric depths sometimes in changing chemical environments. A large range to very 13C-depleted C-isotope compositions ( δ13C=-35.8‰ to -2.2‰) and an NMORB bulk composition, calculated from trace elements in garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions, are consistent with an origin from subducted oceanic crust and sediments. Carbon isotopes in the peridotitic diamonds have mantle compositions ( δ13C mode -4.0‰). Mineral inclusion compositions are largely harzburgitic. Variable temperatures of formation (garnet TNi=800-1300 °C) suggest the peridotitic diamonds originate from the shallow ultra-depleted and deeper less depleted layers of the central Slave lithosphere. Carbon isotopes ( δ13C av.=-5.1‰) and mineral inclusions in the ultradeep diamonds

  16. Measurement of the differential cross section of the photoinitiated reactive collision of O((1)D)+D(2) using only one molecular beam: A study by three dimensional velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Kauczok, S; Maul, C; Chichinin, A I; Gericke, K-H

    2010-06-28

    velocities. Using the benchmark system O((1)D)+D(2) with N(2)O as the precursor, we demonstrate that the technique is also applicable in a very general sense (i.e., also with a large spread in reactant velocities, products much faster than reactants) and therefore can be used also if such unfortunate conditions cannot be avoided. Since the resulting distribution of velocities in the laboratory frame is not cylindrically symmetric, three dimensional velocity mapping is the method of choice for the detection of the ionized products. For the reconstruction, the distance between the two laser beams is an important parameter. We have measured this distance using the photodissociation of HBr at 193 nm, detecting the H atoms near 243 nm. The collision energy resulting from the 193 nm photodissociation of N(2)O is 5.2+/-1.9 kcal/mol. Our results show a preference for backward scattered D atoms with the OH partner fragment in the high vibrational states (v=4-6), in accord with previously published results claiming the growing importance of a linear abstraction mechanism for collision energies higher than 2.4 kcal/mol.

  17. Natural and anthropogenic variations in the Po river waters (northern Italy): insights from a multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Marchina, Chiara; Bianchini, Gianluca; Knoeller, Kay; Natali, Claudio; Pennisi, Maddalena; Colombani, Nicolò

    2016-12-01

    Po is the main Italian river and the δ(18)O and δ(2)H of its water reveal a similarity between the current meteoric fingerprint and that of the past represented by groundwater. As concerns the hydrochemisty, the Ca-HCO3 facies remained constant over the last 50 year, and only nitrate significantly increased from less than 1 mg/L to more than 10 mg/L in the 1980s, and then attenuated to a value of 9 mg/L. Coherently, δ(13)CDIC and δ(34)SSO4 are compatible with the weathering of the lithologies outcropping in the basin, while extremely variable δ(15)NNO3 indicates contribution from pollutants released by urban, agricultural and zootechnical activities. This suggests that although the origin of the main constituents of the Po river water is geogenic, anthropogenic contributions are locally significant. Noteworthy, the associated aquifers have the same nitrogen isotopic signature of the Po river, but are characterized by significantly higher NO(-) 3 concentration. This implies that aquifers' pollution is not ascribed to inflow of current river water, and that the attenuation of the nitrogen load recorded in the river is not occurring in the aquifers, due to their longer water residence time and delayed recovery from anthropogenic contamination. PMID:26982695

  18. Natural and anthropogenic variations in the Po river waters (northern Italy): insights from a multi-isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Marchina, Chiara; Bianchini, Gianluca; Knoeller, Kay; Natali, Claudio; Pennisi, Maddalena; Colombani, Nicolò

    2016-12-01

    Po is the main Italian river and the δ(18)O and δ(2)H of its water reveal a similarity between the current meteoric fingerprint and that of the past represented by groundwater. As concerns the hydrochemisty, the Ca-HCO3 facies remained constant over the last 50 year, and only nitrate significantly increased from less than 1 mg/L to more than 10 mg/L in the 1980s, and then attenuated to a value of 9 mg/L. Coherently, δ(13)CDIC and δ(34)SSO4 are compatible with the weathering of the lithologies outcropping in the basin, while extremely variable δ(15)NNO3 indicates contribution from pollutants released by urban, agricultural and zootechnical activities. This suggests that although the origin of the main constituents of the Po river water is geogenic, anthropogenic contributions are locally significant. Noteworthy, the associated aquifers have the same nitrogen isotopic signature of the Po river, but are characterized by significantly higher NO(-) 3 concentration. This implies that aquifers' pollution is not ascribed to inflow of current river water, and that the attenuation of the nitrogen load recorded in the river is not occurring in the aquifers, due to their longer water residence time and delayed recovery from anthropogenic contamination.

  19. Multi-isotope tracing of CO2 leakage and water-rock interaction in a natural CCS analogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Gemeni, Vasiliki; Lions, Julie; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Humez, Pauline; Vasilatos, Charalampos; Millot, Romain; Pauwels, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    Natural analogues of CO2 accumulation and, potentially, leakage, provide a highly valuable opportunity to study (1) geochemical processes within a CO2-reservoir and the overlying aquifers or aquicludes, i.e. gas-water-rock interactions, (2) geology and tightness of reservoirs over geological timescales, (3) potential or real leakage pathways, (3) impact of leakage on shallow groundwater resources quality, and (4) direct and indirect geochemical indicators of gas leakage (Lions et al., 2014, Humez et al., 2014). The Florina Basin in NW Macedonia, Greece, contains a deep CO2-rich aquifer within a graben structure. The graben filling consists of highly heterogeneous Neogene clastic sediments constituted by components from the adjacent massifs including carbonates, schists, gneiss as well as some ultramafic volcanic rocks. Clay layers are observed that isolate hydraulically the deep, partly artesian aquifer. Organic matter, in form of lignite accumulations, is abundant in the Neogene series. The underlying bedrocks are metamorphic carbonates and silicate rocks. The origin of the CO2 accumulation is controversial (deep, partially mantle-derived D'Allessandro et al., 2008 or resulting from thermal decomposition of carbonates, Hatziyannis and Arvanitis, 2011). Groundwaters have been sampled from springs and borewells over 3 years at different depths. First results on major, minor and trace elements give evidence of water-rock interaction, mainly with carbonates but also with ultramafic components but do not indicate that CO2-seepage is the principal driver of those processes (Gemeni et al., submitted). Here we present isotope data on a selection of groundwaters (δ2H , δ18O, δ13CTDIC, 87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, δ7Li). Stable isotopes of water indicate paleo-recharge for some of the groundwaters, limited exchange with gaseous CO2 and, in one case, possibly thermal exchange processes with silicates. Sr isotope ratios vary between marine ratios and radiogenic values indicating interaction with carbonates and silicates. Both δ11B and δ7Li show a very large range of variation and fairly good correlation, between -29.7 o and +24o vs. NBS951 for boron and -11o and +20.4o vs. L-SVEC for lithium. The negative δ11B and δ7Li values are among the lowest reported in literature for groundwaters, comparable only to values observed for boron in case of geothermal fluids interaction with clay minerals (Pennisi et al., 2009) or in some amphiboles (e.g. Gillis et al., 2003) or lithium in ultramafic rocks (Nishio et al., 2004). Those variations reflect water-rock interaction with the silicate fraction of the highly heterogeneous graben filling but no clear indication of enhanced reactions due to CO2 intrusion has been found. The δ13C values of TDIC are also strongly variable (-10.5 to +15 o vs. PDB), reflecting biogenic inputs (e.g. from lignite layers), dissolution of carbonates and, potentially, methanogenesis through CO2 reduction. D' Alessandro W., Bellomo S., Brusca L., Karakazanis S., Kyriakopoulos K., and Liotta M. (2011) The impact on water quality of the high carbon dioxide contents of the groundwater in the area of Florina (N. Greece), Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment. Springer. Gillis K. M., Coogan L. A., and Chaussidon M. (2003) Volatile element (B, Cl, F) behaviour in the roof of an axial magma chamber from the East Pacific Rise. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 213, 447-462. Hatziyannis G. and Arvanitits A. (2011) Natural analogues of CO2 leakage in Florina area, N. Greece., 2nd CGS Europe Knowledge Sharing Workshop Natural Analogues, Maria Laach, Germany, October 17-19, 2011, pp. Humez P., Negrel P., Lagneau V., Lions J., Kloppmann W., Gal F., Millot R., Guerrot C., Flehoc C., Widory D., and Girard J. F. (2014) CO2-water-mineral reactions during CO2 leakage: Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of a CO2 injection field test. Chem. Geol. 368, 11-30. Lions J., Humez P., Pauwels H., Kloppmann W., and Czernichowski-Lauriol I. (2014) Tracking leakage from a natural CO2 reservoir (Montmiral, France) through the chemistry and isotope signatures of shallow groundwater. Greenhouse Gases-Science and Technology 4, 225-243. Pennisi M., Bianchini G., Kloppmann W., and Muti A. (2009) Chemical and isotopic (B, Sr) composition of alluvial sediments as archive of a past hydrothermal outflow. Chem. Geol. 266, 123-134. Gemeni V., Vasilatos C., Koukouzas N., Kanellopoulos C. (submitted) Factors controlling the chemistry of the groundwater in a CO2 natural field: The case of Florina Basin, W. Macedonia, Greece. Submitted to Appl. Geochem.

  20. On the longevity of silicic magma based on multi-isotope investigation of zircons and modeling their survivals destinies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Wotzlaw, J. F.; Melnik, O. E.

    2015-12-01

    Large volumes of crystal poor, near-liquidus rhyolites are erupted worldwide as tuffs and lavas in rift and hot spots more common previously on early earth, creating temporally very high magma production rates. In this contribution we combine results of IDTIMS dating of zircons with numerical modeling of zircon crystallization. New investigation of zircons in major Yellowstone tuffs: Huckleberry Ridge (Members A,B,C), Mesa Falls, and Lava Creek (A,B) tuffs was done by a combination of in situ measurements of oxygen isotopes followed by ID-TIMS U-Pb dating, Hf isotopes and trace elemental investigation of single crystals. We discover that nearly all zircons are of eruption age, but display significant isotope (O,Hf) diversity and often show decoupled O and Hf isotope systematics. This record rapid (~103yrs) double or triple remelting and sequestration from diverse Archean crust and hydrothermally altered shallow-crustal rocks from previous eruptive cycles, followed by effective mixing of co-existing magma reservoirs with diverse zircons prior to eruptions. Similar results characterize other studied Snake River Plain rhyolites in pre-Yellowstone Heise complex. These results collectively suggest that zircons crystallize after reheating above saturation rejuvenation in isotopically-diverse areas of the crust in the magma plumbing system. Modeling of zircon and quartz dissolution and crystallization trajectories outline conditions of survival (inheritance) vs complete dissolution on conductive timescales, and when combined with a phase diagram, magma T-t paths can be computed. Zircon rejuvenation requires hot, >770-800°C peak temperatures lasting 10-102yrs. We speculate that near liquidus hot and dry Yellowstone rhyolites are kept alive in a multi-batch state by a series of interconnected pods and sills that can rapidly get thermomechanically assembled into large, shallow and eruptable supervolcanoic magma bodies. We suggest that overpressure and roof dynamics and rheology plays a more important role than magma buyoncy. The runaway batch assembly process creates temporally very high magma production rates, orders of magnitude higher than for arc volcanoes. Such views have implication for the state of the magma chamber under Yellowstone and similar supervolcanoes elsewhere.

  1. Groundwater origin and flow dynamics in active rift systems - A multi-isotope approach in the Main Ethiopian Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretzler, Anja; Osenbrück, Karsten; Gloaguen, Richard; Ruprecht, Janina S.; Kebede, Seifu; Stadler, Susanne

    2011-05-01

    SummaryThis study aims to investigate groundwater recharge and flow patterns in tectonically active rift systems, exemplified by a case study in the Main Ethiopian Rift. The chosen approach includes the investigation of hydrochemical parameters and environmental isotopes ( 3H, δ 2H, δ 18O, δ 13C-DIC, 14C-DIC, 87Sr/ 86Sr). Apparent groundwater ages were determined by radiocarbon dating after correction of 14C-DIC using a modified δ 13C-mixing model and further validation using geochemical modelling with NETPATH. Hydrochemical and isotopic data indicate an evolutionary trend existing from the escarpments towards the Rift floor. Groundwater evolves from tritium-containing and hence recently recharged Ca-HCO 3-type water on the escarpments to tritium-free Na-HCO 3 groundwater dominating deep Rift floor aquifers. Correspondingly, rising pH and HCO3- values coupled with increasingly enriched δ 13C signatures point to hydrochemical evolution of DIC and beginning dilution of the carbon isotope signature by other carbon sources, related to a diffuse influx of mantle CO 2 into the groundwater system. Especially thermal groundwater sampled near the most recent fault zones in the Fantale/Beseka region displays clear influence of mantle CO 2 and increased water-rock interaction, indicated by a shift in δ 13C and 87Sr/ 86Sr signatures. The calculation of apparent groundwater ages revealed an age increase of deep groundwater from the escarpments to the Rift floor, complying with hydrochemical evolution. Within the Rift, samples show a relatively uniform distribution of apparent 14C ages of ˜1800 to ˜2800 years, with the expected down-gradient aging trend lacking, contradicting the predominant intra-rift groundwater flow described in existing transect-based models of groundwater flow. By combining hydrochemical and new isotopic data with knowledge of the structural geology of the Rift, we improve the existing groundwater flow model and propose a new conceptual model by identifying flow paths both transversal and longitudinal to the main Rift axis, the latter being strongly controlled by faulted and tilted blocks on the escarpment steps. The connection between groundwater flow and fault direction make this model applicable to other active rift systems with similar structural settings.

  2. Identification and characterisation of potential sources of nitrate pollution in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) applying a multi-isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A.; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L.; Böttcher, M. E.; Savarino, J.; Escher, P.; Eisenhauer, A.; Erbland, J.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrate (δ15N, δ18O and Δ17O), boron (δ11B) and water (δ2H and δ18O) were used to identify and characterize of multiple nitrate pollution sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and part of its catchment area. The stable isotopes in nitrate measured by the denitrifier method have been adopted to differentiate among nitrate coming from agriculture (synthetic and natural fertilizers), airborne nitrate and nitrate from nitrification processes in soils. Boron isotopes have been used to identify the impact of domestic wastewaters to the aquatic system using the LA-MC-ICP-MS method. The combined use of NO3 and B isotopes has proved to be an effective means in identifying multiple nitrate pollution sources because these isotopes co-migrate in many environmental settings, their isotopes are fractionated by different environmental processes, and because wastewater and fertilizers may have distinct isotopic signatures for N and B. The stable isotopes of water have been used to calculate mixing ratios between sea and fresh water as well as to estimate the mean altitude of the recharge area of surface waters. Additionally, the stable isotopes of sulphate (δ34S and δ18O) have been adopted to trace natural and anthropogenic sources of sulphur in agricultural watersheds as well as in coastal systems. In order to characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, PO43-, total phosphorus and total boron have been analyzed. Moreover, the physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature have been measured. To identify the origins and fate of nitrate a water monitoring program was implemented in the Marano lagoon and part of its catchment area. The water monitoring program involved the collection of water samples from the lagoon, its tributary rivers, the groundwater up-welling line, groundwater, sewer pipe and open sea on a quarterly interval from 2009 to 2010.

  3. Mapping the Elephants of the 19th Century East African Ivory Trade with a Multi-Isotope Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Thorp, Julia; Collins, Matthew J.; Lane, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    East African elephants have been hunted for their ivory for millennia but the nineteenth century witnessed strongly escalating demand from Europe and North America. It has been suggested that one consequence was that by the 1880s elephant herds along the coast had become scarce, and to meet demand, trade caravans trekked farther into interior regions of East Africa, extending the extraction frontier. The steady decimation of elephant populations coupled with the extension of trade networks have also been claimed to have triggered significant ecological and socio-economic changes that left lasting legacies across the region. To explore the feasibility of using an isotopic approach to uncover a ‘moving frontier’ of elephant extraction, we constructed a baseline isotope data set (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) for historic East African elephants known to have come from three distinct regions (coastal, Rift Valley, and inland Lakes). Using the isotope results with other climate data and geographical mapping tools, it was possible to characterise elephants from different habitats across the region. This baseline data set was then used to provenance elephant ivory of unknown geographical provenance that was exported from East Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to determine its likely origin. This produced a better understanding of historic elephant geography in the region, and the data have the potential to be used to provenance older archaeological ivories, and to inform contemporary elephant conservation strategies. PMID:27760152

  4. Alpha contamination assessment for D&D activities: Technology overview

    SciTech Connect

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail.

  5. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D. L.; Vainionpaa, J. H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Harris, J. L.; Fuller, M. J.; Cremer, J. T.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Kwan, J. W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R. A.

    2008-08-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1E10 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators' applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  6. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-02-15

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation.

  7. 76 FR 79275 - Truth in Savings (Regulation DD)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... republishing regulations with Bureau part numbers that correspond to regulations in existence prior to the... obligations on regulated entities. \\3\\ See 76 FR 42020 (July 18, 2011). B. Specific Changes In addition to the.... See 76 FR 43569 (July 21, 2011). See also footnote 2, supra. \\5\\ Public Law 111-203, section...

  8. Meteoric fluids in the South Tibetan Detachment and palaeoaltimetry of Central Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gébelin, Aude; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Jessup, Micah J.; Brunel, Maurice; Cosca, Michael A.; Law, Rick D.

    2015-04-01

    The South Tibetan Detachment (STD) is one of the most fundamental structures within the Himalayan orogenic belt. It exposes a mylonite zone over a distance of > 1500 km along strike that is hundreds of metres thick and separates Paleozoic sedimentary units from high-grade metamorphic rocks and syntectonic leucogranites. In this study, we document the infiltration of meteoric fluids in the STD footwall at ~15 Ma when recrystallized hydrous minerals equilibrated with evolved meteoric water and therefore recorded the hydrogen isotope composition of water present during mylonitic deformation. Although these minerals deformed and recrystallized at significant depth (~10 km), they can be used as palaeoelevation proxies if they can be temporally and kinematically linked to the evolution of the STD. Stable isotope palaeoaltimetry uses the systematic relationship between the oxygen (d18O) and hydrogen (dD) isotope ratios of rainfall that scale with elevation in a predictable fashion (~2.8 per mil in d18O or ~22 per mil in dD per km). Here, we present palaeoaltimetry estimates based on the hydrogen isotope composition of synkinematic micas and amphiboles collected over 200 m of structural section from the STD into the underlying mylonitic footwall at Rongbuk Valley (Mount Everest region). Biotites reveal a very constant pattern of mid-Miocene 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages and exchanged isotopically at high temperature with D-depleted water (dDwater ~ -150 ±5 per mil) that originated from high-elevation precipitation and infiltrated the crustal hydrologic system at that time. To eliminate a climate impact on our palaeoelevation estimates, the hydrogen isotope record from the high elevation STD is compared to time-equivalent low-elevation foreland d18O records. Our palaeoaltimetry results indicate that the mean elevation of Mount Everest region during the mid-Miocene was similar to today (~5200 m). This has two main implications: (1) Strengthening of the Asian Summer Monsoon may

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Dd of... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Benzotrichloride (isomers and mixture) 0.958 100-44-7 Benzyl chloride 1.000 92-52-4 Biphenyl 0.864 542-88-1 Bis... 0.499 110-54-3 Hexane 1.000 78-59-1 Isophorone 0.506 58-89-9 Lindane (all isomers) 1.000 67-56-1...-Dichloroethylene) 1.000 1330-20-7 Xylenes (isomers and mixture) 1.000 95-47-6 o-Xylenes 1.000 108-38-3 m-Xylenes...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Dd of... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Benzotrichloride (isomers and mixture) 0.958 100-44-7 Benzyl chloride 1.000 92-52-4 Biphenyl 0.864 542-88-1 Bis... 0.499 110-54-3 Hexane 1.000 78-59-1 Isophorone 0.506 58-89-9 Lindane (all isomers) 1.000 67-56-1...-Dichloroethylene) 1.000 1330-20-7 Xylenes (isomers and mixture) 1.000 95-47-6 o-Xylenes 1.000 108-38-3 m-Xylenes...

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Dd of... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Benzotrichloride (isomers and mixture) 0.958 100-44-7 Benzyl chloride 1.000 92-52-4 Biphenyl 0.864 542-88-1 Bis... 0.499 110-54-3 Hexane 1.000 78-59-1 Isophorone 0.506 58-89-9 Lindane (all isomers) 1.000 67-56-1...-Dichloroethylene) 1.000 1330-20-7 Xylenes (isomers and mixture) 1.000 95-47-6 o-Xylenes 1.000 108-38-3 m-Xylenes...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Dd of... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Benzotrichloride (isomers and mixture) 0.958 100-44-7 Benzyl chloride 1.000 92-52-4 Biphenyl 0.864 542-88-1 Bis... 0.499 110-54-3 Hexane 1.000 78-59-1 Isophorone 0.506 58-89-9 Lindane (all isomers) 1.000 67-56-1...-Dichloroethylene) 1.000 1330-20-7 Xylenes (isomers and mixture) 1.000 95-47-6 o-Xylenes 1.000 108-38-3 m-Xylenes...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Dd of... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart DD

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Benzotrichloride (isomers and mixture) 0.958 100-44-7 Benzyl chloride 1.000 92-52-4 Biphenyl 0.864 542-88-1 Bis... 0.499 110-54-3 Hexane 1.000 78-59-1 Isophorone 0.506 58-89-9 Lindane (all isomers) 1.000 67-56-1...-Dichloroethylene) 1.000 1330-20-7 Xylenes (isomers and mixture) 1.000 95-47-6 o-Xylenes 1.000 108-38-3 m-Xylenes...

  14. 76 FR 82003 - Submission for Review: DD 1918 Establishment Information Form, DD 1919 Wage Data Collection Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on August 16, 2011, at Volume 76 FR 50771 allowing for a 60-day public... Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter 35) as amended by the Clinger-Cohen Act (Pub. L....

  15. A study protocol for quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) by LC-MS/MS: application for inter-strain differences in protein expression levels of transporters, receptors, claudin-5, and marker proteins at the blood–brain barrier in ddY, FVB, and C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteomics has opened a new horizon in biological sciences. Global proteomic analysis is a promising technology for the discovery of thousands of proteins, post-translational modifications, polymorphisms, and molecular interactions in a variety of biological systems. The activities and roles of the identified proteins must also be elucidated, but this is complicated by the inability of conventional proteomic methods to yield quantitative information for protein expression. Thus, a variety of biological systems remain “black boxes”. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) enables the determination of absolute expression levels (mol) of any target protein, including low-abundance functional proteins, such as transporters and receptors. Therefore, QTAP will be useful for understanding the activities and roles of individual proteins and their differences, including normal/disease, human/animal, or in vitro/in vivo. Here, we describe the study protocols and precautions for QTAP experiments including in silico target peptide selection, determination of peptide concentration by amino acid analysis, setup of selected/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) analysis in liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, preparation of protein samples (brain capillaries and plasma membrane fractions) followed by the preparation of peptide samples, simultaneous absolute quantification of target proteins by SRM/MRM analysis, data analysis, and troubleshooting. An application of QTAP in biological sciences was introduced that utilizes data from inter-strain differences in the protein expression levels of transporters, receptors, tight junction proteins and marker proteins at the blood–brain barrier in ddY, FVB, and C57BL/6J mice. Among 18 molecules, 13 (abcb1a/mdr1a/P-gp, abcc4/mrp4, abcg2/bcrp, slc2a1/glut1, slc7a5/lat1, slc16a1/mct1, slc22a8/oat3, insr, lrp1, tfr1, claudin-5, Na+/K+-ATPase, and γ-gtp) were detected in the isolated brain capillaries, and their

  16. First steps toward development of a stable isotope forward model for tropical ice cores: cold air incursions and snow days at Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, J. V.; Vuille, M. F.; Hardy, D. R.; Burns, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We are working towards a forward-model reconstruction of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) for the last millennium from the Quelccaya Ice Cap (QIC) d18O record. QIC receives precipitation almost exclusively during the SASM season. Initial efforts focus on dynamics that yield precipitation at this receding tropical ice cap, and how they relate to the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes. We present over a decade of daily snow-height change observations from the summit of QIC. Accumulation of snow (~2 m yr-1) at the summit occurs October through April, peaking in December. Net monthly snow-height change is negative May through September, though positive snow height change days do occur throughout the year. Snow height change time-series are used to develop d18O age-models for annual snow collected in vertical profiles near the summit of QIC since 2003. Snow d18O decreases during austral summer from about -17 to -24 per mil VSMOW. Post-depositional alteration of late summer snow during austral winter elevates d18O from about -24 to about -15 per mil VSMOW. Timing of 90thpercentile positive snow-height change events at QIC corresponds with regional precipitation and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies that are dynamically triggered by cold air incursions propagating from the midlatitudes east of the Andes into the Amazon Basin. Precipitation and OLR anomalies migrate northwest in about 2-3 days from near Rio de la Plata to central Peru. The convective anomalies are the result of southerly horizontal wind anomalies in the lower troposphere that advect cold extratropical air equatorward. Composite analysis of satellite measurements shows that cold air incursions are associated with negative water vapor dD (~ -40 per mil) anomalies at QIC. We expect that snow stable isotope values from QIC are thus not only records of the deep overturning component of the monsoon circulation but also of synoptic scale monsoon disturbances. Cold air incursions into the South

  17. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  18. Multi-isotope ((15)N, (18)O and (13)C) indicators of sources and fate of nitrate in the upper stream of Chaobai River, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai; Jiang, Yongbin; Guo, Xinyue; Cao, Yang; Ji, Hongbing

    2014-11-01

    Dual isotopes of nitrate ((15)N and (18)O) and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon ((13)C) together with water chemistry were used to identify the sources and fate of nitrate in the upper stream of Chaobai River, north China. The results show that NO3(-) concentrations ranges from 0.03 mmol L(-1) to 0.80 mmol L(-1). Sampling sites from watershed with dominant forest land had higher NO3(-) concentrations and lower δ(15)N-NO3(-) (<10‰) in the wet season than in the dry season, while those from watershed with more anthropogenic activities had lower NO3(-) concentrations and higher δ(15)N-NO3(-) (>10‰) in the wet season. Compositions of isotopes and chemistry indicated that NO3(-) originated mainly from soil N, sewage and livestock wastes and atmospheric nitrogen. Furthermore, the mixing model suggested that soil N was the major NO3(-) source in the wet season, while the sewage and livestock wastes contributed the most in the dry season. Compared to rivers, the Miyun Reservoir had a higher contribution of atmospheric N and the N input from the upper rivers exerted significant influence over the reservoir. Mineralization and nitrification played an important role in N biogeochemistry based on the isotopes ((15)N and (18)O and (13)C) and chemical data. There appeared to be no significant denitrification in the watershed according to the three isotopes and chemical ions. The combined use of (15)N, (18)O and (13)C proved to be useful for further identification of the sources and fate of nitrate in watersheds with dominant forest land in the wet season. PMID:25283837

  19. The hydro- and multi-isotope geochemistry of iron-rich ground waters emerging at the southern Baltic Sea coast line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipka, Marko; Wu, Zijun; Escher, Peter; Struck, Ulrich; Dellwig, Olaf; Schafmeister, Maria; Böttcher*, Michael E.

    2013-04-01

    Iron-rich groundwater springs emerging at the shore zone of the southern Baltic Sea (BS; Site Meschendorf) were examined on a seasonal base for a period of about two years. Besides major, minor, and trace elements, stable isotopes of water (H-2, O-18), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; C-13), and sulfate (S-34) were analyzed. The stream bed sediment was extracted for the geochemistry of the newly formed precipitates and further characterized via SEM-EDAX. Subsequently, the hydrogeochemical results were subjected to a thermodynamic analysis via the PHREEQC speciation model. The springs emerge from small pits (about 60 cm diameter; up to 15cm depth). Surrounding sediments are sandy with gravels found at depth and corresponding high permeabilities. The positions of different springs on the shore zone were stable during the investigation period while the shape of the pits and the stream beds may vary due to wind- and wave-driven forces. Selected measurements of spring yield discharges close to 10 L/min. The H-2 and O-18 contents of the spring waters indicate the ground water to originate from relatively young mixed meteoric waters. The hydrochemistry of the springs was similar and showed some variability in between which indicates that the genetic processes for the ground water before reaching the surface may slightly differ. The springs are characterized by dissolved Ca, Mg, Na, DIC and sulfate, mainly reflecting the interaction with soils and bedrocks in the recharge area that is dominated by marly till. The oxygen-free ground water is rich in Fe, P, and DIC. Iron and dissolved sulfate originate from the oxidation of pyrite, as further confirmed by the 34-S signature of sulfate. The carbon isotope signature of DIC indicates a mixture of biogenic CO2 from the soil zone with some water-rock interaction with carbonate minerals. The streams flow towards the BS and, in contact with the atmosphere, outgas carbon dioxide and takes up oxygen. Upon CO2-degassing, C-12 is preferentially desorbed from the aqueous solution. The changes in the stream composition lead to the formation of iron(oxyhyr)oxide precipitates in the stream bed before the waters pass to underground drainage into a subterranean mixing zone with brackish BS waters. These ochrous precipitates act as a sink for dissolved phosphate and minor calcium. P : Fe ratios and Ca : Fe ratios are about 0.08 and 0.2, respectively, which are caused by P adsorption and a mixture with minor CaCO3 and/or Ca-phosphate. The investigation reveals that the surface precipitation on the beach leads to the formation of SGD essentially free of dissolved iron and strongly depleted in phosphate. Similar iron phases may also be an important part of the subterranean estuary supposed at that coast line, where retention of nutrients and heavy metals by iron(oxyhydr)oxides could influence the release of nutrients into the coastal ecosystem. Fe- and P-rich surface precipitates, however, are transported in suspension into the Baltic Sea during wind-driven flood events. Acknowledgements: This work was partly supported by the BONUS+ project AMBER and the Leibniz IOW.

  20. Tracing Anthropogenic Salinity Inputs to the Semi-arid Rio Grande River: A Multi-isotope Tracer (U, S, B and Sr) Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, S.; Nyachoti, S. K.; Ma, L.; Szynkiewicz, A.; McIntosh, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    High salinity in the Rio Grande has led to severe reductions in crop productivity and accumulation of salts in soils. These pressing issues exist for other arid rivers worldwide. Salinity contributions to the Rio Grande have not been adequately quantified, especially from agriculture, urban activities, and geological sources. Here, we use major element concentrations and U, S, B, Sr isotopic signatures to fingerprint the salinity sources. Our study area focuses on a 200 km long stretch of the Rio Grande from Elephant Butte Reservoir, NM to El Paso, TX. River samples were collected monthly from 2014 to 2015. Irrigation drains, groundwater wells, city drains and wastewater effluents were sampled as possible anthropogenic salinity end-members. Major element chemistry, U, S and Sr isotope ratios in the Rio Grande waters suggest multiple salinity inputs from geological, agricultural, and urban sources. Natural upwelling of groundwater is significant for the Rio Grande near Elephant Butte, as suggested by high TDS values and high (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S ratios. Agricultural activities (e.g. flood irrigation, groundwater pumping, fertilizer use) are extensive in the Mesilla Valley. Rio Grande waters from this region have characteristic lower (234U/238U), 87Sr/86Sr, and δ34S ratios, with possible agricultural sources from use of fertilizers and gypsum. Agricultural practices during flood irrigation also intensify evaporation of Rio Grande surface water and considerably increase water salinity. Shallow groundwater signatures were also identified at several river locations, possibly due to the artificial pumping of local groundwater for irrigation. Impacts of urban activities to river chemistry (high NO3 and B concentrations) were evident for locations downstream to Las Cruces and El Paso wastewater treatment plants, supporting the use of the B isotope as an urban salinity tracer. This study improves our understanding of human impacts on water quality and elemental cycles.

  1. Multi-isotope comparison of 3He, 21Ne, and 36Cl moraine ages from the high-altitude central Puna Plateau, NW Argentina (24°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Lisa; Bookhagen, Bodo; Niedermann, Samuel; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, Andreas; Strecker, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Glacial deposits on the high-altitude, arid Puna Plateau of northwestern Argentina document past changes in climate, but the associated geomorphic features have never been directly dated. The plateau is situated in the "Arid Diagonal," the hyper-arid transition zone between the Westerlies precipitation dominated southern Andes, and the South American Summer Monsoon controlled central Andes. Despite the climatically critical position of the Puna Plateau, paleoclimate data for the region is extremely sparse. This study provides direct age control of glacial moraine deposits from the central Puna Plateau (24°S) at elevations of 4500-5000 m through cosmogenic surface exposure dating. The volcanic lithologies of the deposits additionally allow for comparison of production rates from multiple cosmogenic isotope systems at low latitude and high elevation. Moraine boulders were dated using cosmogenic 3He from pyroxene, 21Ne from quartz, and 36Cl from feldspars. Preliminary data suggests that the most extensive glaciation occurred more than 80 ka ago, and that an additional prominent advance occurred at ~39 ka. In addition, comparison of isotope production ratios from low latitude and high elevation will contribute to better constrained production rates, particularly for 36Cl, for which global production rate estimates are highly variable. This study documents Quaternary climate changes on the Puna Plateau, while at the same time improving production rate agreement between multiple cosmogenic isotope systems.

  2. Coastal groundwater salinization: Focus on the vertical variability in a multi-layered aquifer through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Roussillon Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Négrel, Philippe; Aunay, Bertrand; Ladouche, Bernard; Bailly-Comte, Vincent; Guerrot, Catherine; Flehoc, Christine; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The Roussillon sedimentary Basin (South France) is a complex multi-layered aquifer, close to the Mediterranean Sea facing seasonally increases of water abstraction and salinization issues. We report geochemical and isotopic vertical variability in this aquifer using groundwater sampled with a Westbay System® at two coastal monitoring sites: Barcarès and Canet. The Westbay sampling allows pointing out and explaining the variation of water quality along vertical profiles, both in productive layers and in the less permeable ones where most of the chemical processes are susceptible to take place. The aquifer layers are not equally impacted by salinization, with electrical conductivity ranging from 460 to 43,000μS·cm(-1). The δ(2)H-δ(18)O signatures show mixing between seawater and freshwater components with long water residence time as evidenced by the lack of contribution from modern water using (3)H, (14)C and CFCs/SF6. S(SO4) isotopes also evidence seawater contribution but some signatures can be related to oxidation of pyrite and/or organically bounded S. In the upper layers (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are close to that of seawater and then increase with depth, reflecting water-rock interaction with argillaceous formations while punctual low values reflect interaction with carbonate. Boron isotopes highlight secondary processes such as adsorption/desorption onto clays in addition to mixings. At the Barcarès site (120m deep), the high salinity in some layers appear to be related neither to present day seawater intrusion, nor to Salses-Leucate lagoonwater intrusion. Groundwater chemical composition thus highlights binary mixing between fresh groundwater and inherited salty water together with cation exchange processes, water-rock interactions and, locally, sedimentary organic matter mineralisation probably enhanced by pyrite oxidation. Finally, combining the results of this study and those of Caballero and Ladouche (2015), we discuss the possible future evolution of this aquifer system under global change, as well as the potential management strategies needed to preserve quantitatively and qualitatively this water resource. PMID:27232967

  3. Coastal groundwater salinization: Focus on the vertical variability in a multi-layered aquifer through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Roussillon Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Négrel, Philippe; Aunay, Bertrand; Ladouche, Bernard; Bailly-Comte, Vincent; Guerrot, Catherine; Flehoc, Christine; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The Roussillon sedimentary Basin (South France) is a complex multi-layered aquifer, close to the Mediterranean Sea facing seasonally increases of water abstraction and salinization issues. We report geochemical and isotopic vertical variability in this aquifer using groundwater sampled with a Westbay System® at two coastal monitoring sites: Barcarès and Canet. The Westbay sampling allows pointing out and explaining the variation of water quality along vertical profiles, both in productive layers and in the less permeable ones where most of the chemical processes are susceptible to take place. The aquifer layers are not equally impacted by salinization, with electrical conductivity ranging from 460 to 43,000μS·cm(-1). The δ(2)H-δ(18)O signatures show mixing between seawater and freshwater components with long water residence time as evidenced by the lack of contribution from modern water using (3)H, (14)C and CFCs/SF6. S(SO4) isotopes also evidence seawater contribution but some signatures can be related to oxidation of pyrite and/or organically bounded S. In the upper layers (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are close to that of seawater and then increase with depth, reflecting water-rock interaction with argillaceous formations while punctual low values reflect interaction with carbonate. Boron isotopes highlight secondary processes such as adsorption/desorption onto clays in addition to mixings. At the Barcarès site (120m deep), the high salinity in some layers appear to be related neither to present day seawater intrusion, nor to Salses-Leucate lagoonwater intrusion. Groundwater chemical composition thus highlights binary mixing between fresh groundwater and inherited salty water together with cation exchange processes, water-rock interactions and, locally, sedimentary organic matter mineralisation probably enhanced by pyrite oxidation. Finally, combining the results of this study and those of Caballero and Ladouche (2015), we discuss the possible future evolution of this aquifer system under global change, as well as the potential management strategies needed to preserve quantitatively and qualitatively this water resource.

  4. A study of the characteristics of karst groundwater circulation based on multi-isotope approach in the Liulin spring area, North China.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hongfei; Zheng, Xiuqing; Qin, Zuodong; Jia, Zhenxing

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significance of karst groundwater for water supply in arid and semi-arid regions, the characteristics of the karst groundwater flow system in the Liulin spring area, North China, are analysed through isotopic tracing (δ(2)H, δ(18)O, δ(13)C and (3)H) and dating approaches ((14)C). The results show that the primary recharge source of karst groundwater is precipitation. Evaporation during dropping and infiltration of rainfall results in a certain offset in the values of δ(2)H and δ(18)O in groundwater samples from the global meteoric water line (GMWL) and the local meteoric water line (LMWL). The altitudes of the recharge region calculated by δ(18)O range from 1280 to 2020 m above sea level, which is consistent with the altitudes of the recharge area. The Liulin spring groups could be regarded as the mixing of groundwater with long and short flow paths at a ratio of 4:1. In the upgradient of the Liulin spring, the groundwater represents modern groundwater features and its [Formula: see text] is mainly derived from dissolution of soil CO(2), while in the downgradient of the Liulin spring, the (14)C age of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in groundwater shows an apparent increase and [Formula: see text] is mainly derived from the dissolution of carbonate rocks. The mean flow rate calculated by (14)C ages of DIC between IS10 and IS12 is 1.23 m/year. PMID:25511581

  5. Multi-isotopes constraints on the origins and processes of groundwater salinization in coastal aquifers. Example of Recife, Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Bertrand, Guillaume; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc; Pauwels, Helène; Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo; Montenegro, Suzana

    2015-04-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (PE, Brazil) is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. This study focuses on the groundwater geochemistry in a costal multilayer aquifer and aims at investigating the sources and processes of salinization. The RMR basement is constituted by two different Precambrian blocks separated by a large lineament area. The sedimentary fillings of the two basins present different origins that can be distinguished by the Sr isotope composition. The northern deep Beberibe aquifer displays very high strontium isotope ratios with a large range of values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7102 to 0.7233) illustrating the main continental origin of sediments whereas the southern deep Cabo aquifer showed lower 87Sr/86Sr values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097 to 0.7141) indicating the contribution of the marine sedimentation dating from the Atlantic opening. Although sulfate isotopes, Electric Conductivity and Cl contents indicate a clear mixing with seawater for some samples of the deep Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, all 87Sr/86Sr values are above the present-day seawater composition. This can be related to the complex local history of transgression/regression phases that induced alternatively salinisation and freshening with gains and losses of cations and Sr, together with water-rock interactions. Stable isotopes of the water molecule clearly evidence the local present day recharge especially within the surficial aquifer, whereas some samples are affected by in situ evaporation processes and/or recharge with evaporated water originating from dam used for water supply. The two deep aquifers display a high range of B concentrations (~20 to 600 µg.L-1) and B isotope composition (δ11B = 6.7 to 68.5 ‰), with the highest values known to date (63-68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays/organic matter and mixing with wastewater. Indeed, the Tertiary and Quaternary surficial aquifers are highly contaminated with wastewater and locally salinized; here salinisation is possibly due to present seawater intrusion.

  6. Tracing the Origins and Processes of Groundwater Salinization in Coastal Aquifers with a Multi-isotopes Approach. Example of Recife, Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Bertrand, G.; Kloppmann, W.; Aquilina, L.; Pauwels, H.; Martins, V.; Hirata, R.; Montenegro, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (PE, Brazil) is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. By focusing on the groundwater geochemistry in a costal multilayer aquifer, this work aims at investigating the sources and processes of salinization. Two different Precambrian blocks separated by a large lineament area constitute the site basement. The sedimentary fillings of the two basins present different origins that were distinguished by the Sr isotope composition. The northern deep Beberibe aquifer displays very high 87Sr/86Sr with a large range of values (0.7102-0.7233) illustrating the main continental origin of sediments whereas the southern deep Cabo aquifer showed lower values (0.7097-0.7141) indicating the contribution of the marine sedimentation. Although sulfate isotopes, Electrical Conductivity and Cl contents indicate a mixing with seawater for some samples of the deep Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, all 87Sr/86Sr values are above the present-day seawater composition. This can be related to the complex local history of transgression/regression phases that induced alternatively salinisation and freshening with gains and losses of cations and Sr, together with water-rock interactions. δ18O-δ2H clearly evidence the local present day recharge in the surficial aquifer, some samples being affected by in situ evaporation processes and/or recharge with evaporated water from dams used for water supply. The deep aquifers display a high range of B (20-600µg/L) and δ11B (6.7-68.5‰) with some of the highest values known to date. Multiple sources and processes affect the B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays/organic matter and mixing with wastewater. The surficial aquifers are locally salinized possibly due to present seawater intrusion, and highly contaminated with wastewater.

  7. Salinization of groundwater in the North German Basin: results from conjoint investigation of major, trace element and multi-isotope distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, P.; Weise, S. M.; Tesmer, M.; Dulski, P.; Pekdeger, A.; Bayer, U.; Magri, F.

    2008-09-01

    Conjoint consideration of distribution of major, rare earth elements (REE) and Y (combined to REY) and of H, O, C, S, Sr isotopes reveals that four types of groundwater are distinguishable by their chemical composition presented by spider patterns. REY patterns indicate thermo-saline deep water and two types of shallow saline groundwaters. Presence of connate waters is not detectable. Sr isotope ratios distinguish three sources of Sr: fast and slow weathering of biotite and K-feldspar in Pleistocene sediments, respectively, and dissolution of limestones. δ13C(DIC) indicate dissolution of limestone under closed and open system conditions. Numerous samples show δ13C(DIC) > 13‰ which is probably caused by incongruent dissolution of calcite and dolomite. The brines from below 1,000 m represent mixtures of pre-Pleistocene seawater or its evaporation brines and infiltrated post-Pleistocene precipitation. The shallow waters represent mixtures of Pleistocene and Recent precipitation salinized by dissolution of evaporites or by mixing with ascending brines. The distribution of water types is independent on geologic units and lithologies. Even the Tertiary Rupelian aquiclude does not prevent salinization of the upper aquifer.

  8. Impact-Related Sulfur Recycling in the Ancient Martian Crust; Evidence from S Multi-Isotope Systematics of Regolith Breccia NWA 7533

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorand, J.-P.; Labidi, J.; Thomassot, E.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Belluci, J.; Whitehouse, M.; Nemchin, A.; Hewins, R. H.; Humayun, M.; Farquhar, J.; Zanda, B.; Remusat, L.; Pont, S.

    2016-08-01

    Sulfur isotopes indicate that NWA 7533 pyrite formed from recycling of photochemically processed sulfur onto the martian surface. Sulfate reduction into sulfides could have produced negative delta 34S coupled with a small non-zero value of delta 33S.

  9. Innovations in the Assay of Un-Segregated Multi-Isotopic Grade TRU Waste Boxes with SuperHENC and FRAM Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A. P.; Barber, S.; Abdurrahman, N. M.

    2006-07-01

    The Super High Efficiency Neutron Coincidence Counter (SuperHENC) was originally developed by BIL Solutions Inc., Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) for assay of transuranic (TRU) waste in Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) at Rocky Flats. This mobile system was a key component in the shipment of over 4,000 SWBs to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The system was WIPP certified in 2001 and operated at the site for four years. The success of this system, a passive neutron coincidence counter combined with high resolution gamma spectroscopy, led to the order of two new units, delivered to Hanford in 2004. Several new challenges were faced at Hanford: For example, the original RFETS system was calibrated for segregated waste streams such that metals, plastics, wet combustibles and dry combustibles were separated by 'Item Description Codes' prior to assay. Furthermore, the RFETS mission of handling only weapons grade plutonium, enabled the original SuperHENC to benefit from the use of known Pu isotopics. Operations at Hanford, as with most other DOE sites, generate un-segregated waste streams, with a wide diversity of Pu isotopics. Consequently, the new SuperHENCs are required to deal with new technical challenges. The neutron system's software and calibration methodology have been modified to encompass these new requirements. In addition, PC-FRAM software has been added to the gamma system, providing a robust isotopic measurement capability. Finally a new software package has been developed that integrates the neutron and gamma data to provide a final assay results and analysis report. The new system's performance has been rigorously tested and validated against WIPP quality requirements. These modifications, together with the mobile platform, make the new SuperHENC far more versatile in handling diverse waste streams and allow for rapid redeployment around the DOE complex. (authors)

  10. A study of the characteristics of karst groundwater circulation based on multi-isotope approach in the Liulin spring area, North China.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hongfei; Zheng, Xiuqing; Qin, Zuodong; Jia, Zhenxing

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significance of karst groundwater for water supply in arid and semi-arid regions, the characteristics of the karst groundwater flow system in the Liulin spring area, North China, are analysed through isotopic tracing (δ(2)H, δ(18)O, δ(13)C and (3)H) and dating approaches ((14)C). The results show that the primary recharge source of karst groundwater is precipitation. Evaporation during dropping and infiltration of rainfall results in a certain offset in the values of δ(2)H and δ(18)O in groundwater samples from the global meteoric water line (GMWL) and the local meteoric water line (LMWL). The altitudes of the recharge region calculated by δ(18)O range from 1280 to 2020 m above sea level, which is consistent with the altitudes of the recharge area. The Liulin spring groups could be regarded as the mixing of groundwater with long and short flow paths at a ratio of 4:1. In the upgradient of the Liulin spring, the groundwater represents modern groundwater features and its [Formula: see text] is mainly derived from dissolution of soil CO(2), while in the downgradient of the Liulin spring, the (14)C age of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in groundwater shows an apparent increase and [Formula: see text] is mainly derived from the dissolution of carbonate rocks. The mean flow rate calculated by (14)C ages of DIC between IS10 and IS12 is 1.23 m/year.

  11. Evaluation of the Origin and Fate of Nitrate in the Aquifer System of Southern Baldwin County, Alabama Using Multi-isotopic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulet, D.; Tick, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    Continued and extensive residential and agricultural development of near-shore areas in southern Baldwin County, Alabama has led to increased inputs of nitrogen (N) to groundwater and to the Gulf of Mexico. Nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in several groundwater wells exceeded the regulatory drinking water standards (10 mg/L nitrate-N). Groundwater and surface water samples were analyzed for nitrate, phosphate, salinity, chloride, and total dissolved solids concentrations to assess the extent of nitrate contamination. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate (e.g., δ15N and δ18O of nitrate) were used in conjunction with other isotopic data (e.g., 13C, and 14C, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of groundwater) and hydrogeochemical data to place constraints on potential sources of nitrate. The δ15N and δ18O of groundwater nitrate values ranged between +3.1 and +9.6‰ and +4.2 and +8.7‰, respectively. This range of values suggests that nitrate is primarily derived from nitrification of reduced N compounds (primarily ammonia) from fertilizer and manure or septic waste. However, an overwhelming number of samples show isotopic signatures which indicate that the predominant source of nitrate in these aguifers is the fertilizer and to some extent, for deeper wells with older groundwater, the atmospheric nitrate. The narrow range of δ18O values further confirms the primary nitrate sources. The δ15N and δ18O of nitrate data indicate that denitrification was not an important processes in these aquifers. This conclusion is also supported by the 114C data which revealed relatively young groundwaters with sufficiently high oxygen levels. In the absence of denitrification and the presence of a permanent source, it is expected that the elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations will not be readily attenuated posing a potential contamination and degradation problem of coastal discharge zones into the future. The δ13C and δ18O of groundwater data indicates that water in the aquifer system of the study area is most likely to have originated from precipitation and soil infiltration through relatively localized recharge.

  12. Multi-Isotope Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Combining Heavy Water 2H with 15N Labeling As Complementary Tracers for Metabolic Heterogeneity at the Single-Cell Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, S.; McGlynn, S.; Cowley, E.; Green, A.; Newman, D. K.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic rates of microbial communities constitute a key physiological parameter for understanding the in situ growth constraints for life in any environment. Isotope labeling techniques provide a powerful approach for measuring such biological activity, due to the use of isotopically enriched substrate tracers whose incorporation into biological materials can be detected with high sensitivity by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Nano-meter scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) combined with stable isotope labeling provides a unique tool for studying the spatiometabolic activity of microbial populations at the single cell level in order to assess both community structure and population diversity. However, assessing the distribution and range of microbial activity in complex environmental systems with slow-growing organisms, diverse carbon and nitrogen sources, or heterotrophic subpopulations poses a tremendous technical challenge because the introduction of isotopically labeled substrates frequently changes the nutrient availability and can inflate or bias measures of activity. Here, we present the use of hydrogen isotope labeling with deuterated water as an important new addition to the isotopic toolkit and apply it for the determination of single cell microbial activities by NanoSIMS imaging. This tool provides a labeling technique that minimally alters any aquatic chemical environment, can be administered with strong labels even in minimal addition (natural background is very low), is an equally universal substrate for all forms of life even in complex, carbon and nitrogen saturated systems, and can be combined with other isotopic tracers. The combination of heavy water labeling with the most commonly used NanoSIMS tracer, 15N, is technically challenging but opens up a powerful new set of multi-tracer experiments for the study of microbial activity in complex communities. We present the first truly simultaneous single cell triple isotope system measurements of 2H/1H, 13C/12C and 15N/14N and apply it to study of microbial metabolic heterogeneity and nitrogen metabolism in a continuous culture case study. Our data provide insight into both the diversity of microbial activity rates, as well as patterns of ammonium utilization at the single cell level.

  13. Physical-Chemical Property Data for Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), Dibenzofuran (DF), and Chlorinated DD/Fs: A Critical Review and Recommended Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wiberg, Karin

    2008-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are of global concern due to their persistence, their tendency to bioaccumulate, and their extremely high toxicity. The fate of the PCDD/Fs in the environment is largely determined by their physical-chemical properties, such as solubility in water (SW, molm-3), solubility in octanol (SO, molm-3), and vapor pressure (P, Pa). It is not unusual that the range of reported values for a given property varies over several orders of magnitude, especially for the highly chlorinated congeners, and consequently, it is a challenge to select physical-chemical property data from the literature for use in chemical fate and risk assessments. In the current study, physical-chemical property data [P, SW, SO, Henry's law constant (H ), partitioning coefficients between octanol-water (KOW) and octanol-air (KOA)] for 15 DDs and 17 DFs at 293-299K are compiled from the literature and evaluated to select literature derived values that are then adjusted to conform to thermodynamic constraints using a least-squares adjustment procedure. We also present an analysis of available data on internal energies of phase change (ΔUA, ΔUW, ΔUO, ΔUOW, ΔUAW, ΔUOA) at 298K, which describe the temperature dependence of the partitioning properties. The final adjusted values (FAVs) derived from this study are recommended as physical-chemical property data for PCDD/Fs for use in environmental fate modeling. The FAVs for internal energies of phase change can be used as a first approximation for estimating properties at temperatures other than 298K.

  14. Geochemistry of formation fluids from the SAFOD wells, Parkfield, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordsen, J. J.; Evans, W. C.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2010-12-01

    cement plug that had been set at 3608 m TD, in April, 2006 (i.e. ~14 months earlier). This water sample has the following chemical composition (in mg/l): total dissolved solids = 22,900; Na = 6360; Ca = 2790; Mg = 2.1; Cl = 13,300; SO4 = 175; Br = 31; K = 193; Sr = 128; Mg = 2.1; B = 87; NH4 = 34; Fl = 23; SiO2 = 55, alkalinity as HCO3 = 310; dissolved organic carbon = 640. This chemical composition is typical of formation water from sedimentary rocks, such as oil field waters from California, and most likely represents the Great Valley shales. Stable water isotope values for this sample are dD = +6‰; and d18O = +7.7‰; this water is similar in d18O but significantly heavier in dD compared to formation water from other deep wells in the Parkfield area (i.e. Varian-Philips well: dD = -17‰; d18O = +6‰). Chemical geothermometry yields subsurface temperatures of about 150 deg C, which indicate a deeper source of fluids (to the east of the fault) than the plug/packer. The composition of gas was also typical of that obtained from the organic-rich Great Valley shales, with CH4 and higher hydrocarbons comprising ~80-88% and 3-8%, respectively of the total gas. Carbon dioxide was below detection level, but N2 constituted ~5-8% of the gas. Low O2 and high N2/Ar ratios (~300) rule out atmospheric contamination.

  15. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  16. O, H and S Isotopes as Tracers of Groundwater Discharge Into the Rio Grande and the Gila River, Southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, C. J.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J. F.; Harris, R. C.

    2004-05-01

    In the semi-arid Basin-and-Range province, large rivers commonly enter and exit basins through hard-rock barriers impermeable to groundwater. Isotopic contrasts characteristically exist between river water entering a basin and locally-derived groundwater in basin-fill sediment. Basin aquifers must discharge to the river near the river exit point, and may contribute significantly to river water and solute load. O, H and S isotopes can potentially indicate the location of discharge zones. At times of low river flow, the Gila River enters Safford Basin with isotope delta values, here presented as [d18O‰ , dD‰ , d34S‰ ], of [-8.5, -65, +4.5]. Deep basin water has values [-11.5, -85, +11], the d34S reflecting gypsum evaporite. Values in river water change by km 50 to [-7.5, -60, +4.5] and between km 50 and 80 to [-8.5, -65, +7.5]. The increase in d18O and dD from 0-50 km indicates irrigation water discharge; the change from 50-80 km is accompanied by doubling of sulfate content and requires addition of deep basin water. The Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson with isotope composition [-6.5 to -8.5, -65 to -75, +2 to +4], the d18O and dD values defining an evaporation line (RGEL) resulting from passage of water through upstream reservoirs. Basin groundwater is sulfate-rich and has variable isotope composition: [-9 to -11, -66 to -76, +5 to +10]; it includes both evaporated and non-evaporated types. Groundwater discharge is generally insufficient to shift water away from the RGEL, but d34S values in river water increase to +5 to +9‰ with increasing sulfate content downstream of Fabens, TX, indicating discharge of high-d34S groundwater. Variable sewage discharge from Ciudad Juàrez limits the possibility of detecting isotope shifts in Rio Grande water.

  17. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) FOR PLANNING FUTURE D&D

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-25

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed.

  18. Measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0 --> D(*)+D(*)- decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, R.N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Karlsruhe U., EKP /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-02-12

    We present new measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries for B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)+}d{sup (*)-} decays using (467 {+-} 5) x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector located at the PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We determine the CP-odd fraction of the B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}D*{sup -} decays to be R{perpendicular} = 0.158 {+-} 0.028 {+-} 0.006 and find CP asymmetry parameters for the CP-even component of the decay S{sub +} = -0.76 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.04 and C{sub +} = 0.00 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.02. We measure S = -0.63{+-}0.36{+-}0.05 and C = -0.07{+-}0.23{+-}0.03 for B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -}, S = -0.62{+-}0.21{+-}0.03 and C = 0.08 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.04 for B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}D{sup -}, and S = -0.73 {+-} 0.23 {+-} 0.05 and C = 0.00 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.03 for B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D*{sup -}. For the B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup {+-}}D{sup {-+}} decays, we also determine the CP-violating asymmetry A = 0.008 {+-} 0.048 {+-} 0.013. In each case, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The measured values for the asymmetries are all consistent with the Standard Model.

  19. Combined 13C-D and D-D clumping in methane: Methods and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolper, D. A.; Sessions, A. L.; Ferreira, A. A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Schimmelmann, A.; Shusta, S. S.; Valentine, D. L.; Eiler, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    The stable isotopic composition of methane (e.g., δD and δ13C values) is often used as a tracer for its sources and sinks. Conventional δD and δ13C measurements represent the average isotope ratios of all ten isotopologues of methane, though they are effectively controlled by the relative abundances of the three most abundant species: 12CH4, 13CH4, and 12CH3D. The precise relative abundances of the other seven isotopologues remains largely unexplored because these species contain multiple rare isotopes and are thus rare themselves. These multiply substituted (or 'clumped') isotopologues each have their own distinctive chemical and physical properties, which could provide additional constraints on the geochemistry of methane. This work focuses on quantifying the abundances of two rare isotopologues, 13CH3D and 12CH2D2, of methane in order to assess their utility as a window into methane's geochemistry. Specifically, we seek to assess whether clumped isotope distributions might be useful to quantify the temperature at which methane formed and/or equilibrated. To this end, we report the first highly precise combined measurements of the relative abundances of 13CH3D and 12CH2D2 at natural abundances (i.e., unlabeled) via the high-resolution magnetic-sector mass spectrometry of intact methane. We calibrate the use of these measurements as a geothermometer using both theory and experiment, and apply this geothermometer to representative natural samples. The method yields accurate average (i.e., bulk) isotopic ratios based on comparison with conventional techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and precision of measurements of 13CH3D and 12CH2D2 through analyses of methane driven to high temperature (>200 °C) equilibrium in the laboratory. Application of this thermometer to natural samples yields apparent temperatures consistent with their known formation environments and appears to distinguish between biogenic and thermogenic methane.

  20. Single-crystal Diamond Detector for DT and DD plasmas diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebai, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Grosso, G.; Croci, G.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Calvani, P.; Girolami, M.; Trucchi, D. M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-11-01

    Single-crystal Diamond Detectors (SDD) are good candidates as high-energy neutron detectors in the extreme conditions of the next generation thermonuclear fusion facilities like the ITER experiment, due to their high radiation hardness, fast response time and small size. Neutron detection in SDDs is based on the collection of electron-hole pairs produced by charged particles generated by neutron interaction on 12 C . In this work the SDD response to neutrons with energies between 2.8 and 3.8MeV was determined at the Legnaro CN accelerator at the INFN Laboratories in Legnaro (PD, Italy). This work is relevant for the characterization of SDDs response functions, which are key points for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium-Tritium plasma diagnostic.

  1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 1290 - Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805, Violation Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../police officer (placed in space marked “Officer No.”). Date of notice (is also violation date unless... sex, race (if it appears on driver's permit), height and weight. Nontraffic offenses require: Statute violated, person's name, person's address, birth date, and sex; and, if applicable: Race, height,...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 1290 - Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805, Violation Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., driver address, driver's name (all of above items and); moving traffic offenses require: Birth date and... violated, person's name, person's address, birth date, and sex; and, if applicable: Race, height,...

  3. Pyroelectric crystal D-D and D-T neutron generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danon, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Pyroelectric neutron generators are a recent development utilizing the pyroelectric effect to produce an accelerating electric field and thus enabling creation of small electron and ion accelerators without external high voltage power supply. The principle of operation includes a pyroelectric crystal (LiTaO3 for example) placed in vacuum and simple heating (or cooling) of the crystal to cause a change in polarization. The change in polarization creates free charges on the faces of the clyndrical z-cut crystal and due to its small capacitance this creates a high potential between one crystal face to the other which is placed at ground potential. To produce neutrons the crystal is placed in low pressure deuterium gas and when the crystal is heated or cooled it ionizes the gas and accelerates deuterium ions towards a deuterated or tritated target. A configuration with two crystals can double the acceleration potential and thus increase neutron production. When operating such a device x-rays with energy over 200 keV about 105 neutrons per heating cycle can be produced. Research is focused on improving the neutron yield, the emission reproducibility, and shortening the heating cycle. Neutron generators based on this technology can be made small portable and relatively cheap compared to sealed tube technology. Further development is needed in order to increase the neutron yield closer to the theoretical limit for a specific crystals size.

  4. A compact stilbene crystal neutron spectrometer for EAST D-D plasma neutron diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xing; Yuan Xi; Xie Xufei; Chen Zhongjing; Peng Xingyu; Chen Jinxiang; Zhang Guohui; Li Xiangqing; Fan Tieshuan; Zhong Guoqiang; Hu Liqun; Wan Baonian

    2013-03-15

    A new compact stilbene crystal neutron spectrometer has been investigated and applied in the neutron emission spectroscopy on the EAST tokamak. A new components analysis method is presented to study the anisotropic light output in the stilbene crystal detector. A Geant4 code was developed to simulate the neutron responses in the spectrometer. Based on both the optimal light output function and the fitted pulse height resolution function, a reliable neutron response matrix was obtained by Geant4 simulations and validated by 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron measurements at a 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The spectrometer was used to diagnose the ion temperature in plasma discharges with lower hybrid wave injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating on the EAST tokamak.

  5. Social isolation prompts maternal behavior in sexually naïve male ddN mice.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Chitose; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Katsumata, Harumi; Sato, Manami; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Minami, Shiro; Sakuma, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Maternal behavior in mice is considered to be sexually dimorphic; that is, females show maternal care for their offspring, whereas this behavior is rarely shown in males. Here, we examined how social isolation affects the interaction of adult male mice with pups. Three weeks of isolation during puberty (5-8 weeks old) induced retrieving and crouching when exposed to pups, while males with 1 week isolation (7-8 weeks old) also showed such maternal care, but were less responsive to pups. We also examined the effect of isolation during young adulthood (8-11 weeks old), and found an induction of maternal behavior comparable to that in younger male mice. This effect was blocked by exposure to chemosensory and auditory social signals derived from males in an attached compartment separated by doubled opaque barriers. These results demonstrate that social isolation in both puberty and postpuberty facilitates male maternal behavior in sexually naïve mice. The results also indicate that air-borne chemicals and/or sounds of male conspecifics, including ultrasonic vocalization and noise by their movement may be sufficient to interfere with the isolation effect on induction of maternal behavior in male mice.

  6. High-power COIL fiber transmission for D&D application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenewald, Karin M.; Bohn, Willy L.; Duschek, Frank R.; Handke, Juergen; Schall, Wolfgang O.

    2004-06-01

    11 kW of COIL power are successfully transmitted through a 20 meter long modified commercial fiber system with optical losses below 10%. The transmission ratio is derived from simultaneous measurement of the laser output power behind the total reflector and the transmitted laser power behind the complete optical fiber system. The fiber delivery system is used to demonstrate cutting of various materials pertinent to dismantling & decommissioning of nuclear installations. Nitrogen and oxygen gas assisted cuts are performed for metal and nonmetal samples, which are made of steel, aluminum, concrete and graphite. The cutting results are validated with theoretical models from literature. The COIL cutting performance is compared to referenced data of laser materials processing.

  7. 48 CFR 1845.7102 - Instructions for preparing DD Form 1419.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Forms Preparation 1845.7102... will be a four-digit entry comprised of the last digit of the current calendar year and the Julian date... the year). The last entry will be a four-digit number from 0001 to 9999 to sequentially...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 1290 - Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805, Violation Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../police officer (placed in space marked “Officer No.”). Date of notice (is also violation date unless... sex, race (if it appears on driver's permit), height and weight. Nontraffic offenses require: Statute violated, person's name, person's address, birth date, and sex; and, if applicable: Race, height,...

  9. Risk D&D Rapid Prototype: Scenario Documentation and Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Seiple, Timothy E.

    2009-05-28

    Report describes process and methodology associated with a rapid prototype tool for integrating project risk analysis and health & safety risk analysis for decontamination and decommissioning projects.

  10. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries in B0 to D(*)D Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Oregon U. /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-06-24

    The authors present a first measurement of CP asymmetries in neutral B decays to D{sup +}D{sup -}, and updated CP asymmetry measurements in decays to D*{sup +}D{sup -} and D*{sup -}D{sup +}. They use fully-reconstructed decays collected in a data sample of (232 {+-} 3) x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events in the BABAR detector at the PEp-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. they determine the time-dependent asymmetry parameters to be S{sub D*{sup +}D{sup -}} = -0.54 {+-} 0.35 {+-} 0.07, C{sub D*{sup +}D{sup -}} = 0.09 {+-} 0.25 {+-} 0.06, S{sub D*{sup -}D{sup +}} = -0.29 {+-} 0.33 {+-} 0.07, C{sub D*{sup -}D{sup +}} = 0.17 {+-} 0.24 {+-} 0.04, S{sub D{sup +}D{sup -}} = -0.29 {+-} 0.63 {+-} 0.06, and C{sub D{sup +}D{sup -}} = 0.11 {+-} 0.35 {+-} 0.06, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  11. Remote Manipulation of D&D Exhibiting Tele-Autonomy and Tele-Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    J. Edward Colgate; Thomas F. Ewing; Young S. Park; Michael A. Peshkin

    2006-12-05

    Teleoperation has found much application in today's society. While its benefits make it advantageous in many situations, teleoperation also introduces new challenges. In this paper, we present techniques to improve teleoperation performance by making better use of the human's inherent skills.

  12. Initiating the D&D Project for the EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer

    2010-08-01

    A novel decommissioning project is underway to close the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) “fast” reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) facility near Idaho Falls, ID. The facility was placed in cold shutdown in 1994 and work began on the removal of the metallic sodium coolant. The bulk of the sodium was drained and treated beginning in 2001. The residual sodium heel was chemically passivated to render it less reactive in 2005 using a novel carbon dioxide treatment. Approximately 700 kg of metallic sodium and 3500 kg of sodium bicarbonate remain in the facility. A RCRA Waste Treatment Permit, issued in 2002 by the State of Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, requires annual progress toward closure of the facility, and that all regulated materials be removed or deactivated, and the waste products removed by 2022. The baseline sodium removal technology would result in about 100,000 gallons of low-level waste solution requiring treatment along with separate handling of the large components (intermediate heat exchanger, rotating plug, etc) outside of the primary tank.

  13. The D(D3)-anyon chain: integrable boundary conditions and excitation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Peter E.; Frahm, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Chains of interacting non-Abelian anyons with local interactions invariant under the action of the Drinfeld double of the dihedral group D3 are constructed. Formulated as a spin chain the Hamiltonians are generated from commuting transfer matrices of an integrable vertex model for periodic and braided as well as open boundaries. A different anyonic model with the same local Hamiltonian is obtained within the fusion path formulation. This model is shown to be related to an integrable fusion interaction round the face model. Bulk and surface properties of the anyon chain are computed from the Bethe equations for the spin chain. The low-energy effective theories and operator content of the models (in both the spin chain and fusion path formulation) are identified from analytical and numerical studies of the finite-size spectra. For all boundary conditions considered the continuum theory is found to be a product of two conformal field theories. Depending on the coupling constants the factors can be a Z4 parafermion or a {M}_{(5,6)} minimal model.

  14. Time Dependent DD Neutrons Measurement Using a Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond Detector on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tengfei; Peng, Xingyu; Chen, Zhongjing; Hu, Zhimeng; Ge, Lijian; Hu, Liqun; Zhong, Guoqiang; Pu, Neng; Chen, Jinxiang; Fan, Tieshuan

    2016-09-01

    A single crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector has been successfully employed for neutron measurements in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) plasmas. The scCVD diamond detector coated with a 5 μm 6LiF (95% 6Li enriched) layer was placed inside a polyethylene moderator to enhance the detection efficiency. The time-dependent neutron emission from deuteron plasmas during neutral beam injection (NBI) heating was obtained. The measured results are compared with that of fission chamber detectors, which always act as standard neutron flux monitors. The scCVD diamond detector exhibits good reliability, stability and the capability to withstand harsh radiation environments despite its low detection efficiency due to the small active volume. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB106004 and 2012GB101003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91226102)

  15. Murein structure and lack of DD- and LD-carboxypeptidase activities in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Z; Glauner, B; Schwarz, U

    1983-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of a muramidase digest of murein sacculi from Caulobacter crescentus showed that the absence of D-alanine carboxypeptidase activity in the cells was reflected by a very high content of pentapeptide in the murein. Approximately half of the pentapeptide side chains were shown to contain glycine, which replaced D-alanine as the terminal amino acid. PMID:6630150

  16. DD-08PHASE I CANCER CLINICAL TRIAL FOR 4-DEMETHYL-4-CHOLESTERYLOXYCARBONYLPENCLOMEDINE (DM-CHOC-PEN)

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Marcus; Weiner, Roy; Friedlander, Paul; Gordon, Crag; Saenger, Yvonne; Mahmood, Tallat; Rodgers, Andrew; Bastian, Gerald; Urien, S.; Lee; Morgan, Roy

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: DM-CHOC-PEN is a poly-chlorinated pyridine cholesteryl carbonate whose MOA is via alkylation of DNA @ N7 – guanine and via oxidative stress. The aims of this clinical trial were to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics (PK) of DM-CHOC-PEN and monitor for clinical responses. METHODS: DM-CHOC-PEN was administered as a 3-hr IV infusion once every 21-days to patients with advanced cancer; melanoma (n = 3), colorectal CA (n = 3), breast (n = 3) and glioblastoma multiforme (n = 6). The trial included patients with advanced cancer +/- CNS involvement. The starting dose was 39 mg/m2 with escalations to date up to 111 mg/m2. RESULTS: Twenty-six (26) patients have been treated. The MTD was 2-tiered and defined as 85.8 mg/m2 for patients with liver involvement and 98.7 mg/m2 for patients without liver abnormalities. The most common adverse effects were fatigue (n = 2), liver dysfunction – elevated bilirubin (Gr-3, n = 3; Gr-2, n = 1), ALT/AST (Gr-2, n = 3), alk phos (Gr-2, n = 3) and an allergic reaction (Gr-2, n = 1). Three (3) patients with liver metastasis demonstrated hyperbilirubinemia (Gr-3 SLT) – 2 at the 98.7 mg/m2 and one (1) at the 111 mg/m2 levels Five (5) additional patients with liver disease have been treated at 85.8 mg/m2 level without toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: DM-CHOC-PEN is safe at the presented dose levels and has a favorable PK profile. Eight (8) patients had responses or significant PFS, including 6 with CNS involvement. A Phase II trial has begun in patients with primary brain cancer and brain metastases from melanoma, breast cancer and lung cancer.

  17. Seismicity studies at Moluccas area based on the result of hypocenter relocation using HypoDD

    SciTech Connect

    Utama, Muhammad Reza July; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-24

    The precise hypocenter was determined location using double difference method around subduction zone in Moluccas area eastern part of Indonesia. The initial hypocenter location from MCGA data catalogue of 1,945 earthquake events. Basically the principle of double-difference algorithm assumes if the distance between two earthquake hypocenter distribution is very small compared to the distance between the station to the earthquake source, the ray path can be considered close to both earthquakes. The results show the initial earthquakes with a certain depth (fix depth 10 km) relocated and can be interpreted more reliable in term of seismicity and geological setting. The relocation of the intra slab earthquakes beneath Banda Arc are also clearly observed down to depth of about 400 km. The precise relocated hypocenter will give invaluable seismicity information for other seismological and tectonic studies especially for seismic hazard analysis in this region.

  18. X-Ray Measurements Of A Thermo Scientific P385 DD Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, C. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Caffrey, A. J.; Simpson, J.; Lemchak, M.

    2011-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is experimenting with electrical neutron generators, as potential replacements for californium-252 radioisotopic neutron sources in its PINS prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for the identification of military chemical warfare agents and explosives. In addition to neutron output, we have recently measured the x-ray output of the Thermo Scientific P385 deuterium-deuterium neutron generator. X rays are a normal byproduct from neutron generators, but depending on their intensity and energy, x rays can interfere with gamma rays from the object under test, increase gamma-spectrometer dead time, and reduce PGNAA system throughput. The P385 x-ray energy spectrum was measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and a broad peak is evident at about 70 keV. To identify the source of the x rays within the neutron generator assembly, it was scanned by collimated scintillation detectors along its long axis. At the strongest x-ray emission points, the generator also was rotated 60° between measurements. The scans show the primary source of x-ray emission from the P385 neutron generator is an area 60 mm from the neutron production target, in the vicinity of the ion source. Rotation of the neutron generator did not significantly alter the x-ray count rate, and its x-ray emission appears to be axially symmetric. A thin lead shield, 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick, reduced the 70-keV generator x rays to negligible levels.

  19. X-Ray Measurements Of A Thermo Scientific P385 DD Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, C. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Caffrey, A. J.; Simpson, J.; Lemchak, M.

    2011-06-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is experimenting with electrical neutron generators, as potential replacements for californium-252 radioisotopic neutron sources in its PINS prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for the identification of military chemical warfare agents and explosives. In addition to neutron output, we have recently measured the x-ray output of the Thermo Scientific P385 deuterium-deuterium neutron generator. X rays are a normal byproduct from neutron generators, but depending on their intensity and energy, x rays can interfere with gamma rays from the object under test, increase gamma-spectrometer dead time, and reduce PGNAA system throughput. The P385 x-ray energy spectrum was measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and a broad peak is evident at about 70 keV. To identify the source of the x rays within the neutron generator assembly, it was scanned by collimated scintillation detectors along its long axis. At the strongest x-ray emission points, the generator also was rotated 60 deg. between measurements. The scans show the primary source of x-ray emission from the P385 neutron generator is an area 60 mm from the neutron production target, in the vicinity of the ion source. Rotation of the neutron generator did not significantly alter the x-ray count rate, and its x-ray emission appears to be axially symmetric. A thin lead shield, 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick, reduced the 70-keV generator x rays to negligible levels.

  20. A Multi-Isotope (B, Sr, O, H, C) and Age Dating (3H-3He, 14C) Study of Ground Water From Salinas Valley, California: Hydrochemistry, Dynamics, and Contamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Vengosh, A; Gill, J; Davisson, M L; Hudson, B G

    2001-08-01

    The chemical and isotopic ({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/H, {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C, {sup 14}C, {sup 3}He/{sup 3}H) compositions of groundwater from the upper aquifer system of the Salinas Valley in coastal central California were investigated in order to delineate the origin and processes of groundwater contamination in this complex system. The Salinas Valley has a relatively deep, confined ''400-foot'' aquifer, overlain by a ''180-foot'' aquifer, and a shallower perched aquifer, all made up of alluvial sand, gravel, and clay deposits. Groundwater from the aquifers have different {sup 14}C ages; fossil ({sup 14}C = 21.3 pmc) for the 400-foot, and modern ({sup 14}C = 72.2 to 98.2 pmc) for the 180-foot. Fresh groundwater in all aquifers is recharged naturally and artificially and through the Salinas River. The two modes of recharge can be distinguished chemically. We identified several different saline components with distinguishable chemical and isotopic fingerprints. (1) Salt-water intrusion in the northern basin has Cl concentrations up to 1700 mg/l, a Na/Cl ratio seawater, {delta}{sup 11}B between +17 and +38 per mil, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between 0.7088 and 0.7096. Excess dissolved Ca, relative to the expected concentration for simple dilution of seawater, correlates with {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, suggesting base exchange reaction with clay minerals. (2) Agriculture return flow is high in NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4}, with a {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.7082, {delta}{sup 11}B = 19 per mil; and {delta}{sup 13}C between -23 and -17 per mil. The {sup 3}H-{sup 3}He ages (5-17 years) and {sup 14}C data suggest vertical infiltration rates of irrigation water of 3 to 10 m/yr. (3) Non-marine saline water in the southern part of the valley has high TDS up to 3800 mg/l, high SO{sub 4}, Na/Cl ratio >1, {delta}{sup 11}B between +24 and +30 per mil, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.70852. This groundwater may have acquired its geochemical signature from leaching of sedimentary rocks associated with the Coast Range marine deposits of Mesozoic to early Cenozoic age. The combination of different geochemical and isotopic fingerprints enables us to delineate the impact of salt sources in different areas of the valley and to reconstruct the Origin of the SO{sub 4}-enriched NO{sub 3}-depleted saline plume that is located west of the city of Salinas. We suggest that the latter is derived from a mixture of different natural saline waters rather than from anthropogenic contamination.

  1. A multi-isotope approach to understanding the evolution of Cenozoic magmatism in the northeastern Basin and Range: Results from igneous rocks in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, A.; Strickland, A.; Miller, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    Deep crustal rocks exposed by extensional processes in metamorphic core complexes provide a unique opportunity to address the magmatic and isotopic evolution of the crust and assess the relative crust versus mantle contributions in Cenozoic igneous rocks exposed in the complexes. The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex exposes mid-crustal rocks that resided at depths of ~15-20 km before the onset of Cenozoic extension. Three major Cenozoic magmatic events are represented in the complex and have been studied using multiple isotopic systems (whole rock Sr and Nd coupled with the Oxygen isotopes in zircon). These three major events are: (1) 42-31 Ma intrusion of a composite plutonic complex of calc-alkaline composition that intrudes both upper crustal rocks (~5-10 km depth) and deeper rocks. (2) A 32-25 Ma plutonic complex, with evolved calc-alkaline composition that intruded in the middle crust (~12-15 km depth), and (3) A 10-8 Ma bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) suite of volcanic rocks that contain high-T anhydrous mineral assemblages erupted across the complex. The pre-extensional crust consisted of an upper crust composed primarily of Neoproterozoic through Triassic metasedimentary rocks (schist and quartzite at its base and limestone at its top). The middle crust consists of late Archean orthogneiss with evolved composition (metamorphosed peraluminous granite) with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.800, ɛNd40~ -43.4 and δ18Ozirc ~5.7‰. The lower crust is inferred to have been composed of Precambrian intermediate composition igneous rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.750, ɛNd40~ -37.5 and δ18Ozirc ~5.9‰, and Precambrian mafic rocks with average 87Sr/86Sr40~0.717, ɛNd40~ -25 and δ18Ozirc ~7.0‰. Existing and new data indicate that the 42-31 Ma upper crustal plutonic complex ranges in isotopic composition from 87Sr/86Sri=0.709-0.712, ɛNdi=-15 to -25 and δ18Ozirc 4.7-6.5‰. The composition of the 32-25 Ma middle crustal plutonic complex ranges from 87Sr/86Sri=0.711-0.716, ɛNdi=-25 to -36 and δ18Ozirc 4.8-6.2‰. The collective data from the 42-25 Ma magmas indicate that they represent a protracted, genetically related magmatic event that progressively assimilated larger amounts of both middle and lower crust through time. New data from the Miocene (10-8 Ma) bimodal volcanic rocks indicate that their isotopic composition ranges from 87Sr/86Sri=0.706-0.714, ɛNdi=-3 to -8 and δ18Ozirc 0-5‰, most of the δ18Ozirc analyses are in the range of 1-3‰. These results indicate that the Miocene magmas assimilated variable amounts of hydrothermally altered crust that has been "averaged" in isotopic composition by the earlier Eocene-Oligocene magmatism. These new data from the igneous rocks exposed within and around the ARG, indicate that during the Cenozoic a large volume of new mafic magmas were added to the middle and lower crust. These magmas were responsible for reworking, heating and weakening the continental crust, allowing it to flow in a ductile fashion. The sum of the magmatic and extensional processes in the region resulted in present day configuration of the crust with uniform ~30-35 km thickness and sub-horizontal lower crustal seismic reflectivity.

  2. Modern monsoon extent and moisture dynamics over eastern Asian: evidence from precipitation and water vapor isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongfang; Kei, Yoshimura; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Tian, Lide

    2013-04-01

    The climate of eastern Asia is dominated by the Asia monsoon (AM) system, which controls seasonal patterns of moisture sources and transport to the region. Measurements of water isotopes can provide insight into monsoon extent and moisture dynamics. Here we present an analysis of a spatially dense network of precipitation isotopes (d18O and dD) from a ground-based network and water vapor dD retrieved from satellite measurements. The results show that isotopic seasonality for both precipitation and water vapor exhibits two distinctly different, spatially coherent modes. Summer-season isotope ratios are relatively low to the south of ~35°N and high to the north, with the transition between these zones reflecting the approximate northward extent of Asia summer monsoon influence. In the southern monsoon domain, low isotope values with relatively low precipitation d-excess (9.4‰ in SE China) in summer appear not to reflect the amount effect, but rather the dominance of monsoon moisture with long-distance transport from the Indian and southern Pacific oceans and continental convective recycling (contribute to about 30-48% moisture in SE China). In contrast, other seasons are dominated by dry continental masses, characterized by high d-excess (12.7‰) and isotope values. In northern China, a region that is beyond extent of monsoon, the moisture is derived overwhelmingly from the dry continental air masses. Here, water isotope ratios exhibit stronger temperature dependence, with enriched values in summer and depleted values in other seasons. The relatively low precipitation d-excess (<8‰) in northern China and inverse spatial isotope patterns between precipitation and water vapor across China during the summer further suggest that re-evaporation of falling raindrops is a key driver of water isotope behavior in northern China.

  3. A new tropical active serpentinization end-member discovered in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Gazel, E.; Boll, J.; Schwarzenbach, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is a planetary process where ultramafic rocks react with fluids with important consequences on global biogeochemical cycles through formation of H2 and CH4. Exposed sections of upper-mantle rocks on continents, where meteoric water interacts with the ultramafic rocks, provide natural laboratories to study present-day serpentinization. Here, we present geochemical evidence of active serpentinization and methane vents in the Santa Elena Ophiolite (comprising 250 km2 of ultramafic rocks) in Costa Rica. The system is sustained by peridotites with a 50% degree of serpentinization. Two alkaline spring systems were discovered. The alkaline fluids pH ranged from 11.01 to 11.18. Mean hydroxide and carbonate concentrations were 52 mg/L and 38 mg/L. Mean dissolved calcium was 104 mg/L with a maximum of 167 mg/L. These springs are also characterized by low Mg (< 1 mg/L) and K (2.35 mg/L) and relatively high Na (21.4 mg/L) and chloride (27.1 mg/L) concentrations. Average spring temperature was 29.1°C. Active CH4 vents (24.3% volume) coupled with extensive carbonate deposits (magnesite and calcite with isotopic compositions within the range of similar ultramafic hosted systems) also provide strong evidence of active serpentinization. Groundwater and alkaline spring's hydrological connectivity was explored using stable isotope as natural tracers. Isotope composition of the alkaline fluids (d18O = -7.9‰, d2H = -51.4‰) was remarkably similar to the groundwater signature from 10 deep wells (30-70 m) (d18O = -7.6‰; dD = -48.0‰) sampled in local watersheds. These results support the hypothesis that during prolonged dry periods these alkaline springs are fed by deep subsurface storage. Mean electrical conductivity of the alkaline fluids (622 uS/cm) was considerably higher than of surface waters (470 uS/cm); this significant difference may be additional evidence of active serpentinization in the area. Overall, Santa Elena's varying weather conditions between

  4. Aquifer Chemistry and Transport Processes in the Zone of Contribution to a Public-Supply Well in Woodbury, Connecticut, 2002-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Trombley, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    A glacial aquifer system in Woodbury, Connecticut, was studied to identify factors that affect the groundwater quality in the zone of contribution to a community public-supply well. Water samples were collected during 2002-06 from the public-supply well and from 35 monitoring wells in glacial stratified deposits, glacial till, and fractured bedrock. The glacial aquifer is vulnerable to contamination from a variety of sources due to the short groundwater residence times and the urban land use in the contributing recharge area to the public-supply well. The distribution and concentrations of pH, major and trace elements, stable isotope ratios, recharge temperatures, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions, were used to identify recharge source areas, aquifer source material, anthropogenic sources, chemical processes, and groundwater-flow paths from recharge areas to the public-supply well, PSW-1. The major chemical sources to groundwater and the tracers or conditions used to identify them and their processes throughout the aquifer system include (1) bedrock and glacial stratified deposits and till, characterized by high pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO42-), bicarbonate, uranium (U), radon-222, and arsenic (As) relative to those of other wells, reducing redox conditions, enriched delta sulfur-34 (d34S) and delta carbon-13 (d13C) values, depleted delta oxygen-18 (d18O) and delta deuterium (dD) values, calcite near saturation, low recharge temperatures, and groundwater ages of more than about 9 years; (2) natural organic matter, either in sediments or in an upgradient riparian zone, characterized by high concentrations of DOC or manganese (Mn), low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate (NO3-), enriched d34S values, and depleted d18O and dD values; (3) road salt (halite), characterized by high concentrations of sodium (Na), chloride (Cl-), and calcium (Ca), and indicative

  5. Measurement of the Ratios of Branching Fractions B(Bs -> Ds pi pi pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi pi pi) and B(Bs -> Ds pi) / B(Bd -> Dd pi)

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati /Taiwan, Inst. Phys.

    2006-10-01

    Using 355 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, they study the fully reconstructed hadronic decays B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub (s)}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub (s)}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. They present the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = 1.05 {+-} 0.10(stat.) {+-} 0.22(syst.). They also update their measurement of {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} {pi}{sup +})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -} {pi}{sup +}) to 1.13 {+-} 0.08(stat.) {+-} 0.23(syst.) improving the statistical uncertainty by more than a factor of two. They find {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}) = [3.8 {+-} 0.3(stat.) {+-} 1.3(syst.)] x 10{sup -3} and {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = [8.4 {+-} 0.8(stat.) {+-} 3.2(syst.)] x 10{sup -3}.

  6. Lateral control system design for VTOL landing on a DD963 in high sea states. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, M.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of designing lateral control systems for the safe landing of VTOL aircraft on small ships is addressed. A ship model is derived. The issues of estimation and prediction of ship motions are discussed, using optimal linear linear estimation techniques. The roll motion is the most important of the lateral motions, and it is found that it can be predicted for up to 10 seconds in perfect conditions. The automatic landing of the VTOL aircraft is considered, and a lateral controller, defined as a ship motion tracker, is designed, using optimal control techniqes. The tradeoffs between the tracking errors and the control authority are obtained. The important couplings between the lateral motions and controls are demonstrated, and it is shown that the adverse couplings between the sway and the roll motion at the landing pad are significant constraints in the tracking of the lateral ship motions. The robustness of the control system, including the optimal estimator, is studied, using the singular values analysis. Through a robustification procedure, a robust control system is obtained, and the usefulness of the singular values to define stability margins that take into account general types of unstructured modelling errors is demonstrated. The minimal destabilizing perturbations indicated by the singular values analysis are interpreted and related to the multivariable Nyquist diagrams.

  7. Did American social and economic events from 1865 to 1898 influence D.D. Palmer the chiropractor and entrepreneur?

    PubMed Central

    Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.’s entrepreneurial successes. PMID:23997248

  8. The Chemical Hazards Assessment Prior to D&D of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A. M.; Prevette, S. S.; Sherwood, A. R.; Fitch, L. R.; Ranade, D. G.; Oldham, R. W.

    2003-02-26

    This report describes the evaluation methods and results of a chemical safety status assessment of the process equipment at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation Plutonium Finishing Plant. This assessment, designated as the Plutonium Finishing Plant Residual Chemical Hazards Assessment, focused particular emphasis on the idle and inactive plant systems, though certain active areas also were examined to the extent that these were examined during a previous facility vulnerability assessment completed in 1999. The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that is situated in south central Washington State.

  9. 32 CFR 169a.8 - Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... except National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) and the Defense Intelligence Agency...)) within 90 days after the end of each fiscal year. Inventory data pertaining to NSA/CSS and DIA shall...

  10. 32 CFR 169a.8 - Inventory and review schedule (Report Control Symbol DD-P&L(A)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... except National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) and the Defense Intelligence Agency...)) within 90 days after the end of each fiscal year. Inventory data pertaining to NSA/CSS and DIA shall...

  11. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Dibattista, Joseph D; Piatek, Marek J; Gaither, Michelle R; Harrison, Hugo B; Nanninga, Gerrit B; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographical features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographical range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with a historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of interspecific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes.

  12. State and transition models: Theory, applications, and challenges. In: Briske, D.D. Rangeland Systems: Processes, Management and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    State and transition models (STMs) are used for communicating about ecosystem change in rangelands and other ecosystems, especially the implications for management. The fundamental premise that rangelands can exhibit multiple states is now widely accepted. The current application of STMs for managem...

  13. Cost and Performance Report for the ASTD Reuse of Concrete Within DOE from D&D Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S.; Arnish, J.; Chen, S. Y.; Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard Harlan; Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2000-09-01

    This cost and performance report describes the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project that developed the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. DOE Sites, which identifies the steps for obtaining approval to reuse concrete from Deactivation and Decommissioning of facilities. This protocol compares the risk and cost of various disposition paths for the concrete and follows the authorized release approach described in the DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material. This approach provides for the development of authorized release limits through a series of prescribed steps before approval for release is granted. A case study was also completed on a previously decommissioned facility.

  14. Measurement of the Time-Dependent CP Asymmetry of Partially Reconstructed B0 to D*+D*- Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J. P.

    2012-08-13

    We present a new measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry of B{sup 0} {yields}D*{sup +}D*{sup -} decays using (471 {+-} 5) million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Using the technique of partial reconstruction, we measure the time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters S = -0.34 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05 and C = +0:15 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.04. Using the value for the CP-odd fraction R{perpendicular} = 0.158 {+-} 0.028 {+-} 0.006, previously measured by BABAR with fully reconstructed B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup *+}D{sup *-} events, we extract the CP-even components S{sub +} = -0.49 {+-} 0.18 {+-} 0.07 {+-} 0.04 and C{sub +} = +0.15 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.04. In each case, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic; the third uncertainty on S{sub +} is the contribution from the uncertainty on R{perpendicular}. The measured value of the CP-even component S{sub +} is consistent with the value of sin 2{beta} measured in b {yields} (c{bar c})s transitions, and with the Standard Model expectation of small penguin contributions.

  15. Seascape genetics along environmental gradients in the Arabian Peninsula: insights from ddRAD sequencing of anemonefishes.

    PubMed

    Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Dibattista, Joseph D; Piatek, Marek J; Gaither, Michelle R; Harrison, Hugo B; Nanninga, Gerrit B; Berumen, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the processes that shape patterns of genetic structure across space is a central aim of landscape genetics. However, it remains unclear how geographical features and environmental variables shape gene flow, particularly for marine species in large complex seascapes. Here, we evaluated the genomic composition of the two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus across its entire geographical range in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, as well as its close relative, Amphiprion omanensis endemic to the southern coast of Oman. Both the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea are complex and environmentally heterogeneous marine systems that provide an ideal scenario to address these questions. Our findings confirm the presence of two genetic clusters previously reported for A. bicinctus in the Red Sea. Genetic structure analyses suggest a complex seascape configuration, with evidence of both isolation by distance (IBD) and isolation by environment (IBE). In addition to IBD and IBE, genetic structure among sites was best explained when two barriers to gene flow were also accounted for. One of these coincides with a strong oligotrophic-eutrophic gradient at around 16-20˚N in the Red Sea. The other agrees with a historical bathymetric barrier at the straight of Bab al Mandab. Finally, these data support the presence of interspecific hybrids at an intermediate suture zone at Socotra and indicate complex patterns of genomic admixture in the Gulf of Aden with evidence of introgression between species. Our findings highlight the power of recent genomic approaches to resolve subtle patterns of gene flow in marine seascapes. PMID:26577830

  16. Ion acceleration and D-D nuclear fusion in laser-generated plasma from advanced deuterated polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-23

    Deuterated polyethylene targets have been irradiated by means of a 1016 W/cm2 laser using 600 J pulse energy, 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration and 70 micron spot diameter. The plasma parameters were measured using on-line diagnostics based on ion collectors, SiC detectors and plastic scintillators, all employed in time-of-flight configuration. In addition, a Thomson parabola spectrometer, an X-ray streak camera, and calibrated neutron dosimeter bubble detectors were employed. Characteristic protons and neutrons at maximum energies of 3.0 MeV and 2.45 MeV, respectively, were detected, confirming that energy spectra of reaction products coming from deuterium-deuterium nuclear fusion occur. In thick advanced targets a fusion rate of the order of 2 × 108 fusions per laser shot was calculated.

  17. Did American social and economic events from 1865 to 1898 influence D.D. Palmer the chiropractor and entrepreneur?

    PubMed

    Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.'s entrepreneurial successes. PMID:23997248

  18. Large Scale DD Simulation Results for Crystal Plasticity Parameters in Fe-Cr And Fe-Ni Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zbib, Hussein M.; Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-04-30

    The development of viable nuclear energy source depends on ensuring structural materials integrity. Structural materials in nuclear reactors will operate in harsh radiation conditions coupled with high level hydrogen and helium production, as well as formation of high density of point defects and defect clusters, and thus will experience severe degradation of mechanical properties. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to develop a capability that predicts aging behavior and in-service lifetime of nuclear reactor components and, thus provide an instrumental tool for tailoring materials design and development for application in future nuclear reactor technologies. Towards this end goal, the long term effort is to develop a physically based multiscale modeling hierarchy, validated and verified, to address outstanding questions regarding the effects of irradiation on materials microstructure and mechanical properties during extended service in the fission and fusion environments. The focus of the current investigation is on modern steels for use in nuclear reactors including high strength ferritic-martensitic steels (Fe-Cr-Ni alloys). The effort is to develop a predicative capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior. Irradiation hardening is related to structural information crossing different length scales, such as composition, dislocation, and crystal orientation distribution. To predict effective hardening, the influence factors along different length scales should be considered. Therefore, a hierarchical upscaling methodology is implemented in this work in which relevant information is passed between models at three scales, namely, from molecular dynamics to dislocation dynamics to dislocation-based crystal plasticity. The molecular dynamics (MD) was used to predict the dislocation mobility in body centered cubic (bcc) Fe and its Ni and Cr alloys. The results are then passed on to dislocation dynamics to predict the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In this report the focus is on the results obtained from large scale dislocation dynamics simulations. The effect of defect density, materials structure was investigated, and evolution laws are obtained. These results will form the bases for the development of evolution and hardening laws for a dislocation-based crystal plasticity framework. The hierarchical upscaling method being developed in this project can provide a guidance tool to evaluate performance of structural materials for next-generation nuclear reactors. Combined with other tools developed in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program, the models developed will have more impact in improving the reliability of current reactors and affordability of new reactors.

  19. A 109 neutrons/pulse transportable pulsed D-D neutron source based on flexible head plasma focus unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R. K.; Srivastava, R.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-03-01

    A 17 kJ transportable plasma focus (PF) device with flexible transmission lines is developed and is characterized. Six custom made capacitors are used for the capacitor bank (CB). The common high voltage plate of the CB is fixed to a centrally triggered spark gap switch. The output of the switch is coupled to the PF head through forty-eight 5 m long RG213 cables. The CB has a quarter time-period of 4 μs and an estimated current of 506 kA is delivered to the PF device at 17 kJ (60 μF, 24 kV) energy. The average neutron yield measured using silver activation detector in the radial direction is (7.1 ± 1.4) × 108 neutrons/shot over 4π sr at 5 mbar optimum D2 pressure. The average neutron yield is more in the axial direction with an anisotropy factor of 1.33 ± 0.18. The average neutron energies estimated in the axial as well as in the radial directions are (2.90 ± 0.20) MeV and (2.58 ± 0.20) MeV, respectively. The flexibility of the PF head makes it useful for many applications where the source orientation and the location are important factors. The influence of electromagnetic interferences from the CB as well as from the spark gap on applications area can be avoided by putting a suitable barrier between the bank and the PF head.

  20. Double-digest RAD sequencing using Ion Proton semiconductor platform (ddRADseq-ion) with nonmodel organisms.

    PubMed

    Recknagel, Hans; Jacobs, Arne; Herzyk, Pawel; Elmer, Kathryn R

    2015-11-01

    Research in evolutionary biology involving nonmodel organisms is rapidly shifting from using traditional molecular markers such as mtDNA and microsatellites to higher throughput SNP genotyping methodologies to address questions in population genetics, phylogenetics and genetic mapping. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD sequencing or RADseq) has become an established method for SNP genotyping on Illumina sequencing platforms. Here, we developed a protocol and adapters for double-digest RAD sequencing for Ion Torrent (Life Technologies; Ion Proton, Ion PGM) semiconductor sequencing. We sequenced thirteen genomic libraries of three different nonmodel vertebrate species on Ion Proton with PI chips: Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus and common lizard Zootoca vivipara. This resulted in ~962 million single-end reads overall and a mean of ~74 million reads per library. We filtered the genomic data using Stacks, a bioinformatic tool to process RAD sequencing data. On average, we obtained ~11,000 polymorphic loci per library of 6-30 individuals. We validate our new method by technical and biological replication, by reconstructing phylogenetic relationships, and using a hybrid genetic cross to track genomic variants. Finally, we discuss the differences between using the different sequencing platforms in the context of RAD sequencing, assessing possible advantages and disadvantages. We show that our protocol can be used for Ion semiconductor sequencing platforms for the rapid and cost-effective generation of variable and reproducible genetic markers. PMID:25808755

  1. Preliminary measurement of D*/D production and D* spin alignment at the Z{sup 0} resonance

    SciTech Connect

    The SLD Collaboration

    1996-06-01

    Using hadronic Z{sup 0} decays recorded by the SLD experiment at SLAC, we have measured the vector/(vector+pseudoscalar) production ratio, V/(V+P), for the prompt charmed mesons, D{sup *+} and D{sup +}. Using the channels D{sup *+}{r_arrow}D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{sub s}, D{sup 0}{r_arrow} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, and D{sup 0}{r_arrow} K{sup - }{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, as well as D{sup +}{r_arrow} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, we find V/(V+P) = 0.57 {+-} 0.07 ({ital stat}){+-} 0.02({ital BR}), which disfavors the expectations of 0.75 from naive spin counting. We have also measured the degree of D{sup *+} spin alignment along the flight direction and find it to be consistent with the zero for D{sup *+} fractional momenta {chi} {triple_bond} E{sub D{sup *}}/D{sub {ital beam}} {gt} 0.2. We compare these results with QCD model predictions.

  2. Did American social and economic events from 1865 to 1898 influence D.D. Palmer the chiropractor and entrepreneur?

    PubMed

    Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.'s entrepreneurial successes.

  3. Geohydrological characterization, water-chemistry, and ground-water flow simulation model of the Sonoma Valley area, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Koczot, Kathryn M.; Reichard, Eric G.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    changes by region. In recent years, pumping depressions have developed southeast of Sonoma and southwest of El Verano. Water-chemistry data for samples collected from 75 wells during 2002-04 indicate that the ground-water quality in the study area generally is acceptable for potable use. The water from some wells, however, contains one or more constituents in excess of the recommended standards for drinking water. The chemical composition of water from creeks, springs, and wells sampled for major ions plot within three groups on a trilinear diagram: mixed-bicarbonate, sodium-mixed anion, and sodium-bicarbonate. An area of saline ground water in the southern part of the Sonoma Valley appears to have shifted since the late 1940s and early 1950s, expanding in one area, but receding in another. Sparse temperature data from wells southwest of the known occurrence of thermal water suggest that thermal water may be present beneath a larger part of the valley than previously thought. Thermal water contains higher concentrations of dissolved minerals than nonthermal waters because mineral solubilities generally increase with temperature. Geohydrologic Characterization, Water-Chemistry, and Ground-Water Flow Simulation Model of the Sonoma Valley Area, Sonoma County, California Oxygen-18 (d18 O) and deuterium (dD) values for water from most wells plot along the global meteoric water line, indicating that recharge primarily is derived from the direct infiltration of precipitation or the infiltration of seepage from creeks. Samples from shallow- and intermediate-depth wells located near Sonoma Creek and (or) in the vicinity of Shellville plot to the right of the global meteoric water line, indicating that these waters are partly evaporated. The d18 O and dD composition of water from sampled wells indicates that water from wells deeper than 200 feet is isotopically lighter (more negative) than water from wells less than 200 feet deep, possibly indicating that older ground wate

  4. Critical zone co-evolution: evidence that weathering and consequent seasonal rock moisture storage leads to a mixed forest canopy of conifer and evergreen broadleaf trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshun, J.; Dietrich, W. E.; Dawson, T. E.; Rempe, D. M.; Fung, I. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Despite recent studies demonstrating the importance of rock moisture as a source of water to vegetation, much remains unknown regarding species-specific and seasonal patterns of water uptake in a Mediterranean climate. Here, we use stable isotopes of water (d18O, dD) to define the isotope composition of water throughout the subsurface critical zone of Rivendell, within the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory. We find that a structured heterogeneity of water isotope composition exists in which bulk saprolite is chronically more negative than bulk soil, and tightly held moisture is more negative than the mobile water that recharges the saturated zone and generates runoff. These moisture reservoirs provide a blueprint from which to measure the seasonal uptake patterns of different species collocated on the site. Douglas-firs use unsaturated saprolite and weathered bedrock moisture (i. e. rock moisture) throughout the year. Contrastingly, hardwood species (madrone, live oak, tanoak) modify their source water depending on which moisture is energetically favorable. Hardwoods use freely mobile water in the wet season, and rely on unsaturated zone soil moisture in the dry season. When soil water tension decreases on the drier south-facing slope, hardwood species use saprolite moisture. Although adjacent hardwoods and Douglas-firs partition water based on matric pull on the north side, there is competition for saprolite moisture in late summer on the south side. These results reveal the eco-hydrological importance of moisture derived from weathered bedrock, and show that the hardwoods have a competitive advantage under the drier conditions predicted in many climate models. Finally, the data emphasize that isotope measurements of all subsurface reservoirs and potential water sources are necessary for a complete and accurate characterization of the eco-hydrological processes within the critical zone.

  5. Water uptake by trees of coastal forested wetlands in Guadeloupe, French West Indies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bompy, Felix; Lambs, Luc; Dulormne, Maguy; Imbert, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    In the Caribbean islands, coastal wetlands comprise two main ecosystems: the mangrove forest and the freshwater swamp forest dominated by the legume Pterocarpus officinalis. These forest ecosystems make an interface between sea and land, providing significant ecological and socioeconomic functions. During the last centuries, human activities have modified the hydrologic connections of these wetlands by digging canals to drain waterlogged soils and by cutting forests to promote cattle grazing and waterfowl hunting. Peat formation is associated to the highest water-table levels. The thickest peat deposits occur seaward as a result of the Holocene marine transgression into Pleistocene coastal plains and estuaries. Landward, soils overlay volcanic or calcareous bedrocks and are mainly clayey. Such differences in soil formation and physical characteristics (especially porosity) confer to the system its hydraulic properties. Furthermore, the dual origin of water (tides and watershed runoff) gives way to a complex pattern of groundwater salinity. In five forest stands of Guadeloupe wetlands, we have traced water uptake using the stable isotopes of water (d18O and dD). Preliminary results reveal that evapo-transpiration process in the swamp forest is compensated by fresh groundwater coming out from springs scattered around and inside the forest. In the mangrove forest, the highest evaporation rates are located in the Avicennia pure stand and the mixed scrub stand; the mixed tall stand is located where fresh and salt water melt. Measurement of xylem sap also suggests that mangrove trees uptake groundwater where salinity is the lowest. The low tidal range and the absence of large watershed, like in most wetlands of Caribbean islands, certainly explain the poor hydro-dynamics and resilience of the system.

  6. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of pedogenic phyllosilicates and iron oxyhydroxides: Development of modern surface domain arrays and implications for paleotemperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, N. J.; Montanez, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    Mineralogic, chemical, and oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of 68 different modern soil and paleosol phyllosilicate and iron oxyhydroxide samples are presented. The chemical and mineralogic data are used in conjunction with published thermodynamic data to calculate hydrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation factors for each sample. These temperature-dependent fractionation values are then combined with modern global oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of meteoric water and temperature data from the IAEA database to construct modern surface domains (MSD) for each phyllosilicate and iron oxyhydroxide sample with the coordinates dD and d18O. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the phyllosilicates range from -108S to -24S, whereas the oxygen isotopic compositions range from +10.2S to +22.7S. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the iron oxyhydroxides range from -113S to -154S, whereas the oxygen isotopic compositions range from +3.1S to -3.2S. All of the phyllosilicate samples from modern soils plot within the MSD and yield equilibrium temperatures of formation similar to measured temperatures at each respective site. These results suggest that published thermodynamic data provide good estimates of natural systems. Paleo-equatorial Permo-Pennsylvanian phyllosilicates and iron oxyhydroxides plot within the MSD, or at slightly higher temperatures than MSD values (25 to 35° C). Eocene kaolinites plot within the MSD with equilibrium temperatures above modern temperatures (22°). Late Triassic iron oxyhydroxides from Argentina plot within the modern surface domain at temperatures of 12° C. However, the phyllosilicate data points plot well outside their respective MSDs, suggesting the phyllosilicate δ D values of these Triassic samples have likely been altered by proton-diffusion.

  7. Hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis with accurate-mass database and parallel reaction monitoring for high-throughput screening and quantification of multi-xenobiotics in honey.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhai, Lifei; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhou, Jinhui

    2016-01-15

    This study reports a rapid, automated screening and quantification method for the determination of multi-xenobiotic residues in honey using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap) with a user-built accurate-mass database plus parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The database contains multi-xenobiotic information including formulas, adduct types, theoretical exact mass and retention time, characteristic fragment ions, ion ratios, and mass accuracies. A simple sample preparation method was developed to reduce xenobiotic loss in the honey samples. The screening method was validated based on retention time deviation, mass accuracy via full scan-data-dependent MS/MS (full scan-ddMS2), multi-isotope ratio, characteristic ion ratio, sensitivity, and positive/negative switching performance between the spiked sample and corresponding standard solution. The quantification method based on the PRM mode is a promising new quantitative tool which we validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), matrix effects, and carry-over. The optimized methods proposed in this study enable the automated screening and quantification of 157 compounds in less than 15 min in honey. The results of this study, as they represent a convenient protocol for large-scale screening and quantification, also provide a research approach for analysis of various contaminants in other matrices.

  8. Alteration mineralogy and geochemistry as an exploration tool for detecting basement heat sources in sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Tonguc; Gasparon, Massimo; van Zyl, Jacobus; Wyborn, Doone

    2010-05-01

    crystallisation temperatures (150-200°C). Normalised REE patterns of the mostly altered granite samples show a strong negative Ce anomaly, signifying oxidation of trivalent Ce to less soluble tetravalent Ce. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of illites from the granites and sedimentary rocks are very similar, with d18O = -1.8 per mill to +2.7 per mill; δD = -99 per mill to -121 per mill for granites and d18O = +2.3 per mill to +9.7 per mill, dD = -78 per mill to -119 per mill for sedimentary rocks. The calculated oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of fluids in equilibrium with the illites are depleted in 18O and deuterium, comparable to those of waters reported for most high-latitude sedimentary basins. Hence, stable isotope data of alteration minerals in the granite and the overlying sedimentary rocks suggest the operation of a hydrothermal system involving high latitude meteoric waters during extensional tectonism in the Cooper Basin region. Investigation of alteration mineralogy and geochemistry of relatively shallow sedimentary sections (generally intersected in previously drilled petroleum holes) represents a potentially strong tool to evaluate the presence of a geothermal heat source in the basement of sedimentary basins.

  9. Evidence for a host-material dependence of the n/p branching ratio of low-energy d+d reactions within metallic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huke, A.; Czerski, K.; Dorsch, T.; Biller, A.; Heide, P.; Ruprecht, G.

    2006-03-01

    Angular distributions and the neutron-proton branching ratio of the mirror reactions 2H(d, p)3H and 2H(d, n)3He have been investigated using different self-implanted deuterized metallic targets at projectile energies between 5 and 60. Whereas the experimental results obtained for the transition metals Zr, Pd, Ta and also Al do not differ from those known from gas-target experiments, an enhancement of the angular anisotropy in the neutron channel and an attenuation of the neutron-proton branching ratio have been observed for the (earth)alkaline metals Li, Sr and Na at deuteron energies below 20. Experimental results are discussed with consideration of the special problems arising from the properties of these chemically very reactive target materials. A first theoretical effort explaining simultaneously both n/p asymmetry effects based on an induced polarization of the reacting deuterons within the crystal lattice is presented.

  10. A novel isoquinoline alkaloid, DD-carboxypeptidase inhibitor, with antibacterial activity isolated from Streptomyces sp. 8812. Part II: Physicochemical properties and structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Solecka, Jolanta; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Bocian, Wojciech; Bednarek, Elzbieta; Kawecki, Robert; Kozerski, Lech

    2009-10-01

    A novel antimicrobial agent labeled JS-1, being a member of isoquinoline alkaloids, of molecular formula C10H9NO4 was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. 8812. In this study, we present the structure based on physicochemical and spectroscopic NMR investigations and on quantum chemical structure modeling. The structure of a molecule suggests the biosynthetic path starting from 3'-hydroxy tyrosine. The synthesis was undertaken and it resulted in NMR data that fully agree with the presented analysis. PMID:19713991

  11. Dense Plasma Focus as Collimated Source of D-D Fusion Neutron Beams for Irradiation Experiences and Study of Emitted Radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Milanese, M.; Niedbalski, J.; Moroso, R.; Guichon, S.; Supan, J.

    2008-04-07

    A 'table-top' 2 kJ, 250 kA plasma focus, the PACO (Plasma AutoConfinado), designed by the Dense Plasma Group of IFAS is used in its optimum regime for neutron yield for obtaining collimated pulsed neutron beams (100 ns). A simple and low-cost shielding arrangement was developed in order to fully eliminate the 2.45 MeV neutrons generated in the PACO device (10{sup 8} per shot at 31 kV, 1-2 mbar). Conventional neutron diagnostics: scintillator-photomultiplier (S-PMT), silver activation counters (SAC), etc., are used to determine the minimum width of the shielding walls. Emission of very hard electromagnetic pulses is also studied. Collimation using lead and copper plates is made to determine the localization of the very hard X-ray source. The maximum energy of the continuum photon distribution is estimated in 0,6 MeV using a system of filters.

  12. Association among SNAP-25 Gene "Dd"eI and "Mnl"I Polymorphisms and Hemodynamic Changes during Methylphenidate Use: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Ozgur; Akin, Ata; Herken, Hasan; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Ciftci, Koray; Ay, Mustafa Ertan; Bicer, Duygu; Oncu, Bedriye; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Munir, Kerim; Yazgan, Yanki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interaction of treatment-related hemodynamic changes with genotype status for Synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) gene in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on and off single dose short-acting methylphenidate treatment with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Method:…

  13. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 286 - DD Form 2086-1, “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Data”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., “Record of Freedom of Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Data” ER25NO98.002 ER25NO98.003 ... Information (FOI) Processing Cost for Technical Dataâ D Appendix D to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM...

  14. Supporting Individuals within Their Families or in Homes of Their Own: The CAP-MR/DD Program in Raleigh, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoultz, Bonnie

    Findings are presented from a site visit to a Raleigh, North Carolina, program that provides in-home support to children and adults with severe disabilities and their families. The program, the Wake County Community Alternatives Program for Persons with Mental Retardation/Developmental Disabilities, is administered by the North Carolina Department…

  15. The Safety of Yellow Fever Vaccine 17D or 17DD in Children, Pregnant Women, HIV+ Individuals, and Older Persons: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roger E.; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Spragins, Wendy; Jackson, Dave; Williamson, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting immunity. Rare serious adverse events after vaccination include neurologic or viscerotropic syndromes or anaphylaxis. We conducted a systematic review of adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccination in vulnerable populations. Nine electronic bibliographic databases and reference lists of included articles were searched. Electronic databases identified 2,415 abstracts for review, and 32 abstracts were included in this review. We identified nine studies of adverse events in infants and children, eight studies of adverse events in pregnant women, nine studies of adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients, five studies of adverse events in persons 60 years and older, and one study of adverse events in individuals taking immunosuppressive medications. Two case studies of maternal–neonate transmission resulted in serious adverse events, and the five passive surveillance databases identified very small numbers of cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease, yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease, and anaphylaxis in persons ≥ 60 years. No other serious adverse events were identified in the other studies of vulnerable groups. PMID:22302874

  16. A novel method to recover DD fusion proton CR-39 data corrupted by fast ablator ions at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, G. D.; Milanese, L. M.; Orozco, D.; Lahmann, B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Park, H.-S.; Rygg, J. R.; Casey, D. T.; Bionta, R.; Turnbull, D. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Ross, J. S.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    CR-39 detectors are used routinely in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments as a part of nuclear diagnostics. CR-39 is filtered to stop fast ablator ions which have been accelerated from an ICF implosion due to electric fields caused by laser-plasma interactions. In some experiments, the filtering is insufficient to block these ions and the fusion-product signal tracks are lost in the large background of accelerated ion tracks. A technique for recovering signal in these scenarios has been developed, tested, and implemented successfully. The technique involves removing material from the surface of the CR-39 to a depth beyond the endpoint of the ablator ion tracks. The technique preserves signal magnitude (yield) as well as structure in radiograph images. The technique is effective when signal particle range is at least 10 μm deeper than the necessary bulk material removal.

  17. A novel method to recover DD fusion proton CR-39 data corrupted by fast ablator ions at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Sutcliffe, G. D.; Milanese, L. M.; Orozco, D.; Lahmann, B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; et al

    2016-08-05

    CR-39 detectors are used routinely in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments as a part of nuclear diagnostics. CR-39 is filtered to stop fast ablator ions which have been accelerated from an ICF implosion due to electric fields caused by laser-plasma interactions. In some experiments, the filtering is insufficient to block these ions and the fusion-product signal tracks are lost in the large background of accelerated ion tracks. A technique for recovering signal in these scenarios has been developed, tested, and implemented successfully. The technique involves removing material from the surface of the CR-39 to a depth beyond the endpoint ofmore » the ablator ion tracks. The technique preserves signal magnitude (yield) as well as structure in radiograph images. The technique is effective when signal particle range is at least 10 μm deeper than the necessary bulk material removal.« less

  18. Comparison of next-generation droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) with quantitative PCR (qPCR) for enumeration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Paparini, Andrea; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2014-12-01

    Clinical microbiology laboratories rely on quantitative PCR for its speed, sensitivity, specificity and ease-of-use. However, quantitative PCR quantitation requires the use of a standard curve or normalisation to reference genes. Droplet digital PCR provides absolute quantitation without the need for calibration curves. A comparison between droplet digital PCR and quantitative PCR-based analyses was conducted for the enteric parasite Cryptosporidium, which is an important cause of gastritis in both humans and animals. Two loci were analysed (18S rRNA and actin) using a range of Cryptosporidium DNA templates, including recombinant plasmids, purified haemocytometer-counted oocysts, commercial flow cytometry-counted oocysts and faecal DNA samples from sheep, cattle and humans. Each method was evaluated for linearity, precision, limit of detection and cost. Across the same range of detection, both methods showed a high degree of linearity and positive correlation for standards (R(2)⩾0.999) and faecal samples (R(2)⩾0.9750). The precision of droplet digital PCR, as measured by mean Relative Standard Deviation (RSD;%), was consistently better compared with quantitative PCR, particularly for the 18S rRNA locus, but was poorer as DNA concentration decreased. The quantitative detection of quantitative PCR was unaffected by DNA concentration, but droplet digital PCR quantitative PCR was less affected by the presence of inhibitors, compared with quantitative PCR. For most templates analysed including Cryptosporidium-positive faecal DNA, the template copy numbers, as determined by droplet digital PCR, were consistently lower than by quantitative PCR. However, the quantitations obtained by quantitative PCR are dependent on the accuracy of the standard curve and when the quantitative PCR data were corrected for pipetting and DNA losses (as determined by droplet digital PCR), then the sensitivity of both methods was comparable. A cost analysis based on 96 samples revealed that the overall cost (consumables and labour) of droplet digital PCR was two times higher than quantitative PCR. Using droplet digital PCR to precisely quantify standard dilutions used for high-throughput and cost-effective amplifications by quantitative PCR would be one way to combine the advantages of the two technologies.

  19. University of Michigan -- 1994-5 performance review of D&D activities. Annual report, June 1, 1994--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wehe, D.K.

    1995-02-24

    In accordance with work proposed to the ORNL D & D Program, UM navigation group has conducted research in two areas: (1) Theoretical and experimental work for the improvement of dead-reckoning accuracy in mobile robots and (2) a comprehensive literature survey on positioning methods for mobile robots. The radiation imaging group has conducted research in: (1) assessing the existing requirements for gamma ray imagers, (2) hot testing of existing gamma ray imagers, and (3) design and testing of a prototype rotating aperture camera for improved signal/noise ratios and sensitivity.

  20. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE D&D OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place.