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Sample records for multi-national general paediatric

  1. European Academy of Paediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting network (EAPRASnet): a multi-national general paediatric research network for better child health.

    PubMed

    del Torso, S; van Esso, D; Gerber, A; Drabik, A; Hadjipanayis, A; Nicholson, A; Grossman, Z

    2010-05-01

    In 2008, the European Academy of Paediatrics launched a paediatric-based research network - EAPRASnet (European Academy of Paediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting network). The network has recruited primary care and general paediatricians from European and Mediterranean countries. Every paediatrician joining the network has been asked to complete a recruitment survey. The aims of the survey were to characterize paediatrician's demographics, practice arrangements and patient's demographics, to define main incentives for research, and to learn what paediatricians view as unsolved issues that need to be studied. A total of 156 paediatricians from 19 countries were recruited with 144 completing the questionnaire (92%). Majority of respondents (89%) were general paediatricians for more than half of their time. Practice arrangement of 47% of paediatricians was solo practice, with 40% in group practice. Electronic medical records were being used by 72% of respondents. Over 70% of the paediatricians had more than 1000 patients under their clinical care, and patients younger than 6 years old contributed nearly half of the patient population. Areas of most interest for research were: quality of care indicators, communication with parents, obesity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and effective well child care. Main incentives for participation in a research project were interest in the topic (81%) and effort to improve quality of care (71%). Lack of time was the leading reported obstacle for research activity (72%). EAPRASnet is growing, and the network's structure, operation and funding are described. Methods for joining the network and the process of study development are presented. A core group of EAP general paediatricians are committed to research in their practices. The information gathered will serve for future planning of research projects in the EAPRASnet to harmonize and optimize the care given to children in the primary care setting in Europe.

  2. In the beginning, there was general paediatrics ….

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Hasantha; Kilham, Henry

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address how general paediatrics has evolved and adapted to change over the past 50 years and speculate on its future directions. We compare the state of general paediatrics with that of general adult medicine. We argue that general paediatrics must continue to have a strong role both in paediatric teaching hospitals and the community. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Future career intentions of higher specialist trainees in general Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Butler, Grainne; Breatnach, Colm; Harty, Sinead; Gavin, Patrick; O'Donnell, Colm; O'Grady, Michael J

    2018-03-27

    A survey of paediatric higher specialist trainees was carried out in 2002 assessing career intentions and perception of training. Fourteen years later, with increased numbers of trainees and a national model of care and a tertiary paediatric hospital on the horizon, we re-evaluated the career intentions of the current trainee workforce. To assess the career intentions of the current paediatric higher specialist trainees. A 28-item questionnaire was developed based on a previously validated instrument and distributed online using the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland trainee database. We distributed the questionnaire to 118 eligible trainees and received responses from 92 (78%). Seventy-nine (86%) respondents desire a consultant post in Ireland. Seventy-five (82%) indicated that their preferred consultant post location was in a tertiary paediatric centre. Sixty-two trainees (67%) intend to become subspecialists with 25 (27%) planning a career in general paediatrics. This contrasts with the 2002 survey when 76% wished to work in urban centres and 61% of trainees planned a career in general paediatrics. There appears to be a mismatch between the career goals of the future paediatric consultant workforce and the requirements for staffing paediatric units nationally. This has the potential to complicate the proposed expansion of general paediatricians in regional centres and result in a significant proportion of current trainees failing to secure a post in their desired location.

  4. Postoperative vomiting (POV) in the paediatric outpatient general surgical population.

    PubMed

    Goh, J C; Ng, A S; Sim, K M

    1999-03-01

    To determine the incidence of postoperative vomiting (POV) in the paediatric outpatient general surgical population, the factors affecting POV and the incidence of unplanned admissions contributed by POV. One hundred and ninety-nine children below 13 yeas of age undergoing elective outpatient general surgical procedures were enrolled into this prospective study. Anaesthesia was induced either intravenously or via the inhalational route. It was then maintained with nitrous oxide, oxygen and isoflurane or halothane. The age, sex, body weight, duration of fasting, administration of trimeprazine, type of general surgical procedure, maintenance technique for general anaesthesia, duration of general anaesthesia, the administration of opiods or local anaesthetics and the incidence of POV were noted. The results were analysed initially with chi-squared test and subsequently subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis and stepwise variable selection method. The incidence of POV was 8.5%. Duration of general anaesthesia greater than one hour was associated with a significantly higher incidence of POV. Postoperative emesis did not contribute to unplanned admissions in these day surgical patients.

  5. Are paediatric operations evidence based? A prospective analysis of general surgery practice in a teaching paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Zani-Ruttenstock, Elke; Zani, Augusto; Bullman, Emma; Lapidus-Krol, Eveline; Pierro, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric surgical practice should be based upon solid scientific evidence. A study in 1998 (Baraldini et al., Pediatr Surg Int) indicated that only a quarter of paediatric operations were supported by the then gold standard of evidence based medicine (EBM) which was defined by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The aim of the current study was to re-evaluate paediatric surgical practice 16 years after the previous study in a larger cohort of patients. A prospective observational study was performed in a tertiary level teaching hospital for children. The study was approved by the local research ethics board. All diagnostic and therapeutic procedures requiring a general anaesthetic carried out over a 4-week period (24 Feb 2014-22 Mar 2014) under the general surgery service or involving a general paediatric surgeon were included in the study. Pubmed and EMBASE were used to search in the literature for the highest level of evidence supporting the recorded procedures. Evidence was classified according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) 2009 system as well as according to the classification used by Baraldini et al. Results was compared using Χ (2) test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. During the study period, 126 operations (36 different types) were performed on 118 patients. According to the OCEBM classification, 62 procedures (49 %) were supported by systematic reviews of multiple homogeneous RCTs (level 1a), 13 (10 %) by individual RCTs (level 1b), 5 (4 %) by systematic reviews of cohort studies (level 2a), 11 (9 %) by individual cohort studies, 1 (1 %) by systematic review of case-control studies (level 3a), 14 (11 %) by case-control studies (level 3b), 9 (7 %) by case series (type 4) and 11 procedures (9 %) were based on expert opinion or deemed self-evident interventions (type 5). High level of evidence (OCEBM level 1a or 1b or level I according to Baraldini et al. PSI 1998) supported 75 (60 %) operations in the current

  6. Paediatric homoeopathy in general practice: where, when and why?

    PubMed Central

    Ekins-Daukes, Suzie; Helms, Peter J; Taylor, Michael W; Simpson, Colin R; McLay, James S

    2005-01-01

    Aims To investigate the extent of homoeopathic prescribing in primary care for childhood diseases and assess GP attitudes towards the use of homoeopathy in children. Methods Homoeopathic prescribing in primary care was assessed in 167 865 children aged 0–16 years for the year 1999–2000. Computerized prescribing data were retrieved from 161 representative general practices in Scotland. Medical attitudes towards homoeopathic prescribing to children were also assessed via a questionnaire survey. Results During the year 1999–2000 22% (36) of general practices prescribed homoeopathic medicines to 190 (1.1/1000 registered) children. The majority of such prescriptions were issued to children under 1 year of age (8.0/1000 registered children). The most frequently prescribed medicines were for common self-limiting infantile conditions such as colic, cuts and bruises, and teething. A total of 259 completed questionnaires were returned by GPs, giving a response rate of 75%. GPs who frequently prescribed homoeopathic medicines to children (more than 1 per month) were more likely to claim an interest in homoeopathy, have had a formal training and keep up to date in the discipline, and refer on to a homoeopath (P < 0.001 for all variables) than those GPs who prescribed less than once a month or never. The majority of GPs who prescribed homoeopathic medicines did so when conventional treatments had apparently failed (76%), while 94% also perceived homoeopathy to be safe. Frequent prescribers reported a more positive attitude towards homoeopathic medicines than those who prescribed less frequently. Non-prescribers reported a lack of proven efficacy and lack of training as the main reasons for not prescribing homoeopathic medicines (55% and 79%, respectively). However non-prescribers from within homoeopathic prescribing practices reported a more favourable attitude in general towards homoeopathy and less resistance towards prescribing in the future than non-prescribers from

  7. Outcome of appendicectomy in children performed in paediatric surgery units compared with general surgery units.

    PubMed

    Tiboni, S; Bhangu, A; Hall, N J

    2014-05-01

    Appendicectomy for acute appendicitis in children may be performed in specialist centres by paediatric surgeons or in general surgery units. Service provision and outcome of appendicectomy in children may differ between such units. This multicentre observational study included all children (aged less than 16 years) who had an appendicectomy at either a paediatric surgery unit or general surgery unit. The primary outcome was normal appendicectomy rate (NAR). Secondary outcomes included 30-day adverse events, use of ultrasound imaging and laparoscopy, and consultant involvement in procedures. Appendicectomies performed in 19 paediatric surgery units (242 children) and 54 general surgery units (461 children) were included. Children treated in paediatric surgery units were younger and more likely to have a preoperative ultrasound examination, a laparoscopic procedure, a consultant present at the procedure, and histologically advanced appendicitis than children treated in general surgery units. The unadjusted NAR was significantly lower in paediatric surgery units (odds ratio (OR) 0.37, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.23 to 0.59; P < 0.001), and the difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex and use of preoperative ultrasound imaging (OR 0.34, 0.21 to 0.57; P < 0.001). Female sex and preoperative ultrasonography, but not age, were significantly associated with normal appendicectomy in general surgery units but not in paediatric surgery units in this adjusted model. The unadjusted 30-day adverse event rate was higher in paediatric surgery units than in general surgery units (OR 1.90, 1.18 to 3.06; P = 0.011). When adjusted for case mix and consultant presence at surgery, no statistically significant relationship between centre type and 30-day adverse event rate existed (OR 1.59, 0.93 to 2.73; P = 0.091). The NAR in general surgery units was over twice that in paediatric surgery units. Despite a more severe case mix, paediatric surgery units had a

  8. A comparison of the performance of the Braden Q and the Glamorgan paediatric pressure ulcer risk assessment scales in general and intensive care paediatric and neonatal units.

    PubMed

    Willock, Jane; Habiballah, Laila; Long, Deborah; Palmer, Kelli; Anthony, Denis

    2016-05-01

    To compare the predictive ability of two risk assessment scales used in children. There are several risk assessment scales (RASs) employed in paediatric settings but most have been modified from adult scales such as the Braden Q whereas the Glamorgan was an example of a scale designed for children. Using incidence data from 513 paediatric hospital admissions, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was employed to compare the two scales. The area under the curve (AUC) was the outcome of interest. The two scales were similar in this population in terms of area under the curve. Neonatal and paediatric intensive care were similar in terms of AUC for both scales but in general paediatric wards the Braden Q may be superior in predicting risk. Either scale could be used if the predictive ability was the outcome of interest. The scales appear to work well with neonatal, paediatric intensive care and general children's wards. However the Glamorgan scale is probably preferred by childrens' nurses as it is easy to use and designed for use in children. There is some suggestion that while the two scales are similar in intensive care, for general paediatrics the Braden Q may be the better scale. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Review of paediatric cardiology services in district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Hannah; Singh, Yogen

    2016-03-01

    Following the Safe and Sustainable review of Paediatric Services in 2012/2013, National Health Service England recommended that local paediatric cardiology services should be provided by specially trained paediatricians with expertise in cardiology in all non-specialist hospitals. To understand the variation in local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom. An internet-based questionnaire was sent out via the Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group and the Neonatologists with Interest in Cardiology and Haemodynamics contact databases and the National Health Service directory. Non-responders were followed-up via telephone. The response rate was 80% (141 of 177 hospitals), and paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were available in 68% of those. Local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were provided in 96 hospitals (68%), whereas specialist outreach clinics were held in 123 centres (87%). A total of 11 hospitals provided neither specialist outreach clinics nor any local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology. Paediatric echocardiography services were provided in 83% of the hospitals, 12-lead electrocardiogram in 96%, Holter electrocardiogram in 91%, and exercise testing in only 47% of the responding hospitals. Telemedicine facilities were established in only 52% of the centres, where sharing echocardiogram images via picture archiving and communication system was used most commonly. There has been a substantial increase in the availability of paediatricians with expertise in cardiology since 2008. Most of the hospitals are well-supported by specialist cardiology centres via outreach clinics; however, there remains significant variation in the local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

  10. Paediatric consultation patterns in general practice and the accident and emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, T.; McCann, B.; Glasgow, J. F.; Patterson, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    The age, sex, source of referral and diagnosis of children brought to a paediatric accident and emergency department by their parents were compared to those consulting their general practitioner. A simultaneous, prospective review of these consultations was carried out over a six-week period in an inner-city paediatric teaching hospital and a group practice in a socially deprived urban area. 730 children less than 13 years of age who presented for a new consultation were seen. 629 (86%) presented initially to the general practitioner, who dealt with all but 25 (4.0%) without onward referral to the accident and emergency department. 127 consultations took place at the accident and emergency department, of which 104 (82%) were parental referrals. There was no sex difference in children seen by the general practitioner. There was a decreasing trend with increasing age in the proportion of children who consulted the general practitioner, perhaps due to the higher frequency of injury in the older children. Over three quarters (77%) of injured children were brought directly to the accident and emergency department, compared with only 4% of children without injuries (p < 0.001). Of 22 children with injuries who presented to the general practitioner, only 4 (18%) required onward referral. General practitioners met the great majority of the paediatric workload generated by the practice. Audit between primary and secondary care gives a more reliable picture than data from only one source. Injured children are more likely to be taken to the accident and emergency department. Further study of the severity of injury in children is required to determine if there is potential to reduce parental referrals to accident and emergency departments. PMID:7502403

  11. General Paediatric Surgical Provision of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in a District General Hospital – A 12-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sathesh-Kumar, T; Rollins, Hazel; Cheslyn-Curtis, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A small, but significant, number of children require long-term nutritional support. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of providing a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) service for children in a district general hospital and to raise awareness of the suitability of the procedure to be performed on paediatric surgery lists in similar hospitals across the UK. PATIENTS AND METHODS A multidisciplinary paediatric nutrition team was established and all children accepted for PEG insertion between 1995 and 2007 were entered onto a database prospectively and are included in this study. PEG tubes were inserted by the standard pull-through technique under general anaesthetic. RESULTS A total of 172 procedures were performed in 76 children. The median age at first tube insertion was 3 years (range, 0.5–18 years). Length of follow-up ranged from 1 month to 12.6 years. Fifty-eight children (76%) had a neurological abnormality, the commonest being cerebral palsy. All but one procedure were performed successfully, of which 63 (37%) were new insertions, 99 change of tube, 4 changed from surgical gastrostomy and 6 from PEG to button gastrostomy. The median hospital stay was 2 days (range, 2–7 days) for new insertions and 1 day for tube changes. There were 10 (6%) early complications within 30 days, the commonest being peritubal infection (6). The 39 late complications included 16 peritubal infection/granulomata, 9 ‘buried bumpers’, 4 worsening of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, 2 gastrocolic fistulae, 3 gastrocutaneous fistulae and 4 tubal migration. There was no mortality. CONCLUSIONS We have demonstrated that paediatric PEG procedures and continuing management by a supporting team can be successfully and efficiently provided in the district general hospital. It should be possible for the majority of similar hospitals to provide local access and increase the availability of PEG feeding for children. PMID:19344554

  12. Paediatric palliative home care by general paediatricians: a multimethod study on perceived barriers and incentives

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-specialist palliative care, as it is delivered by general practitioners, is a basic component of a comprehensive palliative care infrastructure for adult patients with progressive and far advanced disease. Currently palliative care for children and adolescents is recognized as a distinct entity of care, requiring networks of service providers across different settings, including paediatricians working in general practice. In Germany, the medical home care for children and adolescents is to a large extent delivered by general paediatricians working in their own practice. However, these are rarely confronted with children suffering from life-limiting diseases. The aim of this study was therefore to examine potential barriers, incentives, and the professional self-image of general paediatricians with regard to paediatric palliative care. Methods Based on qualitative expert interviews, a questionnaire was designed and a survey among general paediatricians in their own practice (n = 293) was undertaken. The survey has been developed and performed in close cooperation with the regional professional association of paediatricians. Results The results showed a high disposition on part of the paediatricians to engage in palliative care, and the majority of respondents regarded palliative care as part of their profile. Main barriers for the implementation were time restrictions (40.7%) and financial burden (31.6%), sole responsibility without team support (31.1%), as well as formal requirements such as forms and prescriptions (26.6%). Major facilitations were support by local specialist services such as home care nursing service (83.0%), access to a specialist paediatric palliative care consultation team (82.4%), as well as an option of exchange with colleagues (60.1%). Conclusions Altogether, the high commitment to this survey reflects the relevance of the issue for paediatricians working in general practice. Education in basic palliative care competence and

  13. Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of the General Health Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a Multi-National Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmeharit, Somrat; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Sanchez, Sixto E; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Anderade, Asterio; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, common psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a widely used questionnaire for screening or detecting common psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, construct validity and factor structure of the GHQ-12 in a large sample of African, Asian and South American young adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 9,077 undergraduate students from Chile, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand. Students aged 18–35 years were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about lifestyle, demographics, and GHQ-12. In each country, the construct validity and factorial structures of the GHQ-12 questionnaire were tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Results Overall the GHQ-12 items showed good internal consistency across all countries as reflected by the Cronbach's alpha: Chile (0.86), Ethiopia (0.83), Peru (0.85), and Thailand (0.82). Results from EFA showed that the GHQ-12 had a two-factor solution in Chile, Ethiopia and Thailand, although a three-factor solution was found in Peru. These findings were corroborated by CFA. Indicators of goodness of fit, comparative fit index (CFI), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and standardized root mean squared residual, were all in acceptable ranges across study sites. The CFI values for Chile, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand were 0.964, 0.951, 0.949, and 0.931, respectively. The corresponding RMSEA values were 0.051, 0.050, 0.059, and 0.059. Conclusion Overall, we documented cross-cultural comparability of the GHQ-12 for assessing common psychiatric disorders such as symptoms of depressive and anxiety disorders among young adults. Although the GHQ-12 is typically used as single-factor questionnaire, the results of our EFA and CFA revealed the multi- dimensionality of

  14. Psychometric properties and factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire as a screening tool for anxiety and depressive symptoms in a multi-national study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, Bizu; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Lertmeharit, Somrat; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Sanchez, Sixto E; Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Anderade, Asterio; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-11-15

    Globally, common psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is a widely used questionnaire for screening or detecting common psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, construct validity and factor structure of the GHQ-12 in a large sample of African, Asian and South American young adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 9077 undergraduate students from Chile, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand. Students aged 18-35 years were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about lifestyle, demographics, and GHQ-12. In each country, the construct validity and factorial structures of the GHQ-12 questionnaire were tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Overall the GHQ-12 items showed good internal consistency across all countries as reflected by the Cronbach's alpha: Chile (0.86), Ethiopia (0.83), Peru (0.85), and Thailand (0.82). Results from EFA showed that the GHQ-12 had a two-factor solution in Chile, Ethiopia and Thailand, although a three-factor solution was found in Peru. These findings were corroborated by CFA. Indicators of goodness of fit, comparative fit index (CFI), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), and standardized root mean squared residual, were all in acceptable ranges across study sites. The CFI values for Chile, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand were 0.964, 0.951, 0.949, and 0.931, respectively. The corresponding RMSEA values were 0.051, 0.050, 0.059, and 0.059. Overall, we documented cross-cultural comparability of the GHQ-12 for assessing common psychiatric disorders such as symptoms of depressive and anxiety disorders among young adults. Although the GHQ-12 is typically used as single-factor questionnaire, the results of our EFA and CFA revealed the multi- dimensionality of the scale. Future studies are needed to

  15. Educational survey of regional general practitioner's management of paediatric patients with undescended testis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Alexander; Ball, Martin; Read, Katherine; Tharmapoopathy, Pavithira; Ross, Andrew R; Mathur, Azad; Minocha, Ashish; Tsang, Thomas; Kulkarni, Milind

    2016-06-01

    Recent recommendations have lowered the ideal age of surgery for undescended testis (UDT) to 3-6 months of age. However, many publications demonstrate that age at surgery is still above the recommended age of 1 year as originally suggested in 1996. Through a web-based educational survey, we aimed to combine questions regarding General Practioner's (GPs) management of these patients with educational slides with advice to update them with current recommendations. The regional GPs were invited by email and letter to undertake the web-based questionnaire devised using SurveyMonkey(®). Educational slides were shown after each questionnaire slide. Feedback was immediate and a one-page summary was emailed to the GP on completion. A pre- and post-educational intervention audit was undertaken to ascertain the change in age of referral for patients <5 years of age. 144 (36%) of 401 GPs undertook this survey. 84% were happy assessing infants (<1year) with UDT. 16% were unhappy discussing management with parents for palpable UDT. 52% were happy discussing malignant risk with parents. 80% thought that ultrasonography was routinely used. Optimal referral time was thought to be 6-12 months (42%) and time of surgery was 1-2 years (50%). 72% would refer a patient with palpable UDT after 6 months of age. Only 41% were happy to assess testicular size at puberty. 98% found this format of an educational survey was helpful. The average age of referral for patients <5 years improved significantly after educational intervention from 2.8 years in 2010 to 1.25 years in 2013 (p < 0.01). With an interactive survey, we were able assess and also educate the regional GPs with regard to management of paediatric patients with UDT. There is a varied range of knowledge and practice demonstrated which we hoped to standardise and thereby increase efficiency and decrease the age of referral. A large majority would refer patients with UDT after 6 months of age that would make the target of surgery <6

  16. A snapshot of general practitioner attitudes, levels of confidence and self-reported paediatric asthma management practice.

    PubMed

    Roydhouse, Jessica K; Shah, Smita; Toelle, Brett G; Sawyer, Susan M; Mellis, Craig M; Usherwood, Tim P; Edwards, Peter; Jenkins, Christine R

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma in Australia is high. Previous findings have suggested that asthma management, particularly in primary care, remains suboptimal and recent government initiatives to improve asthma management and encourage the use of written asthma action plans (WAAPs) in general practice have been implemented. We aimed to assess the attitudes, confidence and self-reported paediatric asthma management practices of a convenience sample of Australian general practitioners (GPs). A baseline questionnaire was administered to GPs as part of a randomised controlled trial. General practitioners (GPs) were recruited from two areas of greater metropolitan Sydney, NSW between 2006 and 2008. Invitations were sent to an estimated 1200 potentially eligible GPs. Of 150 (12.5%) GPs that enrolled, 122 (10.2%) completed the baseline questionnaire. Though 89% were aware of the Australian National Asthma Guidelines, less than 40% were familiar with guideline recommendations. While 85.2% had positive attitudes towards WAAPs, only 45.1% reported providing them frequently. For children with frequent symptoms, 90% agreed they should prescribe daily, inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and 83% reported currently prescribing ICS to such patients. These findings indicate gaps between GP attitudes and behaviours and highlights opportunities for interventions to improve paediatric asthma management.

  17. Comparison of Perkins, Tono-Pen and Schiøtz tonometers in paediatric patients under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Gharaei, H; Kargozar, A; Raygan, F; Daneshvar, R

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate if the Tono-Pen, Schiøtz and Perkins tonometers could be used interchangeably in general practice for measuring elevated intraocular pressure. A total of 74 eyes of 37 paediatric patients under general anaesthesia were checked with all 3 tonometers. All of the tonometers gave significantly different measurements from each other. However, with a mean difference of 1.4 mmHg and 95% limits of agreement of -5.7 to +8.6, the greatest agreement was between the Perkins and Tono-Pen tonometers. The Perkins tonometer is a hand-held variant of the Goldmann tonometer (the gold standard for intraocular pressure measures). Therefore the Tono-Pen with its ease of use and safety could be a reliable device for use in general practice.

  18. Internet health seeking behaviour of parents attending a general paediatric outpatient clinic: A cross-sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Sebelefsky, Christian; Karner, Denise; Voitl, Jasmin; Klein, Frederic; Voitl, Peter; Böck, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to examine the internet health seeking behaviour of parents attending a general paediatric outpatient clinic. For this purpose, the proportion of parents going online to obtain child health information, the most commonly used online resources, and factors having an influence on internet usage were identified. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at a general paediatric outpatient clinic in Vienna, Austria. Data collection was done by means of an anonymous questionnaire containing 14 items. A total number of 500 questionnaires were collected. Among parents visiting the outpatient clinic, 94.4% use the internet to obtain child health information in general and 21% to be informed about the reason for consultation. Most commonly used online resources are Google (91.4%), websites run by doctors (84.8%), Wikipedia (84.7%), health portals (76.4%), the outpatient clinic's homepage (76.4%), as well as health forums and communities (61.9%). Younger parents (p = 0.022) and parents of younger children (p < 0.01) display a higher tendency to use the internet for child health information purposes. Mothers and fathers (p = 0.151) as well as parents with different completed educational levels (mothers: p = 0.078; fathers: p = 0.388) do not differ in this behaviour. Important reasons for high internet use might be the inexperience of young parents regarding child health as well as the frequent infections, vaccinations, and preventive check-ups which are associated with young age of children. In contrast to former findings relating to health seekers in general, internet usage of parents is independent of their sex and educational level. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The Role of General Anaesthesia in Special Care & Paediatric Dentistry; Inclusion Criteria and Clinical Indications.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz

    Dental practitioners dealing with children and individuals with special needs can be supported by the provision of general anaesthesia for the most challenging patients in situations where other options are insufficient. The availability of general anaesthesia will further the aim of extending access to the widest range of dental care to the greatest number of patients regardless of disability, age or phobia. The objective is to ensure patients have a pain-free and healthy mouth, and any necessary treatment in the most appropriate setting related to their specific needs. A strictly individual and holistic approach is required when evaluating the risk versus benefit of proceeding with general anaesthesia for delivery of dental treatment particularly for children and special needs individuals. It is vitally important to consider and address all relevant factors specific to this particular group of patients including assessment of capacity, validity of consent, and any specific medical, social and behavioural issues. The other sedation modalities must be always taken into consideration. This article emphasises the crucial decision-making role of dentists in the referral process for dental treatment under general anaesthesia and the need for multidisciplinary co-operation between dental practitioners, community and hospital services.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinic-based chloral hydrate sedation versus general anaesthesia for paediatric ophthalmological procedures.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Heather F; Lambley, Rosemary; West, Stephanie K; Ungar, Wendy J; Mireskandari, Kamiar

    2015-11-01

    The inability of some children to tolerate detailed eye examinations often necessitates general anaesthesia (GA). The objective was to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of paediatric eye examinations carried out in an outpatient sedation unit compared with GA. An episode of care cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Model inputs were based on a retrospective cross-over cohort of Canadian children aged <7 years who had both an examination under sedation (EUS) and examination under anaesthesia (EUA) within an 8-month period. Costs ($CAN), adverse events and number of successful procedures were modelled in a decision analysis with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The mean cost per patient was $406 (95% CI $401 to $411) for EUS and $1135 (95% CI $1125 to $1145) for EUA. The mean number of successful procedures per patient was 1.39 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.42) for EUS and 2.06 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.11) for EUA. EUA was $729 more costly on average than EUS (95% CI $719 to $738) but resulted in an additional 0.68 successful procedures per child. The result was robust to varying the cost assumptions. Cross-over designs offer a powerful way to assess costs and effectiveness of two interventions because patients serve as their own control. This study demonstrated significant savings when ophthalmological exams were carried out in a hospital outpatient clinic, although with slightly fewer procedures completed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Lower urgency paediatric injuries: Parent preferences for emergency department or general practitioner care.

    PubMed

    Gafforini, Sarah; Turbitt, Erin; Freed, Gary L

    2016-10-01

    Injuries are a significant proportion of lower urgency (triage category 4 or 5) child presentations to the EDs in metropolitan Melbourne. The purpose of the present study was to assess parental preferences and experiences regarding the treatment of lower urgency child injuries and the role of general practitioners (GPs) in such care. A self-administered survey study of 1150 parents of children ≤9 years of age attending the ED at one of four Victorian hospitals triaged with a lower urgency condition (triage category 4 or 5) looked at whether children with lower urgency injuries are frequently referred by their GP to the ED and parent preferences for the care of lower urgency child injuries. Parents were recruited by time of day and weekday/weekend. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Fewer parents of injured children, compared with illness, attempted to make a GP appointment prior to attending ED (35% vs 46%; P < 0.001). A greater proportion of injured children were referred to the ED by their GP than ill children (84% vs 59%; P = <0.001). More parents (53%) preferred ED for the care of child injuries than primary care. Parents who presented to the ED with an ill child were more likely to indicate that they have greater trust in ED doctors for the treatment of injuries than primary care doctors (56% vs 46%; P = 0.003). Treatment provided in the ED for child injuries is valued highly by most parents, with a higher proportion of children with an injury being referred to the ED by their GP. Improving GP treatment skills and training opportunities may reduce GP referrals of lower urgency child injuries to the ED. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Paediatric palliative home care in areas of Germany with low population density and long distances: a questionnaire survey with general paediatricians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2007, the patient’s right to specialised palliative home care became law in Germany. However, childhood palliative care in territorial states with low patient numbers and long distances requires adapted models to ensure an area-wide maintenance. Actually, general paediatricians are the basic care providers for children and adolescents. They also provide home care. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about general paediatrician’s involvement in and contribution to palliative care in children. Findings To evaluate the current status of palliative home care provided by general paediatricians and their cooperation with other paediatric palliative care providers, a questionnaire survey was disseminated to general paediatricians in Lower Saxony, a German federal state with nearly eight million inhabitants and a predominantly rural infrastructure. Data analysis was descriptive. One hundred forty one of 157 included general paediatricians completed the questionnaire (response rate: 89.8%). A total of 792 children and adolescents suffering from life-limiting conditions were cared for by these general paediatricians in 2008. Severe cerebral palsy was the most prevalent diagnosis. Eighty-nine per cent of the general paediatricians stated that they had professional experience with paediatric palliative care. Collaboration of general paediatricians and other palliative care providers was stated as not well developed. The support by a specialised team including 24-hour on-call duty and the intensification of educational programs were emphasised. Conclusions The current regional infrastructure of palliative home care in Lower Saxony can benefit from the establishment of a coordinated network of palliative home care providers. PMID:22967691

  3. Paediatric palliative home care in areas of Germany with low population density and long distances: a questionnaire survey with general paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Kremeike, Kerstin; Eulitz, Nina; Jünger, Saskia; Sander, Annette; Geraedts, Max; Reinhardt, Dirk

    2012-09-11

    In 2007, the patient's right to specialised palliative home care became law in Germany. However, childhood palliative care in territorial states with low patient numbers and long distances requires adapted models to ensure an area-wide maintenance. Actually, general paediatricians are the basic care providers for children and adolescents. They also provide home care. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about general paediatrician's involvement in and contribution to palliative care in children. To evaluate the current status of palliative home care provided by general paediatricians and their cooperation with other paediatric palliative care providers, a questionnaire survey was disseminated to general paediatricians in Lower Saxony, a German federal state with nearly eight million inhabitants and a predominantly rural infrastructure. Data analysis was descriptive.One hundred forty one of 157 included general paediatricians completed the questionnaire (response rate: 89.8%). A total of 792 children and adolescents suffering from life-limiting conditions were cared for by these general paediatricians in 2008. Severe cerebral palsy was the most prevalent diagnosis. Eighty-nine per cent of the general paediatricians stated that they had professional experience with paediatric palliative care.Collaboration of general paediatricians and other palliative care providers was stated as not well developed. The support by a specialised team including 24-hour on-call duty and the intensification of educational programs were emphasised. The current regional infrastructure of palliative home care in Lower Saxony can benefit from the establishment of a coordinated network of palliative home care providers.

  4. Standardized Evaluation for Multi-National Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, W. Timothy

    This paper takes the position that standardized evaluation formats and procedures for multi-national development programs are not only desirable but possible in diverse settings. The key is the localization of standard systems, which involves not only the technical manipulation of items and scales, but also the contextual interpretation of…

  5. Paediatric care in relation to the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak and general reporting of deaths in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Denisiuk, O.; Shringarpure, K. K.; Wurie, B. S.; George, P.; Sesay, M. I.; Zachariah, R.

    2017-01-01

    Setting: All peripheral health units countrywide in Sierra Leone and one hospital in Port Loko. Objectives: Sierra Leone was severely affected by the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak, whose impact on paediatric care and mortality reports merits assessment. We sought to compare the periods before, during and after the Ebola outbreak, the countrywide trend in morbidities in children aged < 5 years and exit outcomes in one district hospital (Port Loko). During the Ebola outbreak period, gaps in district death reporting within the routine Health Management Information System (HMIS) were compared with the Safe and Dignified Burials (SDB) database in Port Loko. Design: This was a retrospective records analysis. Results: The average number of monthly consultations during the Ebola outbreak period declined by 27% for malaria and acute respiratory infections and 38% for watery diarrhoea, and did not recover to the pre-Ebola levels. For measles, there was an 80% increase during Ebola, which multiplied by 6.5-fold post-Ebola. The number of unfavourable hospital exit outcomes was 52/397 (13%) during Ebola, which was higher than pre-Ebola (47/496, 9%, P = 0.04). Of 6565 deaths reported in the Port Loko SDB database, only 2219 (34%) appeared in the HMIS, a reporting deficit of 66%. Conclusion: The Ebola disease outbreak was associated with reduced utilisation of health services, and appears to have triggered a measles epidemic. Almost 70% of deaths were missed by the HMIS during the Ebola outbreak period. These findings could guide health system responses in future outbreaks. PMID:28744437

  6. Examining the Needs of Paediatric Nurses Caring for Children and Young People Presenting with Self-Harm/Suicidal Behaviour on General Paediatric Wards: Findings from a Small-Scale Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Gemma; Foster, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the process and findings from a small-scale qualitative research study. The study intended to develop an evidence-based care plan/pathway for children and young people in paediatric inpatient settings presenting with self-harm/suicidal behaviour. The article includes a critical review of unanticipated challenges of…

  7. Making metadata usable in a multi-national research setting.

    PubMed

    Ellul, Claire; Foord, Joanna; Mooney, John

    2013-11-01

    SECOA (Solutions for Environmental Contrasts in Coastal Areas) is a multi-national research project examining the effects of human mobility on urban settlements in fragile coastal environments. This paper describes the setting up of a SECOA metadata repository for non-specialist researchers such as environmental scientists and tourism experts. Conflicting usability requirements of two groups - metadata creators and metadata users - are identified along with associated limitations of current metadata standards. A description is given of a configurable metadata system designed to grow as the project evolves. This work is of relevance for similar projects such as INSPIRE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. An audit of paediatric dental treatments carried out under general anaesthesia in a sample of Spanish patients.

    PubMed

    Barberia, E; Arenas, M; Gómez, B; Saavedra-Ontiveros, D

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the success and failure rates of the clinical procedures carried out under general anaesthesia in disabled or medically comprised and healthy children. Retrospective study included 47 patients who received dental treatment under general anaesthesia, grouped according to whether they were disabled or medically compromised (group A, n = 16) or not (group B, n = 31), and subgrouped according to whether they were under or over 6 years of age. Mean duration of anaesthesia was 2 hours and 25 minutes, with a range of 1 to 4 hours. The percentage of children followed up was 87%. The procedures performed were: 105 preformed metal crowns, 142 restorations, 85 pulpotomies and 166 extractions. The success rate was 93% for preformed metal crowns, 96% for pulpotomies and 90% for restorations. General anaesthesia is necessary in some children, but should be complemented with a preventive programme, behavioural remodelling and a follow-up schedule to avoid having to repeat the use of general anaesthesia.

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in paediatric meningitis patients at Goroka General Hospital, Papua New Guinea: serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility in the pre-vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Andrew R; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Michael, Audrey; Yoannes, Mition; Orami, Tilda; Smith, Helen; Murphy, Denise; Blyth, Christopher; Reeder, John; Siba, Peter; Pomat, William; Lehmann, Deborah

    2015-10-27

    Bacterial meningitis remains an important infection globally, with the greatest burden in children in low-income settings, including Papua New Guinea (PNG). We present serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcome data from paediatric meningitis patients prior to introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in PNG, providing a baseline for evaluation of immunisation programs. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from children admitted to Goroka General Hospital with suspected meningitis between 1996 and 2005. Culture and sensitivity was conducted, and pneumococci and H. influenzae were serotyped. Laboratory findings were linked to clinical outcomes. We enrolled 1884 children. A recognised pathogen was identified in 375 children (19.9%). Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 180) and Hib (n = 153) accounted for 88.8% of pathogens isolated. 24 different pneumococcal serogroups were identified; non-PCV types 2, 24 and 46 accounted for 31.6% of pneumococcal meningitis. 10- and 13-valent PCVs would cover 44.1% and 45.4% of pneumococcal meningitis respectively. Pneumococcal isolates were commonly resistant to penicillin (21.5%) and 23% of Hib isolates were simultaneously resistant to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and chloramphenicol. The case fatality rate in patients with a recognised bacterial pathogen was 13.4% compared to 8.5% in culture-negative patients. If implemented in routine expanded programme of immunisation (EPI) with high coverage, current PCVs could prevent almost half of pneumococcal meningitis cases. Given the diversity of circulating serotypes in PNG serotype replacement is of concern. Ongoing surveillance is imperative to monitor the impact of vaccines. In the longer term vaccines providing broader protection against pneumococcal meningitis will be needed.

  10. Interventional Radiology in Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J

    2015-01-01

    As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.

  11. Paediatric nuclear medicine imaging.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Lorenzo; Easty, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject. Nuclear medicine imaging is well-established in paediatric nephro-urology in the context of urinary tract infection, ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis and other congenital renal anomalies. Also, in paediatric oncology, I-123-meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine has a key role in the management of children with neuroblastic tumours. Bone scintigraphy is still highly valuable to localize the source of symptoms in children and adolescents with bone pain when other imaging techniques have failed. Thyroid scintigraphy in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism is the most accurate imaging technique to confirm the presence of ectopic functioning thyroid tissue. Radionuclide transit studies of the gastro-intestinal tract are potentially useful in suspected gastroparesis or small bowel or colonic dysmotility. However, until now a standardized protocol and a validated normal range have not been agreed, and more work is necessary. Research is ongoing on whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its great advantage of great anatomical detail and no ionizing radiations, can replace nuclear medicine imaging in some clinical context. On the other hand, access to MRI is often difficult in many district general hospitals and general anaesthesia is frequently required, thus adding to the complexity of the examination. Patients with bone pain and no cause for it demonstrated on MRI can benefit from bone scintigraphy with single photon emission tomography and low-dose computed tomography. This technique can identify areas of mechanical stress at

  12. Neurodevelopmental and behavioural paediatrics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the notable shifts in Paediatrics across the last 50 years has been towards disorders that are chronic and qualitative in nature. In addition to physical health, these impact on childhood development, behaviour and wellbeing. Understanding and management of these problems extends the traditional biological toolkit of paediatrics into the complexities of uncertainties of psychological and social context. In Australasia, the profession has responded with the development of Community Paediatrics as a recognised sub-specialty, of which Neurodevelopmental and Behavioural Paediatrics is an important component. These developments are reviewed along with consideration of future challenges for this field of health care. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Paediatrics in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Rottier, Bart; Lindblad, Anders; Grigg, Jonathan; Bohlin, Kajsa; Rusconi, Franca; Pohunek, Petr; Eber, Ernst

    2014-08-01

    This update will describe the paediatric highlights from the 2013 European Respiratory Society (ERS) annual congress in Barcelona, Spain. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology) have been chosen by group officers and are presented in the context of current literature. ©ERS 2014.

  14. Common Paediatric Elbow Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Christopher E.; Cooke, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Paediatric elbow injuries account for a large proportion of childrens’ fractures. Knowledge of common injuries is essential to understanding their assessment and correct management. Methods: A selective literature search was performed and personal surgical experiences are reported. Results: We have described the assessment and management of the five most common paediatric elbow injuries: supracondylar humeral fractures; lateral condyle fractures; medial epicondyle fractures; radial head and neck fractures; radial head subluxation. Conclusion: Understanding of the ossification centres around the paediatric elbow is essential to correctly assessing and managing the common injuries that we have discussed in the review. Outcomes after these injuries are usually favourable with restoration of normal anatomy. PMID:29290878

  15. [Radiotherapy for paediatric cancers].

    PubMed

    Laprie, A; Padovani, L; Bernier, V; Supiot, S; Huchet, A; Ducassou, A; Claude, L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the specificities of paediatric radiation oncology: cancer types, radiotherapy indications, techniques, organisation and reglementary framework. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Paediatric Virology: A rapidly increasing educational challenge

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Theodoridou, Maria; Kramvis, Anna; Thiagarajan, Prakash; Gardner, Sharryn; Papaioannou, Georgia; Melidou, Angeliki; Koutsaki, Maria; Kostagianni, Georgia; Achtsidis, Vassilis; Koutsaftiki, Chryssie; Calachanis, Marcos; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Greenough, Anne; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology’, which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. A brief historical overview of the anti-vaccination movement was also provided, as well as presentations on the educational challenge of Paediatric Virology as a new subspecialty of Paediatrics. This review highlights selected lectures and discussions of the workshop. PMID:28352303

  17. Three years of paediatric regulation in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Olski, Thorsten M; Lampus, Simona F; Gherarducci, Giulia; Saint Raymond, Agnes

    2011-03-01

    proportion of paediatric trials as a percentage of all clinical trials has moderately increased (from 8.2 to 9.4% of all trials), and this may reflect the fact that paediatric trials are generally deferred (82%) until after adult development. This is the first analysis of the general impact of the Paediatric Regulation on the development of medicinal products in Europe. Three years after the implementation of the Paediatric Regulation, we were able to identify that the PIPs address the main gaps in knowledge on paediatric medicines. The key objective of the Paediatric Regulation, namely, the availability of medicines with age-appropriate information, is going to be achieved. It is clear also that modifications of the initial proposals as requested by the PDCO are necessary to ensure the quality of paediatric developments. The impact on the number of clinical trials performed remains modest at this point in time, and it will be of high interest to monitor this performance indicator, which will also inform us whether paediatric medicine research takes place in Europe or elsewhere.

  18. [What's new in paediatric dermatology?].

    PubMed

    Plantin, P

    2014-12-01

    Regular analysis of the major journals in dermatology and paediatrics has been used to select forty articles which are representative of the past year in paediatric dermatology. This selection is not exhaustive but rather reflects the interests of the author and also the dominant topics in paediatric dermatology in 2013-2014. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceptions of intimidation and bullying in dental schools: a multi-national study.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Michael L; Naidoo, Sudeshni; AbdulKadir, Rahimah; Moraru, Ruxandra; Huang, Boyen; Pau, Allan

    2010-04-01

    To determine first year dental students' perceptions of intimidation by instructors and bullying by fellow students. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of first year dental students from seven dental schools representing five countries; one each from Romania, South Africa, Australia and the U.S.A., and three from Malaysia. Self-report questionnaires were administered to participants at least six months after they had commenced their dental degree course during 2005-6. Over a third (34.6%) reported that they had been intimidated or badly treated by their tutors/instructors and 17% reported that they had been bullied or badly treated by their fellow students in the recent past. There were statistically significant differences in reports of intimidation by instructors between the different dental schools. Intimidation by instructors was associated with a history of medication use for stress, anxiety and depression, and perceived stress in the past month. There were no statistically significant variations in reports of bullying by fellow students between different dental schools. Bullying by fellow students was associated with dieting to lose weight, self-reported general health and perceived stress. This multi-national study highlights that intimidation and bullying is prevalent within dental teaching and training environments. Future research is needed to explore their impact on students' wellbeing and academic progress as well as on patient care. Dentists are the best recruiters for the profession. If the dental school experience is a negative one it can have significant impact on the future of the profession

  20. Epidemiology of paediatric injury.

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, A J

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of young lives are lost every year as a result of accidents, and trauma remains the number one cause of paediatric death. There is a pattern and regularity to children's injury: boys are more often victims than the girls, most injuries occur during the summer months, the pedestrian child has usually been the victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and, in 75% of these cases, has suffered head injury. The research into paediatric trauma is still very young. For instance, socio-economic and ethnic factors play a significant role in the statistics of accidental death. In order to take effective preventative measures more factors must be determined. PMID:7921561

  1. Paediatric surgery in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Dewan, P A

    More than half of Cambodia's nine million people are under 17 years of age, but there are no certified paediatric surgeons. On a mission sponsored by CARE Australia and the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, Paddy A Dewan investigated the surgical care of Cambodia's children.

  2. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  3. Paediatric treadmill friction injuries.

    PubMed

    Jeremijenko, Luke; Mott, Jonathan; Wallis, Belinda; Kimble, Roy

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the severity and incidence of children injured by treadmills and to promote the implementation of safety standards. This retrospective review of children with treadmill friction injuries was conducted in a single tertiary-level burns centre in Australia between January 1997 and June 2007. The study revealed 37 children who sustained paediatric treadmill friction injuries. This was a presentation of 1% of all burns. Thirty-three (90%) of the injuries occurred in the last 3.5 years (January 2004 to June 2007). The modal age was 3.2 years. Thirty-three (90%) injuries were either full thickness or deep partial friction burns. Eleven (30%) required split thickness skin grafts. Of those who became entrapped, 100% required skin grafting. This study found that paediatric treadmill friction injuries are severe and increasing in incidence. Australian standards should be developed, implemented and mandated to reduce this preventable and severe injury.

  4. [New analgesics in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Avez-Couturier, Justine; Wood, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of different types of analgesics in paediatrics. They must be used in accordance with the situation, the type of pain and the characteristics of the child. In all cases, strict compliance with the posology and the instructions for use is essential to avoid any risk of error. Finally, pharmacological, physical and psychological treatments are employed in a complementary manner, for the biopsychosocial management of the child's care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Arctic Collaborative Environment: A New Multi-National Partnership for Arctic Science and Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, Charles A,; Kress, Martin P.; McCracken, Jeff E.; Spehn, Stephen L.; Tanner, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project is a new international partnership for information sharing to meet the challenges of addressing Arctic. The goal of ACE is to create an open source, web-based, multi-national monitoring, analysis, and visualization decision-support system for Arctic environmental assessment, management, and sustainability. This paper will describe the concept, system architecture, and data products that are being developed and disseminated among partners and independent users through remote access.

  6. [Diagnosis of tuberculosis in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Altet Gómez, N; Baquero-Artigao, F; Escribano Montaner, A; Gómez-Pastrana Durán, D; González Montero, R; Mellado Peña, M J; Rodrigo-Gonzalo-de-Liria, C; Ruiz Serrano, M J

    2010-04-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most important health problems worldwide. There are an increasing number of cases, including children, due to different reasons in developed countries. The most likely determining cause is immigration from highly endemic areas. Measures to optimise early and appropriate diagnosis of the different forms of tuberculosis in children are a real priority. Two Societies of the Spanish Paediatric Association (Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectology and Spanish Society of Paediatric Pneumology) have agreed this Consensus Document in order to homogenise diagnostic criteria in paediatric patients. 2009 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. The EU paediatric regulation: effects on paediatric psychopharmacology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova-Beninska, Violeta V; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Isaac, Maria; Kalverdijk, Luuk J; van den Berg, Henk; Gispen-de Wied, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatry is a relatively young field and the recognition, classification, and treatment of disorders in children and adolescents lag behind those in adults. In recent years there is an increasing awareness of the differences between children and adults in psychopathology and pharmacology. Related to this new paediatric regulations have been introduced. This article reviews the regulatory and legislative measures that were adopted in the EU in 2007 and the subsequent impact of these measures on the field of paediatric psychopharmacology. The consequences of the paediatric regulation in the EU are reflected in several domains: regulatory, research aimed at drug development and clinical practices. In the regulatory domain, the consequences include: new paediatric indications, inclusion of special (class) warnings, specification of dose regimens, and information on safety specific to children and adolescents, and development of new medicinal formulations. The paediatric regulation leads to timely development of paediatric friendly formulations and better quality of the clinical evidence. In clinical practices, an increased awareness of the uniqueness of paediatric pharmacology is emerging among medical professionals, and subsequent improvement of medical care (i.e. correct doses, appropriate formulation, monitoring for expected adverse events). In addition, clinical guidelines will have to be revised more frequently in order to integrate the recently acquired knowledge. The new regulations stimulate transparency and discussions between academia, pharmaceutical industry, and regulators. The purpose is to optimize clinical research and obtain evidence for paediatric psychopharmacology, thereby providing adequate support for treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trends in demand for general anaesthetic care for paediatric caries in Western Australia: geographic and socio-economic modelling of service utilisation.

    PubMed

    Madan, Charu; Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the temporal and spatial changes in the demand for general anaesthesia, relative to disease incidence, in 0-19-year-olds. Hospitalisation data were obtained from the Western Australian Morbidity Data System for the financial years 1999/2000 to 2004/2005, and principal diagnosis was obtained from every patient discharged from a public or private hospital. Hospitalisation data was correlated with socioeconomic status and the geographical location of primary residence. In the public hospital sector, there were greater rates of people residing in Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) with decreasing accessibility to healthcare services utilising the option of treatment of dental caries under general anaesthetic (GA) compared to people living within highly accessible areas. In the private sector, children who resided in SLAs with the greatest access to healthcare facilities had a greater rate of being hospitalised for the treatment of dental caries under GA. The results demonstrated distinct patterns of trends in demand for general anaesthetic care among different SES groups and geographical location of primary residence. There was an overall emerging trend of increasing demand placed on public sector both among dental care users among high and low SES. Moreover, the results demonstrated the potential application of geographic modelling as a service planning tool for estimating the future demand for GA care for dental caries in addition to the timely need for focused attention on preventive services for early identification, prevention and control of dental caries among children.

  9. [The latest in paediatric resuscitation recommendations].

    PubMed

    López-Herce, Jesús; Rodríguez, Antonio; Carrillo, Angel; de Lucas, Nieves; Calvo, Custodio; Civantos, Eva; Suárez, Eva; Pons, Sara; Manrique, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    Cardiac arrest has a high mortality in children. To improve the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is essential to disseminate the international recommendations and the training of health professionals and the general population in resuscitation. This article summarises the 2015 European Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation recommendations, which are based on a review of the advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and consensus in the science and treatment by the International Council on Resuscitation. The Spanish Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation recommendations, developed by the Spanish Group of Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation, are an adaptation of the European recommendations, and will be used for training health professionals and the general population in resuscitation. This article highlights the main changes from the previous 2010 recommendations on prevention of cardiac arrest, the diagnosis of cardiac arrest, basic life support, advanced life support and post-resuscitation care, as well as reviewing the algorithms of treatment of basic life support, obstruction of the airway and advanced life support. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Immobilisation in Australian paediatric medical imaging: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Noonan, S; Spuur, K; Nielsen, S

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this study is to document the use of paediatric immobilisation techniques in medical imaging. Secondary aims are to investigate differences between current practice of paediatric and non-paediatric facilities and radiographer gender and to investigate immobilisation protocols. A SurveyMonkey link was distributed through the Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT) newsletter. Radiographer members of ASMIRT were invited to participate. Frequency percentage analysis was undertaken; as the 'frequency of immobilisation' response was on a Likert scale and the ages categorical, a Fisher's exact test could determine dependency. The use of paediatric immobilisation techniques was determined to be related to age. The most commonly used technique in general X-ray was "other people"; in computed tomography, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques; and in magnetic resonance imaging, sedation and Velcro. A comparison of immobilisation techniques demonstrated that Velcro use in X-ray was dependent on facility (p = 0.017) with paediatric facilities using it up to 17 years. Immobilisation frequency was dependent in 13-17 years (p = 0.035) with paediatric facilities rarely immobilising and non-paediatric facilities never. No dependencies resulted upon comparing genders. Immobilisation frequency was not dependent between protocols or current practice. The use of paediatric immobilisation technique is related to age with "other people", sedation, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques being regularly used. The dependency of Velcro use and immobilisation frequency in 13-17 years is for unknown reasons and further investigation is required. A larger study should be carried out to validate these findings. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biased attention to threat in paediatric anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, separation anxiety disorder) as a function of 'distress' versus 'fear' diagnostic categorization.

    PubMed

    Waters, A M; Bradley, B P; Mogg, K

    2014-02-01

    Structural models of emotional disorders propose that anxiety disorders can be classified into fear and distress disorders. Sources of evidence for this distinction come from genetic, self-report and neurophysiological data from adults. The present study examined whether this distinction relates to cognitive processes, indexed by attention bias towards threat, which is thought to cause and maintain anxiety disorders. Diagnostic and attention bias data were analysed from 435 children between 5 and 13 years of age; 158 had principal fear disorder (specific phobia, social phobia or separation anxiety disorder), 75 had principal distress disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, GAD) and 202 had no psychiatric disorder. Anxious children were a clinic-based treatment-seeking sample. Attention bias was assessed on a visual-probe task with angry, neutral and happy faces. Compared to healthy controls, children with principal distress disorder (GAD) showed a significant bias towards threat relative to neutral faces whereas children with principal fear disorder showed an attention bias away from threat relative to neutral faces. Overall, children displayed an attention bias towards happy faces, irrespective of diagnostic group. Our findings support the distinction between fear and distress disorders, and extend empirically derived structural models of emotional disorders to threat processing in childhood, when many anxiety disorders begin and predict lifetime impairment.

  12. Are children carrying the burden of broad-spectrum antibiotics in general practice? Prescription pattern for paediatric outpatients with respiratory tract infections in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Guro Haugen; Lindbæk, Morten; Gjelstad, Svein; Dalen, Ingvild; Kværner, Kari J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the antibiotic prescription pattern and factors that influence the physicians’ choice of antibiotic. Design Observational study. Setting Primary healthcare in Norway, December 2004 through November 2005. Participants 426 general practitioners, GPs, in Norway, giving 24 888 respiratory tract infection episodes with 19 938 children aged 0–6 years. Outcome measures Assess antibiotic prescription details and patient and GP characteristics associated with broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotic use. Results Of the 24 888 episodes in the study, 26.2% (95% CI 25.7% to 26.8%) included an antibiotic prescription. Penicillin V accounted for 42% and macrolide antibiotics for 30%. The prescription rate varied among the physicians, with a mean of 25.5% (95% CI 24.2% to 26.7%). Acute tonsillitis gave the highest odds for a prescription, OR 33.6 (95% CI 25.7% to 43.9%), compared to ‘acute respiratory tract infections and symptoms’ as a reference group. GPs with a prescription rate of 33.3% or higher had the larger probability for broad-spectrum antibiotic prescriptions, OR 3.33 (95% CI 2.01% to 5.54%). Antibiotic prescriptions increased with increasing patient age. Conclusions We found a low antibiotic prescription rate for childhood respiratory tract infections. However, our figures indicate an overuse of macrolide antibiotics and penicillins with extended spectrum, more so than in the corresponding study including the adult population. Palatability of antibiotic suspensions and other administrative challenges affect medication compliance in children. To help combat antibiotic resistance, guidelines need to be followed, in particular for our youngest patients. Trial registration number (clinicaltrials.org) NCT00272155. PMID:23299114

  13. The safety and efficacy of intranasal midazolam sedation combined with inhalation sedation with nitrous oxide and oxygen in paediatric dental patients as an alternative to general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Conscious Decision' was published in 2000 by the Department of Health, effectively ending the provision of dental general anaesthesia (DGA) outside the hospital environment. Other aspects of dental anxiety and behavioural management and sedation techniques were encouraged before the decision to refer for a DGA was reached. Although some anxious children may be managed with relative analgesia (RA), some may require different sedation techniques for dentists to accomplish dental treatment. Little evidence has been published in the UK to support the use of alternative sedation techniques in children. This paper presents another option using an alternative conscious sedation technique. to determine whether a combination of intranasal midazolam (IN) and inhalation sedation with nitrous oxide and oxygen is a safe and practical alternative to DGA. A prospective clinical audit of 100 cases was carried out on children referred to a centre for DGA. 100 children between 3 and 13 years of age who were referred for DGA were treated using this technique. Sedation was performed by intranasal midazolam followed by titrating a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen. A range of dental procedures was carried out while the children were sedated. Parents were present during the dental treatment. Data related to the patient, dentistry and treatment as well as sedation variables were collected at the treatment visit and a telephonic post-operative assessment from the parents was completed a week later. It was found that 96% of the required dental treatment was completed successfully using this technique, with parents finding this technique acceptable in 93% of cases. 50% of children found the intranasal administration of the midazolam acceptable. There was no clinically relevant oxygen desaturation during the procedure. Patients were haemodynamically stable and verbal contact was maintained throughout the procedure. In selected cases this technique provides a safe and effective alternative

  14. Paediatric surgery for the busy GP - Getting the referral right.

    PubMed

    Teague, Warwick J; King, Sebastian K

    2015-12-01

    Is a child who presents with a possible non-acute surgical complaint a welcome prospect? Unavoidable deliberations follow: normal versus abnormal, common versus exotic, routine versus urgent, investigate or not, and reassurance versus referral. Delayed or inadequately investigated referrals are uncommon in general paediatric surgery; rather, those that may be unnecessary, inappropriately ascribed as 'urgent' or over-investigated are more commonplace. This article seeks to optimise a general practitioner's assessment of children with surgical presentations to ensure any resulting paediatric surgery referrals are necessary, timely and appropriately investigated. Common, non-acute complaints presenting in childhood, including testicular maldescent, inguinal hernia and hydrocoele, non-retractile foreskin, and abdominal wall herniae, are discussed in this article. Each summary outlines the basis of the complaint, recommended pre-referral work-up and typical management of these paediatric surgery referrals. Online guidelines may be useful (eg www.rch.org.au/kidsconnect/prereferral_guidelines).

  15. [General concepts of epigenetics: Projections in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Krause, Bernardo J; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence supports the notion that alterations in intrauterine growth and during the first years of life have a substantial effect on the risk for the development of chronic disease, which in some cases is even higher than those due to genetic factors. The persistence and reproducibility of the phenotypes associated with altered early development suggest the participation of mechanisms that would record environmental cues, generating a cellular reprogramming (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms). This review is an introduction to a series of five articles focused on the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of highly prevalent chronic diseases (i.e., cardiovascular, metabolic, asthma/allergies and cancer) and their origins in the foetal and neonatal period. This series of articles aims to show the state of the art in this research area and present the upcoming clues and challenges, in which paediatricians have a prominent role, developing strategies for the prevention, early detection and follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Empathy in paediatric intensive care nurses part 2: Neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Philip L; Latimer, Margot; Eugène, Fanny; MacLeod, Emily; Hatfield, Tara; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Prkachin, Kenneth M

    2017-11-01

    To determine if there are brain activity differences between paediatric intensive care nurses and allied health professionals during pain intensity rating tasks and test whether these differences are related to the population observed (infant or adult) and professional experience. The underestimation of patients' pain by healthcare professionals has generally been associated with patterns of change in neural response to vicarious pain, notably reduced activation in regions associated with affective sharing and increased activation in regions associated with regulation, compared with controls. Paediatric nurses, however, have recently been found to provide higher estimates of infants' pain in comparison to allied health controls, suggesting that changes in neural response of this population might be different than other health professionals. Cross-sectional study. Functional MRI data were acquired from September 2014-June 2015 and used to compare changes in brain activity in 27 female paediatric care nurses and 24 allied health professionals while rating the pain of infants and adults in a series of video clips. Paediatric nurses rated infant and adult pain higher than allied health professionals, but the two groups' neural response only differed during observation of infant pain; paediatric nurses mainly showed significantly less activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (linked to cognitive empathy) and in the left anterior insula and inferior frontal cortex (linked to affective sharing). Patterns of neural activity to vicarious pain may vary across healthcare professions and patient populations and the amount of professional experience might explain part of these differences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Can laparoscopy be part of a paediatric surgery outreach service?

    PubMed

    Peeraully, R; Hill, R; Colliver, D; Williams, A; Motiwale, S; Davies, B

    2017-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to assess the outreach laparoscopic service delivered by four paediatric surgeons to a district general hospital (DGH). METHODS A retrospective review was carried out of all laparoscopic procedures performed in a single DGH between January 2004 and November 2014 by the four paediatric surgeons providing the outreach service. All operations were identified from the electronic theatre system and archived correspondence. Demographic and clinical details were obtained from contemporaneous records. RESULTS Over the 11-year study period, 1,339 operations were performed as part of the outreach paediatric surgery service, with 128 patients (9.6%) undergoing laparoscopy. The indications for laparoscopic surgery were impalpable unilateral or bilateral undescended testes (UDT) (n=79, 62%) or request for insertion of a feeding gastrostomy (n=49, 38%). All but six UDT cases (96%) were performed as day surgery and the median length of stay for gastrostomy patients was 3 days (interquartile range: 2-3 days). There were three UDT cases with surgical complications and one had complications related to the anaesthesia. One gastrostomy case required transfer to our tertiary centre for management of postoperative urinary retention and urethral injury. CONCLUSIONS Elective laparoscopic procedures in young children can be provided safely as components of an outreach paediatric surgery service in a DGH setting as part of an increasing volume of operations performed by specialist paediatric surgeons. This enables children to have a high quality service as close to their home as possible.

  18. Multi-National Banknote Classification Based on Visible-light Line Sensor and Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    Automatic recognition of banknotes is applied in payment facilities, such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and banknote counters. Besides the popular approaches that focus on studying the methods applied to various individual types of currencies, there have been studies conducted on simultaneous classification of banknotes from multiple countries. However, their methods were conducted with limited numbers of banknote images, national currencies, and denominations. To address this issue, we propose a multi-national banknote classification method based on visible-light banknote images captured by a one-dimensional line sensor and classified by a convolutional neural network (CNN) considering the size information of each denomination. Experiments conducted on the combined banknote image database of six countries with 62 denominations gave a classification accuracy of 100%, and results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms previous methods. PMID:28698466

  19. Multi-National Banknote Classification Based on Visible-light Line Sensor and Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-07-08

    Automatic recognition of banknotes is applied in payment facilities, such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and banknote counters. Besides the popular approaches that focus on studying the methods applied to various individual types of currencies, there have been studies conducted on simultaneous classification of banknotes from multiple countries. However, their methods were conducted with limited numbers of banknote images, national currencies, and denominations. To address this issue, we propose a multi-national banknote classification method based on visible-light banknote images captured by a one-dimensional line sensor and classified by a convolutional neural network (CNN) considering the size information of each denomination. Experiments conducted on the combined banknote image database of six countries with 62 denominations gave a classification accuracy of 100%, and results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms previous methods.

  20. How to handle multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-sectoral projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Wallmann, Klaus; Visbeck, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Collaborative research projects funded by the European Commission are by nature multi-national. Often they bring together different scientific communities as the questions raised in EU project calls can typically only be addressed through the convergence of these previously separated disciplines in one research consortium. Some work programmes even necessitate to team up as different disciplines as natural sciences, social science, legal science and economic science. Examples for such multi- national, -disciplinary and - sectoral projects are the EU projects ECO2 (FP7, concluded) and AtlantOS (H2020). Project managers of such projects need to develop skills beyond the common technical and management skills namely go into the domain of partners and stakeholders psychology and be able to maintain different perspectives on communication and interaction needs regarding cultural-, discipline- and sectoral background. Accordingly, the project manager has besides his technical role as manager at least three further roles: that of a communicator, that of a mediator and that of a person convincing partners of the necessary and selling the project products to the stakeholders. As the typical project manager has not too much power and authority by his position he has to use the power of smart communication and persuasion to overcome potential dissension between disciplines, national reservation or potential conflicts regarding different sectoral views. Accordingly, the project manager of such a complex project would try to arrange the ideal working environment by considering cultural feel, the cooperation of disciplines, information and the control of resources. The way he develops such ideal working environment is by reflection of past, present and future experiences/needs.

  1. Challenges and opportunities of multi-disciplinary, multi-national and multi-sectoral projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Hamann, Kristin

    2017-04-01

    Collaborative research projects e.g. funded or supported by the European Commission are by nature multi-national. Often EU calls bring together different scientific communities to jointly tackle challenges that can only be addressed through the convergence of previously separated disciplines in one research consortium. Some work programmes even necessitate to team up as different disciplines as natural sciences, social science, legal science and economic science. Examples for such multi- national, -disciplinary and - sectoral projects are the EU projects ECO2 (FP7, concluded), AtlantOS (H2020) and MiningImpact (JPI Oceans). Project managers of such projects need to develop skills beyond the common technical and management skills namely go into the domain of partners and stakeholders psychology and be able to maintain different perspectives on communication and interaction needs regarding cultural-, discipline- and sectoral background. Accordingly, the project manager has besides his or her technical role as manager at least three further roles: that of a communicator, that of a mediator and that of a person convincing partners of the necessary and selling the project products to the stakeholders. As the typical project manager has not too much power and authority by his or her position he or she has to use the power of smart communication and persuasion to overcome potential dissension between disciplines, national reservation or potential conflicts regarding different sectoral views. Accordingly, the project manager of such complex projects would try to arrange the ideal working environment by considering cultural feel, the cooperation of disciplines, information and the control of resources. The way he or she develops such ideal working environment is by reflection of past, present and future experiences/needs.

  2. Influence of Food on Paediatric Gastrointestinal Drug Absorption Following Oral Administration: A Review.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Hannah K

    2015-06-09

    The objective of this paper was to review existing information regarding food effects on drug absorption within paediatric populations. Mechanisms that underpin food-drug interactions were examined to consider potential differences between adult and paediatric populations, to provide insights into how this may alter the pharmacokinetic profile in a child. Relevant literature was searched to retrieve information on food-drug interaction studies undertaken on: (i) paediatric oral drug formulations; and (ii) within paediatric populations. The applicability of existing methodology to predict food effects in adult populations was evaluated with respect to paediatric populations where clinical data was available. Several differences in physiology, anatomy and the composition of food consumed within a paediatric population are likely to lead to food-drug interactions that cannot be predicted based on adult studies. Existing methods to predict food effects cannot be directly extrapolated to allow predictions within paediatric populations. Development of systematic methods and guidelines is needed to address the general lack of information on examining food-drug interactions within paediatric populations.

  3. Paediatric acute care: Highlights from the Paediatric Acute Care-Advanced Paediatric Life Support Conference, Gold Coast, 2017.

    PubMed

    Teo, Stephen Ss; Rao, Arjun; Acworth, Jason

    2018-04-25

    The Paediatric Acute Care Conference is an annual conference organised by APLS Australia to advance paediatric acute care topics for clinicians in pre-hospital medicine, EDs, acute paediatrics, intensive care and anaesthesia. The Conference 2017 was held at Surfers Paradise, Queensland. We provide a summary of some of the presentations. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  4. [Toxicology screening in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Cuadrado González, Ainoha; Falcon, María

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse in paediatric patients, from the neonatal period to adolescence, is not well established as most cases go unnoticed. Regardless of clinical cases of acute poisoning leading to visits to emergency room, the exposure is usually detected by a questionnaire to the parents or children. In the last few years, new validated analytical methodologies have been developed in order to detect parent drugs and their metabolites in different biological matrices. These biological matrices have different time windows for detection of the exposure: acute (i.e., urine, blood, oral fluid), and chronic (i.e., hair, meconium or teeth). The aim of this paper was to review the scenarios where the use of biological matrices is indicated for the detection of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Paediatric manpower: towards the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, W J; Jackson, A D

    1988-01-01

    The British Paediatric Association (BPA) has carried out a national survey of paediatric medical manpower in the hospital and community child health services. The results of the survey relating to England and Wales are presented and compared with Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) manpower statistics. On the basis of the survey findings and current trends in the pattern of paediatric care paediatric manpower requirements over the next 10 years are estimated. PMID:3178274

  6. Paediatric deaths in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Jumali, Ismail Bin

    2006-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the causes and epidemiological aspects of paediatric death. Data was collected on 143 cases of paediatric death from a total of 2,895 autopsies performed in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, over a five-year period from 2000 to 2004. There were 78 males and 65 females. The largest number of cases (32.9%) were stillborn. The highest proportion of cases (30.1%) were Chinese. The majority of cases of paediatric death were non-traumatic (74.8%) of which intrauterine death (IUD) was the most common (32.9%). Amongst the traumatic deaths (25.2%), accidental injury (23.8%) was observed in the majority of cases.

  7. [Paediatric dermatology emergencies in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Sánchez, E; Bernabéu-Wittel, J; Dominguez-Cruz, J J; Conejo-Mir, J

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the increasing demand for dermatological consultations in the Emergency department has resulted in the publication of a variety of studies on this subject. However, most of them deal with the general population, without taking into account the changes in frequencies found in young children (ages 0-14). To determine the frequency of various dermatological diagnoses made by the on-call paediatrician in the Emergency Department, and after referral to Paediatric Dermatology. Firstly, a descriptive retrospective study was performed that included all patients aged between 0 and 14 years old who were seen after being referred to the emergency paediatric dermatologist by the on-call paediatrician from June 2010 to December 2013. Secondly, an analytical study was carried by calculating the kappa index calculus, in order to establish the diagnostic concordance between the emergency paediatrician and the paediatric dermatologist. A total of 861 patients, with a mean age of 4.5 years were included. More than half of the skin disorders analysed were eczema (27%) and infections (26%). The 5 main diagnoses were: atopic dermatitis (16%), acute prurigo simplex (5%), tinea (5%), pyogenic granuloma (4%), and molluscum contagiosum (4%). Additional tests were only required in 16% of the cases. The kappa index obtained was 0.206 (95% CI: 0.170-0.241). The dermatology consultations in the Emergency Department were shown to be frequent and mostly involved minor diseases. Collaboration between paediatricians and dermatologists resulted in a high treatment success rate, leading to a low percentage of additional tests required and a high rate of discharges. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. [Current situation of the organisation, resources and activity in paediatric cardiology in Spain].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Ferrer, Francisco; Castro García, Francisco José; Pérez-Lescure Picarzo, Javier; Roses Noguer, Ferrán; Centeno Malfaz, Fernándo; Grima Murcia, María Dolores; Brotons, Dimpna Albert

    2018-04-26

    The results are presented on the «current situation of the organisation, resources and activity in paediatric cardiology in Spain». It was promoted by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart disease. An analysis was carried out on the results obtained from a specifically designed questionnaire, prepared by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart disease, that was sent to all hospitals around the country that offer the speciality of paediatric cardiology. A total of 86 questionnaires were obtained, including 14 hospitals that perform cardiac surgery on children. A total of 190 paediatric cardiology consultants, 40 cardiac surgeons, and 27 middle grade doctors performing their paediatric residency (MIR program) were identified. All hospitals had adequate equipment to perform an optimal initial evaluation of any child with a possible cardiac abnormality, but only tertiary centres could perform complex diagnostic procedures, interventional cardiology, and cardiac surgery. In almost all units around the country, paediatric cardiology consultants were responsible for outpatient clinics and hospital admissions, whereas foetal cardiology units were still mainly managed by obstetricians. The number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was similar to those reported in the first survey, except for a slight decrease in the total number of closed cardiac surgery procedures, and a proportional increase in the number of therapeutic catheterisations. Paediatric Cardiology in Spain is performed by paediatric cardiology consultants that were trained initially as general paediatricians, and then completed a paediatric cardiology training period. Almost all units have adequate means for diagnosis and treatment. Efforts should be directed to create a national registry that would not only allow a prospective quantification of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, but also focus on their clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2018

  9. The training paths and practice patterns of Canadian paediatric residency graduates, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Tahir; Lawrence, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The Paediatric Chairs of Canada have been proactive in workforce planning, anticipating paediatric job opportunities in academic centres. To complement this, it is important to characterize the practice profiles of paediatricians exiting training, including those working outside of tertiary care centres. To describe the training paths and the practice patterns of Canadian paediatric residency graduates. A survey was completed in 2010 to 2011 by Canadian program directors regarding residents completing core paediatrics training between 2004 and 2010. Data collection included training path after completing core paediatrics training and practice type after graduation. Of 699 residents completing their core training in paediatrics, training path data were available for 685 (98%). Overall, 430 (63%) residents completed subspecialty training while 255 (37%) completed general paediatrics training only. There was a significant increase in subspecialty training, from 59% in earlier graduates (2004 to 2007) to 67% in later graduates (2008 to 2010) (P=0.037). Practice pattern data after completion of training were available for 245 general paediatricians and 205 subspecialists. Sixty-nine percent of general paediatricians were community based while 85% of subspecialists were hospital based in tertiary or quaternary centres. Of all residents currently in practice, only 36 (8%) were working in rural, remote or underserviced areas. Almost two-thirds of recent Canadian paediatric graduates pursued subspecialty training. There was a significant increase in the frequency of subspecialty training among later-year graduates. Few graduates are practicing in rural or underserviced areas. Further studies are needed to determine whether these trends continue and their impact on the future paediatric workforce in Canada.

  10. Anaesthetic implications of paediatric thoracoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Nandini; Fernandes, Sarita

    2005-01-01

    Anaesthetic care during thoracic surgical procedures in children combines components of the knowledge bases of paediatric anaesthesia with those of thoracic anaesthesia. This article highlights the principles of anaesthesia during thoracoscopic surgery in children including preoperative evaluation, anaesthetic induction techniques, maintenance anaesthesia and options for postoperative analgesia. In addition, given the need to provide optimal surgical visualization during the procedure, one lung ventilation may be required. Techniques to provide one lung ventilation in the paediatric patient and the principles of anaesthesia care during one lung ventilation are discussed. PMID:21234138

  11. The State of Leadership Education in Emergency Medical Services: A Multi-national Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Leggio, William Joseph

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how leadership is learned in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) from a multi-national perspective by interviewing EMS providers from multiple nations working in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A phenomenological, qualitative methodology was developed and 19 EMS providers from multiple nations were interviewed in June 2013. Interview questions focused on how participants learned EMS leadership as an EMS student and throughout their careers as providers. Data were analyzed to identify themes, patterns, and codes to be used for final analysis to describe findings. Emergency Medical Services leadership is primarily learned from informal mentoring and on-the-job training in less than supportive environments. Participants described learning EMS leadership during their EMS education. A triangulation of EMS educational resources yielded limited results beyond being a leader of patient care. The only course that yielded results from triangulation was EMS Management. The need to develop EMS leadership courses was supported by the findings. Findings also supported the need to include leadership education as part of continuing medical education and training. Emergency Medical Services leadership education that prepares students for the complexities of the profession is needed. Likewise, the need for EMS leadership education and training to be part of continuing education is supported. Both are viewed as a way to advance the EMS profession. A need for further research on the topic of EMS leadership is recognized, and supported, with a call for action on suggested topics identified within the study.

  12. Common paediatric conditions of the lower limb.

    PubMed

    Dobbe, Ashlee M; Gibbons, Paul J

    2017-11-01

    Growing children are susceptible to a number of disorders to their lower extremities of varying degrees of severity. The diagnosis and management of these conditions can be challenging. With musculoskeletal symptoms being one of the leading reasons for visits to general practitioners, a working knowledge of the basics of these disorders can help in the appropriate diagnosis, treatment, counselling, and specialist referral. This review covers common disorders affecting the hip, the knee and the foot. The aim is to assist general practitioners in recognising developmental norms and differentiating physiological from pathological conditions and to identify when a specialist referral is necessary. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Patient safety in the care of hospitalised children: evidence for paediatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Wiliam; Silva, Manuela Usevicius Maia da; Peres, Merianny de Avila; Bandeira, Larissa Edom; Frantz, Elemara; Botene, Daisy Zanchi de Abreu; Predebon, Caroline Maier

    2017-05-04

    To describe evidence of international literature on the safe care of the hospitalised child after the World Alliance for Patient Safety and list contributions of the general theoretical framework of patient safety for paediatric nursing. An integrative literature review between 2004 and 2015 using the databases PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science and Wiley Online Library, and the descriptors Safety or Patient safety, Hospitalised child, Paediatric nursing, and Nursing care. Thirty-two articles were analysed, most of which were from North American, with a descriptive approach. The quality of the recorded information in the medical records, the use of checklists, and the training of health workers contribute to safe care in paediatric nursing and improve the medication process and partnerships with parents. General information available on patient safety should be incorporated in paediatric nursing care.

  14. Paediatric urolithiasis in emerging economies.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S Adibul Hasan; Sultan, Sajid; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Ahmed, Bashir; Aba Umer, Sadaf; Naqvi, S A Anwar

    2016-12-01

    Paediatric urolithiasis remains endemic in low resource countries. This review highlights the epidemiology, causation and management of urolithiasis in an Asian country in the context of emerging economies. A literature review of recent articles with key words paediatric urolithiasis, developing countries, endemic stone disease, stone composition, metabolic risk factors, management of paediatric urolithiasis was undertaken and 51 relevant articles were selected with the main focus on experience of this center in managing stone disease in the last two decades. Prevalence of paediatric urolithiasis is high upto 15% affecting children under 15 years with male predominance. Bladder stones still constitutes 10-70% of the burden. Etiology remains unknown where 55% are considered idiopathic, 25% metabolic, 7% infection and 12% due to anatomical abnormalities. Hot climate, poor nutrition, diarrheal diseases are the major causative factors. Chemical composition of stones showed CaOX in 30-63%, AAU in 17-55%, struvite in 8-9%, uric acid in 3-6% and cystine in 1%. Important metabolic risk factors are hypocitraturia in 63-87%, hyperoxaluria in 40-43%, hypocalciuria in 20%, hyperuricosuria in 27%, hyperammonuria in 11-51% and hypovolemia in 31%. Minimally invasive surgery is the mainstay of surgical management. ESWL provides excellent free rates of 84% for smaller stones. PCNL is the option for majority of renal stones with success rates of 89% for simple and 71.5% for complex stones. For bladder stones PUCL and PCCL success rates were 100%. URS for ureteric stones showed clearance rate of 90%. Open surgery is required in 12% of patients with large stone burden. Paediatric urolithiasis remains a devastating health problem in low resource settings. MIS offers relief to majority of patients with excellent stone free rates and short hospital stay. Preventable strategies have to be put in place by improving nutrition and eliminating risk factors by diet and medical intervention

  15. Ambiguous abbreviations: an audit of abbreviations in paediatric note keeping.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, J E; Weidner, L C E; Zakai, S; Fountain-Polley, S; Williams, J

    2008-03-01

    To assess the frequency, nature and understanding of abbreviations in medical records. Audit of abbreviation use and meaning in paediatric handover sheets and medical notes compared to two standards, the Trust Intranet Medical Dictionary (TID) and Mosby's Medical Dictionary (MMD). A selection of abbreviations was shown to healthcare professionals to examine interpretation of abbreviations. Large inner-city district general hospital, Birmingham, UK. Frequency, nature and understanding of abbreviations in paediatric medical records. On 25 handover sheets a total of 2286 abbreviations were used, with 221 different abbreviations; the standards recognised 14% (TID) and 20% (MMD) of these abbreviations. In 168 sets of medical notes a total of 3668 abbreviations were used, with 479 different abbreviations; the standards recognised 15% (TID) and 17% (MMD). Some words were shortened in different forms, for example, normal (N, Nl, NAD) and some abbreviations had multiple interpretations that differed from those intended, for example, TOF (tetralogy of Fallot, tracheo-oesophageal fistula). When presented with a selection of abbreviations, paediatric doctors recognized 56-94% and other healthcare professionals recognised 31-63%. Abbreviation use was widespread in paediatric note keeping. There was no systematic approach to this and difficulties in interpretation were demonstrated. The use of standardised abbreviations to avoid confusion is suggested.

  16. How readable are Australian paediatric oral health education materials?

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Lam, Andy S F; Karami, Zahra; Do, Loc Giang; Harris, Mark Fort

    2014-09-02

    The objective of this study was to analyse the readability of paediatric oral health education leaflets available in Australia. Forty paediatric oral health education materials were analysed for general readability according to the following parameters: Thoroughness; Textual framework; Terminology; and Readability (Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Gunning Fog index (Fog) and Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG)). Leaflets produced by the industry were among the hardest to read with an average readability at the 8th grade (8.4 ± 0.1). The readability of leaflets produced by the commercial sector was at the 7th grade (7.1 ± 1.7) and the government at the 6th grade (6.3 ± 1.9). The FKGL consistently yielded readabilities 2 grades below the Fog and SMOG indexes. In the content analyses, 14 essential paediatric oral health topics were noted and Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was identified as the most commonly used jargon term. Paediatric oral health education materials are readily available, yet their quality and readability vary widely and may be difficult to read for disadvantaged populations in Australia. A redesign of these leaflets while taking literacy into consideration is suggested.

  17. Does a paediatric after-hours clinic use evidence-based guidelines in the management of acute otitis media?

    PubMed

    Maguire, Jonathon L; Healey, Jane; Garfield, Hartley; Parkin, Patricia C

    2003-09-01

    To determine whether a paediatric after-hours clinic uses evidence-based management in the treatment of acute otitis media, and compare this management with that provided in a paediatric emergency department and a general hospital emergency department. A retrospective chart review of 573 patients (aged six months to five years) with a discharge diagnosis of acute otitis media was conducted in three after-hours settings: a paediatric after-hours clinic, a tertiary paediatric hospital emergency department and a secondary general hospital emergency department. The patients' age, weight, sex and allergy to antibiotics were recorded as baseline characteristics. The physicians' antibiotic choice, dose and duration, and the use of investigations were recorded as outcome variables. Amoxicillin was prescribed to 68% of patients at both the paediatric after-hours clinic and the paediatric hospital emergency department, compared with 53% of patients at the general hospital emergency department (P<0.01). The mean dose of amoxicillin prescribed at the paediatric after-hours clinic and the paediatric hospital emergency department were similar (43.4±9.7 mg/kg per day and 42.4±14.3 mg/kg per day, respectively) and higher than that prescribed at the general hospital emergency department (38.6±8.8 mg/kg per day, P<0.01). The paediatric after-hours clinic used investigations less often than did emergency departments (0.5% of cases compared with 9% and 20%, P<0.01). The paediatric after-hours clinic provided a high level of adherence to a clinical practice guideline and had a low utilization of resource intensive investigations.

  18. Multi-National Collaborative Modeling of Water Dependent Resources in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passell, H.; Roach, J. D.; Reno, M. D.; Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2010-12-01

    A team of scientists and engineers from the Iraq Ministry of Water Resources, the Iraq Transition Assistance Office of the U.S. Department of State, UNESCO, and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated to build a systems model of Iraqi water resources and related systems, including transboundary water systems, surface water and reservoirs, agriculture, salinity, municipal and industrial uses, and issues related to the restoration and maintenance of the southern Mesopotamian Marshes. The model is intended to assist scientists and planners in the government of Iraq in development of its long-term Strategy for Water and Land Resources. The model is a numerical simulation built in a system dynamics environment, is bounded spatially by the watershed of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, and operates on a monthly timestep from 1930-2047. Model results for the 78-year period from 1930-2007 are calibrated to historic data. The 40-year “scenario period” from 2008-2047 allows users to simulate various and competing future scenarios for water management, and management of related systems, in Iraq. The model shows the potential impact of development of reservoirs and agriculture in upstream countries Turkey, Syria and Iran, and the impact of changes in Iraq to reservoir operations, agricultural practices, municipal and industrial approaches, and marsh restoration efforts. The modeling project is part of Iraq’s long-term planning effort known as Strategy for Water and Land Resources in Iraq. Due to the political sensitivity of water issues in the Tigris and Euphrates River system, data used to drive this model, and specific model results are proprietary to the country of Iraq. As a result, this paper will not include quantitative results, but rather a qualitative description of the model building process, qualitative model results, and lessons learned from this multi-national and multi-cultural collaborative model building effort.

  19. A model for peer-assisted learning in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Ajay; Primalani, Nishal; Raza, Sadaf; Marlais, Matko

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown peer-assisted learning (PAL) to be an effective method of teaching, with benefits to students and tutors; however, the effect of PAL in paediatrics has not been evaluated in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate a student-led paediatrics revision course for students preparing for examinations in medical specialties. Students in their specialties year were invited to undergo a 1-day revision course consisting of a lecture and small group teaching, with a supplemental revision booklet. Tutors were recruited from the final-year cohort to facilitate the teaching. Questionnaires containing Likert-scale questions (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree) were distributed before and after the course to assess its effectiveness. In all, 62 per cent (87/140) of students who attended the course responded to the study. Students felt significantly more prepared for their exam after the course (mean 3.47 post-course versus 2.16 pre-course), and significantly more prepared to manage children in clinical practice (mean 3.49 post-course versus 2.53 pre-course). Students rated the course as good (4.35/5), with the small group sessions deemed to be the most useful aspect. Tutors agreed that participating had improved their teaching in general (4.0/5), their confidence (4.1/5), their clinical knowledge (3.6/5) and their oral presentation skills (3.8/5). The results demonstrate an effective model for students and tutors in building vital skills in paediatrics and exam preparation. This reinforces the holistic positive attributes attainable from peer-assisted learning, and such schemes should be incorporated into undergraduate medical curricula for paediatrics to increase student confidence and potentially increase recruitment to paediatrics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Paediatric Medicines: Regulatory and Scientific Issues.

    PubMed

    Daousani, Chrysa; Karalis, Vangelis D

    2017-07-01

    In the past, dosage regimens authorized for adults were extrapolated to children relying mainly on empirical dosage adjustments. However, children are not small adults, but a distinct and heterogeneous group in terms of physiology, disease occurrence, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and also psychological, cognitive, and behavioral aspects. Even though it would be helpful to know the physiological changes and the special drug treatment needs in children, this task could not be performed due to ethical reasons. Important issues to consider for the development of paediatric drug products refer to the administration of the accurate dose, the use of the appropriate excipients, and acceptability. The latter is crucial and taste-screening methods (like electronic tongues) have been developed. A new era in paediatric medicines started with the entry into force of paediatric regulations. In the early '80s, the FDA started the set-up of a regulatory framework by authorizing issues like the Paediatric Rule, the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act, the Paediatric Research Equity Act, and the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act. Similar efforts have been made in the EU, mainly through the entry into force of the Paediatric Regulation and the establishment of the Paediatric Committee, the Paediatric Investigation Plan, the Paediatric Use Marketing Authorization, and the European Paediatric Research Network. Other efforts to bridge the gap, between knowledge in adults and the children's special requirements, include the extrapolation concept of safety/efficacy aspects, the application of modeling/simulation approaches in paediatric drug development, and the development of a paediatric Biopharmaceutics Classification Scheme. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What's new in paediatric dentistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.

  3. Trismus in the paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Shires, Peter M; Chow, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Trismus is a rare presentation affecting neonates, children, and adults. In newborns there are serious implications, with potential to affect feeding, cause airway problems, and make intubation difficult. Causes of trismus seen in the paediatric patient are discussed in this review article; they are divided into intra- and extra-articular types. The extra-articular group consists of congenital and acquired disorders. The acquired group includes infective causes such as tetanus, iatrogenic causes related to drugs, cancer or dental treatment, and trauma causing articulation difficulty or triggering a rare type of bone growth in myositis ossificans. Changes in the mouth resulting from oral submucous fibrosis can undergo malignant transformation. This review aims to raise awareness of potential causes of trismus in paediatric populations, helping clinicians identify the underlying pathology so appropriate strategies for treatment be applied, with the ultimate aim of improving long-term outlook and quality of life for affected children. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  4. [Specificity of paediatric oncology pharmacology].

    PubMed

    André, N; Leblond, P; Verschuur, A

    2010-02-01

    Anticancer chemotherapy plays a key role in the treatment of cancer in children. Following its increased efficacy, three children out of four can now be cured. Nevertheless, given the fact that 25% of the children with cancer are not cured and chemotherapy-induced long-term side effects are numerous there is a need to keep developing new agents and new strategies to fight cancer. Moreover studies investigating off-patents drugs should be stimulated in paediatric oncology in order to improve our knowledge of "old" drugs. Here we will review the specificities of children as compared to adults in the context of clinical drug development and pharmacology research in paediatric oncology. Such a research is now encouraged and facilitated by a European regulation as well as by international consortia such as "Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer" (ITCC).

  5. Psychotropic drugs and their impact on the treatment of paediatric dental patients.

    PubMed

    Hajishengallis, E

    2013-08-01

    In the past 10-15 years, the diagnosis of mental diseases in the paediatric and adolescent population has risen significantly. This has resulted in paediatric dentists caring for a large number of children suffering from these conditions. For the safe care of these children, paediatric dentists need to be aware of not only the characteristics of mental diseases but also the medications used for their treatment. Becoming familiar with the plethora of psychoactive agents and their complex pharmacological properties and interactions poses a daunting but necessary challenge as they are likely to influence dental treatment. To help with this understanding, the present paper provides a comprehensive but simplified review of the major paediatric psychotropic drugs in terms of basic pharmacology, common indications, general and oral health-related adverse effects and interactions with other medications which may be prescribed in the course of dental treatment.

  6. The potential of UK clinical databases in enhancing paediatric medication research

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ian C K; Murray, Macey L

    2005-01-01

    The research potential of many UK clinical databases is not being realized. A recent report published by the Royal College of Paediatrics & Child Health stated that there is a need to build research capacity and support in the area of paediatric pharmacology, with specific emphasis on the use of clinical databases. This article presents the databases available in the UK for medication research and gives some examples of paediatric studies conducted. The databases discussed include the Prescription Pricing Authority database, the General Practice Research Database, IMS Health databases (Medical Data Index, MIDAS Prescribing Insights, Disease-Analyser-Mediplus) and the Yellow Card Scheme. Other databases such as the Medicines Monitoring Unit (MEMO) and the Scottish Primary Care Computer System also have research potential in paediatric pharmacoepidemiology, but their population sizes are relatively small. PMID:15948943

  7. Paediatric emergency department referrals from primary care.

    PubMed

    Turbitt, Erin; Freed, Gary Lee

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, paediatric referrals from general practitioners (GPs) to the emergency department (ED) have increased by 60% in Australia. Objective To investigate the characteristics of Victorian children referred by GPs to the ED with lower-urgency conditions. Method Data were collected from four hospital EDs in Victoria, May-November 2014. Parents attending the ED with their child triaged as lower urgency were surveyed. Descriptive, frequency, and bivariate analyses were performed. Results Of the 1150 responses, 28% (320) visited their GP before attending ED. Of these 66% (212), were referred by their GP. A greater proportion with injury than illness (84% vs 59%; P<0.0001) was referred to the ED if they had first visited their GP. Conclusion Motivations of GPs to send lower-urgency injured and ill children to ED are not well understood. The high number of referrals from GPs to the ED for lower urgency conditions suggests attention by policy makers and health professionals must be paid to the current patterns of care of children in general practice. What is known about the topic? Paediatric referrals in Australia from GPs to EDs have increased in the last decade, along with the absolute number of children in Victoria presenting to the ED. What does this paper add? A significant number of children (66%) who attend the GP before visiting the ED are referred to the ED for their lower urgency condition. What are the implications for practitioners? It may be appropriate for GPs to be further supported to manage lower urgency conditions, through better resources or education.

  8. Estimating reliable paediatric reference intervals in clinical chemistry and haematology.

    PubMed

    Ridefelt, Peter; Hellberg, Dan; Aldrimer, Mattias; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Very few high-quality studies on paediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and haematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The present review summarises current reference interval studies for common clinical chemistry and haematology analyses. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. What Evidence Underlies Clinical Practice in Paediatric Surgery? A Systematic Review Assessing Choice of Study Design.

    PubMed

    Allin, Benjamin; Aveyard, Nicholas; Campion-Smith, Timothy; Floyd, Eleanor; Kimpton, James; Swarbrick, Kate; Williams, Emma; Knight, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Identify every paediatric surgical article published in 1998 and every paediatric surgical article published in 2013, and determine which study designs were used and whether they were appropriate for robustly assessing interventions in surgical conditions. A systematic review was conducted according to a pre-specified protocol (CRD42014007629), using EMBASE and Medline. Non-English language studies were excluded. Studies were included if meeting population criteria and either condition or intervention criteria. Children under the age of 18, or adults who underwent intervention for a condition managed by paediatric surgeons when they were under 18 years of age. One managed by general paediatric surgeons. Used for treatment of a condition managed by general paediatric surgeons. Studies were classified according to whether the IDEAL collaboration recommended their design for assessing surgical interventions or not. Change in proportions between 1998 and 2013 was calculated. 1581 paediatric surgical articles were published in 1998, and 3453 in 2013. The most commonly used design, accounting for 45% of studies in 1998 and 46.8% in 2013, was the retrospective case series. Only 1.8% of studies were RCTs in 1998, and 1.9% in 2013. Overall, in 1998, 9.8% of studies used a recommended design. In 2013, 11.9% used a recommended design (proportion increase 2.3%, 95% confidence interval 0.5% increase to 4% increase, p = 0.017). A low proportion of published paediatric surgical manuscripts utilise a design that is recommended for assessing surgical interventions. RCTs represent fewer than 1 in 50 studies. In 2013, 88.1% of studies used a less robust design, suggesting the need for a new way of approaching paediatric surgical research.

  10. Poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries: a multi-national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Kupek, Emil

    2010-10-01

    The importance of reducing childhood undernutrition has been enshrined in the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the relationship between alternative indicators of poverty and childhood undernutrition in developing countries within the context of a multi-national cohort study (Young Lives). Approximately 2000 children in each of four countries - Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam - had their heights measured and were weighed when they were aged between 6 and 17 months (survey one) and again between 4.5 and 5.5 years (survey two). The anthropometric outcomes of stunted, underweight and wasted were calculated using World Health Organization 2006 reference standards. Maximum-likelihood probit estimation was employed to model the relationship within each country and survey between alternative measures of living standards (principally a wealth index developed using principal components analysis) and each anthropometric outcome. An extensive set of covariates was incorporated into the models to remove as much individual heterogeneity as possible. The fully adjusted models revealed a negative and statistically significant coefficient on wealth for all outcomes in all countries, with the exception of the outcome of wasted in India (Andhra Pradesh) and Vietnam (survey one) and the outcome of underweight in Vietnam (surveys one and two). In survey one, the partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of stunting, being underweight and wasting was to reduce them by between 1.4 and 5.1 percentage points, 1.0 and 6.4 percentage points, and 0.3 and 4.5 percentage points, respectively, with each unit (10%) increase in wealth. The partial effects of wealth on the probabilities of anthropometric outcomes were larger in the survey two models. In both surveys, children residing in the lowest wealth quintile households had significantly increased probabilities of being stunted in all four study countries and of being underweight in

  11. HACEK Infective Endocarditis: Characteristics and Outcomes from a Large, Multi-National Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Stephen T.; Murdoch, David; Morris, Arthur; Holland, David; Pappas, Paul; Almela, Manel; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Almirante, Benito; Bouza, Emilio; Forno, Davide; del Rio, Ana; Hannan, Margaret M.; Harkness, John; Kanafani, Zeina A.; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Lang, Selwyn; Raymond, Nigel; Read, Kerry; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Woods, Christopher W.; Wray, Dannah; Corey, G. Ralph; Chu, Vivian H.

    2013-01-01

    The HACEK organisms (Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter species, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species) are rare causes of infective endocarditis (IE). The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with HACEK endocarditis (HE) in a large multi-national cohort. Patients hospitalized with definite or possible infective endocarditis by the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study in 64 hospitals from 28 countries were included and characteristics of HE patients compared with IE due to other pathogens. Of 5591 patients enrolled, 77 (1.4%) had HE. HE was associated with a younger age (47 vs. 61 years; p<0.001), a higher prevalence of immunologic/vascular manifestations (32% vs. 20%; p<0.008) and stroke (25% vs. 17% p = 0.05) but a lower prevalence of congestive heart failure (15% vs. 30%; p = 0.004), death in-hospital (4% vs. 18%; p = 0.001) or after 1 year follow-up (6% vs. 20%; p = 0.01) than IE due to other pathogens (n = 5514). On multivariable analysis, stroke was associated with mitral valve vegetations (OR 3.60; CI 1.34–9.65; p<0.01) and younger age (OR 0.62; CI 0.49–0.90; p<0.01). The overall outcome of HE was excellent with the in-hospital mortality (4%) significantly better than for non-HE (18%; p<0.001). Prosthetic valve endocarditis was more common in HE (35%) than non-HE (24%). The outcome of prosthetic valve and native valve HE was excellent whether treated medically or with surgery. Current treatment is very successful for the management of both native valve prosthetic valve HE but further studies are needed to determine why HE has a predilection for younger people and to cause stroke. The small number of patients and observational design limit inferences on treatment strategies. Self selection of study sites limits epidemiological inferences. PMID:23690995

  12. A multi-national report on methods for institutional credentialing for spine radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Gerszten, Peter C; Sahgal, Arjun; Sheehan, Jason P; Kersh, Ronald; Chen, Stephanie; Flickinger, John C; Quader, Mubina; Fahim, Daniel; Grills, Inga; Shin, John H; Winey, Brian; Oh, Kevin; Sweeney, Reinhart A; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2013-06-27

    than one specialist trained to perform spine radiosurgery. All centers believed that credentialing should also be device specific, and all believed that professional societies should formulate guidelines for institutions on the requirements for spine radiosurgery credentialing. Finally, in 4 institutions radiation therapists were required to attend corporate-sponsored device specific training for credentialing, and in only 1 institution were radiation therapists required to also attend academic society training for credentialing. This study represents the first multi-national report of the current practice of institutional credentialing for spine radiosurgery. Key methodologies for safe implementation and credentialing of spine radiosurgery have been identified. There is strong agreement among experienced centers that credentialing is an important component of the safe and effective implementation of a spine radiosurgery program.

  13. [Naples: the historic capital of Italian paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F

    2008-06-01

    No other Italian city has contributed to the birth and development of paediatrics more than Naples. This is why it can be considered the historic capital of Italian paediatrics. Here are the main reasons: Luigi Somma was the first professor of Italian paediatrics whereas Francesco Fede was the first president of the Italian Paediatrics Association. Neapolitan paediatricians have been the most numerous amongst the founder members. The first three Italian journals of paediatrics were founded in Naples as well as the journal ''La Pediatria'' which was the most distributed and long-lasting journal in this field. Moreover, Neapolitans have been the most numerous presidents of the Italian Paediatrics Association, while Rocco Jemma was the one who remained the longest in charge. ''Rocco Jemma's school'' taught not only to most professors in paediatrics who afterwards taught in most Italian universities, but also four out of five paediatricians who took charge of the position as president. The first regional department of the Italian Paediatrics Association was founded in Naples as well as the Association of Nipiology.

  14. A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures in paediatric otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Powell, J; Powell, S; Robson, A

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there has been increased emphasis on the development and application of patient-reported outcome measures. This drive to assess the impact of illness or interventions, from the patient's perspective, has resulted in a greater number of available questionnaires. The importance of selecting an appropriate patient-reported outcome measure is specifically emphasised in the paediatric population. The literature on patient-reported outcome measures used in paediatric otolaryngology was reviewed. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycInfo, using the terms: 'health assessment questionnaire', 'structured questionnaire', 'questionnaire', 'patient reported outcome measures', 'PROM', 'quality of life' or 'survey', and 'children' or 'otolaryngology'. The search was limited to English-language articles published between 1996 and 2016. The search yielded 656 articles, of which 63 were considered relevant. This included general paediatric patient-reported outcome measures applied to otolaryngology, and paediatric otolaryngology disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures. A large collection of patient-reported outcome measures are described in the paediatric otolaryngology literature. Greater standardisation of the patient-reported outcome measures used in paediatric otolaryngology would assist in pooling of data and increase the validation of tools used.

  15. Recommendations for mechanical ventilation of critically ill children from the Paediatric Mechanical Ventilation Consensus Conference (PEMVECC).

    PubMed

    Kneyber, Martin C J; de Luca, Daniele; Calderini, Edoardo; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri; Javouhey, Etienne; Lopez-Herce, Jesus; Hammer, Jürg; Macrae, Duncan; Markhorst, Dick G; Medina, Alberto; Pons-Odena, Marti; Racca, Fabrizio; Wolf, Gerhard; Biban, Paolo; Brierley, Joe; Rimensberger, Peter C

    2017-12-01

    Much of the common practice in paediatric mechanical ventilation is based on personal experiences and what paediatric critical care practitioners have adopted from adult and neonatal experience. This presents a barrier to planning and interpretation of clinical trials on the use of specific and targeted interventions. We aim to establish a European consensus guideline on mechanical ventilation of critically children. The European Society for Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care initiated a consensus conference of international European experts in paediatric mechanical ventilation to provide recommendations using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles, appropriateness method. An electronic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed using a combination of medical subject heading terms and text words related to mechanical ventilation and disease-specific terms. The Paediatric Mechanical Ventilation Consensus Conference (PEMVECC) consisted of a panel of 15 experts who developed and voted on 152 recommendations related to the following topics: (1) general recommendations, (2) monitoring, (3) targets of oxygenation and ventilation, (4) supportive measures, (5) weaning and extubation readiness, (6) normal lungs, (7) obstructive diseases, (8) restrictive diseases, (9) mixed diseases, (10) chronically ventilated patients, (11) cardiac patients and (12) lung hypoplasia syndromes. There were 142 (93.4%) recommendations with "strong agreement". The final iteration of the recommendations had none with equipoise or disagreement. These recommendations should help to harmonise the approach to paediatric mechanical ventilation and can be proposed as a standard-of-care applicable in daily clinical practice and clinical research.

  16. Paediatric retropharyngeal abscess.

    PubMed

    Philpott, C M; Selvadurai, D; Banerjee, A R

    2004-12-01

    Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) is an uncommon condition with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality if not detected early. The authors present a case report of a 19-month-old child who presented with the common clinical features of a retropharyngeal abscess and in whom the diagnosis was not established by examination and ultrasonography. This led to a delay in appropriate management until a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed under general anaesthesia. The scan demonstrated the diagnosis and surgical drainage was performed under the same anaesthetic. The child subsequently made a complete recovery. The investigation and treatment of RPAs is a matter of some debate and the authors review the recent literature to determine the best management strategy.

  17. Recommendations for collaborative paediatric research including biobanking in Europe: a Single Hub and Access point for paediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) initiative.

    PubMed

    Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B; Hansmann, Sandra; Wulffraat, Nico M; Vastert, Sebastiaan J; Hens, Kristien; Anton, Jordi; Avcin, Tadej; Martini, Alberto; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Uziel, Yosef; Ravelli, Angelo; Wouters, Carine; Shaw, David; Özen, Seza; Eikelberg, Andreas; Prakken, Berent J; Ruperto, Nicolino; Horneff, Gerd; Constantin, Tamas; Beresford, Michael W; Sikken, Marijn; Foster, Helen E; Haug, Iris; Schuller, Sabrina; Jägle, Christine; Benseler, Susanne M

    2018-03-01

    Innovative research in childhood rheumatic diseases mandates international collaborations. However, researchers struggle with significant regulatory heterogeneity; an enabling European Union (EU)-wide framework is missing. The aims of the study were to systematically review the evidence for best practice and to establish recommendations for collaborative research. The Paediatric Rheumatology European Single Hub and Access point for paediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) project enabled a scoping review and expert discussion, which then informed the systematic literature review. Published evidence was synthesised; recommendations were drafted. An iterative review process and consultations with Ethics Committees and European experts for ethical and legal aspects of paediatric research refined the recommendations. SHARE experts and patient representatives vetted the proposed recommendations at a consensus meeting using Nominal Group Technique. Agreement of 80% was mandatory for inclusion. The systematic literature review returned 1319 records. A total of 223 full-text publications plus 22 international normative documents were reviewed; 85 publications and 16 normative documents were included. A total of 21 recommendations were established including general principles (1-3), ethics (4-7), paediatric principles (8 and 9), consent to paediatric research (10-14), paediatric databank and biobank (15 and 16), sharing of data and samples (17-19), and commercialisation and third parties (20 and 21). The refined recommendations resulted in an agreement of >80% for all recommendations. The SHARE initiative established the first recommendations for Paediatric Rheumatology collaborative research across borders in Europe. These provide strong support for an urgently needed European framework and evidence-based guidance for its implementation. Such changes will promote research in children with rheumatic diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  18. Canadian Paediatric Neurology Workforce Survey and Consensus Statement.

    PubMed

    Doja, Asif; Orr, Serena L; McMillan, Hugh J; Kirton, Adam; Brna, Paula; Esser, Michael; Tang-Wai, Richard; Major, Philippe; Poulin, Chantal; Prasad, Narayan; Selby, Kathryn; Weiss, Shelly K; Yeh, E Ann; Callen, David Ja

    2016-05-01

    Little knowledge exists on the availability of academic and community paediatric neurology positions. This knowledge is crucial for making workforce decisions. Our study aimed to: 1) obtain information regarding the availability of positions for paediatric neurologists in academic centres; 2) survey paediatric neurology trainees regarding their perceptions of employment issues and career plans; 3) survey practicing community paediatric neurologists 4) convene a group of paediatric neurologists to develop consensus regarding how to address these workforce issues. Surveys addressing workforce issues regarding paediatric neurology in Canada were sent to: 1) all paediatric neurology program directors in Canada (n=9) who then solicited information from division heads and from paediatric neurologists in surrounding areas; 2) paediatric neurology trainees in Canada (n=57) and; 3) community paediatric neurologists (n=27). A meeting was held with relevant stakeholders to develop a consensus on how to approach employment issues. The response rate was 100% from program directors, 57.9% from residents and 44% from community paediatric neurologists. We found that the number of projected positions in academic paediatric neurology is fewer than the number of paediatric neurologists that are being trained over the next five to ten years, despite a clinical need for paediatric neurologists. Paediatric neurology residents are concerned about job availability and desire more career counselling. There is a current and projected clinical demand for paediatric neurologists despite a lack of academic positions. Training programs should focus on community neurology as a viable career option.

  19. Citation context and impact of 'sleeping beauties' in paediatric research.

    PubMed

    Završnik, Jernej; Kokol, Peter; Del Torso, Stefano; Blažun Vošner, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Objectives 'Sleeping beauties', i.e. publications that are not cited for a long while, present interesting findings in science. This study analysed the citation trends of sleeping beauties in paediatric research. Methods The study used bibliometric software to analyse the papers citing sleeping beauties in paediatric research, to understand the context in which paediatric sleeping beauties were finally cited and the impact of these sleeping beauties on paediatric research. Results Two paediatric sleeping beauties, addressing medical homes and the transition from paediatric to adult health care, respectively, awakened in response to organizational needs. Both presented novel concepts of paediatric service organization that became important because of an increased need for optimization of services. Conclusion All sleeping beauties bring new knowledge that becomes important only after several years. Paediatric sleeping beauties exhibited unique characteristics; however, their presence in paediatric research shows that knowledge acquisition in paediatrics resembles that in other disciplines.

  20. Paediatric aesthetic dentistry: a review.

    PubMed

    Saha, R; Malik, P

    2012-03-01

    A number of conditions can lead to aesthetically unacceptable dentitions like dental caries, discoloration, trauma, early loss of teeth, misalignment and any abnormality of shape and size. Today we have a large number of solutions available for aesthetic problems in paediatric dentistry. But the biggest dilemma is: How to choose what is best for a particular patient and that situation? Through this review we try to precisely highlight the various options for aesthetic restorations along with their indications, advantages and disadvantages. A search and analysis of international works on aesthetics in paediatric dentistry is presented. A considerable number of studies have shown that people are more concerned about missing anterior teeth and their replacement than about posterior ones as aesthetics seems to be more important than function. Dental caries, although not life threatening, causes nagging pain and physical as well as psychological discomfort. Nevertheless, it is clear that the condition is complex and multifactorial and hence it is important to review the various approaches available to restore the lost aesthetics.

  1. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Design Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Participants Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Setting Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Results Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Conclusions Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. PMID:25940425

  3. Prevention and rehabilitation of paediatric anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Håvard; Grindem, Hege

    2016-03-01

    To review the current knowledge on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention and ACL rehabilitation in individuals who have not yet reached musculoskeletal maturity. This is a narrative review based on a targeted and systematic literature search for paediatric ACL injury risk factors, injury prevention and rehabilitation. The search strategies resulted in 119 hits on risk factor studies, 57 hits on prevention and 37 hits on rehabilitation. Modifiable risk factors for ACL injury are largely unknown in the paediatric population. ACL injury prevention using neuromuscular training is highly successful in the adolescent population, and existing injury prevention programmes are cost-effective. The efficacy of ACL injury prevention programmes in children is, however, investigated to a markedly lesser degree. Paediatric ACL injury rehabilitation is poorly described, although supervised active rehabilitation progressed through phases with functional milestones is generally encouraged. Although limited, current evidence supports implementation of injury prevention programmes in female football players from the age of 12. Supervised active rehabilitation where progression is guided by functional milestones is also advocated. Future identification of modifiable risk factors is needed to design prevention programmes for younger children. There is a need for international multicentre studies on treatment algorithms and rehabilitation to increase knowledge on the short- and long-term outcomes following existing algorithms. Narrative review, level III.

  4. Observational study of alternative therapies among paediatric emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juen-Li; Taylor, David McD; Lee, Marina; Johnson, Olivia G; Ashok, Aadith; Griffiths, Meg; Simma, Leopold; Craig, Simon S; Cheek, John A; Babl, Franz E

    2017-04-01

    While complementary medicine use among ED paediatric patients is common, the use of alternative therapies (ATs; physical or spiritual therapies) is unknown. We aimed to determine the 12 month period prevalence and nature of AT use among paediatric patients and parent perceptions of AT use. We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of parents of paediatric patients in three EDs in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia (January-June, 2015). Parents were invited to complete a validated, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The main outcomes were AT use by the patient and parent perceptions of ATs. A total of 806 parents were enrolled. In the previous 12 months, 393 (48.8%) patients had received at least one AT. There were no gender or ethnicity differences between AT users and non-users. AT use was more common among older patients (P < 0.05). Patients with chronic illness tended to use more ATs (P = 0.12). A total of 1091 courses of 43 different ATs had been provided. The most common were massage (16% of patients), chiropractic therapy (9.8%), relaxation (7.2%), meditation (6.2%) and aromatherapy (6.1%). ATs were generally used for musculoskeletal problems, health maintenance, stress and anxiety. Parents who arranged the ATs were significantly more likely to report that ATs are safe, prevent and treat illness, assist prescription medicines and offer a more holistic approach to healthcare (P < 0.001). AT use is common among paediatric ED patients. Parents who arrange AT have differing perceptions of AT usefulness and safety from those who do not. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  5. Unmet needs in paediatric psychopharmacology: Present scenario and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Persico, Antonio M; Arango, Celso; Buitelaar, Jan K; Correll, Christoph U; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Moreno, Carmen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Vorstman, Jacob; Zuddas, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Paediatric psychopharmacology holds great promise in two equally important areas of enormous biomedical and social impact, namely the treatment of behavioural abnormalities in children and adolescents, and the prevention of psychiatric disorders with adolescent- or adult-onset. Yet, in striking contrast, pharmacological treatment options presently available in child and adolescent psychiatry are dramatically limited. The most important currently unmet needs in paediatric psychopharmacology are: the frequent off-label prescription of medications to children and adolescents based exclusively on data from randomized controlled studies involving adult patients; the frequent lack of age-specific dose, long-term efficacy and tolerability/safety data; the lack of effective medications for many paediatric psychiatric disorders, most critically autism spectrum disorder; the scarcity and limitations of randomized placebo-controlled trials in paediatric psychopharmacology; the unexplored potential for the prevention of psychiatric disorders with adolescent- and adult-onset; the current lack of biomarkers to predict treatment response and severe adverse effects; the need for better preclinical data to foster the successful development of novel drug therapies; and the effective dissemination of evidence-based treatments to the general public, to better inform patients and families of the benefits and risks of pharmacological interventions during development. Priorities and strategies are proposed to overcome some of these limitations, including the European Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychopharmacology Network, as an overarching Pan-European infrastructure aimed at reliably carrying out much needed psychopharmacological trials in children and adolescents, in order to fill the identified gaps and improve overall outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Framework conditions facilitating paediatric clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The use of unlicensed and "off-label" medicines in children is widespread. Between 50-80% of the medicines currently administered to children have neither been tested nor authorized for their use in the paediatric population which represents approximately 25% of the whole European population. On 26 January 2007, entered into force the European Regulation of Paediatric Medicines. It aims at the quality of research into medicines for children but without subjecting the paediatric population to unnecessary clinical trial. This article addresses ethical and legal issues arising from the regulation and makes recommendations for the framework conditions facilitating the development of clinical research with children. PMID:21345195

  7. Impact of the European paediatric legislation in paediatric rheumatology: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Vesely, Richard; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Martini, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Conducting clinical trials in paediatric rheumatology has been difficult mainly because of the lack of funding for academic studies and the lack of interest by pharmaceutical companies in the small and non-rewarding paediatric market. The situation changed dramatically a few years ago with the introduction of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act in the USA and of specific legislation for the development of paediatric medicines (Paediatric Regulation) in the European Union (EU). The EU Paediatric Regulation had a positive impact in paediatric rheumatology-in particular, on the development of new treatments for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Some problems remain, however, such as greater harmonisation of the regulatory aspects of medicines, how to handle me-too agents, how to conduct adequate pharmacokinetic studies and develop age-appropriate formulations, ethical problems in study review and implementation, and a change in the current JIA classification. The introduction of specific legislation, coupled with the existence of large international networks such as the Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group (PRCSG at http://www.prcsg.org), covering North America, and the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO at http://www.printo.it), covering more than 50 countries, has led to great advances in paediatric rheumatology. Future changes might increase the possibility of conducting trials with similar approaches in other paediatric rheumatological conditions and provide evidence-based treatments for children affected by rheumatic diseases.

  8. [Drug administration to paediatric inpatient].

    PubMed

    Fontan, J E; Mille, F; Brion, F; Aubin, F; Ballereau, F; Benoît, G; Brunet, M L; Braguier, D; Combeau, D; Dugast, P; Gérout, A C; May, I; Meunier, P; Naveau-Ploux, C; Proust, V; Samdjee, F; Schlatter, J; Thébault, A; Vié, M

    2004-10-01

    Available commercial drugs in France are often unsuitable for children. The aim of this study was, for every medicinal form orally or parenterally administered, to identify and to quantify difficulties met by the nurses administering drugs to paediatric inpatients and to propose solutions to main identified problems. The study was realized in 14 hospitals by direct observation. The observer, provided with a questionnaire, followed during a time slot of at least 2 h for one or several nurses and raised all the oral or injectable administrations. One thousand and nine hundred forty-six observations were performed. The children were 12.6 +/- 17 months old, and weighed 8.5 +/- 9.4 kg. Injectable drugs: half of the observations showed a posology and a mode of dilution not corresponding to the summary of product characteristics. Eight percent of orally administered drugs were injectable drugs. In 35.5% of cases, administered amount was lower than the quarter of the present quantity in the therapeutic unity. The rest of the therapeutic unity was thrown (77.2% of cases). Liquid oral forms: liquid oral forms were ready for use regarding 83.8% of cases. The medicine was readministered to the same patient (23.5%), and/or administered to other patients (80.0%). Capsules: 66.9% of the administered capsules were prepared by the hospital pharmacies. The pharmacies organized with an unit dose drug dispensing system produced significantly more preparations than those working by global distribution (P < 0.0001). In 58.4% of cases, the administered capsule was an off-label drug. Tablets: 46% of drug administration concerned a tablet without pediatric indication. 46.7% of tablets were cut, 74% were crushed. Bags: in 35.2% of observations, the bag was not administered in its entirety. Our study confirms the unsuitability of drugs to paediatric inpatients, the necessity of recommendations of good practices in the administration of drugs to paediatric inpatients, and proposes corrective

  9. Paediatric cardiac nursing education: a national collaboration.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kerry; Daniels, Amanda; Sheehan, Karen; Langton, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Educational courses for staff working in paediatric specialties may not be financially viable because of the small numbers involved and the difficulties that potential students have in getting released from their units. The UK Paediatric Cardiac Nurses Association worked with other groups to explore the feasibility of a national multi-professional paediatric cardiac education pathway. Three options were identified, including the continuation of local in-house provision with its associated variation in standards. The relative benefits and resource implications of each option were explored and approaches made to educational institutions for support in developing the pathway. A university with an established reputation for e-learning undertook this development and a post graduate certificate in Paediatric Cardiothoracic Practice will soon be available.

  10. Job satisfaction and burnout among paediatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Akman, Ozlem; Ozturk, Candan; Bektas, Murat; Ayar, Dijle; Armstrong, Merry A

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to determine factors of job satisfaction and burnout levels of paediatric nurses. A total of 165 nurses working in paediatric clinics completed the Minnesota job satisfaction scale and the Maslach burnout scale. Average scores of the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation score were low, while personal accomplishment scores were high. A high level of job satisfaction, being married, increased age and a decreased number of assigned patients were significantly associated with a low level of burnout. Paediatric nurses experience burnout at significant levels. The most important variable that affected job satisfaction was income. The results of the study could guide development of strategies that might prevent or alleviate burnout of paediatric nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Surgical strategies in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, Colin T; Smith, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two distinct but related chronic relapsing inflammatory conditions affecting different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s disease is characterised by a patchy transmural inflammation affecting both small and large bowel segments with several distinct phenotypic presentations. Ulcerative colitis classically presents as mucosal inflammation of the rectosigmoid (distal colitis), variably extending in a contiguous manner more proximally through the colon but not beyond the caecum (pancolitis). This article highlights aspects of the presentation, diagnosis, and management of IBD that have relevance for paediatric practice with particular emphasis on surgical considerations. Since 25% of IBD cases present in childhood or teenage years, the unique considerations and challenges of paediatric management should be widely appreciated. Conversely, we argue that the organizational separation of the paediatric and adult healthcare worlds has often resulted in late adoption of new approaches particularly in paediatric surgical practice. PMID:26034347

  12. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Domínguez, Angela; Fuentes, Miriam; Batalla, Joan; Cardeñosa, Neus; Plasencia, Antoni

    2009-05-27

    Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged < 3 years recruited by random sampling from municipal districts of all health regions of Catalonia. The total sample was 630 children. Parents completed a standard questionnaire for each child, which included vaccination coverage and knowledge about vaccination. The level of knowledge of vaccination was scored according to parental answers. An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose) and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20-4.43) and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28-0.72). The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children.A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination.Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  13. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). Morbidity was reported in 7.5% of patients. There were three deaths in Queensland. Helmet use is recommended for non-riders when handling horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Borràs, Eva; Domínguez, Àngela; Fuentes, Miriam; Batalla, Joan; Cardeñosa, Neus; Plasencia, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged < 3 years recruited by random sampling from municipal districts of all health regions of Catalonia. The total sample was 630 children. Parents completed a standard questionnaire for each child, which included vaccination coverage and knowledge about vaccination. The level of knowledge of vaccination was scored according to parental answers. Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose) and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43) and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72). The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination. PMID:19473498

  15. Paediatrics: the etymology of a name.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John

    2011-08-01

    Within the history of paediatrics is the history of the name used to describe it. The etymology of the word 'paediatrics' dates from its first written use, recorded as 'pädiatrik' in the German literature and as 'paediatric', later 'pediatric' in the USA, both first in 1850. Professor Robley Dunglison (1788-1869), the British and American medical lexicographer, first defined 'paediatria' as 'the treatment of the diseases of children' in 1855. 'Pediatric medicine' was promoted as a specialty in the USA in 1880. The oldest monumental inscription defining the specialty of 'paediatrics' in the UK is to be found on a plaque added (in 1950) to the memorial to Dr George Armstrong (1719-1789), a founder of the specialty of paediatrics, in Castleton Cemetery, Scottish Borders, Roxburghshire. 'Paediatrics' and 'child health', with subtle semantic distinctions, had become well established in the English-speaking world by the middle of the 20th century. This paper presents an interpretative chronology of the etymology of the descriptors of the specialty that enjoins all who care for children.

  16. Defragmenting paediatric anorexia nervosa: the Flinders Medical Centre Paediatric Eating Disorder Program.

    PubMed

    Suetani, Shuichi; Yiu, Sau Man; Batterham, Michael

    2015-06-01

    To describe the establishment and the main characteristics of the Flinders Medical Centre Paediatric Eating Disorder Program. While the programme is still in its infancy, it is hoped that our model of care can provide a sustainable, long term contribution to the management of paediatric eating disorders. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  17. [Transition - how adolescents with cystic fibrosis their parents experience the change from paediatric to adult care].

    PubMed

    Becher, Christine; Regamey, Nicolas; Spichiger, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is the most common autosomal-recessive hereditary disease among white Europeans. The average survival of CF patients has increased to above 40 years and transition from paediatric to adult care has therefore become a significant issue. With this study, experiences of adolescents with CF and their parents with the transition from the paediatric to the adult care were explored. At a Swiss university CF centre, six adolescents and their mothers were recruited. Twelve narrative interviews were conducted on how the phase of transition was experienced. The transcribed interviews were analysed according to the method of hermeneutic phenomenology. Positive and negative experiences with long term routine care in the paediatric service, general themes of adolescence and the quality of the relationship with paediatric doctors influenced the families' experience during transition significantly. For mothers, insensitive information on the CF diagnosis might have influenced the transition experience. The adolescents welcomed an individualized and age appropriate care. Continuity in care, the announcement of, and involvement in the planning of the transfer were of great importance. The families particularly appreciated the timed adaptations of the transfer to individual needs. Flexibility and a strong collaboration between paediatric and adult CF teams are most relevant in the care of families.

  18. More than 5 years of European Paediatric Regulation: statistics and industrial experience.

    PubMed

    Winzenburg, Gesine

    2014-08-05

    The aim of the European paediatric legislation is to ensure high quality paediatric clinical research, and subsequently increase availability of authorised medicines that are appropriate for children and produce better information on medicines. One of the main pillars of the regulation is the paediatric investigation plan (PIP), a new key document in the general drug development process. PIP submission and approval are now mandatory to ensure registration of a new drug in the EU. A short summary of the achievements from the introduction of the regulation in 2007 is given. In addition, PIP case studies are presented to illustrate the challenges associated when working within the framework of the new process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Current demand of paediatric otolaryngology input for children with Down's syndrome in a tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed

    Khalid-Raja, M; Tzifa, K

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the activity of paediatric otolaryngology services required for children with Down's syndrome in a tertiary referral centre. A review of the paediatric otolaryngology input for children with Down's syndrome was performed; data were obtained from the coding department for a two-year period and compared with other surgical specialties. Between June 2011 and May 2013, 106 otolaryngology procedures were performed on children with Down's syndrome. This compared to 87 cardiac and 81 general paediatrics cases. The most common pathologies in children with Down's syndrome were obstructive sleep apnoea, otitis media, hearing loss and cardiac disease. The most common otolaryngology procedures performed were adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, grommet insertion and bone-anchored hearing aid implant surgery. ENT manifestations of Down's syndrome are common. Greater provisions need to be made to streamline the otolaryngology services for children and improve transition of care to adult services.

  20. Transarterial embolisation of a large focal nodular hyperplasia, using microspheres, in a paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Catarina; Gil-Agostinho, Alfredo; Gonçalves, Isabel; Noruegas, Maria José

    2015-07-10

    Benign liver tumours are uncommon in children, haemangiomas being the most frequent. Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) represents about 2% of paediatric liver tumours. In children, as in adults, a conservative approach is generally recommended. However, large lesions (greater than 5 cm) are more frequent in the paediatric age group, and in these cases, as well as in growing lesions, surgical removal may be advised. Transarterial embolisation (TAE) has been a successful alternative option described in older patients, especially in cases where surgical removal is not possible. This minimally invasive procedure may also become an option in the paediatric group. The authors report the case of a boy with a large FNH treated with TAE using microspheres. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Clinical pharmacy interventions in paediatric electronic prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Maat, Barbara; Au, Yuen San; Bollen, Casper W; van Vught, Adrianus J; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2013-03-01

    To examine the frequency, nature and determinants of clinical pharmacy interventions in paediatric electronic prescriptions. Prospective cohort with nested case-control study. Tertiary children's hospital, The Netherlands. Patients 0-18 years with at least one drug prescription admitted to hospital between 1 March 2004 and 1 January 2008, excluding patients receiving intensive care. Electronic medication prescriptions for paediatric inpatients were verified and if necessary interventions were made by the paediatric clinical pharmacy. Prescriptions requiring intervention (cases) were compared with prescriptions not requiring interventions (controls). Frequency of clinical pharmacy interventions, per 10 000 paediatric electronic prescriptions, and the determinants thereof. Interventions were made for 1577 (1.1%) of 138 449 prescriptions. 81% of the interventions concerned correction of a prescription that might have had adverse clinical consequences. Interventions in prescriptions for antibacterial agents for systemic use were made most often. Most corrections concerned wrong doses (45%). 1577 cases were compared with 1983 controls. The risk of interventions was higher for children aged 1 month to 2 years than for 12-18-year-olds (OR=1.97 (95% CI 1.63 to 2.38)). The risk for 'free-text' prescriptions was five times higher than for 'standardised structured template' prescriptions. No differences were found between day, evening and night shift prescriptions. Significantly more interventions were made in the oral dosage form (OR=1.63 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.88)) and administration route (OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.09)) than for other reasons. Paediatric prescribing errors occur frequently and are not completely prevented by electronic prescribing systems. This study provides information for improvements in electronic prescribing for paediatric patients. Incorporating tailored solutions, such as minimised free-text entry, certain obligatory fields and integrated dose checking

  2. A comparison of student motivation in selecting bachelors of nursing or paediatric nursing at an Italian university.

    PubMed

    Zampieron, A; Buja, A; Dorigo, M; Bonso, O; Corso, M

    2012-12-01

    To investigate students' reasons for choosing general or paediatric nursing, and to compare motivation factors and personal characteristics between the two professions. In Italy, nursing students can choose between two distinct career paths: general and paediatric nursing. However, it is unclear what factors motivate a student to choose between these two pathways. A cross-sectional approach was used to compare a sample of general and paediatric nursing students enrolled in a university in northeast Italy. We administered a questionnaire that covered socio-demographic characteristics and included an instrument of motivation developed by Zysberg & Berry to 224 students enrolled in the 3-year classes. We analysed 215 questionnaires (96%). Paediatric nurses were generally younger, had attended a college preparatory high school and had previously failed another university programme. Many students, in both groups, had a relative who was a nurse, or had cared for a sick friend or family member. Students did not vary significantly in how they evaluated items included in the questionnaire. A career in nursing should be advised for students who are motivated to help other people. Paediatric nursing was identified as an acceptable career choice by students of college preparatory high schools or by students who had initially enrolled in a different university programme. General nursing was a satisfactory choice by students with previous work experience. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Paediatric investigation plans for pain: painfully slow!

    PubMed

    Davies, Elin H; Ollivier, Cecile M; Saint Raymond, Agnes

    2010-11-01

    To examine the early impact of the Paediatric Regulation, which entered into force in Europe on 27 January 2007, on the development of pharmaceutical drugs in the therapeutic field of pain submitted to the Paediatric Committee (PDCO) and to the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Paediatric Investigations Plans (PIPs) submitted with a Decision (outcome) reached between September 2007 and March 2010 were included in the analysis. Of the 17 Paediatric Investigation Plans submitted, 14 have resulted in an EMA Decision, 3 were withdrawn by the applicants, 8 were granted a full waiver from development, and 1 resulted in a negative opinion. Decisions as issued included 15 clinical trials, with at least 1,282 children to be recruited into studies across five different products. Neonates were included in four of the products. The small number of submissions indicates a lack of new drugs being developed for the management of pain. Ethical concerns that too many vulnerable children will be recruited into clinical trials must be balanced against limiting the number of off-label prescribing and obtaining age-appropriate information on paediatric use. Now is an opportune time for clinicians, academics, learned societies and industry to collaborate for the benefit of children in pain.

  4. The proposal of Paediatric Virology and its perspectives: An interview with Professor of Paediatrics Maria Theodoridou.

    PubMed

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-10-01

    Professor Maria Theodoridou, Emeritus Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Athens, is one of the few paediatricians in Greece, who have experienced almost all the infectious diseases of the second half of the 20th century and their severe consequences, prior to the widespread adoption of immunisations. A milestone during her career was the establishment of a specialised National Reference Unit for the care of paediatric patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the 'Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital in Athens, Greece. According to Professor Theodoridou, training on the prevention, management and treatment of neonatal and paediatric viral infections represents a new educational challenge for both community as well as hospital-based paediatric health professionals. The debate of the potential strategically principal role of Paediatric Virology subspecialists in the primary, secondary and tertiary clinical practice is definitely necessary and needs further discussion and evaluation, she adds. She describes the difficulties that Greece, a country under a long-standing financial crisis, faces for the hospital-based management of paediatric viral infections and refers to the future advances, which are expected in the field of diagnosis and treatment of viral infections in neonates and children. In the context of the 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which will be held in Athens on October 7th, 2017, Professor Theodoridou will focus on the immigration crisis and vaccination policy.

  5. The proposal of Paediatric Virology and its perspectives: An interview with Professor of Paediatrics Maria Theodoridou

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2017-01-01

    Professor Maria Theodoridou, Emeritus Professor of Paediatrics at the University of Athens, is one of the few paediatricians in Greece, who have experienced almost all the infectious diseases of the second half of the 20th century and their severe consequences, prior to the widespread adoption of immunisations. A milestone during her career was the establishment of a specialised National Reference Unit for the care of paediatric patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the ‘Aghia Sophia’ Children's Hospital in Athens, Greece. According to Professor Theodoridou, training on the prevention, management and treatment of neonatal and paediatric viral infections represents a new educational challenge for both community as well as hospital-based paediatric health professionals. The debate of the potential strategically principal role of Paediatric Virology subspecialists in the primary, secondary and tertiary clinical practice is definitely necessary and needs further discussion and evaluation, she adds. She describes the difficulties that Greece, a country under a long-standing financial crisis, faces for the hospital-based management of paediatric viral infections and refers to the future advances, which are expected in the field of diagnosis and treatment of viral infections in neonates and children. In the context of the 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which will be held in Athens on October 7th, 2017, Professor Theodoridou will focus on the immigration crisis and vaccination policy. PMID:29042916

  6. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Peer Teaching in Paediatrics - Medical Students as Learners and Teachers on a Paediatric Course

    PubMed Central

    Schauseil-Zipf, Ulrike; Karay, Yassin; Ehrlich, Roland; Knoop, Kai; Michalk, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peer assisted learning is known as an effective educational strategy in medical teaching. We established a peer assisted teaching program by student tutors with a focus on clinical competencies for students during their practical training on paediatric wards. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the effects of a clinical skills training by tutors, residents and consultants on students evaluations of the teaching quality and the effects of a peer teaching program on self assessed clinical competencies by the students. Methods: Medical student peers in their 6th year were trained by an intensive instruction program for teaching clinical skills by paediatric consultants, doctors and psychologists. 109 students in their 5th year (study group) participated in a peer assisted teaching program for training clinical skills in paediatrics. The skills training by student peer teachers were supervised by paediatric doctors. 45 students (control group) participated in a conventional paediatric skills training by paediatric doctors and consultants. Students from both groups, which were consecutively investigated, completed a questionnaire with an evaluation of the satisfaction with their practical training and a self assessment of their practical competencies. Results: The paediatric skills training with student peer teachers received significantly better ratings than the conventional skills training by paediatric doctors concerning both the quality of the practical training and the support by the teaching medical staff. Self assessed learning success in practical skills was higher rated in the peer teaching program than in the conventional training. Conclusions: The peer assisted teaching program of paediatric skills training was rated higher by the students regarding their satisfaction with the teaching quality and their self assessment of the acquired skills. Clinical skills training by student peer teachers have to be supervised by paediatric doctors

  8. Antidepressant Utilization and Suicide in Europe: An Ecological Multi-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Gusmão, Ricardo; Quintão, Sónia; McDaid, David; Arensman, Ella; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Coffey, Claire; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Coyne, James; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Background Research concerning the association between use of antidepressants and incidence of suicide has yielded inconsistent results and is the subject of considerable controversy. The first aim is to describe trends in the use of antidepressants and rates of suicide in Europe, adjusted for gross domestic product, alcohol consumption, unemployment, and divorce. The second aim is to explore if any observed reduction in the rate of suicide in different European countries preceded the trend for increased use of antidepressants. Methods Data were obtained for 29 European countries between 1980 and 2009. Pearson correlations were used to explore the direction and magnitude of associations. Generalized linear mixed models and Poisson regression distribution were used to clarify the effects of antidepressants on suicide rates, while an autoregressive adjusted model was used to test the interaction between antidepressant utilization and suicide over two time periods: 1980–1994 and 1995–2009. Findings An inverse correlation was observed in all countries between recorded Standardised Death Rate (SDR) for suicide and antidepressant Defined Daily Dosage (DDD), with the exception of Portugal. Variability was marked in the association between suicide and alcohol, unemployment and divorce, with countries depicting either a positive or a negative correlation with the SDR for suicide. Every unit increase in DDD of an antidepressant per 1000 people per day, adjusted for these confounding factors, reduces the SDR by 0.088. The correlation between DDD and suicide related SDR was negative in both time periods considered, albeit more pronounced between 1980 and 1994. Conclusions Suicide rates have tended to decrease more in European countries where there has been a greater increase in the use of antidepressants. These findings underline the importance of the appropriate use of antidepressants as part of routine care for people diagnosed with depression, therefore reducing the

  9. Alcohol Control Policies and Alcohol Consumption by Youth: A Multi-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.; Kypri, Kypros

    2009-01-01

    Aims The study examined relationships between alcohol control policies and adolescent alcohol use in 26 countries. Design Cross-sectional analyses of alcohol policy ratings based on the Alcohol Policy Index (API), per capita consumption, and national adolescent survey data. Setting Data are from 26 countries. Participants Adolescents (15-17 years old) who participated in the 2003 ESPAD (European countries) or national secondary school surveys in Spain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the USA. Measurements Alcohol control policy ratings based on the API; prevalence of alcohol use, heavy drinking, and first drink by age 13 based on national secondary school surveys; per capita alcohol consumption for each country in 2003. Analysis Correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between alcohol control policy ratings and past-30-day prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, heavy drinking, and having first drink by age 13. Per capita consumption of alcohol was included as a covariate in regression analyses. Findings More comprehensive API ratings and alcohol availability and advertising control ratings were inversely related to the past-30-day prevalence of alcohol use and prevalence rates for drinking 3-5 times and 6 or more times in the past 30 days. Alcohol advertising control was also inversely related to the prevalence of past-30-day heavy drinking and having first drink by age 13. Most of the relationships between API, alcohol availability and advertising control and drinking prevalence rates were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption in regression analyses, suggesting that alcohol use in the general population may confound or mediate observed relationships between alcohol control policies and youth alcohol consumption. Several of the inverse relationships remained statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption. Conclusions More comprehensive and

  10. Alcohol control policies and alcohol consumption by youth: a multi-national study.

    PubMed

    Paschall, Mallie J; Grube, Joel W; Kypri, Kypros

    2009-11-01

    The study examined relationships between alcohol control policies and adolescent alcohol use in 26 countries. Cross-sectional analyses of alcohol policy ratings based on the Alcohol Policy Index (API), per capita consumption and national adolescent survey data. Data are from 26 countries. Adolescents (aged 15-17 years) who participated in the 2003 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) or national secondary school surveys in Spain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Alcohol control policy ratings based on the API; prevalence of alcohol use, heavy drinking and first drink by age 13 based on national secondary school surveys; per capita alcohol consumption for each country in 2003. Correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between alcohol control policy ratings and past 30-day prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, heavy drinking and having first drink by age 13. Per capita consumption of alcohol was included as a covariate in regression analyses. More comprehensive API ratings and alcohol availability and advertising control ratings were related inversely to the past 30-day prevalence of alcohol use and prevalence rates for drinking three to five times and six or more times in the past 30 days. Alcohol advertising control was also related inversely to the prevalence of past 30-day heavy drinking and having first drink by age 13. Most of the relationships between API, alcohol availability and advertising control and drinking prevalence rates were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption in regression analyses, suggesting that alcohol use in the general population may confound or mediate observed relationships between alcohol control policies and youth alcohol consumption. Several of the inverse relationships remained statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption. More comprehensive and stringent alcohol

  11. Criteria to define response to therapy in paediatric rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Pistorio, Angela; Ravelli, Angelo; Hasija, Rachana; Guseinova, Dinara; Filocamo, Giovanni; Demirkaya, Erkan; Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    In this review we describe the general methodology and the results of the international projects, conducted by the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO), in collaboration with the Paediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group (PRCSG). The aim of these projects were to identify and validate criteria for the evaluation of response to therapy in clinical trials and in daily clinical practice in patients with the three major paediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD): juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE). The methodological approach to identify and validate outcome measures can be divided into three main phases: (1) the development of a preliminary core set of measures to evaluate the outcome (e.g. response to therapy, remission criteria, disease activity or damage etc.) through literature review and consensus techniques; (2) a large-scale data collection for a prospectively evidence-based validation of the preliminary findings; (3) the final development of a validated criteria for the evaluation of the outcome. The core sets for three diseases included domains that are common to all diseases (physician's global assessment of disease activity; parent's global assessment of the overall patient's well-being; disability and/or health-related quality of life) plus additional domains that are specific for each disease. In order to be classified as a responder to a given treatment, a patient should demonstrate a different minimum level of improvement (≥30% in JIA, ≥20% in JDM, and ≥50% in JSLE) with no more than one of the remaining variables worsening by more than 30%. The proposed core sets and definitions of improvement incorporate clinically meaningful change in a composite endpoint for the evaluation of global response to therapy in the major PRD. The definitions are proposed for use in PRD clinical trials and may help physicians to decide if a child has

  12. The future in paediatric respirology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H Joel; Bhandari, Vineet; Bhandari, Anita; Davies, Jane; Marshall, Bruce C; Praud, Jean-Paul; Zar, Heather J; Rubin, Bruce K

    2010-07-01

    The authors were given the charge of providing a vision of the future in paediatric respirology. Themes selected for being ripe for this visionary analysis include bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), lung infections, obstructive sleep disordered breathing (OSDB) and pulmonary diagnostics and monitoring. A profound reduction or elimination of BPD is seen. Given the strong genetic component of this disease, genetic biomarkers will likely be identified that will permit much earlier recognition of BPD susceptibility and potentially the ability to modify disease course by altering gene expression. The ultimate prevention of BPD will be to prevent prematurity, but recognition of both the genetic basis of BPD and the inflammatory background should lead to improved prevention and therapy. A clear understanding and definition of asthma phenotypes will lead to more specific and targeted therapy, earlier detection and prevention, better monitoring of severity and adherence to therapy, lower mortality and decreased inappropriate diagnosis of asthma. The greatest opportunities in asthma care will likely come through tools to improve adherence to effective therapy. Also, areas are identified where better therapies are needed such as in patients with severe mucus hypersecretion (secretory hyperresponsiveness) especially in those with life-threatening asthma. The future of CF is easier to foresee with early successes seen in clinical trials. After the expected ability to correct the CF transmembrane regulator, care will need to change and additional research will be needed. Additionally, the face of CF is changing with more adults than children presently having the disease. This will necessitate changes to our approach to treating this disease in a fortunately aging population. If we are going to affect the worldwide lung health of children, we will need to address respiratory infections particularly pneumonia, tuberculosis and HIV-associated infections

  13. Prospective risk analysis and incident reporting for better pharmaceutical care at paediatric hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Kaestli, Laure-Zoé; Cingria, Laurence; Fonzo-Christe, Caroline; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2014-10-01

    Discharging patients from hospital is a complex multidisciplinary process that can lead to non-compliance and medication-related problems. To evaluate risks of discontinuity of pharmaceutical care at paediatric hospital discharge and assess potential improvement strategies, using two complementary methods: a prospective risk analysis and a spontaneous incident reporting system. Geneva University hospitals and community pharmacies. A multidisciplinary team analysed the paediatric medication discharge process applying the failure modes (FM), effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA), using ibuprofen, morphine, valganciclovir as model drugs. Over 46 months, incidents with discharge prescriptions, reported by community pharmacists, were classified according to FMECA's FM. FM, criticality indexes (CI), incidents. Twenty-four FM were identified. The highest criticality scores were given for prescribing the wrong dosage [mean criticality index (CI = 205)], early treatment discontinuation by the patient (CI = 195), and continuation of contraindicated treatment by the general practitioner (CI = 191). Implementation of eight improvement strategies covering the eight most critical FM led to a 64 % reduction in criticality scores (CI 496 vs 1,392). Improvement of the computerized-physician-order-entry system was the single most effective strategy (CI 843 vs 1,392). Only 52 incidents were spontaneously reported (17 for paediatric patients). Paediatric problems most frequently reported (lack of information, 35 %; delay in drug supply, 18 %) were consistent with the highest frequencies scored by FMECA. Spontaneous incident reporting leads to high levels of under-reporting, but highlighted similar problems at paediatric hospital discharge to FMECA. Using FMECA allowed estimations of criticalities at each step and the potential impact of safety improvement strategies. Proactive and reactive methods proved complementary and would help to set up effective targeted improvement

  14. Managing paediatric death in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Matthew; Trethewie, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Death of a child in an emergency department is a rare occurrence, but one with significant impact on the family and staff involved. The rarity means few emergency department clinicians feel 'expert' in the overall management process. However, most have some knowledge and experience which can be augmented by collaborating with other health professionals. By exploring some of the main management issues and challenges for the emergency department, key aspects of care are identified for emergency department clinicians to consider in reviewing local procedures and guidelines. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Virtual reality in paediatric rehabilitation: a review.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Thomas D; Rizzo, Albert A; Rogers, Steve; York, Philip

    2009-08-01

    To provide a narrative review of studies regarding the outcomes of Virtual Reality (VR)-based treatment and rehabilitation programmes within the paediatric population. Studies related to the use of VR across a number of paediatric areas (e.g. cerebral palsy, autism, foetal alcohol syndrome and attention deficits) were identified and summarized. Outcomes from the studies reviewed provide preliminary support for the use of VR. VR may be an effective treatment method for specific disorders, although the generalizability of this literature is hindered by several methodological limitations, such as small samples and the absence of appropriate control participants.

  16. Increasing workload and changing referral patterns in paediatric cardiology outreach clinics: implications for consultant staffing

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, M; Rigby, M; Redington, A

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess the workload of, and referral patterns to, paediatric cardiology outreach clinics to provide data for future planning.
Design—Descriptive study of outpatient attendance during 1991 and 1996.
Setting—Five district general hospitals with unchanged local demographics and referral patterns during the study period.
Methods—Postal, telephone, and on site survey of clinic records and case notes.
Results—The number of outpatients increased by 61%, with a consequent increase in the number of clinics held and patients seen in each clinic. The number of patients aged between 10 and 15 years doubled.
Conclusion—These data confirm the impression that demands for paediatric cardiology services are increasing. The increased need for attendance at outreach clinics has inevitable consequences for the clinical, teaching, and research activities of specialists in tertiary centres. An increase in the number of paediatric cardiologists, or development of local expertise (general paediatricians with an interest in cardiology), will be required. Furthermore, the increasingly large cohort of older teenagers and young adults with congenital heart disease underscores the need for the development of specialist facilities.

 Keywords: paediatric clinics;  workload;  congenital heart disease PMID:9602652

  17. Changes in individual drug-independent system parameters during virtual paediatric pharmacokinetic trials: introducing time-varying physiology into a paediatric PBPK model.

    PubMed

    Abduljalil, Khaled; Jamei, Masoud; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Johnson, Trevor N

    2014-05-01

    Although both POPPK and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can account for age and other covariates within a paediatric population, they generally do not account for real-time growth and maturation of the individuals through the time course of drug exposure; this may be significant in prolonged neonatal studies. The major objective of this study was to introduce age progression into a paediatric PBPK model, to allow for continuous updating of anatomical, physiological and biological processes in each individual subject over time. The Simcyp paediatric PBPK model simulator system parameters were reanalysed to assess the impact of re-defining the individual over the study period. A schedule for re-defining parameters within the Simcyp paediatric simulator, for each subject, over a prolonged study period, was devised to allow seamless prediction of pharmacokinetics (PK). The model was applied to predict concentration-time data from multiday studies on sildenafil and phenytoin performed in neonates. Among PBPK system parameters, CYP3A4 abundance was one of the fastest changing covariates and a 1-h re-sampling schedule was needed for babies below age 3.5 days in order to seamlessly predict PK (<5% change in abundance) with subject maturation. The re-sampling frequency decreased as age increased, reaching biweekly by 6 months of age. The PK of both sildenafil and phenytoin were predicted better at the end of a prolonged study period using the time varying vs fixed PBPK models. Paediatric PBPK models which account for time-varying system parameters during prolonged studies may provide more mechanistic PK predictions in neonates and infants.

  18. Analgesic Drug Prescription Patterns on Five International Paediatric Wards.

    PubMed

    Botzenhardt, Sebastian; Rashed, Asia N; Wong, Ian C K; Tomlin, Stephen; Neubert, Antje

    2016-12-01

    Analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are frequently prescribed in paediatrics. Prescribing and dosing patterns in hospitalised children are not well known. This study explores analgesic drug utilisation on five paediatric wards and discusses its findings in comparison with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A sub-analysis of a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study was undertaken. Prescription data of children aged up to ≤18 years were collected between October 2008 and December 2009 on paediatric general medical wards in five hospitals in Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom (UK), Hong Kong (HK) and Malaysia. Analgesic drug prescriptions were analysed for prescribing patterns in terms of dosing, frequency and route of administration. Dosing data were compared with local recommendations and WHO guidelines for children. In the study cohort, 56.8 % (726/1278) of paediatric patients received at least one analgesic drug prescription (1227 prescriptions). The median age of patients with analgesics was 2.2 years [interquartile range (IQR) 0.8-7.3], and the median number of prescriptions per patient was one (IQR 1-2). The most commonly prescribed drugs were oral paracetamol (45.9 %, 563/1227) and oral ibuprofen (19.9 %, 244/1227). Daily doses of paracetamol ranged from 30 mg/kg/day in Germany to 67-68 mg/kg/day in the UK and HK (p < 0.05). For ibuprofen, single doses ranged from 5-6 mg/kg in HK and the UK to 10 mg/kg in Germany and Australia (p < 0.001). Opioid use prevalence was statistically different between the centres and ranged from 0 to 17.6 % (p < 0.001). This study provides a comprehensive overview of analgesic drug use of hospitalised children. Similar to primary care data, paracetamol is the most commonly used analgesic. As recommended by WHO guidelines, oral medication was favoured and opioids used in addition to paracetamol and ibuprofen. Overall drug utilisation was in line with local recommendations and WHO

  19. Teaching ethics to paediatrics residents: the centrality of the therapeutic alliance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Holly A; McDonald, Erin L; Moon, Margaret; Hughes, Mark T; Carrese, Joseph A

    2009-10-01

    Previous research on ethical issues encountered by medical professionals in training and practice have presented the thematic content of the cases they encounter rather than the activities in which clinicians engage and in which they most often encounter ethical issues. We conducted a direct observation study of paediatrics residents and their preceptors seeing patients in an out-patient general paediatrics clinic. Our objectives were to describe the everyday ethics-related issues paediatrics residents encounter as they interact with patients. Our ultimate goal is to use this knowledge to enhance current efforts to teach ethics to paediatrics residents. The study team directly observed paediatrics residents discussing patients with their faculty preceptors (19 half-day sessions, 76 hours) in an out-patient general paediatrics clinic located in an urban academic medical centre. Each interaction between resident and preceptor about a single patient was considered a case for further analysis. A total of 247 cases were recorded. Forty-one of the cases were coded as having ethics-related content. A constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis revealed that residents were most likely to encounter ethical issues when engaged in the following activities: (i) maintaining a therapeutic alliance with the caregiver (e.g. the parent); (ii) prioritising patient or family needs; (iii) adjusting to the power embodied by the role of doctors, and (iv) distinguishing suboptimal care from abuse or neglect. In addition, our findings indicate that it is through their efforts to maintain the therapeutic alliance with the caregivers of their patients that residents engage in and integrate three processes: developing their medical knowledge; adhering to professional norms, and balancing the power inherent in the doctor's role with their responsibility to serve the patient's interests. Medical faculty tasked with teaching ethics to paediatrics residents can utilise the results

  20. Developing standards for chromosomal microarray testing counselling in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Emma; Clark, Phillipa

    2014-06-01

    Chromosomal microarray testing (CMA) generally aids paediatric genetic diagnosis. However, pre-CMA counselling is important as results can be ambiguous, generate uncertainty and raise ethical issues. We developed standards for counselling and giving families results; using these we evaluated practice for children seen by the Auckland Developmental Paediatric team in 2011. Pretest discussion was documented in 14 of 28 subjects and potential outcomes in 4of 28. 8 of 28 received information leaflets, 1 of 28 gave signed consent. 3 of 3 with abnormal results and 4 of 5 with variants of unknown significance (VOUS) were offered clinical genetics referral. 8 of 20 families with normal results were written to; two with abnormal results were informed face-to-face and one in writing; most VOUS were communicated by phone, voicemail or letter. CMA testing requires clear patient information sheets and in-depth pretest discussion for informed consent, timely feedback of results and genetics referral as appropriate. Authoritative guidelines and training are needed to strengthen CMA counselling. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Guidelines on Vaccinations in Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cesaro, Simone; Giacchino, Mareva; Fioredda, Francesca; Barone, Angelica; Battisti, Laura; Bezzio, Stefania; Frenos, Stefano; De Santis, Raffaella; Livadiotti, Susanna; Marinello, Serena; Zanazzo, Andrea Giulio; Caselli, Désirée

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Vaccinations are the most important tool to prevent infectious diseases. Chemotherapy-induced immune depression may impact the efficacy of vaccinations in children. Patients and Methods. A panel of experts of the supportive care working group of the Italian Association Paediatric Haematology Oncology (AIEOP) addressed this issue by guidelines on vaccinations in paediatric cancer patients. The literature published between 1980 and 2013 was reviewed. Results and Conclusion. During intensive chemotherapy, vaccination turned out to be effective for hepatitis A and B, whilst vaccinations with toxoid, protein subunits, or bacterial antigens should be postponed to the less intensive phases, to achieve an adequate immune response. Apart from varicella, the administration of live-attenuated-virus vaccines is not recommended during this phase. Family members should remain on recommended vaccination schedules, including toxoid, inactivated vaccine (also poliomyelitis), and live-attenuated vaccines (varicella, measles, mumps, and rubella). By the time of completion of chemotherapy, insufficient serum antibody levels for vaccine-preventable diseases have been reported, while immunological memory appears to be preserved. Once immunological recovery is completed, usually after 6 months, response to booster or vaccination is generally good and allows patients to be protected and also to contribute to herd immunity. PMID:24868544

  2. Guidelines on vaccinations in paediatric haematology and oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Simone; Giacchino, Mareva; Fioredda, Francesca; Barone, Angelica; Battisti, Laura; Bezzio, Stefania; Frenos, Stefano; De Santis, Raffaella; Livadiotti, Susanna; Marinello, Serena; Zanazzo, Andrea Giulio; Caselli, Désirée

    2014-01-01

    Vaccinations are the most important tool to prevent infectious diseases. Chemotherapy-induced immune depression may impact the efficacy of vaccinations in children. A panel of experts of the supportive care working group of the Italian Association Paediatric Haematology Oncology (AIEOP) addressed this issue by guidelines on vaccinations in paediatric cancer patients. The literature published between 1980 and 2013 was reviewed. During intensive chemotherapy, vaccination turned out to be effective for hepatitis A and B, whilst vaccinations with toxoid, protein subunits, or bacterial antigens should be postponed to the less intensive phases, to achieve an adequate immune response. Apart from varicella, the administration of live-attenuated-virus vaccines is not recommended during this phase. Family members should remain on recommended vaccination schedules, including toxoid, inactivated vaccine (also poliomyelitis), and live-attenuated vaccines (varicella, measles, mumps, and rubella). By the time of completion of chemotherapy, insufficient serum antibody levels for vaccine-preventable diseases have been reported, while immunological memory appears to be preserved. Once immunological recovery is completed, usually after 6 months, response to booster or vaccination is generally good and allows patients to be protected and also to contribute to herd immunity.

  3. [The medicine use pathway in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Didelot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The medicine use pathway is a process which is constantly evolving in order to comply with intangible rules. As in other therapeutic fields, the drug regimen in paediatrics must tolerate no error and must be able to detect all warning signs, however minor, in order to optimise this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The challenge of cross-cultural, multi-national research: potential benefits in the functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Sperber, A D

    2009-04-01

    The increasing interest in research in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), taken together with the growing sophistication of communication technology, makes cross-cultural, multi-national research a feasible endeavour. The aim of this study is to encourage collaborative cross-cultural studies in FGIDs by discussing relevant methodological issues, and by suggesting potential areas in which cross-cultural research can make a significant contribution to the understanding of FGIDs and to patient care. To this end, methodological issues related to cross-cultural research and competences required for its conduct are presented together with a critique of published studies and recommendations for future research in the area. The term 'cross-cultural' research in FGIDs is usually applied to the results of prevalence studies, for example comparative studies of IBS prevalence in different countries and ethnic groups. The validity of these comparisons is impacted negatively by the lack of uniformity in research methods. In addition to prevalence studies, cross-cultural research can make a significant contribution in areas such as molecular biology, genetics, psychosocial factors, symptom presentation, extra-intestinal comorbidity, diagnosis and treatment, determinants of disease severity, healthcare utilization, and health-related quality of life, all issues that can be affected by culture, ethnicity and race. Well-designed and implemented cross-cultural studies can advance our knowledge in many FGID-related areas ranging from epidemiology through psychosocial factors, pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutics. These studies, conducted by investigators with competence in cross-cultural research methodology, can advance our understanding of the FGIDs and contribute to improved patient care.

  5. Psychophysical testing of visual prosthetic devices: a call to establish a multi-national joint task force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Ayton, Lauren N.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of visual prostheses, as showcased in this special feature of Journal of Neural Engineering , have led to promising results from clinical trials of a number of devices. However, as noted by these groups there are many challenges involved in assessing vision of people with profound vision loss. As such, it is important that there is consistency in the methodology and reporting standards for clinical trials of visual prostheses and, indeed, the broader vision restoration research field. Two visual prosthesis research groups, the Boston Retinal Implant Project (BRIP) and Bionic Vision Australia (BVA), have agreed to work cooperatively to establish a multi-national Joint Task Force. The aim of this Task Force will be to develop a consensus statement to guide the methods used to conduct and report psychophysical and clinical results of humans who receive visual prosthetic devices. The overarching goal is to ensure maximum benefit to the implant recipients, not only in the outcomes of the visual prosthesis itself, but also in enabling them to obtain accurate information about this research with ease. The aspiration to develop a Joint Task Force was first promulgated at the inaugural 'The Eye and the Chip' meeting in September 2000. This meeting was established to promote the development of the visual prosthetic field by applying the principles of inclusiveness, openness, and collegiality among the growing body of researchers in this field. These same principles underlie the intent of this Joint Task Force to enhance the quality of psychophysical research within our community. Despite prior efforts, a critical mass of interested parties could not congeal. Renewed interest for developing joint guidelines has developed recently because of a growing awareness of the challenges of obtaining reliable measurements of visual function in patients who are severely visually impaired (in whom testing is inherently noisy), and of the importance of

  6. Postgraduate medical education in paediatric surgery: videoconferencing--a possible solution for Africa?

    PubMed

    Hadley, Grenville Peter; Mars, M

    2008-02-01

    Africa faces a triple burden of disease; HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Despite this, its population is expected to double over the next 45 years. There is a dire shortage of medical specialists and many countries lack suitably qualified doctors to train medical specialists. Videoconferencing offers the opportunity to share scarce human resources. In the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal there are only three paediatric surgeons who meet the clinical needs of the province and offer training in paediatric surgery to general surgeons in training. This paper reports an 18-month experience using videoconferenced postgraduate medical education in paediatric surgery in a South African setting. Seventy-one videoconference postgraduate teaching sessions of 1 h duration were broadcast to up to four sites in South Africa. Teaching sessions were in a lecture format with discussion thereafter. On average, 18 people at receive sites took part in each session in 2005 and 37 in 2006. There was universal satisfaction with videoconferenced teaching from those teaching and the participants at the distant sites. There is a demand to extend this project to other parts of South Africa and into Africa, where the shortage of paediatric surgeons is acute.

  7. Finite element modelling of paediatric head impact: global validation against experimental data.

    PubMed

    Roth, Sebastien; Raul, Jean-Sebastien; Willinger, Remy

    2010-07-01

    Biomechanics of the human head has been widely studied for several decades. At a mechanical level, the use of engineering and finite element (FE) methods has allowed injury mechanisms to be investigated using biofidelic FE models. These models are generally validated using experimental data then used to simulate real-world head trauma in order to derive numerical tolerance limits, leading to efficient injury predicting tools. Due to ethical issues, experimental tests on the paediatric population remain prohibitive so direct validations of numerical models cannot be performed. However injury biomechanics on paediatric population is emerging with experimental tests on the paediatric cadavers or tests on biological tissue and the development of finite element models. The present paper proposes a new finite element model of a newborn head, simulating its main features, with material properties from the literature. Global validation of the model against experimental data in terms of skull deflection is performed and the model is used to simulate paediatric skull fracture coming from real-world head trauma. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Training potential in minimally invasive surgery in a tertiary care, paediatric urology centre.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, R P J; Chrzan, R J; Klijn, A J; Kuijper, C F; Dik, P; de Jong, T P V M

    2015-10-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is being utilized more frequently as a surgical technique in general surgery and in paediatric urology. It is associated with a steep learning curve. Currently, the centre does not offer a MIS training programme. It is hypothesized that the number of MIS procedures performed in the low-volume specialty of paediatric urology will offer insufficient training potential for surgeons. To assess the MIS training potential of a highly specialized, tertiary care, paediatric urology training centre that has been accredited by the Joint Committee of Paediatric Urology (JCPU). The clinical activity of the department was retrospectively reviewed by extracting the annual number of admissions, outpatient consultations and operative procedures. The operations were divided into open procedures and MIS. Major ablative procedures (nephrectomy) and reconstructive procedures (pyeloplasty) were analysed with reference to the patients' ages. The centre policy is not to perform major MIS in children who are under 2 years old or who weigh less than 12 kg. Every year, this institution provides approximately 4300 out-patient consultations, 600 admissions, and 1300 procedures under general anaesthesia for children with urological problems. In 2012, 35 patients underwent major intricate MIS: 16 pyeloplasties, eight nephrectomies and 11 operations for incontinence (seven Burch, and four bladder neck procedures). In children ≥2 years of age, 16/21 of the pyeloplasties and 8/12 of the nephrectomies were performed laparoscopically. The remaining MIS procedures included 25 orchidopexies and one intravesical ureteral reimplantation. There is no consensus on how to assess laparoscopic training. It would be valuable to reach a consensus on a standardized laparoscopic training programme in paediatric urology. Often training potential is based on operation numbers only. In paediatric urology no minimum requirement has been specified. The number of procedures quoted

  9. The TRIAGE-ProADM Score for an Early Risk Stratification of Medical Patients in the Emergency Department - Development Based on a Multi-National, Prospective, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Conca, Antoinette; Haubitz, Sebastian; Struja, Tristan; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inflammatory biomarker pro-adrenomedullin (ProADM) provides additional prognostic information for the risk stratification of general medical emergency department (ED) patients. The aim of this analysis was to develop a triage algorithm for improved prognostication and later use in an interventional trial. Methods We used data from the multi-national, prospective, observational TRIAGE trial including consecutive medical ED patients from Switzerland, France and the United States. We investigated triage effects when adding ProADM at two established cut-offs to a five-level ED triage score with respect to adverse clinical outcome. Results Mortality in the 6586 ED patients showed a step-wise, 25-fold increase from 0.6% to 4.5% and 15.4%, respectively, at the two ProADM cut-offs (≤0.75nmol/L, >0.75–1.5nmol/L, >1.5nmol/L, p ANOVA <0.0001). Risk stratification by combining ProADM within cut-off groups and the triage score resulted in the identification of 1662 patients (25.2% of the population) at a very low risk of mortality (0.3%, n = 5) and 425 patients (6.5% of the population) at very high risk of mortality (19.3%, n = 82). Risk estimation by using ProADM and the triage score from a logistic regression model allowed for a more accurate risk estimation in the whole population with a classification of 3255 patients (49.4% of the population) in the low risk group (0.3% mortality, n = 9) and 1673 (25.4% of the population) in the high-risk group (15.1% mortality, n = 252). Conclusions Within this large international multicenter study, a combined triage score based on ProADM and established triage scores allowed a more accurate mortality risk discrimination. The TRIAGE-ProADM score improved identification of both patients at the highest risk of mortality who may benefit from early therapeutic interventions (rule in), and low risk patients where deferred treatment without negatively affecting outcome may be possible (rule out). PMID:28005916

  10. The TRIAGE-ProADM Score for an Early Risk Stratification of Medical Patients in the Emergency Department - Development Based on a Multi-National, Prospective, Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Alexander; Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Conca, Antoinette; Haubitz, Sebastian; Struja, Tristan; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory biomarker pro-adrenomedullin (ProADM) provides additional prognostic information for the risk stratification of general medical emergency department (ED) patients. The aim of this analysis was to develop a triage algorithm for improved prognostication and later use in an interventional trial. We used data from the multi-national, prospective, observational TRIAGE trial including consecutive medical ED patients from Switzerland, France and the United States. We investigated triage effects when adding ProADM at two established cut-offs to a five-level ED triage score with respect to adverse clinical outcome. Mortality in the 6586 ED patients showed a step-wise, 25-fold increase from 0.6% to 4.5% and 15.4%, respectively, at the two ProADM cut-offs (≤0.75nmol/L, >0.75-1.5nmol/L, >1.5nmol/L, p ANOVA <0.0001). Risk stratification by combining ProADM within cut-off groups and the triage score resulted in the identification of 1662 patients (25.2% of the population) at a very low risk of mortality (0.3%, n = 5) and 425 patients (6.5% of the population) at very high risk of mortality (19.3%, n = 82). Risk estimation by using ProADM and the triage score from a logistic regression model allowed for a more accurate risk estimation in the whole population with a classification of 3255 patients (49.4% of the population) in the low risk group (0.3% mortality, n = 9) and 1673 (25.4% of the population) in the high-risk group (15.1% mortality, n = 252). Within this large international multicenter study, a combined triage score based on ProADM and established triage scores allowed a more accurate mortality risk discrimination. The TRIAGE-ProADM score improved identification of both patients at the highest risk of mortality who may benefit from early therapeutic interventions (rule in), and low risk patients where deferred treatment without negatively affecting outcome may be possible (rule out).

  11. Paediatric neurological melioidosis: a rehabilitation case report.

    PubMed

    White, Meagan E; Hunt, Jacqueline; Connell, Cheraine; Langdon, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is a rare condition, endemic to northern Australia and south-east Asia, caused by an infection from the bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei. The largest epidemiological review to date describes 540 cases of melioidosis seen at Darwin Hospital, in northern Australia, over a 20-year period. Of these, 14 (less than 3%) presented with neurological manifestation, with three deaths. Reports of paediatric cases of melioidosis are rarer. In a review of paediatric cases in northern Australia only eight cases were identified in 10 years. Three of these patients presented with neurological melioidosis, of whom two died in hospital. Whilst the literature refers to prolonged periods of hospitalisation for survivors, the trajectory of functional recovery and process of rehabilitation has not been described. This is a case report describing a 14-year-old boy who presented to a remote medical post with acute neurological symptoms (vomiting, severe headache, ataxia, cranial nerve VI and VII palsy) and was referred to the tertiary paediatric hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed an extensive infiltrative lesion in the posterior fossa and hydrocephalus. Diagnosis of neurological melioidosis required isolation of the pathogen by brain biopsy through sub-occipital craniotomy. Medical treatment included surgical management of hydrocephalus, parenteral antibiotic treatment with meropenem and then a prolonged course of oral co-trimoxazole, enteral feeding and tonal management with levodopa-carbidopa and botulinum toxin A injections. Associated neurological signs and symptoms (bradykinesia, tremor, dysphagia, aphasia, hypertonia, exotropia) required intensive rehabilitation to address functional deficits and to promote independence. The purpose of this case report is to document the functional recovery and rehabilitation process of a paediatric case of neurological melioidosis. Knowledge of the recovery pathway is important to add

  12. Current views and advances on Paediatric Virology: An update for paediatric trainees

    PubMed Central

    MAMMAS, IOANNIS N.; GREENOUGH, ANNE; THEODORIDOU, MARIA; KRAMVIS, ANNA; CHRISTAKI, ILIANA; KOUTSAFTIKI, CHRYSSIE; KOUTSAKI, MARIA; PORTALIOU, DIMITRA M.; KOSTAGIANNI, GEORGIA; PANAGOPOULOU, PARASKEVI; SOURVINOS, GEORGE; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric Virology is a bold new scientific field, which combines Paediatrics with Virology, Epidemiology, Molecular Medicine, Evidence-based Medicine, Clinical Governance, Quality Improvement, Pharmacology and Immunology. The Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on Saturday October 10, 2015 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview of recent views and advances on viral infections occurring in neonates and children. It was included in the official programme of the 20th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and the 18th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine, which attracted over 500 delegates from the five continents. During the Workshop, the topics covered included the challenges of vaccine implementation against human papillomaviruses in countries under financial crisis, strategies for eradicating poliomyelitis and its 60th vaccine anniversary, as well as the debate on the association between autism and vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. Among the non-vaccine related topics, emphasis was given to viral infections in prematurely born infants and their long-term outcomes, new paediatric intensive care management options for bronchiolitis related to respiratory syncytial virus, the clinical implications of hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus genotyping, the Ebola virus threat and preparedness in Paediatric Emergency Departments, oral, oropharynx, laryngeal, nasal and ocular viral infections and Merkel cell polyomavirus as a novel emerging virus of infancy and childhood. In this review, we provide selected presentations and reports discussed at the Workshop. PMID:26889211

  13. Emergency department overcrowding – implications for paediatric emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding has been an international phenomenon for more than 10 years. It is important to understand that ED overcrowding is a measure of health system efficiency and is not strictly related to ED volumes or capacity. ED overcrowding is defined as a situation in which the demand for emergency services exceeds the ability of physicians and nurses to provide quality care within a reasonable time. The major factor resulting in ED overcrowding is the presence of admitted patients in the ED for prolonged periods of time, not a high volume of low-acuity patients. While limited data are available for paediatric EDs, winter respiratory illnesses set the stage for ED overcrowding, which are epidemic in adult or general EDs. Prehospital-, ED- and hospital-related factors are described in the present article, and these may help prevent or manage this important patient safety problem. PMID:19030415

  14. Emergency department overcrowding - implications for paediatric emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Douglas

    2007-07-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding has been an international phenomenon for more than 10 years. It is important to understand that ED overcrowding is a measure of health system efficiency and is not strictly related to ED volumes or capacity. ED overcrowding is defined as a situation in which the demand for emergency services exceeds the ability of physicians and nurses to provide quality care within a reasonable time. The major factor resulting in ED overcrowding is the presence of admitted patients in the ED for prolonged periods of time, not a high volume of low-acuity patients. While limited data are available for paediatric EDs, winter respiratory illnesses set the stage for ED overcrowding, which are epidemic in adult or general EDs. Prehospital-, ED- and hospital-related factors are described in the present article, and these may help prevent or manage this important patient safety problem.

  15. [French organization of paediatric radiation treatment: Results of a survey conducted by the radiotherapy Committee of the French Society of Paediatric Cancers (SFCE)].

    PubMed

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, C; Claude, L; Carrie, C; Bolle, S; Helfre, S; Alapetite, C; Jouin, A; Padovani, L; Ducassou, A; Vigneron, C; Le Prisé, É; Huchet, A; Stefan, D; Kerr, C; Nguyen, T-D; Truc, G; Chapet, S; Bondiau, P-Y; Coche, B; Muracciole, X; Laprie, A; Noël, G; Leseur, J; Habrand, J-L; Potet, H; Ruffier, A; Supiot, S; Mahé, M-A; Bernier, V

    2016-07-01

    Radiotherapy is a rare indication in paediatric oncology, with 800 to 900 children in treatment per year in France. Child cancers represent approximately 1% of cancers in France and half occur before the age of 5 years. Paediatric radiation requires appropriate tools, local, time and specific training. In France, in 2015, 18 centres are accredited by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) for this activity. Survey conducted in February 2015 on the care of children (0 to 18 years) in radiotherapy departments in France. The survey was sent to the radiation oncologists involved in the 18 centres. The questions concerned the qualitative and quantitative aspect, medical and organizational aspects, and the involvement of assistant practitioners in the management of this activity. Seventeen centres responded. In 2014, 889 children under 18 were treated in radiotherapy departments. These departments are working together with one to four paediatric oncology departments. Regarding access to general anaesthesia: three centres perform one to seven treatment(s) under anaesthesia per year, three centres eight to ten treatments under anaesthesia per year, three centres ten to 24 treatments under anaesthesia per year and nine centres out of 17 use hypnosis techniques. In terms of human resources, in 2015, 29 radiation therapists have a paediatric radiotherapy activity. Involvement of assistant practitioners is growing and specific training are desired. Regarding treatment preparation and delivery, 13 centres have specific paediatric contentions, 14 of 16 centres employ radiation intensity modulated if dosimetry is more satisfying with 11 regularly to the craniospinal irradiation. Radiotherapy on moving areas with respiratory gating or hypofractionation is under developed. Paediatric radiation therapy is a specific activity requiring a dedicated management, both in human, organizational, medical and scientific aspects. Copyright © 2016 Société française de

  16. Clinical spectrum of paediatric coeliac disease: a 10-year single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Van Kalleveen, Michael W; de Meij, Tim; Plötz, Frans B

    2018-04-01

    population, whereas the number of new cases did not increase over the years. What is Known: • The clinical spectrum of paediatric coeliac disease is shifting towards a presentation with more atypical and non-GI symptoms. • The incidence of paediatric coeliac disease is still increasing as is the age at which it is diagnosed. What is New: • An average of 10 paediatric CD cases are diagnosed per year in our general teaching hospital. • The calculated (gender-specific) incidence rates are higher than previously reported.

  17. Burnout and posttraumatic stress in paediatric critical care personnel: Prediction from resilience and coping styles.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rey, Rocío; Palacios, Alba; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Pérez, Elena; Álvarez, Elena; Coca, Ana; Mencía, Santiago; Marcos, Ana; Mayordomo-Colunga, Juan; Fernández, Francisco; Gómez, Fernando; Cruz, Jaime; Ordóñez, Olga; Llorente, Ana

    2018-03-28

    Our aims were (1) to explore the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BOS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of Spanish staff working in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and compare these rates with a sample of general paediatric staff and (2) to explore how resilience, coping strategies, and professional and demographic variables influence BOS and PTSD. This is a multicentre, cross-sectional study. Data were collected in the PICU and in other paediatric wards of nine hospitals. Participants consisted of 298 PICU staff members (57 physicians, 177 nurses, and 64 nursing assistants) and 189 professionals working in non-critical paediatric units (53 physicians, 104 nurses, and 32 nursing assistants). They completed the Brief Resilience Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire for healthcare providers, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Trauma Screening Questionnaire. Fifty-six percent of PICU working staff reported burnout in at least one dimension (36.20% scored over the cut-off for emotional exhaustion, 27.20% for depersonalisation, and 20.10% for low personal accomplishment), and 20.1% reported PTSD. There were no differences in burnout and PTSD scores between PICU and non-PICU staff members, either among physicians, nurses, or nursing assistants. Higher burnout and PTSD rates emerged after the death of a child and/or conflicts with patients/families or colleagues. Around 30% of the variance in BOS and PTSD is predicted by a frequent usage of the emotion-focused coping style and an infrequent usage of the problem-focused coping style. Interventions to prevent and treat distress among paediatric staff members are needed and should be focused on: (i) promoting active emotional processing of traumatic events and encouraging positive thinking; (ii) developing a sense of detached concern; (iii) improving the ability to solve interpersonal conflicts, and (iv) providing adequate training in end-of-life care. Copyright © 2018 Australian

  18. Radiation from CT scans in paediatric trauma patients: Indications, effective dose, and impact on surgical decisions.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Michael H; Igric, Ana; Vogt, Kelly; Parry, Neil; Merritt, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effective dose of radiation due to computed tomography (CT) scans in paediatric trauma patients at a level 1 Canadian paediatric trauma centre. We also explored the indications and actions taken as a result of these scans. We performed a retrospective review of paediatric trauma patients presenting to our centre from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008. All CT scans performed during the initial trauma resuscitation, hospital stay, and 6 months afterwards were included. Effective dose was calculated using the reported dose length product for each scan and conversion factors specific for body region and age of the patient. 157 paediatric trauma patients were identified during the 2-year study period. Mean Injury Severity Score was 22.5 (range 12-75). 133 patients received at least one CT scan. The mean number of scans per patient was 2.6 (range 0-16). Most scans resulted in no further action (56%) or additional imaging (32%). A decision to perform a procedure (2%), surgery (8%), or withdrawal of life support (2%) was less common. The average dose per patient was 13.5mSv, which is 4.5 times the background radiation compared to the general population. CT head was the most commonly performed type of scan and was most likely to be repeated. CT body, defined as a scan of the chest, abdomen, and/or pelvis, was associated with the highest effective dose. CT is a significant source of radiation in paediatric trauma patients. Clinicians should carefully consider the indications for each scan, especially when performing non-resuscitation scans. There is a need for evidence-based treatment algorithms to assist clinicians in selecting appropriate imaging for patients with severe multisystem trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dental fluorosis in the paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Atia, Gahder-Sara; May, Joanna

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to excessive fluoride intake during the early childhood years can disrupt the normal development of enamel, resulting in dental fluorosis. This varies in severity, ranging from white opacities in mild cases to more severe black and brown discoloration or enamel pitting. This article aims to give the reader a better understanding of the aetiology, diagnosis and subsequent treatment of dental fluorosis in the paediatric patient. Fluorosis can have a marked effect on dental aesthetics. The prevalence of fluorosis in the United Kingdom may increase following the publication of Delivering Better Oral Health, published by the Department of Health in 2007, which suggested changes to fluoride levels in children's toothpastes. This article highlights the importance of accurate diagnosis of fluorosis and also explains the treatment options available to paediatric patients.

  20. Paediatric genomics: diagnosing rare disease in children.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caroline F; FitzPatrick, David R; Firth, Helen V

    2018-05-01

    The majority of rare diseases affect children, most of whom have an underlying genetic cause for their condition. However, making a molecular diagnosis with current technologies and knowledge is often still a challenge. Paediatric genomics is an immature but rapidly evolving field that tackles this issue by incorporating next-generation sequencing technologies, especially whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing, into research and clinical workflows. This complex multidisciplinary approach, coupled with the increasing availability of population genetic variation data, has already resulted in an increased discovery rate of causative genes and in improved diagnosis of rare paediatric disease. Importantly, for affected families, a better understanding of the genetic basis of rare disease translates to more accurate prognosis, management, surveillance and genetic advice; stimulates research into new therapies; and enables provision of better support.

  1. Recent advances in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Andrew; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    This review highlights important advances in paediatric respiratory medicine since 2014, excluding cystic fibrosis. It focuses mainly on the more common conditions, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis and preschool wheezing, asthma, pneumonia and sleep, and highlights some of the rarer conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Brain macro- and microscopic damage in patients with paediatric MS.

    PubMed

    Absinta, Martina; Rocca, Maria A; Moiola, Lucia; Ghezzi, Angelo; Milani, Nicoletta; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2010-12-01

    To characterise, using conventional and diffusion tensor (DT) MRI, the nature and distribution of lesions and the extent of damage in the brain normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter (GM) from a relatively large population of paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Brain conventional and DT MRI scans were acquired from 48 patients with paediatric MS (10 clinically isolated syndromes (CIS), 38 relapsing remitting (RR) MS), 30 adult CIS, 27 adult RRMS, 15 paediatric healthy controls (HC) and 18 adult HC. T2-lesion probability maps and DT MRI of lesions, NAWM and GM were compared among controls and MS groups. T2-visible lesion volumes did not differ among patient groups, but T2 lesions were more frequently located in the posterior periventricular regions in adult RRMS patients than in adult CIS and paediatric RRMS patients. Adult RRMS patients had a significantly higher lesion average mean diffusivity than paediatric RRMS patients. No DT MRI changes in the NA tissues were found in paediatric and adult CIS patients. DT MRI abnormalities were limited to the NAWM in paediatric RRMS patients, while they involved the NAWM and GM in adult RRMS patients. The extent of NAWM involvement was similar between adult and paediatric RRMS patients and was significantly correlated with T2-visible lesion burden. A less severe intrinsic lesion damage, a less frequent lesion occurrence in the posterior periventricular WM and the sparing of GM may help to explain the favourable short-/medium-term disease outcome of paediatric MS.

  3. A paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training project in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Javier; Matamoros, Martha M; López-Herce, Jesús; Carrillo, Angel P; Ordóñez, Flora; Moral, Ramón; Mencía, Santiago

    2010-04-01

    It is possible that the exportation of North American and European models has hindered the creation of a structured cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training programme in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and present the results of a European paediatric and neonatal CPR training programme adapted to Honduras. A paediatric CPR training project was set up in Honduras with the instructional and scientific support of the Spanish Group for Paediatric and Neonatal CPR. The programme was divided into four phases: CPR training and preparation of instructors; training for instructors; supervised teaching; and independent teaching. During the first phase, 24 Honduran doctors from paediatric intensive care, paediatric emergency and anaesthesiology departments attended the paediatric CPR course and 16 of them the course for preparation as instructors. The Honduran Paediatric and Neonatal CPR Group was formed. In the second phase, workshops were given by Honduran instructors and four of them attended a CPR course in Spain as trainee instructors. In the third phase, a CPR course was given in Honduras by the Honduran instructors, supervised by the Spanish team. In the final phase of independent teaching, eight courses were given, providing 177 students with training in CPR. The training of independent paediatric CPR groups with the collaboration and scientific assessment of an expert group could be a suitable model on which to base paediatric CPR training in Latin American developing countries. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus.

    PubMed

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2016-08-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. 'Herpes', a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word 'ἕρπειν', meaning 'to creep' or 'crawl', is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema 'resembling mosquito bites' are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The 'cough of Perinthos' epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists.

  5. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  6. Computer calculated dose in paediatric prescribing.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Richard C; Li-Meng Goh, Denise; Packia, Jeya; Min Kam, Huey; Ong, Benjamin K C

    2005-01-01

    Medication errors are an important cause of hospital-based morbidity and mortality. However, only a few medication error studies have been conducted in children. These have mainly quantified errors in the inpatient setting; there is very little data available on paediatric outpatient and emergency department medication errors and none on discharge medication. This deficiency is of concern because medication errors are more common in children and it has been suggested that the risk of an adverse drug event as a consequence of a medication error is higher in children than in adults. The aims of this study were to assess the rate of medication errors in predominantly ambulatory paediatric patients and the effect of computer calculated doses on medication error rates of two commonly prescribed drugs. This was a prospective cohort study performed in a paediatric unit in a university teaching hospital between March 2003 and August 2003. The hospital's existing computer clinical decision support system was modified so that doctors could choose the traditional prescription method or the enhanced method of computer calculated dose when prescribing paracetamol (acetaminophen) or promethazine. All prescriptions issued to children (<16 years of age) at the outpatient clinic, emergency department and at discharge from the inpatient service were analysed. A medication error was defined as to have occurred if there was an underdose (below the agreed value), an overdose (above the agreed value), no frequency of administration specified, no dose given or excessive total daily dose. The medication error rates and the factors influencing medication error rates were determined using SPSS version 12. From March to August 2003, 4281 prescriptions were issued. Seven prescriptions (0.16%) were excluded, hence 4274 prescriptions were analysed. Most prescriptions were issued by paediatricians (including neonatologists and paediatric surgeons) and/or junior doctors. The error rate in the

  7. Paediatric day-case neurosurgery in a resource challenged setting: Pattern and practice

    PubMed Central

    Owojuyigbe, Afolabi Muyiwa; Komolafe, Edward O.; Adenekan, Anthony T.; Dada, Muyiwa A.; Onyia, Chiazor U.; Ogunbameru, Ibironke O.; Owagbemi, Oluwafemi F.; Talabi, Ademola O.; Faponle, Fola A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been generally observed that children achieve better convalescence in the home environment especially if discharged same day after surgery. This is probably due to the fact that children generally tend to feel more at ease in the home environment than in the hospital setting. Only few tertiary health institutions provide routine day-case surgery for paediatric neurosurgical patients in our sub-region. Objective: To review the pattern and practice of paediatric neurosurgical day-cases at our hospital. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of all paediatric day-case neurosurgeries carried out between June 2011 and June 2014. Results: A total of 53 patients (34 males and 19 females) with age ranging from 2 days to 14 years were seen. Majority of the patients (77.4%) presented with congenital lesions, and the most common procedure carried out was spina bifida repair (32%) followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion (26.4%) for hydrocephalus. Sixty-eight percentage belonged to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class 2, whereas the rest (32%) belonged to class 1. General anaesthesia was employed in 83% of cases. Parenteral paracetamol was used for intra-operative analgesia for most of the patients. Two patients had post-operative nausea and vomiting and were successfully managed. There was no case of emergency re-operation, unplanned admission, cancellation or mortality. Conclusion: Paediatric day-case neurosurgery is feasible in our environment. With careful patient selection and adequate pre-operative preparation, good outcome can be achieved. PMID:27251657

  8. [Teledermatology in Paediatrics. Observations in daily clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Batalla, Ana; Suh-Oh, Hae Jin; Abalde, Teresa; Salgado-Boquete, Laura; de la Torre, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Teledermatology is a technique that is increasingly being developed. There are many studies that assess this discipline in the general population, but few studies analyse the paediatric population exclusively. The aims of this study are to describe the distribution of diseases consulted through teledermatology, the use of this technique to avoid face-to-face consultations, and the agreement between virtual and face-to-face diagnoses, in the paediatric population. The work consisted of an observational and retrospective study of the virtual consultations made between May 2011 and January 2015 through a store-and-forward teledermatology programme, involving patients from 0 to 15 years. We collected demographic data, as well as the diagnoses made by the paediatrician who made the virtual consultation, and by the dermatologists who assessed the virtual and the face-to-face consultations, the indication given by the dermatologist who assessed the virtual consultation (discharge or referral), reason for referral, and diagnostic agreement rate. A total of 183 virtual consultations were analysed. The most frequent diagnoses were inflammatory diseases (39%), benign pigmented lesions (23%), and infectious diseases (20%). Almost half of the virtual consultations (48%) were referred for a face-to-face diagnosis. Diagnostic agreement between the dermatologist who evaluated the virtual consultation and the dermatologist who evaluated the face-to-face consultation was 89%, and 66% between the paediatrician who made the virtual consultation and the dermatologist who assessed it. Virtual consultations have a similar disease distribution to conventional (face-to-face) referrals. Approximately half of the virtual consultations do not require a subsequent face-to-face visit. The agreement rate between the diagnoses given by both dermatologists (virtual and face-to-face diagnoses) is high. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  9. Paediatric emergency department overcrowding and adverse patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Melissa; Meckler, Garth; Doan, Quynh

    2017-10-01

    General emergency department crowding negatively impacts patient care, and increases patient morbidity. This study seeks to determine if markers of paediatric emergency department (PED) flow are independently associated with negative outcomes and increased health care utilization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of PED visits from 2008 to 2012. Data were pulled from an electronic administrative database. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we measured the association between odds of adverse outcomes (hospital/paediatric intensive care unit [PICU] admission, unscheduled return visits and mortality) with markers of PED flow (shift mean length of stay [LOS] and daily rate of patients leaving without being seen [LWBS]). We found an association between the daily LWBS proportion and the odds of being admitted to the hospital (odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 3.7), as well as admission to the PICU (OR: 8.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 71.3). We found a statistically significant increase in the odds of admission if seen during shifts in the third or fourth quartile mean shift LOS. We observed lower odds of returning to the PED with increased daily LWBS proportions (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.7), but found no association between the odds of returning to the PED and mean shift LOS. While we found an association between our pre-defined measures of adverse outcomes and markers of PED flow (or crowding), further studies are needed to determine whether PED overcrowding is the cause or effect of increased hospital and PICU admissions.

  10. Diagnostic reference levels for common paediatric fluoroscopic examinations performed at a dedicated paediatric Australian hospital.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Giovanni; Balman, Debbie; Linke, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRL) of procedures involving ionising radiation are important tools for optimising radiation doses delivered to patients and to identify cases where the levels of dose are unusually high. This is particularly important for paediatric patients undergoing fluoroscopic examinations as these examinations can be associated with a high radiation dose. In this study, a large amount of paediatric fluoroscopic data has been analysed to: establish local DRL, identify the most significant factors determining radiation dose to patients, and modify fluoroscopic techniques to optimise the examination protocols. Paediatric fluoroscopic studies performed at our institution from April 2010 to May 2015 have been retrospectively analysed to determine range, mean, 75th and 95th percentiles of Dose-Area Product (DAP) and fluoroscopic screening time for Micturating Cystourethrography (MCU), Airway, Airway and Swallow, Barium Swallow and Meal, Barium Follow Through and Barium Enema studies. Currently, no Australian paediatric fluoroscopic DRL data are available for comparison and thus our data can only be compared with international published data. No major changes to examination protocols or modification to fluoroscopic techniques were found necessary as our data compared well with the international published values. The dose delivered to patients depend on a number of factors particularly the experience of the operators. However, DRL are also important, as shown in this study, as they enable best practice by providing feedback to the operators on their performance and benchmarking the institution with other institutions. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  11. Medical students' views on selecting paediatrics as a career choice.

    PubMed

    Bindal, Taruna; Wall, David; Goodyear, Helen M

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasing numbers of UK medical students, the number of trainees selecting paediatrics as their specialty choice has decreased. Previous studies show that most students will choose their ultimate career during undergraduate training. We therefore explored the views of students in the final year at Birmingham University about a career in paediatrics. Students completed a 27-item questionnaire during the penultimate week of their paediatric clerkship (PC) and 97% responded (127/131). Prior to the PC, 29% (37/127) of students had considered a career in paediatrics, rising to 50% (63/127) after the PC (p < 0.001). Students felt that paediatricians were enthusiastic and keen on teaching, and the ward working atmosphere was good. However, students perceived paediatrics as a difficult specialty with high competition for training posts. Students felt their paediatric experience was too limited and advice was needed on paediatric careers early in undergraduate training. This study confirmed that focusing on improving the PC is not sufficient if we are to inspire medical students to consider a career in paediatrics. Exposure to the specialty is needed from year 1 of undergraduate training along with career advice to dispel current myths about specialty training. Students would then be able to make more informed career decisions.

  12. [Materials for the paediatric resuscitation trolley or backpack: Expert recommendations].

    PubMed

    López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Rodríguez Núñez, Antonio; Carrillo Álvarez, Ángel; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Martínez Fernández-Llamazares, Cecilia; Calvo Macías, Custodio

    2018-03-01

    Cardio-respiratory arrest (CPA) is infrequent in children, but it can occur in any place and at any time. This fact means that every health care facility must always have the staff and material ready to resuscitate a child. These recommendations are the consensus of experts of the Spanish Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation Group on the material and medication for paediatric and neonatal resuscitation and their distribution and use. CPR trolleys and backpacks must include the essential material to quickly and efficiently perform a paediatric CPR. At least one CPR trolley must be available in every Primary Care facility, Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department, and Pre-hospital Emergency Areas, as well as in paediatric wards, paediatric ambulatory areas, and radiology suites. This trolley must be easily accessible and exclusively include the essential items to perform a CPR and to assist children (from newborns to adolescents) who present with a life-threatening event. Such material must be familiar to all healthcare staff and also include the needed spare parts, as well as enough drug doses. It must also be re-checked periodically. The standardisation and unification of the material and medication of paediatric CPR carts, trolleys, and backpacks, as well as the training of the personnel in their use are an essential part of the paediatric CPR. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of Hall technique preformed metal crowns by specialist paediatric dentists in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, A; McKay, A; Albadri, S

    2018-01-01

    Background Hall technique preformed metal crowns (HTPMCs) have been increasing in use recently, but little is currently known about their use by specialists. Aim To investigate the views and usage of HTPMCs by UK specialist paediatric dentists. Design This was a prospective questionnaire-based study, distributed online to all specialists on the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry email list between July and September 2014. Results Ninety-four questionnaires were completed. The majority of respondents, 65% (61) worked in teaching hospitals, followed by community dental services, 37% (35). Ninety-six percent (89) reported that they used HTPMCs in their practice. Fifty-eight percent (54) used HTPMCs as a treatment option for restoring symptomless carious primary molars, and 15% (14) only when unable to provide conventional restoration. Twenty-three percent (21) used HTPMCs as the treatment of choice. Only 4% (4) of respondents never used them. Sixty percent (53) had been using HTPMCs for over five years. Seventy-six percent (68) would consider placing HTPMCs under inhalation sedation, and 26% (23) under general anaesthesia. Over 90% (85) believed that HTPMCs are suitable for undergraduate teaching, general practice, postgraduate training and specialist practice. Conclusion HTPMCs are widely used among specialist paediatric dentists in the UK. PMID:29326453

  14. The introduction of web-based video-consultation in a paediatric acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Jury, Susan C; Walker, Amanda M; Kornberg, Andrew J

    2013-10-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has been providing web-based video-consultations for a range of paediatric sub-specialties since 2011. There were 346 video-consultations in the first 16 months, from a total of 65 clinicians. Most teleconsultations were with the family at home. Generally, video-consultation was used for follow-up, after at least one face-to-face visit. A total of 132 users (specialist and regional clinicians, patients and families) responded to an online survey. The major reason for both clinicians and families participating in telehealth was the savings in families' travel time. Key factors for the successful implementation of telehealth at the RCH include: a clear organisational vision; simple web-based technology; clinician ownership; sustained support. The RCH experience suggests that telehealth is suitable for both simple and highly complex paediatric patients.

  15. Safe transport from a specialist paediatric intensive care unit to a referral hospital.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Jennifer; Clarke, Dave

    2009-12-01

    There are 23 paediatric intensive care units (PICU) in the UK and 19 of these have a retrieval team responsible for the safe and uneventful transfer of critically ill children from referring hospitals. There are two established PICUs in University Hospitals of Leicester (UHL) NHS Trust that work as a team. In 2001, a transfer service was introduced to support the UHL PICU retrieval service and the referring district general hospitals. At the time of writing this article there was no other PICU in the UK providing a dedicated paediatric clinical transport nurse service, whose main responsibility is the safe transfer of infants and children back to their local hospitals. This article will discuss the development of this service and the benefits to PICU and referral hospitals.

  16. Paediatric inter-hospital transportation: a clinical governance project.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Maria; Lane, Paula

    2017-07-13

    This article discusses a quality improvement project in the context of paediatric inter-hospital transportation. The project was set in a large university teaching hospital in Ireland. Risk assessment on the clinical site revealed a gap in the application of best national and international standards in inter-hospital transportation practice. A project was undertaken to explore current paediatric transport services and respond to a clinical service deficit. Consequently, the proposed quality improvement initiative proposes a universal Paediatric Advanced Life Support Programme (PALS) to upskill and enhance the required clinical standards and competencies of neonatal nurses. This intervention was underpinned by attention to change management principles and organisational culture in health care. As a clinical practice development, it demonstrates how benchmarking against best practice can advance the quality and safety agenda in paediatric practice. Education initiatives are recommended to ensure that clinical standards in paediatric transportation are monitored and reviewed with the potential to improve clinical outcomes.

  17. Diagnostic reference levels of paediatric computed tomography examinations performed at a dedicated Australian paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Giovanni; Brown, Scott; Linke, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) of procedures involving ionizing radiation are important tools to optimizing radiation doses delivered to patients and in identifying cases where the levels of doses are unusually high. This is particularly important for paediatric patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations as these examinations are associated with relatively high-dose. Paediatric CT studies, performed at our institution from January 2010 to March 2014, have been retrospectively analysed to determine the 75th and 95th percentiles of both the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol ) and dose-length product (DLP) for the most commonly performed studies to: establish local diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography examinations performed at our institution, benchmark our DRL with national and international published paediatric values, and determine the compliance of CT radiographer with established protocols. The derived local 75th percentile DRL have been found to be acceptable when compared with those published by the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and two national children's hospitals, and at the international level with the National Reference Doses for the UK. The 95th percentiles of CTDIvol for the various CT examinations have been found to be acceptable values for the CT scanner Dose-Check Notification. Benchmarking CT radiographers shows that they follow the set protocols for the various examinations without significant variations in the machine setting factors. The derivation of DRL has given us the tool to evaluate and improve the performance of our CT service by improved compliance and a reduction in radiation dose to our paediatric patients. We have also been able to benchmark our performance with similar national and international institutions. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. Otolaryngology training during paediatric residency: A survey of paediatricians in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Michael Clifford; Pachev, George

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is a significant overlap between paediatrics and otolaryngology relating to clinical practice of the two specialties. A lack of cross-training has been identified in previous studies, but the specifics have not been established. The present study was directed at paediatricians in Canada, and examined the need for mandatory otolaryngology training during paediatric residency. METHODS Surveys were mailed out to paediatricians in Canada who had completed residency within the past 20 years. Guidelines for the mailing procedure were regulated by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. A cover letter, survey form and return envelope were included in the package. Data were tabulated and described using descriptive statistics. RESULTS Six hundred sixty-six surveys were mailed; the response rate was 48%. Seventy-three per cent of paediatricians indicated that otolaryngology training should be mandatory during paediatric residency. Seventy-nine per cent of general paediatricians and 68% of subspecialists also believed that it should be mandatory training. Seventy per cent of paediatricians indicated that clinical experience was the best format for otolaryngology training, the other options being lectures or rotations. Postgraduate year 2 was the most preferred year for this training. For paediatricians who indicated mandatory training, 45% indicated that it could not replace something else, 38% said that it could replace another experience and the remainder were undecided. The respondents provided helpful commentary. INTERPRETATION The majority of surveyed paediatricians in Canada believe that otolaryngology training should be mandatory during paediatric residency. There was also a general consensus relating to the format (clinical experience) and the duration (two to four weeks) of the training. PMID:19436427

  19. Paediatric stress: from neuroendocrinology to contemporary disorders.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, Stavroula; Nicolaides, Nicolas C; Critselis, Elena; Darviri, Christina; Charmandari, Evangelia; Chrousos, George P

    2017-03-01

    Stress is defined as a state of threatened or perceived as threatened homeostasis. A broad spectrum of extrinsic or intrinsic, real or perceived stressful stimuli, called 'stressors', activates a highly conserved system, the 'stress system', which adjusts homeostasis through central and peripheral neuroendocrine responses. Inadequate, excessive or prolonged adaptive responses to stress may underlie the pathogenesis of several disease states prevalent in modern societies. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors. We conducted a systematic review of original articles and reviews published in MEDLINE from 1975 through June 2016. The search terms were 'childhood stress', 'pediatric stress', 'stress and disorders' and 'stress management'. In this review, we discuss the historical and neuroendocrine aspects of stress, and we present representative examples of paediatric stress system disorders, such as early-life adversity, obesity and bullying. We also discuss the adverse impact of a socio-economic crisis on childhood health. The tremendous progress of epigenetics has enabled us to have a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying paediatric stress-related disorders. The need for early successful stress management techniques to decrease the incidence of paediatric stress-related diseases, as well as to prevent the development of several pathologic conditions in adolescence and adulthood, is imperative. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  20. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    PubMed

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. What kinds of cases do paediatricians refer to clinical ethics? Insights from 184 case referrals at an Australian paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind J; Notini, Lauren

    2016-09-01

    Clinical ethics has been developing in paediatric healthcare for several decades. However, information about how paediatricians use clinical ethics case consultation services is extremely limited. In this project, we analysed a large set of case records from the clinical ethics service of one paediatric hospital in Australia. We applied a paediatric-specific typology to the case referrals, based on the triadic doctor-patient-parent relationship. We reviewed the 184 cases referred to the service in the period 2005-2014, noting features including the type of case, the referring department(s) and the patient's age at referral. The two most common types of referral involved clinician uncertainty about the appropriate care pathway for the child (26% of total referrals) and situations where the child's parents disagreed with the doctors' recommendations for the child's care (22% of total referrals). Referrals came from 28 different departments. Cancer, cardiology/cardiac surgery and general medicine referred the highest numbers of cases. The most common patient age groups were children under 1, and 14-15 years old. For three controversial areas of paediatric healthcare, clinicians had initiated processes of routine review of cases by the clinical ethics service. These insights into the way in which one very active paediatric clinical ethics service is used further our understanding of the work of paediatric clinical ethics, particularly the kinds of ethically challenging cases that paediatricians view as appropriate to refer for clinical ethics support. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. More medicines for children: impact of the EU paediatric regulation.

    PubMed

    Nordenmalm, Sofia; Tomasi, Paolo; Pallidis, Chrissi

    2018-02-28

    This paper focuses on the authorisation of new medicines, new indications and new pharmaceutical forms or strengths for use in children and also on the availability of paediatric information in the product information of centrally authorised medicinal products following the enforcement of the Paediatric Regulation on 26 January 2007. To investigate whether the Paediatric Regulation has led to more medicines available for children in the European Union (EU) and if more information on paediatric use is now available in the product information of medicines authorised via the centralised procedure. We retrospectively analysed the centrally authorised medicinal products in the EU that had an approval for an initial marketing authorisation, a type II variation, or a line extension during the years 2004-2006 and 2012-2014. Medicinal products not subjected to the obligations of the Paediatric Regulation were excluded. In 2004-2006, 20 new medicines and 10 new indications were centrally authorised for paediatric use compared with 26 new medicines and 37 new indications in 2012-2014. The number of medicines with a new pharmaceutical form or strength for use in children was eight in 2004-2006 and seven in 2012-2014. There was a huge increase in the number of products with changes of paediatric relevance in the summary of product characteristics in 2012-2014 compared with 2004-2006. The entry into force of the Paediatric Regulation has had a positive impact on paediatric drug development with more medicines available for children in the EU and substantially more information available for clinicians on paediatric use in the product information. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. NSAIDs in paediatrics: caution with varicella!

    PubMed

    Durand, L; Sachs, P; Lemaitre, C; Lorrot, M; Bassehila, J; Bourdon, O; Prot-Labarthe, S

    2015-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory drugs have been suspected on several occasions to have promoted development of bacterial infection among varicella patients. Some countries have not implemented childhood varicella vaccination. Three cases in our hospital suggested the predisposing role of NSAIDs in varicella patient deterioration. Open access to these drugs widely increases their use and patient information should be continually provided in the medical offices and at dispensing pharmacy counters. Taking account of the benefit/risk balance and applying the simple precautionary principle, it would be appropriate to be cautious about the use of NSAIDs in the paediatric population.

  4. Paediatric travel medicine: vaccines and medications

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The paediatric aspects of travel medicine can be complex, and individual advice is often required. Nonetheless, children are much more likely to acquire common infections than exotic tropical diseases whilst travelling. Important exceptions are malaria and tuberculosis, which are more frequent and severe in children. Overall, travellers' diarrhoea is the most common illness affecting travellers. This review discusses vaccines and medications that may be indicated for children who are travelling overseas. It focuses on immunizations that are given as part of the routine schedule, as well as those that are more specific to travel. Malaria and travellers' diarrhoea are also discussed. PMID:23163285

  5. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  6. MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Condò, R; Perugia, C; Maturo, P; Docimo, R

    2012-04-01

    The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. AIM.: Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.: From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. CONCLUSIONS.: MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and

  7. The neurophysiology of paediatric movement disorders.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Verity M

    2017-12-01

    To demonstrate how neurophysiological tools have advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of paediatric movement disorders, and of neuroplasticity in the developing brain. Delineation of corticospinal tract connectivity using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is being investigated as a potential biomarker for response to therapy. TMS measures of cortical excitability and neuroplasticity are also being used to investigate the effects of therapy, demonstrating neuroplastic changes that relate to functional improvements. Analyses of evoked potentials and event-related changes in the electroencephalogaphy spectral activity provide growing evidence for the important role of aberrant sensory processing in the pathophysiology of many different movement disorders. Neurophysiological findings demonstrate that children with clinically similar phenotypes may have differing underlying pathophysiology, which in turn may explain differential response to therapy. Neurophysiological parameters can act as biomarkers, providing a means to stratify individuals, and are well suited to provide biofeedback. They therefore have enormous potential to facilitate improvements to therapy. Although currently a small field, the role of neurophysiology in paediatric movement disorders is poised to expand, both fuelled by and contributing to the rapidly growing fields of neuro-rehabilitation and neuromodulation and the move towards a more individualized therapeutic approach.

  8. [Vasopressors and inotropes: use in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    García-Canales, Adrián; Peña-Juárez, Rocío Alejandra; Sandoval-Franco, Luz de María

    The cardiovascular system is a dynamic system, which is required to ensure adequate delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to the tissues that are necessary for cell metabolism. It also synthesises and modifies the vasoactive components that regulate vascular tone and myocardial function. These vasoactive components have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the management of paediatric patients in a critical condition with heart failure and shock. However, their use and abuse brings harmful effects, increases mortality, and is associated with arrhythmias. An increase in myocardial oxygen consumption favours the presence of ischaemia, therefore it is necessary to know the mechanism of action and indications of these drugs to minimise their harmful effects. The purpose of this review is to describe the pharmacology and clinical applications of inotropic and vasopressor agents in the paediatric patient in acritical condition. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Enteral Tube Feeding in Paediatric Mitochondrial Diseases.

    PubMed

    Choi, Han Som; Lee, Young-Mock

    2017-12-04

    We investigated the effects of enteral tube feeding in Korean children with mitochondrial diseases. We performed a retrospective chart review of 68 paediatric patients with mitochondrial diseases on enteral tube feeding at a tertiary referral centre. The outcome of enteral nutrition was evaluated by decrease in gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, weight gain, and increase in developmental quotient (DQ) among patients with data available. Among 68 patients, 56 (82%) were on gastrostomy and 12 (18%) were on prolonged nasogastric (NG) tube feeding. Decrease of GI symptoms was present in 37 of 48 patients (77%). Weight gain was present in 18 of 64 patients (28%) and was more prominent in the gastrostomy group (n = 17/54, 32%). Increase in DQ was similar between the NG tube and gastrostomy groups (total n = 10/48, 21%). Complications occurred in 42% (n = 5/12) of the NG tube group and 64% (n = 36/56) of the gastrostomy group. They varied in range, from mild to severe. Most complications were minor; there were 5 cases (9%) requiring gastrostomy removal or additional procedure and 2 cases (4%) of gastrostomy-related morbidity. Our results show that in paediatric patients with mitochondrial diseases, enteral tube feeding could help enhance quality of life by relieving GI symptoms, ameliorate growth failure and enhance development.

  10. Paediatric nurses' identification of violence against children.

    PubMed

    Pabiś, Małgorzata; Wrońska, Irena; Slusarska, Barbara; Cuber, Tomasz

    2011-02-01

    This paper is a report of an evaluation of paediatric nurses' assessment and diagnostic skills and interventions used for child maltreatment. The use of violence against children occurs in all environments worldwide. Therefore, broader theoretical and practical knowledge related to this issue is needed in health care to facilitate more accurate identification of child maltreatment in order to instigate implementation of appropriate care for these children. The study was based on cross-sectional data obtained with a convenience sample of 160 Registered Nurses employed at paediatric wards at two large cities in Poland (response rate 80%). Data collection took place between December 2005 and March 2006. The research tool was a questionnaire form designed on the basis of international literature concerning battered child syndrome. Battered child syndrome seems to be a relatively common phenomenon, as a great majority of participants (86·25%) had encountered it in their practice. The form of child maltreatment which was most often mentioned (by 30·00% of participants) was neglect. Almost three-quarters of the nurses (61·25%; n = 98) said that they had been involved in providing care for a maltreated child. Nurses should work with maltreated children on an individualized basis, combined with interdisciplinary cooperation with specialists from related disciplines concerned with the issue. There appears to be a need for specialized training for nurses to increase their competence in working with maltreated children and their families. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Stephen P, E-mail: stephen.knight@health.qld.gov.au

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-secondsmore » (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.« less

  12. Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB. PMID:22330186

  13. Use of ketamine sedation for the management of displaced paediatric forearm fractures.

    PubMed

    Wiik, Anatole Vilhelm; Patel, Poonam; Bovis, Joanna; Cowper, Adele; Pastides, Philip Socrates; Hulme, Alison; Evans, Stuart; Stewart, Charles

    2018-03-18

    To determine if ketamine sedation is a safe and cost effective way of treating displaced paediatric radial and ulna fractures in the emergency department. Following an agreed interdepartmental protocol, fractures of the radius and ulna (moderately to severely displaced) in children between the age of 2 and 16 years old, presenting within a specified 4 mo period, were manipulated in our paediatric emergency department. Verbal and written consent was obtained prior to procedural sedation to ensure parents were informed and satisfied to have ketamine. A single attempt at manipulation was performed. Pre and post manipulation radiographs were requested and assessed to ensure adequacy of reduction. Parental satisfaction surveys were collected after the procedure to assess the perceived quality of treatment. After closed reduction and cast immobilisation, patients were then followed-up in the paediatric outpatient fracture clinic and functional outcomes measured prospectively. A cost analysis compared to more formal manipulation under a general anaesthetic was also undertaken. During the 4 mo period of study, 10 closed, moderate to severely displaced fractures were identified and treated in the paediatric emergency department using our ketamine sedation protocol. These included fractures of the growth plate (3), fractures of both radius and ulna (6) and a single isolated proximal radius fracture. The mean time from administration of ketamine until completion of the moulded plaster was 20 min. The mean time interval from sedation to full recovery was 74 min. We had no cases of unacceptable fracture reduction and no patients required any further manipulation, either in fracture clinic or under a more formal general anaesthetic. There were no serious adverse events in relation to the use of ketamine. Parents, patients and clinicians reported extremely favourable outcomes using this technique. Furthermore, compared to using a manipulation under general anaesthesia, each case

  14. Use of ketamine sedation for the management of displaced paediatric forearm fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wiik, Anatole Vilhelm; Patel, Poonam; Bovis, Joanna; Cowper, Adele; Pastides, Philip Socrates; Hulme, Alison; Evans, Stuart; Stewart, Charles

    2018-01-01

    AIM To determine if ketamine sedation is a safe and cost effective way of treating displaced paediatric radial and ulna fractures in the emergency department. METHODS Following an agreed interdepartmental protocol, fractures of the radius and ulna (moderately to severely displaced) in children between the age of 2 and 16 years old, presenting within a specified 4 mo period, were manipulated in our paediatric emergency department. Verbal and written consent was obtained prior to procedural sedation to ensure parents were informed and satisfied to have ketamine. A single attempt at manipulation was performed. Pre and post manipulation radiographs were requested and assessed to ensure adequacy of reduction. Parental satisfaction surveys were collected after the procedure to assess the perceived quality of treatment. After closed reduction and cast immobilisation, patients were then followed-up in the paediatric outpatient fracture clinic and functional outcomes measured prospectively. A cost analysis compared to more formal manipulation under a general anaesthetic was also undertaken. RESULTS During the 4 mo period of study, 10 closed, moderate to severely displaced fractures were identified and treated in the paediatric emergency department using our ketamine sedation protocol. These included fractures of the growth plate (3), fractures of both radius and ulna (6) and a single isolated proximal radius fracture. The mean time from administration of ketamine until completion of the moulded plaster was 20 min. The mean time interval from sedation to full recovery was 74 min. We had no cases of unacceptable fracture reduction and no patients required any further manipulation, either in fracture clinic or under a more formal general anaesthetic. There were no serious adverse events in relation to the use of ketamine. Parents, patients and clinicians reported extremely favourable outcomes using this technique. Furthermore, compared to using a manipulation under general

  15. Comparison of the quality of night paediatric urgent care in rural and urban areas of Lublin Province, eastern Poland - Appraisals by parents of children requiring medical attention.

    PubMed

    Kołłątaj, Barbara; Kołłątaj, Witold; Wrzołek, Katarzyna; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Klatka, Maria

    2017-03-31

     Introduction. The quality of primary medical care for children in Poland is unsatisfactory. In the ranking known as 'the European Health Consumer Index', Poland (taking the patient point of view on healthcare quality) is classified on the 27th position out of the 33 possible. The unsolved problems concern inter alia the quality and availability of night paediatric urgent care. The aim was assessing the quality as well as the level of satisfaction with the night paediatric urgent care in the Lublin Province of eastern Poland. The materials for this study consisted of 540 parents of children aged 6-16 years benefiting from night paediatric urgent medical assistance in Lublin Province. The survey was conducted using the Original Survey Questionnaire. Inhabitants of the Lublin Province (regardless of place of residence) generally assessed the quality and accessibility of night paediatric urgent care facilities as only satisfactory. Inhabitants living in rural areas have worse access to night paediatric urgent care facilities because of having to travel greater distances, and receive less comprehensive medical assistance than inhabitants living in more urbanized areas, and they are more often referred to hospital emergency departments. During the past five years, both the availability and quality of night paediatric urgent care did not change significantly. Inhabitants of the Lublin Province (regardless of place of residence) generally assessed the quality as well as accessibility of night paediatric urgent care facilities as only satisfactory. Rural residents have more reasons for dissatisfaction than urban dwellers. Both the quality and availability of such medical care needs to be improved.

  16. Physical activity for paediatric rheumatic diseases: standing up against old paradigms.

    PubMed

    Gualano, Bruno; Bonfa, Eloisa; Pereira, Rosa M R; Silva, Clovis A

    2017-05-23

    Over the past 50 years it has become clear that physical inactivity is associated with chronic disease risk. For several rheumatic diseases, bed rest was traditionally advocated as the best treatment, but several levels of evidence support the imminent paradigm shift from the prescription of bed rest to physical activity in individuals with paediatric rheumatic diseases, in particular juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile fibromyalgia, and juvenile dermatomyositis. Increasing levels of physical activity can alleviate several symptoms experienced by patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases, such as low aerobic fitness, pain, fatigue, muscle weakness and poor health-related quality of life. Moreover, the propensity of patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases to be hypoactive - often due to social self-isolation, overprotection, and fear and/or ignorance on the part of parents, teachers and health practitioners - can be detrimental to general disease symptoms and function. In support of this rationale, a growing number of studies have demonstrated that the systemic benefits of exercise training clearly outweigh the risks in these diseases. In this sense, health professionals are advised to assess, track and fight against physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour on a routine basis, as they are invaluable health risk parameters in rheumatology.

  17. Psychological consultation in a paediatric setting: A qualitative analysis of staff experiences of a psychosocial forum.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jessica L; Benson, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The use of psychosocial forums in paediatric settings has been recommended as a means of providing psychological consultancy. However, no research has explored staff perceptions of these meetings or whether they have a positive impact on patient care. In this study, six members of a paediatric gastroenterology multidisciplinary team were interviewed about their experience of a weekly psychosocial forum using a qualitative approach. The data revealed that staff regarded the forum as an essential and useful part of the service. Staff reported a number of benefits to their clinical work as a result of attending the forum, in addition to the general benefits of having a clinical psychologist available to see patients. However, staff also made recommendations for improving the forum. The results suggest that psychosocial forums may provide an efficient means of delivering specialist psychological consultation for patients with psychological difficulties, in line with Department of Health recommendations for paediatric services. Future research should aim to investigate the effectiveness of psychosocial forums in different settings and to establish the cost-effectiveness of these meetings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Population-based research on the relationship between summer weather and paediatric forearm shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Pokka, Tytti; Sirniö, Kai; Ruuhela, Reija; Serlo, Willy

    2013-11-01

    Paediatric forearm shaft fractures show an increasing incidence. The predictive factors of these fractures are not fully understood. Summer weather is suggested to have an effect on the risk of children's fractures. We studied the effect of rainfall, temperature and wind on paediatric forearm shaft fractures in summer. All 148 children's forearm shaft fractures in the geographic catchment district during the summer months in 1997-2009 were included. There were 1989 days in the study period. Daily meteorological readings captured the maximum daytime temperature, precipitation and wind speed. The direct daily association between fractures (yes/no) and different weather conditions was analysed in this population-based study. The risk of forearm shaft fracture was 50% higher on dry days compared to rainy days (P=0.038). Temperature and wind speed had no statistically significant effect on fractures. The results give support for the presumption by the general public and professionals that summer weather affects children's fractures. A 1.5-fold increase in the risk is especially significant as the forearm shaft fractures are challenging to manage and prone to complications. Paediatric trauma units should prepare themselves for these severe injuries on dry summer days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome at age 16 using the International Diabetes Federation paediatric definition.

    PubMed

    Pirkola, J; Tammelin, T; Bloigu, A; Pouta, A; Laitinen, J; Ruokonen, A; Tapanainen, P; Järvelin, M-R; Vääräsmäki, M

    2008-11-01

    We estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents, using the new International Diabetes Federation (IDF) paediatric definition and compared this with prevalence estimated using the IDF adult definition and five other previously published definitions. Cross-sectional survey in the prospective general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) at age 16 years. Birth cohort in Finland. 5665 adolescents (2862 males and 2803 females) clinically examined in 2001-2002. The prevalence of MS using different definitions. The overall prevalence of MS using the IDF paediatric definition was 2.4% (95% CI 2.0 to 2.8%) at the age of 16 years. Using the IDF adult definition the overall prevalence was lower, 1.7% (CI 1.3 to 2.0%, European cut-offs for waist circumference) and 1.0% (CI 0.7 to 1.3%, North American cut-offs). In 16-year-old adolescents, the paediatric IDF definition rendered a higher prevalence estimate than the adult definition.

  20. Cross-cultural care encounters in paediatric care: minority ethnic parents' experiences.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Azar Gashasb; Jirwe, Maria; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2017-03-01

    Because of worldwide migration, the healthcare staff in general as well as in paedi"atric care specifically is challenged increasingly by people from various ethnic backgrounds. The challenge is related to providing culturally competent care and effectively communicating with people from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds who have different health beliefs, practices, values and languages. This also applies to the Swedish society and to Swedish paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to describe the expectations and experiences of cross-cultural care encounters among minority ethnic parents in Swedish paediatric care. A qualitative design was used in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews between October 2011 and March 2012. The sample consisted of 12 parents of minority ethnic backgrounds who had their child in a ward at a children's hospital in the Stockholm County Council. The interviews were analysed using manifest content analysis. The Regional Ethical Review Committee approved the study (Ref: Nr: 2011/927-31/5). The analysis of the interviews led to three categories: fundamentals in nursing, cultural sensitivity and understanding, and influencing conditions. Generic knowledge and skills of nurses outweighed the need for the nurses to have culture-specific knowledge of their patients or relatives in cross-cultural care encounters. Language skills and the availability of bilingual nurses in a multi-ethnic society can facilitate communication and increase parents' satisfaction in cross-cultural care encounters. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Ethical dimensions of paediatric nursing: A rapid evidence assessment.

    PubMed

    Bagnasco, Annamaria; Cadorin, Lucia; Barisone, Michela; Bressan, Valentina; Iemmi, Marina; Prandi, Marzia; Timmins, Fiona; Watson, Roger; Sasso, Loredana

    2018-02-01

    Paediatric nurses often face complex situations requiring decisions that sometimes clash with their own values and beliefs, or with the needs of the children they care for and their families. Paediatric nurses often use new technology that changes the way they provide care, but also reduces their direct interaction with the child. This may generate ethical issues, which nurses should be able to address in the full respect of the child. Research question and objectives: The purpose of this review is to describe the main ethical dimensions of paediatric nursing. Our research question was, 'What are the most common ethical dimensions and competences related to paediatric nursing?' A rapid evidence assessment. According to the principles of the rapid evidence assessment, we searched the PubMed, SCOPUS and CINAHL databases for papers published between January 2001 and March 2015. These papers were then independently read by two researchers and analysed according to the inclusion criteria. Ethical considerations: Since this was a rapid evidence assessment, no approval from the ethics committee was required. Ten papers met our inclusion criteria. Ethical issues in paediatric nursing were grouped into three areas: (a) ethical issues in paediatric care, (b) social responsibility and (c) decision-making process. Few studies investigate the ethical dimensions and aspects of paediatric nursing, and they are mainly qualitative studies conducted in critical care settings based on nurses' perceptions and experiences. Paediatric nurses require specific educational interventions to help them resolve ethical issues, contribute to the decision-making process and fulfil their role as advocates of a vulnerable population (i.e. sick children and their families). Further research is needed to investigate how paediatric nurses can improve the involvement of children and their families in decision-making processes related to their care plan.

  2. Therapy behaviours in paediatric rehabilitation: essential attributes for intervention with children with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Di Rezze, Briano; Law, Mary; Eva, Kevin; Pollock, Nancy; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric rehabilitation involves the therapist delivering intervention-specific and non-specific behaviours. Non-specific (or general therapy) characteristics are a key part of family-centred service (FCS); however, little research identifies observable behaviours to examine intervention fidelity to FCS principles and their impact on outcomes. To generate a list of observable general therapy attributes essential to FCS interventions for children with physical disabilities. Attributes of general therapy behaviours were derived based on a Delphi Process with multidisciplinary researchers. A separate method identified attributes through the content analysis of semi-structured interviews with occupational therapists and physiotherapists. A triangulation procedure identified general therapy behaviours for FCS. Eight researchers participated in the Delphi Process. Seventeen therapists participated in semi-structured interviews. The Delphi Process generated 35 behavioural attributes divided into three categories: therapist behaviours (21), client behaviours (9) and client-therapist behaviours (5). Of the 19 attributes generated from the therapist interviews, 17 mapped onto those identified in the Delphi Process. General therapy attributes addressed a range of behaviours including characteristics of the intervention procedure and the therapeutic process. This work provides an improved understanding of how practitioners conceive essential and observable behaviours of FCS that will enable future researchers to identify their presence within an intervention session. This article broadens the focus of fidelity measurement of paediatric rehabilitation to include observable behaviours relevant to family-centred service. Attributes of the therapist's practice behaviour in family-centred service were identified. Attributes of paediatric rehabilitation involving the child's response to intervention, parent participation and child and therapist interaction were generated.

  3. Integration of high-fidelity simulator in third-year paediatrics clerkship.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Nerian; Pedrogo, Yasmin; Bonet, Nydia

    2011-06-01

    Simulation in medicine is a useful tool for assessing clinical competencies. The liaison committee on medical education expects students to have simulation experiences in the curriculum. The integration of simulators has been encouraged for clinical clerkships. The use of the human simulator in a safe environment should result in enhanced teamworking, communication and critical thinking skills. During the academic year 2007-08, a formative activity using the simulator was implemented in the paediatrics clerkship. The objectives included exposing students to an emergent general paediatric medical scenario using the human simulator. It was imperative that students would adequately go through the critical thinking process. The paediatrics clerkship has incorporated a formative activity using the high-fidelity simulator. A faculty member debriefed the students, and feedback was offered. A total of 124 students participated in the activity. Ninety-eight percent agreed that the use of the simulator in a scenario such as the one presented allowed for a better understanding of the clinical issues studied in the clerkship. More than 85 percent of the students recommended the integration of the simulator in other major clinical clerkships. Performance in the objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) at the end of the clerkship has improved after the implementation of this formative activity. The use of the high-fidelity simulator during the paediatrics clerkship has been identified as an excellent teaching tool. This formative activity has been deemed successful by the students, who feel that it serves as an extra tool to strengthen learned concepts and skills. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  4. Conflict in a paediatric hospital: a prospective mixed-method study.

    PubMed

    Forbat, Liz; Sayer, Charlotte; McNamee, Phillip; Menson, Esse; Barclay, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Conflict in healthcare is a well-recognised but under-examined phenomenon. Little is known about the prevalence and causes of conflict across paediatric specialties. To report the frequency and characteristics of conflict in a paediatric hospital. An explanatory sequential mixed-method approach was adopted. A bespoke questionnaire recorded frequency, severity, cause and staff involved in conflict prospectively. Data were recorded for the same two 12-week periods in 2013 and 2014, in one UK children's teaching hospital. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and correlation, the findings of which informed the construction of a semistructured interview schedule. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six key informant healthcare professionals to aid data interpretation; interviews were analysed thematically. 136 individual episodes of conflict were reported. The three most common causes were 'communication breakdown', 'disagreements about treatment' and 'unrealistic expectations'. Over 448 h of healthcare professional time was taken up by these conflicts; most often staff nurses, consultants, doctors in training and matrons. The mean severity rating was 4.9 out of 10. Qualitative interviews revealed consensus regarding whether conflicts were ranked as low, medium or high severity, and explanations regarding why neurology recorded the highest number of conflicts in the observed period. Conflict is prevalent across paediatric specialties, and particularly in neurology, general paediatrics and neonatology. Considerable staff time is taken in managing conflict, indicating a need to focus resources on supporting staff to resolve conflict, notably managing communication breakdown. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Current practice patterns of supraglottic airway device usage in paediatric patients amongst anaesthesiologists: A nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ruchi A; Parikh, Devangi A; Malde, Anila D; Balasubramanium, Bhuvneshwari

    2018-04-01

    Supraglottic airway devices (SGADs) are increasingly being used for airway management in paediatric patients undergoing general anaesthesia. This survey was designed to assess the nationwide practice patterns of SGAD usage in paediatric patients. A questionnaire of 28 questions was circulated amongst 16,532 members of the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists through online survey engine Google Forms ® and served manually to 500 delegates attending the Asian Society of Paediatric Anaesthesiologists conference 2017. Percentage, mean and standard deviation were calculated using Microsoft Excel 2016 (Redmond, WA, USA). Four hundred and five (2.3%) valid responses were obtained. The most commonly used device was i-gel © (60.74%). Three hundred and four (75.06%) respondents had access to second-generation SGADs. Second-generation devices (60.74%) were more commonly used than first-generation devices (39.26%). Anaesthesiologists utilised SGADs in various challenging scenarios such as in the difficult airway (53.33%), remote locations (55.47%), ophthalmologic (38.77%) and long-duration surgeries (17.53%). Sixty per cent respondents did not use SGADs in laparoscopic surgery. Disposable SGADs were reused by 77.28% respondents. Oropharyngeal seal and intracuff pressures were not measured by 86.91% and 56.92% respondents, respectively. Difficulty in size selection (84.19%), securing position (82.22%) and maintaining unobstructed ventilation (78.76%) were common problems encountered while using SGADs. Although there is a widespread use of second-generation SGADs in Indian paediatric anaesthesia, safe practices such as using capnography, measurement of oropharyngeal seal pressure, cuff pressure and appropriate disinfection are lacking.

  6. Paediatric International Nursing Study: using person-centred key performance indicators to benchmark children's services.

    PubMed

    McCance, Tanya; Wilson, Val; Kornman, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the Paediatric International Nursing Study was to explore the utility of key performance indicators in developing person-centred practice across a range of services provided to sick children. The objective addressed in this paper was evaluating the use of these indicators to benchmark services internationally. This study builds on primary research, which produced indicators that were considered novel both in terms of their positive orientation and use in generating data that privileges the patient voice. This study extends this research through wider testing on an international platform within paediatrics. The overall methodological approach was a realistic evaluation used to evaluate the implementation of the key performance indicators, which combined an integrated development and evaluation methodology. The study involved children's wards/hospitals in Australia (six sites across three states) and Europe (seven sites across four countries). Qualitative and quantitative methods were used during the implementation process, however, this paper reports the quantitative data only, which used survey, observations and documentary review. The findings demonstrate the quality of care being delivered to children and their families across different international sites. The benchmarking does, however, highlight some differences between paediatric and general hospitals, and between the different key performance indicators across all the sites. The findings support the use of the key performance indicators as a novel method to benchmark services internationally. Whilst the data collected across 20 paediatric sites suggest services are more similar than different, benchmarking illuminates variations that encourage a critical dialogue about what works and why. The transferability of the key performance indicators and measurement framework across different settings has significant implications for practice. The findings offer an approach to benchmarking and celebrating

  7. When to start paediatric testing of the adult HIV cure research agenda?

    PubMed

    Shah, Seema K

    2017-02-01

    Ethical guidelines recommend that experimental interventions should be tested in adults first before they are tested and approved in children. Some challenge this paradigm, however, and recommend initiating paediatric testing after preliminary safety testing in adults in certain cases. For instance, commentators have argued for accelerated testing of HIV vaccines in children. Additionally, HIV cure research on the use of very early therapy (VET) in infants, prompted in part by the Mississippi baby case, is one example of a strategy that is currently being tested in infants before it has been well tested in adults. Because infants' immune systems are still developing, the timing of HIV transmission is easier to identify in infants than in adults, and infants who receive VET might never develop the viral reservoirs that make HIV so difficult to eradicate, infants may be uniquely situated to achieve HIV cure or sustained viral remission. Several commentators have now argued for earlier initiation of HIV cure interventions other than (or in addition to) VET in children. HIV cure research is therefore a good case for re-examining the important question of when to initiate paediatric research. I will argue that, despite the potential for HIV cure research to benefit children and the scientific value of involving children in this research, the HIV cure agenda should not accelerate the involvement of children for the following reasons: HIV cure research is highly speculative, risky, aimed at combination approaches and does not compare favourably with the available alternatives. I conclude by drawing general implications for the initiation of paediatric testing, including that interventions that have to be used in combination with others and cures for chronic diseases may not be valuable enough to justify early paediatric testing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Conflict in a paediatric hospital: a prospective mixed-method study

    PubMed Central

    Forbat, Liz; Sayer, Charlotte; McNamee, Phillip; Menson, Esse; Barclay, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Conflict in healthcare is a well-recognised but under-examined phenomenon. Little is known about the prevalence and causes of conflict across paediatric specialties. Objective To report the frequency and characteristics of conflict in a paediatric hospital. Design and setting An explanatory sequential mixed-method approach was adopted. A bespoke questionnaire recorded frequency, severity, cause and staff involved in conflict prospectively. Data were recorded for the same two 12-week periods in 2013 and 2014, in one UK children's teaching hospital. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and correlation, the findings of which informed the construction of a semistructured interview schedule. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six key informant healthcare professionals to aid data interpretation; interviews were analysed thematically. Results 136 individual episodes of conflict were reported. The three most common causes were ‘communication breakdown’, ‘disagreements about treatment’ and ‘unrealistic expectations’. Over 448 h of healthcare professional time was taken up by these conflicts; most often staff nurses, consultants, doctors in training and matrons. The mean severity rating was 4.9 out of 10. Qualitative interviews revealed consensus regarding whether conflicts were ranked as low, medium or high severity, and explanations regarding why neurology recorded the highest number of conflicts in the observed period. Conclusions Conflict is prevalent across paediatric specialties, and particularly in neurology, general paediatrics and neonatology. Considerable staff time is taken in managing conflict, indicating a need to focus resources on supporting staff to resolve conflict, notably managing communication breakdown. PMID:26553912

  9. Development and implementation of a multi-centre information system for paediatric and infant critical care.

    PubMed

    Maybloom, Bruce; Champion, Zahra

    2003-12-01

    With no UK collective information system, a need existed to establish an integrated information system for public and private sector hospitals providing paediatric and infant critical care services. A lack of information in the past made it difficult for those procuring, providing and monitoring services to make informed, evidence-based decisions using reliable integrated data. To develop and implement a collective multi-purpose information system for paediatric and infant critical care that was easily adaptable to any UK infant or paediatric critical care setting. Information outputs had to fulfil policy requirements and meet the needs of stakeholders. Two minimum datasets, corresponding data definitions, survey forms and a user database were developed through a process of consultation by utilising an information partnership. Design, content, development and implementation issues were identified, discussed and resolved through a co-ordinated collaborative process. Data collection was implemented in all London and Brighton National Health Service (NHS) general and cardio-thoracic paediatric intensive care (PIC) units, several private PIC units and one NHS tertiary referral neonatal unit (NNU) 24 months from project start. The development of universal integrated information systems for defined settings of care is achievable within reasonable timeframes; however, successful development and implementation requires working within an information partnership to maximise co-ordination, co-operation and collaboration. Those collecting and using data must be identified and involved in all aspects of development from project start. Financial and manpower resources must be well planned. Datasets should be as small as possible in order to make the collection of complete and valid data realistically achievable. When considering service-based information needs, considerable thought should be given to a multi-purpose; multi-use approach based on the most refined minimum dataset

  10. [Quality of initial trauma care in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Ibáñez Pradas, Vicente; Pérez Montejano, Rut

    2017-12-01

    Trauma care in Spain is not provided in specific centres, which means that health professionals have limited contact to trauma patients. After the setting up of a training program in paediatric trauma, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the initial care provided to these patients before they were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a third level hospital (trauma centre), as an indirect measurement of the increase in the number of health professionals trained in trauma. Two cohorts of PICU admissions were reviewed, the first one during the four years immediately before the training courses started (Group 1, period 2001-2004), and the second one during the 4 years (Group 2, period 2012-2015) after nearly 500 professionals were trained. A record was made of the injury mechanism, attending professional, Glasgow coma score (GCS), and paediatric trauma score (PTS). Initial care quality was assessed using five indicators: use of cervical collar, vascular access, orotracheal intubation if GCS ≤ 8, gastric decompression if PTS≤8, and number of actions carried out from the initial four recommended (neck control, provide oxygen, get vascular access, provide IV fluids). Compliance was compared between the 2 periods. A P<.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 218 patient records were analysed, 105 in Group 1, and 113 in Group 2. The groups showed differences both in injury mechanism and in initial care team. A shift in injury mechanism pattern was observed, with a decrease in car accidents (28% vs 6%; P<.0001). Patients attended to in low complexity hospitals increased from 29.4% to 51.9% (P=.008), and their severity decreased when assessed using the GCS ≤ 8 (29.8% vs 13.5%; P=.004), or PTS≤8 (48.5% vs 29.7%; P=.005). As regards quality indicators, only the use of neck collar improved its compliance (17.3% to 32.7%; P=.01). Patients who received no action in the initial care remained unchanged (19% vs 11%%; P=.15

  11. pGALS – paediatric Gait Arms Legs and Spine: a simple examination of the musculoskeletal system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We describe pGALS (paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine) – a simple quick musculoskeletal assessment to distinguish abnormal from normal joints in children and young people. The use of pGALS is aimed at the non-specialist in paediatric musculoskeletal medicine as a basic clinical skill to be used in conjunction with essential knowledge about red flags, normal development and awareness of patterns of musculoskeletal pathologies. pGALS has been validated in school-aged children and also in the context of acute general paediatrics to detect abnormal joints. We propose that pGALS is an important part of basic clinical skills to be acquired by all doctors who may be involved in the care of children. The learning of pGALS along with basic knowledge is a useful way to increase awareness of joint disease, facilitate early recognition of joint problems and prompt referral to specialist teams to optimise clinical outcomes. We have compiled this article as a resource that can be used by the paediatric rheumatology community to facilitate teaching. PMID:24219838

  12. Development of a measure of caregiver burden in paediatric chronic kidney disease: The Paediatric Renal Caregiver Burden Scale.

    PubMed

    Parham, Rhian; Jacyna, Nicola; Hothi, Daljit; Marks, Stephen D; Holttum, Sue; Camic, Paul

    2016-02-01

    To inform the development of a measure of caregiver burden for carers of children with chronic kidney disease, interviews were conducted with 16 caregivers and 10 renal healthcare professionals. A pool of 97 items generated from interviews was reduced to 60 items following review. A piloting exercise provided evidence for the usability, readability and relevance of items and informed further adaptations resulting in the 51-item Paediatric Renal Caregiver Burden Scale. Further to assessment of its psychometric properties, it is hoped that that the Paediatric Renal Caregiver Burden Scale will serve as a useful measure of caregiver burden in paediatric chronic kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Television watching at Greek paediatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Matziou, Vasiliki; Zachos, Ioannis; Kletsiou, Heleni; Triantafyllidou, Antigoni; Tsoumakas, Constantinos

    2006-11-01

    The study investigated the television watching habits of children in hospital compared with those at home and the factors which influence them. A random sample of 546 school aged children hospitalized in paediatric hospitals (2) in Athens (Greece) was studied. Children's television watching time in the hospital was found to be higher compared to that at home. The characteristics which influence this result are the duration of hospitalization, the television rent, who does the programme selection and the frequency of visits (p<0.001 for all tests). Children especially in hospitals should watch television accompanied by their parents/caregivers who should help them to decode the received messages, check the quality of the programmes and intervene in the time spent watching television.

  14. Modified supramid brow suspension in paediatric ptosis.

    PubMed

    Butt, Darakhshanda Khurram; Jayaprakash Patil, A; Abou-Rayyah, Yassir M S

    2014-08-01

    To understand the safety and complication profile of the modified supramid brow suspension surgery in the paediatric ptosis. Retrospective interventional case series. Review of medical notes of 32 patients who underwent supramid brow suspension surgery of the upper lid. Surgery was performed by a single surgeon at Great Ormond Street Hospital, London during 2007-2012. Complication rates were analysed. Forty-six eyes of 32 patients underwent upper eye lid brow suspension surgery; 18 cases were unilateral and 14 bilateral. Mean follow-up period is 28 months after the surgery. Post-operative granulomatous reaction was noted in 6 eyes (13%) and prolonged exposure keratopathy in 2 eyes (4.3%). There were no cases of suture infection or exposure. No recurrence of ptosis was observed in any of the operated cases. Pupillary axis clearance was achieved in all eyes. Modified brow suspension surgery using supramid for upper eyelid ptosis is a safe and clinically useful procedure with low complication rate.

  15. Salbutamol in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies.

    PubMed

    Andrzejowski, Paul; Carroll, Will

    2016-08-01

    Salbutamol has become a key drug in respiratory medicine since it was first developed by Sir David Jack et al in 1968, 5000 years after the β agonist ephedrine was first used in its raw form, as the Ma Huang herb in Chinese medicine to treat asthma. It is one of the most commonly encountered medicines in paediatric practice and the authors have found that an understanding of its pharmacology in clinical practice is incredibly helpful. In this article, we discuss its pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, practical prescribing points and some unresolved issues surrounding its use, which should serve to provide an essential working knowledge for the busy paediatrician. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Adenoid bacterial colonization in a paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Subtil, João; Rodrigues, João Carlos; Reis, Lúcia; Freitas, Luís; Filipe, Joana; Santos, Alberto; Macor, Carlos; Duarte, Aida; Jordao, Luisa

    2017-04-01

    Adenoids play a key role in both respiratory and ear infection in children. It has also been shown that adenoidectomy improves these symptoms in this population. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate adenoid bacterial colonization and document a possible relation with infectious respiratory disease. A prospective observational study was designed to evaluate the proposed hypothesis in a paediatric population submitted to adenoidectomy by either infectious or non-infectious indications and compare these two cohorts. A total of 62 patients with ages ranging from 1 to 12 years old were enrolled in the study. Adenoid surface, adenoid core and middle meatus microbiota were compared. A close association between adenoid colonization and nasal infection was found, supporting that adenoids may function as bacterial reservoir for upper airway infection. The obtained results also contribute to explain the success of adenoidectomy in patients with infectious indications.

  17. Cannabis for paediatric epilepsy: challenges and conundrums.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kerrie-Anne; Farrar, Michelle A; Cardamone, Michael; Lawson, John A

    2018-02-19

    Research is expanding for the use of cannabidiol as an anticonvulsant drug. The mechanism of cannabidiol in paediatric epilepsy is unclear but is thought to play a role in modulation of synaptic transmission. Evidence for its efficacy in treating epilepsy is limited but growing, with a single pharmaceutical company-funded randomised double-blind controlled trial in children with Dravet syndrome. Progress towards the use of medicinal cannabinoids incorporates a complex interplay of social influences and political and legal reform. Access to unregistered but available cannabidiol in Australia outside of clinical trials and compassionate access schemes is state dependent and will require Therapeutic Goods Administration approval, although the cost may be prohibitive. Further clinical trials are needed to clearly define efficacy and safety, particularly long term.

  18. Ibuprofen in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Camilla; Carroll, Will

    2016-12-01

    Ibuprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The oral formulation is widely used in paediatric practice and after paracetamol it is one of the most common drugs prescribed for children in hospital. The treatment of fever with antipyretics such as ibuprofen is controversial as fever is the normal response of the body to infection and unless the child becomes distressed or symptomatic, fever alone should not be routinely treated. Combined treatment with paracetamol and ibuprofen is commonly undertaken but almost certainly is not helpful. This article aims to describe the indications and mode of action of the drug, outline its pharmacokinetics and highlight the important key messages regarding its use in clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Ethical considerations in targeted paediatric neurosurgery missions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Samuel A; Jandial, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Within the context of global health development approaches, surgical missions to provide care for underserved populations remain the least studied interventions with regard to their methodology. Because of the unique logistical needs of delivering operative care, surgical missions are often described solely in terms of cases performed, with a paucity of discourse on medical ethics. Within surgery, subspecialties that serve patients on a non-elective basis should, it could be argued, create mission strategies that involve a didactic approach and the propagation of sustainable surgical care. The ethical considerations have yet to be described for paediatric neurosurgical outreach missions. We present here the perspectives of neurosurgeons who have participated in surgical outreach missions in Central America, South America, Eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa from the vantage point of both the visiting mission team and the host team that accommodates the mission efforts.

  20. New hazards in paediatric poisoning presentations.

    PubMed

    Moore, C; Crowley, E; Doyle, J; Okafor, I; McNamara, R; Deiratany, S; Nicholson, A J

    2015-02-01

    Accidental ingestion is an important preventable cause of childhood morbidity. All accidental ingestion presentations (n = 478) to a tertiary paediatric ED from January 2010 to December 2011 were analysed. These results were compared with a similar study in the same institution ten years previously in 2001 and showed that while accidental ingestions constituted a higher proportion of presentations (0.5% in this study v 0.45% in 2001), fewer had investigations performed (21% v 35%) and fewer were admitted (7% v 20%). Accidental ingestions account for 0.5% of presentations and are an important focus of home safety information for parents and guardians. Paracetamol (n = 67, 14%) and liquid detergent capsules (n = 44, 9.2%) were the two most common substances implicated in these presentations, and have the potential to cause severe morbidity and mortality.

  1. Clinical competence in developmental-behavioural paediatrics: raising the bar.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Mick

    2014-01-01

    For our specialist paediatric workforce to be suitably equipped to deal with current childhood morbidity, a high level of competence in developmental-behavioural paediatrics (DBP) is necessary. New models of training and assessment are required to meet this challenge. An evolution of training in DBP, built around the centrepiece of competency-based medical education, is proposed. Summative assessment based upon entrustable professional activities, and a menu of formative workplace-based assessments specific to the DBP context are key components. A pilot project to develop and implement these changes is recommended. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. A 3D digital medical photography system in paediatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a paediatric setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.

  3. Impact of child death on paediatric trainees.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Clare E; Wesley, Carla; Huckridge, Jaymie; Finn, Gabrielle M; Griksaitis, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of symptoms of acute stress reactions (ASR) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in paediatric trainees following their involvement in child death. A survey designed to identify trainees' previous experiences of child death combined with questions to identify features of PTSD. Quantitative interpretation was used alongside a χ 2 test. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant. 604 surveys were distributed across 13 UK health education deaneries. 303/604 (50%) of trainees completed the surveys. 251/280 (90%) of trainees had been involved with the death of a child, although 190/284 (67%) had no training in child death. 118/248 (48%) of trainees were given a formal debrief session following their most recent experience. 203/251 (81%) of trainees reported one or more symptoms or behaviours that could contribute to a diagnosis of ASR/PTSD. 23/251 (9%) of trainees met the complete criteria for ASR and 13/251 (5%) for PTSD. Attending a formal debrief and reporting feelings of guilt were associated with an increase in diagnostic criteria for ASR/PTSD (p=0.036 and p<0.001, respectively). Paediatric trainees are at risk of developing ASR and PTSD following the death of a child. The feeling of guilt should be identified and acknowledged to allow prompt signposting to further support, including psychological assessment or intervention if required. Clear recommendations need to be made about the safety of debriefing sessions as, in keeping with existing evidence, our data suggest that debrief after the death of a child may be associated with the development of symptoms suggestive of ASR/PTSD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Sixth Nerve Palsy in Paediatric Intracranial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Reid, Julia E; Reem, Rachel E; Aylward, Shawn C; Rogers, David L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the incidence and describe the characteristics of sixth cranial nerve (CN VI) palsy in paediatric patients with intracranial hypertension (IH). A retrospective chart review of central Ohio children diagnosed with IH over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2013 was conducted. IH without identifiable cause was defined as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), whereas IH with identifiable pathologic aetiology was deemed secondary intracranial hypertension (SIH). A subset of patients with CN VI palsy was identified. Data collected included patient age, gender, past medical history, aetiology of SIH, ophthalmic examination, lumbar puncture results, neuroimaging results, and response to treatment. Seventy-eight children with intracranial hypertension were included in the study. Nine (11.5%) children (four males, five females; median age 14, range: 3-18) were found to have a unilateral ( n = 2) or bilateral ( n = 7) CN VI palsy. Five children had IIH; the remaining four had SIH from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis ( n = 2) and infection ( n = 2). The mean lumbar puncture opening pressure for the nine patients with CN VI palsy was 40 cm H 2 O (range: 21-65 cm H 2 O). Papilloedema was present in 8/9 (89%) patients. One patient required a lumboperitoneal shunt, and two others required optic nerve sheath fenestrations in addition to medical management. All cases of CN VI palsy resolved with treatment. In our primary service area, the incidence of CN VI palsy is approximately 12% among paediatric IH patients. The majority of cases with CN VI palsy presented with papilloedema and all cases resolved with treatment of intracranial hypertension.

  5. Closing the Gaps in Paediatric Reference Intervals: The CALIPER Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Schnabl, Kareena; Chan, Man Khun; Gong, Yanping; Adeli, Khosrow

    2008-01-01

    Screening, diagnosis and monitoring of paediatric diseases relies on the measurement of a spectrum of disease biomarkers in clinical laboratories to guide important clinical decisions. Physicians rely on the availability of suitable and reliable reference intervals to accurately interpret laboratory test results with data collected during medical history and physical examination. However, critical gaps currently exist in accurate and up-to-date reference intervals (normal values) for accurate interpretation of laboratory tests performed in children and adolescents. These gaps in the available paediatric laboratory reference intervals have the clear potential of contributing to erroneous diagnosis or misdiagnosis of many diseases of childhood and adolescence. Most of the available reference intervals for laboratory tests were determined over two decades ago on older instruments and technologies, and are no longer relevant considering the current testing technology used by clinical laboratories. It is thus critical and of utmost urgency that a more acceptable and comprehensive database be established. There are however many challenges when attempting to establish paediatric reference intervals. Paediatric specimen collection is a major concern for health care providers as it is frequently difficult to obtain sufficient volumes of blood or urine from paediatric patients. Common reference intervals have not been widely implemented due to lack of harmonisation of methods and differences in patient populations. Consequently, clinical laboratory accreditation organisations and licensing agencies require that each laboratory verify or establish reference intervals for each method. To provide such reference intervals requires selection criteria for suitable reference individuals, defined conditions for specimen collection and analysis, method selection to determine reference limits and validation of the reference interval. The current review will provide a brief

  6. [Contribution of Anales de Pediatría to the international visibility of Spanish paediatric research in the Web of Science (2010-2014)].

    PubMed

    Abad-García, María Francisca; González-Teruel, Aurora; Solís Sánchez, Gonzalo

    2016-12-01

    To describe the role of Anales de Pediatría in highlighting Spanish paediatric research, and to identify the journals with which it competes internationally. Spanish paediatric articles, including those from Anales de Pediatría were identified using the Paediatrics category of the Science Citation Index (2010-2014), and their volume and document type was analysed. For original articles and review articles, the year, the citation and journal of publication was studied. The journals were classified as general and specialised. The productivity of general journals was analysed according to their language, JCR quartile, and article access. A total of 2,701 Spanish paediatric papers were identified, accounting for 2.8% of the paediatrics world output. More than two-thirds (68%) of papers were articles that received an average number of 4.97 citations per article. The 965 papers published in Anales de Pediatría accounted for 38.7% of the Spanish paediatric output, and for 1% of the paediatric world publications. A mean of 1.03 citations per article were received for 439 (45.4%) articles and reviews. Of the 106 journals identified, 82 were classified as specialised (1,196 articles) and 24 as general (741 articles). Anales de Pediatría published 60% of the articles in general journals. The rest of articles (309) were published in general journals published in English (82.8%), with a best position in the JCR ranking (83.4%) and mainly by subscription (73.8%). Anales de Pediatría plays an important role in providing international visibility to a large volume of Spanish scientific production in paediatrics. The results presented are a still only a snapshot of this role that could be used in the near future for assessing its evolution and the changes that could be made in order to improve its quality, positioning and competitiveness. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Paediatric stoma care nursing in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Waller, Marie

    Improving quality of care and developing and maintaining high standards of care are issues that are high on the NHS, nursing, and paediatric care agendas. Stoma formation will have an impact on the wellbeing and lifestyle of the person and their family, whatever the person's age. The specialty of stoma care nursing in the UK and Ireland is well established. However, the sub-specialty of paediatric stoma care nursing is much smaller in its 'membership' and its client group. There are differences in the needs of, and the associated care of, paediatric stoma patients even within this overall patient group. Paediatric stoma care nurses are in an ideal position to increase awareness about the specialty and improve standards of nursing care for neonates, children, adolescents and their families. However, until the establishment of the Paediatric Stoma Nurse Group (PSNG) in 2005, this 'position' had not being utilized. This article discusses the ongoing work of the PSNG to devise standards of paediatric stoma care nursing, best practice guidelines, relevant patient/parental information and establish itself as a valuable, proactive and independent forum for all healthcare professionals involved in the care of children with stomas.

  8. Paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an overview.

    PubMed

    AlKhater, S A

    2015-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a progressive disease that encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Data related to survival in children are scarce, but these data firmly associate NAFLD with higher risks of hepatic and non-hepatic morbidities and mortalities compared with the general population. More recently, the association between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease among children has increasingly been recognized. Given that obesity is a major risk factor for the disease, paediatric NAFLD is becoming a global issue, paralleling the dramatic rise in obesity worldwide. NASH, which is more common in obese children, has the potential to advance to liver fibrosis and failure. It is unclear why certain patients undergo such transformation but this susceptibility is likely related to an interaction between a genetically susceptible host and the surrounding environment. Currently, treatment is largely conservative and includes lifestyle modification, attainable through healthy weight reduction via diet and exercise. In this review, current knowledge about NAFLD in children is summarized. This review aims to increase the awareness of the medical community about a hidden public health issue and to identify current gaps in the literature while providing directions for future research. © 2015 World Obesity.

  9. Reference values for paediatric pulmonary function testing: The Utrecht dataset.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Marije; Zanen, Pieter; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Arets, Hubertus G M

    2011-01-01

    Since populations evolve, measurement protocols and equipment improve and analysis techniques progress, there is an ongoing need to reassess reference data for pulmonary function tests. Furthermore, reference values for total lung capacity and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity are scarcely available in children. We aimed to provide updated reference equations for most commonly used pulmonary function indices in Caucasian children. In the 'Utrecht Pulmonary Function Reference Data Study' we collected data in Caucasian children aged 2-18 years. We analyzed them using the 'Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape' (GAMLSS) statistical method. Measurements of interrupter resistance (R(int)) (n = 877), spirometry (n = 1042), body plethysmography (n = 723) and carbon monoxide diffusion/helium dilution (n = 543) were obtained in healthy children. Height (or the natural logarithm of height) and age (or the natural logarithm of age) were both significantly related to most outcome measures. Also sex was a significant determinant, except for RV, RV/TLC, FRC(pleth), Raw(0,5), Raw(tot), R(int) and FEF values. The application of previously published reference equations on the study population resulted in misinterpretation of pulmonary function. These new paediatric reference equations provide accurate estimates of the range of normality for most commonly used pulmonary function indices, resulting in less underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Paediatric immunisation: special emphasis on measles and MMR vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Das, M K; Bhattacharyya, N

    2002-05-01

    The dictum, 'prevention is better than cure', is applicable to all ailments but it can be most easily followed for infectious diseases, increasing numbers of which are being contained by specific vaccinations since the first discovery of smallpox vaccine by Edward Jenner in 1796. Advances in immunology and laboratory techniques including cell culture, genetic engineering and animal experiments have contributed significantly to the production of more and more vaccines, used successfully in preventive programmes. Infectious diseases are widely prevalent in the developing countries. The child population is specially vulnerable to many of them. These infections contribute to high morbidity and mortality and immunisation programmes have been undertaken as preventive measures against them at the national level. Paediatricians and experts are actively engaged in formulating and improving these programmes as problems are faced in their implementation. Much new information is continuously being available in the literature, mostly in specialised journals. The general practitioners, particularly those serving in the remote and vast rural areas, are not likely to have access to these recent developments which they need for self-motivation in initiating the parents with confident advice to have their children properly immunised and also for tackling effectively any problem arising out of immunisation. This paper attempts to discuss the subject of paediatric immunisation with special emphasis being laid on measles and MMR vaccinations.

  11. Clinical and experimental advances in congenital and paediatric cataracts.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Amanda; Graw, Jochen

    2011-04-27

    Cataracts (opacities of the lens) are frequent in the elderly, but rare in paediatric practice. Congenital cataracts (in industrialized countries) are mainly caused by mutations affecting lens development. Much of our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of cataractogenesis has come from the genetic analysis of affected families: there are contributions from genes coding for transcription factors (such as FoxE3, Maf, Pitx3) and structural proteins such as crystallins or connexins. In addition, there are contributions from enzymes affecting sugar pathways (particularly the galactose pathway) and from a quite unexpected area: axon guidance molecules like ephrins and their receptors. Cataractous mouse lenses can be identified easily by visual inspection, and a remarkable number of mutant lines have now been characterized. Generally, most of the mouse mutants show a similar phenotype to their human counterparts; however, there are some remarkable differences. It should be noted that many mutations affect genes that are expressed not only in the lens, but also in tissues and organs outside the eye. There is increasing evidence for pleiotropic effects of these genes, and increasing consideration that cataracts may act as early and readily detectable biomarkers for a number of systemic syndromes.

  12. Validation of a Paediatric Speech and Language Screening (RALF).

    PubMed

    Lousada, Marisa; Valente, Ana Rita S; Mendes, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyse psychometric characteristics of the Portuguese Paediatric Speech and Language Screening (RALF) test. 202 Portuguese children aged 3; 0-5; 11 were recruited from 4 kindergartens participating in this study. Reliability and validity (sensitivity and specificity) data were obtained and analysed. Content validity, analysed by an expert panel (general practitioner, kindergarten, teacher, nurse, and speech and language pathologist) revealed that the items were representative and relevant for the content the instrument intends to measure. Sensitivity values were 95, 96, and 83% and specificity values were 85, 84, and 71% for the age groups 3; 0-3; 11, 4; 0-4; 11, and 5; 0-5; 11, respectively. Internal consistency, calculated through Cronbach's alpha, was 0.7, 0.8, and 0.7, respectively. The inter-judge reliability (interclass correlation coefficient) was 0.951. The results ensure the content validity of RALF. Sensitivity and specificity values revealed that RALF could discriminate typical from disordered speech-language developing children. RALF also presented good internal consistency and excellent reliability. RALF is a reliable and valid screening instrument that health and educational professionals can use in Portuguese children to identify children who may need a speech-language diagnosis for consideration or referral to speech therapy services. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Spanish funded paediatric research: Contribution of Anales de Pediatría to its dissemination].

    PubMed

    Abad-García, María Francisca; González-Teruel, Aurora; Solís Sánchez, Gonzalo

    2017-06-01

    To identify Spanish funded paediatric research published in general paediatric journals included in the Web of Science (WoS) from 2010 to 2014) and those published in the Anales de Pediatría. To examine the relationship between funding and the prestige of the journals. To describe the journal conditions to meet the open access criteria. Spanish funded paediatric articles (FA) were identified by using the WoS Funding Agency field, and by reviewing the original documents for the Anales de Pediatria (AP). For the FA published in AP the number and kind of funding agencies were identified. The possible differences in citations between FA and non-funded was assessed for articles published in this journal using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test. For general journals, the patterns of distribution of FA and non-FA were investigated according to the quartile of the journal. The journal's self-archiving conditions were described using Sherpa/romeo database. Funding was received for 27.5%, being 16.6% for those published in AP. In these, 105 funding agencies were identified, with 80% being national. The FA published in AP did not receive significantly more citations. In general journals, the presence of FA is greater in Q1 and Q2 journals. More than half (56%) of articles were published in subscription journals. All journals that publish FA allow self-archiving in repositories, but with embargos of at least 12 months. The role of AP in the dissemination of FA is still limited. Embargos in self-archiving permits compliance of Spanish open access mandate, but may hinder compliance in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution Synergy in Multi-National Division-Baghdad during Operation Iraqi Freedom Rotation 07-09

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    supported my undertaking this scholastic adventure, continually motivated me throughout the journey, and cheered me at the end. vi TABLE OF...and reports were generally available online . Moreover, the Combined Arms Research Library at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas provided an excellent source...States Transportation Command. ―DPO The Fundamentals Brief.‖ 2010. http:www//transcom.mil/dpo_briefing (accessed 15 January 2011). Journals Ames

  15. A Retrospective Analysis of Spontaneous Adverse Drug Reactions Reports Relating to Paediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosli, Rosliana; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Manan, Mohamed Mansor

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous reporting on adverse drug reactions (ADR) has been established in Malaysia since 1987, and although these reports are monitored by the Malaysia drug monitoring authority, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, information about ADRs in the paediatric patient population still remains unexplored. The aims of this study, therefore, were to characterize the ADRs reported in respect to the Malaysian paediatric population and to relate the data to specific paediatric age groups. Methods Data on all ADRs reported to the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau between 2000 and 2013 for individuals aged from birth to 17 years old were analysed with respect to age and gender, type of reporter, suspected medicines (using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification), category of ADR (according to system organ class) as well as the severity of the ADR. Results In total, 11,523 ADR reports corresponding to 22,237 ADRs were analysed, with half of these reporting one ADR per report. Vaccines comprised 55.7% of the 11,523 ADR reports with the remaining being drug related ADRs. Overall, 63.9% of ADRs were reported for paediatric patients between 12 and 17 years of age, with the majority of ADRs reported in females (70.7%). The most common ADRs reported were from the following system organ classes: application site disorders (32.2%), skin and appendages disorders (20.6%), body as a whole general disorders (12.8%) and central and peripheral nervous system disorders (11.2%). Meanwhile, ADRs in respect to anti-infectives for systemic use (2194/5106; 43.0%) were the most frequently reported across all age groups, followed by drugs from the nervous system (1095/5106; 21.4%). Only 0.28% of the ADR cases were reported as fatal. A large proportion of the reports were received from healthcare providers in government health facilities. Discussion ADR reports concerning vaccines and anti-infectives were the most commonly reported in children, and are mainly

  16. Emerging issues in paediatric health research consent forms in Canada: working towards best practices.

    PubMed

    Dove, Edward S; Avard, Denise; Black, Lee; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2013-01-30

    Obtaining a research participant's voluntary and informed consent is the bedrock of sound ethics practice. Greater inclusion of children in research has led to questions about how paediatric consent operates in practice to accord with current and emerging legal and socio-ethical issues, norms, and requirements. Employing a qualitative thematic content analysis, we examined paediatric consent forms from major academic centres and public organisations across Canada dated from 2008-2011, which were purposively selected to reflect different types of research ethics boards, participants, and studies. The studies included biobanking, longitudinal studies, and gene-environment studies. Our purpose was to explore the following six emerging issues: (1) whether the scope of parental consent allows for a child's assent, dissent, or future consent; (2) whether the concepts of risk and benefit incorporate the child's psychological and social perspective; (3) whether a child's ability to withdraw is respected and to what extent withdrawal is permitted; (4) whether the return of research results includes individual results and/or incidental findings and the processes involved therein; (5) whether privacy and confidentiality concerns adequately address the child's perspective and whether standard data and/or sample identifiability nomenclature is used; and (6) whether retention of and access to paediatric biological samples and associated medical data are addressed. The review suggests gaps and variability in the consent forms with respect to addressing each of the six issues. Many forms did not discuss the possibility of returning research results, be they individual or general/aggregate results. Forms were also divided in terms of the scope of parental consent (specific versus broad), and none discussed a process for resolving disputes that can arise when either the parents or the child wishes to withdraw from the study. The analysis provides valuable insight and evidence into

  17. The effect of a non-surgical orthopaedic physician on wait times to see a paediatric orthopaedic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Matthew; Mackey, Anna; Wilson, Nichola; Stott, Ngaire Susan

    2015-02-01

    High referral volumes to paediatric orthopaedic surgeons create long clinic waiting lists. The use of extended scope roles for doctors and health professionals is one strategy to address these wait times. We completed a 6-month trial of a non-surgical paediatric orthopaedic physician role (NSP) to help manage non-urgent referrals to our service from local general practitioners (GPs). For a 6-month period, the majority of non-urgent GP referrals were assessed by a US-trained NSP. Wait times were compared between this period and the same time period in the previous year. Family and referrer satisfaction was determined through postal surveys. Over the trial period, the NSP saw a total of 155 new patient referrals, which represented 49% of all non-urgent GP referrals for the period. Before the trial, only 75% of non-urgent referrals were seen within 131 days (19 weeks) with 10% waiting more than 215 days (31 weeks). By the end of the trial, 75% of referrals were seen within 55 days (8 weeks) and 90% within 61 days (9 weeks). The most common outcome was discharge with management advice. 12% of patients were referred on to an orthopaedic surgeon but only 1% went on to a surgical wait list. Families and referrers reported high levels of satisfaction and only three patients discharged by the NSP were referred back for orthopaedic surgeon review. The NSP role was effective at reducing clinic wait times for patients with non-urgent paediatric orthopaedic conditions, while maintaining family and referrer satisfaction. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Molar incisor hypomineralization: a survey of members of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Paediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Crombie, F A; Manton, D J; Weerheijm, K L; Kilpatrick, N M

    2008-06-01

    Worldwide, molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) affects a substantial number of children and impacts greatly on treatment need and dental anxiety, yet there is little information regarding its prevalence, aetiology, presentation and management. The aims of this survey were to assess awareness and perceptions of the Australian paediatric dental community concerning MIH, and to describe current treatment strategies. A questionnaire, based upon a previous European study, was sent to all Australian members of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Paediatric Dentistry. The questionnaire sought information on clinical experience of MIH, knowledge of prevalence, aetiology and contemporary management strategies for MIH. One hundred and thirty useable responses were received (58.8 per cent response rate) of which 36 were paediatric dentists, 6 paediatric dentistry postgraduate students, 59 general dentists, 14 dental therapists and 14 specialists in other fields. Most (98.5 per cent) respondents were familiar with MIH and encountered it in their practice. The majority (73.1 per cent) estimated that MIH occurred in between 5 to 25 per cent of their clinical practice and almost all (96.9 per cent) considered it to be a clinical problem. Only 16.9 per cent of respondents were aware of existing prevalence data and 96.9 per cent valued investigating the prevalence of MIH. No consensus existed regarding the aetiology of MIH or its restorative management. Paediatric dentists used preformed crowns significantly more than non-specialists, however glass ionomer cements were popular with all groups. MIH is a well recognized and widely encountered clinical condition. MIH presents several clinical problems and is worthy of further investigation. Currently, no consistent clinical management strategies are utilized.

  19. Paediatric Rehabilitation Ingredients Measure: a new tool for identifying paediatric neurorehabilitation content.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Rob; Young, David; Kelly, Gemma; Davis, Kathy; Dunford, Carolyn; Golightly, Andrew; Marshall, Lindsay; Wales, Lorna

    2018-03-01

    To develop an instrument (Paediatric Rehabilitation Ingredients Measure [PRISM]) for quantitative estimation of contents of interdisciplinary neurorehabilitation for use in studies of relationships between rehabilitation treatment delivered and severity-adjusted outcomes after acquired brain injury (ABI). The measure was developed using an ingredients-mediators-outcomes model consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, a literature review, and other current initiatives in the development of rehabilitation treatment taxonomies, with item codevelopment in workshops with rehabilitation professionals. Interrater reliability was assessed in inpatient and residential paediatric rehabilitation settings. Although sometimes an initially unfamiliar perspective on rehabilitation practice, PRISM's acceptability amongst professionals was excellent. Internal consistency of scores was sometimes an issue for users unfamiliar with the tool; however, this improved with practice and interrater reliability (assessed by Kendall's W) was good. The tool was felt to have particular value in facilitating interdisciplinary communication and working. Modifications to the design of the tool have improved internal consistency. PRISM supports identification of the 'active ingredients' of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation package and facilitates interdisciplinary communication. It also has potential as a research tool examining relationships between rehabilitation delivered and severity-adjusted outcomes observed after paediatric ABI. Identifying contribution of rehabilitation to outcomes after acquired brain injury requires quantification of rehabilitation 'dose' and 'content'. Previous approaches to 'parsing' of rehabilitation dose and content may have overemphasized one-to-one sessions with therapists. We present a novel, holistic tool for identification of ingredients of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation package. It supports interdisciplinary

  20. Clowning as a supportive measure in paediatrics - a survey of clowns, parents and nursing staff

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospital clowns, also known as clown doctors, can help paediatric patients with the stress of a hospitalization and to circumvent the accompanying feelings of fear, helplessness and sadness, thus supporting the healing process. The objectives of the present study were to clarify the structural and procedural conditions of paediatric clowning in Germany and to document the evaluations of hospital clowns, parents and hospital staff. Methods A nationwide online survey of hospital clowns currently active in paediatric departments and an accompanying field evaluation in Hamburg hospitals with surveys of parents and hospital staff were conducted. In addition to items developed specifically for the study regarding general conditions, procedures, assessments of effects and attitudes, the Work Satisfaction Scale was used. The sample included n = 87 hospital clowns, 37 parents and 43 hospital staff members. Results The online survey showed that the hospital clowns are well-trained, motivated and generally satisfied with their work. By their own estimate, they primarily boost morale and promote imagination in the patients. However, hospital clowns also desire better interdisciplinary collaboration and financial security as well as more recognition of their work. The Hamburg field study confirmed the positive results of the clown survey. According to the data, a clown intervention boosts morale and reduces stress in the patients. Moreover, there are practically no side effects. Both parents and hospital staff stated that the patients as well as they themselves benefited from the intervention. Conclusions The results match those of previous studies and give a very positive picture of hospital clowning, so that its routine use and expansion thereof can be recommended. Furthermore, the intervention should be subject to the rules of evidence-based medicine like other medical treatments. PMID:24112744

  1. Clowning as a supportive measure in paediatrics - a survey of clowns, parents and nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Barkmann, Claus; Siem, Anna-Katharina; Wessolowski, Nino; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2013-10-10

    Hospital clowns, also known as clown doctors, can help paediatric patients with the stress of a hospitalization and to circumvent the accompanying feelings of fear, helplessness and sadness, thus supporting the healing process. The objectives of the present study were to clarify the structural and procedural conditions of paediatric clowning in Germany and to document the evaluations of hospital clowns, parents and hospital staff. A nationwide online survey of hospital clowns currently active in paediatric departments and an accompanying field evaluation in Hamburg hospitals with surveys of parents and hospital staff were conducted. In addition to items developed specifically for the study regarding general conditions, procedures, assessments of effects and attitudes, the Work Satisfaction Scale was used. The sample included n = 87 hospital clowns, 37 parents and 43 hospital staff members. The online survey showed that the hospital clowns are well-trained, motivated and generally satisfied with their work. By their own estimate, they primarily boost morale and promote imagination in the patients. However, hospital clowns also desire better interdisciplinary collaboration and financial security as well as more recognition of their work. The Hamburg field study confirmed the positive results of the clown survey. According to the data, a clown intervention boosts morale and reduces stress in the patients. Moreover, there are practically no side effects. Both parents and hospital staff stated that the patients as well as they themselves benefited from the intervention. The results match those of previous studies and give a very positive picture of hospital clowning, so that its routine use and expansion thereof can be recommended. Furthermore, the intervention should be subject to the rules of evidence-based medicine like other medical treatments.

  2. Perception, attitude, and satisfaction of paediatric physicians and nurses towards clinical practice guidelines at a university teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Amer, Yasser Sami; Al Nemri, Abdulrahman; Osman, Mohamed Elfaki; Saeed, Elshazaly; Assiri, Asaad Mohamed; Mohamed, Sarar

    2018-04-03

    To explore perception, attitude, and satisfaction of paediatric clinicians, trainees, and nurses at King Khalid University Hospital towards clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) including the locally adapted diabetic ketoacidosis CPG (DKA-CPG). A cross-sectional survey was distributed to 260 doctors and nurses working in the paediatrics department. The response rate was 95.4%. The respondents had a positive perception and attitude towards general CPGs and specifically for the DKA-CPG; 98.7% thought CPGs were useful sources of advice, improved safety, and decreased risk, and reduced variation in practice. A total of 99.2% thought CPGs were good clinical tools, 98.3% satisfied with, had confidence in well-developed CPGs, and would recommend them to their colleagues to use, and 94.6% agreed they were cost-effective. The preferred format for CPGs was paper (46.6%) and electronic (42.9%). The DKA-CPG helped in managing patients and respondents were all satisfied and had confidence with it (100%). The rationale and objectives of the DKA-CPG were clear for 99.25%; 98.5% thought the layout was clear and well organized and user-friendly (96.2%). Compared with nurses, physicians had a higher perception towards CPGs in general (P < .05) and the DKA-CPG (P < .05). The paediatric doctors, and nurses have a great perception and satisfaction and positive attitude towards CPGs in general, towards the paediatric diabetic ketoacidosis CPG in particular, which in turn had a positive impact on the acceptability and implementation of the CPGs. These findings could help in sustaining a safe and high-quality health care environment through implementation of evidence-based CPGs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Optimal nutrition in the paediatric ICU.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Koen; van Puffelen, Esther; Verbruggen, Sascha

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the current best available evidence on optimal nutrition in the paediatric intensive care based on different levels of outcome, which can be divided in surrogate and hard clinical outcome parameters. Undernutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, whereas in specific cohorts of critically ill children, such as those with burn injury, obesity is associated with more complications, longer length of stay, and decreased likelihood of survival. There is a relation with adequacy of delivery of enteral nutrition and the amount of protein on length of hospital stay, neurological status, and mortality. Studies relating organ function, other than skin healing after thermal injury, with the nutritional status are scarce. There is also a scarcity of data concerning long-term follow-up and health economics. Until now, there are no randomized controlled trials which have investigated a causal relation between different feeding regimens on the nutritional status and short and long-term outcome. As a result current optimal nutritional strategies are based on small trials with surrogate outcome parameters. Prospective randomized studies are needed with nutritional and/or metabolic interventions to come to an optimal feeding strategy for critically ill children.

  4. Paediatrics and psychoanalysis--Miss Anna Freud.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Miss Anna Freud died during the winter at the age of 86. She had been a pioneer in the understanding of children through psychoanalysis and a great champion of the rights of children. Her life began in Vienna as the youngest child of Sigmund Freud, and her early work with children was in Austria. In 1938, because of the Nazi régime and even though she was nursing her father during his terminal illness, she had to escape with him to London. Her work with homeless children and with those in residential nurseries in London during the second world war is well known, as is her work on child development and psychopathology in the postwar years. But one less well known aspect of her life that was of immense importance to a few fortunate British paediatricians was the 'paediatric group' that she ran for over a quarter of a century and which Dr Christine Cooper recalled at the memorial meeting in London earlier this year. PMID:6344806

  5. Myopathology of Adult and Paediatric Mitochondrial Diseases.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Rahul

    2017-07-04

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles ubiquitously present in nucleated eukaryotic cells, subserving multiple metabolic functions, including cellular ATP generation by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The OXPHOS machinery comprises five transmembrane respiratory chain enzyme complexes (RC). Defective OXPHOS gives rise to mitochondrial diseases (mtD). The incredible phenotypic and genetic diversity of mtD can be attributed at least in part to the RC dual genetic control (nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)) and the complex interaction between the two genomes. Despite the increasing use of next-generation-sequencing (NGS) and various omics platforms in unravelling novel mtD genes and pathomechanisms, current clinical practice for investigating mtD essentially involves a multipronged approach including clinical assessment, metabolic screening, imaging, pathological, biochemical and functional testing to guide molecular genetic analysis. This review addresses the broad muscle pathology landscape including genotype-phenotype correlations in adult and paediatric mtD, the role of immunodiagnostics in understanding some of the pathomechanisms underpinning the canonical features of mtD, and recent diagnostic advances in the field.

  6. Visual snow in a paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Santos-Bueso, E; Muñoz-Hernández, A M; Avalos-Franco, N; García-Sáenz, S; Sáenz-Francés, F; Porta-Etessam, J

    2017-12-01

    The case is presented of an 11 year-old girl referring to a one year history of photophobia and continuously seeing white spots in both eyes. The patient had a visual acuity of unity in both eyes, and a normal eye examination, and was referred to the Neuro-ophthalmology Unit. Once complete laboratory and imaging tests ruled out the possibility of any neurological pathology, she was diagnosed with visual snow (VS). VS is an isolated symptom, possibly part of the migraine aura, that is referred by patients reporting numerous and constant white dots moving in the visual field of BE. It can significantly interfere with patient's daily activities by altering their quality of life, and ending up as a misdiagnosis. Paediatric patients also present a diagnostic challenge due to the complex interpretation that the presence of VS involves in them. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Accuracy of paediatric echocardiographic transmission via telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Mark; Xu, Cathy; Jordan, Mary; Borchers, Heidi; Ayton, Catherine; Wilbert, Dennis; Melzer, Sanford

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of realtime echocardiography studies conducted via telemedicine (at 384 kbit/s) and prerecorded video studies, by comparing the results with subsequent in-person echocardiography examination performed at follow-up. Between January 2002 and December 2004, there were 769 paediatric echo studies of patients aged one day to 19 years by telemedicine. There were three cases (0.4%) in which the study could not be successfully transmitted in realtime due to ISDN line or equipment failure. These were recorded, then transmitted and reviewed within 24 h. A normal heart was demonstrated in 272 studies (35%). A non-urgent congenital heart defect (CHD) was detected in 311 studies (41%). A critical cardiac abnormality was identified in 25 studies (3% of the total). Sixty-seven studies were repeated in person at the tertiary centre. All but one of the follow-up echocardiograms confirmed our initial telemedicine diagnosis (99% sensitivity). There were 655 videorecorded studies delivered to the tertiary centre between February 2002 and November 2003. Thirty-two patients had a repeated echocardiogram performed there. There were either discrepancies or lack of diagnostic clarity in 12 studies (38%) compared with on-site echo evaluations. This suggests that echocardiography evaluation using videorecordings may be less accurate than via realtime telemedicine.

  8. Paediatric cardiac catheterization: an information sheet.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Caroline; Greffier, Angelique

    2013-04-01

    The need to inform patients using validated scientific data is acknowledged internationally. The obligation to inform patients is based on a fundamental principle of French law: the principle of the unavailability of the human body. Before engaging in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies such as paediatric cardiac catheterization, the healthcare professional must explain the disease, the advantages and drawbacks of each treatment strategy and their foreseeable benefit/risk ratio in order to help older children and their parents come to a decision. To obtain this required consent and before the care is provided, the infant and their legal representative must have received clear, accurate and understandable information. An information sheet cannot substitute for verbal information. Guidelines for good practices on the delivery of information have been established by the Health Authorities and officially recognized in a decree from the Ministry of Health. These documents allow professionals to draft a written information document for patients and healthcare users. This document must help the patient to take part in decisions that concern them. The law of 4th March 2002 regarding the rights of patients and the quality of the healthcare system states that 'in cases of litigation, it is the responsibility of the professional or the healthcare establishment to provide proof that the information was given to the person concerned in the conditions set out in the present article. This proof can be brought by any means'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Paediatric palliative care in the home.

    PubMed

    St-Laurent-Gagnon, T

    1998-05-01

    A palliative home care program for children was reviewed To obtain a better understanding of the complications found in the home, and to ascertain the extent of the nursing support needed. The study was descriptive and retrospective. Data were abstracted from both medical and home care charts. The palliative home care program for children is based in a tertiary care paediatric hospital. Twenty-eight children under the age of 18 years, with cancer, neurodegenerative disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, needing specialized terminal nursing care at home, were included. Patients needing minimal nursing support were excluded from the review. Twenty-two patients died at home and two died in the hospital in accordance with the parents' wishes. Most patients had pain severe enough to need opioids (25 of 28). The more frequent complications were inconsistent pain control (43%), vomiting (39%), respiratory problems (39%), bed sores (25%) and convulsions (25%). Home care had to be discontinued for only four patients. Parents found intractable pain, convulsions and end-stage dyspnea were the more worrisome complications. The patients received an average of 14 home visits and 14 telephone calls. Telephone calls and home visits were frequent over the weekends and evenings (0 to 45, median=3). This report confirms the feasibility of terminal care at home for children with complex problems. Complications can be well tolerated by the parents if the medical team is readily available.

  10. Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP): development of a consensus based paediatric podiatry and physiotherapy standardised recording proforma.

    PubMed

    Cranage, Simone; Banwell, Helen; Williams, Cylie M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric gait and lower limb assessments are frequently undertaken in podiatry and physiotherapy clinical practice and this is a growing area of expertise within Australia. No concise paediatric standardised recording proforma exists to assist clinicians in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a gait and lower limb standardised recording proforma guided by the literature and consensus, for assessment of the paediatric foot and lower limb in children aged 0-18 years. Expert Australian podiatrists and physiotherapists were invited to participate in a three round Delphi survey panel using the online Qualtrics(©) survey platform. The first round of the survey consisted of open-ended questions on paediatric gait and lower limb assessment developed from existing templates and a literature search of standardised lower limb assessment methods. Rounds two and three consisted of statements developed from the first round responses. Questions and statements were included in the final proforma if 70 % or more of the participants indicated consensus or agreement with the assessment method and if there was support within the literature for paediatric age-specific normative data with acceptable reliability of outcome measures. There were 17 of the 21 (81 %) participants who completed three rounds of the survey. Consensus was achieved for 41 statements in Round one, 54 statements achieved agreement in two subsequent rounds. Participants agreed on 95 statements relating to birth history, developmental history, hip measurement, rotation of the lower limb, ankle range of motion, foot posture, balance and gait. Assessments with acceptable validity and reliability were included within the final Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP) proforma. The GALLOP proforma is a consensus based, systematic and standardised way to collect information and outcome measures in paediatric lower limb assessment. This standardised recording proforma will assist

  11. Lack of a standardised UK care pathway resulting in national variations in management and outcomes of paediatric small area scalds.

    PubMed

    Trevatt, Alexander E J; Kirkham, Emily N; Allix, Bradley; Greenwood, Rosemary; Coy, Karen; Hollén, Linda I; Young, Amber E R

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of evidence guiding management of small area partial thickness paediatric scalds. This has prevented the development of national management guidelines for these injuries. This research aimed to investigate whether a lack of evidence for national guidelines has resulted in variations in both management and outcomes of paediatric small area scalds across England and Wales (E&W). A national survey of initial management of paediatric scalds ≤5% Total Body Surface Area (%TBSA) was sent to 14 burns services in E&W. Skin graft rates of anonymised burns services over seven years were collected from the international Burns Injury Database (iBID). Average skin grafting rates across services were compared. Length of stay and proportion of patients receiving general anaesthesia for dressing application at each service were also compared. All 14 burns services responded to the survey. Only 50% of services had a protocol in place for the management of small area burns. All protocols varied in how partial thickness paediatrics scalds ≤5% TBSA should be managed. There was no consensus as to which scalds should be treated using biosynthetic dressings. Data from iBID for 11,917 patients showed that the average reported skin grafting rate across all burns services was 2.3% (95% CI 2.1, 2.6) but varied from 0.3% to 7.1% (P<0.001). Service provider remained associated with likelihood of skin grafting when variations in the %TBSA case mix seen by each service were controlled for (χ(2)=87.3, P<0.001). The use of general anaesthetics across services varied between 0.6 and 35.5% (P<0.001). The median length of stay across services varied from 1 to 3 days (P<0.001). A lack of evidence guiding management of small-area paediatric scalds has resulted in variation in management of these injuries across E&W. There is also significant variation in outcomes for these injuries. Further research is indicated to determine if care pathways and outcomes are linked. An evidence

  12. Paediatric tracheostomy-An 11 year experience at a Scottish paediatric tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed

    Douglas, C M; Poole-Cowley, J; Morrissey, S; Kubba, H; Clement, W A; Wynne, D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the indications, complications and outcomes for tracheostomy at a Scottish paediatric tertiary referral hospital. All patients undergoing tracheostomy between January 2001 and September 2012 were identified. A retrospective case note analysis was performed. 111 tracheostomies were done in the study period. The mean number per year was 11 (3-12). Full data was available for 95 patients. There were 56 (59%) males and 39 (41%) females. Age at time of tracheostomy ranged from one day to 15 years, the mean age of tracheostomy insertion was 69 weeks. The majority of patients, 75 (79%), were under one year old when they had their tracheostomy. The most common indication was long-term ventilation (20%), followed by craniofacial abnormality causing airway obstruction (18%), followed by subglottic stenosis (14%). 37% of patients were decannulated. This series reflects current trends in the indications for paediatric tracheostomy, with chronic lung disease of prematurity being the most common indication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Paediatric acute care: Highlights from the PAC-APLS conference, Sydney, 2015.

    PubMed

    Teo, Stephen; Stanford, Jane; Rao, Arjun; Babl, Franz E

    2016-12-01

    The Paediatric Acute Care Conference (PACC) is an annual conference organised by Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS) Australia to advance paediatric acute care topics for clinicians in pre-hospital medicine, EDs, acute paediatrics, intensive care and anaesthesia. All PACC content is made available free online (https://vimeo.com/aplsaustralia). The PAC conference 2015 was held at Coogee, Sydney. We provide a summary of some of the presentations. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  14. Peer mentoring: evaluation of a novel programme in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Sarah; Sukhani, Seema; Brightwell, Alex; Stoneham, Sara; Long, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Mentoring is important for personal and professional development of doctors. Peer mentoring is a core skill in the UK paediatric postgraduate curriculum. However, there is a paucity of peer mentoring programmes aimed at postgraduate doctors in training (postgraduate trainees), and there are no such schemes within paediatrics described in the literature. We developed a regional peer mentoring programme for postgraduate trainees in paediatrics to assess demand and need for peer mentoring and to explore the benefits for both peer mentees and mentors. Junior postgraduate trainees, randomly selected from volunteers, received peer mentoring from more senior trainees for 1 year. Peer mentors were selected by competitive application and undertook tailored training followed by an experiential learning programme. The programme was evaluated using structured questionnaires. 90% (76/84) of first-year postgraduate trainees in paediatrics applied to participate, demonstrating high demand. 18 peer mentor-mentee pairs were matched. Peer mentors and mentees reported high satisfaction rates, acquisition of new and transferable skills and changed behaviours. All peer mentors intended to use the skills in their workplace and, later, as an educational supervisor. Our programme represents a novel approach to meeting the demonstrated demand and the curriculum requirement for peer mentoring, and enabled peer mentors and mentees to develop a valuable and versatile skill set. To our knowledge, it is the first such programme in paediatrics and provides a feasibility model that may be adapted locally to allow education providers to offer this important experience to postgraduate trainees.

  15. Smartphone applications in paediatric radiology: availability and authority.

    PubMed

    Shelmerdine, Susan C; Lynch, Jeremy O

    2015-08-01

    With the widespread ownership of smartphones, many health care professionals question the degree to which medically related smartphone applications are reliable. To assess the variety of smartphone applications relating to paediatric radiology and the presence of health care professional involvement in their development. As a secondary objective, we explore whether there are gaps within the paediatric radiology app market. The most popular smartphone marketplaces (Apple iTunes App Store, Blackberry Mobile Market, Google Play Android Market, Nokia Ovi, Samsung and Microsoft Windows Marketplace) were searched for terms relating to paediatric radiology. Cost, review ratings, number of downloads, health care involvement and target audience were recorded. Nine paediatric radiology applications were found in the Apple iTunes App Store and nine in the Google Play Android Market. The target audiences for all applications were health care professionals. None were available for patients or their caregivers. All applications were reported to have medical expertise in their development. All paediatric radiology applications were developed with the aid of a health care professional. Due to the small number available online, there is a potential gap in the marketplace for further applications in this field, possibly aimed at patients and their families.

  16. The use of the Statscan digital X-ray unit in paediatric polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Richard D; Wilde, Jim C H; Douglas, Tania S; van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2009-05-01

    We present a 3-year review of clinical paediatric experience with the Statscan (Lodox Systems, Johannesburg, South Africa), a low-dose, digital, whole-body, slit-scanning X-ray machine. While focusing on the role of the unit in paediatric polytrauma, insight into its applications in other paediatric settings is provided.

  17. Paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program in Latin-America: the RIBEPCI experience.

    PubMed

    López-Herce, Jesús; Matamoros, Martha M; Moya, Luis; Almonte, Enma; Coronel, Diana; Urbano, Javier; Carrillo, Ángel; Del Castillo, Jimena; Mencía, Santiago; Moral, Ramón; Ordoñez, Flora; Sánchez, Carlos; Lagos, Lina; Johnson, María; Mendoza, Ovidio; Rodriguez, Sandra

    2017-09-12

    To describe the design and to present the results of a paediatric and neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program adapted to Latin-America. A paediatric CPR coordinated training project was set up in several Latin-American countries with the instructional and scientific support of the Spanish Group for Paediatric and Neonatal CPR. The program was divided into four phases: CPR training and preparation of instructors; training for instructors; supervised teaching; and independent teaching. Instructors from each country participated in the development of the next group in the following country. Paediatric Basic Life Support (BLS), Paediatric Intermediate (ILS) and Paediatric Advanced (ALS) courses were organized in each country adapted to local characteristics. Five Paediatric Resuscitation groups were created sequentially in Honduras (2), Guatemala, Dominican Republican and Mexico. During 5 years, 6 instructors courses (94 students), 64 Paediatric BLS Courses (1409 students), 29 Paediatrics ILS courses (626 students) and 89 Paediatric ALS courses (1804 students) were given. At the end of the program all five groups are autonomous and organize their own instructor courses. Training of autonomous Paediatric CPR groups with the collaboration and scientific assessment of an expert group is a good model program to develop Paediatric CPR training in low- and middle income countries. Participation of groups of different countries in the educational activities is an important method to establish a cooperation network.

  18. Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)-use in UK paediatric patients: a systematic review of surveys.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala; Alotaibi, Amani; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-06-01

    This systematic review is aimed at estimating the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)-use by paediatric populations in the United Kingdom (UK). AMED, CINAHL, COCHRANE, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for English language peer-reviewed surveys published between 01 January 2000 and September 2011. Additionally, relevant book chapters and our own departmental files were searched manually. Eleven surveys were included with a total of 17,631 paediatric patients. The majority were of poor methodological quality. Due to significant heterogeneity of the data, a formal meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate. Ten surveys related to CAM in general, while one was specifically on homeopathy. Across all surveys on CAM in general, the average one-year prevalence rate was 34% and the average lifetime prevalence was 42%. In surveys with a sample size of more than 500, the prevalence rates were considerably lower than in surveys with the sample size of lower than 500. Herbal medicine was the most popular CAM modality, followed by homeopathy and aromatherapy. Many paediatric patients in the UK seem to use CAM. Paediatricians should therefore have sufficient knowledge about CAM to issue responsible advice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient centric formulations for paediatrics and geriatrics: Similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Sara M; Lopez, Felipe L; Wong, Ian C K; Ernest, Terry B; Tuleu, Catherine; Orlu Gul, Mine

    2016-10-30

    Paediatrics and geriatrics both represent highly heterogenous populations and require special consideration when developing appropriate dosage forms. This paper discusses similarities, differences and considerations with respect to the development of appropriate medicine formulations for paediatrics and geriatrics. Arguably the most significant compliance challenge in older people is polypharmacy, whereas for children the largest barrier is taste. Pharmaceutical technology has progressed rapidly and technologies including FDCs, multi-particulates and orodispersible dosage forms provide unprecedented opportunities to develop novel and appropriate formulations for both old and new drugs. However, it is important for the formulation scientists to work closely with patients, carers and clinicians to develop such formulations for both the paediatric and geriatric population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulmonary functional magnetic resonance imaging for paediatric lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Miranda; Coxson, Harvey O; Parraga, Grace

    2013-09-01

    A better understanding of the anatomic structure and physiological function of the lung is fundamental to understanding the pathogenesis of pulmonary disease and how to design and deliver better treatments and measure response to intervention. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the hyperpolarised noble gases helium-3 ((3)He) and xenon-129 ((129)Xe) provides both structural and functional pulmonary measurements, and because it does not require the use of x-rays or other ionising radiation, offers the potential for intensive serial and longitudinal studies in paediatric patients. These facts are particularly important in the evaluation of chronic lung diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis- both of which can be considered paediatric respiratory diseases with unmet therapy needs. This review discusses MRI-based imaging methods with a focus on hyperpolarised gas MRI. We also discuss the strengths and limitations as well as the future work required for clinical translation towards paediatric respiratory disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paediatric early warning systems: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Adrienne; Duncan, Heather; Heward, Yvonne

    2009-02-01

    The Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health report published in 2008 recommended that there should be a standardised monitoring system with embedded early identification systems for children at risk of critical illness or deterioration. Recent studies have demonstrated improvement in patient outcomes following the implementation of paediatric early warning scores and response teams in children's units and hospitals. However, it is not enough to use an early warning score in isolation; it needs to be embedded into a paediatric early warning system, with a rationalised approach to the observation and monitoring of hospitalised children. Lessons can be learnt from the adult experience of implementing early warning systems. A national, multidisciplinary, collaborative approach to the development, implementation and evaluation of paediatric early warning systems is recommended.

  2. Humoral response to conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in paediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Frankie Wai Tsoi; Ip, Margaret; Chu, Yvonne Yuen Ling; Lin, Zheng; Lee, Vincent; Shing, Ming Kong; Leung, Wing Kwan; Yuen, Patrick Man Pan; Li, Chi Kong

    2012-04-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is an effective way to prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases in high risk populations. The efficacy of this vaccine in paediatric oncology patients remains unknown. The authors evaluated the antibody response to seven pneumococcal serotypes in paediatric oncology patients given two doses of heptavalent PCV (PCV-7). Forty-four patients (20 males; 24 females) with median age 9.5 years were studied. After two doses of PCV-7, 86-100% of patients had protective antibody titres against the seven vaccine serotypes. Increases in geometric mean antibody concentrations ranged from 3.8-fold for serotype 19F to 85.8-fold for serotype 14. There was no documented invasive pneumococcal disease in our cohort during the study period. PCV can elicit protective antipneumococcal antibody responses in paediatric oncology patients.

  3. Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME): design of a multi-national longitudinal, observational registry of exogenous testosterone use in hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C; Wu, Frederick C W; Behre, Hermann M; Roehrborn, Claus G; Schröder, Fritz H; Siami, Flora S; Martha, Julia F; Finn, Joseph D; Araujo, Andre B

    2013-03-01

    Despite the prevalence of hypogonadism (HG) and widespread use of testosterone therapy, little is known about the safety/effectiveness of long-term testosterone use. The Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME) is a multi-national patient registry assessing prostate health and other outcomes associated with testosterone treatment in men. Observational patient disease registry. RHYME is a non-interventional disease registry with longitudinal data collection on a large sample (N = 999) of well-characterized, hypogonadal men aged 18 years or older. The Registry will prospectively evaluate male patients diagnosed with HG, who have not previously been treated with testosterone therapy. Key design features include: (1) broad inclusion/exclusion criteria, (2) standardized central laboratory hormone assays, (3) independent adjudication of prostate biopsies and mortalities, (4) standard of care treatment, (5) comprehensive medical record and questionnaire data at six months and annually post-enrollment and (6) adequate statistical power for assessing prostate endpoints at 36 months. A total of 25 clinical sites in six European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) have completed recruitment for the study. Recruitment was initiated in May 2009, and completed in December 2011. Data collection is ongoing with a minimum of two years of follow-up on all patients.

  4. Knowledge of paediatric concussion among front-line primary care providers

    PubMed Central

    Zemek, Roger; Eady, Kaylee; Moreau, Katherine; Farion, Ken J; Solomon, Beverly; Weiser, Margaret; Dematteo, Carol

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge of paediatric concussion diagnosis and management among front-line primary care providers. METHODS: Experts from the Concussions Ontario Diagnosis and Early Education Working Group developed a 34-item survey incorporating case vignettes with the collaboration of experts in medical education. Electronic surveys were distributed via FluidSurveys using a modified version of Dillman’s tailored design method. The survey was distributed to five Ontario professional associations. The target participants were front-line health care providers (family physicians, emergency medicine physicians, general paediatricians, nurse practitioners and physician assistants) in Ontario; only providers who diagnose and/or manage paediatric concussions were eligible to participate. RESULTS: The survey was fully completed by 577 health care providers who treat paediatric concussion. Of the respondents, 78% (95% CI 74% to 81%) reported diagnosing ≥5 concussions annually. Physicians and nonphysicians equally recognized concussion (90% [95% CI 86% to 92%]; 85% [95% CI 77% to 90%], respectively). Only 37% (95% CI 32% to 41%) of physicians correctly applied graduated return to play guidelines. Return to learn recommendations were also insufficient: 53% (95% CI 49% to 58%) neglected to recommend school absence and 40% (95% CI (35% to 44%) did not recommend schoolwork accommodations. Only 26% (95% CI 22% to 30%) of physicians reported regular use of concussion scoring scales. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable gaps in knowledge exist in front-line primary care providers with inadequate application of graduated return to play and return to learn following concussion, as demonstrated by the present broad population-based survey. Consistent application of best evidence-based management using comprehensive guidelines may help to reduce the impact of concussion and persistent postconcussive problems in children and adolescents. PMID:25414583

  5. Paediatric dental chair sedation: An audit of current practice in Gauteng, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bham, F; Perrie, H; Scribante, J; Lee, C-A

    2015-06-01

    Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is often required to perform dental procedures in children. Serious adverse outcomes, while rare, are usually preventable. To determine the proportion of dental practitioners making use of paediatric dental chair PSA in Gauteng Province, South Africa, describe their PSA practice, and determine compliance with recommended safety standards. A prospective, contextual, descriptive study design was used, with 222 randomly selected dental practitioners contacted to determine whether they offered paediatric dental chair PSA. Practitioners offering PSA were then asked to complete a web-based questionnaire assessing their practice. Of the 213 dental practitioners contacted, 94 (44.1%; 95% confidence interval 37 - 51) provided PSA to children. Most patients were 1 - 5 years old, although there were practices that offered PSA to infants. While most procedures were performed under minimal to moderate sedation, deep sedation and general anaesthesia were also administered in dental rooms. Midazolam was the most frequently used sedative agent, often in conjunction with inhaled nitrous oxide; 28.1% of PSA providers administered a combination of three or more agents. Presedation patient assessment was documented in 83.0% of cases, and informed consent for sedation was obtained in 75.6%. The survey raised several areas of concern regarding patient safety: 41.3% of dental practices did not use any monitoring equipment during sedation; the operator was responsible for the sedation and monitoring of the patient in 41.3%; 43.2% did not keep any recommended emergency drugs; and 19.6% did not have any emergency or resuscitation equipment available. Most respondents (81.8%) indicated an interest in sedation training. Paediatric dental chair PSA was offered by 44.1% of dental practitioners interviewed in Gauteng. Modalities of PSA provided varied between practices, with a number of safety concerns being raised.

  6. Oral Medicines for Children in the European Paediatric Investigation Plans

    PubMed Central

    van Riet – Nales, Diana A.; Römkens, Erwin G. A. W.; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Schobben, Alfred F. A. M.; Egberts, Toine C. G.; Rademaker, Carin M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs) are subject to agreement by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the key characteristics of oral paediatric medicines in the PIPs and the changes implemented as a result of the EMA/PDCO review. Methods All PIPs agreed by 31 December 2011 were identified through a proprietary EMA-database. PIPs were included if they contained an agreed proposal to develop an oral medicine for children 0 to 11 years. Information on the therapeutic area (EMA classification system); target age range (as defined by industry) and pharmaceutical characteristics (active substance, dosage form(s) as listed in the PIP, strength of each dosage form, excipients in each strength of each dosage form) was extracted from the EMA website or the EMA/PDCO assessment reports. Results A hundred and fifty PIPs were included corresponding to 16 therapeutic areas and 220 oral dosage forms in 431 strengths/compositions. Eighty-two PIPs (37%) included tablets, 44 (20%) liquids and 35 (16%) dosage forms with a specific composition/strength that were stored as a solid but swallowed as a liquid e.g. dispersible tablets. The EMA/PDCO review resulted in an increase of 13 (207 to 220) oral paediatric dosage forms and 44 (387 to 431) dosage forms with a specific composition/strength. For many PIPs, the target age range was widened and the excipient composition and usability aspects modified. Conclusion The EMA/PDCO review realized an increase in the number of requirements for the development of oral dosage forms and a larger increase in the number of dosage forms with a specific composition/strength, both targeting younger children. Changes to their pharmaceutical design were

  7. Informed consent for paediatric clinical trials in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lepola, Pirkko; Needham, Allison; Mendum, Jo; Sallabank, Peter; Neubauer, David; de Wildt, Saskia

    2016-11-01

    Paediatric clinical trials are often conducted as multinational trials. Informed consent or assent is part of the ethics committee approval for clinical trials. The consent requirements vary between countries due to national laws and regulations, which are not harmonised in Europe. These discrepancies can present challenges for paediatric clinical trials. The aim of this study was to assemble these consent and assent requirements across the European Economic Area. The collated national requirements have not been publicly available before, despite a real need for this data. National consent and assent requirements for paediatric clinical trials were analysed and collated for 25 European Union Member States and 2 European Free Trade Association countries until the end of 2014. The data were retrieved from existing databases and through communication with the competent authorities and selected ethics committees. Results from a literature search for international or national guidelines, declarations and conventions and academic societies' publications served as comparison material. Consent and assent requirements are heterogeneous across these countries. We compiled our findings in 'The Informed Consent and Assent Tool Kit', a table including 27 national consent and assent requirements listed by individual country. Wide variation in paediatric consents and assents presents challenges for multinational paediatric trials in Europe. The toolkit is available for all those involved in paediatric clinical trials and ethics committees, providing a new platform for proactive feedback on informed consent requirements, and may finally lead to a needed harmonisation process, including uniform standards accepted across Europe. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Oral medicines for children in the European paediatric investigation plans.

    PubMed

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Römkens, Erwin G A W; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Kozarewicz, Piotr; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry is no longer allowed to develop new medicines for use in adults only, as the 2007 Paediatric Regulation requires children to be considered also. The plans for such paediatric development called Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs) are subject to agreement by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and its Paediatric Committee (PDCO). The aim of this study was to evaluate the key characteristics of oral paediatric medicines in the PIPs and the changes implemented as a result of the EMA/PDCO review. All PIPs agreed by 31 December 2011 were identified through a proprietary EMA-database. PIPs were included if they contained an agreed proposal to develop an oral medicine for children 0 to 11 years. Information on the therapeutic area (EMA classification system); target age range (as defined by industry) and pharmaceutical characteristics (active substance, dosage form(s) as listed in the PIP, strength of each dosage form, excipients in each strength of each dosage form) was extracted from the EMA website or the EMA/PDCO assessment reports. A hundred and fifty PIPs were included corresponding to 16 therapeutic areas and 220 oral dosage forms in 431 strengths/compositions. Eighty-two PIPs (37%) included tablets, 44 (20%) liquids and 35 (16%) dosage forms with a specific composition/strength that were stored as a solid but swallowed as a liquid e.g. dispersible tablets. The EMA/PDCO review resulted in an increase of 13 (207 to 220) oral paediatric dosage forms and 44 (387 to 431) dosage forms with a specific composition/strength. For many PIPs, the target age range was widened and the excipient composition and usability aspects modified. The EMA/PDCO review realized an increase in the number of requirements for the development of oral dosage forms and a larger increase in the number of dosage forms with a specific composition/strength, both targeting younger children. Changes to their pharmaceutical design were less profound.

  9. Aetiology of congenital and paediatric cataract in an Australian population

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, M G; Russell-Eggitt, I M; Craig, J E; Elder, J E; Mackey, D A

    2002-01-01

    Background/aim: Paediatric cataract is a major cause of childhood blindness. Several genes associated with congenital and paediatric cataracts have been identified. The aim was to determine the incidence of cataract in a population, the proportion of hereditary cataracts, the mode of inheritance, and the clinical presentation. Methods: The Royal Children's Hospital and the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital have a referral base for almost all paediatric patients with cataracts in south eastern Australia. The database contains cases seen over the past 25 years. The medical histories of these patients were reviewed. Results: 421 patients with paediatric cataract were identified, which gives an estimated incidence of 2.2 per 10 000 births. Of the 342 affected individuals with a negative family history, 50% were diagnosed during the first year of life, and 56/342 (16%) were associated with a recognised systemic disease or syndrome. Unilateral cataract was identified in 178/342 (52%) of sporadic cases. 79 children (from 54 nuclear families) had a positive family history. Of these 54 families, 45 were recruited for clinical examination and DNA collection. Ten nuclear families were subsequently found to be related, resulting in four larger pedigrees. Thus, 39 families have been studied. The mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant in 30 families, X linked in four, autosomal recessive in two, and uncertain in three. In total, 178 affected family members were examined; of these 8% presented with unilateral cataracts and 43% were diagnosed within the first year of life. Conclusions: In the paediatric cataract population examined, approximately half of the patients were diagnosed in the first year of life. More than 18% had a positive family history of cataracts. Of patients with hereditary cataracts 8% presented with unilateral involvement. Identification of the genes that cause paediatric and congenital cataract should help clarify the aetiology of some sporadic and

  10. Clinical repigmentation patterns in paediatric vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Gan, E Y; Gahat, T; Cario-André, M; Seneschal, J; Ezzedine, K; Taïeb, A

    2016-09-01

    Repigmentation is an essential outcome measure in vitiligo. However, clinical studies describing vitiligo repigmentation patterns are lacking. To assess and clearly define the repigmentation patterns in a series of patients with vitiligo, correlating these with clinicoepidemiological characteristics. Patients with vitiligo seen at least at twice (initial consultation and follow-up visit) in the Department of Paediatric Dermatology, Hôpital Pellegrin des Enfants, Bordeaux University Hospital from 2006 to 2014 were included. Clinical photographs and case records were reviewed. There were 109 patients (64 female, 45 male) mostly with Fitzpatrick skin type III (n = 67, 61%). The majority had nonsegmental (n = 71, 65%) or segmental vitiligo (n = 29, 27%). In total 172 representative vitiligo lesions were analysed. Overall, a combined pattern of repigmentation was most commonly seen (n = 106, 62%). The combined pattern occurred more frequently in patients with segmental vs. nonsegmental vitiligo (P = 0·009), whereas the diffuse pattern was more frequent in the latter (P = 0·007). Diffuse repigmentation was the predominant pattern on the eyelids (P < 0·001). We observed a new pattern in sites with few to absent hair follicles, which we propose to call 'medium spotted repigmentation'. This begins as circular macules of repigmentation, wider than 5 mm in diameter, which, from the outset, are larger than the initial macules of perifollicular repigmentation. This study is limited by its retrospective nature and small sample size for subgroup assessment. The combined pattern of repigmentation was most frequently observed. Medium spotted repigmentation is a new pattern, which will benefit from larger studies for a better understanding. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. [Nutritional assessment in hospitalized children in a Paediatric service].

    PubMed

    Velandia, Silvia; Hodgson, Maria Isabel; Le Roy, Catalina

    Malnutrition in hospitalized children is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To determine the nutritional status in children admitted to the Hospital Clínico de la Universidad Católica de Chile. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on hospital patients less than 17 years old within the period from November 2010 to April 2011. A record was made of the demographic data, admission diagnosis, biochemistry results (albumin, haemoglobin, haematocrit), hospital stay, and anthropometry data. Nutritional diagnosis was expressed as standard deviation (SD) for weight-for-height (WFH) by WHO in children younger than 5 y, and body mass index (BMI) by CDC-NCHS in older children. Height-for-age (HFA) ≤-2SD indicated stunted growth. A total of 365 children, including 201 boys (55.1%), were evaluated. The median age was 3.35 years (IQR: 1.2-8.2). The most frequent reason for admission was heart disease (30.4%). The median hospital stay was 2 days (IQR: 2.0-4.0). Undernutrition was observed in 3.3% of the children, 8% were nutritionally at risk, 15% were overweight, and 10.9% were obese. As regards HFA, short stature was reported in 12.9%. There was a significant relationship between lower age and heart disease, and higher age with gastrointestinal and neurological diseases. By ordinal logistic regression for each year of age, the weight/height ratio (ZP/T) increases by 6.9% (OR=1.07). The biochemistry results (albumin, haemoglobin and haematocrit levels) were not associated with nutritional status. A high percentage of children at risk of undernutrition was found. The percentage overweight was similar to the general Chilean paediatric population. Early detection will allow an opportune intervention, and nutritional monitoring at discharge. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-TNF agents for paediatric psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, Gloria; Murphy, Ruth; Contreras, Javier; García, Hermenegildo; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier

    2015-11-24

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that may develop at any age. Estimates for the United States and Europe suggest that psoriasis accounts for 4% of skin diseases in children. In most cases, the condition is mild and can be treated with creams. However, a small percentage of children have moderate to severe disease that requires drugs, such as ciclosporin or methotrexate, and some will require injections with newer biological agents, such as anti-TNF (tumour necrosis factor) drugs. Anti-TNF drugs (among them etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab) are designed to reduce inflammation in the body caused by tumour necrosis factor. Evidence for the safety and efficacy of these biological agents in paediatric psoriasis is lacking. To assess the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents for the treatment of paediatric psoriasis. We searched the following databases up to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), and LILACS (from 1982). We also searched 13 trials registers and checked the reference lists of included studies and key review articles for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We handsearched conference proceedings and attempted to contact trial authors and relevant pharmaceutical manufacturers. We searched the US Food and Drug Administration's and European Medicines Agency's adverse effects databases. All relevant RCTs that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis in individuals less than 18 years of age. Two review authors independently checked titles and abstracts and performed data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment of the included studies. One review author entered data into Review Manager (RevMan), and a second review author checked the data. We also attempted to obtain unclear data from the trial authors where possible.Our primary

  13. Paediatric oncology in the developing world: an African perspective.

    PubMed

    Nkrumah, F K

    1987-09-01

    Nutritional deficiency and infectious diseases constitute major paediatric priorities in most developing countries in Africa today. It is suggested that successful implementation of the various cost-effective intervention programmes which address themselves to these priorities will gradually unveil other paediatric problems presently considered of low priority. These will include the malignant diseases of childhood. The very high cost of cancer detection and treatment will demand carefully reasoned and planned approaches in most Third World countries. The implications of this in relation to childhood malignancies in Africa are discussed.

  14. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence and treatment failure in a large scale multi-national trial of antiretroviral therapy for HIV: data from the ACTG A5175/PEARLS trial.

    PubMed

    Safren, Steven A; Biello, Katie B; Smeaton, Laura; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Walawander, Ann; Lama, Javier R; Rana, Aadia; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Kayoyo, Virginia M; Samaneka, Wadzanai; Joglekar, Anjali; Celentano, David; Martinez, Ana; Remmert, Jocelyn E; Nair, Aspara; Lalloo, Umesh G; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James; Campbell, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    PEARLS, a large scale trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV (n = 1,571, 9 countries, 4 continents), found that a once-daily protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen (ATV+DDI+FTC), but not a once-daily non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI/NRTI) regimen (EFV+FTC/TDF), had inferior efficacy compared to a standard of care twice-daily NNRTI/NRTI regimen (EFV+3TC/ZDV). The present study examined non-adherence in PEARLS. Outcomes: non-adherence assessed by pill count and by self-report, and time to treatment failure. Longitudinal predictors: regimen, quality of life (general health perceptions  =  QOL-health, mental health  =  QOL-mental health), social support, substance use, binge drinking, and sexual behaviors. "Life-Steps" adherence counseling was provided. In both pill-count and self-report multivariable models, both once-a-day regimens had lower levels of non-adherence than the twice-a-day standard of care regimen; although these associations attenuated with time in the self-report model. In both multivariable models, hard-drug use was associated with non-adherence, living in Africa and better QOL-health were associated with less non-adherence. According to pill-count, unprotected sex was associated with non-adherence. According to self-report, soft-drug use was associated with non-adherence and living in Asia was associated with less non-adherence. Both pill-count (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.09, p<.01) and self-report (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.13, p<.01) non-adherence were significant predictors of treatment failure over 72 weeks. In multivariable models (including pill-count or self-report nonadherence), worse QOL-health, age group (younger), and region were also significant predictors of treatment failure. In the context of a large, multi-national, multi-continent, clinical trial there were variations in adherence over time, with more simplified regimens generally being

  15. ICRP publication 121: radiological protection in paediatric diagnostic and interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Khong, P-L; Ringertz, H; Donoghue, V; Frush, D; Rehani, M; Appelgate, K; Sanchez, R

    2013-04-01

    Paediatric patients have a higher average risk of developing cancer compared with adults receiving the same dose. The longer life expectancy in children allows more time for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. This publication aims to provide guiding principles of radiological protection for referring clinicians and clinical staff performing diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures for paediatric patients. It begins with a brief description of the basic concepts of radiological protection, followed by the general aspects of radiological protection, including principles of justification and optimisation. Guidelines and suggestions for radiological protection in specific modalities - radiography and fluoroscopy, interventional radiology, and computed tomography - are subsequently covered in depth. The report concludes with a summary and recommendations. The importance of rigorous justification of radiological procedures is emphasised for every procedure involving ionising radiation, and the use of imaging modalities that are non-ionising should always be considered. The basic aim of optimisation of radiological protection is to adjust imaging parameters and institute protective measures such that the required image is obtained with the lowest possible dose of radiation, and that net benefit is maximised to maintain sufficient quality for diagnostic interpretation. Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction measures when purchasing new imaging equipment for paediatric use. One of the unique aspects of paediatric imaging is with regards to the wide range in patient size (and weight), therefore requiring special attention to optimisation and modification of equipment, technique, and imaging parameters. Examples of good radiographic and fluoroscopic technique include attention to patient positioning, field size and adequate collimation, use

  16. Major discrepancies between what clinical trial registries record and paediatric randomised controlled trials publish.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Paola; Porzsolt, Franz; Ricciotti, Gabriella; Testa, Giuseppina; Inglese, Rita; Giustini, Ferruccio; Fiscarelli, Ersilia; Zazza, Marco; Carlino, Cecilia; Balassone, Valerio; Fiorito, Roberto; D'Amico, Roberto

    2016-09-23

    Whether information from clinical trial registries (CTRs) and published randomised controlled trial (RCTs) differs remains unknown. Knowing more about discrepancies should alert those who rely on RCTs for medical decision-making to possible dissemination or reporting bias. To provide help in critically appraising research relevant for clinical practice we sought possible discrepancies between what CTRs record and paediatric RCTs actually publish. For this purpose, after identifying six reporting domains including funding, design, and outcomes, we collected data from 20 consecutive RCTs published in a widely read peer-reviewed paediatric journal and cross-checked reported features with those in the corresponding CTRs. We collected data for 20 unselected, consecutive paediatric RCTs published in a widely read peer-reviewed journal from July to November 2013. To assess discrepancies, two reviewers identified and scored six reporting domains: funding and conflict of interests; sample size, inclusion and exclusion criteria or crossover; primary and secondary outcomes, early study completion, and main outcome reporting. After applying the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist, five reviewer pairs cross-checked CTRs and matching RCTs, then mapped and coded the reporting domains and scored combined discrepancy as low, medium and high. The 20 RCTs were registered in five different CTRs. Even though the 20 RCTs fulfilled the CASP general criteria for assessing internal validity, 19 clinical trials had medium or high combined discrepancy scores for what the 20 RCTs reported and the matched five CTRs stated. All 20 RCTs selectively reported or failed to report main outcomes, 9 had discrepancies in declaring sponsorship, 8 discrepancies in the sample size, 9 failed to respect inclusion or exclusion criteria, 11 downgraded or modified primary outcome or upgraded secondary outcomes, and 13 completed early without justification. The CTRs for seven trials failed to

  17. [Osteoarticular infections: therapeutic proposals of the Paediatric Infectious Diseases Group of the French Society of Paediatrics (GPIP)].

    PubMed

    Grimprel, E; Lorrot, M; Haas, H; Pinquier, D; Parez, N; Ferroni, A; Cohen, R

    2008-10-01

    The empiric choice of initial antibiotherapy in osteoarticular infections in infants and children must take into consideration the actual epidemiology of principal pathogens, their respective antibiotic sensitivity profile, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and the results of efficacy clinical studies. After a review of recent data concerning these four major points, the Paediatric Infectious Diseases Group of the French Society of Paediatrics (GPIP) has proposed guidelines for initial recommended schemes of antimicrobial therapy in acute and non complicated osteoarticular infections in infants and children.

  18. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation between high and low-grade brain tumours in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Porto, Luciana; Jurcoane, Alina; Schwabe, Dirk; Hattingen, Elke

    2014-01-01

    It has been described that hyperintensity in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) correlates with high-grade tumours, and high signal-intensity in T2-weighted (T2w) images identifies low-grade tumours. We aimed to investigate the potential of routine conventional MRI sequences, such as DWI and T2-w, to pre-operatively distinguish between low-grade and high-grade brain tumours in paediatric patients. Two raters, blinded to the histological diagnosis, rated the aspect and signal intensity of MR images (T2w and DWI) from 37 children with newly diagnosed brain tumours. Histological diagnoses included 18 low-grade and 19 high-grade brain tumours. The inter-rater agreement was 81-95%. High-grade tumours were never hypointense on DWI and low-grade tumours were usually hyperintense on T2w. Specificity was 100% for low-grade tumours and 90% for high-grade tumours. About 95% of the high-grade tumours and about 70% of the low-grade tumours were correctly diagnosed. The combination of general morphological aspect of the tumours and signals on T2-w and DWI yield a high accuracy of pre-operative differentiation between low-grade and high-grade paediatric tumours. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bispectral index versus COMFORT score to determine the level of sedation in paediatric intensive care unit patients: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Triltsch, Andreas E; Nestmann, Grit; Orawa, Helmut; Moshirzadeh, Maryam; Sander, Michael; Große, Joachim; Genähr, Arka; Konertz, Wolfgang; Spies, Claudia D

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Most clinicians give sedatives and analgesics according to their professional experience and the patient's estimated need for sedation. However, this approach is prone to error. Inadequate monitoring of sedation and analgesia may contribute to adverse outcomes and complications. With this in mind, data obtained continuously using nonstimulating methods such as bispectral index (BIS) may have benefits in comparison with clinical monitoring of sedation. The aim of this prospective observational trial was to evaluate the use of electroencephalographic (EEG) BIS for monitoring sedation in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Methods Forty paediatric patients (<18 years) were sedated for mechanical ventilation in a cardiac surgical and general PICU. In each paediatric patient BIS and COMFORT score were obtained. The study protocol did not influence ongoing PICU therapy. BIS and corresponding COMFORT score were collected three times for each patient. Measurements with the best starting EEG impedances were analyzed further. Deep sedation was defined as a COMFORT score between 8 and 16, and light sedation as a score between 17 and 26. Biometric and physiological data, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality III scores were also recorded. Results There was a good correlation (Spearman's rho 0.651; P = 0.001) between BIS and COMFORT score in the presence of deep sedation and low starting impedance. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed best discrimination between deep and light sedation at a BIS level of 83. Conclusion In the presence of deep sedation, BIS correlated satisfactorily with COMFORT score results if low EEG impedances were guaranteed. PMID:15693968

  20. Bispectral index versus COMFORT score to determine the level of sedation in paediatric intensive care unit patients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Triltsch, Andreas E; Nestmann, Grit; Orawa, Helmut; Moshirzadeh, Maryam; Sander, Michael; Grosse, Joachim; Genähr, Arka; Konertz, Wolfgang; Spies, Claudia D

    2005-02-01

    Most clinicians give sedatives and analgesics according to their professional experience and the patient's estimated need for sedation. However, this approach is prone to error. Inadequate monitoring of sedation and analgesia may contribute to adverse outcomes and complications. With this in mind, data obtained continuously using nonstimulating methods such as bispectral index (BIS) may have benefits in comparison with clinical monitoring of sedation. The aim of this prospective observational trial was to evaluate the use of electroencephalographic (EEG) BIS for monitoring sedation in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Forty paediatric patients (<18 years) were sedated for mechanical ventilation in a cardiac surgical and general PICU. In each paediatric patient BIS and COMFORT score were obtained. The study protocol did not influence ongoing PICU therapy. BIS and corresponding COMFORT score were collected three times for each patient. Measurements with the best starting EEG impedances were analyzed further. Deep sedation was defined as a COMFORT score between 8 and 16, and light sedation as a score between 17 and 26. Biometric and physiological data, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality III scores were also recorded. There was a good correlation (Spearman's rho 0.651; P = 0.001) between BIS and COMFORT score in the presence of deep sedation and low starting impedance. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed best discrimination between deep and light sedation at a BIS level of 83. In the presence of deep sedation, BIS correlated satisfactorily with COMFORT score results if low EEG impedances were guaranteed.

  1. The management of paediatric neurogenic bladder: an approach in a resource-poor setting.

    PubMed

    Maison, Patrick Opoku Manu; Lazarus, John

    2017-11-01

    If untreated, paediatric neurogenic bladder can cause renal failure and urinary incontinence. It is usually caused by neural tube defects such as myelomeningocele. Children with a neurogenic bladder should be monitored from birth and management should aim to preserve renal function and achieve social continence. This article outlines the management options appropriate for these children in resource-poor settings. In most low- and middle-income countries, a general lack of awareness of the neurological effects on the urinary tract results in late presentation, usually with urological complications even when spina bifida is diagnosed early. Physical examination must include neurological examination for spinal deformities and intact sacral reflexes. About 90% of children with occult spinal dysraphisms will have cutaneous sacral lesions. The work-up includes urinalysis, serial ultrasound of the urinary tracts and urodynamics. Urodynamic assessment is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of the paediatric neurogenic bladder. In poorly resourced settings, simple eyeball urodynamics can be performed in the absence of a conventional urodynamic set-up. Clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC), the mainstay of treatment, is most suitable for resource-poor settings because it is effective and inexpensive. Antimuscarinic drugs such as oxybutynin complement CIC by reducing detrusor overactivity. Intravesical injection of Botox and bladder augmentation surgery is required by a small subset of patients who fail to respond to combined CIC and oxybutynin therapy. Children with neurogenic bladder in resource-poor settings should have early bladder management to preserve renal function and provide social continence.

  2. Aetiological profile of acquired anaemia in a paediatric tertiary care setting.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Saima; Gilani, Syed Yasir Hussain; Shah, Syed Raza Ali; Bibi, Shawana

    2011-01-01

    Anaemia is the commonest haematological disorder frequently faced by clinicians worldwide. The multi-factorial aetiology of the disorder warrants a comprehensive search for the different causes as management plans differ for different disorders. The objective of this study was to identify the different acquired causes of anaemia in our paediatric population. The study was conducted at the Department of Paediatrics, Ayub Teaching Hospital from April 2009 to April 2010. It was a cross-sectional study. A total of 110 patients were included in the study who presented with anaemia secondary to acquired aetiologies and were assessed clinically using general physical and systemic examination. The salient clinical and laboratory data was retrieved in designed protocol. Out of a total of 110 patients, 61 (55.5%) were male and 49 (44.5%) were female. Mean age of the participants was 48 months. Nutritional anaemia comprising iron deficiency anaemia and megaloblastic anaemia was the leading cause being present in 49 (44.5%) patients followed by Visceral Leishmaniasis in 28 (25.5%) patients. Mean haemoglobin was 4.36 g/dl. Anaemia secondary to acquired causes is a disorder with grave consequences ranging from cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction to mortality in severe cases. Identification of the different acquired causes is important in preventing the disorder by guiding appropriate interventions.

  3. Using children as standardised patients for assessing clinical competence in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, T-C

    2004-12-01

    Standardised patients (SPs) have been widely used to assess physicians' clinical competence. However, in paediatrics, the use of children in such a way has long been questioned with regard to ethics and the examination quality (in terms of validity, reliability, and feasibility). To summarise the current state of the use of child SPs, and to highlight the difficulties inherent in the use of children for this purpose. Nineteen articles dealing with the use of child SPs for clinical assessment were reviewed. Child SPs, ranging in age from infancy to adolescence, were present in varied proportions of paediatric objective structured clinical examination stations (12-27%). In most of these reports, there were several children with cases who could substitute for one another. Child SPs successfully portrayed various roles, although only older children had to learn a scenario. In general, clinical examinations using child SPs were found to be valid and generated reliable scores. Child SPs also provided effective feedback. The experience tended to be considered negative for younger children but was quite positive for a number of older children. The use of young SPs should be avoided for ethical reasons, and the use of child SPs should be limited to assessments that cannot be satisfactorily measured by other methods. Through meticulous attention to detail and careful planning, a clinical examination using children as SPs can be practical, valid, and reliable.

  4. Paediatric approaches to child maltreatment are subject to wide organisational variations across Europe.

    PubMed

    Otterman, Gabriel; Jalsenius, Marie; Maguire, Sabine; Sarkadi, Anna; Janson, Staffan

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the organisation of child maltreatment practice in Europe. We therefore explored medical child protection systems and training across Europe. An online survey was completed by physicians working in child maltreatment, identified through professional organisations in 28 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland in 2012-2013. Respondents were questioned regarding management of suspected child maltreatment, mandatory reporting, professional training, patient referral and physician roles in multidisciplinary investigations. Responses underwent a narrative synthesis and descriptive enumerations. The survey was completed by 88 individuals, unevenly distributed in 22 of 31 countries. Physicians were mandated to report child maltreatment in 16 of 22 countries. All of 88 responding physicians described multidisciplinary involvement in the clinical and forensic management of suspected child maltreatment. Practitioners involved in physical examinations included general physicians, paediatricians, forensic medical examiners, gynaecologists and paediatric surgeons. Paediatricians were required to undergo child protection training according to 30 of 86 respondents in 14 of 22 countries. This survey demonstrates that there were wide variations in the organisation of child maltreatment paediatrics in Europe. The differing legislative frameworks and models of care are pertinent to consider when comparing epidemiology of maltreatment reported from across European countries. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Parental anxiety increases pre-operative anxiety in the paediatric patient subjected to day surgery].

    PubMed

    Rangel Ávila, F; Haro Haro, J M; García Méndez, N

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the pre-operative anxiety associated with parental anxiety in children subjected to day surgery, by studying the parent-child behaviour and interaction in the surgical environment. A prospective, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 paediatric patients, between 2 and 10 years-old, scheduled for elective day surgery with general anaesthesia. The modified YALE Pre-operative Anxiety Scale was applied, and the parents were independently evaluated using the Hamilton Anxiety Test. Pre-operative anxiety was present in 71.4% of the patients. Children between 5 and 7 years had a significantly higher risk of presenting with anxiety (P=.05). In the parents group, 55.2% showed mild anxiety, and 9.2% moderate. The mother was the family member who most often accompanied the paediatric patient. The anxiety in children subjected to surgery is characterised by subjective feelings of tension, fear, nervousness, and worry that could be expressed in diverse forms. The evaluation of anxiety in the pre-operative period is an excellent tool to start and to perform both psychological and pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Indication-based national diagnostic reference levels for paediatric CT: a new approach with proposed values.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, H; Seuri, R; Kortesniemi, M; Lajunen, A; Hallinen, E; Savikurki-Heikkilä, P; Laarne, P; Perhomaa, M; Tyrväinen, E

    2015-07-01

    Indication-based national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for a few most common paediatric computed tomography (CT) examinations are proposed. Patient dose data (CTDI vol and dose length product) were collected for over 1000 patients in 4 university hospitals with best experiences in paediatric CT. Four indications for chest CT and two for abdomen (abdomen + pelvis), chest + abdomen and head CT were considered. The DRLs for the body examinations are proposed as exponential DRL-curves, where CTDI vol and dose length product are presented as a function of patient weight. The same DRL curve applies to all the indications studied. The basic 75 % level curve is supplemented by 50 % level curve to enable considerations on varying levels of technology. For head CT, DRLs are proposed for a few age groups (1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 y), separately for routine CT and CT for ventricular size. The proposed DRLs are generally lower than the few published DRLs in other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cochlear implants in Belgium: Prevalence in paediatric and adult cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    De Raeve, L

    2016-06-01

    Belgium, and especially the northern region called Flanders, has been a centre of expertise in cochlear implants and early hearing screening for many years. Cochlear implants are reimbursed by the Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability (BNIHD) Insurance in adults and in children since October 1994. More than 20 years later, we would like to measure the prevalence of cochlear implants in adults and in children till now. Based on scientific research data on the prevalence of severe to profound hearing loss in adults and in children and on the number of implantations from the data of the BNIHD, we could measure the percentages of paediatric and adult CI users in comparing to the number of CI candidates. The degree of utilisation of cochlear implantation varies considerably between the paediatric and the adult population. On average, 78% of deaf children are receiving cochlear implants, but in adults only 6.6% of CI candidates are receiving one. There are big differences in Belgium in utilisation of cochlear implants between adults and children. Because of the underutilisation of cochlear implants, especially in adults, we have to work on raising the general awareness of the benefits of cochlear implants, and its improvement in quality of life, based on cost-effectiveness data and on guidelines for good clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dose evaluation in paediatric patients undergoing chest X-ray examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piantini, F.; Schelin, H. R.; Denyak, V.; Bunick, A. P.; Legnani, A.; Ledesma, J. A.; Filipov, D.; Paschuk, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incident air kerma in chest X-ray examinations, for lateral (LAT) and anterior-posterior (AP) (together with posterior-anterior (PA)) projections, in one of the largest paediatric hospitals in Brazil, and to compare these with the results obtained in a general hospital of the same city. The dosimetric results were analysed along with the patient characteristics and radiographer strategies. The examinations of 225 (119 male and 106 female) patients were studied and 389 X-ray scans (200 AP/PA projections and 189 LAT projections) of paediatric patients were acquired. For analysis of the results, the patients were divided into the following age groups: 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. Patient's thickness can be determined from age, height or weight with an uncertainty of 20-30%. In different hospitals, the difference in patient's thicknesses between the same age groups can reach 25-55%. A minimal correlation between the patient dose and thickness was observed, with a 4-fold difference in the dose for patients of the same thickness. By standardizing radiological protocols, it should be possible to keep the dose within intervals of 50-100 μGy for LAT projection and 40-80 μGy for AP/PA projection.

  9. Paediatric Palliative Care and Intellectual Disability--A Unique Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duc, Jacqueline K.; Herbert, Anthony Robert; Heussler, Helen S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Paediatric palliative care is a nuanced area of practice with additional complexities in the context of intellectual disability. There is currently minimal research to guide clinicians working in this challenging area of care. Method: This study describes the complex care of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual…

  10. [Teamwork in a paediatric mobile emergency and intensive care service].

    PubMed

    Tison-Chambellan, Camille; Daussac, Élisabeth; Barnet, Lucile; Sirven, Sabine; Bambou, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    A paediatric mobile emergency and intensive care service team comprises several professionals with complementary skills. The cohesion of a team, as well as the listening and communication skills of each of its members, allow it to respond in the best possible way to emergency situations. Feedback sessions on practice and simulation exercises enhance teamwork. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Trends in paediatric nosocomial bacteraemia in a London tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Pérerz Lopéz, Andrés; Ladhani, Shamez N; Breathnach, Aodhan; Planche, Timothy; Heath, Paul T; Sharland, Mike

    2013-10-01

    To describe the incidence and microbiological characteristics of nosocomial bloodstream infections in childhood over a 9-year period at a South London tertiary hospital. Analysis of prospective data collected for clinically significant nosocomial bloodstream infections in children aged <16 years during 2001-2009. During the study period, although the absolute number of nosocomial bloodstream infections were similar for the neonatal unit (n = 254) and paediatric wards (n = 224), rates were 11.6-fold (95% CI, 9.8-13.9) higher for the former (5.8 vs. 0.50/100 discharges, respectively). Analysis of trends revealed a significant reduction in rates for both the neonatal unit (7.8-2.5 episodes/100 discharges; p < 0.001) and paediatric wards (1.2-0.4 episodes/100 discharges; p < 0.001), mainly due a decline in catheter-associated staphylococcal bacteraemia, which accounted for 115 (45%) and 164 (73%) episodes in the paediatric wards and neonatal units, respectively. Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent pathogens recovered, accounting for 200 (79%) and 185 (83%) cases in the neonatal unit and paediatric wards, respectively. Overall, antimicrobial resistance rates were low compared with other industrialized countries. Nosocomial bloodstream infections rates declined significantly in our hospital over the past decade, likely driven by local introduction of national infection-control bundles particularly focussing on insertion and maintenance of intravascular catheters. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Liaison psychotherapy in a hospital paediatric diabetic clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Josse, J D; Challener, J

    1987-01-01

    A psychotherapist joined the medical team of the paediatric diabetic clinic three years ago. After some initial difficulties all agreed there had been appreciable benefits, not only to individual patients but also to the team in their handling of the psychological aspects of diabetes. PMID:3606192

  13. [Assessing and making safe the medicine use pathway in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Didelot, Nicolas; Guerrier, Catherine; Didelot, Anne; Fritsch, Sandrine; Pelte, Jean-Pierre; Socha, Marie; Javelot, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Based on an assessment of adverse events in a follow-up care and rehabilitation unit in paediatrics, audits were carried out of the medicine use pathway. The evaluation grid taken from this study today serves as a basis for the audits carried out on the medicine use pathway on a national level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Paediatric lung imaging: the times they are a-changin'.

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Kuo, Wieying; van Straten, Marcel; Ciet, Pierluigi

    2018-03-31

    Until recently, functional tests were the most important tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases in the paediatric population. Chest imaging has gained considerable importance for paediatric pulmonology as a diagnostic and monitoring tool to evaluate lung structure over the past decade. Since January 2016, a large number of papers have been published on innovations in chest computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, acquisition techniques, image analysis strategies and their application in different disease areas. Together, these papers underline the importance and potential of chest imaging and image analysis for today's paediatric pulmonology practice. The focus of this review is chest CT and MRI, as these are, and will be, the modalities that will be increasingly used by most practices. Special attention is given to standardisation of image acquisition, image analysis and novel applications in chest MRI. The publications discussed underline the need for the paediatric pulmonology community to implement and integrate state-of-the-art imaging and image analysis modalities into their structure-function laboratory for the benefit of their patients. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  15. Paediatric intensive care admissions for acute diabetes complications.

    PubMed

    Burns, M R; Bodansky, H J; Parslow, R C

    2010-06-01

    To describe the admission characteristics and outcomes of children admitted to paediatric intensive care because of acute diabetes complications in England and Wales. Retrospective review of children admitted to paediatric intensive care in England and Wales between April 2003 and March 2007 with acute diabetes complications using data from the Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network (PICANet). There were 341 admissions in 330 patients for acute diabetes complications, comprising 0.6% of all 56 322 intensive care admissions. There was a steady annual increase during this period from 0.54% to 0.67%. The majority of admissions were for ketoacidosis (87%), with more female admissions than males (56% vs. 44%). Forty per cent of the diabetes admissions were aged 11-15 years. There were five deaths (1.5%), all female. Acute diabetes complications are an increasing cause of admission to paediatric intensive care, particularly for teenage girls. The overall mortality rate was low for intensive care admissions for diabetes. Earlier diagnosis of new cases, heightened awareness of this condition and better management of existing diabetic patients may obviate the need for costly intensive care treatment.

  16. Aetiology of Intellectual Disability in Paediatric Outpatients in Northern India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhari, Prashant; Boggula, Raju; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Singh, Chandrakanta; Kohli, Neera; Yadav, Rajesh; Kumar, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the aetiology of intellectual disability in patients presenting to hospital and the diagnostic yield of a standardized examination. Method: Over a 1-year period, the first three children presenting to the paediatric outpatients department (OPD) on 2 selected weekdays with developmental delay, suspected intellectual disability, or…

  17. [Organisation and specificities of a paediatric intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Basset, Malorie; Denuzière, Florence; Petit, Emilie Marty; Randon, Véronique; Richard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A paediatric intensive care unit is, by definition, a high-tech place where children with life-threatening conditions are cared for. There are considerable challenges for the young patient and their family as well as for the organisation of the care within the units.

  18. Access of asylum seeker children to acute paediatric services.

    PubMed

    Prendiville, T; Williamson, M; Cahill, P; Loftus, B G

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the interface between primary care and paediatric services in the referral of asylum seekers. Over a 3 month period a questionnaire was administered, and clinical data gathered on every child attending the A&E department of UCHG whose parents were seeking asylum in this country. Control data was obtained for the next Irish child seen on-call. At the time of presentation to the paediatric service, an Irish child was 4 times more likely (32%) to have initially been seen and referred by a GP than an asylum seeker child (8%); 80% of asylum seeker families had registered with a GP, compared to 96% of controls. 24% of asylum seeker families had called and used an emergency response ambulance to get to hospital, compared to just 4% of Irish children. The rate of subsequent admission to the paediatric ward from A&E was nearly that in asylum seeker children (24%) compared to Irish controls (40%), get to hospital, compared to just 4% of Irish children. Asylum seeker children are less likely to have seen a GP prior to A&E presentation, more likely to go to hospital by ambulance and less likely to be subsequently admitted, suggesting an over-dependence on paediatric hospital services in this population.

  19. [The treatment of leukaemia in paediatric haematology day hospital].

    PubMed

    Héritier, Sébastien; Morand, Karine; Courcoux, Mary-France; Leverger, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The paediatric haematology day hospital administers almost all types of chemotherapy used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Blood transfusions, myelograms and lumbar punctures are also performed there. The prevention of pain and anxiety generated by the care is a priority. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Management of treatment-induced pain in paediatric haematology].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamadi, Donia; Calvet, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    Invasive procedures are frequent and painful in children treated in paediatric haematology. It is therefore essential to take into consideration and anticipate the pain induced by these procedures. The caregiver has various effective methods of providing a high quality care management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune activation and paediatric HIV-1 disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Roider, Julia M; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Goulder, Philip J R

    2016-03-01

    The paediatric HIV epidemic is changing. Over the past decade, new infections have substantially reduced, whereas access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased. Overall this success means that numbers of children living with HIV are climbing. In addition, the problems observed in adult infection resulting from chronic inflammation triggered by persistent immune activation even following ART mediated suppression of viral replication are magnified in children infected from birth. Features of immune ontogeny favour low immune activation in early life, whereas specific aspects of paediatric HIV infection tend to increase it. A subset of ART-naïve nonprogressing children exists in whom normal CD4 cell counts are maintained in the setting of persistent high viremia and yet in the context of low immune activation. This sooty mangabey-like phenotype contrasts with nonprogressing adult infection which is characterized by the expression of protective HLA class I molecules and low viral load. The particular factors contributing to raised or lowered immune activation in paediatric infection, which ultimately influence disease outcome, are discussed. Novel strategies to circumvent the unwanted long-term consequences of HIV infection may be possible in children in whom natural immune ontogeny in early life militates against immune activation. Defining the mechanisms underlying low immune activation in natural HIV infection would have applications beyond paediatric HIV.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Results from a Non-Interventional Longitudinal Multi-National Study.

    PubMed

    Rofail, Diana; Froggatt, Daniel; de la Torre, Rafael; Edgin, Jamie; Kishnani, Priya; Touraine, Renaud; Whitwham, Sarah; Squassante, Lisa; Khwaja, Omar; D'Ardhuy, Xavier Liogier

    2017-08-01

    To date, there is little research on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Down syndrome (DS), and existing research is variable with regard to reported HRQoL in DS. There are also no HRQoL measures developed specifically to be used with individuals with Down syndrome. A multi-national, longitudinal, 24-week non-interventional study was conducted in adolescents and adults with DS. HRQoL was assessed (n = 90) using the parent-report KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. HRQoL domain scores were found to be similar to those in the KIDSCREEN-27 European normative group data set on the Physical Well-being, Psychological Well-being, Autonomy and Parent Relations domains. Compared with the normative data set, the adolescent participants with DS in the current study were found to have lower scores on the Social Support and Peers domain and higher scores than the normative group on the School Environment domain. The test-retest reliability of the KIDSCREEN-27 was also examined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) in a subgroup of stable participants. The KIDSCREEN-27 demonstrated poor-to-moderate test-retest reliability; however, test-retest reliability was assessed using a long time interval between assessment time points. The findings of this study underline that further research is needed to better understand the nature of HRQoL in DS. Further research using a shorter time interval between assessment time points to examine test-retest reliability is also required. F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

  3. Essential and non-essential paediatric surgery: implications for the future delivery of state health care in the UK.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Paul J; Losty, Paul D

    2015-09-01

    Delivery of health care in the UK faces enormous challenges with the Department of Health driving significant financial cost savings to ensure viability of public health services. We have analysed and modelled the concept of 'essential' and 'non-essential' paediatric surgery linked to the delivery of children's surgery in the NHS in England. Operation codes for surgical operations in newborns, children and adolescents were identified and Healthcare Resource Group tariffs-£Stg matched. Operations were designated as 'essential' or 'non-essential' based on the criteria-(1) life saving-neonatal surgery, emergency general surgery of childhood, cancer surgery; (2) debility if uncorrected; (3) aesthetics and (4) culture/attitude. Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data were accessed and sampled for the total number of paediatric surgical operations-(age range 0-14 years) performed in NHS hospitals from 2009 to 2010. Annual costs (£) of both 'essential' and 'non-essential' operations were then calculated. The commonest 'essential' operations performed in children and adolescents in the year 2009-2010 was appendicectomy at a cost of over £51 million pounds. Costs of performing a selection of 'non-essential' paediatric surgery operations were >£14 million pounds/year. The NHs funds for example almost 11,000 paediatric circumcisions annually at a cost of >£8 million pounds-50% are performed for non-therapeutic reasons. Surgeons must engage and work actively with health care systems to ensure diminishing financial resources prioritise 'essential' operations for children. Commissioners must embrace evidence-based surgery. 'Essential' and 'non-essential' surgery has wide implications for the sustainability of the NHS and concepts herein developed can be applied to nations worldwide.

  4. A 10 year epidemiological study of paediatric burns at the Welsh Centre for burns and plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sanyaolu, Leigh; Javed, Muhammad Umair; Eales, Micheal; Hemington-Gorse, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    Paediatric burns make up a significant proportion of burn injured patients seen within the hospital setting and worldwide account for a significant proportion of unintentional deaths. Currently there is limited data on severe paediatric burns requiring intensive care support. Our study aimed primarily to describe the epidemiology of severe burns admitted to the intensive care unit at our centre receiving fluid resuscitation over a 10 year period. A secondary aim was to describe the referrals patterns in general over the same time period. A retrospective analysis was performed for paediatric patients referred to our centre receiving fluid resuscitation and intensive care support from 2003 to 2013. We also analysed the patterns of referrals, admissions and need for surgical intervention over the same time period retrospectively. Children less than 5 years old made up 65% of admissions to intensive care and scald injuries (56%) were the commonest aetiology. Both total length of stay (25 days in 2003 to 10 days in 2013) and intensive care length of stay (7.2 days in 2003 to 3 days in 2013) decreased during the study and less patients underwent operative intervention. Referrals to our centre increased from 261 in 2003 to 366 in 2013, however admission rates declined from 145 to 85 during that time period. Currently there is limited data on severe burns within the paediatric population. Our study provides epidemiological data in this area, an important step for developing future prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. The diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Australian children: Current paediatric practice and parent perspective.

    PubMed

    Efron, Daryl; Sciberras, Emma; Hiscock, Harriet; Jongeling, Brad; Lycett, Kate; Bisset, Matthew; Smith, Grant

    2016-04-01

    In a sample of newly diagnosed children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the aims were to examine (1) paediatrician assessment and management practices; (2) previous assessments and interventions; (3) correspondence between parent-report and paediatrician identification of comorbidities; and (4) parent agreement with diagnosis of ADHD. cross-sectional, multi-site practice audit with questionnaires completed by paediatricians and parents at the point of ADHD diagnosis. private/public paediatric practices in Western Australia and Victoria, Australia. paediatricians: elements of assessment and management were indicated on a study-designed data form. Parents: ADHD symptoms and comorbidities were measured using the Conners 3 ADHD Index and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. Sleep problems, previous assessments and interventions, and agreement with ADHD diagnosis were measured by questionnaire. Twenty-four paediatricians participated, providing data on 137 patients (77% men, mean age 8.1 years). Parent and teacher questionnaires were used in 88% and 85% of assessments, respectively. Medication was prescribed in 75% of cases. Comorbidities were commonly diagnosed (70%); however, the proportion of patients identified by paediatricians with internalising problems (18%), externalising problems (15%) and sleep problems (4%) was less than by parent report (51%, 66% and 39%). One in seven parents did not agree with the diagnosis of ADHD. Australian paediatric practice in relation to ADHD assessment is generally consistent with best practice guidelines; however, improvements are needed in relation to the routine use of questionnaires and the identification of comorbidities. A proportion of parents do not agree with the diagnosis of ADHD made by their paediatrician. © 2016 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. A review of epidemiology of paediatric elbow injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Magra, Merzesh; Caine, Dennis; Maffulli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The elbow is a common site of orthopaedic injury in the paediatric population. The number of these injuries continues to rise following increased levels of participation in paediatric recreational and competitive sport. Injuries to the paediatric elbow can be classified as either overuse or acute. Delineating injury patterns to the elbow in children can be challenging, given the cartilaginous composition of the distal humerus and the multiple secondary ossification centres that appear and unite with the epiphysis at defined ages. Pitching in baseball, serving in tennis, spiking in volleyball, passing in American football and launching in javelin-throwing can all produce elbow pathology by forceful valgus stress, with medial stretching, lateral compression and posterior impingement. In children and adolescents, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the surrounding ligaments, predisposing them to epiphyseal plate injuries. On the other hand, post-pubescent or skeletally mature athletes are more prone to tendinous or ligamentous injury. Injuries may cause significant impact on the athlete, parents and healthcare system. With the exception of baseball, there are few prospective cohort studies on the epidemiological trends of childhood elbow injuries in other sports. This paper aims to describe the epidemiological trends in paediatric elbow injuries related to sports, suggests prevention strategies and discusses the scope for further research. A web-based search of existing articles pertaining to paediatric elbow injuries in sports was performed. The implications of acute and overuse injuries and the possibility of permanent damage should be understood by parents, coaches and the athletes. Proper understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that could lead to elbow injuries is thus required. Measures to prevent elbow injuries should include proper coaching, warm-up, officiation, legislation, medical expertise and protective gear. There are still many

  7. Family functioning in paediatric obsessive compulsive and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Yolanda E; Flessner, Christopher A

    2015-11-01

    Research among youths with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has shown a significant relationship between illness severity, treatment outcome, and the family environment yet little work has been undertaken among the broader class of obsessive compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) - Trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), skin picking disorder (SPD), and hoarding. The aim of this study was to (1) review the family functioning literature among paediatric OCRDs, (2) address limitations to previous studies, and (3) highlight areas in need of further research. A review of the literature was conducted using several databases (i.e., Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect) and employing key search terms (e.g., 'family functioning', 'paediatric OCD'). The resultant articles examined several domains subsumed under the broader heading of family environment including parental mental health, parenting practices, family dynamics, family involvement with symptoms, and family emotional climate. The literature reviewed demonstrated a strong relationship between paediatric OCD and adverse family functioning (e.g., parental symptoms of anxiety and depression, family accommodation, family strain and stress, parental guilt and fear) in all identified domains. While family functioning research in paediatric HPD was relatively scant, research suggested similar familial dysfunction (e.g., limited independence, low family cohesion, family violence). Collectively, only 1 article, examining BDD, assessed family functioning within other OCRDs. This review supports the need for further research in the OCRDs. Limitations to the available literature and targeted suggestions for future research are discussed. The domains of family environment in this study indicate specific family functioning deficits that may serve as aetiological and/or maintenance factors in paediatric OCRDs, possibly contributing to the understanding of these complex disorders. The recognition of family deficits

  8. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in the paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Habiballah, Laila; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    A paucity of research related to the problem of pressure ulcers in paediatrics is found, with a variety of reported prevalence rates. To record the prevalence, location and categories of PU in the inpatient paediatric wards, and to identify the characteristics of pressure ulcer patients. A descriptive point prevalence study. All paediatric inpatient wards in two hospitals in Jordan. One of which is a university-affiliated hospital and the other a paediatric public hospital. Isolation, burn and emergency units, outpatients' clinics and psychiatric wards were excluded. One sixty six paediatric patients aged from one day up to 18 years from both hospitals. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were included and examined for the existence of pressure ulcers on one day in each hospital by the primary investigator. The European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification system was used to categorise each identified ulcer. The characteristics of ulcers were collected as well. Sixteen ulcers were identified in 11 patients, giving a prevalence rate of 6.6%.When Category I ulcers were excluded, the prevalence rate dropped to 2.4%. All except one of the PU patients were being treated in critical care units (n = 10, 90.9%), and most of the ulcers were category one (n = 7, 63.6%) and caused by devices (n = 7, 63.6). The face was the most frequently reported location of PUs (n = 6, 54.5%), followed by the occiput (n = 2, 18.2%). Most PU patients were male (n = 6, 54.5%), and less than 12 months old (n = 8, 72.7%). PU patients had experienced longer hospital stays than patients free from PU (U = 499.0, p = 0.02). Jordanian paediatric patients do have pressure ulcers, with a prevalence rate congruent with previously reported international rates. Most of the ulcers found were caused by devices used in critical care units. This should encourage nurses to pay extra attention to their paediatric patients when they are connected to medical devices. Copyright

  9. Drug administration errors in paediatric wards: a direct observation approach.

    PubMed

    Chua, Siew Siang; Chua, Hui Ming; Omar, Asma

    2010-05-01

    Paediatric patients are more vulnerable to drug administration errors due to a lack of appropriate drug dosages and strengths for use in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the extent and types of drug administration errors in two paediatric wards and to identify measures to reduce such errors. A researcher was stationed in two paediatric wards of a teaching hospital to observe all drugs administered to paediatric inpatients in each of the ward, for 1 day in a week over ten consecutive weeks. All data were recorded in a data collection form and then compared with the actual drugs and dosages prescribed for the patients. Of the 857 drug administrations observed, 100 doses had errors, and this gave an error rate of 11.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.5-13.9%]. If wrong time administration errors were excluded, the error rate reduced to 7.8% (95% CI 6.0-9.6%). The most common types of drug administration errors were incorrect time of administration (28.8%), followed by incorrect drug preparation (26%), omission errors (16.3%) and incorrect dose (11.5%). None of the errors observed were considered as potentially life threatening, although 40.4% could possibly cause patient harm. Drug administration errors are as common in paediatric wards in Malaysia as in other countries. Double-checking should be conducted, as this could reduce drug administration errors by about 20%, but collaborative efforts between all healthcare professionals are essential.

  10. Peer mentoring: evaluation of a novel programme in paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Sarah; Sukhani, Seema; Brightwell, Alex; Stoneham, Sara; Long, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Mentoring is important for personal and professional development of doctors. Peer mentoring is a core skill in the UK paediatric postgraduate curriculum. However, there is a paucity of peer mentoring programmes aimed at postgraduate doctors in training (postgraduate trainees), and there are no such schemes within paediatrics described in the literature. We developed a regional peer mentoring programme for postgraduate trainees in paediatrics to assess demand and need for peer mentoring and to explore the benefits for both peer mentees and mentors. Programme design Junior postgraduate trainees, randomly selected from volunteers, received peer mentoring from more senior trainees for 1 year. Peer mentors were selected by competitive application and undertook tailored training followed by an experiential learning programme. The programme was evaluated using structured questionnaires. Results 90% (76/84) of first-year postgraduate trainees in paediatrics applied to participate, demonstrating high demand. 18 peer mentor–mentee pairs were matched. Peer mentors and mentees reported high satisfaction rates, acquisition of new and transferable skills and changed behaviours. All peer mentors intended to use the skills in their workplace and, later, as an educational supervisor. Conclusions Our programme represents a novel approach to meeting the demonstrated demand and the curriculum requirement for peer mentoring, and enabled peer mentors and mentees to develop a valuable and versatile skill set. To our knowledge, it is the first such programme in paediatrics and provides a feasibility model that may be adapted locally to allow education providers to offer this important experience to postgraduate trainees. PMID:24152570

  11. Licensing and labelling of drugs in a paediatric oncology ward

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Henk; Tak, Nanda

    2011-01-01

    AIM Paediatric drug prescriptions are known for their high percentages of off-label and unlicensed use. In paediatric oncology data available are scarce. The aim of this paper is an analysis of the licensing and labelling status of all prescribed medication over a 2 week period in a Dutch paediatric oncology centre. METHODS An analysis of the delivery of medication by the hospital pharmacy to patients admitted to the paediatric oncology centre was carried out. RESULTS In total 268 precriptions were filed for 39 patients. In 87% of children unlicensed medication was used. Fifty-nine per cent of the children received at least two unlicensed drugs. In total 72% of the drugs were used licensed and on-label was found in 57% of the prescriptions. There was a trend that in younger children percentages were lower. International and local guidelines necessitated in many cases unlicensed use, e.g. intrathecal prednisolone, low dose medication such as heparin, ethanol and vancomycin for locking intravenous devices and higher intravenous vancomycin dosages. There were no major differences with respect to type of malignancy. CONCLUSION Our figures are substantially higher than the figures reported from adult oncology. Comparison with other paediatric reports are cumbersome, due to different percentages of diseases in the reports and other rules to dispense medication in the outpatient setting. Our data are in line with reports mentioning the higher percentages of unlicensed and off-label use. Our data further underpin the need for more research on suitable formulations, dosages, safety and efficacy in these children. PMID:21453298

  12. Prenatal counselling and the role of the paediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Benachi, Alexandra; Sarnacki, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    With the development of prenatal ultrasound and of foetal medicine, the paediatric surgeon has extended his knowledge of the natural history of surgical malformations. He is a part of the prenatal team and parents should always be referred to him when a surgical malformation is suspected, even when termination of pregnancy is planned because of an expected poor prognosis. Direct contact between the prenatal medicine specialist and the paediatric surgeon is also highly recommended to ensure continuity in the messages delivered to the parents. Postnatal counselling does not compare with prenatal counselling, and the paediatric surgeon has learned from the obstetrician to modulate his talk by including other conditions that might affect the outcome of the foetus, especially genetically determined syndromes. When the foetal malformation is diagnosed very early, especially in the first trimester, it therefore seems important for the consultation with the paediatric surgeon to be scheduled when the complementary exams required by the anomalies diagnosed are done, in order to avoid later contradictory messages. Repeated consultations should be favoured as they allow provision of more precise information regarding changes in ultrasound and/or MRI images and so decrease parents׳ anxiety and help them to take their decision. Foetal surgery, which has reached various stages of development in different countries, requires paediatric surgeons and obstetricians to join forces to optimise procedures and evaluate their benefit/risk ratio. Since 2004, the National Rare Disease Plan in France has allowed the creation of Rare Disease Centres, which deal with congenital malformations and produce recommendations for the health care pathway of these patients by means of a multidisciplinary approach. This greatly enhances interdisciplinary communication and ensures that best care is provided to the parents-to-be and to their child. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attitudes towards fever amongst UK paediatric intensive care staff.

    PubMed

    Brick, Thomas; Agbeko, Rachel S; Davies, Patrick; Davis, Peter J; Deep, Akash; Fortune, Peter-Marc; Inwald, David P; Jones, Amy; Levin, Richard; Morris, Kevin P; Pappachan, John; Ray, Samiran; Tibby, Shane M; Tume, Lyvonne N; Peters, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    The role played by fever in the outcome of critical illness in children is unclear. This survey of medical and nursing staff in 35 paediatric intensive care units and transport teams in the United Kingdom and Ireland established attitudes towards the management of children with fever. Four hundred sixty-two medical and nursing staff responded to a web-based survey request. Respondents answered eight questions regarding thresholds for temperature control in usual clinical practice, indications for paracetamol use, and readiness to participate in a clinical trial of permissive temperature control. The median reported threshold for treating fever in clinical practice was 38 °C (IQR 38-38.5 °C). Paracetamol was reported to be used as an analgesic and antipyretic but also for non-specific comfort indications. There was a widespread support for a clinical trial of a permissive versus a conservative approach to fever in paediatric intensive care units. Within a trial, 58% of the respondents considered a temperature of 39 °C acceptable without treatment. Staff on paediatric intensive care units in the United Kingdom and Ireland tends to treat temperatures within the febrile range. There was a willingness to conduct a randomized controlled trial of treatment of fever. What is known: • The effect of fever on the outcome in paediatric critical illness is unknown. • Paediatricians have traditionally been reluctant to allow fever in sick children. What is new: • Paediatric intensive care staff report a tendency towards treating fever, with a median reported treatment threshold of 38 °C. • There is widespread support amongst PICU staff in the UK for a randomized controlled trial of temperature in critically ill children. • Within a trial setting, PICU staff attitudes to fever are more permissive than in clinical practice.

  14. Drug development: EU paediatric legislation, the European Medicines Agency and its Paediatric Committee--adolescents' melanoma as a paradigm.

    PubMed

    Rose, Klaus; Senn, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The European Medicines Agency (EMA) website lists all diseases that officially exist in adults only. The class waiver for juvenile melanoma was revoked in 2008 referring to US SEER statistics. This statistical justification is misleading. Melanoma in adolescents is much rarer than claimed by EMA/Paediatric Committee; < 1 ∕ 4 of adolescents with melanoma need systemic treatment; separate efficacy studies are neither medically justified nor feasible. The scarce adolescent patients should be allowed to participate in adult trials. To force companies to investigate them separately turns them into paediatric hostages, to adapt the term therapeutic orphans coined in 1968 by Shirkey. There are now five melanoma Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs). Probably none of the PIP-triggered clinical studies will ever be completed; we propose to call them ghost studies. An oncology research network considering a reasonable trial in melanoma, including adolescents, will compete for recruitment with the PIP-triggered trials designed by regulatory tunnel vision and sponsored by companies under EMA-imposed pressure. EMA/Paediatric Committee's territorial enthusiasm ("our patients") damages oncology research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Current educational status of paediatric rheumatology in Europe: the results of PReS survey.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, E; Ozen, S; Türker, T; Kuis, W; Saurenmann, R K

    2009-01-01

    To understand the status of education and problems in paediatric rheumatology practice in Europe, through a survey. A 26-item questionnaire was conducted during the 14th Congress of the Paediatric Rheumatology European Society in Istanbul, 2007. Physicians who were practicing or studying within the field of paediatric rheumatology for at least one year were included in the survey. One hundred and twenty eight physicians, 79 paediatric rheumatologists (including 5 paediatric immunologists and 10 paediatric nephrologists), 34 paediatric rheumatology fellows and 15 adult rheumatologists completed the survey. The physicians were from: Europe 95 (81.9%), South America 12 (10.4%), Middle East 5 (4.3%), Asia 2 (1.7%), Africa 2 (1.7%). The duration of training for paediatric rheumatology ranged between 1-5 years (mean: 3.12+/-1.11). Sixty physicians scored their education as unsatisfactory and among those, 48 physicians were from Europe. Physicians reported good skills in the following items; intraarticular injections (83.3%); soft tissue injections (47.6%); evaluation of radiographs (67.5%); whereas competence in the evaluation of computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (30.5%); and musculoskeletal sonography (16.7%) was much lower. A need for improved basic science and rotations among relevant fields were specifically expressed. Being a relatively new speciality in the realm of paediatrics, paediatric rheumatology education at the European level needs to be further discussed, revised and uniformed.

  16. Paediatric cardiac intensive care unit: current setting and organization in 2010.

    PubMed

    Fraisse, Alain; Le Bel, Stéphane; Mas, Bertrand; Macrae, Duncan

    2010-10-01

    Over recent decades, specialized paediatric cardiac intensive care has emerged as a central component in the management of critically ill, neonatal, paediatric and adult patients with congenital and acquired heart disease. The majority of high-volume centres (dealing with over 300 surgical cases per year) have dedicated paediatric cardiac intensive care units, with the smallest programmes more likely to care for paediatric cardiac patients in mixed paediatric or adult intensive care units. Specialized nursing staff are also a crucial presence at the patient's bedside for quality of care. A paediatric cardiac intensive care programme should have patients (preoperative and postoperative) grouped together geographically, and should provide proximity to the operating theatre, catheterization laboratory and radiology department, as well as to the regular ward. Age-appropriate medical equipment must be provided. An optimal strategy for running a paediatric cardiac intensive care programme should include: multidisciplinary collaboration and involvement with paediatric cardiology, anaesthesia, cardiac surgery and many other subspecialties; a risk-stratification strategy for quantifying perioperative risk; a personalized patient approach; and anticipatory care. Finally, progressive withdrawal from heavy paediatric cardiac intensive care management should be institutionalized. Although the countries of the European Union do not share any common legislation on the structure and organization of paediatric intensive care or paediatric cardiac intensive care, any paediatric cardiac surgery programme in France that is agreed by the French Health Ministry must perform at least '150 major procedures per year in children' and must provide a 'specialized paediatric intensive care unit'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Observational review of paediatric intraosseous needle placement in the paediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pifko, Elysha L; Price, Amanda; Busch, Carrie; Smith, Curren; Jiang, Yunyun; Dobson, Joseph; Tuuri, Rachel

    2017-11-10

    Intraosseous (IO) access is a life-saving option during resuscitations in the paediatric emergency department (PED). This study aimed to compare success rates and time to placement for Manual IO versus EZ-IO needles in PED patients ≤8 and >8 kg. This was a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study of IO use in a single-centre tertiary PED from 2006 to 2014. Cases were identified through diagnosis codes for IO infusion, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and cardiac arrest and admissions to the intensive care unit. Categorical measures were compared with Z-test for comparison of two proportions and continuous with Student's t-tests. Of 1748 charts screened, 50 had an IO attempted. In patients ≤8 kg, Manual IO had success rate of 55% (17/31) versus 47% (8/17) for EZ-IO (P = 0.61). In patients >8 kg, Manual had success rate of 100% (2/2) versus 93% (14/15) for EZ-IO (P = 0.71). Manual performance was no different for ≤8 kg than >8 kg (P = 0.21), but EZ-IO was less successful for ≤8 kg than >8 kg (P = 0.005). In patients ≤8 kg, Manual IO had a shorter time to placement at 4.5 min versus 12.8 for EZ-IO (P = 0.02). We observed no difference in performance between Manual and EZ-IO devices in children ≤8 kg, but the Manual IO were placed more quickly. We observed lower success rates with EZ-IO devices in children ≤8 kg compared to >8 kg. Future investigations should focus specifically on training for IO placement in children ≤8 kg. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Extrapolation in the development of paediatric medicines: examples from approvals for biological treatments for paediatric chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Anna M; Distlerová, Dorota; Musaus, Joachim; Olski, Thorsten M; Dunder, Kristina; Salmonson, Tomas; Mentzer, Dirk; Müller-Berghaus, Jan; Hemmings, Robert; Veselý, Richard

    2017-10-01

    The European Union (EU) Paediatric Regulation requires that all new medicinal products applying for a marketing authorisation (MA) in the EU provide a paediatric investigation plan (PIP) covering a clinical and non-clinical trial programme relating to the use in the paediatric population, unless a waiver applies. Conducting trials in children is challenging on many levels, including ethical and practical issues, which may affect the availability of the clinical evidence. In scientifically justified cases, extrapolation of data from other populations can be an option to gather evidence supporting the benefit-risk assessment of the medicinal product for paediatric use. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is working on providing a framework for extrapolation that is scientifically valid, reliable and adequate to support MA of medicines for children. It is expected that the extrapolation framework together with therapeutic area guidelines and individual case studies will support future PIPs. Extrapolation has already been employed in several paediatric development programmes including biological treatment for immune-mediated diseases. This article reviews extrapolation strategies from MA applications for products for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, paediatric psoriasis and paediatric inflammatory bowel disease. It also provides a summary of extrapolation advice expressed in relevant EMA guidelines and initiatives supporting the use of alternative approaches in paediatric medicine development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Particle and bioaerosol characteristics in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    He, Congrong; Mackay, Ian M; Ramsay, Kay; Liang, Zhen; Kidd, Timothy; Knibbs, Luke D; Johnson, Graham; McNeale, Donna; Stockwell, Rebecca; Coulthard, Mark G; Long, Debbie A; Williams, Tara J; Duchaine, Caroline; Smith, Natalie; Wainwright, Claire; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-10-01

    The paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) provides care to critically ill neonates, infants and children. These patients are vulnerable and susceptible to the environment surrounding them, yet there is little information available on indoor air quality and factors affecting it within a PICU. To address this gap in knowledge we conducted continuous indoor and outdoor airborne particle concentration measurements over a two-week period at the Royal Children's Hospital PICU in Brisbane, Australia, and we also collected 82 bioaerosol samples to test for the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens. Our results showed that both 24-hour average indoor particle mass (PM 10 ) (0.6-2.2μgm -3 , median: 0.9μgm -3 ) and submicrometer particle number (PN) (0.1-2.8×10 3 pcm -3 , median: 0.67×10 3 pcm -3 ) concentrations were significantly lower (p<0.01) than the outdoor concentrations (6.7-10.2μgm -3 , median: 8.0μgm -3 for PM 10 and 12.1-22.2×10 3 pcm -3 , median: 16.4×10 3 pcm -3 for PN). In general, we found that indoor particle concentrations in the PICU were mainly affected by indoor particle sources, with outdoor particles providing a negligible background. We identified strong indoor particle sources in the PICU, which occasionally increased indoor PN and PM 10 concentrations from 0.1×10 3 to 100×10 3 pcm -3 , and from 2μgm -3 to 70μgm -3 , respectively. The most substantial indoor particle sources were nebulization therapy, tracheal suction and cleaning activities. The average PM 10 and PN emission rates of nebulization therapy ranged from 1.29 to 7.41mgmin -1 and from 1.20 to 3.96pmin -1 ×10 11 , respectively. Based on multipoint measurement data, it was found that particles generated at each location could be quickly transported to other locations, even when originating from isolated single-bed rooms. The most commonly isolated bacterial genera from both primary and broth cultures were skin commensals while viruses were rarely identified. Based on the

  20. Outcome measures for clinical trials in paediatric IBD: an evidence-based, expert-driven practical statement paper of the paediatric ECCO committee.

    PubMed

    Ruemmele, Frank M; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Otley, Anthony; Griffiths, Anne; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Dias, Jorge Amil; Levine, Arie; Escher, Johanna C; Taminiau, Jan; Veres, Gabor; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Vermeire, Séverine; Wilson, David C; Turner, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Although paediatric-onset IBD is becoming more common, few medications have a registered paediatric indication. There are multiple hurdles to performing clinical trials in children, emphasising the importance of choosing an appropriate outcome measure, which can facilitate enrolment, and thereby also drug approval. The aim of this consensus statement is to highlight paediatric specific issues and key factors critical for the optimal conduct of paediatric IBD trials. The Paediatric European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) committee has established an international expert panel to determine the best outcome measures in paediatric IBD, following a literature search and a modified Delphi process. All recommendations were endorsed by at least 80% agreement. Recognising the importance of mucosal healing (MH), the panel defined steroid-free MH as primary outcome measure for all drugs of new category with one or two postintervention endoscopies per trial (at 8-12 weeks and/or 54 weeks). Since endoscopic evaluation is a barrier for recruitment in children, trials with medications already shown to induce MH in children or adults, could use paediatric-specific disease activity scores as primary outcome, including a modified Paediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index in Crohn's disease and the Paediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index in UC. Secondary outcomes should include safety issues, MR enterography-based damage and inflammatory scores (in Crohn's disease), faecal calprotectin, quality of life scales, and a patient-reported outcome. It is crucial to perform paediatric trials early in the development of new drugs in order to reduce off-label use of IBD medication in children. The thoughtful choice of feasible and standardised outcome measures can help move us towards this goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. How small is small enough? Role of robotics in paediatric urology

    PubMed Central

    Ganpule, Arvind P.; Sripathi, Venkat

    2015-01-01

    The well-known advantages of robotic surgery include improved dexterity, three-dimensional operating view and an improved degree of freedom. Robotic surgery is performed for a wide range of surgeries in urology, which include radical prostatectomy, radical cystectomy, and ureteric reimplantation. Robotic paediatric urology is evolving. The major hindrance in the development of paediatric robotics is, first, the differences in practice patterns in paediatric urology compared with adult urology thereby making development of expertise difficult and secondly it is challenging to conduct proper studies in the paediatric population because of the paucity of cases. The difficulties in conducting these studies include difficulty in designing a proper randomised study, difficulties with blinding, and finally, the ethical issues involved, finally the instruments although in the phase of evolution require a lot of improvement. In this article, we review the relevant articles for paediatric robotic surgery. We emphasise on the technical aspects and results in contemporary paediatric robotic case series. PMID:25598599

  2. Strategic planning in academic paediatric hospitals: The need for child health input

    PubMed Central

    Warkentin, Joel; Frewen, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of Canadian paediatric academic programs, previously operated as separate hospitals, have been integrated into larger teaching hospitals or regional health authorities. The present article describes the recent experience of the Children’s Hospital of Western Ontario within the London Health Sciences Centre (London, Ontario) to illustrate the potential deleterious effects of planning, system and program changes in a large academic hospital without child health input at the executive decision-making level. The vision of the London Health Sciences Centre Executive Leadership Team and Board of Directors was divergent from that of the paediatric health care providers, which resulted in the resignation of a number of paediatric subspecialists and compromised the ability of the Department of Paediatrics to deliver paediatric care and educate future professionals. The present article highlights the need for the involvement of paediatric stakeholders in strategic planning in the hope that other academic centres can learn from this experience. PMID:19030362

  3. Strategic planning in academic paediatric hospitals: The need for child health input.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, Joel; Frewen, Timothy

    2007-03-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of Canadian paediatric academic programs, previously operated as separate hospitals, have been integrated into larger teaching hospitals or regional health authorities. The present article describes the recent experience of the Children's Hospital of Western Ontario within the London Health Sciences Centre (London, Ontario) to illustrate the potential deleterious effects of planning, system and program changes in a large academic hospital without child health input at the executive decision-making level. The vision of the London Health Sciences Centre Executive Leadership Team and Board of Directors was divergent from that of the paediatric health care providers, which resulted in the resignation of a number of paediatric subspecialists and compromised the ability of the Department of Paediatrics to deliver paediatric care and educate future professionals. The present article highlights the need for the involvement of paediatric stakeholders in strategic planning in the hope that other academic centres can learn from this experience.

  4. A comparison of cases of paediatric-onset and adult-onset cryptococcosis detected through population-based surveillance, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Meiring, Susan T; Quan, Vanessa C; Cohen, Cheryl; Dawood, Halima; Karstaedt, Alan S; McCarthy, Kerrigan M; Whitelaw, Andrew C; Govender, Nelesh P

    2012-11-28

    We compared the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed paediatric cryptococcal disease with adult-onset disease in the South African population. The study was an active, prospective, population-based, laboratory-based surveillance in South Africa. We compared cases of paediatric cryptococcosis (<15 years) with cases of adult-onset cryptococcosis that were reported to the surveillance programme between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2007. The case definition was based on a positive India ink test, cryptococcal antigen test or cryptococcal culture. Clinical case data were obtained at enhanced surveillance sites. Of 16,192 incident episodes of cryptococcosis in South Africa, 361 (2%) episodes occurred among children. In 2007, incidence was one and 19 cases per 100,000 persons in the general paediatric and adult populations and was 47 and 120 cases per 100,000 persons for HIV-infected children and adults, respectively. Among children, a bimodal peak in incidence was evident in the less than 1-year age group and in the 5 age group. Most children (64%) and adults (63%) were severely immunocompromised (CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count < 50 cells/μl) at the time of diagnosis. On multivariable analysis, children were significantly more likely than adults to be male, diagnosed on blood culture, infected with Cryptococcus gattii, treated with amphotericin B and admitted for a longer stay in hospital. This series of 361 cases of paediatric cryptococcosis is by far the largest described to date. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis should be considered in the paediatric HIV-infected population, especially among those who are severely immunocompromised.

  5. A survey of paediatric HIV programmatic and clinical management practices in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa--the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA).

    PubMed

    2013-01-15

    There are limited data on paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes in low-resource settings. A standardized survey was completed by International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS paediatric cohort sites in the regions of Asia-Pacific (AP), Central Africa (CA), East Africa (EA), Southern Africa (SA) and West Africa (WA) to understand operational resource availability and paediatric management practices. Data were collected through January 2010 using a secure, web-based software program (REDCap). A total of 64,552 children were under care at 63 clinics (AP, N=10; CA, N=4; EA, N=29; SA, N=10; WA, N=10). Most were in urban settings (N=41, 65%) and received funding from governments (N=51, 81%), PEPFAR (N=34, 54%), and/or the Global Fund (N=15, 24%). The majority were combined adult-paediatric clinics (N=36, 57%). Prevention of mother-to-child transmission was integrated at 35 (56%) sites; 89% (N=56) had access to DNA PCR for infant diagnosis. African (N=40/53) but not Asian sites recommended exclusive breastfeeding up until 4-6 months. Regular laboratory monitoring included CD4 (N=60, 95%), and viral load (N=24, 38%). Although 42 (67%) sites had the ability to conduct acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears, 23 (37%) sites could conduct AFB cultures and 18 (29%) sites could conduct tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Loss to follow-up was defined as >3 months of lost contact for 25 (40%) sites, >6 months for 27 sites (43%) and >12 months for 6 sites (10%). Telephone calls (N=52, 83%) and outreach worker home visits to trace children lost to follow-up (N=45, 71%) were common. In general, there was a high level of patient and laboratory monitoring within this multiregional paediatric cohort consortium that will facilitate detailed observational research studies. Practices will continue to be monitored as the WHO/UNAIDS Treatment 2.0 framework is implemented.

  6. Review: laser soft tissue treatments for paediatric dental patients.

    PubMed

    Boj, J R; Poirier, C; Hernandez, M; Espassa, E; Espanya, A

    2011-04-01

    Many soft tissue pathologies in children can be treated by paediatric dentists. New technologies such as laser surgery enable simpler treatments to be carried out than with conventional techniques. This paper reviews soft tissue lasers and discusses their use in paediatric patients. The laser is a good tool for soft tissue management in children and is well accepted by patients and their relatives. Laser treatment involves a reduction in the use of medication (anaesthetics, analgesics and antibiotics) and in intra-operative and post-operative bleeding. It eliminates the need sutures and produces faster wound healing and less scarring. It is essential to have a good knowledge of laser operation and of which type of laser is most appropriate for each lesion.

  7. Incorporating educative environments into the holistic care of paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Susan E; Green, Julie B; Zazryn, Tsharni R

    2012-08-01

    Hospital settings can, and should, create educative spaces and learning opportunities as part of their holistic care for young patients. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evidence for creating high quality, child-centred learning environments within paediatric settings. We explore the impact of physical spaces on learning; the literature on developmental stages of learning for children and young people as it relates to learning environments; and the literature on learning in out-of-school settings, particularly as this applies to children who are separated from their daily communities. As all paediatric settings can create opportunities for the ongoing educational development of their patients, this paper presents a way forward for this approach to holistic care.

  8. Realities of paediatric pharmacotherapy in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Sri Ranganathan, Shalini; Dodoo, Alex N O

    2011-08-01

    Diseases causing high mortality in children under 5 years of age in resource limited settings (RLS) could be treated if children in these countries had access to existing medicines. It took 30 years before the WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) considered the issue of medicines for children, with the first EML for children being published in 2007. Recent data indicate that less than half of the key paediatric essential medicines are available in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Problems include substandard medicines, irrational use of medicines, inefficiency and even possible corruption in pharmaceutical management systems. These are global issues which affect RLS most. Clinical trials in developing countries for the benefit of children are needed but challenging in several ways. In this review, the authors will consider the following areas where progress could improve paediatric pharmacotherapy in RLS: registration and regulation of medicines, rational use of medicines, clinical trials in children and restriction of corruption in pharmaceutical management systems.

  9. Interoperability Architecture for a Paediatric Oncology European Reference Network.

    PubMed

    Nitzlnader, Michael; Canete Nieto, Adela; Ribelles, Antonio Juan; Brunmair, Barbara; Ladenstein, Ruth; Schreier, Günter

    2016-01-01

    With the Directive 2011/24/EU on patients' rights in cross-border healthcare and the related delegated decisions, the European Commission defined a legal framework on how healthcare shall be organised by European Union (EU) member states (MS) where patients can move beyond the borders of their home country. Among other aspects, Article 12 of the directive is concerned with supporting MS with the development of so called European Reference Networks (ERN), dedicated to the treatment of "patients with a medical condition requiring a particular concentration of expertise in medical domains where expertise is rare". In the "European Expert Paediatric Oncology Reference Network for Diagnostics and Treatment" (ExPO-r-Net) project, the establishment of such an ERN in the domain of Paediatric Oncology is currently piloted. The present paper describes the high level use cases, the main requirements and a corresponding interoperability architecture capable to serve as the necessary IT platform to facilitate cross-border health data exchange.

  10. An evaluation of evidence-based paediatric injury prevention policies across Canada.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Alison K; Brussoni, Mariana; Fuselli, Pamela; Middaugh-Bonney, Tara; Piedt, Shannon; Pike, Ian

    2015-07-25

    Policies to reduce injury among Canadians can be controversial and there is variability in the enactment of injury prevention laws across the country. In general, laws are most effective when they are based on good research evidence, supported by widespread public awareness and education, and maintained by consistent enforcement strategies. The purpose of this study was to document and compare key informants' perceptions of the quality, awareness, and enforcement of three evidence-based paediatric injury prevention policies (bicycle helmet legislation, child booster seat legislation, graduated driver licensing) among Canadian provinces and territories. We identified best practices related to each policy, then developed an online survey to ascertain the extent to which each jurisdiction's policy aligned with best practices, whether experts believed that the public was aware of the policy and whether it was enforced. The survey was distributed using a snowball sampling strategy to key informants across Canada. Thirty-eight key informants responded to the bicycle helmet survey, with 73 and 35 key informants for the booster seat and graduated driver licensing surveys, respectively. Respondent's perceptions of the policies varied substantially. Key informants indicated that residents are not always aware of legislation, and legislation is not consistently enforced. These results suggest that child health policy is not always guided by evidence. There was variation between evidence and the policies related to paediatric injury prevention among Canadian provinces and territories. Experts generally rate their policies more highly when they align with evidence and best practice. There is room for improvement and harmonization of injury prevention policies.

  11. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study of haemoglobinopathies in Australian children.

    PubMed

    Argent, Elizabeth; Emder, Phillip; Monagle, Paul; Mowat, David; Petterson, Toni; Russell, Susan; Sachdev, Rani; Stone, Christine; Ziegler, David S

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and types of haemoglobinopathies in Australian children and their distribution among ethnic groups, and to collect information on timing of diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies in Australia. Between January 2004 and March 2006, the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit asked paediatricians to report all children under 15 years of age with a newly diagnosed haemoglobinopathy. A questionnaire requesting further information was forwarded to those clinicians. Carrier states such as thalassaemia minor were excluded. Eighty-four notifications of haemoglobinopathy were received by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, with 59 confirmed cases giving a national incidence of 0.74 per 100,000 children < 15 years of age per annum. Of 59 cases, 42 (71%) were Australian born. Twenty-nine (35.6%) children had sickle cell disease, 17 (28.8%) had Hb H disease, six (10.2%) had beta-thalassaemia major and 15 (25.4%) had compound heterozygous conditions. One child died from sickle cell disease. Of Australian born children, at least 10 mothers (23.8%) and 11 fathers (26.2%) were unaware of their carrier status pre-partum (information unavailable for 13 mothers and 17 fathers). Only 11 parents (18.6%) had risks of haemoglobinopathy discussed with them antenatally and only three cases (5.1%) were diagnosed antenatally. We found that a small but significant number of children with haemoglobinopathies are being born in Australia despite existing programmes of testing at-risk groups and neonatal screening. Haemoglobinopathies were also diagnosed in recent immigrants. Greater awareness of these conditions and enhancements of screening and detection programmes may be needed as the genetic diversity of the Australian population continues to develop. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Inconsistencies in authoritative national paediatric workforce data sources.

    PubMed

    Allen, Amy R; Doherty, Richard; Hilton, Andrew M; Freed, Gary L

    2017-12-01

    Objective National health workforce data are used in workforce projections, policy and planning. If data to measure the current effective clinical medical workforce are not consistent, accurate and reliable, policy options pursued may not be aligned with Australia's actual needs. The aim of the present study was to identify any inconsistencies and contradictions in the numerical count of paediatric specialists in Australia, and discuss issues related to the accuracy of collection and analysis of medical workforce data. Methods This study compared respected national data sources regarding the number of medical practitioners in eight fields of paediatric speciality medical (non-surgical) practice. It also counted the number of doctors listed on the websites of speciality paediatric hospitals and clinics as practicing in these eight fields. Results Counts of medical practitioners varied markedly for all specialties across the data sources examined. In some fields examined, the range of variability across data sources exceeded 450%. Conclusions The national datasets currently available from federal and speciality sources do not provide consistent or reliable counts of the number of medical practitioners. The lack of an adequate baseline for the workforce prevents accurate predictions of future needs to provide the best possible care of children in Australia. What is known about the topic? Various national data sources contain counts of the number of medical practitioners in Australia. These data are used in health workforce projections, policy and planning. What does this paper add? The present study found that the current data sources do not provide consistent or reliable counts of the number of practitioners in eight selected fields of paediatric speciality practice. There are several potential issues in the way workforce data are collected or analysed that cause the variation between sources to occur. What are the implications for practitioners? Without accurate

  13. Molecular diversity in mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in paediatric Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Little, Malaika L.; Qin, Xuan; Zerr, Danielle M.; Weissman, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    Development of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae has impacted Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, infection control approaches and treatment strategies. The clinical, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections at paediatric referral centres are not well described. CRE were identified through the clinical microbiology laboratory at Seattle Children’s Hospital (Seattle, WA). Clinical data were retrieved from medical records. Resistance testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for resistance determinants, and Escherichia coli transformation were carried out for each isolate. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to characterise strain relatedness. PCR amplification and sequencing as well as sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were used to investigate porin alterations. Six CRE isolates were identified between 2002 and 2010. Significant molecular diversity was documented in their mechanisms of resistance, including plasmid-mediated serine carbapenemase (KPC) and metallo-β-lactamase (IMP), chromosomally-encoded β-lactamase (SME) and porin alterations with extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Patients had underlying health conditions and were from geographically diverse regions. In one case, PFGE of serial isolates documented the development of resistance in a previously susceptible strain. Molecular investigation of this strain identified insertion of the genetic mobile element insertion sequence ISEcp1 in the ompK36 gene, conferring a functional porin alteration as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. This is the first description of porin disruption by ISEcp1 in a CTX-M-15-positive isolate. This is the largest report of paediatric CRE to date. This diverse description of demographic, phenotypic and molecular characteristics highlights the challenge of CRE infections in high-risk paediatric patients and

  14. Paediatric Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: A single-centre retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Jessica C; Outhred, Alexander C; Shadbolt, Bruce; Britton, Philip N

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe the clinical epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) at a large, tertiary/quaternary children's hospital in Australia. We performed a retrospective chart review of SAB cases at the Children's Hospital at Westmead (CHW) over 5 years; 2006-2011. We compared frequency, clinical profile and outcomes of SAB with published data from CHW; 1994-1998. We compared health-care associated with community-associated (HCA-SAB and CA-SAB; defined epidemiologically) and methicillin-resistant with methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA). We identified 174 episodes of paediatric SAB with an average annual admission rate of 1.3/1000 which has not increased compared with a decade earlier. Half of the cases (49%) were CA-SAB; 18% were MRSA. The proportion of CA-MRSA bacteraemia (22%) has increased. The proportion of SAB associated with central venous access devices (CVADs; 40%) has increased. CA-SAB cases were more likely to present with a tissue focus of disease (e.g. osteo-articular, pneumonia) and often required surgery. HCA-SAB less frequently required surgery, a minority is MRSA, and vascular device intervention (removal, sterilisation) is common. Six cases (4%) of infective endocarditis (IE) were identified; three with a history of congenital heart disease, two with CVADs in situ. There were no deaths in this cohort. Over an 18-year period, the proportion of SAB due to CA-MRSA and SAB associated with CVADs has increased. Categorisation of SAB as HCA and CA reveals two broad phenotypes of paediatric SAB. SAB in children is infrequently associated with IE. The health-care burden of paediatric SAB is considerable', but mortality is low. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid computational phantoms combine voxel-based and simplified equation-based modelling approaches to provide unique advantages and more realism for the construction of anthropomorphic models. In this work, a methodology and C++ code are developed to generate hybrid computational phantoms covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height/stature ratio, determined from reference databases of the National Centre for Health Statistics and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The phantoms were selected as representative anchor phantoms for the newborn, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 years-old children, and were subsequently remodelled to create 1100 female and male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th body morphometries. Evaluation was performed qualitatively using 3D visualization and quantitatively by analysing internal organ masses. Overall, the newly generated phantoms appear very reasonable and representative of the main characteristics of the paediatric population at various ages and for different genders, body sizes and sitting stature ratios. The mass of internal organs increases with height and body mass. The comparison of organ masses of the heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen with published autopsy and ICRP reference data for children demonstrated that they follow the same trend when correlated with age. The constructed hybrid computational phantom library opens up the prospect of comprehensive radiation dosimetry calculations and risk assessment for the paediatric population of different age groups and diverse anthropometric parameters.

  16. Does fluoroscopy improve outcomes in paediatric forearm fracture reduction?

    PubMed

    Menachem, S; Sharfman, Z T; Perets, I; Arami, A; Eyal, G; Drexler, M; Chechik, O

    2016-06-01

    To compare the radiographic results of paediatric forearm fracture reduced with and without fluoroscopic enhancement to investigate whether fractures reduced under fluoroscopic guidance would have smaller residual deformities and lower rates of re-reduction and surgery. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted comparing paediatric patients with acute forearm fracture in two trauma centres. Demographics and radiographic data from paediatric forearm fractures treated in Trauma Centre A with the aid of a C-arm fluoroscopy were compared to those treated without fluoroscopy in Trauma Centre B. Re-reduction, late displacement, post-reduction deformity, and need for surgical intervention were compared between the two groups. The cohort included 229 children (175 boys and 54 girls, mean age 9.41±3.2 years, range 1-16 years) with unilateral forearm fractures (83 manipulated with fluoroscopy and 146 without). Thirty-four (15%) children underwent re-reduction procedures in the emergency department. Fifty-three (23%) children had secondary displacement in the cast, of which 18 were operated on, 20 were re-manipulated, and the remaining 15 were kept in the cast with an acceptable deformity. Twenty-nine additional children underwent operation for reasons other than secondary displacement. There were no significant differences in re-reduction and surgery rates or in post-reduction deformities between the two groups. The use of fluoroscopy during reduction of forearm fractures in the paediatric population apparently does not have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Reductions performed without fluoroscopy were comparably accurate in correcting deformities in both coronal and sagittal planes. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proceedings of the seventh Northern region paediatric colloquium.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Xanthe; Kaplan, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Ethical and legal dilemmas frequently arise in paediatric practice. Given the nature of the speciality, these issues are relevant to both the medical and legal professions. To this end, senior figures from the medical and legal professions in the Northern region have met on a regular basis in order to discuss anonymised case material. We report on the proceedings of the seventh such meeting. Six cases are described and key points arising from the subsequent discussion are presented.

  18. Ventilatory strategies in the neonatal and paediatric intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Mesiano, Giulia; Davis, G Michael

    2008-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a common form of support in the modern day intensive care unit (ICU). In order for the clinician better to understand and apply mechanical ventilation, it is important that they understand the physiological principles of ventilation. This review describes these basic concepts; parameters of mechanical ventilation, high frequency ventilation and non-invasive ventilation. An overview of ventilatory strategies for four common diseases seen in paediatric and neonatal ICUs will be discussed.

  19. [Knowledge of health care ethics in paediatric residents].

    PubMed

    Hernández González, A; Rodríguez Núñez, A; Cambra Lasaosa, F J; Quintero Otero, S; Ramil Fraga, C; García Palacios, M V; Hernández Rastrollo, R; Ruiz Extremera, M A

    2014-02-01

    Bioethics has been recently incorporated in to the educational programs of both medical students and medical residents as part of their curriculum. However, its training based on clinical practice is not well structured. To evaluate the knowledge of bioethics in Spanish paediatric residents, and to analyse how this relates to the medical education during graduate and post-graduate training. A questionnaire with 20 multiple choice questions was designed to evaluate the knowledge in basic ethics with potential implications in clinical practice. We evaluated the education received during graduate and post-graduate training, and the main ethical conflicts faced. A total of 210 completed questionnaires were received from medical residents in paediatrics from 20 different Spanish hospitals, of whom 47 of these were first year residents (R1), 49 were second year residents (R2), 57 were third year residents (R3), and the remaining 57 were final year residents (R4). The mean number of correct answers was 16.8 out of 20. No differences were found between residents in different years of training, nor were there any differences between the group that had received specific training in bioethics versus those who had not. Residents were more likely to give wrong answers related with informed consent, the law on the freedom of the patient, principles of quality of life, the case analysis system, and the dimension of distributive justice. Limitation of therapeutic efforts was identified as the main ethical problem faced in clinical practice by Spanish residents in paediatrics. Most of the knowledge of bioethics is acquired during graduate training, and improved very little throughout the period of medical residence. Our results suggest that efforts are required in organising and structuring the education in bioethics during the training of residents in paediatrics. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The diagnostic pathway in complex paediatric neurology: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    van Nimwegen, K J M; Schieving, J H; Willemsen, M A A P; Veltman, J A; van der Burg, S; van der Wilt, G J; Grutters, J P C

    2015-03-01

    The diagnostic trajectory of complex paediatric neurology may be long, burdensome, and expensive while its diagnostic yield is frequently modest. Improvement in this trajectory is desirable and might be achieved by innovations such as whole exome sequencing. In order to explore the consequences of implementing them, it is important to map the current pathway. To that end, this study assessed the healthcare resource use and associated costs in this diagnostic trajectory in the Netherlands. Fifty patients presenting with complex paediatric neurological disorders of a suspected genetic origin were included between September 2011 and March 2012. Data on their healthcare resource utilization were collected from the hospital medical charts. Unit prices were obtained from the Dutch Healthcare Authority, the Dutch Healthcare Insurance Board, and the financial administration of the hospital. Bootstrap simulations were performed to determine mean quantities and costs. The mean duration of the diagnostic trajectory was 40 months. A diagnosis was established in 6% of the patients. On average, patients made 16 physician visits, underwent four imaging and two neurophysiologic tests, and had eight genetic and 16 other tests. Mean bootstrapped costs per patient amounted to €12,475, of which 43% was for genetic tests (€5,321) and 25% for hospital visits (€3,112). Currently, the diagnostic trajectories of paediatric patients who have complex neurological disease with a strong suspected genetic component are lengthy, resource-intensive, and low-yield. The data from this study provide a backdrop against which the introduction of novel techniques such as whole exome sequencing should be evaluated. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of paediatric palliative care nursing education in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Kendra; Mele, Nancy; Koppmann, María José Errázuriz; Day, Sara

    2009-08-01

    Around the world, children suffering from catastrophic illnesses need quality palliative nursing care. However, unstable economic, social, and political structures in developing nations have delayed the advancement of paediatric palliative care programs in some regions. This systematic literature review primarily focuses on paediatric palliative care in Latin American countries. The aim is to identify existing support structures and possible barriers to paediatric palliative care nursing education. This review provides the background for a proposed collaborative paediatric palliative care nursing education initiative between a children's research hospital in the United States and a Chilean partner site.

  2. Patient disclosure of medical errors in paediatrics: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Donna; Rummens, Anneke; Le Pouesard, Morgane; Espin, Sherry; Friedman, Jeremy; Coffey, Maitreya; Kenneally, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Medical errors are common within paediatrics; however, little research has examined the process of disclosing medical errors in paediatric settings. The present systematic review of current research and policy initiatives examined evidence regarding the disclosure of medical errors involving paediatric patients. Peer-reviewed research from a range of scientific journals from the past 10 years is presented, and an overview of Canadian and international policies regarding disclosure in paediatric settings are provided. The purpose of the present review was to scope the existing literature and policy, and to synthesize findings into an integrated and accessible report. Future research priorities and policy implications are then identified. PMID:27429578

  3. Detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Falces-Romero, Iker; Troyano-Hernáez, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Baquero-Artigao, Fernando; Mellado-Peña, María José; García-Rodríguez, Julio

    2017-07-06

    Our main objective was a revision of clinical, microbiological and epidemiological results of Clostridium difficile-associated infection in paediatric patients (2010-2015). We compared the diagnoses performed by detection of toxins in feces and those performed by real-time PCR. This retrospective study included 82 paediatric patients. Detection of toxigenic C. difficile was performed sequentially, in diarrheal feces and under clinical request. A total of 39% of the patients were attended at Haematology-oncology Unit and >50% of them had previously received cephalosporins. Fever associated with diarrhea was more frequent in the group of toxin detection, whereas not receiving specific antibiotic treatment was more frequent in the group of positive PCR, without statistically significant differences. We highlight the presence of C. difficile infection in children under 2years old. A diagnostic testing in selected paediatric patients would be advisable when there is clinical suspicion of infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. [Contribution of public health to paediatric physical disability rehabilitation units].

    PubMed

    Foley, Véronique; Camden, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 4% of children in North America and Europe live with a chronic disability. Most countries have developed a range of specialized health services to meet the specific needs of these children. However, an increasing number of authors argue that more public health activities should be offered to children with disabilities in order to promote social participation and to ensure more efficient organization of these services. The objectives of this article are: 1) to describe the needs of children with physical disabilities that can be met bypublic health activities, 2) to present the Quebec health care system and discuss the inclusion of public health principles in paediatric rehabilitation services, and 3) to propose ways to improve integration of these principles. The needs of children with disabilities are described according to categories of needs from the Life Needs Model: basic skills; applied skills; needs support, education and information for children, family and community. The patterns of paediatric rehabilitation services and service organization in Quebec were analysed. Services for children with physical disabilities are primarily intended to develop basic and applied skills. The mandate of institutions delivering specialized services and waiting lists could limit the possibilities to provide services able to meet all of the needs of disabled children. Integration of public health activities would ensure greater complementarity and further promote social participation. Some approaches providing interesting avenues to further integrate public health in paediatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  5. Economics and ethics of paediatric respiratory extra corporeal life support.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, M; Doyle, Y; O'Hare, B; Healy, M; Nölke, L

    2013-09-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of life support, which facilitates gas exchange outside the body via an oxygenator and a centrifugal pumping system. A paediatric cardiac ECMO programme was established in 2005 at Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (OLCHC) and to date 75 patients have received ECMO, the majority being post operative cardiac patients. The outcome data compares favourably with international figures. ECMO has been most successful in the treatment of newborn infants with life threatening respiratory failure from conditions such as meconium aspiration, respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory infections. There is no formal paediatric respiratory ECMO programme at OLCHC, or anywhere else in Ireland. Currently, neonates requiring respiratory ECMO are transferred to centres in Sweden or the UK at an average cost of 133,000 Euros/infant, funded by the Health Service Executive E112 treatment abroad scheme. There is considerable morbidity associated with the transfer of critically ill infants, as well as significant psycho-social impact on families. OLCHC is not funded to provide respiratory ECMO, although the equipment and expertise required are similar to cardiac ECMO and are currently in place. The average cost of an ECMO run at OLCHC is 65,000 Euros. There is now a strong argument for a fully funded single national cardiac and respiratory paediatric ECMO centre, similar to that for adult patients.

  6. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms.

    PubMed

    Bull, Jonathan G; Saunders, Dawn E; Clark, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. Key Points • MR based apparent diffusion coefficient histograms can help differentiate paediatric brain tumours • ADC histogram parameters correctly classified the great majority of posterior fossa tumours.

  7. Safety of Levetiracetam in Paediatrics: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Egunsola, Oluwaseun; Choonara, Imti; Sammons, Helen Mary

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify adverse events (AEs) associated with Levetiracetam (LEV) in children. Methods Databases EMBASE (1974-February 2015) and Medline (1946-February 2015) were searched for articles in which paediatric patients (≤18 years) received LEV treatment for epilepsy. All studies with reports on safety were included. Studies involving adults, mixed age population (i.e. children and adults) in which the paediatric subpopulation was not sufficiently described, were excluded. A meta-analysis of the RCTs was carried out and association between the commonly reported AEs or treatment discontinuation and the type of regimen (polytherapy or monotherapy) was determined using Chi2 analysis. Results Sixty seven articles involving 3,174 paediatric patients were identified. A total of 1,913 AEs were reported across studies. The most common AEs were behavioural problems and somnolence, which accounted for 10.9% and 8.4% of all AEs in prospective studies. 21 prospective studies involving 1120 children stated the number of children experiencing AEs. 47% of these children experienced AEs. Significantly more children experienced AEs with polytherapy (64%) than monotherapy (22%) (p<0.001). Levetiracetam was discontinued in 4.5% of all children on polytherapy and 0.9% on monotherapy (p<0.001), the majority were due to behavioural problems. Conclusion Behavioural problems and somnolence were the most prevalent adverse events to LEV and the most common causes of treatment discontinuation. Children on polytherapy have a greater risk of adverse events than those receiving monotherapy. PMID:26930201

  8. Pituitary function in paediatric survivors of severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Poomthavorn, P; Maixner, W; Zacharin, M

    2008-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-mediated hypopituitarism is an increasingly recognised problem. Paediatric survivors of TBI may be vulnerable to the possible effects of pituitary deficits as pituitary hormones control normal growth and development. Research concerning pituitary dysfunction following childhood TBI is limited. To identify pituitary dysfunction in paediatric survivors of severe TBI. Of 1020 children who sustained a TBI and were admitted to the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia over 10 years, 117 were identified as survivors of severe TBI. 54 patients (31 males) were enrolled and administered questionnaires regarding quality of life and possible endocrine dysfunction. Where indicated, hormone testing was performed. 29 of the 54 patients underwent hormonal investigations, while 21 who had satisfactory questionnaires did not (four patients had already been diagnosed with pituitary deficiencies). In those 29 patients, TBI occurred at ages ranging from 0.25 to 16.80 years (median 9.7 years). Time from TBI to study ranged from 0.9 to 8.5 years (median 4.5 years). Of the 54 patients, nine had pituitary dysfunction, of whom four had multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Our study that confirms that paediatric survivors of severe TBI may develop pituitary dysfunction. Pituitary function should therefore be determined in these patients.

  9. Forecasting paediatric malaria admissions on the Kenya Coast using rainfall.

    PubMed

    Karuri, Stella Wanjugu; Snow, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne disease which, despite recent scaled-up efforts to achieve control in Africa, continues to pose a major threat to child survival. The disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and requires mosquitoes and humans for transmission. Rainfall is a major factor in seasonal and secular patterns of malaria transmission along the East African coast. The goal of the study was to develop a model to reliably forecast incidences of paediatric malaria admissions to Kilifi District Hospital (KDH). In this article, we apply several statistical models to look at the temporal association between monthly paediatric malaria hospital admissions, rainfall, and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures. Trend and seasonally adjusted, marginal and multivariate, time-series models for hospital admissions were applied to a unique data set to examine the role of climate, seasonality, and long-term anomalies in predicting malaria hospital admission rates and whether these might become more or less predictable with increasing vector control. The proportion of paediatric admissions to KDH that have malaria as a cause of admission can be forecast by a model which depends on the proportion of malaria admissions in the previous 2 months. This model is improved by incorporating either the previous month's Indian Ocean Dipole information or the previous 2 months' rainfall. Surveillance data can help build time-series prediction models which can be used to anticipate seasonal variations in clinical burdens of malaria in stable transmission areas and aid the timing of malaria vector control.

  10. Simulated learning environment experience in nursing students for paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Maldonado, Yessy; Barría-Pailaquilén, René Mauricio

    2018-03-24

    The training of health professionals requires the acquisition of clinical skills in a safe and efficient manner, which is facilitated by a simulated learning environment (SLE). It is also an efficient alternative when there are limitations for clinical practice in certain areas. This paper shows the work undertaken in a Chilean university in implementing paediatric practice using SLE. Over eight days, the care experience of a hospitalized infant was studied applying the nursing process. The participation of a paediatrician, resident physician, nursing technician, and simulated user was included in addition to the use of a simulation mannequin and equipment. Simulation of care was integral and covered interaction with the child and family and was developed in groups of six students by a teacher. The different phases of the simulation methodology were developed from a pedagogical point of view. The possibility of implementing paediatric clinical practice in an efficient and safe way was confirmed. The experience in SLE was highly valued by the students, allowing them to develop different skills and abilities required for paediatric nursing through simulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Key drivers of patient experience in ambulatory paediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Allam, Shalini D; Mehta, Mary; Ben Khallouq, Bertha; Burrows, James F; Rosen, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Patient experience is becoming a central focus of healthcare. A broad range of studies on how to increase patient satisfaction ratings exists; however, they lack the specificity to adequately guide physicians and hospitals on how to improve patient experience. The objective of this study was to define the aspects of patient experience within paediatric cardiologist practices that can serve as predictors of excellent patient satisfaction. From 1 January, 2013 to 28 February, 2015 (26 months), outpatients who visited paediatric cardiologists were asked to complete a 39-question patient satisfaction survey regarding their experience. Surveys were collected over a 26-month period by Press Ganey, an independent provider of patient satisfaction surveys. Participants were asked to rate their experience on a 1-5 Likert-scale: a score of 1 demonstrated a "poor" experience, whereas a score of 5 demonstrated a "very good" experience. This retrospective study of 2468 responses determined that cheerfulness of the practice (r=0.85, p<0.001), a cohesive staff (r=0.83, p<0.001), and a care provider explaining problems and conditions (r=0.81, p<0.001) were key aspects of a paediatric cardiologist's practice that can be used as predictors of overall patient satisfaction. Awareness of how doctors can personalise a patient's experience is vital to achieve greater patient satisfaction and, ultimately, better patient outcomes.

  12. Standard concentration infusions in paediatric intensive care: the clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Joanne; Aguado-Lorenzo, Virginia; Arenas-Lopez, Sara

    2017-05-01

    The use of standard concentrations of intravenous infusions has been advocated by international organisations to increase intravenous medication safety in paediatric and neonatal critical care. However, there is no guidance on how to identify and implement these infusions leading to great interunit variability. To identify the most appropriate clinical concentrations required by our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) population with regard to accuracy of delivery and overall fluid allowance. Firstly a matrix was used to balance the concentration, dose and infusion volume (weight range 1.5-50 kg). Results were further refined considering: patient fluid allowance based on fluid volume targets, infusion pump accuracy and challenging each infusion against clinical scenarios requiring administration of multiple drug infusions found in PICU. Consideration was given to the standard concentrations routinely used in adults, in order to assess whether alignment with paediatrics was possible for some of the concentrations proposed. Finally a risk assessment of the infusions was conducted using the NPSA 20 tool. Twenty-five drugs identified as the most commonly used intravenous infusions in the unit. For the majority of the medicines, three weight bands of standard concentrations were necessary to cover the children's weight ranges and kept within predefined fluid requirements and accuracy of delivery. This work shows a patient focused systematic approach for defining and evaluating standardised concentrations in intensive care children. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Antibiotic resistance and irrational prescribing in paediatric clinics in Greece.

    PubMed

    Toska, Aikaterini; Geitona, Mary

    Greece is among the countries with the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and simultaneous antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions and knowledge of AMR and irrational antibiotic prescribing of nurses working in paediatric hospitals in Greece. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to nurses in paediatric hospitals and paediatric clinics in Greece. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Levels of significance were two-tailed and statistical significance was p=0.05. A total of 87% of participants reported irrational prescribing to be an important cause of AMR. Diagnostic uncertainty was stated by 55.5% as the main cause of irrational antibiotic prescribing and 94% suggested the use of protocols and guidelines as the main measure to control overprescribing. Parental demand for antibiotics in hospitals has increased according to 51.8% of respondents. Strong correlation was observed between social-demographic characteristics and antibiotic resistance, as well as irrational prescribing. Assessing nurses' knowledge and perceptions of antimicrobial resistance and irrational prescribing is vital as nurses actively participate in the antibiotics administration process and antimicrobial management in Greece. Their involvement could contribute to educate patients and parents on the public-health implications of overprescribing and antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Survey on Paediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Care in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Bernadette L; Newbold, Kate L; Führer, Dagmar; Waguespack, Steven G; Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Links, Thera P

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid cancer among children is a very rare disease. Although survival is favourable, morbidity caused by the treatment remains considerable, so there is a great need to optimize management by international cooperation. For this reason, the 2016 European Thyroid Association-Cancer Research Network (ETA-CRN) meeting in Copenhagen, Denmark, paid considerable attention to this topic and aimed to give an overview of the care for this paediatric patient group in different European countries. An inventory of data on thyroid cancer treatment among children in Europe was generated by questionnaires focused on treatment and organization of care. The treatment of paediatric thyroid cancer appears to be scattered in each European country with limited centralization of care, and different European countries use different treatment and follow-up protocols. Collaboration in a European network to optimize treatment and minimize long-term consequences for paediatric thyroid cancer survivors is necessary. During this meeting, the ETA-CRN has endorsed the initiative to collaborate on this rare endocrine cancer within a European network. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Undergraduate interprofessional education using high-fidelity paediatric simulation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Moira; Kennedy, Neil; Cuene-Grandidier, Hazel

    2010-06-01

    High-fidelity simulation is becoming increasingly important in the delivery of teaching and learning to health care professionals within a safe environment. Its use in an interprofessional context and at undergraduate level has the potential to facilitate the learning of good communication and teamworking, in addition to clinical knowledge and skills. Interprofessional teaching and learning workshops using high-fidelity paediatric simulation were developed and delivered to undergraduate medical and nursing students at Queen's University Belfast. Learning outcomes common to both professions, and essential in the clinical management of sick children, included basic competencies, communication and teamworking skills. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation was undertaken using published questionnaires. Quantitative results - the 32-item questionnaire was analysed for reliability using spss. Responses were positive for both groups of students across four domains - acquisition of knowledge and skills, communication and teamworking, professional identity and role awareness, and attitudes to shared learning. Qualitative results - thematic content analysis was used to analyse open-ended responses. Students from both groups commented that an interprofessional education (IPE) approach to paediatric simulation improved clinical and practice-based skills, and provided a safe learning environment. Students commented that there should be more interprofessional and simulation learning opportunities. High-fidelity paediatric simulation, used in an interprofessional context, has the potential to meet the requirements of undergraduate medical and nursing curricula. Further research is needed into the long-term benefits for patient care, and its generalisability to other areas within health care teaching and learning. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  16. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Canadian paediatric neuromuscular physicians survey.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Hugh J; Campbell, Craig; Mah, Jean K

    2010-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in childhood. To assess the current care of paediatric DMD patients in Canada, a questionnaire was mailed to 17 physicians who were members of the Canadian paediatric neuromuscular group. Areas of enquiry included; 1) multidisciplinary team composition; 2) means of DMD diagnosis; 3) corticosteroid use; surveillance and management for: 4) orthopaedic, 5) respiratory and 6) cardiac complications and 7) health maintenance (nutrition & immunizations). Completed surveys were returned by 14/17 (82%) of physicians. Twelve respondents followed DMD patients. All centres had multidisciplinary teams, including respirology (11/12), child neurology or physiatry (11), physiotherapy (9), occupational therapy (9) and orthopaedic surgery (7). Deflazacort 0.9 mg/kg/d was used at all centres, which was continued after loss of independent ambulation (11), along with routine calcium and vitamin D supplementation (10). Night splints were prescribed at all centres. Routine surveillance studies included pulmonary function testing (11), sleep studies (10), EKG/echocardiogram (10), bone density (DEXA) scans (10), spine radiography (9), and dietician referral (4). Paediatric DMD patients are receiving relatively consistent care in multidisciplinary clinics across Canada, in accordance with recommended guidelines for DMD.

  17. Thomas Willis's practice of paediatric neurology and neurodisability.

    PubMed

    Williams, A N

    2003-12-01

    Thomas Willis (1621-1675) is regarded as a founder of modern clinical neuroscience. He conceived the word "neurology" and left a body of work that defined mid-seventeenth-century medicine. Recent interpretations of Willis's work have led to a growing appreciation of his significant contributions to paediatric neurology, a speciality founded properly some three centuries after his death. This paper presents abstracts and plates taken from Willis's major published works, together with student notes by John Locke (1632-1704) and Robert Boyle (1627-1691) taken from lectures delivered by Willis in Oxford in the 1660s. The material embraces a wide variety of conditions now managed within modern paediatric neurology and neurodisability. In several cases, these are the first descriptions recorded in the medical literature. Willis fused astute history taking and clinical observation (sometimes supported by subsequent post-mortem studies) into a structured medical intervention. Willis's practice was state of the art, being based on acceptance of Harvey, a traditional Galenic infrastructure, iatrochemistry and Gassendi's "psychology". Although Willis's discoveries became a cornerstone of modern medical science, his medical practice did not lead to any therapeutic advances. However, up to the mid-eighteenth century his works were internationally accepted for their practical usefulness. The corpus of material left by Willis affords a fascinating insight into the clinical rationale of a seventeenth century physician in his management of paediatric cases.

  18. Auditing paediatric diabetes care and the impact of a specialist nurse trained in paediatric diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, F; Warner, J; Lowes, L; Riberio, J; Gregory, J

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 13 May 1997
 AIMS—To define outcome measures for auditing the clinical care of children and adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and to assess the benefit of appointing a dedicated paediatric trained diabetes specialist nurse (PDSN).
METHODS—Retrospective analysis of medical notes and hospital records. Glycaemic control, growth, weight gain, microvascular complications, school absence, and the proportion of children undergoing an annual clinical review and diabetes education session were assessed. The effect of the appointment of a PDSN on the frequency of hospital admission, length of inpatient stay, and outpatient attendance was evaluated.
RESULTS—Children with IDDM were of normal height and grew well for three years after diagnosis, but grew suboptimally thereafter. Weight gain was above average every year after diagnosis. Glycaemic control was poor at all ages with only 16% of children having an acceptable glycated haemoglobin. Eighty five per cent of patients underwent a formal annual clinical review, of whom 16% had background retinopathy and 20% microalbuminuria in one or more samples. After appointing the PDSN the median length of hospital stay for newly diagnosed patients decreased from five days to one day, with 10of 24 children not admitted. None of the latter was admitted during the next year. There was no evidence of the PDSN affecting the frequency of readmission or length of stay of children with established IDDM. Non-attendance at the outpatient clinic was reduced from a median of 19 to 10%.
CONCLUSIONS—Outcome measures for evaluating the care of children with IDDM can be defined and evaluated. Specialist nursing support markedly reduces the length of hospital stay of newly diagnosed patients without sacrificing the quality of care.

 PMID:9301347

  19. The emergency paediatric surgical airway: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Koers, Lena; Janjatovic, Darja; Stevens, Markus F; Preckel, Benedikt

    2018-04-27

    Although an emergency surgical airway is recommended in the guidelines for a paediatric cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate (CICO), there is currently no evidence regarding the best technique for this procedure. To review the available literature on the paediatric emergency surgical airway to give recommendations for establishing a best practice for this procedure. Systematic review: Considering the nature of the original studies, a meta-analysis was not possible. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Google Scholar and LILACS databases. Studies addressing the paediatric emergency surgical airway and reporting the following outcomes: time to tracheal access, success rate, complications and perceived ease of use of the technique were included. Data were reported using a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis. Strengths and Weaknesses describe the intrinsic (dis)advantages of the techniques. The opportunities and threats describe the (dis)advantage of the techniques in the setting of a paediatric CICO scenario. Five studies described four techniques: catheter over needle, wire-guided, cannula or scalpel technique. Mean time for placement of a definitive airway was 44 s for catheter over needle, 67.3 s for the cannula and 108.7 s for the scalpel technique. No time was reported for the wire-guided technique. Success rates were 43 (10/23), 100 (16/16), 56 (87/154) and 88% (51/58), respectively. Complication rates were 34 (3/10), 69 (11/16), 36 (55/151) and 38% (18/48), respectively. Analysis shows: catheter over needle, quick but with a high failure rate; wire-guided, high success rate but high complication rate; cannula, less complications but high failure rate; scalpel, high success rate but longer procedural time. The available data are limited and heterogeneous in terms of reported studies; thus, these results need to be interpreted with

  20. Malaria paediatric hospitalization between 1999 and 2008 across Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intervention coverage and funding for the control of malaria in Africa has increased in recent years, however, there are few descriptions of changing disease burden and the few reports available are from isolated, single site observations or are of reports at country-level. Here we present a nationwide assessment of changes over 10 years in paediatric malaria hospitalization across Kenya. Methods Paediatric admission data on malaria and non-malaria diagnoses were assembled for the period 1999 to 2008 from in-patient registers at 17 district hospitals in Kenya and represented the diverse malaria ecology of the country. These data were then analysed using autoregressive moving average time series models with malaria and all-cause admissions as the main outcomes adjusted for rainfall, changes in service use and populations-at-risk within each hospital's catchment to establish whether there has been a statistically significant decline in paediatric malaria hospitalization during the observation period. Results Among the 17 hospital sites, adjusted paediatric malaria admissions had significantly declined at 10 hospitals over 10 years since 1999; had significantly increased at four hospitals, and remained unchanged in three hospitals. The overall estimated average reduction in malaria admission rates was 0.0063 cases per 1,000 children aged 0 to 14 years per month representing an average percentage reduction of 49% across the 10 hospitals registering a significant decline by the end of 2008. Paediatric admissions for all-causes had declined significantly with a reduction in admission rates of greater than 0.0050 cases per 1,000 children aged 0 to 14 years per month at 6 of 17 hospitals. Where malaria admissions had increased three of the four sites were located in Western Kenya close to Lake Victoria. Conversely there was an indication that areas with the largest declines in malaria admission rates were areas located along the Kenyan coast and some sites in

  1. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid: a review of its use in the management of paediatric patients with acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Easton, Jane; Noble, Stuart; Perry, Caroline M

    2003-01-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin), Augmentin ES-600 is a well established, orally administered combination of amoxicillin (a semisynthetic antibacterial agent) and clavulanic acid (a beta-lactamase inhibitor). Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid shows good activity against the main pathogens associated with acute otitis media (AOM), including penicillin-susceptible and -intermediate strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and beta-lactamase producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. It has moderate activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae; a high-dose formulation has been developed with the aim of providing better coverage for penicillin-resistant strains. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (conventional formulations, mostly 40/10 mg/kg/day in three divided doses) produced clinical response rates similar to those of oral cephalosporin comparators and similar to or significantly greater than those for intramuscular ceftriaxone in randomised trials in paediatric patients with AOM (mean age approximately 2 to 5 years). Clinical response rates were generally similar for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and macrolide comparators (mean patient age approximately 1 to 6 years), although significantly better clinical and bacteriological responses were seen versus azithromycin in one randomised trial (mean patient age approximately 1 year). The high-dose formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (90/6.4 mg/kg/day in two divided doses) eradicated a high proportion of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (penicillin MICs 2 or 4 mg/L) in a large noncomparative trial in children with AOM (upper limit of the US indication for S. pneumoniae is 2 mg/L). Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is generally well tolerated. A low total incidence of adverse events (3.6%) and no serious events were reported from a large paediatric postmarketing study. The most frequently reported adverse events in children are mild gastrointestinal disturbances. Diarrhoea is generally less

  2. Paediatric brain tumours treated at a single, tertiary paediatric neurosurgical referral centre from 1999 to 2010 in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Mahesh; Chaseling, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    Paediatric brain tumours are the most common solid tumour of childhood and the most common cancer cause of death among children. A retrospective review of 313 histopathologically proven brain tumours over an 11-year period has been performed at the Children's Hospital Westmead, New South Wales, Australia, to determine proportions and locations of different tumours, age distribution, survival rates and usage of various treatment modalities. Pilocytic astrocytoma was the most common paediatric brain tumour (29%) followed by medulloblastoma (12%) and ependymoma (6%). Most tumours were histologically benign (59%), and 42% of tumours were located in the posterior fossa. The average age at diagnosis was 7.9 years. About 50% of children were treated with surgery alone, whereas the other 50% had surgery or biopsy plus adjuvant treatment. The overall one-year survival rate was 89% and the five-year survival rate was 80%. The five-year survival rates for pilocytic astrocytoma was 91%; medulloblastoma, 75%; ependymoma, 82%; and high grade glioma, 15%. Thus, a large proportion of paediatric brain tumours were histologically benign and were treated with surgery alone, but a subset of benign tumours required adjuvant treatment and were associated with mortality (25%). The overall survival rates were high and are improving, although for some tumours, such as high grade glioma, the outlook remains poor. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary considerations on the application of the Voice Handicap Index to paediatric dysphonia

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, A; Capaccio, P; Maruzzi, P; Ginocchio, D; Bottero, A; Ottaviani, F

    2007-01-01

    Summary Dysphonia is a common paediatric condition. Adult voices are usually evaluated using a set of minimal basic measurements including: endoscopic examination, aerodynamics, perception, acoustics, and self-assessment by the patient. The Voice Handicap Index is the most widely used self-assessment tool, but its use in the paediatric setting has never been reported. Aim of this study was to report Voice Handicap Index ratings in a group of dysphonic children, multi-modally assessed before and after voice therapy. The study involved 28 children (16 female, 12 male, mean age 10.9 years (range 6-12)) presenting chronic hoarseness due to vocal fold nodules (18 cases), unilateral localised oedema (6 cases) or recurrent laryngeal paralysis (4 cases). All received voice therapy for 5-6 months, and underwent voice assessments based on video-endoscopy ratings (size of nodule/oedema or glottic closure in the case of recurrent laryngeal paralysis), maximum phonation time, GIRBAS scale, spectrograms and a perturbation analysis. All patients also completed the Voice Handicap Index. Aerodynamic, acoustic, perceptual and self-assessment data, before and after voice therapy, were compared using Wilcoxon’s test and Student’s t test. Correlations between the Voice Handicap Index domains were measured by means of Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Post-treatment measurements showed that the nodules/oedema had decreased in size in 18 children following therapy, and two subjects with recurrent laryngeal paralysis showed improved glottic closure. Mean maximum phonation time increased slightly, but the difference was not significant. There was a general reduction in perceptual severity, but this was only significant for parameters G, B and A. Spectrographic analysis showed no significant improvement and, although the mean perturbation analysis values improved, only the difference in jitter values was significant (p = 0.016). Voice Handicap Index was applicable in all cases, and

  4. The European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN): Towards a Better Understanding and Management of Fungal Infections in Children.

    PubMed

    Warris, Adilia

    The European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN) was launched in 2014 to create a European platform for research and education in the field of paediatric mycology. The EPMyN aims to address the lack of paediatric specific evidence and knowledge needed to (1) improve the management and outcome of invasive fungal infections in children and neonates and to (2) enhance and develop paediatric antifungal stewardship programmes.

  5. Impact of the physical environment in paediatric hospitals on health outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Watts, Robin; Wilson, Sally

    2009-01-01

    support a healing environment within paediatric hospitals or paediatric wards in general hospitals. The review clearly illustrates the need for more research in this area assessing the health outcomes of innovations in physical design in paediatric hospitals or units. There are numerous opportunities for multidisciplinary studies and in varying cultural contexts. This review suggests a number of aspects of physical design that can be implemented although cost and cultural appropriateness are a consideration in several cases. These include the use of single rooms with negative pressure ventilation to control cross infection; the provision of both private and 'public' space for adolescent inpatients with 'public' spaces including spaces for interaction just with other peers; the incorporation of interactive gardens, however small, designed for families and their use encouraged by staff; and specially designed play structures to encourage symbolic play.

  6. Long-term safety in living kidney donors for paediatric transplantation. Single-centre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Martin Benlloch, J; Román Ortiz, E; Mendizabal Oteiza, S

    There is enough evidence concerning the short-term safety of living donors after kidney transplantation. However, long-term complications continue to be studied, with a particular interest in young donors. Previous studies have been conducted in older donors for adult renal patients. We present a study of long-term complications in kidney donors for our paediatric population. We carried out a long-term donor study for the 54 living kidney-donor transplantations performed at our department from 1979 to June 2014. We monitored the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) on the basis of 24-hour urine creatinine clearance, 24-hour proteinuria and the development of arterial hypertension in the 48 donors who were followed up for more than one year. Only the 39 patients who were exclusively followed up by our department have been included in the results analysis. GFR through creatinine clearance was stable after an initial decrease. No proteinuria was observed in any of the cases. One patient developed chronic kidney disease (CKD), which resulted in a cumulative incidence of 2%. GFR below 60mL/min/1.73 m 2 was not reported in any other patients. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 25% of donors, 90% of which were treated with antihypertensives. Risk of CKD and hypertension in living kidney donors for paediatric recipients, who are carefully monitored throughout their evolution, is similar to that of the general population. Therefore, this technique appears to be safe in both the short and long term. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p<0.05). The median correlation was 0.06. A test for whether the distribution of p values deviated from the null distribution under no association was not significant (p>0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  8. Introducing consultant outpatient clinics to community settings to improve access to paediatrics: an observational impact study.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Hugh; Heath, Gemma; Cameron, Elaine; Debelle, Geoff; Cummins, Carole

    2015-06-01

    In line with a national policy to move care 'closer to home', a specialist children's hospital in the National Health Service in England introduced consultant-led 'satellite' clinics to two community settings for general paediatric outpatient services. Objectives were to reduce non-attendance at appointments by providing care in more accessible locations and to create new physical clinic capacity. This study evaluated these satellite clinics to inform further development and identify lessons for stakeholders. Impact of the satellite clinics was assessed by comparing community versus hospital-based clinics across the following measures: (1) non-attendance rates and associated factors (including patient characteristics and travel distance) using a logistic regression model; (2) percentage of appointments booked within local catchment area; (3) contribution to total clinic capacity; (4) time allocated to clinics and appointments; and (5) clinic efficiency, defined as the ratio of income to staff-related costs. Satellite clinics did not increase attendance beyond their contribution to shorter travel distance, which was associated with higher attendance. Children living in the most-deprived areas were 1.8 times more likely to miss appointments compared with those from least-deprived areas. The satellite clinics' contribution to activity in catchment areas and to total capacity was small. However, one of the two satellite clinics was efficient compared with most hospital-based clinics. Outpatient clinics were relocated in pragmatically chosen community settings using a 'drag and drop' service model. Such clinics have potential to improve access to specialist paediatric healthcare, but do not provide a panacea. Work is required to improve attendance as part of wider efforts to support vulnerable families. Satellite clinics highlight how improved management could contribute to better use of existing capacity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  9. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Subglottic Diameter for Paediatric Cuffed Endotracheal Tube Size Selection: Feasibility Report

    PubMed Central

    Altun, Demet; Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Ali, Achmet; Bingül, Emre Sertaç; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan; Çamcı, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the first attempt success of ultrasonography (USG) in paediatric patients in predicting an appropriate cuffed endotracheal tube (ETT) size. Methods Fifty children who were 1–10 years of age and who received general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation for adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy were enrolled in the study. In all participants, the transverse diameter of the subglottic airway was measured with USG at the cricoid level without ventilation. The outer diameter (OD) of the maximum allowable ETT was chosen according to the measured subglottic airway diameter. In the presence of resistance to passage of the tube into the trachea or in the absence of an audible leak at airway pressure of >25 cm H2O, the ETT was replaced with a tube whose internal diameter (ID) was 0.5 mm smaller. If a leak was audible at airway pressures of <10 cm H2O, if a seal could not be achieved with a cuff pressure of >25 cm H2O or if a peak airway pressure of >25 cm H2O was observed during ventilation, the tube was changed to a tube one size larger. The OD of the best-fit ETT was converted to the ID. The best-fit ID, the requirement for ETT replacement, the duration of airway diameter measurement by USG and the peak airway pressure were recorded. Results The success rate of the first attempt with USG was 86%; the ETT was replaced in five patients with a tube one size larger and in two patients with a tube one size smaller. Conclusion Our findings show the subglottic diameter measured by USG to be a reliable predictor in estimating the appropriate paediatric ETT size. PMID:28058141

  10. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Subglottic Diameter for Paediatric Cuffed Endotracheal Tube Size Selection: Feasibility Report.

    PubMed

    Altun, Demet; Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Ali, Achmet; Bingül, Emre Sertaç; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan; Çamcı, Emre

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the first attempt success of ultrasonography (USG) in paediatric patients in predicting an appropriate cuffed endotracheal tube (ETT) size. Fifty children who were 1-10 years of age and who received general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation for adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy were enrolled in the study. In all participants, the transverse diameter of the subglottic airway was measured with USG at the cricoid level without ventilation. The outer diameter (OD) of the maximum allowable ETT was chosen according to the measured subglottic airway diameter. In the presence of resistance to passage of the tube into the trachea or in the absence of an audible leak at airway pressure of >25 cm H 2 O, the ETT was replaced with a tube whose internal diameter (ID) was 0.5 mm smaller. If a leak was audible at airway pressures of <10 cm H 2 O, if a seal could not be achieved with a cuff pressure of >25 cm H 2 O or if a peak airway pressure of >25 cm H 2 O was observed during ventilation, the tube was changed to a tube one size larger. The OD of the best-fit ETT was converted to the ID. The best-fit ID, the requirement for ETT replacement, the duration of airway diameter measurement by USG and the peak airway pressure were recorded. The success rate of the first attempt with USG was 86%; the ETT was replaced in five patients with a tube one size larger and in two patients with a tube one size smaller. Our findings show the subglottic diameter measured by USG to be a reliable predictor in estimating the appropriate paediatric ETT size.

  11. Clinical experience with desflurane for paediatric anaesthesia outside the operating room.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M; Builes, L; Morán, P; Ortega, A; Fernández, E; Reinoso-Barbero, F

    2017-01-01

    Desflurane has been used in paediatric patients for several surgical indications. This article analyses the efficacy and safety of desflurane for diagnostic-therapeutic procedures in remote areas far from operating room in a group of selected patients with no known associated respiratory disease. A retrospective analysis was performed on 2,072 general anaesthesia procedures stored in a computer database, in which desflurane was used in a Paediatric Pain Unit during the years 2013 and 2014. An analysis was also performed using the patient demographics, type of procedure, anaesthetic technique, type of airway management, patient cooperation, and incidence of anaesthetic complications. The study included 876 patients, with a mean age of 8.8 years. The main procedures were bone marrow aspirates (23%), lumbar punctures (20%), panendoscopies (15%), and colonoscopies (5%). Induction was intravenous with propofol (26%) or inhalation with sevoflurane in the remaining 74%. Maintenance consisted of remifentanil and desflurane at mean end tidal concentrations of 6.2±2.1%. The airway was managed through a nasal cannula or face mask in spontaneous ventilation. The effectiveness was 98%, and the incidence of side effects was 15%, which included agitation (6%), headache (4%), nausea-vomiting (3%), and laryngospasm (2%). The maintenance with desflurane (at concentrations close to the hypnotic-MAC in spontaneous ventilation) was effective, with a rapid recovery, and with a low incidence of adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of hand-washing teaching programs for families of children in paediatric intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Chuan; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2007-06-01

    The authors developed a video-centred teaching program based on social learning principles to demonstrate hand-washing technique. A comparison was made between families who viewed the video and families who were taught the same techniques with the aid of an illustrated poster in terms of compliance and improvement in hand-washing skills. Nosocomial infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric intensive care unit patients. Hand hygiene is considered the most important preventive action against hospital-acquired infections. A number of studies have shown that increased compliance with hand-washing guidelines for health-care workers leads to decreases in nosocomial infection rates. Furthermore, recommendations have been made to ensure that parents who visit their children in intensive care units wash their hands first. Quasi-experimental time series. Compliance and accuracy measurements were collected during one to five visits following the initial teaching intervention. A total of 123 families, who visited paediatric intensive care units, were recruited and assigned to two groups - one experimental (61 families) and the other a comparison group (62). Participants in the comparison group were taught hand-washing skills using simple illustrations. A 20-item hand-washing checklist was used to examine hand-washing compliance and accuracy. No significant differences were noted in terms of demographics between the two groups. Results from a general estimated equation analysis showed that families in the experimental group had higher compliance and accuracy scores at statistically significant levels. The video-based teaching program was effective in increasing compliance and accuracy with a hand-washing policy among families with children in intensive care units. The education program is a simple, low-cost, low technology intervention for substantially reducing the incidence of nosocomial infection.

  13. Goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation for children with motor disabilities: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Wiart, Lesley; Phelan, Shanon K

    2018-02-01

    The three objectives of this scoping review were to (1) identify key conceptual/theoretical frameworks and the extent to which they are used to inform goal setting related to rehabilitation goal setting with children with motor disabilities, (2) describe research that has evaluated goal setting processes and outcomes, and (3) summarize the purposes of goal setting described in paediatric rehabilitation literature. The scoping review process described by Arksey and O'Malley was used to guide article selection and data extraction. A total of 62 articles were included in the final review. While the concept of family-centered care was well represented, theoretical frameworks specific to goal setting (i.e. goal setting theory described by Locke and Latham, mastery motivation, social cognitive, personal construct, and self-determination theories) were rarely addressed. No articles reviewed addressed prominent behavior change theory. With the exception of the description of tools specifically designed for use with children, the role of the child in the goal setting process was generally absent or not well described. Few studies ( n = 6) discussed the linkage between goals and intervention strategies explicitly. Only two studies in the review evaluated outcomes associated with goal setting. The primary purpose for goal setting identified in the literature was to develop goals that are meaningful to families ( n = 49). The results highlight significant gaps in the literature explicating a sound theoretical basis for goal setting in paediatric rehabilitation and research evaluating the effects of goal qualities and goal setting processes on the achievement of meaningful outcomes.

  14. Establishing normative foot posture index values for the paediatric population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Montes-Alguacil, Jesus; Alfageme-Garcia, Pilar; Cervera-Marin, Jose Antonio; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is an observational tool designed to measure the position of the foot. Its reliability is well established, and it provides normative reference values for the general population. However, this is not so for the paediatric population. The aim of this study is to determine FPI reference values in childhood, taking into account age and gender. This cross-sectional study included 1,762 school children (863 boys and 899 girls) aged 6-11 years, from Málaga, Granada and Plasencia (Spain). In every case, FPI measurements were obtained for both feet by two experienced podiatrists. A descriptive analysis was then conducted and the percentiles of the variables determined, with a significance level of P < 0.05. The consolidated FPI results for the sample population produced mean values of 3.74 (SD 2.93) points for the right foot and 3.83 (SD 2.92) for the left. The 50th percentile was 4 points for both genders and for both feet, except for the right foot among the girls, which was slightly lower, at 3 points. The 85th percentile, which is considered to represent the boundary between the normal and the pronated foot among children, was 6 points, uniformly among the subjects. As a normative FPI value for the paediatric population, we recommend the 50th percentile, i.e. 4 points, for children, of both genders, aged 6 years. This value progressively falls with age, to 3 FPI points for children aged 11 years. The 85th percentile for the pronated foot and the 4th percentile for the supinated foot can be considered the pathological boundary.

  15. The role of polysomnography in tracheostomy decannulation of the paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Soma, Marlene A; Teng, Arthur Y; Thambipillay, Ganesh; Waters, Karen A; Cheng, Alan T

    2016-04-01

    Tracheostomy decannulation in the paediatric patient is usually considered when there is resolution or significant improvement in the original indication for the tracheostomy. The child's cardiorespiratory function needs to be optimized and assessment of the readiness for decannulation is generally by endoscopic evaluation to confirm airway patency and vocal cord mobility. Functional airway assessment procedures include downsizing the tracheostomy, adding fenestration, speaking valves and capping the tracheostomy tube. Few objective measures have been demonstrated to accurately predict the likelihood of successful decannulation. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of polysomnography (PSG) with a capped tracheostomy tube, as an adjunct to airway endoscopy and traditional decannulation procedures, to predict decannulation outcome. A retrospective review was conducted for patients who underwent "capped" PSG prior to a trial of tracheostomy decannulation at the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network. The charts were reviewed for clinical data and PSG results. 30 children with a total of 40 PSG reports were included in this study. There was a statistically significant difference in mean oxygen saturation, minimum oxygen saturation, total apnoea/hypopnoea index, desaturations >3%, and desaturations >3% index between those that had successful decannulation compared to failed decannulation. The measures with the greatest significance, and therefore, the best predictors of decannulation outcome were total apnoea/hypopnoea index (3.35events/h vs. 18.5events/h, p=0.004) and desaturation events (20.33 events vs. 192 events, p=0.001). PSG with a capped tracheostomy tube is a useful, objective tool to complement endoscopy and functional airway assessment in the consideration of decannulation in the paediatric population. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of frequency of paediatric oral liquid medication dosing errors by caregivers: amoxicillin and josamycin.

    PubMed

    Berthe-Aucejo, A; Girard, D; Lorrot, M; Bellettre, X; Faye, A; Mercier, J C; Brion, F; Bourdon, O; Prot-Labarthe, S

    2016-04-01

    To study reconstitution and preparation dosing errors of liquid oral medications given by caregivers to children. A prospective observational study was carried out in the departments of general paediatrics and emergency paediatrics at the Robert-Debré Children's University Hospital. An interview with caregivers involved (1) practical reconstitution and preparation of an oral liquid medication from a prescription drawn at random (amoxicillin (Clamoxyl, dosing spoon) or josamycin (Josacine, dose-weight pipette)) and (2) a questionnaire about their use. One hundred caregivers were included. Clamoxyl and Josacine were incorrectly reconstituted in 46% (23/50) and 56% (28/50) of cases, respectively, with a risk of underdosing of Clamoxyl (16/23) and overdosing of Josacine (23/28). Dose preparation with the dosing spoon was incorrect in 56% of cases, and in 10% of cases with the dose-weight pipette. Female sex, native French speaker, and age were significantly associated with correct reconstitution. Male sex and medication were significantly associated with correct preparation. This study highlights the high incidence of errors made by caregivers in reconstituting and preparing doses of these liquid oral medicines, which are associated with considerable risks of over- and underdosing. Factors associated with these errors have been identified which could help health professionals to optimise their strategy for educating families about the use of liquid oral medications and the need to check that they understand these instructions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. [The use of the ketogenic diet as treatment for refractory epilepsy in the paediatric age].

    PubMed

    Pablos-Sánchez, Tamara; Oliveros-Leal, Liliana; Núñez-Enamorado, Noemí; Camacho-Salas, Ana; Moreno-Villares, José Manuel; Simón-De las Heras, Rogelio

    2014-01-16

    Between 23% and 25% of epileptic children are refractory to antiepileptic drugs. In recent times there has been a renewed interest in the ketogenic diet as treatment in these patients who are not candidates for other therapeutic options. AIMS. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of treatment with the ketogenic diet in an important number of paediatric patients with refractory epilepsy in our centre and to determine whether the results obtained are consistent with others recently reported in the literature. A retrospective review was conducted of the medical records of 41 children with refractory epilepsy treated with the ketogenic diet, mostly the Radcliffe II-type diet, between 1998 and 2011. Their median age on starting the diet was 3.92 years old. At six months after beginning the diet, the number of crises was reduced by at least 50% in 36.84% of the sample (10.53% of the children reached a 90% reduction and 5.26% no longer suffered crises). Around 50% of those in the youngest age group responded positively. Some tolerable, transient side effects were experienced by 58.54% of the patients, consisting mainly in high levels of cholesterol and constipation; no variations in the anthropomorphic parameters were observed. The ketogenic diet is a good therapeutic alternative in cases of refractory epilepsy in the paediatric age. Moreover, the younger the child is on starting on the diet, the more likely he or she is to gain benefits from it. In general it is well tolerated. Regular check-ups with supervision of these patients' nutrition are of great importance.

  18. Effectiveness and Comparison of Various Audio Distraction Aids in Management of Anxious Dental Paediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Navit, Saumya; Johri, Nikita; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Chadha, Dheera; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-12-01

    Dental anxiety is a widespread phenomenon and a concern for paediatric dentistry. The inability of children to deal with threatening dental stimuli often manifests as behaviour management problems. Nowadays, the use of non-aversive behaviour management techniques is more advocated, which are more acceptable to parents, patients and practitioners. Therefore, this present study was conducted to find out which audio aid was the most effective in the managing anxious children. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of audio-distraction aids in reducing the anxiety of paediatric patients while undergoing various stressful and invasive dental procedures. The objectives were to ascertain whether audio distraction is an effective means of anxiety management and which type of audio aid is the most effective. A total number of 150 children, aged between 6 to 12 years, randomly selected amongst the patients who came for their first dental check-up, were placed in five groups of 30 each. These groups were the control group, the instrumental music group, the musical nursery rhymes group, the movie songs group and the audio stories group. The control group was treated under normal set-up & audio group listened to various audio presentations during treatment. Each child had four visits. In each visit, after the procedures was completed, the anxiety levels of the children were measured by the Venham's Picture Test (VPT), Venham's Clinical Rating Scale (VCRS) and pulse rate measurement with the help of pulse oximeter. A significant difference was seen between all the groups for the mean pulse rate, with an increase in subsequent visit. However, no significant difference was seen in the VPT & VCRS scores between all the groups. Audio aids in general reduced anxiety in comparison to the control group, and the most significant reduction in anxiety level was observed in the audio stories group. The conclusion derived from the present study was that audio distraction

  19. Admission, discharge and triage guidelines for paediatric intensive care units in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Oliva, Pedro; Cambra-Lasaosa, Francisco José; Quintana-Díaz, Manuel; Rey-Galán, Corsino; Sánchez-Díaz, Juan Ignacio; Martín-Delgado, María Cruz; de Carlos-Vicente, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Rastrollo, Ramón; Holanda-Peña, María Soledad; Pilar-Orive, Francisco Javier; Ocete-Hita, Esther; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; Serrano-González, Ana; Blanch, Luis

    2018-05-01

    A paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is a separate physical facility or unit specifically designed for the treatment of paediatric patients who, because of the severity of illness or other life-threatening conditions, require comprehensive and continuous inten-sive care by a medical team with special skills in paediatric intensive care medicine. Timely and personal intervention in intensive care reduces mortality, reduces length of stay, and decreases cost of care. With the aim of defending the right of the child to receive the highest attainable standard of health and the facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation, as well as ensuring the quality of care and the safety of critically ill paediatric patients, the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (AEP), Spanish Society of Paediatric Intensive Care (SECIP) and Spanish Society of Critical Care (SEMICYUC) have approved the guidelines for the admission, discharge and triage for Spanish PICUs. By using these guidelines, the performance of Spanish paediatric intensive care units can be optimised and paediatric patients can receive the appropriate level of care for their clinical condition. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Paediatric Low-Vision Assessment and Management in a Specialist Clinic in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Julie; Harper, Robert; Biswas, Sus; Lloyd, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a survey of the demographical, educational and visual functional characteristics of children attending a specialist paediatric low-vision assessment clinic at Manchester Royal Eye Hospital. Comprehensive data were collected retrospectively from children attending the paediatric low-vision clinic between January 2003 and…

  1. Plate fixation of paediatric fractures of the distal tibia and fibula.

    PubMed

    He, Bingshu; Wang, Jun

    2012-10-01

    The role of surgery in the management of paediatric long-bone shaft fractures remains a matter of debate. We present a series of paediatric patients with unstable fractures of the distal tibia and fibula, treated with titanium plate fixation. Excellent results were obtained after plate fixation.

  2. Paediatric palliative care: recommendations for treatment of symptoms in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Knops, Rutger R G; Kremer, Leontien C M; Verhagen, A A Eduard

    2015-11-05

    Children dying of a life threatening disease suffer a great deal at the end of life. Symptom control is often unsatisfactory, partly because many caregivers are simply not familiar with paediatric palliative care. To ensure that a child with a life-threatening condition receives high quality palliative care, clinical practice guidelines are needed. The aim of this study is to improve palliative care for children by making high quality care recommendations to recognize and relieve symptoms in paediatric palliative care. An extensive search was performed for guidelines and systematic reviews on paediatric palliative care up to year 2011. An expert panel combined the evidence with consensus to form recommendations on the treatment of symptoms in paediatric palliative care. We appraised 21 guidelines and identified 693 potentially eligible articles of which four met our inclusion criteria. None gave recommendations on the treatment of symptoms in paediatric palliative care. Two textbooks and an adult palliative care website were eventually our main sources of evidence. Hardly any evidence is available for the treatment of symptoms in paediatric palliative care. By combining evidence for adult palliative care and the sparse evidence for paediatric palliative care with expert opinion we defined a unique set of high quality care recommendations to relieve symptoms and lessen the suffering of children in palliative care. These results are an important tool to educate caregivers on how to relieve symptoms in children in paediatric palliative care.

  3. A Clinical Study of Phenomenology and Comorbidity of Paediatric Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Pavan Kumar; T., Sivakumar; Agarwal, Vivek; Sitholey, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable controversy exists regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis, and comorbidities especially with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), in paediatric Bipolar Disorder (BPD). Aims and objectives: To describe phenomenology and comorbidities of paediatric BPD. Method: 78 Subjects (6-16 years) attending child and…

  4. [Consensus document by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the advisory committee on vaccines of the Spanish Paediatrics Association on vaccination in immunocompromised children].

    PubMed

    Mellado Peña, M J; Moreno-Pérez, D; Ruíz Contreras, J; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2011-12-01

    Vaccination in immunocompromised infants, children and adolescents is a major aspect in the follow-up of this complex pathology in specific Paediatric Units. Vaccination is also an important prevention tool, as this can, to a certain extent, determine the morbidity and mortality in these patients. This consensus document was jointly prepared by Working Groups of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Paediatric Association, who are usually involved in updating the management of vaccinations in immunocompromised children, and reflects their opinions. The consensus specifically summarises indications for vaccination in the following special paediatric populations: Solid organ and haematopoietic transplant-recipients; primary immunodeficiency; asplenic children; non-previously transplanted immunocompromised patients; chronically ill patients; HIV-infected children and also the vaccines recommended for immunodeficient children who travel. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient doses in paediatric CT: feasibility of setting diagnostic reference levels.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, H; Merimaa, K; Seuri, R; Tyrväinen, E; Perhomaa, M; Savikurki-Heikkilä, P; Svedström, E; Ziliukas, J; Lintrop, M

    2011-09-01

    Despite the fact that doses to paediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) examinations are of special concern, only few data or studies for setting of paediatric diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) have been published. In this study, doses to children were estimated from chest and head CT, in order to study the feasibility of DRLs for these examinations. It is shown that for the DRLs, patient dose data from different CT scanners should be collected in age or weight groups, possibly for different indications. For practical reasons, the DRLs for paediatric chest CT should be given as a continuous DRL curve as a function of patient weight. For paediatric head CT, DRLs for a few age groups could be given. The users of the DRLs should be aware of the calibration phantom applied in the console calibration for different paediatric scanning protocols. The feasibility of DRLs should be re-evaluated every 2-3 y.

  6. Prevalence of pharmacotherapy in the department of paediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Paudel, K R; Sah, N K; Jaiswal, A K

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy plays important role in the management of paediatric dental patients in the department of paediatric dentistry. Many children at their early age suffer from different kinds of dental conditions such as acute and chronic irreversible pulpitis, acute and chronic alveolar abscesses, dentoalveolar and vestibular abscesses, etc along with physiological tooth movement that requires professional help for dental treatment. Treatment of such conditions most frequently requires pharmacotherapy as an either adjunct to dental therapeutic procedure or as a monotherapy. To assess the prescribing patterns vis-a-vis generic or trade name, generic class, dosage form, route, frequency, duration, number of drugs per patient, cost and indication of drug therapy, patterns of dental treatment and Frankl's behavioral rating. Prescriptions of 200 paediatric dental patients undergoing dental treatment in the department of paediatric dentistry were analyzed prospectively for a period of six months in a dental teaching hospital. 133 (56.5%) patients were males and 87 (43.5%) females and age group 6-10 years was the most frequent group (70%, P = 0.0000000) and all the patients received pharmacotherapy. Total numbers of 357 drugs were prescribed. Out of them, 212 (59.4%, P = 0.0000008) were analgesic agents, 133 (37.3%) antimicrobial agents (AMAs) and 12 (3.3%) other drugs. Extended spectrum Penicillins were the most commonly prescribed (90.2%) AMA followed by Metronidazole (9.8%). 247 drugs (69.2%, P = 0.0000000) were prescribed by trade names. 60% (P = 0.0000002) drugs were prescribed in the form of tablet or capsule followed by syrup 37% and administered entirely through oral route. Percentage of patients receiving three drugs, two drugs and one drug was 13.5%, 56.5% (P = 0.0000000) and 30% respectively and one patient received on average 1.78 medicines. 133 patients (56.5%, P = 0.0000000) received both AMA and analgesic agent. Minimum to maximum number of days for

  7. 'Let's talk about sex' - A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice study among Paediatric Nurses about Teen Sexual Health in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yip, Benjamin Hon-Kei; Sheng, Xiao-Tong; Chan, Vivian Wai-Yen; Wong, Lilian Hiu-Lei; Lee, Susanna Wai-Yee; Abraham, Anisha Anna

    2015-09-01

    To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of paediatric nurses in Hong Kong towards adolescent sexual health issues. In Hong Kong, teens are becoming more sexually permissive. As a result, early sexual activity, Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and unplanned pregnancies among adolescents are increasing. Paediatric nurses are potentially excellent sexual health educators; however, studies in other countries have reported that nurses have inadequate knowledge and skills about sexual health. Little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nurses in Hong Kong related to teen sexual health. This is a cross-sectional survey study. The survey was developed after an extensive literature review and partially adapted from previously validated questionnaires on nursing needs, knowledge, attitude and practice. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire in Chinese was distributed to 500 nurses in Hong Kong attending a local paediatric conference. Participants (n = 394) were recruited using convenience sampling methods. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation tests and logistic regression analyses. The majority of nurses had a high awareness of the importance of sexual healthcare, but rarely felt knowledgeable or comfortable discussing sexual health issues with adolescents. Higher comfort level was associated with higher frequency of practice with an average adjusted odds ratios of 2·64. Inadequate or lack of training (39·4%) was the most significant barrier in providing adolescent sexual health screening and counselling. Nurses' clinical practices towards adolescent's sexual health issues were influenced by their perceived comfort level followed by their self-ranked knowledge and training experience. Further specific training on communication, counselling and general sexual health should be provided to nurses in Hong Kong. Nurses' comfort level was the most important factor influencing their clinical practice with teens

  8. Late referral to paediatric renal failure service impairs access to pre-emptive kidney transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Boehm, M; Winkelmayer, W C; Arbeiter, K; Mueller, T; Aufricht, C

    2010-08-01

    Timing of referral to subspecialists may be a major determinant for access to adequate treatment. Kidney transplantation is the preferred modality of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children. In adults, delayed referral from general physicians to nephrologists reduced access to kidney transplantation. This study investigated the association between timing of referral and the likelihood of pre-emptive kidney transplantation in children. In this retrospective study, all patients in a tertiary paediatric nephrology centre were grouped according to first paediatric nephrologist visit (< or = 3 months prior to RRT was defined as 'late referral (LR)') and modality of first RRT. Descriptive, correlation and contingency statistics, Pearson's chi(2) test and logistic regression techniques were used for analysis. The median duration of nephrologists pre-RRT care of 111 children (50 girls and 61 boys; aged 8.0 years at first referral) was 1.5 (range 0-17.5) years. Thirty-two of 84 children who had their first visit >3 months prior to RRT were pre-emptively transplanted (38%), but only three of the 27 children with LR (11%; OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.37 to 17.7). Using a threshold of 12 months, the likelihood of pre-emptive kidney transplantation was still significantly influenced by timing of referral (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.06 to 5.91). LR of children with chronic kidney disease to paediatric nephrology centre impairs the likelihood of receiving a pre-emptive kidney transplant. Specialised care of at least 12 months before the need for RRT arises is needed to allow for identification of and completion of the medical investigation of the living donor. Further studies using larger multicentre registries are needed to validate these single centre data.

  9. Sweat testing for the detection of atomoxetine from paediatric patients with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: application to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Marchei, Emilia; Papaseit, Esther; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Bilbao, Amaia; Farré, Magí; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2013-03-01

    Atomoxetine (ATX) is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved since 2002 for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults as an alternative treatment to methylphenidate. Within the framework of a project evaluating the use of alternative biological matrices for therapeutic monitoring of psychoactive drugs in paediatric and non-paediatric individuals, the excretion of ATX and its principal metabolites has been recently studied in oral fluid and hair. The aim of this study was to describe the excretion profile of ATX and its metabolites 4-hydroxyatomoxetine (4-OH-ATX) and N-desmethylatomoxetine (N-des-ATX) in sweat following the administration of different dosage regimens (60, 40, 35, and 18 mg/day) of ATX to six paediatric patients. Sweat patches were applied to the back of each participant and removed at timed intervals. ATX and its metabolites were measured in patches using a previously validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Independently from the administered dose, ATX appeared in the sweat patches 1 h post administration and reached its maximum concentration generally at 24 h. Peak ATX concentrations ranged between 2.31 and 40.4 ng/patch and did not correlate with the administered drug dose, or with body surface area. Total ATX excreted in sweat ranged between 0.008 and 0.121 mg, corresponding to 0.02 and 0.3% of the administered drug. Neither 4-OH-ATX, nor N-des-ATX was detected in either of the collected sweat patches. Measuring ATX in sweat patches can provide information on cumulative drug use from patch application until removal. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Communication skills of healthcare professionals in paediatric diabetes services.

    PubMed

    Hambly, H; Robling, M; Crowne, E; Hood, K; Gregory, J W

    2009-05-01

    To identify training needs in communication skills and to assess training preferences of staff working in paediatric diabetes services, which will inform the development of a learning programme in behaviour change counselling for healthcare professionals. Three hundred and eighty-five staff in 67 UK paediatric diabetes services were sent questionnaires to determine their previous communication skills training, to measure their self-reported view of the importance of and confidence in addressing common clinical problems and to assess the perceived feasibility of training methods to improve skillfulness. Two hundred and sixty-six questionnaires (69%) were returned from 65 services. Sixteen per cent of doctors, nurses and dietitians reported no previous training in communication skills and 47% had received no training since graduating. Respondents rated psychosocial issues as more important to address than medical issues within consultations (t = 8.93, P < 0.001), but felt less confident addressing such issues (t = 15.85, P < 0.001). One-day workshops and monthly team meetings were the most popular of the training options considered (65% and 77%, respectively). CD ROM and web-based learning were considered feasible for 54% and 56% of respondents, respectively, although lack of time (55%) and privacy (34%) were potential barriers. Addressing psychosocial issues is an important component of consultations involving young people with diabetes, but healthcare professionals find it easier to address medical issues. This represents a key training need in communication skills for diabetes professionals. The survey will inform the development of a tailored learning programme for health professionals in UK paediatric diabetes clinics.

  11. Burn epidemiology and cost of medication in paediatric burn patients.

    PubMed

    Koç, Zeliha; Sağlam, Zeynep

    2012-09-01

    Burns are common injuries that cause problems to societies throughout the world. In order to reduce the cost of burn treatment in children, it is extremely important to determine the burn epidemiology and the cost of medicines used in burn treatment. The present study used a retrospective design, with data collected from medical records of 140 paediatric patients admitted to a burn centre between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009. Medical records were examined to determine burn epidemiology, medication administered, dosage, and duration of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was completed for all variables; chi-square was used to examine the relationship between certain variables. It was found that 62.7% of paediatric burns occur in the kitchen, with 70.7% involving boiling water; 55.7% of cases resulted in third-degree burns, 19.3% required grafting, and mean duration of hospital stay was 27.5 ± 1.2 days. Medication costs varied between $1.38 US dollars (USD) and $14,159.09, total drug cost was $46,148.03 and average cost per patient was $329.63. In this study, the medication cost for burn patients was found to be relatively high, with antibiotics comprising the vast majority of medication expenditure. Most paediatric burns are preventable, so it is vital to educate families about potential household hazards that can be addressed to reduce the risk of a burn. Programmes are also recommended to reduce costs and the inappropriate prescribing of medication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of paediatric burns in Sichuan province: epidemiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Cen, Ying; Chen, Jun-Jie; Xu, Xue-Wen; Liu, Xiao-Xue

    2012-02-01

    This study analysed the epidemiology of paediatric burns in Sichuan province, China, for the formulation of prevention programmes for this population. A retrospective review was performed of paediatric patients admitted to the Burn Centre of West China Hospital during 2003-2009, including patient demographics, burn aetiology, time and place of burn, rural or urban population, and education level and burn knowledge of the patients' guardians. A total of 1387 paediatric burn patients, mean age 3.21 years (range 0-14 years) were admitted. The majority (72.1%) were 0-3 years old, and the male/female ratio was 2.39:1. Most common aetiologies were scalds (81.3%), flames (17.1%), and electricity (1.3%), while chemical burns were rare. The ratio of indoor versus outdoor location was 4.93:1, and the rural/urban ratio was 4.03:1. Burns were classified as: total burn surface area (TBSA) ranging from 0% to 5%, (23.9% of patients); TBSA between 5% and 15% (33.2%); TBSA between 15% and 25% (29.8%); TBSA greater than 25% (13.1%). There was a higher prevalence from April to September, and the peak times were mealtime and bathtime. The education level was lower in the rural group. Both urban and rural groups had little knowledge of first aid for burns. Burn prevention programmes should promote improved living conditions, with prevention education addressed directly to the guardians of children. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. [Influence of postcode on paediatric admissions in Seville].

    PubMed

    Tornero Patricio, Sebastián; Charris-Castro, Liliana; Granero Asencio, Mercedes; Daponte Codina, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The postcode (where the home is situated) is an indicator of socioeconomic status and is associated with morbidity, mortality, and the use of health services. The aim of this study was to analyse its effects on paediatric admissions and to determine the rates of the most common causes of paediatric admissions in Seville. An observational cross-sectional study with two analysis units: under 15 year-old "admissions" in public hospitals in Seville (n=2,660) and "city districts" of Seville (n=11). The independent variable analysed was whether the postcode of the admitted patients was within a Regional Government designated "area with social transformation needs". The analysis of the admissions was performed using X 2 -test, Fisher test and Student-t test, with the description of rates using the calculation of crude and specific rates, and by rate ratio. Children living in districts with a lower socioeconomic status were on average 7 months younger (P<.001), and they were significantly more likely to be admitted via the emergency department (P<.001). There was no statistical difference detected in either the length of hospital stay or mortality. The crude admission rate ratio was higher in districts with a lower socioeconomic status (1.8), with a higher specific rate ratio detected in admissions due to asthma, respiratory infections, inguinal hernia, and epilepsy/convulsions. Paediatric hospital admission rates of the main diagnoses were higher in districts with a lower socioeconomic status. Children living in these districts were more likely to be admitted younger and via the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental attitudes to digital recording: A paediatric hospital survey.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katherine; Vandenberg, Stephanie; le Huquet, Ariel; Blanchard, Nadeene; Parshuram, Christopher S

    2011-06-01

    Digital recording is ubiquitous in the community. Its objectivity, permanence and utility in medical education have led to increasing use in health-care settings. As participants in this process, the perspectives of families are important to inform practice. We surveyed family members of hospitalized children to evaluate their opinions. A survey was administered to adults in emergency, operating room or ICU waiting areas at a university-affiliated paediatric hospital in Toronto. Respondents rated the frequency of digital recording in the community and hospital environments, the acceptability of five clinical indications and of consent discussions. Participants completed 154 surveys (response rate 83%) with median (interquartile range) of 2 (1-2) children. Community use of recording >4 times in the week prior was reported by 47 (31%); 42 (28%) reported no recording. The respondents rated the following indications for digital recording acceptable in the health care research 142 (94%), medical education 140 (93%), quality improvement 140 (92%), patient safety 147 (97%), and clinical care (96%). Within healthcare, consent discussions at different times were rated as acceptable before recording by 99%; after recording by 41%; and with no consent by 17%. We performed the first post-privacy legislation survey of digital recording in Canadian health care. There is widespread acceptance of digital recording in public spaces and health care; however, respondents preferred to provide consent before recording. Balancing these preferences with the demonstrated advantages of video recording in health care presents challenges for optimal health policy creation. This study provides contemporary data to inform discussions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics of paediatric epithelioid glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Broniscer, Alberto; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Sabin, Noah D.; Klimo, Paul; Dalton, James; Lee, Ryan; Gajjar, Amar; Ellison, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims A few case series in adults have described the characteristics of epithelioid glioblastoma (e-GB), one of the rarest variants of this cancer. We evaluated clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics in the largest series to date of paediatric e-GB. Methods Review of clinical characteristics and therapy, imaging studies, and histology was performed in patients younger than 22 years with e-GB seen at our institution over 15 years. Sequencing of hotspot mutations and FISH of relevant genes were undertaken. Results Median age at diagnosis of six patients was 7.6 years. Tumours originated in the cerebral cortex (n=2) or diencephalon (n=4). Three patients presented with acute, massive haemorrhage and three had leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis. Paediatric e-GB had the typical histological characteristics seen in adult tumours. Universal immunoreactivity for INI1 and lack of diverse protein expression were seen in all cases. One tumour had a chromosome 22q loss. Three tumours (50%) harboured a BRAF: p.V600E. One thalamic tumour had an H3F3A p.K27M. All patients received radiation therapy with (n=3) or without chemotherapy (n=3). All patients experienced tumour progression with a median survival of 169 days. One patient with non-metastatic disease had early leptomeningeal progression. Two patients had symptomatic tumour spread outside the central nervous system (CNS) through a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. One additional patient had widespread metastases outside the CNS identified at autopsy. Conclusions Paediatric e-GBs are rare cancers with an aggressive behaviour that share histological and genetic characteristics with their adult counterparts. BRAF inhibition is a potential treatment for these tumours. PMID:24127995

  16. [Neurotoxic manifestations of black widow spider envenomation in paediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Sotelo-Cruz, N; Gómez-Rivera, N

    2016-05-01

    Envenomation by black widow spiders manifests clinically with signs of neurotoxicity in paediatric patients. Identify typical neurological signs and symptoms in paediatric patients of different ages, and describe treatment and outcomes in a paediatric hospital in northwest Mexico. We reviewed 70 clinical records of patients hospitalised due to black widow spider bite between 1978 and 2014. We divided the total into 2 groups: Group 1, infants and preschool children; and Group 2, school-age children and adolescents. The demographic variables were age, sex, birthplace, place where envenomation occurred, body part(s) affected, degree of envenomation according to signs and symptoms, treatment, clinical outcome, and statistical differences. Boys accounted for 61.4% of all cases, and infants younger than one year old made up 14.2%. Most patients (70%) were bitten by the spider at home; the anatomical areas most frequently affected were the legs, neck, thorax, and abdomen. The neurological signs and symptoms displayed by Group 1 were irritability, constant crying, sialorrhoea, nausea, tachycardia, arrhythmias, fatigue when walking, agitation, muscle spasms paraesthesia, tetany, seizures, and nystagmus. Signs in Group 2 included localized pain, headache, sialorrhoea, paraesthesia, profuse sweating, anxiety, muscle weakness, muscle spasms, and fine tremor. The predominant autonomic sign in Group 1 was sialorrhoea (P<.0001) and in Group 2, paraesthesia (P<.0001). Patients who received Fab antivenom treatment displayed better outcomes and shorter hospital stays than those who did not. No deaths were reported. The neurological signs and symptoms caused by black widow spider bite are predominantly autonomic, and identifying them permits early diagnosis and more effective treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Measles in a South African paediatric intensive care unit: again!

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Saskia; Morrow, Brenda M; Argent, Andrew C

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of children with measles-related disease (MRD) admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and the effect on PICU resources and elective surgery of a recent measles epidemic. This was a retrospective observational study of all patients admitted to the PICU of Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, with MRD from January to December 2010. Patient admission characteristics, duration of PICU admission and mortality were recorded. Costs were calculated using bed days utilised and estimated daily PICU admission cost. A total of 1274 children were admitted over the study period, 58 (4.6%) with MRD (median (interquartile range) age 7 (5-9) months). Pneumonia was the most common reason for admission (81%) and the main cause of mortality. Non-MRD mortality was 8.8% compared with MRD mortality of 31% (P < 0.0001). Standardised mortality for non-MRD was 0.7 versus 1.7 in MRD (P = 0.002). HIV comorbidity and being underweight for age were associated with increased mortality. Patients with MRD occupied 379 bed days with a median (interquartile range) duration of stay of 5.5 (3.0-9.0) days at an estimated overall cost of R4,813,300 (approximately $543,900). During the study period, 67 children booked for elective surgery, and 87 other referrals were refused PICU admission. MRD was associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and substantial strain on scarce PICU resources. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Isolated meniscal injuries in paediatric patients: outcomes after arthroscopic repair.

    PubMed

    Lucas, G; Accadbled, F; Violas, P; Sales de Gauzy, J; Knörr, J

    2015-04-01

    The management of isolated meniscal tears in paediatric patients is poorly standardised, and few published data are available. Nevertheless, there is widespread agreement that meniscectomy, even when partial, produces poor outcomes including the premature development of osteoarthritis. Arthroscopic repair of isolated meniscal tears in paediatric patients yields good outcomes and should be attempted routinely. We retrospectively assessed 19 arthroscopic repair procedures performed between 2006 and 2010 by a single surgeon in 17 patients with a mean age of 14 years. In every case, the knee was stable and the meniscus normal before the meniscal tear, which was the only injury. Mean follow-up was 22 months. In all 19 cases, the evaluation included a physical examination, pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and determination of the Tegner and Lysholm scores. Post-operative MRI was performed in 10 cases. The outcome was good in 12/17 (70%) patients with significant improvements in the mean Tegner score, from 3.9 to 7.1, and mean Lysholm score, from 55.9 to 85.4, between the pre-operative and post-operative assessments. The clinical outcomes were not significantly associated with time to arthroscopic repair, gender, lesion site, or lesion type. Neither was any correlation demonstrated between clinical outcomes and meniscal healing as assessed by MRI. The known poor outcomes after meniscectomy in paediatric patients, the results of our study, and previously published data support routine arthroscopic repair of isolated meniscal tears in this age group, regardless of the site and type of injury. In addition, in asymptomatic patients, clinical follow-up is sufficient and post-operative MRI unnecessary. Level IV. Retrospective study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A simplified table improves the recognition of paediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Charlene K; Theriot, Judith A; Sayat, Jonathan G; Muchant, Dianne G; Franco, Sofia M

    2011-01-01

    Unrecognised and untreated hypertension can lead to significant morbidity and mortality over time. In a 2003 chart review, we found that our providers only recognised 15% of hypertensive blood pressure (BP). Our objective was to determine whether a simplified BP table improves the recognition of elevated BP in children. We developed a simplified BP table for children 3-18 years and posted it in provider work areas beginning August 2006. We reviewed a retrospective sample of well visits for children aged 3-18 years, with equal numbers by sex and year of age, presenting at a university-based paediatric clinic between January and August 2007. Visit notes for all children with elevated BP values ≥ 90th percentile were reviewed to identify whether the provider recognised that the BP was elevated. In 493 well visits, 85 (17.2%) children had pre-hypertensive (90th to < 95th percentile) and 100 (20.3%) had hypertensive (≥ 95th percentile) BP values. Providers recognised elevations in 34 (40%) pre-hypertensive and 77 (77%) hypertensive measurements. Recognition was significantly more common for those in the hypertensive than the pre-hypertensive range (χ² = 24.9, degrees of freedom= 1, P < 0.001). Compared with our 2003 data, recognition of hypertensive BP values was significantly greater (77% vs. 15%) (t = 14.479, degrees of freedom = 98, P <0.001) after introduction of the simplified BP table. Use of a simplified BP table can lead to significantly improved recognition of elevated BP in children. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Clinical, radiological, histological and molecular characteristics of paediatric epithelioid glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Broniscer, A; Tatevossian, R G; Sabin, N D; Klimo, P; Dalton, J; Lee, R; Gajjar, A; Ellison, D W

    2014-04-01

    A few case series in adults have described the characteristics of epithelioid glioblastoma (e-GB), one of the rarest variants of this cancer. We evaluated clinical, radiological, histological and molecular characteristics in the largest series to date of paediatric e-GB. Review of clinical characteristics and therapy, imaging studies and histology was performed in patients younger than 22 years with e-GB seen at our institution over 15 years. Sequencing of hotspot mutations and fluorescence in situ hybridization of relevant genes were undertaken. Median age at diagnosis of six patients was 7.6 years. Tumours originated in the cerebral cortex (n = 2) or diencephalon (n = 4). Three patients presented with acute, massive haemorrhage and three had leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis. Paediatric e-GB had the typical histological characteristics seen in adult tumours. Universal immunoreactivity for INI1 and lack of diverse protein expression were seen in all cases. One tumour had a chromosome 22q loss. Three tumours (50%) harboured a BRAF: p.V600E. One thalamic tumour had an H3F3A p.K27M. All patients received radiation therapy with (n = 3) or without chemotherapy (n = 3). All patients experienced tumour progression with a median survival of 169 days. One patient with nonmetastatic disease had early leptomeningeal progression. Two patients had symptomatic tumour spread outside the central nervous system (CNS) through a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One additional patient had widespread metastases outside the CNS identified at autopsy. Paediatric e-GBs are rare cancers with an aggressive behaviour that share histological and genetic characteristics with their adult counterparts. BRAF inhibition is a potential treatment for these tumours. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  1. Effectiveness of an adolescent healthcare training programme for enhancing paediatric nurses' competencies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Regina Lai Tong; Wang, Jing Jing

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of an educational intervention programme on improving paediatric nurses' competencies in performing adolescent healthcare practice in central China. The WHO Adolescent Health Framework was integrated into this training programme to examine the effects of educational interventions on the competencies of paediatric nurses in promoting adolescent healthcare. This study is one of the first in central China to evaluate paediatric nurses' competencies in promoting adolescent health. The study used a mixed-method design with a quasi-experimental approach and focus group interviews. The study was conducted with 57 paediatric nurses from 28 institutes and hospitals in central China in 2010 to evaluate their competencies in adolescent health and development, specifically with regard to conducting needs assessments, planning effective interventions and evaluating outcome measures. The paediatric nurses received training and were assessed by individual and group work during the structured three-week programme. Data were collected before and after the training programme as pre- and post-tests. The researchers gathered information about their experiences by conducting focus group interviews. The paediatric nurses demonstrated significant improvements in their adolescent healthcare practice after attending the three-week structured training programme. The post-test scores had significant effects on the dimensions of the adolescent healthcare practice competency checklist. The qualitative data also showed positive and encouraging experiences and feedback from the paediatric nurses in this study. The findings suggest that an educational intervention can change knowledge, attitudes and practice among paediatric nurses in adolescent healthcare. All the paediatric nurses in this study demonstrated increased competencies in carrying out adolescent healthcare practice after participating in the three-week intensive intervention programme. This study showed that

  2. European evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of paediatric antiphospholipid syndrome: the SHARE initiative.

    PubMed

    Groot, Noortje; de Graeff, Nienke; Avcin, Tadej; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Dolezalova, Pavla; Feldman, Brian; Kenet, Gili; Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Lahdenne, Pekka; Marks, Stephen D; McCann, Liza; Pilkington, Clarissa A; Ravelli, Angelo; van Royen-Kerkhof, Annet; Uziel, Yosef; Vastert, Sebastiaan J; Wulffraat, Nico M; Ozen, Seza; Brogan, Paul; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Beresford, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is rare in children, and evidence-based guidelines are sparse. Consequently, management is mostly based on observational studies and physician's experience, and treatment regimens differ widely. The Single Hub and Access point for paediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) initiative was launched to develop diagnostic and management regimens for children and young adults with rheumatic diseases. Here, we developed evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of paediatric APS. Evidence-based recommendations were developed using the European League Against Rheumatism standard operating procedure. Following a detailed systematic review of the literature, a committee of paediatric rheumatologists and representation of paediatric haematology with expertise in paediatric APS developed recommendations. The literature review yielded 1473 articles, of which 15 were valid and relevant. In total, four recommendations for diagnosis and eight for treatment of paediatric APS (including paediatric Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome) were accepted. Additionally, two recommendations for children born to mothers with APS were accepted. It was agreed that new classification criteria for paediatric APS are necessary, and APS in association with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus should be identified by performing antiphospholipid antibody screening. Treatment recommendations included prevention of thrombotic events, and treatment recommendations for venous and/or arterial thrombotic events. Notably, due to the paucity of studies on paediatric APS, level of evidence and strength of the recommendations is relatively low. The SHARE initiative provides international, evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for paediatric APS, facilitating improvement and uniformity of care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  3. Migrant-friendly hospitals: a paediatric perspective - improving hospital care for migrant children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Union (EU) Migrant-Friendly Hospital (MFH) Initiative, introduced in 2002, promotes the adoption of care approaches adapted to meet the service needs of migrants. However, for paediatric hospitals, no specific recommendations have been offered for MFH care for children. Using the Swiss MFH project as a case study, this paper aims to identify hospital-based care needs of paediatric migrants (PMs) and good service approaches. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with principal project leaders of five paediatric hospitals participating in the Swiss MFH project. A review of the international literature on non-clinical hospital service needs and service responses of paediatric MFHs was conducted. Results Paediatric care can be complex, usually involving both the patient and the patient’s family. Key challenges include differing levels of acculturation between parents and children; language barriers; cultural differences between patient and provider; and time constraints. Current service and infrastructural responses include interpretation services for PMs and parents, translated information material, and special adaptations to ensure privacy, e.g., during breastfeeding. Clear standards for paediatric migrant-friendly hospitals (P-MFH) are lacking. Conclusions International research on hospital care for migrant children is scarce. The needs of paediatric migrants and their families may differ from guidance for adults. Paediatric migrant needs should be systematically identified and used to inform paediatric hospital care approaches. Hospital processes from admission to discharge should be revised to ensure implementation of migrant-sensitive approaches suitable for children. Staff should receive adequate support, such as training, easily available interpreters and sufficient consultation time, to be able to provide migrant-friendly paediatric services. The involvement of migrant groups may be helpful. Improving the quality of care

  4. Derivation of Australian diagnostic reference levels for paediatric multi detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hayton, Anna; Wallace, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Australian National Diagnostic Reference Levels for paediatric multi detector computed tomography were established for three protocols, Head, Chest and AbdoPelvis, across two age groups, Baby/Infant 0-4 years and Child 5-14 years by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in 2012. The establishment of Australian paediatric DRLs is an important step towards lowering patient CT doses on a national scale. While Adult DRLs were calculated with data collected from the web based Australian National Diagnostic Reference Level Service, no paediatric data was submitted in the first year of service operation. Data from an independent Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists Quality Use of Diagnostic Imaging paediatric optimisation survey was used. The paediatric DRLs were defined for CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy·cm) values that referenced the 16 cm PMMA phantom for the Head protocol and the 32 cm PMMA phantom for body protocols for both paediatric age groups. The Australian paediatric DRLs for multi detector computed tomography are for the Head, Chest and AbdoPelvis protocols respectively, 470, 60 and 170 mGy·cm for the Baby/Infant age group, and 600, 110 and 390 mGy·cm for the Child age group. A comparison with published international paediatric DRLs for computed tomography reveal the Australian paediatric DRLs to be lower on average. However, the comparison is complicated by misalignment of defined age ranges. It is the intention of ARPANSA to review the paediatric DRLs in conjunction with a review of the adult DRLs, which should occur within 5 years of their publication.

  5. Migrant-friendly hospitals: a paediatric perspective--improving hospital care for migrant children.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Fabienne N; Kiss, Ligia; Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2013-10-05

    The European Union (EU) Migrant-Friendly Hospital (MFH) Initiative, introduced in 2002, promotes the adoption of care approaches adapted to meet the service needs of migrants. However, for paediatric hospitals, no specific recommendations have been offered for MFH care for children. Using the Swiss MFH project as a case study, this paper aims to identify hospital-based care needs of paediatric migrants (PMs) and good service approaches. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with principal project leaders of five paediatric hospitals participating in the Swiss MFH project. A review of the international literature on non-clinical hospital service needs and service responses of paediatric MFHs was conducted. Paediatric care can be complex, usually involving both the patient and the patient's family. Key challenges include differing levels of acculturation between parents and children; language barriers; cultural differences between patient and provider; and time constraints. Current service and infrastructural responses include interpretation services for PMs and parents, translated information material, and special adaptations to ensure privacy, e.g., during breastfeeding. Clear standards for paediatric migrant-friendly hospitals (P-MFH) are lacking. International research on hospital care for migrant children is scarce. The needs of paediatric migrants and their families may differ from guidance for adults. Paediatric migrant needs should be systematically identified and used to inform paediatric hospital care approaches. Hospital processes from admission to discharge should be revised to ensure implementation of migrant-sensitive approaches suitable for children. Staff should receive adequate support, such as training, easily available interpreters and sufficient consultation time, to be able to provide migrant-friendly paediatric services. The involvement of migrant groups may be helpful. Improving the quality of care for PMs at both policy and service levels

  6. Paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest: a Delphi study to establish consensus on definition and management.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Annette C; Vassallo, James; Nutbeam, Tim; Lyttle, Mark D; Maconochie, Ian K; Enki, Doyo G; Smith, Jason E

    2018-04-28

    Paediatric traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) is associated with low survival and poor outcomes. The mechanisms that underlie TCA are different from medical cardiac arrest; the approach to treatment of TCA may therefore also need to differ to optimise outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the opinion of subject matter experts regarding the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric TCA, and to reach consensus on how best to manage this group of patients. An online Delphi study was conducted over three rounds, with the aim of achieving consensus (defined as 70% agreement) on statements related to the diagnosis and management of paediatric TCA. Participants were invited from paediatric and adult emergency medicine, paediatric anaesthetics, paediatric ICU and paediatric surgery, as well as Paediatric Major Trauma Centre leads and representatives from the Resuscitation Council UK. Statements were informed by literature reviews and were based on elements of APLS resuscitation algorithms as well as some concepts used in the management of adult TCA; they ranged from confirmation of cardiac arrest to the indications for thoracotomy. 73 experts completed all three rounds between June and November 2016. Consensus was reached on 14 statements regarding the diagnosis and management of paediatric TCA; oxygenation and ventilatory support, along with rapid volume replacement with warmed blood, improve survival. The duration of cardiac arrest and the lack of a response to intervention, along with cardiac standstill on ultrasound, help to guide the decision to terminate resuscitation. This study has given a consensus-based framework to guide protocol development in the management of paediatric TCA, though further work is required in other key areas including its acceptability to clinicians. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Complications in paediatric craniofacial surgery: an initial four year experience.

    PubMed

    Jones, B M; Jani, P; Bingham, R M; Mackersie, A M; Hayward, R

    1992-04-01

    107 children undergoing transcranial craniofacial surgery in a paediatric hospital have been reviewed to assess the incidence and type of complications which arose. This represents the first 4 years' experience of the craniofacial team. There were no deaths or permanent adverse sequelae of surgery. A total of 53 complications were seen in 42 patients. In 9.3% of patients they were potentially life-threatening, serious in 12.1% and of a minor nature in 28%. The more serious complications were related either to haemorrhage and/or vasovagal shock at operation or to infection post-operatively. Infants undergoing monoblock frontofacial advancements and those with tracheostomies were at particular risk.

  8. An unexpected cause of pleural effusion in paediatric emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ozbek, Seda; Gumus, Meltem; Yuksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Batur, Abdussamed

    2013-01-01

    Pancreaticopleural fistula (PPF) is an uncommon complication of chronic pancreatitis leading to a large and recurrent pleural effusion. Since the patients presented predominantly with respiratory symptoms, diagnosis and treatment were often delayed. We describe a child who was admitted to our paediatric emergency department with an acute onset of dyspnoea and unilateral massive pleural effusion caused by PPF. Multidetector CT is an easily accessible method that is able to show both the thoracic and abdominal findings non-invasively. The clinical and imaging features of this unusual entity are discussed. PMID:23595187

  9. Weaning from mechanical ventilation in paediatrics. State of the art.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Jorge; Araneda, Patricio; Cruces, Pablo

    2014-03-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation is one of the greatest volume and strength issues in evidence-based medicine in critically ill adults. In these patients, weaning protocols and daily interruption of sedation have been implemented, reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation and associated morbidity. In paediatrics, the information reported is less consistent, so that as yet there are no reliable criteria for weaning and extubation in this patient group. Several indices have been developed to predict the outcome of weaning. However, these have failed to replace clinical judgement, although some additional measurements could facilitate this decision. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of students' knowledge about paediatric dosage calculations.

    PubMed

    Özyazıcıoğlu, Nurcan; Aydın, Ayla İrem; Sürenler, Semra; Çinar, Hava Gökdere; Yılmaz, Dilek; Arkan, Burcu; Tunç, Gülseren Çıtak

    2018-01-01

    Medication errors are common and may jeopardize the patient safety. As paediatric dosages are calculated based on the child's age and weight, risk of error in dosage calculations is increasing. In paediatric patients, overdose drug prescribed regardless of the child's weight, age and clinical picture may lead to excessive toxicity and mortalities while low doses may delay the treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of nursing students about paediatric dosage calculations. This research, which is of retrospective type, covers a population consisting of all the 3rd grade students at the bachelor's degree in May, 2015 (148 students). Drug dose calculation questions in exam papers including 3 open ended questions on dosage calculation problems, addressing 5 variables were distributed to the students and their responses were evaluated by the researchers. In the evaluation of the data, figures and percentage distribution were calculated and Spearman correlation analysis was applied. Exam question on the dosage calculation based on child's age, which is the most common method in paediatrics, and which ensures right dosages and drug dilution was answered correctly by 87.1% of the students while 9.5% answered it wrong and 3.4% left it blank. 69.6% of the students was successful in finding the safe dose range, and 79.1% in finding the right ratio/proportion. 65.5% of the answers with regard to Ml/dzy calculation were correct. Moreover, student's four operation skills were assessed and 68.2% of the students were determined to have found the correct answer. When the relation among the questions on medication was examined, a significant relation (correlation) was determined between them. It is seen that in dosage calculations, the students failed mostly in calculating ml/dzy (decimal). This result means that as dosage calculations are based on decimal values, calculations may be ten times erroneous when the decimal point is placed wrongly. Moreover, it

  11. [DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSISINFECTION IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    PubMed

    Vásquez T , Oscar; Alvarez Ch , Rubén; Gonzales S , Napoleón; Neme D , Gonzalo A.; Romero C , Raúl; Valencia R , Silvia; Gomez A, Valente; Martinez B, Ignacio

    1998-01-01

    The study was made to determine the clinical profile and laboratory of 10 paediatric patients whose diagnosis of cyclosporiosis was established by identifying the parasite in fecal matter, through a smear with modified Zehl-Nielsen and incubation in dichromate of potassium. We obtained clinical data form these patients correlating them with absorption tests (digestive activity, sugar reducers and fats in feces.)After treatment with trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole and nitazoxanide patients were controlled by laboratory exams to determine the existence of the parasite and its viability.

  12. Prospective Incidence of Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in New Zealand in 2015: Results From the Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in New Zealand (PINZ) Study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Robert N; Evans, Helen M; Appleton, Laura; Bishop, Jonathan; Chin, Simon; Mouat, Stephen; Gearry, Richard B; Day, Andrew S

    2018-05-01

    The global incidence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. Much of the evidence attesting to this has arisen from North America and Europe. There is a relative paucity of information on the epidemiology of paediatric IBD in the Southern Hemisphere. The present study aimed to document the prospectively collected incidence of paediatric IBD in New Zealand in 2015. All patients younger than 16 years of age and diagnosed with IBD in New Zealand between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2015 were identified. Demographic and disease phenotypic details were collected and entered into a secure database. Age-specific population data for New Zealand were obtained and national incidence rates for IBD and its subtypes were calculated. The prospectively calculated incidence of paediatric IBD, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), and IBD unclassified in New Zealand in 2015 were 5.2 (95% confidence interval 3.9-6.8), 3.5 (2.4-4.8), 1.0 (0.5-1.8), and 0.7 (0.3-1.4) per 100,000 children, respectively. Incidence rates of paediatric IBD in New Zealand are comparable to the highest rates published in the literature from Western Europe and North America. Ongoing prospective ascertainment of the incidence of paediatric IBD is required to better understand the environmental factors, which are accounting for this increase in disease burden.

  13. Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV‐1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life

    PubMed Central

    Turkova, A; Lyall, H; Foster, C; Klein, N; Bastiaans, D; Burger, D; Bernadi, S; Butler, K; Chiappini, E; Clayden, P; Della Negra, M; Giacomet, V; Giaquinto, C; Gibb, D; Galli, L; Hainaut, M; Koros, M; Marques, L; Nastouli, E; Niehues, T; Noguera‐Julian, A; Rojo, P; Rudin, C; Scherpbier, HJ; Tudor‐Williams, G; Welch, SB

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines provide practical recommendations on the management of HIV‐1 infection in children in Europe and are an update to those published in 2009. Aims of treatment have progressed significantly over the last decade, moving far beyond limitation of short‐term morbidity and mortality to optimizing health status for adult life and minimizing the impact of chronic HIV infection on immune system development and health in general. Additionally, there is a greater need for increased awareness and minimization of long‐term drug toxicity. The main updates to the previous guidelines include: an increase in the number of indications for antiretroviral therapy (ART) at all ages (higher CD4 thresholds for consideration of ART initiation and additional clinical indications), revised guidance on first‐ and second‐line ART recommendations, including more recently available drug classes, expanded guidance on management of coinfections (including tuberculosis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C) and additional emphasis on the needs of adolescents as they approach transition to adult services. There is a new section on the current ART ‘pipeline’ of drug development, a comprehensive summary table of currently recommended ART with dosing recommendations. Differences between PENTA and current US and World Health Organization guidelines are highlighted and explained. PMID:25649230

  14. The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project: development and debut of a paediatric clinical eating disorder registry.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hunna J; McCormack, Julie; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Forbes, David; Potts, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project is an ongoing registry study made up of a sequential cross-sectional sample prospectively recruited over 17 years, and is designed to answer empirical questions about paediatric eating disorders. This paper introduces the HOPE Project, describes the registry sample to-date, and discusses future directions and challenges and accomplishments. The project and clinical service were established in a tertiary academic hospital in Western Australia in 1996 with a service development grant. Research processes were inbuilt into the initial protocols and data collection was maintained in the following years. Recognisable progress with the research agenda accelerated only when dedicated research resources were obtained. The registry sample consists of consecutive children and adolescents assessed at the eating disorder program from 1996 onward. Standardised multidisciplinary data collected from family intake interview, parent and child clinical interviews, medical review, parent, child and teacher psychometric assessments, and inpatient admission records populate the HOPE Project database. The registry database to-date contains 941 assessments, of whom 685 met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder at admission. The majority of the sample were females (91%) from metropolitan Perth (83%). The cases with eating disorders consist of eating disorders not otherwise specified (68%), anorexia nervosa (25%) and bulimia nervosa (7%). Among those with eating disorders, a history of weight loss since illness onset was almost universal (96%) with fear of weight gain (71%) common, and the median duration of illness was 8 months. Over the next five years and more, we expect that the HOPE Project will make a strong scientific contribution to paediatric eating disorders research and will have important real-world applications to clinical practice and policy as the research unfolds.

  15. The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project: development and debut of a paediatric clinical eating disorder registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project is an ongoing registry study made up of a sequential cross-sectional sample prospectively recruited over 17 years, and is designed to answer empirical questions about paediatric eating disorders. This paper introduces the HOPE Project, describes the registry sample to-date, and discusses future directions and challenges and accomplishments. The project and clinical service were established in a tertiary academic hospital in Western Australia in 1996 with a service development grant. Research processes were inbuilt into the initial protocols and data collection was maintained in the following years. Recognisable progress with the research agenda accelerated only when dedicated research resources were obtained. The registry sample consists of consecutive children and adolescents assessed at the eating disorder program from 1996 onward. Standardised multidisciplinary data collected from family intake interview, parent and child clinical interviews, medical review, parent, child and teacher psychometric assessments, and inpatient admission records populate the HOPE Project database. Results The registry database to-date contains 941 assessments, of whom 685 met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder at admission. The majority of the sample were females (91%) from metropolitan Perth (83%). The cases with eating disorders consist of eating disorders not otherwise specified (68%), anorexia nervosa (25%) and bulimia nervosa (7%). Among those with eating disorders, a history of weight loss since illness onset was almost universal (96%) with fear of weight gain (71%) common, and the median duration of illness was 8 months. Conclusions Over the next five years and more, we expect that the HOPE Project will make a strong scientific contribution to paediatric eating disorders research and will have important real-world applications to clinical practice and policy as the research unfolds

  16. Comparison between paediatric and adult suspected adverse drug reactions reported to the European medicines agency: implications for pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Blake, Kevin V; Zaccaria, Cosimo; Domergue, Francois; La Mache, Edith; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Hidalgo-Simon, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Databases systematically collecting reports of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a cornerstone of pharmacovigilance in that they provide on-going large-scale surveillance in the 'real-world' setting. Several studies have provided data on ADRs in children reported to national databases. EudraVigilance (EV) is the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) web-based system for reporting and evaluating suspected ADRs. Due to requirements on pharmaceutical companies to report ADRs that originate both inside and outside Europe, the data in EudraVigilance are global in nature. As such, it is potentially a rich source of information for paediatric pharmacovigilance. The present study sought to provide a descriptive overview comparing ADRs involving children and adolescents aged less than 18 years with those involving adults reported to EudraVigilance across national boundaries. The results will serve as a baseline to explore whether lessons can be learned for paediatric pharmacovigilance. All ADR reports received in EudraVigilance up to 13 June 2013 were analysed for overall numbers, age, gender, and geographic origin. Accurate age was determined when reported in valid format or calculated from the interval between date of birth and the reaction start date. The nature of the ADRs and the most frequently reported drug substances and drug event combinations were evaluated using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) 'preferred terms' (PTs) and 'system organ classes' (SOCs). The distribution over time of reported paediatric ADRs was also analysed. As of 13 June 2013, EudraVigilance contained 3,291,593 spontaneous reports, for 75.9 % of which accurate age was determined; 11.2 % of these were paediatric reports. Paediatric ADRs were more common than those in adults under the MedDRA SOCs 'general and administration site', 'nervous system', 'skin and subcutaneous' and 'infections and infestations'. For children, the three most frequently reported MedDRA PTs, i

  17. Paediatric nurses' perceptions and practices of family-centred care in Saudi hospitals: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Alabdulaziz, Hawa; Moss, Cheryle; Copnell, Beverley

    2017-04-01

    Family-centred care is widely accepted as the underlying philosophy of paediatric nursing. Studies of family-centred care have mainly been conducted in western countries and little is known of its practice in other contexts. No studies have been undertaken in the Middle East. To explore family-centred care in the Saudi context from the perspectives of paediatric nurses. A mixed methodology was utilised with an explanatory sequential design. In the quantitative phase a convenience sample of 234 nurses from six hospitals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia completed the Family Centred Care Questionnaire. The qualitative phase took place in one hospital and involved 140h of non-participant observation of paediatric nurses' practice. A convenience sample of 14 nurses was involved. Additionally, 10 face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with key staff members. A purposeful sample of 10 nurses was involved. The findings from both phases were integrated in the final analysis. The survey results indicated that participants identified most elements of family-centred care as necessary for its practice. They were less likely to incorporate them into their practice (p<0.001, paired t-tests, all subscales). These findings were supported by the observation data, which revealed that, while several elements of family-centred care were frequently practised, others were implemented either inconsistently or not at all. Findings from the interview data indicated that participants had limited and superficial understanding of what family-centred care means as a model of care; rather, they worked with the elements as a set of core tasks. In the current study, there were similarities between what has been found in the Saudi context and findings from other studies using the same tool in western contexts. There is general agreement regarding the differences between theory and practice. Nurses do believe and acknowledge the importance of family-centred care; however, they struggle with

  18. Inherited Paediatric Motor Neuron Disorders: Beyond Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Hugo; Mowat, David; Roscioli, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Paediatric motor neuron diseases encompass a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterised by the onset of muscle weakness and atrophy before the age of 18 years, attributable to motor neuron loss across various neuronal networks in the brain and spinal cord. While the genetic underpinnings are diverse, advances in next generation sequencing have transformed diagnostic paradigms. This has reinforced the clinical phenotyping and molecular genetic expertise required to navigate the complexities of such diagnoses. In turn, improved genetic technology and subsequent gene identification have enabled further insights into the mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration and how these diseases form part of a neurodegenerative disorder spectrum. Common pathophysiologies include abnormalities in axonal architecture and function, RNA processing, and protein quality control. This review incorporates an overview of the clinical manifestations, genetics, and pathophysiology of inherited paediatric motor neuron disorders beyond classic SMN1-related spinal muscular atrophy and describes recent advances in next generation sequencing and its clinical application. Specific disease-modifying treatment is becoming a clinical reality in some disorders of the motor neuron highlighting the importance of a timely and specific diagnosis. PMID:28634552

  19. [Epidemiology and bacteriological diagnosis of paediatric acute osteoarticular infections].

    PubMed

    Ferroni, A

    2007-10-01

    Acute paediatric osteo-articular infections require a fast and sensitive diagnosis allowing a treatment directed to the causative pathogen. Many micro-organisms can be incriminated, but Staphylococcus aureus and Kingella kingae markedly prevail. K. kingae became the first bacterial species responsible for septic arthritis in children < 3 years. More rarely, (2)haemolytic Streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae are found. The incidence of community acquired S. aureus resistant to oxacillin in osteo-articular infections is still low in France. The microbiological diagnosis of septic arthritis relies upon analysis of articular fluid, which requires systematic inoculation of a blood culture vial to increase the recovery rate of K. kingae. If the culture is negative, it is recommended to carry out a universal PCR or a PCR targeted to the main germs responsible for septic arthritis. Indeed, PCR represents an undeniable benefice for the diagnosis of paediatric septic arthritis, particularly for the DNA detection of K. kingae. The diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis relies primarily upon blood cultures, since the bone puncture is not a systematic procedure in this setting. Their efficiency is low, and there is still a need to look for other arguments of diagnosis such as search of possible portals of entry or specific serologies.

  20. Clinical relevance of molecular genetics to paediatric sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Olga; Shipley, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The application of cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses to paediatric sarcomas has identified a number of characteristic changes associated with types and subtypes of sarcomas. This has led to increased understanding of the underlying molecular biology of some sarcomas and provided an important adjunct to standard morphological and immunohistochemical diagnoses. Characteristic genetic abnormalities, particularly specific chromosome translocations and associated fusion genes, have diagnostic and in some cases prognostic value. There is also the potential to detect micrometastastic disease. Fusion genes are most readily detected by fluorescence in situ hybridisation and reverse transcription‐PCR technologies. The expression profiles of tumours with specific fusion genes are characteristically similar and the molecular signatures of sarcomas are also proving to be of diagnostic and prognostic value. Furthermore, fusion genes and other emerging molecular events associated with sarcomas represent potential targets for novel therapeutic approaches which are desperately required to improve the outcome of children with certain categories of sarcoma, including rhabdomyosarcomas and the Ewing's family of tumours. Increased understanding of the molecular biology of sarcomas is leading towards more effective treatments which may complement or be less toxic than conventional radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here we review paediatric sarcomas that have associated molecular genetic changes which can increase diagnostic and prognostic accuracy and impact on clinical management. PMID:17468291

  1. User preference as quality markers of paediatric web sites.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Borges, Angel A; Macías-Cervi, Pablo; Gaspar-Guardado, Asunción; Torres-Alvarez De Arcaya, María Luisa; Ruíz-Rabaza, Ana; Jiménez-Sosa, Alejandro

    2003-09-01

    Little is known about the ability of internet users to distinguish the best medical resources online, and how their preferences, measured by usage and popularity indexes, correlate with established quality criteria. Our objective was to analyse whether the number of inbound links and/or daily visits to a sample of paediatric web pages are reliable quality markers of the pages. Two-year follow-up study of 363 web pages with paediatric information. The number of inbound links and the average number of daily visits to the pages were calculated on a yearly basis. In addition, their rates of compliance with the codes of conduct, guidelines and/or principles of three international organizations were evaluated. The quality code most widely met by the sample web pages was the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (overall rate, 60.2%). Sample pages showed a low degree of compliance with principles related to privacy, confidentiality and electronic commerce (overall rate less than 45%). Most importantly, we observed a moderate, significant correlation between compliance with quality criteria and the number of inbound links (p < 0.001). However, no correlation was found between the number of daily visits to a page and its degree of compliance with the principles. Some indexes derived from the analysis of webmasters' hyperlinks could be reliable quality markers of medical web resources.

  2. The Extent of Consumer Product Involvement in Paediatric Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Catchpoole, Jesani; Walker, Sue; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in utilising health sector injury data for Product Safety purposes is that clinically coded data have limited ability to inform regulators about product involvement in injury events, given data entry is bound by a predefined set of codes. Text narratives collected in emergency departments can potentially address this limitation by providing relevant product information with additional accompanying context. This study aims to identify and quantify consumer product involvement in paediatric injuries recorded in emergency department-based injury surveillance data. A total of 7743 paediatric injuries were randomly selected from Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit database and associated text narratives were manually reviewed to determine product involvement in the injury event. A Product Involvement Factor classification system was used to categorise these injury cases. Overall, 44% of all reviewed cases were associated with consumer products, with proximity factor (25%) being identified as the most common involvement of a product in an injury event. Only 6% were established as being directly due to the product. The study highlights the importance of utilising injury data to inform product safety initiatives where text narratives can be used to identify the type and involvement of products in injury cases. PMID:27399744

  3. Segmental characteristics of oesophageal peristalsis in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Staiano, A; Boccia, G; Miele, E; Clouse, R E

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution manometry (HRM) in adults identifies a sequential chain of pressure segments that together form normal oesophageal peristalsis. HRM was performed in 40 neonates, infants/toddlers and children (age 1 day-14 years) to see if a similar segmental pattern could be identified in paediatric subjects. A chain of three pressure segments was found with inter-segmental troughs at 27.4 +/- 1.1%, 62.6 +/- 1.3% and 94.9 +/- 0.8% oesophageal length. The first and second pressure troughs were similarly distributed along the oesophagus across age groups; the third was 7.6-8.9% oesophageal length further from the lower oesophageal sphincter in neonates (P < 0.05 compared with other age groups). There were no significant differences in trough locations between subjects with or without oesophageal disease, controlling for age. Consistent presence of all three segments was less common in neonates, primarily because of fewer swallows demonstrating the first (proximal) and third (distal) segments compared with children. HRM in paediatric patients demonstrates, from neonates to children, the distinctive chain of pressure events that also characterizes oesophageal peristalsis in adults. The segmental character to oesophageal peristalsis should be taken into consideration in manometric investigation of all age groups - for example, in testing pharmacological responses and evaluating clearance mechanisms.

  4. Pre-pubertal paediatric bipolar disorder: a controversy from America.

    PubMed

    Parry, Peter; Allison, Stephen

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the rapid rise in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD) in the paediatric, particularly pre-pubertal, age group, in the USA over the past decade and to look at associated controversies. There has been a very marked rise in the diagnosis of BD among pre-pubertal children, and to a lesser extent adolescents, in the USA since the mid 1990s. The rise appears to have been driven by a reconceptualizing of clusters of emotional and behavioural symptoms in the paediatric age group by some academic child psychiatry departments, most notably in St Louis, Boston and Cincinnati. There is controversy in both the academic literature and public media centring on diagnostic methods, epidemiological studies, adverse effects of medication including media-reported fatalities, and pharmaceutical company influence. With some exceptions, the traditional view of BD as being very rare prior to puberty and uncommon in adolescence appears accepted beyond the USA, though whether this is changing is as yet uncertain, and thus there are implications for Australian and New Zealand child and adolescent psychiatry.

  5. Paediatric palliative care and intellectual disability-A unique context.

    PubMed

    Duc, Jacqueline K; Herbert, Anthony Robert; Heussler, Helen S

    2017-11-01

    Paediatric palliative care is a nuanced area of practice with additional complexities in the context of intellectual disability. There is currently minimal research to guide clinicians working in this challenging area of care. This study describes the complex care of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual disability by means of a literature synthesis and commentary with "best-practice" guide. As few articles concerning children with intellectual disability and palliative care needs were identified by formal systematic review, our expert consensus group has drawn from the paediatric palliative, oncology and adult intellectual disability literature to highlight common clinical challenges encountered in the day-to-day care of children with intellectual disability and life-limiting conditions. A longitudinal child- and family-centred approach is key to ensuring best-practice care for families of children with life-limiting conditions and intellectual disability. As highlighted by the great absence of literature addressing this important patient population, further research in this area is urgently required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Orthotopic patient-derived xenografts of paediatric solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Federico, Sara M; Chen, Xiang; Shelat, Anang A; Bradley, Cori; Gordon, Brittney; Karlstrom, Asa; Twarog, Nathaniel R; Clay, Michael R; Bahrami, Armita; Freeman, Burgess B; Xu, Beisi; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Jianrong; Honnell, Victoria; Ocarz, Monica; Blankenship, Kaley; Dapper, Jason; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Downing, James; Zhang, Jinghui; Easton, John; Pappo, Alberto; Dyer, Michael A

    2017-09-07

    Paediatric solid tumours arise from endodermal, ectodermal, or mesodermal lineages. Although the overall survival of children with solid tumours is 75%, that of children with recurrent disease is below 30%. To capture the complexity and diversity of paediatric solid tumours and establish new models of recurrent disease, here we develop a protocol to produce orthotopic patient-derived xenografts at diagnosis, recurrence, and autopsy. Tumour specimens were received from 168 patients, and 67 orthotopic patient-derived xenografts were established for 12 types of cancer. The origins of the patient-derived xenograft tumours were reflected in their gene-expression profiles and epigenomes. Genomic profiling of the tumours, including detailed clonal analysis, was performed to determine whether the clonal population in the xenograft recapitulated the patient's tumour. We identified several drug vulnerabilities and showed that the combination of a WEE1 inhibitor (AZD1775), irinotecan, and vincristine can lead to complete response in multiple rhabdomyosarcoma orthotopic patient-derived xenografts tumours in vivo.

  7. An epidemiological study of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Pektas, Ayhan; Pektas, Bilgehan M; Kula, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric pulmonary hypertension within the entire Turkish population over a period of 5 years using the registry of the National Health Insurance System. All individuals aged <18 years who were admitted to a Turkish hospital for the first time between 2009 and 2013 with a discharge diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension were identified. The overall annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 11.7 cases/million, whereas the overall annual incidence of secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 9.5 cases/million. There was a gradual and significant increase in the annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and that of secondary pulmonary hypertension during the 5-year study period (p=0.001 for both). In the years 2012 and 2013, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension was significantly more frequent in children aged <2 years when compared with children aged above 2 years (p=0.002 for both). The male to female ratio was 1.2:1 for idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, whereas the female to male ratio was 1.1:1 for secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood. The incidence of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey is higher than those reported for the Western populations. Moreover, no female dominance could be observed. These discrepancies may be attributed to the differences in the study design, study cohort, timing of the study, and the definitions adopted for pulmonary hypertension classification.

  8. Paediatric empyema in New Zealand: a tale of two cities.

    PubMed

    Burton, Cameron; Walls, Tony; Price, Neil; Glasgow, Tamsin; Walker, Cameron; Beasley, Spencer; Best, Emma

    2015-05-29

    We aimed to identify the causative organisms and sensitivities in community-acquired paediatric empyema at Starship Children's Hospital and Christchurch Hospital and to determine if current antibiotic recommendations are appropriate. Retrospective analysis was undertaken of all cases with clinical, radiological, and microbiological evidence of empyema at Starship Children's Hospital and Christchurch Hospital between June 2009 and March 2013 (3.8 years), and January 2009 and May 2014 (5.4 years) respectively. Ninety-eight children were managed with empyema at Starship Children's Hospital and 30 children at Christchurch Hospital. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen identified at both sites followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae. A significant proportion had no pathogen identified. Amongst S.aureus isolates, 1/5th were methicillin-resistant, contributing 8% of all culture positive empyema cases. Māori and Pacific groups were over-represented. Cases occurred more often in boys and those <5 years. Blood cultures and S.pneumoniae pleural antigen were important in diagnosis. Our audit confirms the important role of S.aureus in paediatric empyema in New Zealand and a high rate of this disease, particularly in the North Island. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the pathogens of empyema demonstrate current initial antibiotic recommendation.

  9. Paediatric learning in a clinical attachment: undergraduate medical students' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gouda, P; Fanous, S; Gouda, J; Boland, J; Geoghegan, R

    2016-05-01

    The clinical environment in paediatrics presents many unique challenges for medical students to achieve clinical proficiency. Our study aimed to explore how different elements of the paediatric rotation aid medical students in achieving learning outcomes at the undergraduate stage. Using a small-scale exploratory case study, three focus group interviews were conducted with 19 participants by an independent facilitator. Students' self-reported levels of achievement of module learning outcomes were also analysed. Qualitative data were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Open coding was initially employed; codes were then refined into categories and grouped. Themes were identified, reviewed and defined. Students highlighted several key themes including trainee factors, teacher factors and environmental factors that were associated with positive learning environments. These included the opportunity to contribute to the patient care, feeling like part of the team. A clinical learning environment that allows medical students to become actively involved in patient care and to contribute as members to the clinical team can enhance their learning experience.

  10. Establishment of the Brazilian telehealth network for paediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Hira, Adilson Yuuji; Lopes, Thiago Tognoli; de Mello, André Nebel; Filho, Vicente Odone; Zuffo, Marcelo Knörich; de Deus Lopes, Roseli

    2005-01-01

    A telemedicine network has been established in Brazil to support distance medical practice in paediatric oncology. ONCONET comprises a national network of universities, research institutes and medical institutions. The system is Web-based and hosted on a high-performance computing infrastructure based on clusters of computers. It is based on open-source software, designed to provide high performance, fault tolerance and high availability. The ONCONET began operation in 2004. Currently, 30 hospitals affiliated to the Brazilian Society for Paediatric Oncology are users of the ONCONET. Six hospitals are connected by broadband access through the National Education and Research Network and 24 by conventional Internet access. The Multimedia Patients Registry also became operational in 2004, and its database contains information on 3,200 patients from the 30 hospitals. The technological platform was notable for its low production cost. It thus appears to be a sustainable solution to the problem of delivering continuing medical education in a large country with widely dispersed health professionals.

  11. Medical honey and its role in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Weissenstein, Anne; Luchter, Elisabeth; Bittmann, Stefan

    The use of complementary medical treatment in wound management has continued to grow throughout the world. There is a large body of evidence that supports the use of honey as a wound dressing for a wide range of wound types. The authors present an update of present knowledge about honey as a form of complementary medicine in paediatric wound management. The literature cited was found by searching the PubMed, BIOSIS and ISI Web of Science databases for the phrase 'honey and wound'. Papers where honey was used in a mixture with other therapeutic substances were excluded. Randomised controlled trials as well as case studies were taken into consideration. This paper reviews data on the effectiveness of honey in wound healing; 80 citations or references were found that matched the criteria. Furthermore, the wound-healing properties of honey are described and the mechanism of action discussed. The authors' data show that honey induced enhanced epithelialisation, minimised scar formations and had an anti-microbiotic effect. These results should encourage the use of medical honey in the field of paediatrics. It is a safe and natural substance that induces wound healing at a greater rate than conventional methods.

  12. Global child health priorities: what role for paediatric oncologists?

    PubMed

    Kellie, Stewart J; Howard, Scott C

    2008-11-01

    Despite increasing globalisation, international mobility and economic interdependence, 9.7 million children aged less than 5 years in low income countries will die this year, almost all from preventable or treatable diseases. Diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria account for 5 million of these deaths each year, compared to about 150,000 deaths from childhood cancer in low- and middle-income countries. In high-income countries, 80% of the 50,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year survive, yet cancer remains the leading disease-related cause of childhood death. In low- and middle-income countries, where 80% of children live, the 200,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year have limited access to curative treatment, and only about 25% survive. Some might argue that death from paediatric cancer in poor countries is insignificant compared to death from other causes, and that scarce health resources may be better used in other areas of public health. Is there a role for the treatment of children with cancer in these regions? Do international partnerships or 'twinning' programmes enhance local health care or detract from other public health priorities? What is ethical and what is possible? This review examines the health challenges faced by infants and children in low-income countries, and assesses the role and impact of international paediatric oncology collaboration to improve childhood cancer care worldwide.

  13. Tracheostomy in neurologically compromised paediatric patients: role of starplasty.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Stokken, J; Krakovitz, P; Malhotra, P; Anne, S

    2015-10-01

    Starplasty tracheostomy is an alternative to traditional tracheostomy. This paper reviews neurologically compromised paediatric patients with tracheostomies and discusses the role of starplasty tracheostomy. A retrospective review was conducted of paediatric patients with a neurological disorder who underwent tracheostomy between 1997 and 2011. Forty-eight patients, with an average age of 7.3 years, were identified. The most common indications for tracheostomy were: ventilator dependence (39.6 per cent), an inability to tolerate secretions or recurrent aspiration pneumonia (33.3 per cent), and upper respiratory obstruction or hypotonia (12.5 per cent). The most common underlying neurological diagnosis was cerebral palsy. There were no early complications. Eighteen (43 per cent) of 42 patients with follow up experienced at least 1 delayed complication. Only 12 patients (28.6 per cent) were decannulated. Patients with primary neurological diagnoses have low rates of decannulation; starplasty tracheostomy should be considered for these patients. Patients with seizure disorder or acute neurological injury tended to have a higher short-term decannulation rate; traditional tracheostomy is recommended in these patients.

  14. The prognostic value of biological markers in paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Piero; Puccio, Giuseppe; Sala, Alessandra; Todesco, Alessandra; Buffardi, Salvatore; Garaventa, Alberto; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Zecca, Marco; Locatelli, Franco; Pession, Andrea; Pillon, Marta; Favre, Claudio; D'Amico, Salvatore; Provenzi, Massimo; Trizzino, Angela; Zanazzo, Giulio Andrea; Sau, Antonella; Santoro, Nicola; Murgia, Giulio; Casini, Tommaso; Mascarin, Maurizio; Burnelli, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Many biological and inflammatory markers have been proposed as having a prognostic value at diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but very few have been validated in paediatric patients. We explored the significance of these markers in a large population of 769 affected children. By using the database of patients enrolled in A.I.E.O.P. (Associazione Italiana di Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica) trial LH2004 for paediatric HL, we identified 769 consecutive patients treated with curative intent from 1st June 2004 to 1st April 2014 with ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine), or hybrid COPP/ABV (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, procarbazine, doxorubicin, bleomycin and vinblastine) regimens. On multivariate analysis with categorical forms, the 5-year freedom from progression survival was significantly lower in patients with stage IV or elevated value of platelets, eosinophils and ferritin at diagnosis. Furthermore, stage IV and eosinophils seem to maintain their predictive value independently of interim (after IV cycles of chemotherapy) positron emission tomography. Using the combination of four simple markers such as stage IV and elevated levels of platelets, ferritin and eosinophils, it is possible to classify the patients into subgroups with very different outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A survey of the management of paediatric minor head injury.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, V; Astrand, R; Romner, B

    2014-03-01

    To investigate present established routines and standards in managing minor head-injured children in Danish hospitals, a survey of present management practice was conducted. A cross-sectional mail survey, detailing clinical and radiological examinations, in-hospital observation, discharge criteria and follow-up, was performed on all 46 hospitals treating children with minor head injury in Denmark. Of the 46 hospitals, 33% report having established written criteria for the referral and management of children with minor head injury. Ten (22%) of the 46 hospitals are so-called injury clinics, where only nurses are employed. All state that they use the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and/or the paediatric GCS to assess the level of consciousness; 15% use the paediatric GCS exclusively. None perform routine radiological examinations. Criteria for early discharge are established in 98% of the hospitals. All hospitals provide written instructions for observations at home before discharge. The management of children with minor head injury varies between hospitals in Denmark. Local management guidelines are either lacking or mainly based on those of adults. Hence, there is a need for the development of minor head injury guidelines specifically designed for the management of children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Deferasirox pharmacokinetic evaluation in β-thalassaemia paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Sarah; Cusato, Jessica; De Francia, Silvia; Pirro, Elisa; Massano, Davide; Piga, Antonio; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Iron chelation in the transfusion-dependent anaemias management is essential to prevent end-organ damage and to improve survival. Deferasirox is a once-daily orally active tridentate selective iron chelator which pharmacokinetic disposition could influence treatment efficacy and toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring is an important tool for optimizing drug utilization and doses. A fully validated chromatographic method was used to quantify deferasirox concentration in plasma collected from paediatric patients with β-thalassaemia. Samples obtained after 5 days of washout or in naïve patients before and after 2, 4, 6 and 24 h drug administration were evaluated. Associations between variables were tested using the Pearson test. Twenty paediatric patients were enrolled; they were mainly men (13.65%), with median age of 6.35 years and body mass index of 15.45 kg/m 2 . Concerning pharmacokinetic parameters, a higher interindividual variability was shown. A positive, but not significant, correlation (r = 0.363; P = 0.115) was found between deferasirox area under the concentration curve over 24 h (AUC) and drug dose. Monitoring plasma deferasirox concentrations appears beneficial for guiding appropriate patient treatment, enhancing effectiveness and minimizing toxicity. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Bench performance of ventilators during simulated paediatric ventilation.

    PubMed

    Park, M A J; Freebairn, R C; Gomersall, C D

    2013-05-01

    This study compares the accuracy and capabilities of various ventilators using a paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome lung model. Various compliance settings and respiratory rate settings were used. The study was done in three parts: tidal volume and FiO2 accuracy; pressure control accuracy and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) accuracy. The parameters set on the ventilator were compared with either or both of the measured parameters by the test lung and the ventilator. The results revealed that none of the ventilators could consistently deliver tidal volumes within 1 ml/kg of the set tidal volume, and the discrepancy between the delivered volume and the volume measured by the ventilator varied greatly. The target tidal volume was 8 ml/kg, but delivered tidal volumes ranged from 3.6-11.4 ml/kg and the volumes measured by the ventilator ranged from 4.1-20.6 ml/kg. All the ventilators maintained pressure within 20% of the set pressure, except one ventilator which delivered pressures of up to 27% higher than the set pressure. Two ventilators maintained PEEP within 10% of the prescribed PEEP. The majority of the readings were also within 10%. However, three ventilators delivered, at times, PEEPs over 20% higher. In conclusion, as lung compliance decreases, especially in paediatric patients, some ventilators perform better than others. This study highlights situations where ventilators may not be able to deliver, nor adequately measure, set tidal volumes, pressure, PEEP or FiO2.

  18. Efficacy of paediatric anaesthetic trolleys: A call for a basic standard and layout.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Sian E; Boleat, Elizabeth; Goodwin, Alison; Sheikh, Asme; Goonasekera, Chulananda

    2015-01-01

    Providing safe anaesthesia to children especially in emergency situations goes hand in hand with instant availability of appropriately sized equipment and monitoring. This is best achieved using a designated paediatric anaesthetic trolley containing essential equipment. Guidance for the contents of such trolleys is neither explicit nor standard. We used a survey and a qualitative enquiry to develop a checklist suitable for standardisation of contents and layout of paediatric anaesthetic trolleys. We conducted an observational study of our current practice and paediatric anaesthetic trolleys in a tertiary care hospital. We also performed a qualitative enquiry from experienced paediatric anaesthetists and operating department practitioners.We developed an empirical checklist to ensure the minimum 'essential' equipment is available on these trolleys and implemented a standard layout to facilitate its use. We identified 11 areas in our hospital where anaesthesia is provided to children, each with a designated paediatric anaesthetic trolley. There were considerable deficiencies of items in all areas with no standard pattern or layout. Different types of trolleys contributed to the confusion. In addition, overstocking of inappropriate items hindered its efficient use. Standardising the contents and layout of the paediatric anaesthetic trolley is an essential pre-requisite for safer paediatric anaesthetic practice.

  19. Proposals for model-based paediatric medicinal development within the current European Union regulatory framework.

    PubMed

    Manolis, Efthymios; Pons, Gérard

    2009-10-01

    The new paediatric European Union (EU) regulation and the consequent demand for paediatric studies on one hand and the ethical need for minimizing the burden of studies in children on the other hand necessitate optimal techniques in the assessment of safety/efficacy and use of drugs in children. Modelling and simulation (M&S) is one way to circumvent some difficulties in developing medicinal products in children. M&S allows the quantitative use of sparse sampling, characterization and prediction of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD), extrapolation from adults to children, interpolation between paediatric age subsets, optimal use of scientific literature and in vitro/preclinical data. Together, industry, academia and regulators recognize the usefulness of modelling and simulation in this setting. However, even if M&S is an emerging science, its integration in the EU regulatory decision making is for the time being deficient and M&S expertise is concentrated in big pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions. The European Medicines Agency, acknowledging all the above conditions, organized and hosted a Workshop on Modelling in Paediatric Medicines. The article presents the personal views of the authors on the issues presented and discussed in the workshop.We attempt to identify the regulatory framework for the use of M&S in paediatric medicinal development and to make proposals for model-based paediatric medicinal development. The objective is to open the discussion between industry, academia, paediatricians and regulators on the optimal use of M&S in paediatric medicinal development.

  20. Parental experiences with a paediatric palliative care team: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Lisa M; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yn; Bosman, Diederik K; Colenbrander, Derk A; Jagt, Charissa T; Grootenhuis, Martha A; van Delden, Johannes Jm; Kars, Marijke C

    2017-12-01

    Parents of children with a life-limiting disease have to rely on themselves at home while adequate paediatric palliative care is lacking. In several countries, paediatric palliative care teams are introduced to ensure continuity and quality of care and to support the child and the family. Yet, little is known about how parents experience such multidisciplinary teams. To obtain insight into the support provided by a new paediatric palliative care team from the parents' perspective. An interpretative qualitative interview study using thematic analysis was performed. A total of 47 single or repeated interviews were undertaken with 42 parents of 24 children supported by a multidisciplinary paediatric palliative care team located at a university children's hospital. The children suffered from malignant or non-malignant diseases. In advance, parents had limited expectations of the paediatric palliative care team. Some had difficulty accepting the need for palliative care for their child. Once parents experienced what the team achieved for their child and family, they valued the team's involvement. Valuable elements were as follows: (1) process-related aspects such as continuity, coordination of care, and providing one reliable point of contact; (2) practical support; and (3) the team members' sensitive and reliable attitude. As a point of improvement, parents suggested more concrete clarification upfront of the content of the team's support. Parents feel supported by the paediatric palliative care team. The three elements valued by parents probably form the structure that underlies quality of paediatric palliative care. New teams should cover these three valuable elements.

  1. The emerging global epidemic of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease--causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Malmborg, P; Hildebrand, H

    2016-03-01

    Two decades ago, paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) drew only modest interest from the international paediatric community. Since then, dramatically globally increasing incidence rates have made childhood-onset IBD a priority for most paediatric gastroenterologists. The emerging pandemia of paediatric IBD has fuelled a quest to identify the recent changes in early life exposures that could explain the increasing risk for IBD amongst today's children. Treatment of children with IBD should aim for symptom control but should also target restoration of growth and prevention of pubertal delay. The paediatric IBD phenotype seems to be characterized by more extensive disease location, and some comparative studies have suggested that childhood-onset IBD also represents a more severe phenotype than the adult-onset IBD form. In this review, we analyse recent global incidence trends of paediatric IBD. We present an update on the known and suggested risk factors that could explain the emerging global epidemia of paediatric IBD. We also draw attention to differences in treatment between children and adults with IBD. Finally, we highlight latest follow-up studies that question the proposed dynamic and aggressive nature of childhood-onset IBD. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  2. Morbidity and severity of illness during interhospital transfer: impact of a specialised paediatric retrieval team.

    PubMed

    Britto, J; Nadel, S; Maconochie, I; Levin, M; Habibi, P

    1995-09-30

    To evaluate the morbidity and severity of illness during interhospital transfer of critically ill children by a specialised paediatric retrieval team. Prospective, descriptive study. Hospitals without paediatric intensive care facilities in and around the London area, and a paediatric intensive care unit at a tertiary centre. 51 critically ill children transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit. Adverse events related to equipment and physiological deterioration during transfer. Paediatric risk of mortality score before and after retrieval. Therapeutic intervention score before and after arrival of retrieval team. Two (4%) patients had preventable physiological deterioration during transport. There were no adverse events related to equipment. Severity of illness decreased during stabilisation and transport by the retrieval team, suggested by the difference between risk of mortality scores before and after retrieval (P < 0.001). The median (range) difference between the two scores was 3.0 (-6 to 17). Interventions during stabilisation by the retrieval team increased, demonstrated by the difference between intervention scores before and after retrieval, median (range) difference between the two scores being 6 (-8 to 38) (P < 0.001). Our study indicates that a specialised paediatric retrieval team can rapidly deliver intensive care to critically ill children awaiting transfer. Such children can be transferred to a paediatric intensive care unit with minimal morbidity and mortality related to transport. There was no deterioration in the clinical condition of most patients during transfer.

  3. Shared decision-making in the paediatric field: a literature review and concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sook; Cho, In Young

    2017-09-13

    The concept of shared decision-making is poorly defined and often used interchangeably with related terms. The aim of this study was to delineate and clarify the concept of shared decision-making in the paediatric field. Rodgers and Knafl's evolutionary concept analysis was used to delineate and clarify the concept. Following a search of the CINAHL, PubMed and MEDLINE databases and online journals between 1995 and 2016, we included a total of 42 articles that referred to shared decision-making in the paediatric field. The attributes included active participation of the three: parents, children and health professionals; collaborative partnership; reaching a compromise; and common goal for child's health. Antecedents were existing several options with different possible outcomes; substantial decisional conflict; recognising child's health situations that decision-making is needed; and willingness to participate in decision-making. Finally, the consequences included decreased decisional conflict; mutual empowerment; improved child health status; and improved quality of paediatric health care. This study provides a theoretical understanding of the concept of shared decision-making in the paediatric field; furthermore, by integrating this concept into paediatric practice, it may help to reduce the gap between theory and practice. The analysis could also provide nursing researchers with insight into paediatric decision-making and establish a foundation to develop future interventions and situation-specific theory for promoting high-quality decision-making in the paediatric field. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. The organisation of paediatric renal care in different European countries: results of the PAC project.

    PubMed

    Knoll, J; Demol, A; Elseviers, M; Harrington, M; De Vos, J Y; Zampieron, A; Ormandy, P; Kafkia, T

    2006-01-01

    The Paediatric Access Care (PAC) project, organised by the Research Board of EDTNA/ERCA, aimed to study the organisation of paediatric renal care in Europe and to investigate the practice of access care for both haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) paediatric patients. This paper reports on the organisation of paediatric renal care. The majority of paediatric renal care units were located in specific paediatric units of university hospitals. Most of the centres had offered HD, PD and transplantation (Tx) for more than 20 years. Half of nursing staff had qualifications in paediatric and renal nursing. Most of the centres offered an extended multidisciplinary team approach with the family actively involved in the care of the patient. PD and HD were equally used. Automatic Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) was offered as the standard PD treatment in 2 out of 3 centres. The HD schedule mostly utilised was 3 x 4 hours a week. Half of the patients were on the Tx waiting list and one third of registered patients were transplanted in 2004.

  5. [The Appointment of Paediatric Professorships in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the early GDR. The Impact of the Political System Change after 1945].

    PubMed

    Hinz-Wessels, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the political system change after 1945 on the appointment of paediatric professorships in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the GDR up until the time the Wall was built in 1961. It can be demonstrated that the political purge in the post-war period had only minor impact on the appointment of professorships and the National Socialist past no longer mattered after the conclusion of denazification. In 1957, the proportion of former NSDAP members among East German university professors of paediatrics was 100 per cent. When it came to new appointments, both members of the "bourgeois" academic non-professorial teaching staff from the GDR as well as paediatricians from West Germany, who had largely gained their scientifically qualifications under National Socialism, were in the running. A politically-controlled elite exchange did not take place until the construction of the Wall. State and party organs generally followed the personnel proposals of the universities since an insufficient number of qualified candidates was available for the systematic appointment of ,,progressive" paediatricians. Given the lack of staff, the SED personnel policy was aimed at the integration of previous elites, as long as they behaved loyally towards the new state. Since the East German faculties continued to make the questioning of the professionally competent professors in West Germany and East Germany the basis for their appointment lists, West German university paediatricians were able to exert considerable influence on the appointment of East German paediatric professorship until 1960s.

  6. Use of paediatric early warning systems in Great Britain: has there been a change of practice in the last 7 years?

    PubMed

    Roland, D; Oliver, A; Edwards, E D; Mason, B W; Powell, C V E

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of paediatric early warning systems (PEWS) and rapid response teams (RRTs) in paediatric units in Great Britain. Cross sectional survey. All hospitals with inpatient paediatric services in Great Britain. Proportion of units using PEWS, origin of PEWS used, criterion included in PEWS, proportion of units with an RRT and membership of RRT. The response rate was 95% (149/157). 85% of units were using PEWS and 18% had an RRT in place. Tertiary units were more likely than district general hospital to have implemented PEWS, 90% versus 83%, and an RRT, 52% versus 10%. A large number of PEWS were in use, the majority of which were unpublished and unvalidated systems. Despite the inconclusive evidence of effectiveness, the use of PEWS has increased since 2005. The implementation has been inconsistent with large variation in the PEWS used, the activation criteria used, availability of an RRT and the membership of the RRT. There must be a coordinated national evaluation of the implementation, impact and effectiveness of a standardised PEWS programme in the various environments where acutely sick children are managed.

  7. Transplantation of kidneys from paediatric DCD donors: a comparison with DBD donors.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Eva E; Hoogland, Pieter E R; Wind, Jentina; Snoeijs, Maarten G J; van Heurn, Ernest L W

    2013-01-01

    Although acceptable outcomes have been reported in kidney transplantation from donation after cardiac death (DCD), little is known about kidney transplantation from paediatric DCD. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of kidney transplantation using paediatric DCD with the outcome of paediatric donation after brain death (DBD). Recipients from DCD and DBD donors <18 years of age transplanted in the Netherlands between January 1981 and July 2006 were included in this study. Ninety-one patients were transplanted with kidneys from paediatric DCD donors and 405 patients received grafts from paediatric DBD donors. Grafts from DCD donors were associated with higher percentage of primary non-function (9 versus 2%, P < 0.01) and delayed graft function (48 versus 8%, P < 0.001) compared with DBD donor grafts. Estimated glomerular filtration rate did not differ between groups (57 ± 17 versus 58 ± 21 mL/min at 1 year and 62 ± 14 versus 57 ± 22 mL/min at 5 years, respectively). After correction for confounding variables, the risk of graft failure was higher in the DCD group [hazard ratio 2.440 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.280-4.650; P = 0.007]. Patient survival, however, was similar between groups [hazard ratio 1.559 (95% CI 0.848-2.867; P = 0.153)]. Paediatric DCD kidneys represent a valuable source of donor kidneys that has not been fully utilized. Although transplantation of paediatric DCD kidneys is associated with a higher risk of graft failure than transplantation of paediatric DBD kidneys, results are comparable with adult donors. We therefore conclude that paediatric DCD kidneys can be safely added to the donor pool.

  8. Paediatric clinical research from the perspective of hospital pharmacists from France and Canada.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Aurélie; Tanguay, Cynthia; Lebel, Denis; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Bourdon, Olivier; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    To compare pharmacy support for paediatric research services in France and Canada and to describe the perception of pharmacists and rank the paediatric clinical research issues. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. All paediatric hospitals from Canada and the main hospitals from France were contacted. A survey was conducted from May-September 2012. Descriptive statistics were performed. Results from 11 paediatric hospitals in Canada (11/12, 92%) and 11 (11/18, 61%) in France were obtained. There was a similar number of ongoing paediatric clinical trials per hospital in France versus Canada (38 (10-81) versus 20 (4-178)). A lower number of pharmacists per hospital was observed in France (17 (11.5-35) versus 45 (18.9-76.8)), but a similar number of pharmacists were assigned to clinical trials (1.5 (1-3) versus 1.9 (0.2-17.4)). Institutional protocols represented the majority of paediatric clinical trials in France (61% (14-100) versus 25% (0-100)). Similar pharmacy support services were offered, but the majority of French respondents also offered help for institutional protocol development (91 versus 50% P = 0.063). The main issues associated with paediatric clinical research were absence of financial interest from the pharmaceutical industry, prohibitive cost versus profit ratio, small patient cohorts and the non-availability of the appropriate drug formulations. Difficulties related to pharmaceutical compounding were identified as the main hindrance to paediatric clinical research; particular attention should be paid to these details when setting up a paediatric trial. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Music therapy as a non-pharmacological anxiolytic for paediatric radiotherapy patients.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, C; Sexton, M; Wheeler, G

    2007-04-01

    Outpatient radiotherapy treatment in the paediatric cancer patient can be a traumatic and an anxiety-provoking experience for both the patient and the family. Music therapy has been widely reported to have psychosocial, educational and physical benefits for the paediatric cancer patient. Using individual case reports, this paper shows the successful use of music therapy as a non-pharmacological anxiolytic in the paediatric radiotherapy, outpatient waiting room setting, by providing the patient and the family with a means of communication, self-expression and creativity.

  10. Functional lung assessment with radionuclides in paediatric respiratory diseases: a useful, underutilized test in nuclear medicine?

    PubMed

    Navalkissoor, Shaunak; Easty, Marina; Biassoni, Lorenzo

    2010-10-01

    Ventilation/perfusion (VQ) studies have a much wider application range in paediatrics compared with the adult population and provide a noninvasive way to evaluate lung function. VQ studies can be used to determine lung function in patients with primary lung, vascular, cardiac and skeletal pathology. We have examined the literature regarding the current indications of the VQ scan in children. We report a summary of the current indications of VQ scans in paediatrics corroborated by our own experience as a paediatric tertiary referral centre.

  11. Experience and outcomes of micrografting for major paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Rode, H; Martinez, R; Potgieter, D; Adams, S; Rogers, A D

    2017-08-01

    The deficit of donor sites in major burns over 50% of the total body surface area has necessitated the application of methods besides traditional meshed autografting to achieve definitive skin cover. The Meek micrografting technique was introduced at this hospital in 2011, especially in the absence of a reliable source of deceased donor allograft skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this strategy with reference to its technical execution, efficacy and indications in the context of major paediatric burn surgery. A cohort study was performed of all paediatric patients with major burn who underwent Meek micrografting at a dedicated paediatric burn centre in a developing country over a five year period. Demographics, details of their burns, operative management and clinical course and outcomes were collected from patient records and operative notes and analysed. Thirty-five patients were managed using the micrografting technique during the study period. The mean patient age was 4.1 years (range 3 months-11 years) and their mean total body surface area (TBSA) burn was 49.7% (range 15-86%). Eleven patients sustained inhalation injuries and five developed a re-feeding syndrome on account of delayed referral. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 8.5 (range 2-13). The hospital length of stay in the 27 survivors was a mean of 75.5 days, equating to 1.4 days per percentage burn. Eight patients died during the course of treatment, with a mean TBSA burn of 67.75% (range 38-86%). Graft take one month after surgery was documented to be more than 90% in 24 patients, of whom 3 subsequently died. Eleven patients had less than 90% graft take at this time, of whom 5 died. There is a considerable 'learning curve' associated with this technique. In order to achieve success one must ensure a completely viable, non-infected bed, obtained by tangential or fascial excision, followed by allografting as temporary coverage and to 'test the wound bed' for definitive

  12. Creating a unique, multi-stakeholder Paediatric Oncology Platform to improve drug development for children and adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Vassal, Gilles; Rousseau, Raphaël; Blanc, Patricia; Moreno, Lucas; Bode, Gerlind; Schwoch, Stefan; Schrappe, Martin; Skolnik, Jeffrey; Bergman, Lothar; Bradley-Garelik, Mary Brigid; Saha, Vaskar; Pearson, Andy; Zwierzina, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Seven years after the launch of the European Paediatric Medicine Regulation, limited progress in paediatric oncology drug development remains a major concern amongst stakeholders - academics, industry, regulatory authorities, parents, patients and caregivers. Restricted increases in early phase paediatric oncology trials, legal requirements and regulatory pressure to propose early Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs), missed opportunities to explore new drugs potentially relevant for paediatric malignancies, lack of innovative trial designs and no new incentives to develop drugs against specific paediatric targets are some unmet needs. Better access to new anti-cancer drugs for paediatric clinical studies and improved collaboration between stakeholders are essential. The Cancer Drug Development Forum (CDDF), previously Biotherapy Development Association (BDA), with Innovative Therapy for Children with Cancer Consortium (ITCC), European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) and European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) has created a unique Paediatric Oncology Platform, involving multiple stakeholders and the European Union (EU) Commission, with an urgent remit to improve paediatric oncology drug development. The Paediatric Oncology Platform proposes to recommend immediate changes in the implementation of the Regulation and set the framework for its 2017 revision; initiatives to incentivise drug development against specific paediatric oncology targets, and repositioning of drugs not developed in adults. Underpinning these changes is a strategy for mechanism of action and biology driven selection and prioritisation of potential paediatric indications rather than the current process based on adult cancer indications. Pre-competitive research and drug prioritisation, early portfolio evaluation, cross-industry cooperation and multi-compound/sponsor trials are being explored, from which guidance for innovative trial designs will be

  13. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school childr