Science.gov

Sample records for multi-objectives comfort fuel-economy

  1. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  2. Fuel Economy Testing and Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Fuel Economy pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.

  3. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  5. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  6. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  7. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  8. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  9. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  10. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  16. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  18. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  19. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  20. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  1. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel economy estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel economy estimates for the creation of Economy Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel economy confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel economy information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel economy, te

  2. 40 CFR 1066.840 - Highway fuel economy test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highway fuel economy test procedure... Highway fuel economy test procedure. This section describes the procedure for the highway fuel economy test (HFET). This test involves emission sampling and fuel economy measurement for certain vehicles...

  3. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The calculations of vehicle fuel economy values require the weighted...

  4. 40 CFR 600.113-93 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-93... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-93 Fuel economy calculations....

  5. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations....

  6. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations....

  7. Automotive fuel economy and emissions program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Baisley, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental data were generated to support an assessment of the relationship between automobile fuel economy and emissions control systems. Tests were made at both the engine and vehicle levels. Detailed investigations were made on cold-start emissions devices, exhaust gas recirculation systems, and air injection reactor systems. Based on the results of engine tests, an alternative emission control system and modified control strategy were implemented and tested in the vehicle. With the same fuel economy and NOx emissions as the stock vehicle, the modified vehicle reduced HC and CO emissions by about 20 percent. By removing the NOx emissions constraint, the modified vehicle demonstrated about 12 percent better fuel economy than the stock vehicle.

  8. Haptic seat for fuel economy feedback

    DOEpatents

    Bobbitt, III, John Thomas

    2016-08-30

    A process of providing driver fuel economy feedback is disclosed in which vehicle sensors provide for haptic feedback on fuel usage. Such sensors may include one or more of a speed sensors, global position satellite units, vehicle pitch/roll angle sensors, suspension displacement sensors, longitudinal accelerometer sensors, throttle position in sensors, steering angle sensors, break pressure sensors, and lateral accelerometer sensors. Sensors used singlely or collectively can provide enhanced feedback as to various environmental conditions and operating conditions such that a more accurate assessment of fuel economy information can be provided to the driver.

  9. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2004-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  10. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  11. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  12. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  13. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this paragraph...

  14. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  15. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  16. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for

  17. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  18. Economics of automobile fuel-economy standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kleit, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1978 the Federal government has mandated that new automobiles sold by major firms in the United States reach certain levels of average fuel efficiency. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards can generate implicit taxes and subsidies for various types of cars. They also can have an impact on market structure, creating regulatory economies of scope. CAFE standards may also act to increase the profits of firms in the automobile industry, either by preventing competition among firms constrained by the standards or by creating profit opportunities for firms not constrained by the standards. CAFE standards are shown to have had a significant effect on the price of new cars in model years 1983 through 1986, raising the price of fuel inefficient cars and lowering the price of fuel efficient cars. The gasoline savings resulting from the imposition of higher standards are computed, as well as the welfare loss they generate. It is concluded that automobile fuel economy standards can save gasoline,but only at a large loss to the economy. An empirical model of the political support for CAFE standards is developed and tested. It is shown that support for the standards comes from the one major domestic automobile company that would benefit from higher standards, as well as from those who in general prefer regulatory solutions to the free market.

  19. 40 CFR 600.302-08 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.302-08 Fuel economy label format requirements. Examples of fuel economy labels for gasoline...

  20. Potential improvements in turbofan engine fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, R. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1976-01-01

    The method developed for initial evaluation of possible performance improvements in the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program, directed toward improving the fuel economy of turbofan engines, is outlined, and results of the evaluation of 100 candidate engine modifications are presented. The study indicates that fuel consumption improvements of as much as 5% may be possible in current JT3D, JT8D, and JT9D turbofan engines. Aerodynamic, thermodynamic, material, and structural advances are expected to yield fuel consumption improvements on the order of 10 to 15% in advanced turbofan engines, with the greatest improvement stemming from significantly higher cycle pressure ratios. Higher turbine temperature and fan bypass ratios are also expected to contribute to fuel conservation.

  1. Glycerol esters as fuel economy additives

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, P.W.; Smith, C.R.; Gowland, F.W.

    1987-07-28

    A lubricating oil composition formulated is described for use as a crankcase lubricating oil composition for gasoline or diesel engines consisting essentially of a major amount of a mineral oil of a lubricating viscosity which has incorporated about 0.20 weight percent of a glycerol partial ester. The partial ester is a mixture of glycerol monooleate and glycerol dioleate. The mixture has a weight ratio of 3 parts of glycerol monooleate to 2 parts of glycerol dioleate the ester providing a fuel economy improvement of about 1 to 3 percent when the lubricating oil composition is employed in the crankcase of the engine. An ashless dispersant, a metal detergent additive, a zinc dihdyrocarbyl dithiophosphate anti-wear additive and an antioxidant. The dispersant, detergent, anti-wear additive and antioxidant are present in conventional amounts to provide their normal attendant functions.

  2. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  3. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  4. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  5. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  6. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  7. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  8. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  9. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  10. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy...

  11. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator...

  15. 40 CFR 600.307-95 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... dual fuel automobiles, the statement: “All fuel economy values on this label pertain to fuel usage. fuel(s) usage will yield different values. See the FREE FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE for information on .” At...

  16. 40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  17. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... Trucks and Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy §...

  18. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... Trucks and Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy §...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  20. 40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... Trucks and Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy §...

  1. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  2. 40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  3. 40 CFR 600.307-95 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-95 Fuel economy label...

  4. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy...

  5. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy...

  6. 40 CFR 600.307-86 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-86 Fuel economy label...

  7. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  8. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  9. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  10. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  11. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  12. Fuel economy rebound effect of U.S. household vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.R.; Gibson, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an econometric estimation of the rebound effect for household vehicle travel in the US based on analysis of survey data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect measures the tendency to take back potential energy savings from fuel economy improvements as increased travel. Vehicle use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results confirm recent estimates based on national or state-level data: a long-run take back of about 20% of potential energy savings. Consumer responses to changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon appear to be equal and opposite in sign. Recognizing the interdependencies among miles of travel, fuel economy and price is key to obtaining meaningful results.

  13. Fuel economy measurement road test procedure. SAE standard

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This SAE Standard incorporates driving cycles that produce fuel consumption data relating to urban, suburban, and interstate driving patterns and is intended to be used to determine the relative fuel economy among vehicles and driving patterns under warmed-up conditions on test tracks, suitable roads, or chassis dynamometers. The cycle forms the basis of a cold-start test procedure described in SAE J1256. This document provides uniform testing procedures for measuring the fuel economy of light duty vehicles (motor vehicles designed primarily for transportation of persons or property and rated at 4,500 kg (10,000 lb) or less) on suitable roads.

  14. Highway fuel economy study. Final report Sep 79-Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.L.; Zub, R.W.

    1981-06-01

    In 1979, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with support from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), convened a Task Force to develop a base of information on the effects of the 55 MPH speed limit. This report addresses the fuel consumption changes attributable to speed reduction and compliance with the 55 MPH speed limit. It also discusses the effects of vehicle size and type, and driver-controllable functions on vehicle fuel economy at highway speeds. Most of the analytical work in this report is related to passenger cars and light trucks. However, medium and heavy trucks, primarily commercial in application, have been included in the highway fuel economy analyses.

  15. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  16. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  17. 40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  18. 40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample calculation of fuel economy... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later...

  19. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  20. 40 CFR 600.008-77 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Formats

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel Economy Label Formats VIII... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 600—Fuel Economy Label Formats EC01MY92.117 EC01MY92.118 EC01MY92.119...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1510 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. 85.1510 Section 85.1510 Protection of Environment..., warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. The provisions of this section are applicable to... for final admission. (d) Fuel economy labeling. (1) The certificate holder shall affix a fuel...

  3. 40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  4. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  6. 40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model...

  7. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  8. 40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later...

  9. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  10. 40 CFR 600.207-93 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later...

  11. 40 CFR 85.1510 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. 85.1510 Section 85.1510 Protection of Environment..., warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. The provisions of this section are applicable to... for final admission. (d) Fuel economy labeling. (1) The certificate holder shall affix a fuel...

  12. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  14. 40 CFR 85.1510 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. 85.1510 Section 85.1510 Protection of Environment..., warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. The provisions of this section are applicable to... for final admission. (d) Fuel economy labeling. (1) The certificate holder shall affix a fuel...

  15. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  16. 40 CFR 85.1510 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. 85.1510 Section 85.1510 Protection of Environment..., warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. The provisions of this section are applicable to... for final admission. (d) Fuel economy labeling. (1) The certificate holder shall affix a fuel...

  17. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  18. 40 CFR 600.302-08 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements. 600.302-08 Section 600.302-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy...

  19. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... CFR Part 259 Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles AGENCY: Federal Trade... ``Commission'') gives notice that it is postponing any amendments to its Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles (``Fuel Economy Guide'' or ``Guide'') pending completion of ongoing review...

  20. 40 CFR 610.31 - Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle tests for fuel economy and... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria Test Requirement Criteria § 610.31 Vehicle tests for fuel economy and exhaust emissions. (a) The tests described...

  1. 40 CFR 600.006-89 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-89 Section 600.006-89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-89 Data...

  2. 40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample calculation of fuel economy... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel...

  3. 40 CFR 600.008-77 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions §...

  4. 40 CFR 85.1510 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. 85.1510 Section 85.1510 Protection of Environment..., warranties, emission labeling and fuel economy requirements. The provisions of this section are applicable to... for final admission. (d) Fuel economy labeling. (1) The certificate holder shall affix a fuel...

  5. 77 FR 29751 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Economy Reports AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... average fuel economy standard for the model year for which the report is made, the actions a manufacturer... CONTACT: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and...

  6. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Formats

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel Economy Label Formats VIII... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 600—Fuel Economy Label Formats EC01MY92.117 EC01MY92.118 EC01MY92.119...

  8. 40 CFR 600.207-93 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. III Appendix III to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation Suppose that a manufacturer called...

  10. 40 CFR 600.008-01 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions §...

  11. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-87 Section 600.006-87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-87 Data...

  12. 40 CFR 600.006-08 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-08 Section 600.006-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-08 Data...

  13. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-86 Section 600.006-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-86 Data...

  14. 40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of fuel economy data, testing... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions §...

  15. 40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy standards we must meet? 102-34.55 Section 102-34.55 Public Contracts and Property... average fuel economy standards we must meet? (a) Yes. 49 U.S.C. 32917 and Executive Order 12375 require that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix to Part 474 - Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION Pt. 474, App. Appendix to Part 474—Sample Petroleum-Equivalent Fuel Economy Calculations Example 1: An electric vehicle...

  2. Optimization of Driving Styles for Fuel Economy Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas; Aguilar, Juan P.

    2012-01-01

    Modern vehicles have sophisticated electronic control units, particularly to control engine operation with respect to a balance between fuel economy, emissions, and power. These control units are designed for specific driving conditions and testing. However, each individual driving style is different and rarely meets those driving conditions. In the research reported here we investigate those driving style factors that have a major impact on fuel economy. An optimization framework is proposed with the aim of optimizing driving styles with respect to these driving factors. A set of polynomial metamodels are constructed to reflect the responses produced by changes of the driving factors. Then we compare the optimized driving styles to the original ones and evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the optimization formulation.

  3. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

  4. Automotive Stirling engine development program. [fuel economy assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitzner, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel economy assessment aims to achieve, with a high degree of confidence, the ERDA proposal estimate of 20.6 MPG (gasoline) for a 4500 lb 1WC Stirling engine passenger car. The current M-H fuel economy projection for the 170 HP Stirling engine is 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for this projection is 32%. A confidence level of 29% is projected for a 22.1 MPG estimate. If all of the planned analyses and test work is accomplished at the end of the one year effort, and the projected improvements are substantiated, the confidence levels would rise to 59% for the 20.6 MPG projection and 54% for the 22.1 MPG projection. Progress achieved thus far during the fuel economy assessment is discussed.

  5. Examining new fuel economy standards for the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-01

    After decades of futile attempts to increase U.S. fuel economy standards for passenger cars, which have remained unchanged since enactment of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards in Title V of the 1975 Energy Policy Conservation Act, it seems increasingly likely that new and tougher standards will be enacted in the near future - especially after the Senate's 21 June passage of energy efficiency bill H.R. 6. As this magazine went to press, the bill, which calls for a 40 percent increase in vehicle fuel economy by 2020 among other efficiency and alternative energy goals, was headed to the House of Representatives for more debate. Congress has seen proposals like this since the 1980s, but this is the first time that one of them has passed in the Senate. The Bush administration has also weighed in with a proposal to increase new vehicle fuel economy by 4 percent per year from 2011 to 2017, and the administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has asked Congress to grant the Secretary of Transportation the authority to restructure and increase CAFE standards for cars, a power denied by the original CAFE legislation. A confluence of events has led to this change of political climate, including: the failure of world oil production and refining capacity to keep pace with rapidly growing demand, especially from China and other emerging economies, which has led to the highest oil prices since the 1980s and growing fears that world production of conventional oil may be close to its peak and rapid decline; the escalating influence of oil resources on geopolitics as China seeks to guarantee its future access to supplies, enhanced revenues from the higher prices, which prop up authoritarian regimes in Iran, Venezuela, Russia, and elsewhere and allow them increasing freedom of action; the enhancement of the role of climate change in political decision making by new reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with

  6. 40 CFR 600.303-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for flexible-fuel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy label-special... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.303-12 Fuel economy label—special requirements for...

  7. 40 CFR 600.308-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.308-12 Fuel economy label format requirements—plug-in hybrid...

  8. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Passenger Automobile Fuel Economy Targets Model year Parameters a (mpg) b (mpg) c (gal/mi/ft2) d (gal/mi..., MYs 2012-2025 Model year Parameters a (mpg) b (mpg) c (gal/mi/ft2) d (gal/mi) 2012 35.95 27.95 0... year Miles per gallon 1978 16.1 1979 14.5 1980 15.8 1981 18.2 1982 18.2 1983 16.9 1984 16.9 1985...

  9. New Methodology for Estimating Fuel Economy by Vehicle Class

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Dabbs, Kathryn; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Office of Highway Policy Information to develop a new methodology to generate annual estimates of average fuel efficiency and number of motor vehicles registered by vehicle class for Table VM-1 of the Highway Statistics annual publication. This paper describes the new methodology developed under this effort and compares the results of the existing manual method and the new systematic approach. The methodology developed under this study takes a two-step approach. First, the preliminary fuel efficiency rates are estimated based on vehicle stock models for different classes of vehicles. Then, a reconciliation model is used to adjust the initial fuel consumption rates from the vehicle stock models and match the VMT information for each vehicle class and the reported total fuel consumption. This reconciliation model utilizes a systematic approach that produces documentable and reproducible results. The basic framework utilizes a mathematical programming formulation to minimize the deviations between the fuel economy estimates published in the previous year s Highway Statistics and the results from the vehicle stock models, subject to the constraint that fuel consumptions for different vehicle classes must sum to the total fuel consumption estimate published in Table MF-21 of the current year Highway Statistics. The results generated from this new approach provide a smoother time series for the fuel economies by vehicle class. It also utilizes the most up-to-date and best available data with sound econometric models to generate MPG estimates by vehicle class.

  10. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  11. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, Bo; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Greene, David; Gibson, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  12. Light-duty vehicle fuel economy improvements, 1979--1998: A consumer purchase model of corporate average fuel economy, fuel price, and income effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, David Michael

    2000-10-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, which created fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks, was passed by Congress in response to the rapid rise in world oil prices as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The standards were first implemented in 1978 for automobiles and 1979 for light trucks, and began with initial standards of 18 MPG for automobiles and 17.2 MPG for light trucks. The current fuel economy standards for 1998 have been held constant at 27.5 MPG for automobiles and 20.5 MPG for light trucks since 1990--1991. While actual new automobile fuel economy has almost doubled from 14 MPG in 1974 to 27.2 MPG in 1994, it is reasonable to ask if the CAFE standards are still needed. Each year Congress attempts to pass another increase in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard and fails. Many have called for the abolition of CAFE standards citing the ineffectiveness of the standards in the past. In order to determine whether CAFE standards should be increased, held constant, or repealed, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the CAFE standards to date must be established. Because fuel prices were rising concurrently with the CAFE standards, many authors have attributed the rapid rise in new car fuel economy solely to fuel prices. The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the determinants of new car fuel economy via three effects: CAFE regulations, fuel price, and income effects. By measuring the marginal effects of the three fuel economy determinants upon consumers and manufacturers choices, for fuel economy, an estimate was made of the influence of each upon new fuel economy. The conclusions of this dissertation present some clear signals to policymakers: CAFE standards have been very effective in increasing fuel economy from 1979 to 1998. Furthermore, they have been the main cause of fuel economy improvement, with income being a much smaller component. Furthermore, this dissertation has suggested that fuel prices have

  13. Minorities and fuel-economy standards: Differences in EPA-test vs in-use fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle's in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985 and of those vehicles held by different population groups. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis showed that fleetwide, the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and that light trucks are experiencing larger shortfalls than automobiles. Controlling for vehicle age and size class, shortfalls did not appear to differ by population group. However, African-American households appeared to select vehicles with systematically lower fuel economy (both EPA-test and on-the-road) within individual vehicle age and size class categories.

  14. Minorities and fuel-economy standards: Differences in EPA-test vs in-use fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    A vehicle`s in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985 and of those vehicles held by different population groups. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis showed that fleetwide, the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and that light trucks are experiencing larger shortfalls than automobiles. Controlling for vehicle age and size class, shortfalls did not appear to differ by population group. However, African-American households appeared to select vehicles with systematically lower fuel economy (both EPA-test and on-the-road) within individual vehicle age and size class categories.

  15. Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in fuel economy for a broad spectrum of truck engines and waste heat utilization concepts are evaluated and compared. The engines considered are the diesel, spark ignition, gas turbine, and Stirling. The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions were based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. The results reveal that diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either is approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic diesel.

  16. 40 CFR 600.115-11 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.115-11 Criteria for... derived 5-cycle method for determining fuel economy label values, as specified in § 600.210-08(a)(2) or (b... economy label values must be determined according to the vehicle-specific 5-cycle method specified...

  17. 40 CFR 600.115-11 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.115-11 Criteria for... derived 5-cycle method for determining fuel economy label values, as specified in § 600.210-08(a)(2) or (b... economy label values must be determined according to the vehicle-specific 5-cycle method specified...

  18. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicles equipped with hydrogen... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  19. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... including, but not limited to battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  20. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicles equipped with hydrogen... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 600 - Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule I Appendix I to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Appendix I to Part 600—Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule SEC MPH SEC MPH SEC MPH SEC MPH SEC MPH...

  2. 40 CFR 600.115-11 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... economy label calculation method. 600.115-11 Section 600.115-11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 600.115-11 Criteria...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II Appendix II to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation III Appendix III to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App....

  5. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II Appendix II to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation III Appendix III to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App....

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 600 - Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule I Appendix I to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App....

  8. 40 CFR 600.310-12 - Fuel economy label format requirements-electric vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements-electric vehicles. 600.310-12 Section 600.310-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  9. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  10. 40 CFR 600.307-86 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy...) Catalyst usage, if necessary to distinguish otherwise identical model types; and (9) California emission control system usage, if applicable and if the Administrator determines that automobiles intended for...

  11. The Sport-Utility Vehicle: Debating Fuel-Economy Standards in Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a debate about national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) used as a foundation for exploring a public policy issue in the physical science classroom. The subject of automobile fuel economy benefits from a familiarity with thermodynamics, specifically heat engines, and is therefore applicable to a broad…

  12. Emissions and fuel economy results 1992 car models (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Emissions and Fuel Economy Results 1992 Car Models contains 3 separate reports: (1) 1992 Test Car List--Passenger Cars; states: For each model year, each manufacturer must calculate the fuel economy for similar vehicles. It contains key test parameters, actual emission levels, and actual fuel economy for each of the specific test vehicles required for the 1992 model year. The subsequent average data can be found in the file Fuel Economy Guide; (2) 1992 Fuel Economy Guide-6 Number; states: For each model year, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act requires that a compilation of fuel economy values be provided to the public. These data are intended to help the consumer compare the fuel economy of similar size cars, light-duty trucks, and special purpose vehicles. The adjusted and unadjusted fuel economy values are provided for city, highway and a combination of city and highway driving; (3) Federal Certification Test Results for the 1992 Model Year; states: Each manufacturer of a passenger car, (light-duty vehicle), light-duty truck, motorcycle, heavy-duty gasoline engine, and heavy-duty diesel engine is required to demonstrate compliance with the applicable exhaust emission standard. The report contains all of the individual tests that were required by the certification procedures found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations in Part 86.

  13. Emissions and fuel economy results 1993 car models (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Emissions and Fuel Economy Results 1993 Car Models contains 3 separate reports: (1) 1993 Test Car List--Passenger Cars; states: For each model year, each manufacturer must calculate the fuel economy for similar vehicles. It contains key test parameters, actual emission levels, and actual fuel economy for each of the specific test vehicles required for the 1993 model year. The subsequent average data can be found in the file Fuel Economy Guide; (2) 1993 Fuel Economy Guide-6 Number; states: For each model year, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act requires that a compilation of fuel economy values be provided to the public. These data are intended to help the consumer compare the fuel economy of similar size cars, light-duty trucks, and special purpose vehicles. The adjusted and unadjusted fuel economy values are provided for city, highway and a combination of city and highway driving; (3) Federal Certification Test Results for the 1993 Model Year; states: Each manufacturer of a passenger car, (light-duty vehicle), light-duty truck, motorcycle, heavy-duty gasoline engine, and heavy-duty diesel engine is required to demonstrate compliance with the applicable exhaust emission standard. The report contains all of the individual tests that were required by the certification procedues found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations in Part 86.

  14. 40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data and information requirements for... General Provisions § 600.006 Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. (a) For... following information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust...

  15. 40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data and information requirements for... General Provisions § 600.006 Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. (a) For... following information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust...

  16. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data and information requirements for... Provisions § 600.006-86 Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. (a) For certification... information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission...

  17. 40 CFR 600.006-89 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data and information requirements for... Provisions § 600.006-89 Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. (a) For certification... information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission...

  18. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data and information requirements for... Provisions § 600.006-87 Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles. (a) For certification... information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust emission...

  19. 40 CFR 600.006 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data and information requirements for... General Provisions § 600.006 Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles. (a) For... following information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the vehicle, exhaust...

  20. 40 CFR 600.006-08 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data and information requirements for... Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-08 Data and information requirements for fuel economy data vehicles... submit the following information for each fuel economy data vehicle: (i) A description of the...

  1. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be calculated for model types and base levels associated with car lines for each category of... fuel economy values will be calculated for vehicle configurations associated with car lines for each... fuel economy is not due to eliminating the ability of manufacturers to take advantage of...

  2. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be calculated for model types and base levels associated with car lines for each category of... fuel economy values will be calculated for vehicle configurations associated with car lines for each... fuel economy is not due to eliminating the ability of manufacturers to take advantage of...

  3. Investigation of vehicle and driver aggressivity and relation to fuel economy testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichter, Jonathan Seth

    As vehicle technologies continue to improve it is becoming more evident one of the last major factors impacting fuel economy left today is the driver. In this study the driver is defined as the operator of a vehicle and the difference between driving styles of the driver and vehicle is defined as aggressivity. Driver aggressivity is proven to have a substantial impact on fuel economy in many studies. Many fuel economy tests have been created, all to measure the fuel efficiency of today's vehicles and their related technologies. These tests typically require that the drivers be trained or experienced in fuel economy testing unless the impact of the driver on fuel economy is the variable being tested. It is also recommended, for certain tests, that the driver stay with the same vehicle for the tests entirety. Although these are the requirements, having the same trained drivers for the entirety of a fuel economy test may not always be a viable option. This leads to the question of, what impact can a set of drivers, who are asked to drive the same, have on fuel consumption during a fuel consumption test? The SAE J1321 Type II Fuel Consumption Test Procedure was followed on two identical trucks with two drivers that were untrained in fuel economy testing in order to answer this question. It was found in this particular study that the driver variability can impose up to a 10% fuel economy difference on shorter distance routes where the driver is kept the same. By increasing the distance of the route and swapping drivers variability in fuel economy reduced to 5%. It was shown by this particular test that the impact of the driver when asked to drive the same is minimal compared to real world results of up to 30%. A larger data set and more testing is still necessary to completely understand and validate the impact of the driver on fuel economy testing.

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.65 - How may we request an exemption from the fuel economy standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exemption from the fuel economy standards? 102-34.65 Section 102-34.65 Public Contracts and Property... an exemption from the fuel economy standards? You must submit a written request for an exemption from the fuel economy standards to: Administrator, General Services Administration, ATTN: Deputy...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.65 - How may we request an exemption from the fuel economy standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exemption from the fuel economy standards? 102-34.65 Section 102-34.65 Public Contracts and Property... an exemption from the fuel economy standards? You must submit a written request for an exemption from the fuel economy standards to: Administrator, General Services Administration, ATTN: Deputy...

  6. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values §...

  7. 41 CFR 102-34.65 - How may we request an exemption from the fuel economy standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exemption from the fuel economy standards? 102-34.65 Section 102-34.65 Public Contracts and Property... an exemption from the fuel economy standards? You must submit a written request for an exemption from the fuel economy standards to: Administrator, General Services Administration, ATTN: Deputy...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. V Appendix V to Part 600—Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines for 2008...

  9. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values §...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 and Later Model...

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? 102-34.60 Section 102-34.60 Public Contracts and... How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? You must calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles as follows: (a) Because there are so many motor...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines for 2008 Through 2012 Model Year Vehicles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. V Appendix V to Part 600—Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines for...

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? 102-34.60 Section 102-34.60 Public Contracts and... How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? You must calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles as follows: (a) Because there are so many motor...

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.65 - How may we request an exemption from the fuel economy standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exemption from the fuel economy standards? 102-34.65 Section 102-34.65 Public Contracts and Property... an exemption from the fuel economy standards? You must submit a written request for an exemption from the fuel economy standards to: Administrator, General Services Administration, ATTN: Deputy...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 Through 2012 Model Year Vehicles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 Through 2012...

  16. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? 102-34.60 Section 102-34.60 Public Contracts and... How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? You must calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles as follows: (a) Because there are so many motor...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? 102-34.60 Section 102-34.60 Public Contracts and... How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? You must calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles as follows: (a) Because there are so many motor...

  18. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. V Appendix V to Part 600—Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines for 2008...

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.60 - How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? 102-34.60 Section 102-34.60 Public Contracts and... How do we calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles? You must calculate the average fuel economy for Government motor vehicles as follows: (a) Because there are so many motor...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.65 - How may we request an exemption from the fuel economy standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exemption from the fuel economy standards? 102-34.65 Section 102-34.65 Public Contracts and Property... an exemption from the fuel economy standards? You must submit a written request for an exemption from the fuel economy standards to: Administrator, General Services Administration, ATTN: Deputy...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 and Later Model Year Vehicles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 and Later Model...

  3. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures...

  4. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  5. Prospects on fuel economy improvements for hydrogen powered vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, A.; Wallner, T.; Pagerit, S.; Lohse-Bush, H.

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered. Although complete data related to port fuel injection were provided from engine testing, the map for the direct-injection engine was developed from single-cylinder data. The fuel cell system data represent the status of the current technology and the goals of FreedomCAR. For both port-injected and direct-injected hydrogen engine technologies, power split and series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) configurations were considered. For the fuel cell system, only a series HEV configuration was simulated.

  6. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J.

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  7. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-09-18

    One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

  8. Evaluation of fuel economy differences on a 1978 Volvo for two different motor oils. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Penninga, T.J.; Lawrence, D.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the results which were gathered to determine the fuel economy difference between a low viscosity multigrade, synthetic motor oil and a straight 30 weight motor oil. The test vehicle was a 1978 Volvo which was modified to give consistent vehicle emissions and fuel economy. The car was tested with each oil at ambient temperatures of 40 degrees F, 75 degrees F and 90 degrees F. The low viscosity synthetic showed no improvement on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) at 40 degrees F and 90 degrees F and a .74% increase in fuel economy for the 75 degrees F tests. The Highway Fuel Economy Tests (HFET) showed a 2.13% increase at 40 degrees F, 2.48% increase at 75 degrees F, and 2.71% at 90 degrees F for the low viscosity synthetic multigrade oil.

  9. Transit-bus fuel economy and performance simulation. Final report, October 1982-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Zub, R.

    1984-10-01

    This paper addresses the simulation element of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration's Fuel Economy Program. More specifically, it addresses the development of fuel economy and performance sensitivity information on standard-size transit vehicles using the Heavy-Duty Vehicle Simulation (HEVSIM) Program. HEVSIM provides fuel consumption and performance estimates of a specified bus as it executes a given driving schedule. This report presents the results of bus simulation studies which determined the effects of various design and operating parameters on bus fuel economy and performance. The bus components are first described in terms of how they are modeled. Then a variation of each component is performed and the resulting fuel economy and performance are presented as sensitivities and tradeoffs.

  10. Emissions and fuel economy of the Dresser Economizer, a retrofit device. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the results of testing the Dresser Economizer as part of an evaluation under section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This device is a gasket which is installed between the intake manifold and the cylinder head. The device is claimed to improve fuel economy and driveability. The results of EPA testing show the Dresser Economizer device does not have any significant effect on regulated exhaust emissions or fuel economy.

  11. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy values...

  12. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-12 Section... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and... fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy and CO2...

  13. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.206... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  14. Impact of non-petroleum vehicle fuel economy on GHG mitigation potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk, Jason M.; Saville, Bradley A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2016-04-01

    The fuel economy of gasoline vehicles will increase to meet 2025 corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFE). However, dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) already exceed future CAFE fuel economy targets because only 15% of non-petroleum energy use is accounted for when determining compliance. This study aims to inform stakeholders about the potential impact of CAFE on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, should non-petroleum fuel vehicles displace increasingly fuel efficient petroleum vehicles. The well-to-wheel GHG emissions of a set of hypothetical model year 2025 light-duty vehicles are estimated. A reference gasoline vehicle is designed to meet the 2025 fuel economy target within CAFE, and is compared to a set of dedicated CNG vehicles and BEVs with different fuel economy ratings, but all vehicles meet or exceed the fuel economy target due to the policy’s dedicated non-petroleum fuel vehicle incentives. Ownership costs and BEV driving ranges are estimated to provide context, as these can influence automaker and consumer decisions. The results show that CNG vehicles that have lower ownership costs than gasoline vehicles and BEVs with long distance driving ranges can exceed the 2025 CAFE fuel economy target. However, this could lead to lower efficiency CNG vehicles and heavier BEVs that have higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions than gasoline vehicles on a per km basis, even if the non-petroleum energy source is less carbon intensive on an energy equivalent basis. These changes could influence the effectiveness of low carbon fuel standards and are not precluded by the light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards, which regulate tailpipe but not fuel production emissions.

  15. Multi-objective optimization shapes ecological variation.

    PubMed

    Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Scheiner, Annette; Klemola, Tero; Ruohomäki, Kai

    2012-02-22

    Ecological systems contain a huge amount of quantitative variation between and within species and locations, which makes it difficult to obtain unambiguous verification of theoretical predictions. Ordinary experiments consider just a few explanatory factors and are prone to providing oversimplified answers because they ignore the complexity of the factors that underlie variation. We used multi-objective optimization (MO) for a mechanistic analysis of the potential ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of variation in the life-history traits of a species of moth. Optimal life-history solutions were sought for environmental conditions where different life stages of the moth were subject to predation and other known fitness-reducing factors in a manner that was dependent on the duration of these life stages and on variable mortality rates. We found that multi-objective optimal solutions to these conditions that the moths regularly experience explained most of the life-history variation within this species. Our results demonstrate that variation can have a causal interpretation even for organisms under steady conditions. The results suggest that weather and species interactions can act as underlying causes of variation, and MO acts as a corresponding adaptive mechanism that maintains variation in the traits of organisms.

  16. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Hwang, Ho-Ling; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2013-01-01

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  17. Multi-object fiber-fed spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felenbok, P.; Guerin, J.; Bellenger, R.; Dreux, M.; Fernandez, A.

    1990-09-01

    A multi-object instrument for spectrography in a large field is presented. It is of the arm design as MX or ARGUS. The MEFOS (Meudon-ESO Fiber Optical System) version is built to be used at the ESO 3.60 m prime focus with the triplet corrector. The FIFI (Franco-Italian Fiber Instrument) version, a copy of MEFOS, is shared between the Bologna Observatory and the Paris-Meudon Observatory and will be used, on a visitor basis, at the CFHT prime focus. The instrument carries 30 independent arms with an imaging capability on each arm. It is a modular design with its electronic implemented on each arm. The system is under control of anti-collision software and the whole instrument is driven by an PC/XT-type computer.

  18. Multi-object spring level sets (MUSCLE).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Blake C; Kazhdan, Michael; Taylor, Russell H

    2012-01-01

    A new data structure is presented for geometrically modeling multi-objects. The model can exhibit elastic and fluid-like behavior to enable interpretability between tasks that require both deformable registration and active contour segmentation. The data structure consists of a label mask, distance field, and springls (a constellation of disconnected triangles). The representation has sub-voxel precision, is parametric, re-meshes, tracks point correspondences, and guarantees no self-intersections, air-gaps, or overlaps between adjacent structures. In this work, we show how to apply existing registration algorithms and active contour segmentation to the data structure; and as a demonstration, the data structure is used to segment cortical and subcortical structures (74 total) in the human brain.

  19. FUEL ECONOMY AND CO2 EMISSIONS STANDARDS, MANUFACTURER PRICING STRATEGIES, AND FEEBATES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L; Bunch, Dr David S.

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and CO2 emissions standards for 2012 to 2016 have significantly increased the stringency of requirements for new light-duty vehicle fuel efficiency. This study investigates the role of technology adoption and pricing strategies in meeting new standards, as well as the impact of feebate policies. The analysis is carried out by means of a dynamic optimization model that simulates manufacturer decisions with the objective of maximizing social surplus while simultaneously considering consumer response and meeting CAFE and emissions standards. The results indicate that technology adoption plays the major role and that the provision of compliance flexibility and the availability of cost-effective advanced technologies help manufacturers reduce the need for pricing to induce changes in the mix of vehicles sold. Feebates, when implemented along with fuel economy and emissions standards, can bring additional fuel economy improvement and emissions reduction, but the benefit diminishes with the increasing stringency of the standards.

  20. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  1. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  2. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  3. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy, and powertrain technology trends for new personal vehicles in the United States. The ??Trends?? report has been published annually since 1975 and covers all passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and all but the largest pickup trucks and vans. This report does not provide formal compliance values for EPA CO2 emissions standards and NHTSA CAFE standards. The downloadable data are available in PDF or spreadsheet (XLS) formats.

  4. 40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.210-12... by one of two methods. The first is based on vehicle-specific model-type 5-cycle data as determined... method, the derived 5-cycle method, determines fuel economy and CO2 emissions values from the FTP...

  5. 40 CFR 600.304-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy label-special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. 600.304-12 Section 600.304-12 Protection of Environment... fuel cell vehicles. Fuel economy labels for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles must meet the...

  6. 40 CFR 600.304-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy label-special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. 600.304-12 Section 600.304-12 Protection of Environment... fuel cell vehicles. Fuel economy labels for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles must meet the...

  7. 40 CFR 600.304-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy label-special requirements for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. 600.304-12 Section 600.304-12 Protection of Environment... fuel cell vehicles. Fuel economy labels for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles must meet the...

  8. 40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions label values for fuel cell vehicles. Determine FTP-based city and HFET-based highway fuel economy... information is based on tailpipe emissions only, so CO2 emissions from fuel cell vehicles are assumed to be...) Specific alternate fuel economy and CO 2 emissions label values for fuel cell vehicles. Determine...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels and Style Guidelines for 2013 and Later Model Years

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fuel Cell Vehicle Label ER06JY11.051 G. Natural Gas Vehicle Label ER06JY11.052 H. Plug-in Hybrid... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels and Style... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...

  10. 41 CFR 102-34.75 - Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles we obtain? 102-34.75 Section 102-34... Vehicles § 102-34.75 Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor... economy standards for motor vehicles they obtain....

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.75 - Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles we obtain? 102-34.75 Section 102-34... Vehicles § 102-34.75 Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor... economy standards for motor vehicles they obtain....

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.75 - Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles we obtain? 102-34.75 Section 102-34... Vehicles § 102-34.75 Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor... economy standards for motor vehicles they obtain....

  13. 41 CFR 102-34.75 - Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles we obtain? 102-34.75 Section 102-34... Vehicles § 102-34.75 Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor... economy standards for motor vehicles they obtain....

  14. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 Through 2012 Model Year Vehicles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels for 2008 Through 2012 Model Year Vehicles IV Appendix IV to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels and Style Guidelines for 2013 and Later Model Years

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels and Style Guidelines for 2013 and Later Model Years VI Appendix VI to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...

  16. 40 CFR 600.306-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy label-special requirements for compressed natural gas vehicles. 600.306-12 Section 600.306-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...

  17. 40 CFR 600.303-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for flexible-fuel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy label-special requirements for flexible-fuel vehicles. 600.303-12 Section 600.303-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 600 - Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines for 2008 Through 2012 Model Year Vehicles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel Economy Label Style Guidelines for 2008 Through 2012 Model Year Vehicles V Appendix V to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...

  19. 40 CFR 600.306-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy label-special requirements for compressed natural gas vehicles. 600.306-12 Section 600.306-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Labels and Style Guidelines for 2013 and Later Model Years

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Labels and Style Guidelines for 2013 and Later Model Years VI Appendix VI to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...

  1. 40 CFR 600.303-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for flexible-fuel vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy label-special requirements for flexible-fuel vehicles. 600.303-12 Section 600.303-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF...

  2. 40 CFR 600.306-12 - Fuel economy label-special requirements for compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for compressed natural gas vehicles. 600.306-12 Section 600.306-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF... natural gas vehicles. Fuel economy labels for dedicated natural gas vehicles must meet the...

  3. Potential Fuel Economy Improvements from the Implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson Cycle Engine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Present the implementation of cEGR and CDA on an Atkinson engine and use steady state fuel consumption maps to estimate the technologies’ potential fuel economy improvements over the FTP and Highway tests. In addition to use fuel weighted modes to determine possible fuel economy...

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.75 - Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor vehicles we obtain? 102-34.75 Section 102-34... Vehicles § 102-34.75 Who is responsible for monitoring our compliance with fuel economy standards for motor... economy standards for motor vehicles they obtain....

  5. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Separate fuel economy values will be calculated for model types and base levels associated with car lines... car lines for each category of passenger automobiles and light trucks as determined by the Secretary... fuel economy is not due to eliminating the ability of manufacturers to take advantage of...

  6. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... revised text is set forth as follows: § 600.114-08 Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon... to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions values for the purpose of determining optional.... (d) City carbon-related exhaust emission value. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle...

  7. 40 CFR 600.311-12 - Determination of values for fuel economy labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... separate values for combined fuel economy for vehicle operation before and after the vehicle's battery is... as follows: (i) Calculate the fuel consumption rate based on engine operation after the battery is... rate during operation before the battery is fully discharged in kW-hours per 100 miles as described...

  8. 40 CFR 600.311-12 - Determination of values for fuel economy labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... separate values for combined fuel economy for vehicle operation before and after the vehicle's battery is...) Calculate the fuel consumption rate based on engine operation after the battery is fully discharged as... before the battery is fully discharged in kW-hours per 100 miles as described in SAE J1711...

  9. 40 CFR 600.311-12 - Determination of values for fuel economy labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... separate values for combined fuel economy for vehicle operation before and after the vehicle's battery is... as follows: (i) Calculate the fuel consumption rate based on engine operation after the battery is... rate during operation before the battery is fully discharged in kW-hours per 100 miles as described...

  10. 76 FR 39477 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are issuing a joint final rule establishing new requirements for the fuel economy and environment label that will be posted on the window sticker of all new automobiles sold in the U.S. The labeling requirements apply for model year 2013 and later vehicles with a voluntary manufacturer......

  11. 75 FR 59673 - Public Hearing Locations for the Proposed Fuel Economy Labels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Economy Labels AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public hearings. SUMMARY... and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label,'' published in the Federal Register on September 23... testimony or comment on the Agency's proposed revisions and additions to the motor vehicle fuel...

  12. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... economy values will be calculated for model types and base levels associated with car lines that are: (A...: (i) Separate fuel economy values will be calculated for vehicle configurations associated with car... ability of manufacturers to take advantage of flexibilities within the existing test procedures to...

  13. 76 FR 54932 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 86 DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration RIN 2060-AQ09; RIN 2127-AK73 Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction...

  14. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  15. Multi-Objective Lake Superior Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, M.; Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.

    2011-12-01

    At the direction of the International Joint Commission (IJC) the International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS) Board is investigating possible changes to the present method of regulating the outflows of Lake Superior (SUP) to better meet the contemporary needs of the stakeholders. In this study, a new plan in the form of a rule curve that is directly interpretable for regulation of SUP is proposed. The proposed rule curve has 18 parameters that should be optimized. The IUGLS Board is also interested in a regulation strategy that considers potential effects of climate uncertainty. Therefore, the quality of the rule curve is assessed simultaneously for multiple supply sequences that represent various future climate scenarios. The rule curve parameters are obtained by solving a computationally intensive bi-objective simulation-optimization problem that maximizes the total increase in navigation and hydropower benefits of the new regulation plan and minimizes the sum of all normalized constraint violations. The objective and constraint values are obtained from a Microsoft Excel based Shared Vision Model (SVM) that compares any new SUP regulation plan with the current regulation policy. The underlying optimization problem is solved by a recently developed, highly efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm called Pareto Archived Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS). To further improve the computational efficiency of the simulation-optimization problem, the model pre-emption strategy is used in a novel way to avoid the complete evaluation of regulation plans with low quality in both objectives. Results show that the generated rule curve is robust and typically more reliable when facing unpredictable climate conditions compared to other SUP regulation plans.

  16. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  17. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type. 600.209-12 Section 600.209-12 Protection of... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.209-12 Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

  18. 40 CFR 600.115-08 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method for 2011 and later model year...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations... criteria to determine if the derived 5-cycle method for determining fuel economy label values, as...

  19. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and...

  20. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type. 600.209-12 Section 600.209-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  1. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  2. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions for a model type. 600.208-12... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.208-12 Calculation of FTP-based and...

  3. 40 CFR 600.314-01 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600.314-01 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later..., and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. (a) The label values established in §...

  4. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  5. 40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.314-08 Section 600.314-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  6. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. 600.208-12 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and... of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model...

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation and use of fuel economy... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and...

  8. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions for a model type. 600.208-12... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.208-12 Calculation of FTP-based and...

  9. 40 CFR 600.209-12 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy and CO2 emission values for a model type. 600.209-12 Section 600.209-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  10. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emissions for a model type. 600.208-12... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.208-12 Calculation of FTP-based and...

  11. 40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.314-08 Section 600.314-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.314-08...

  12. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600.208-08 Section 600.208-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values...

  13. 40 CFR 600.314-86 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600.314-86 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later..., and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. (a) The label values established in §...

  14. 40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.314-08 Section 600.314-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.314-08...

  15. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600.208-08 Section 600.208-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values §...

  16. 40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy,...

  17. 40 CFR 600.008-08 - Review of fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review of fuel economy and carbon... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Regulations for 1977 and...

  18. 40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy,...

  19. 40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.314-08 Section 600.314-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.314-08...

  20. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.206... POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles §...

  1. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust...

  2. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600.208-08 Section 600.208-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values §...

  3. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and...

  4. 40 CFR 600.008 - Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission data, testing by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Review of fuel economy, CO2 emissions... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES General Provisions § 600.008 Review of fuel economy,...

  5. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. 600.208-12 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.208-12 Calculation of...

  6. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations for FTP... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year...

  7. 40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation and use of fuel economy... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model...

  8. 40 CFR 600.208-08 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for a model type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy values for a model type. 600.208-08 Section 600.208-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures...

  9. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy and carbon-related... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-12 Fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust...

  10. 40 CFR 600.314-01 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600.314-01 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later..., and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. (a) The label values established in §...

  11. 40 CFR 600.314-86 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. 600.314-86 Section 600... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later..., and range of fuel economies for comparable automobiles. (a) The label values established in §...

  12. 40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.314-08 Section 600.314-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  13. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  14. 40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation and use of fuel economy... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  15. Analysis of regenerated single-shaft ceramic gas-turbine engines and resulting fuel economy in a compact car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.; Tew, R. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ranges in design and off-design operating conditions of an advanced gas turbine and their effects on fuel economy were analyzed. The assumed engine incorporated a single stage radial flow turbine and compressor with fixed geometry. Fuel economies were calculated over the composite driving cycle with gasoline as the fuel. At a constant turbine-inlet temperature, with a regenerator sized for a full power effectiveness the best fuel economies ranged from 11.1 to 10.2 km/liter (26.2 to 22.5 mpg) for full power turbine tip speeds of 770 to 488m/sec (2530 to 1600ft/sec), respectively.

  16. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim J; Verma, Rajeev; Norris, Sarah; Cochran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  17. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; LaClair, Tim J; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E; Franzese, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  18. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart; Richard "Barney" Carlson; Jeff Gonder; Aaron Brooker

    2009-09-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have potential to reduce or eliminate the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Quantifying the amount of petroleum each uses, however, is challenging. To estimate in-use fuel economy for conventional vehicles the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts chassis dynamometer tests on standard historic drive cycles and then adjusts the resulting “raw” fuel economy measurements downward. Various publications, such as the forthcoming update to the SAE J1711 recommended practice for PHEV fuel economy testing, address the challenges of applying standard test procedures to PHEVs. This paper explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to such “raw” PHEV dynamometer test results in order to more closely estimate the in-use fuel and electricity consumption characteristics of these vehicles. The paper discusses two possible adjustment methods, and evaluates one method by applying it to dynamometer data and comparing the result to in-use fleet data (on an aftermarket conversion PHEV). The paper will also present the methodologies used to collect the data needed for this comparison.

  19. Fuel Economy Improvement by Utilizing Thermoelectric Generator in Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Hu, T.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in thermoelectric technology have made exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (TEGs) promising for recovery of waste heat. Utilization of exhaust-based TEGs in heavy-duty vehicles was studied in this work. Given that the generated power is limited, the alternator is still indispensable. To improve the fuel economy, the generated electricity must be integrated into the automotive electrical system and consumed by electrical loads. Therefore, two feasible ways of integrating the generated electricity into the automotive electrical system are discussed: one in which the original alternator works only under certain conditions, i.e., the "thermostat" strategy, and another in which a smaller alternator is adopted and works together with the TEG, i.e., the "cooperative work" strategy. The overall performance and efficiency are obtained through simulation analysis. The simulation results show that both methods can improve the fuel economy, but the former provides better results. Moreover, if the electrical loads can be properly modified, the fuel economy is further improved. These simulation results lay a solid foundation for application of TEGs in vehicles in the future.

  20. US Department of Energy Hybrid Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Karner; J.E. Francfort

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August, 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting significant tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 1.3 million miles. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the "real world" performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. While the initial "real world" fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that evaluated by the manufacturer and varies significantly with environmental conditions, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over vehicle life (160,000 miles).

  1. EPA Reports: Automakers Beat Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Third Straight Year Fuel economy steady at highest level ever recorded

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (12/16/2015 -ATLANTA ) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that manufacturers have surpassed the more stringent 2014 standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while model year 2014 fuel economy remains steady at the h

  2. Integrative systems modeling and multi-objective optimization

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents a number of algorithms, tools, and methods for utilizing multi-objective optimization within integrated systems modeling frameworks. We first present innovative methods using a genetic algorithm to optimally calibrate the VELMA and SWAT ecohydrological ...

  3. Multi-objective optimization methods in drug design.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Christos A; Brown, Nathan

    2013-09-01

    Drug discovery is a challenging multi-objective problem where numerous pharmaceutically important objectives need to be adequately satisfied for a solution to be found. The problem is characterized by vast, complex solution spaces further perplexed by the presence of conflicting objectives. Multi-objective optimization methods, designed specifically to address such problems, have been introduced to the drug discovery field over a decade ago and have steadily gained in acceptance ever since. This paper reviews the latest multi-objective methods and applications reported in the literature, specifically in quantitative structure–activity modeling, docking, de novo design and library design. Further, the paper reports on related developments in drug discovery research and advances in the multi-objective optimization field.

  4. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  5. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition drive cycle emissions and fuel economy estimations using vehicle system simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott J.; Gao, Zhiming; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-22

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve reactivity-controlled compression ignition has been shown to reduce NOX and soot emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared with conventional diesel combustion. The reactivity-controlled compression ignition concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load, allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. In this paper, a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition strategy is employed where the engine switches from reactivity-controlled compression ignition to conventional diesel combustion when speed and load demand are outside of the experimentally determined reactivity-controlled compression ignition range. The potential for reactivity-controlled compression ignition to reduce drive cycle fuel economy and emissions is not clearly understood and is explored here by simulating the fuel economy and emissions for a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition–enabled vehicle operating over a variety of US drive cycles using experimental engine maps for multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition, conventional diesel combustion, and a 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine. Drive cycle simulations are completed assuming a conventional mid-size passenger vehicle with an automatic transmission. Multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition fuel economy simulation results are compared with the same vehicle powered by a representative 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine over multiple drive cycles. Finally, engine-out drive cycle emissions are compared with conventional diesel combustion, and observations regarding relative gasoline and diesel tank sizes needed for the various drive cycles are also summarized.

  6. Reactivity-controlled compression ignition drive cycle emissions and fuel economy estimations using vehicle system simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Curran, Scott J.; Gao, Zhiming; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-22

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve reactivity-controlled compression ignition has been shown to reduce NOX and soot emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared with conventional diesel combustion. The reactivity-controlled compression ignition concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that the fuel reactivity can be tailored to the engine speed and load, allowing stable low-temperature combustion to be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. In this paper, a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition strategy is employed where the engine switches from reactivity-controlled compression ignition to conventional diesel combustion whenmore » speed and load demand are outside of the experimentally determined reactivity-controlled compression ignition range. The potential for reactivity-controlled compression ignition to reduce drive cycle fuel economy and emissions is not clearly understood and is explored here by simulating the fuel economy and emissions for a multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition–enabled vehicle operating over a variety of US drive cycles using experimental engine maps for multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition, conventional diesel combustion, and a 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine. Drive cycle simulations are completed assuming a conventional mid-size passenger vehicle with an automatic transmission. Multi-mode reactivity-controlled compression ignition fuel economy simulation results are compared with the same vehicle powered by a representative 2009 port-fuel injected gasoline engine over multiple drive cycles. Finally, engine-out drive cycle emissions are compared with conventional diesel combustion, and observations regarding relative gasoline and diesel tank sizes needed for the various drive cycles are also summarized.« less

  7. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected

  8. The effects of acceleration rate on vehicle exhaust emissions and fuel economy. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, L.C.

    1982-08-01

    This report summarizes a test program which was designed to explore the impact on exhaust emissions and fuel economy of coupling the dynamometer rollers (front and rear) and of using acceleration rates higher than those used on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). A total of six vehicles were tested in this program. All five gasoline-fueled exhibited increases in hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle when the dynamometer rollers were coupled. The other results are strongly vehicle dependent.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rounds to 15 mi./gal1 1 The model type fuel economy values rounded to the nearest mile per gallon, are... Vehicle config. sales Ajax 1 M-4 3500 2.73 16.1001 16 15,000 Ajax 2 A-3 3500 2.56 15.9020 16 35,000 Boredom III 4 M-4 4000 3.08 14.2343 14 10,000 Ajax 3 M-4 4000 3.36 15.0000 15 15,000 Boredom III 8...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Label Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rounds to 15 mi./gal1 1 The model type fuel economy values rounded to the nearest mile per gallon, are... Vehicle config. sales Ajax 1 M-4 3500 2.73 16.1001 16 15,000 Ajax 2 A-3 3500 2.56 15.9020 16 35,000 Boredom III 4 M-4 4000 3.08 14.2343 14 10,000 Ajax 3 M-4 4000 3.36 15.0000 15 15,000 Boredom III 8...

  11. Solving molecular docking problems with multi-objective metaheuristics.

    PubMed

    García-Godoy, María Jesús; López-Camacho, Esteban; García-Nieto, José; Aldana-Montes, Antonio J Nebroand José F

    2015-06-02

    Molecular docking is a hard optimization problem that has been tackled in the past with metaheuristics, demonstrating new and challenging results when looking for one objective: the minimum binding energy. However, only a few papers can be found in the literature that deal with this problem by means of a multi-objective approach, and no experimental comparisons have been made in order to clarify which of them has the best overall performance. In this paper, we use and compare, for the first time, a set of representative multi-objective optimization algorithms applied to solve complex molecular docking problems. The approach followed is focused on optimizing the intermolecular and intramolecular energies as two main objectives to minimize. Specifically, these algorithms are: two variants of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), speed modulation multi-objective particle swarm optimization (SMPSO), third evolution step of generalized differential evolution (GDE3), multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) and S-metric evolutionary multi-objective optimization (SMS-EMOA). We assess the performance of the algorithms by applying quality indicators intended to measure convergence and the diversity of the generated Pareto front approximations. We carry out a comparison with another reference mono-objective algorithm in the problem domain (Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) provided by the AutoDock tool). Furthermore, the ligand binding site and molecular interactions of computed solutions are analyzed, showing promising results for the multi-objective approaches. In addition, a case study of application for aeroplysinin-1 is performed, showing the effectiveness of our multi-objective approach in drug discovery.

  12. Developer Tools for Evaluating Multi-Objective Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuliano, Mark E.; Johnston, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective algorithms for scheduling offer many advantages over the more conventional single objective approach. By keeping user objectives separate instead of combined, more information is available to the end user to make trade-offs between competing objectives. Unlike single objective algorithms, which produce a single solution, multi-objective algorithms produce a set of solutions, called a Pareto surface, where no solution is strictly dominated by another solution for all objectives. From the end-user perspective a Pareto-surface provides a tool for reasoning about trade-offs between competing objectives. From the perspective of a software developer multi-objective algorithms provide an additional challenge. How can you tell if one multi-objective algorithm is better than another? This paper presents formal and visual tools for evaluating multi-objective algorithms and shows how the developer process of selecting an algorithm parallels the end-user process of selecting a solution for execution out of the Pareto-Surface.

  13. Fuel economy opportunities for internal combustion engines by means of oil-cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. F.; Li, J. C.; Qin, W. X.; Wei, Z. Y.; Chen, J.

    1997-06-01

    Comparative experiments of oil and water-cooling were performed on a 4-cylinder automotive gasoline engine and a single-cylinder direct injection Diesel engine. Measurements were made to investigate the variation of fuel consumption, combustor wall temperature and engine emissions (HC, CO, NOx and smoke) with two cooling media at steady-state conditions. Significant improvement of fuel economy was found mainly at partial load conditions with oil-cooling in comparison with the baseline water-cooling both for the two engines. The experimental results also showed general trend of reduction in engine emissions using oil as the coolant. Measurements of wall temperature demonstrated that oil-cooling resulted in considerable increase of the combustor wall temperature and reduce of warm-up period in starting process. For automotive gasoline engine, road tests indicated the same trend of fuel economy improvement with oil-cooling. The performance of the automotive oil-cooled engine was further improved by internal cooling with water or methanol injection.

  14. Survey Evidence on the Willingness of U.S. Consumers to Pay for Automotive Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Evans, David H; Hiestand, John

    2013-01-01

    Prospect theory, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2002, holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from four random sample surveys of 1,000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are short, about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. Calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on this stated uncertainty illustrate how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value.

  15. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  16. The effect of light truck design variables on top speed, performance, and fuel economy, 1981. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Zub, R.W.; Meisner, R.P.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of vehicle weight, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and drive-line configuration on fuel economy and performance for light duty trucks is examined. The effect of lockup and extended gear ratio range is also investigated. The assessment of these vehicle variables on fuel economy and performance is determined by using the Transportation Systems Center's vehicle simulation program, VEHSIM, which predicts fuel economy and performance for vehicle parameter changes. The results indicate fuel economy and performance trends which can be used to project future improvements.

  17. Planning the Next Decade of Multi-Object Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcells, M.

    2016-10-01

    We review the science drivers for the next generation of multi-object spectrographs, including Milky Way archaeology, stellar and circumstellar physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology; these new instruments will provide key data needed to reap science from some of the largest facilities on the ground and in space, such as Gaia, LOFAR or LSST. The technology developments and challenges of new instrumentation projects are presented together with an overview of 25 years of development of multi-object spectroscopy instruments on 4-meter and 10-meter class telescopes. We also review the technical challenges that need to be addressed to ensure success for the massive spectroscopic surveys currently planned.

  18. Multi-objective nested algorithms for optimal reservoir operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delipetrev, Blagoj; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The optimal reservoir operation is in general a multi-objective problem, meaning that multiple objectives are to be considered at the same time. For solving multi-objective optimization problems there exist a large number of optimization algorithms - which result in a generation of a Pareto set of optimal solutions (typically containing a large number of them), or more precisely, its approximation. At the same time, due to the complexity and computational costs of solving full-fledge multi-objective optimization problems some authors use a simplified approach which is generically called "scalarization". Scalarization transforms the multi-objective optimization problem to a single-objective optimization problem (or several of them), for example by (a) single objective aggregated weighted functions, or (b) formulating some objectives as constraints. We are using the approach (a). A user can decide how many multi-objective single search solutions will generate, depending on the practical problem at hand and by choosing a particular number of the weight vectors that are used to weigh the objectives. It is not guaranteed that these solutions are Pareto optimal, but they can be treated as a reasonably good and practically useful approximation of a Pareto set, albeit small. It has to be mentioned that the weighted-sum approach has its known shortcomings because the linear scalar weights will fail to find Pareto-optimal policies that lie in the concave region of the Pareto front. In this context the considered approach is implemented as follows: there are m sets of weights {w1i, …wni} (i starts from 1 to m), and n objectives applied to single objective aggregated weighted sum functions of nested dynamic programming (nDP), nested stochastic dynamic programming (nSDP) and nested reinforcement learning (nRL). By employing the multi-objective optimization by a sequence of single-objective optimization searches approach, these algorithms acquire the multi-objective properties

  19. Potential of spark ignition engine, effect of vehicle design variables on top speed, performance, and fuel economy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zub, R.W.; Neckyfarow, C.M.; Lew, W.M.; Colello, R.G.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the effect of vehicle characteristics on vehicle performance and fuel economy. The studies were performed using the VEHSIM (vehicle simulation) program at the Transportation Systems Center. The computer simulation offers repeatability and can predict minute changes in fuel economy based on relatively small vehicle alterations. The degree to which each vehicle parameter is modified is based upon projections presented in current literature. The results are assessed and an explanation of the interaction of the vehicle design characteristics on performance is presented.

  20. Light truck capabilities, utility requirements and uses: Implications for fuel economy. Final report, March 1995-March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Church, R.; Jain, K.; Little, C.; Moavenzadeh, J.; O`Donnell, J.

    1996-04-01

    In April 1994, NHTSA issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule Making (ANPRM) requesting information regarding light truck fuel economy capabilities for model years 1998 through 2006. Subsequently, in the Department of Transportation Appropriations Act for FY 1995, Congress requested that NHTSA perform a study addressing two key questions: (1) What are the unique capabilities, utility requirements, and uses of light trucks, (2) Do these consumer requirements and other regulatory requirements constrain the ability to improve light truck fuel economy. The principal findings of the study conducted for NHTSA by the Volpe Transportation Systems Center are contained in the report.

  1. Fuel Economy Regulations and Efficiency Technology Improvements in U.S. Cars Since 1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Donald Warren

    Light-duty vehicles account for 43% of petroleum consumption and 23% of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are the primary policy tool addressing petroleum consumption in the U.S., and are set to tighten substantially through 2025. In this dissertation, I address several interconnected questions on the technical, policy, and market aspects of fuel consumption reduction. I begin by quantifying historic improvements in fuel efficiency technologies since the 1970s. First. I develop a linear regression model of acceleration performance conditional on power, weight, powertrain, and body characteristics, showing that vehicles today accelerate 20-30% faster than vehicles with similar specifications in the 1970s. Second, I find that growing use of alternative materials and a switch to more weight-efficient vehicle architectures since 1975 have cut the weight of today's new cars by approximately 790 kg (46%). Integrating these results with model-level specification data, I estimate that the average fuel economy of new cars could have tripled from 1975-2009, if not for changes in performance, size, and features over this period. The pace of improvements was not uniform, averaging 5% annually from 1975-1990, but only 2% annually since then. I conclude that the 2025 standards can be met through improvements in efficiency technology, if we can return to 1980s rates of improvement, and growth in acceleration performance and feature content is curtailed. I next test the hypotheses that higher fuel prices and more stringent CAFE standards cause automotive firms to deploy efficiency technologies more rapidly. I find some evidence that higher fuel prices cause more rapid changes in technology, but little to no evidence that tighter CAFE standards increase rates of technology change. I conclude that standards alone, without continued high gasoline prices, may not drive technology improvements at rates needed to meet the 2025

  2. Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planing and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks. PMID:26205271

  3. Progress on multi-object exoplanet search spectral interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lei; Yue, Zhongyu; Chen, Yi; Tang, Jin; Hu, Zhongwen

    2012-09-01

    It's a very important point that fully open up power of Gou Shoujing telescope (LAMOST) in exoplanet detection field by developing a multi-exoplanet survey system. But it's an indisputable truth in the present astronomy that a traditional type of multi-object high resolution spectrograph is almost impossible to be developed. External Dispersed Interferometry is an effective way to improve the radial velocity measuring accuracy of medium resolution spectrograph. With the using of this technique, Multi-object Exoplanet Search Spectral Interferometer (MESSI) is an exploratory system with medium measuring accuracy based on LAMOST low resolution spectrograph works in medium-resolution mode (R=5,000 - 10,000). And it's believed that will bring some feasible way in the future development of multi-object medium/high resolution spectrograph. After prototype experiment in 2010, a complete configuration is under the development, including a multi-object fixed-delay Michelson interferometer, an iodine cell with multi-fiber optical coupling system and a multi-terminal switching system in an efficient fiber physical coupling way. By some effective improvement, the interferometer has smaller cross section and more stable interference component. Moreover, based on physical and optical fiber coupling technique, it's possible for the iodine cell and the switching system to simultaneously and identically coupling 25 pairs of fibers. In paper, all of the progress is given in detail.

  4. Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-07-20

    Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planing and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks.

  5. Advanced automobile engines for fuel economy, low emissions, and multifuel capability

    SciTech Connect

    Mellde, R.W.; Maasing, I.M. ); Johansson, T.B. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper has two objectives: to identify a set of performance levels for automobiles that will substantially help in dealing with the global problems; and to identify interesting combinations of technologies that can satisfy the criteria. Automobile oil consumption is a significant contributor to major global problems such as security and oil supply, the possible return of OPEC oil pricing power, and, through the associated emissions, to global warming, acidification, and urban air pollution. Strategies to deal with these major world problems necessarily involve automobiles - particularly their fuel economy, emissions, and choice of fuel. Efforts to improve these performance factors will have to take into account the transportation demands associated with an increasing world population and economic growth. The crucial question here is whether the world can find ways to meet transportation demands, while reducing automobiles' staggering external costs.

  6. Blood and oil: vehicle characteristics in relation to fatality risk and fuel economy.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Leon S

    2006-11-01

    I examined the potential for a lower risk of death compatible with increased fuel economy among 67 models of 1999-2002 model year cars, vans, and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) during the calendar years 2000 to 2004. The odds of death for drivers and all persons killed in vehicle collisions were related to vehicle weight, size, stability, and crashworthiness. I calculated that fatality rates would have been 28% lower and fuel use would have been reduced by 16% if vehicle weights had been reduced to the weight of vehicles with the lowest weight per size, where size is measured by the lateral distance needed to perform a 180-degree turn. If, in addition, all vehicles had crashworthiness and stability equal to those of the top-rated vehicles, more than half the deaths involving passenger cars, vans, and SUVs could have been prevented by vehicle modifications.

  7. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Wang, M.Q.; Vyas, A.D.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents estimates of the full cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into reductions in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns, particularly under the High Market Share Scenario.

  8. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  9. Differences between EPA-test and in-use fuel economy: Are the correction factors correct

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.R.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A vehicle's in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985. Results show that the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and light trucks are experiencing significantly larger shortfalls than automobiles.

  10. Differences between EPA-test and in-use fuel economy: Are the correction factors correct?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.R.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1993-02-01

    A vehicle`s in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985. Results show that the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and light trucks are experiencing significantly larger shortfalls than automobiles.

  11. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; ...

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared tomore » current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.« less

  12. The Evaluation of Developing Vehicle Technologies on the Fuel Economy of Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Kaul, Brian C.; Domingo, Norberto; Parks, II, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2015-12-01

    We present fuel savings estimates resulting from the combined implementation of multiple advanced energy management technologies in both conventional and parallel hybrid class 8 diesel trucks. The energy management technologies considered here have been specifically targeted by the 21st Century Truck Partnership (21 CTP) between the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. industry and include advanced combustion engines, waste heat recovery, and reductions in auxiliary loads, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and gross vehicle weight. Furthermore, we estimated that combined use of all these technologies in hybrid trucks has the potential to improve fuel economy by more than 60% compared to current conventional trucks, but this requires careful system integration to avoid non-optimal interactions. Major factors to be considered in system integration are discussed.

  13. Emissions and fuel economy effects of vehicle exhaust emission control device (revision). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.

    1998-10-01

    This report describes testing by EPA of the Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Device (VEECD) retrofit device under Section 32918 of Title 49 U.S.C. Retrofit Devices (RD). The VEECD is described by the developer in the international patent application as an embodiment of air bleed principle. It is intended to be retrofitted to vehicles produced without any, or with earlier-technology emission control systems. The developer claims (RD Application Appendix A) that the valve significantly reduces CO and HC emissions without substantially increasing CO{sub 2} or NOx emissions. Incidental city fuel economy enhancement was also claimed. Non-FTP test data obtained for 1986/87 European vehicles from two laboratories in the UK was submitted. This data (Appendix B) was analyzed using the t-test for the difference of constant speed data (30/60/85MPH) at 95% confidence level.

  14. The Transportation Leapfrog: Using Smart Phones to Collect Driving Data and Model Fuel Economy in India

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, Anand; Schewel, Laura; Saxena, Samveg; Phadke, Amol

    2013-05-01

    Car ownership in India is expected to skyrocket in the coming decades, strongly driven by rising incomes. This phenomenon provides unprecedented opportunities for automakers and equally unprecedented social and environmental challenges. Policymakers, urban planners and civil society see this car boom leading to an explosion in problems related to congestion, infrastructure, air pollution, safety, higher oil imports and climate change. For all these stakeholders to take effective action, good data on how people use their cars, their demand for mobility and their behavior in mobility is essential. Unfortunately, there is very little data on the Indian transport sector as a whole and virtually none on real-world vehicle performance and use. The rapid development of high quality mobile telecommunications infrastructure provides India with the opportunity to leapfrog the West in cheaply collecting vast amounts of useful data from transportation. In this paper, we describe a pilot project in which we use commercial smart phone apps to collect per second car driving data from the city of Pune, instantly upload it through 3G and prepare it for analysis using advanced noise filtering algorithms for less than $1 per day per car. We then use our data in an Autonomie simulation to show that India’s currently planned fuel economy test procedures will result in over-estimates of fuel economy of approximately 35% for a typical Indian car when it is operated in real world conditions. Supporting better driving cycle development is just one of many applications for smart phone derived data in Indian transportation.

  15. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Lopez Vega, Alberto; Theiss, Timothy J; Graves, Ronald L; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the BioPower vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles. Regulated and unregulated emissions measurements on the FTP and the US06 aggressive driving test (part of the supplemental FTP) show that despite the lack of any certification testing requirement in Europe on E85 or on the U.S. cycles, the BioPower is within Tier 2, Bin 5 emissions levels (note that full useful life emissions have not been measured) on the FTP, and also within the 4000 mile US06 emissions limits. Emissions of hydrocarbon-based hazardous air pollutants are higher on Federal Certification Gasoline while ethanol and aldehyde emissions are higher on ethanol fuel. The advertised power increase on E85 was confirmed through acceleration tests on the chassis dyno as well as on-road.

  16. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.207-12 Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-12 Section... vehicle-specific 5-cycle city and highway fuel economy and CO2 emission values for each...

  17. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-08 Section 600.207-08... GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.207-08 Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel...

  18. 40 CFR 600.207-12 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.207-12 Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based...-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy and CO2 emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.207-12 Section... vehicle-specific 5-cycle city and highway fuel economy and CO2 emission values for each...

  19. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in addition to miles per gasoline gallon equivalent, and fuel cell vehicles will determine miles per... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  20. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in addition to miles per gasoline gallon equivalent, and fuel cell vehicles will determine miles per... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  1. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in addition to miles per gasoline gallon equivalent, and fuel cell vehicles will determine miles per... HFET-based fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures...

  2. 40 CFR 600.113-12 - Fuel economy, CO2 emissions, and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations for FTP, HFET, US06...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon... the non-zero value for CREE for purposes of meeting the greenhouse gas emission standards described in... electricity greenhouse gas emission rate at the powerplant, in grams per watt-hour). 2478 is the...

  3. 40 CFR 600.115-08 - Criteria for determining the fuel economy label calculation method for 2011 and later model year...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... economy label calculation method for 2011 and later model year vehicles. 600.115-08 Section 600.115-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model...

  4. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and average carbon-related exhaust emissions. 600.510-12 Section 600.510-12 Protection of Environment... Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.510-12 Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon.... (iv) (2) Average carbon-related exhaust emissions will be calculated to the nearest one gram per...

  5. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  6. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  7. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions..., determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the following equation: (1) CityCREE =...

  8. 40 CFR 600.114-12 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission... emissions and carbon-related exhaust emissions. For each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city...

  9. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations. Paragraphs (a.... Paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section are used to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions..., determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the following equation: (1) CityCREE =...

  10. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.114-08 Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy and carbon... to calculate 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emissions values for the purpose of determining optional... each vehicle tested, determine the 5-cycle city carbon-related exhaust emissions using the...

  11. Drive cycle simulation of high efficiency combustions on fuel economy and exhaust properties in light-duty vehicles

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott J.; Parks, James E.; ...

    2015-04-06

    We present fuel economy and engine-out emissions for light-duty (LD) conventional and hybrid vehicles powered by conventional and high-efficiency combustion engines. Engine technologies include port fuel-injected (PFI), direct gasoline injection (GDI), reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and conventional diesel combustion (CDC). In the case of RCCI, the engine utilized CDC combustion at speed/load points not feasible with RCCI. The results, without emissions considered, show that the best fuel economies can be achieved with CDC/RCCI, with CDC/RCCI, CDC-only, and lean GDI all surpassing PFI fuel economy significantly. In all cases, hybridization significantly improved fuel economy. The engine-out hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxidemore » (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions varied remarkably with combustion mode. The simulated engine-out CO and HC emissions from RCCI are significantly higher than CDC, but RCCI makes less NOx and PM emissions. Hybridization can improve lean GDI and RCCI cases by increasing time percentage for these more fuel efficient modes. Moreover, hybridization can dramatically decreases the lean GDI and RCCI engine out emissions. Importantly, lean GDI and RCCI combustion modes decrease exhaust temperatures, especially for RCCI, which limits aftertreatment performance to control tailpipe emissions. Overall, the combination of engine and hybrid drivetrain selected greatly affects the emissions challenges required to meet emission regulations.« less

  12. 40 CFR 600.210-12 - Calculation of fuel economy and CO2 emission values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emissions label values for fuel cell vehicles. Determine FTP-based city and HFET-based highway fuel economy label values for fuel cell vehicles using procedures specified by the Administrator. Convert kilograms.... CO2 label information is based on tailpipe emissions only, so CO2 emissions from fuel cell...

  13. Drive cycle simulation of high efficiency combustions on fuel economy and exhaust properties in light-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott J.; Parks, James E.; Smith, David E.; Wagner, Robert M.; Daw, C. Stuart; Edwards, K. Dean; Thomas, John F.

    2015-04-06

    We present fuel economy and engine-out emissions for light-duty (LD) conventional and hybrid vehicles powered by conventional and high-efficiency combustion engines. Engine technologies include port fuel-injected (PFI), direct gasoline injection (GDI), reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and conventional diesel combustion (CDC). In the case of RCCI, the engine utilized CDC combustion at speed/load points not feasible with RCCI. The results, without emissions considered, show that the best fuel economies can be achieved with CDC/RCCI, with CDC/RCCI, CDC-only, and lean GDI all surpassing PFI fuel economy significantly. In all cases, hybridization significantly improved fuel economy. The engine-out hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions varied remarkably with combustion mode. The simulated engine-out CO and HC emissions from RCCI are significantly higher than CDC, but RCCI makes less NOx and PM emissions. Hybridization can improve lean GDI and RCCI cases by increasing time percentage for these more fuel efficient modes. Moreover, hybridization can dramatically decreases the lean GDI and RCCI engine out emissions. Importantly, lean GDI and RCCI combustion modes decrease exhaust temperatures, especially for RCCI, which limits aftertreatment performance to control tailpipe emissions. Overall, the combination of engine and hybrid drivetrain selected greatly affects the emissions challenges required to meet emission regulations.

  14. 75 FR 80430 - Passenger Car and Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standards Request for Product Plan Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... other fuels (or chemical battery energy). 39. Electrical System Voltage--measured in volts, e.g., 12... conditioner compressor. F. Energy Consumption \\8\\--of total fuel energy (higher heating value) consumed over... order to account for a given vehicle model's fuel economy as partitioned into nine energy...

  15. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for model types and base levels associated with car lines for each category of passenger automobiles... for vehicle configurations associated with car lines for each category of passenger automobiles and... fuel economy is not due to eliminating the ability of manufacturers to take advantage of...

  16. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Separate fuel economy values will be calculated for model types and base levels associated with car lines... car lines for each category of passenger automobiles and light trucks as determined by the Secretary... manufacturers to take advantage of flexibility within the existing test procedures to gain measured...

  17. 75 FR 25323 - Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act 20. Executive Order 13211 21. Department of Energy Review 22. Privacy..., 2009, responding to the country's critical need to address global climate change and to reduce oil... finalizing Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as...

  18. On the hardness of offline multi-objective optimization.

    PubMed

    Teytaud, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    It has been empirically established that multiobjective evolutionary algorithms do not scale well with the number of conflicting objectives. This paper shows that the convergence rate of all comparison-based multi-objective algorithms, for the Hausdorff distance, is not much better than the convergence rate of the random search under certain conditions. The number of objectives must be very moderate and the framework should hold the following assumptions: the objectives are conflicting and the computational cost is lower bounded by the number of comparisons is a good model. Our conclusions are: (i) the number of conflicting objectives is relevant (ii) the criteria based on comparisons with random-search for multi-objective optimization is also relevant (iii) having more than 3-objectives optimization is very hard. Furthermore, we provide some insight into cross-over operators.

  19. Modelling and simulation of a dual-clutch transmission vehicle to analyse the effect of pump selection on fuel economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlawat, R.; Fathy, H. K.; Lee, B.; Stein, J. L.; Jung, D.

    2010-07-01

    Positive displacement pumps are used in automotive transmissions to provide pressurised fluid to various hydraulic components in the transmission and also lubricate the mechanical components. The output flow of these pumps increases with pump/transmission speed, almost linearly, but the transmission flow requirements often saturate at higher speeds, resulting in excess flow capacity that must be wasted by allowing it to drain back to the sump. This represents a parasitic loss in the transmission leading to a loss in fuel economy. To overcome this issue, variable displacement pumps have been used in the transmission, where the output flow can be reduced by controlling the displacement of the pump. The use of these pumps in automatic transmissions has resulted in better fuel economy as compared with some types of fixed displacement pumps. However, the literature does not fully explore the benefits of variable displacement pumps to a specific type of transmission namely, dual-clutch transmission (DCT), which has different pressure and flow requirements from an epicyclic gear train. This paper presents an analysis of the effect of pump selection on fuel economy in a five-speed DCT of a commercial vehicle. Models of the engine, transmission, and vehicle are developed along with the models of two different types of pumps: a fixed displacement gerotor pump and a variable displacement vane pump. The models are then parameterised using experimental data, and the fuel economy of the vehicle is simulated on a standard driving cycle. The results suggest that the fuel economy benefit obtained by the use of the variable displacement pump in DCTs is comparable to the benefit previously shown for these pumps in automatic transmissions.

  20. Multi-Objective Constraint Satisfaction for Mobile Robot Area Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    environment, the definition of trust and its importance in facilitating reliable multi-agent operations, and multi-objective optimization with popular ...that meets all constraints [41]. There can often be many legal solutions to a single CSP. A common and popular puzzle is the Japanese game Sudoku [22...many ways to approximate a solution to an MDP, which can often be much faster and get “close enough” to an optimal solution. Most popular solutions

  1. Test of multi-object exoplanet search spectral interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Liang; Jiang, Haijiao; Zhu, Yongtian; Hou, Yonghui; Dai, Songxin; Tang, Jin; Tang, Zhen; Zeng, Yizhong; Chen, Yi; Wang, Lei; Hu, Zhongwen

    2014-07-01

    Exoplanet detection, a highlight in the current astronomy, will be part of puzzle in astronomical and astrophysical future, which contains dark energy, dark matter, early universe, black hole, galactic evolution and so on. At present, most of the detected Exoplanets are confirmed through methods of radial velocity and transit. Guo shoujing Telescope well known as LAMOST is an advanced multi-object spectral survey telescope equipped with 4000 fibers and 16 low resolution fiber spectrographs. To explore its potential in different astronomical activities, a new radial velocity method named Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is applied to serve Exoplanet detection through combining a fixed-delay interferometer with the existing spectrograph in medium spectral resolution mode (R=5,000-10,000). This new technology has an impressive feature to enhance radial velocity measuring accuracy of the existing spectrograph through installing a fixed-delay interferometer in front of spectrograph. This way produces an interference spectrum with higher sensitivity to Doppler Effect by interference phase and fixed delay. This relative system named Multi-object Exoplanet Search Spectral Interferometer (MESSI) is composed of a few parts, including a pair of multi-fiber coupling sockets, a remote control iodine subsystem, a multi-object fixed delay interferometer and the existing spectrograph. It covers from 500 to 550 nm and simultaneously observes up to 21 stars. Even if it's an experimental instrument at present, it's still well demonstrated in paper that how MESSI does explore an effective way to build its own system under the existing condition of LAMOST and get its expected performance for multi-object Exoplanet detection, especially instrument stability and its special data reduction. As a result of test at lab, inside temperature of its instrumental chamber is stable in a range of +/-0.5degree Celsius within 12 hours, and the direct instrumental stability without further

  2. Robust Dynamic Multi-objective Vehicle Routing Optimization Method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi-Nan; Cheng, Jian; Luo, Sha; Gong, Dun-Wei

    2017-03-21

    For dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing problems, the waiting time of vehicle, the number of serving vehicles, the total distance of routes were normally considered as the optimization objectives. Except for above objectives, fuel consumption that leads to the environmental pollution and energy consumption was focused on in this paper. Considering the vehicles' load and the driving distance, corresponding carbon emission model was built and set as an optimization objective. Dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing problems with hard time windows and randomly appeared dynamic customers, subsequently, were modeled. In existing planning methods, when the new service demand came up, global vehicle routing optimization method was triggered to find the optimal routes for non-served customers, which was time-consuming. Therefore, robust dynamic multi-objective vehicle routing method with two-phase is proposed. Three highlights of the novel method are: (i) After finding optimal robust virtual routes for all customers by adopting multi-objective particle swarm optimization in the first phase, static vehicle routes for static customers are formed by removing all dynamic customers from robust virtual routes in next phase. (ii)The dynamically appeared customers append to be served according to their service time and the vehicles' statues. Global vehicle routing optimization is triggered only when no suitable locations can be found for dynamic customers. (iii)A metric measuring the algorithms' robustness is given. The statistical results indicated that the routes obtained by the proposed method have better stability and robustness, but may be sub-optimum. Moreover, time-consuming global vehicle routing optimization is avoided as dynamic customers appear.

  3. Multi-objective dynamic aperture optimization for storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongjun; Yang, Lingyun

    2016-11-01

    We report an efficient dynamic aperture (DA) optimization approach using multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA), which is driven by nonlinear driving terms computation. It was found that having small low order driving terms is a necessary but insufficient condition of having a decent DA. Then direct DA tracking simulation is implemented among the last generation candidates to select the best solutions. The approach was demonstrated successfully in optimizing NSLS-II storage ring DA.

  4. Multi-objective based spectral unmixing for hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Shi, Zhenwei

    2017-02-01

    Sparse hyperspectral unmixing assumes that each observed pixel can be expressed by a linear combination of several pure spectra in a priori library. Sparse unmixing is challenging, since it is usually transformed to a NP-hard l0 norm based optimization problem. Existing methods usually utilize a relaxation to the original l0 norm. However, the relaxation may bring in sensitive weighted parameters and additional calculation error. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-objective based algorithm to solve the sparse unmixing problem without any relaxation. We transform sparse unmixing to a multi-objective optimization problem, which contains two correlative objectives: minimizing the reconstruction error and controlling the endmember sparsity. To improve the efficiency of multi-objective optimization, a population-based randomly flipping strategy is designed. Moreover, we theoretically prove that the proposed method is able to recover a guaranteed approximate solution from the spectral library within limited iterations. The proposed method can directly deal with l0 norm via binary coding for the spectral signatures in the library. Experiments on both synthetic and real hyperspectral datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol

  6. Multi-Objective Optimization of the Tank Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanakamaru, H.

    2002-12-01

    The Tank Model is a conceptual rainfall-runoff model developed by Sugawara, which has 16 parameters including 4 initial storage depths. In this study, parameter optimization of the Tank Model using the multi-objectives is investigated. The root mean square error and the root mean square of relative error of simulated daily runoff hydrograph, which show obvious trade-off relationship, are adopted as objective functions and these objectives are minimized under the constraint of the permitted water balance error. The classical weighting method is applied to obtain discrete Pareto optimal solutions of the multi-objective problem. The problem is converted into a single-objective problem by the weighting method. The SCE-UA single-objective global optimization algorithm (Duan et al., 1992) is applied here for solving the problem. Such a classical method is not suited to approximate the continuous Pareto space because many times of single-objective optimization are required (i.e. a huge number of function evaluations is required) to obtain a lot of discrete Pareto solutions. To overcome the difficulties, effective and efficient new approaches such as the MOCOM-UA method (Yapo et al., 1998) have been developed. Here, a new simple approach based on the random search algorithm is developed to approximate the entire Pareto space. In this approach, a large number of new parameter sets is generated randomly in parameter ranges formed by original discrete Pareto solutions and function evaluations of generated parameter sets are conducted. After removing solutions that do not satisfy constraints, non-dominated solutions (Pareto ranking 1) are selected from generated solutions and original discrete solutions. The calibration study was done by using hydrological data of the Eigenji Dam Basin, Japan and results show that combination of the weighting method and the random search algorithm is effective and efficient to approximate the entire Pareto space of the multi-objective problem.

  7. Multi-Objective Community Detection Based on Memetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Community detection has drawn a lot of attention as it can provide invaluable help in understanding the function and visualizing the structure of networks. Since single objective optimization methods have intrinsic drawbacks to identifying multiple significant community structures, some methods formulate the community detection as multi-objective problems and adopt population-based evolutionary algorithms to obtain multiple community structures. Evolutionary algorithms have strong global search ability, but have difficulty in locating local optima efficiently. In this study, in order to identify multiple significant community structures more effectively, a multi-objective memetic algorithm for community detection is proposed by combining multi-objective evolutionary algorithm with a local search procedure. The local search procedure is designed by addressing three issues. Firstly, nondominated solutions generated by evolutionary operations and solutions in dominant population are set as initial individuals for local search procedure. Then, a new direction vector named as pseudonormal vector is proposed to integrate two objective functions together to form a fitness function. Finally, a network specific local search strategy based on label propagation rule is expanded to search the local optimal solutions efficiently. The extensive experiments on both artificial and real-world networks evaluate the proposed method from three aspects. Firstly, experiments on influence of local search procedure demonstrate that the local search procedure can speed up the convergence to better partitions and make the algorithm more stable. Secondly, comparisons with a set of classic community detection methods illustrate the proposed method can find single partitions effectively. Finally, the method is applied to identify hierarchical structures of networks which are beneficial for analyzing networks in multi-resolution levels. PMID:25932646

  8. Multi-objective optimization of acoustic black hole vibration absorbers.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Micah R; Feurtado, Philip A; Conlon, Stephen C

    2016-09-01

    Structures with power law tapers exhibit the acoustic black hole (ABH) effect and can be used for vibration reduction. However, the design of ABHs for vibration reduction requires consideration of the underlying theory and its regions of validity. To address the competing nature of the best ABH design for vibration reduction and the underlying theoretical assumptions, a multi-objective approach is used to find the lowest frequency where both criteria are sufficiently met. The Pareto optimality curve is estimated for a range of ABH design parameters. The optimal set could then be used to implement an ABH vibration absorber.

  9. Multi-objective Optimization on Helium Liquefier Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. R.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Meng, Y. R.; Liu, L. Q.

    2017-02-01

    Research on optimization of helium liquefier is limited at home and abroad, and most of the optimization is single-objective based on Collins cycle. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization is conducted using genetic algorithm (GA) on the 40 L/h helium liquefier developed by Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Science (TIPC, CAS), steady solutions are obtained in the end. In addition, the exergy loss of the optimized system is studied in the case of with and without liquid nitrogen pre-cooling. The results have guiding significance for the future design of large helium liquefier.

  10. Vehicle fuel economy and vehicle miles traveled: An empirical investigation of Jevons' Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munyon, Vinola Vincent

    There has been, in recent decades, a concerted effort to promote energy efficiency as a means to reduce energy consumption, along the supply and demand sides. The general thesis is that, ceteris paribus, an increase in energy efficiency would lead to a decrease in the consumption of the good or service rendered efficient. This is in opposition to Jevons' Paradox which states that "It is wholly a confusion of ideas to suppose that the economical use of fuel is equivalent to a diminished consumption. The very contrary is the truth..." (Jevons, 1865). While many studies have applied Jevons' Paradox to various sectors to estimate rebound effects, few have examined if Jevons' Paradox holds when all available factors that could affect consumption of an efficient good/service are controlled for. This study hoped to fill that gap in literature. The study looked at vehicle fuel economy and vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and examined if, all else being equal, a vehicle that was more fuel efficient accrued greater VMT. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS, 2009), a multivariate regression model was built (N = 82,485) controlling for driver, household and vehicle attributes. The findings indicated that, at the microlevel, Jevons' Paradox does hold true; a 1% increase in fuel efficiency was associated with a 1.2% increase in VMT.

  11. Fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of tripled fuel-economy vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M. M.; Vyas, A. D.; Wang, M. Q.

    1997-12-18

    This paper presents estimates of the fill fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of light-duty vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) as currently being developed by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Seven engine and fuel combinations were analyzed: reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines; low-sulfur diesel and dimethyl ether in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines; and hydrogen and methanol in fuel-cell vehicles. Results were obtained for three scenarios: a Reference Scenario without PNGVs, a High Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for 60% of new light-duty vehicle sales by 2030, and a Low Market Share Scenario in which PNGVs account for half as many sales by 2030. Under the higher of these two, the fuel-efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translated directly into a nearly 50% reduction in total energy demand, petroleum demand, and carbon dioxide emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency resulted in substantial reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), sulfur oxide, (SO{sub x}), and particulate matter smaller than 10 microns (PM{sub 10}) for most of the engine-fuel combinations examined. The key exceptions were diesel- and ethanol-fueled vehicles for which PM{sub 10} emissions increased.

  12. Scattered light in a DMD based multi-object spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourspring, Kenneth D.; Ninkov, Zoran; Kerekes, John P.

    2010-07-01

    The DMD (Digital Micromirror Device) has an important future in both ground and space based multi-object spectrometers. A series of laboratory measurements have been performed to determine the scattered light properties of a DMD. The DMD under test had a 17 μm pitch and 1 μm gap between adjacent mirrors. Prior characterization of this device has focused on its use in DLP (TI Digital Light Processing) projector applications in which a whole pixel is illuminated by a uniform collimated source. The purpose of performing these measurements is to determine the limiting signal to noise ratio when utilizing the DMD as a slit mask in a spectrometer. The DMD pixel was determined to scatter more around the pixel edge and central via, indicating the importance of matching the telescope point spread function to the DMD. Also, the generation of DMD tested here was determined to have a significant mirror curvature. A maximum contrast ratio was determined at several wavelengths. Further measurements are underway on a newer generation DMD device, which has a smaller mirror pitch and likely different scatter characteristics. A previously constructed instrument, RITMOS (RIT Multi-Object Spectrometer) will be used to validate these scatter models and signal to noise ratio predications through imaging a star field.

  13. A multi-objective approach to solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Galante, Giacomo; Aiello, Giuseppe; Enea, Mario; Panascia, Enrico

    2010-08-15

    The issue addressed in this paper consists in the localization and dimensioning of transfer stations, which constitute a necessary intermediate level in the logistic chain of the solid waste stream, from municipalities to the incinerator. Contextually, the determination of the number and type of vehicles involved is carried out in an integrated optimization approach. The model considers both initial investment and operative costs related to transportation and transfer stations. Two conflicting objectives are evaluated, the minimization of total cost and the minimization of environmental impact, measured by pollution. The design of the integrated waste management system is hence approached in a multi-objective optimization framework. To determine the best means of compromise, goal programming, weighted sum and fuzzy multi-objective techniques have been employed. The proposed analysis highlights how different attitudes of the decision maker towards the logic and structure of the problem result in the employment of different methodologies and the obtaining of different results. The novel aspect of the paper lies in the proposal of an effective decision support system for operative waste management, rather than a further contribution to the transportation problem. The model was applied to the waste management of optimal territorial ambit (OTA) of Palermo (Italy).

  14. MONSS: A multi-objective nonlinear simplex search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotecas-Martínez, Saúl; Coello Coello, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel methodology for dealing with continuous box-constrained multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). The proposed algorithm adopts a nonlinear simplex search scheme in order to obtain multiple elements of the Pareto optimal set. The search is directed by a well-distributed set of weight vectors, each of which defines a scalarization problem that is solved by deforming a simplex according to the movements described by Nelder and Mead's method. Considering an MOP with n decision variables, the simplex is constructed using n+1 solutions which minimize different scalarization problems defined by n+1 neighbor weight vectors. All solutions found in the search are used to update a set of solutions considered to be the minima for each separate problem. In this way, the proposed algorithm collectively obtains multiple trade-offs among the different conflicting objectives, while maintaining a proper representation of the Pareto optimal front. In this article, it is shown that a well-designed strategy using just mathematical programming techniques can be competitive with respect to the state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms against which it was compared.

  15. Multi-objective optimization of chromatographic rare earth element separation.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Hans-Kristian; Holmqvist, Anders; Nilsson, Bernt

    2015-10-16

    The importance of rare earth elements in modern technological industry grows, and as a result the interest for developing separation processes increases. This work is a part of developing chromatography as a rare earth element processing method. Process optimization is an important step in process development, and there are several competing objectives that need to be considered in a chromatographic separation process. Most studies are limited to evaluating the two competing objectives productivity and yield, and studies of scenarios with tri-objective optimizations are scarce. Tri-objective optimizations are much needed when evaluating the chromatographic separation of rare earth elements due to the importance of product pool concentration along with productivity and yield as process objectives. In this work, a multi-objective optimization strategy considering productivity, yield and pool concentration is proposed. This was carried out in the frame of a model based optimization study on a batch chromatography separation of the rare earth elements samarium, europium and gadolinium. The findings from the multi-objective optimization were used to provide with a general strategy for achieving desirable operation points, resulting in a productivity ranging between 0.61 and 0.75 kgEu/mcolumn(3), h(-1) and a pool concentration between 0.52 and 0.79 kgEu/m(3), while maintaining a purity above 99% and never falling below an 80% yield for the main target component europium.

  16. Molecular library design using multi-objective optimization methods.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Christos A; Kannas, Christos C

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening technology have enabled the synthesis and screening of large molecular libraries for the purposes of drug discovery. Contrary to initial expectations, the increase in screening library size, typically combined with an emphasis on compound structural diversity, did not result in a comparable increase in the number of promising hits found. In an effort to improve the likelihood of discovering hits with greater optimization potential, more recent approaches attempt to incorporate additional knowledge to the library design process to effectively guide the search. Multi-objective optimization methods capable of taking into account several chemical and biological criteria have been used to design collections of compounds satisfying simultaneously multiple pharmaceutically relevant objectives. In this chapter, we present our efforts to implement a multi-objective optimization method, MEGALib, custom-designed to the library design problem. The method exploits existing knowledge, e.g. from previous biological screening experiments, to identify and profile molecular fragments used subsequently to design compounds compromising the various objectives.

  17. Measuring of Traction and Speed Characteristics as Well as of Fuel Economy of a Car in Road Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivtsov, Sergey N.; Syrbakov, Andrey P.; Korchuganova, Marina A.

    2016-08-01

    This article is devoted to the identification of traction and speed characteristics as well as of fuel economy of motor vehicles in road conditions. Among common variants of measuring of the above stated values, the preference was given to the immediate gaining of factors by means of a computer-aided measuring system. There is a theoretical justification given to the suggested approach as well as methods and results allowing to provide a practically sufficient solution accuracy of the problem.

  18. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis

    2008-06-01

    The reduction of transport-generated CO2 emissions is currently a problem of global interest. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as one promising technological solution for limiting transport-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the number of HEVs in the market remains limited, but this picture will change in the years to come as HEVs are expected to pave the way for cleaner technologies in transport. In this paper, results are presented regarding fuel economy and pollutant emissions measurements of two hybrid electric production vehicles. The measurements were conducted on a Prius II and a Honda Civic IMA using both the European legislated driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) and real-world simulation driving cycles (Artemis). In addition to the emissions measurements, other vehicle-operating parameters were studied in an effort to better quantify the maximum CO2 reduction potential. Data from real-world operation of a Prius II vehicle were also used in the evaluation. Results indicate that in most cases both vehicles present improved energy efficiency and pollutant emissions compared to conventional cars. The fuel economy benefit of the two HEVs peaked under urban driving conditions where reductions of 60% and 40% were observed, respectively. Over higher speeds the difference in fuel economy was lower, reaching that of conventional diesel at 95 km h-1. The effect of ambient temperature on fuel consumption was also quantified. It is concluded that urban operation benefits the most of hybrid technology, leading to important fuel savings and urban air quality improvement.

  19. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  20. EPA and NHTSA, in Coordination with California, Announce Plans to Propose Greenhouse Gas and Fuel Economy Standards for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks Factsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet announces the joint Supplemental Notice of Intent (NOI) by EPA and NHTSA on their plan to propose stringent federal greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles in model years 2017-2025.

  1. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew; Ghosh, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very diserable. This work presents such as an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  2. Multi-object fixed delay Michelson interferometer for astronomical observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yi; Wang, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Optical interferometry isn't only widely applied into optical workshop, but also makes great contribution in astronomical observation. A multi-object fixed delay Michelson interferometer commissioned to search extra-solar planet (exoplanet) is introduced here. Fixed delay of 1.9mm, which is good for stellar radial velocity measuring precision, is obtained by two interference arms with different materials. This configuration has different refractive indexes and physical characteristics so that supplies wider field of view and better thermal stability. In addition, compact interference component with three glued prisms and smart structure are the other important features. Because of vibration influence, the combination among the prisms is a direct and effective method. And the reason why make the structure as small as possible is of central obscuration under the workspace of interferometer.

  3. 2000 fps multi-object tracking based on color histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qingyi; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we develop a real-time, color histogram-based tracking system for multiple color-patterned objects in a 512×512 image at 2000 fps. Our system can simultaneously extract the positions, areas, orientation angles, and color histograms of multiple objects in an image using the hardware implementation of a multi-object, color histogram extraction circuit module on a high-speed vision platform. It can both label multiple objects in an image consisting of connected components and calculate their moment features and 16-bin hue-based color histograms using cell-based labeling. We demonstrate the performance of our system by showing several experimental results: (1) tracking of multiple color-patterned objects on a plate rotating at 16 rps, and (2) tracking of human hand movement with two color-patterned drinking bottles.

  4. Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    2004-01-01

    A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective optimization problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

  5. Genetic Algorithms Applied to Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    2005-01-01

    A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective problems is described and evaluated using a series of aerodynamic shape optimization problems. Several new features including two variations of a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding Pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. A new masking array capability is included allowing any gene or gene subset to be eliminated as decision variables from the design space. This allows determination of the effect of a single gene or gene subset on the Pareto optimal solution. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and reliable. The binning selection algorithms generally provide Pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the problems solved.

  6. 4MOST: 4m Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depagne, Éric

    4MOST (4m Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope) is a spectroscopic facility that will be installed on ESO's VISTA around 2020. The science rationale of this facility are to be found in the ASTRONET Science Vision for European Astronomy (de Zeeuw & Molster, (eds) A Science Vision for European Astronomy, Astronet 2007. ISBN 978-3-923524-62-4). Specifically fundamental contribution can be made to the Extreme Universe (Dark Energy & Dark Matter, Black holes), Galaxy Formation & Evolution, and the Origin of Stars science cases in the ASTRONET Science Vision. The unique capabilities of the 4MOST facility are due to by its large field-of-view, high multiplex, its broad optical spectral wavelength coverage

  7. Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Gabriel Guillermo

    The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design alternatives. The method is based upon a precedence order imposed upon the design objectives and a distance metric describing the performance of each alternative. This methodology advances previous work by combining ambiguous information about the alternatives with a decision-maker imposed precedence order in the objectives. Design alternatives, defined by the photovoltaic array and wind generator installed capacities, were analyzed using the multi-objective decision making approach. The performance of the design alternatives was determined by simulating the system using hourly data for an electric load for a farmstead and hourly averages of solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed from eight wind-solar energy monitoring sites in Nebraska. The spatial variability of the solar energy resource within the region was assessed by determining semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar radiation data. No significant difference was found in the predicted performance of the system when using kriged solar radiation data, with the models generated vs. using actual data. The spatial variability of the combined wind and solar energy resources was included in the design analysis by using fuzzy numbers and arithmetic. The best alternative was dependent upon the precedence order assumed for the main criteria. Alternatives with no PV array or wind generator dominated when the 'Financial' criteria preceded the others. In contrast, alternatives with a nil component of PV array but a high wind generator component

  8. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV

  9. Product quality multi-objective optimization of fluidized bed dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Krokida, M.K.; Kiranoudis, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Design of fluidized bed dryers constitutes a mathematical programming problem involving the evaluation of appropriate structural and operational process variables so that total annual plant cost involved is optimized. The increasing need for dehydrated products of the highest quality, imposes the development of new criteria that, together with cost, determine the design rules for drying processes. Quality of dehydrated products is a complex resultant of properties characterizing the final products, where the most important one is color. Color is determined as a three-parameter resultant, whose values for products undergone drying should deviate from the corresponding ones of natural products, as little as possible. In this case, product quality dryer design is a complex multi-objective optimization problem, involving the color deviation vector as an objective function and as constraints the ones deriving from the process mathematical model. The mathematical model of the dryer was developed and the fundamental color deterioration laws were determined for the drying process. Non-preference multi-criteria optimization methods were used and the Pareto-optimal set of efficient solutions was evaluated. An example covering the drying of sliced potato was included to demonstrate the performance of the design procedure, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Towards lexicographic multi-objective linear programming using grossone methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cococcioni, Marco; Pappalardo, Massimo; Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.

    2016-10-01

    Lexicographic Multi-Objective Linear Programming (LMOLP) problems can be solved in two ways: preemptive and nonpreemptive. The preemptive approach requires the solution of a series of LP problems, with changing constraints (each time the next objective is added, a new constraint appears). The nonpreemptive approach is based on a scalarization of the multiple objectives into a single-objective linear function by a weighted combination of the given objectives. It requires the specification of a set of weights, which is not straightforward and can be time consuming. In this work we present both mathematical and software ingredients necessary to solve LMOLP problems using a recently introduced computational methodology (allowing one to work numerically with infinities and infinitesimals) based on the concept of grossone. The ultimate goal of such an attempt is an implementation of a simplex-like algorithm, able to solve the original LMOLP problem by solving only one single-objective problem and without the need to specify finite weights. The expected advantages are therefore obvious.

  11. Multi-objective global optimization for hydrologic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapo, Patrice Ogou; Gupta, Hoshin Vijai; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    1998-01-01

    The development of automated (computer-based) calibration methods has focused mainly on the selection of a single-objective measure of the distance between the model-simulated output and the data and the selection of an automatic optimization algorithm to search for the parameter values which minimize that distance. However, practical experience with model calibration suggests that no single-objective function is adequate to measure the ways in which the model fails to match the important characteristics of the observed data. Given that some of the latest hydrologic models simulate several of the watershed output fluxes (e.g. water, energy, chemical constituents, etc.), there is a need for effective and efficient multi-objective calibration procedures capable of exploiting all of the useful information about the physical system contained in the measurement data time series. The MOCOM-UA algorithm, an effective and efficient methodology for solving the multiple-objective global optimization problem, is presented in this paper. The method is an extension of the successful SCE-UA single-objective global optimization algorithm. The features and capabilities of MOCOM-UA are illustrated by means of a simple hydrologic model calibration study.

  12. Metabolic engineering with multi-objective optimization of kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Alejandro F; Bongard, Sophia; Mauch, Klaus; Balsa-Canto, Eva; Banga, Julio R

    2016-03-20

    Kinetic models have a great potential for metabolic engineering applications. They can be used for testing which genetic and regulatory modifications can increase the production of metabolites of interest, while simultaneously monitoring other key functions of the host organism. This work presents a methodology for increasing productivity in biotechnological processes exploiting dynamic models. It uses multi-objective dynamic optimization to identify the combination of targets (enzymatic modifications) and the degree of up- or down-regulation that must be performed in order to optimize a set of pre-defined performance metrics subject to process constraints. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated on a realistic and computationally challenging application: a large-scale metabolic model of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), which are used for antibody production in a fed-batch process. The proposed methodology manages to provide a sustained and robust growth in CHO cells, increasing productivity while simultaneously increasing biomass production, product titer, and keeping the concentrations of lactate and ammonia at low values. The approach presented here can be used for optimizing metabolic models by finding the best combination of targets and their optimal level of up/down-regulation. Furthermore, it can accommodate additional trade-offs and constraints with great flexibility.

  13. Fibre Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) for the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masahiko; Maihara, Toshinori; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Akiyama, Masayuki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Dalton, Gavin B.; Takato, Naruhisa; Tait, Philip; Ohta, Kouji; Eto, Shigeru; Mochida, Daisaku; Elms, Brian; Kawate, Kaori; Kurakami, Tomio; Moritani, Yuuki; Noumaru, Junichi; Ohshima, Norio; Sumiyoshi, Masanao; Yabe, Kiyoto; Brzeski, Jurek; Farrell, Tony; Frost, Gabriella; Gillingham, Peter R.; Haynes, Roger; Moore, Anna M.; Muller, Rolf; Smedley, Scott; Smith, Greg; Bonfield, David G.; Brooks, Charles B.; Holmes, Alan R.; Curtis Lake, Emma; Lee, Hanshin; Lewis, Ian J.; Froud, Tim R.; Tosh, Ian A.; Woodhouse, Guy F.; Blackburn, Colin; Content, Robert; Dipper, Nigel; Murray, Graham; Sharples, Ray; Robertson, David J.

    2010-10-01

    Fibre Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) is the first near-infrared instrument with a wide field of view capable of acquiring spectra simultaneously from up to 400 objects. It has been developed as a common-use instrument for the F/2 prime-focus of the Subaru Telescope. The field coverage of 30' diameter is achieved using a new 3-element corrector optimized in the near-infrared (0.9-1.8μm) wavelength range. Due to limited space at the prime-focus, we have had to develop a novel fibre positioner, called ``Echidna'', together with two OH-airglow suppressed spectrographs. FMOS consists of three subsystems: the prime focus unit for IR, the fibre positioning system/connector units, and the two spectrographs. After full systems integration, FMOS was installed on the telescope in late 2007. Many aspects of the performance were checked through various test and engineering observations. In this paper, we present the optical and mechanical components of FMOS, and show the results of our on-sky engineering observations to date.

  14. A Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm for Outlier Removal.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Oren E; Yosipof, Abraham; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2015-12-28

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) or quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) models are developed to correlate activities for sets of compounds with their structure-derived descriptors by means of mathematical models. The presence of outliers, namely, compounds that differ in some respect from the rest of the data set, compromise the ability of statistical methods to derive QSAR models with good prediction statistics. Hence, outliers should be removed from data sets prior to model derivation. Here we present a new multi-objective genetic algorithm for the identification and removal of outliers based on the k nearest neighbors (kNN) method. The algorithm was used to remove outliers from three different data sets of pharmaceutical interest (logBBB, factor 7 inhibitors, and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors), and its performances were compared with those of five other methods for outlier removal. The results suggest that the new algorithm provides filtered data sets that (1) better maintain the internal diversity of the parent data sets and (2) give rise to QSAR models with much better prediction statistics. Equally good filtered data sets in terms of these metrics were obtained when another objective function was added to the algorithm (termed "preservation"), forcing it to remove certain compounds with low probability only. This option is highly useful when specific compounds should be preferably kept in the final data set either because they have favorable activities or because they represent interesting molecular scaffolds. We expect this new algorithm to be useful in future QSAR applications.

  15. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often may thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  16. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Interplanetary Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. Because low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with systems design, power and propulsion characteristics must be chosen as well. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen which defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The methods is demonstrated on hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt and to Deimos.

  17. Distributed learning and multi-objectivity in traffic light control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brys, Tim; Pham, Tong T.; Taylor, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic jams and suboptimal traffic flows are ubiquitous in modern societies, and they create enormous economic losses each year. Delays at traffic lights alone account for roughly 10% of all delays in US traffic. As most traffic light scheduling systems currently in use are static, set up by human experts rather than being adaptive, the interest in machine learning approaches to this problem has increased in recent years. Reinforcement learning (RL) approaches are often used in these studies, as they require little pre-existing knowledge about traffic flows. Distributed constraint optimisation approaches (DCOP) have also been shown to be successful, but are limited to cases where the traffic flows are known. The distributed coordination of exploration and exploitation (DCEE) framework was recently proposed to introduce learning in the DCOP framework. In this paper, we present a study of DCEE and RL techniques in a complex simulator, illustrating the particular advantages of each, comparing them against standard isolated traffic actuated signals. We analyse how learning and coordination behave under different traffic conditions, and discuss the multi-objective nature of the problem. Finally we evaluate several alternative reward signals in the best performing approach, some of these taking advantage of the correlation between the problem-inherent objectives to improve performance.

  18. EMIR, the GTC NIR multi-object imager-spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzón, F.; Abreu, D.; Barrera, S.; Becerril, S.; Cairós, L. M.; Díaz, J. J.; Fragoso, A. B.; Gago, F.; Grange, R.; González, C.; López, P.; Patrón, J.; Pérez, J.; Rasilla, J. L.; Redondo, P.; Restrepo, R.; Saavedra, P.; Sánchez, V.; Tenegi, F.; Vallbé, M.

    2007-06-01

    EMIR, currently entering into its fabrication and AIV phase, will be one of the first common user instruments for the GTC, the 10 meter telescope under construction by GRANTECAN at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Canary Islands, Spain). EMIR is being built by a Consortium of Spanish and French institutes led by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). EMIR is designed to realize one of the central goals of 10m class telescopes, allowing observers to obtain spectra for large numbers of faint sources in a time-efficient manner. EMIR is primarily designed to be operated as a MOS in the K band, but offers a wide range of observing modes, including imaging and spectroscopy, both long slit and multi-object, in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 μm. It is equipped with two innovative subsystems: a robotic reconfigurable multi-slit mask and dispersive elements formed by the combination of high quality diffraction grating and conventional prisms, both at the heart of the instrument. The present status of development, expected performances, schedule and plans for scientific exploitation are described and discussed. The development and fabrication of EMIR is funded by GRANTECAN and the Plan Nacional de Astronomía y Astrofísica (National Plan for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Spain).

  19. EMIR: cryogenic NIR multi-object spectrograph for GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcells, Marc; Guzman, R.; Patron, J.; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Azcue, J.; Ballester Lluch, Jose A.; Barroso, M. T.; Beigbeder, F.; Brau-Nogue, S.; Cardiel, N.; Carter, Dave; Diaz-Garcia, Jose J.; de la Fuente, E.; Fuentes, F. Javier; Fragoso-Lopez, Ana B.; Gago, Fernando; Gallego, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Heredero, J. C.; Jones, Damien J.; Lopez, J. C.; Luke, P.; Manescau, Antonio; Munoz, T.; Peletier, R. F.; Pello, R.; Picat, Jean P.; Robertson, David J.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Serrano, Angel; Sharples, Ray M.; Zamorano, J.

    2000-08-01

    EMIR is a near-IR, multi-slit camera-spectrograph under development for the 10m GTC on La Palma. It will deliver up to 45 independent R equals 3500-4000 spectra of sources over a field of view of 6 feet by 3 feet, and allow NIR imaging over a 6 foot by 6 foot FOV, with spatial sampling of 0.175 inch/pixel. The prime science goal of the instrument is to open K-band, wide field multi-object spectroscopy on 10m class telescopes. Science applications range from the study of star-forming galaxies beyond z equals 2, to observations of substellar objects and dust-enshrouded star formation regions. Main technological challenges include the large optics, the mechanical and thermal stability and the need to implement a mask exchange mechanism that does not require warming up the spectrograph. EMIR is begin developed by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrennees, and the University of Durham. Currently in its Preliminary Design phase, EMIR is expected to start science operation in 2004.

  20. Fireball multi object spectrograph: as-built optic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, R.; Milliard, B.; Lemaitre, G.; Quiret, S.; Pascal, S.; Origné, A.; Hamden, E.; Schiminovich, D.

    2016-07-01

    Fireball (Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon) is a NASA/CNES balloon-borne experiment to study the faint diffuse circumgalactic medium from the line emissions in the ultraviolet (200 nm) above 37 km flight altitude. Fireball relies on a Multi Object Spectrograph (MOS) that takes full advantage of the new high QE, low noise 13 μm pixels UV EMCCD. The MOS is fed by a 1 meter diameter parabola with an extended field (1000 arcmin2) using a highly aspherized two mirror corrector. All the optical train is working at F/2.5 to maintain a high signal to noise ratio. The spectrograph (R 2200 and 1.5 arcsec FWHM) is based on two identical Schmidt systems acting as collimator and camera sharing a 2400 g/mm aspherized reflective Schmidt grating. This grating is manufactured from active optics methods by double replication technique of a metal deformable matrix whose active clear aperture is built-in to a rigid elliptical contour. The payload and gondola are presently under integration at LAM. We will present the alignment procedure and the as-built optic performances of the Fireball instrument.

  1. Multi-objective optimization of aerostructures inspired by nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Adam C.

    The focus of this doctoral work is on the optimization of aircraft wing structures. The optimization was performed against the shape, size and topology of simple aircraft wing designs. A simple morphing wing actuator optimization is performed as well as a wing panel buckling topology optimization. This is done with biologically-inspired mathematical systems including a map L-system, a multi-objective genetic algorithm, and cellular structures represented by Voronoi diagrams. As with most aircraft optimizations, both studies aim to minimize the total weight of a wing while simultaneously meeting stiffness and strength requirements. Optimization is performed with the scripts developed in MATLAB as well as through the use of finite element codes, NASTRAN and LS-Dyna. The intent of this methodology is to develop unique designs inspired by nature and optimized through natural selection. The optimal designs are those with minimal weight as well as additional requirements specific to the problems. The designs and methodology have the potential to be of use in determining minimum weight designs in aircraft structures. A literature review of optimization techniques, methodology and method validation, and optimization comparisons is presented. The buckling panel optimization considered here also includes composite buckling failure and manufacturing assumptions for composite panels. The panels are optimized for mass and strength by controlling the laminate stacking sequence, stiffener size, and topology. The morphing wing is optimized for actuator loading and redundancy.

  2. Monocular visual scene understanding: understanding multi-object traffic scenes.

    PubMed

    Wojek, Christian; Walk, Stefan; Roth, Stefan; Schindler, Konrad; Schiele, Bernt

    2013-04-01

    Following recent advances in detection, context modeling, and tracking, scene understanding has been the focus of renewed interest in computer vision research. This paper presents a novel probabilistic 3D scene model that integrates state-of-the-art multiclass object detection, object tracking and scene labeling together with geometric 3D reasoning. Our model is able to represent complex object interactions such as inter-object occlusion, physical exclusion between objects, and geometric context. Inference in this model allows us to jointly recover the 3D scene context and perform 3D multi-object tracking from a mobile observer, for objects of multiple categories, using only monocular video as input. Contrary to many other approaches, our system performs explicit occlusion reasoning and is therefore capable of tracking objects that are partially occluded for extended periods of time, or objects that have never been observed to their full extent. In addition, we show that a joint scene tracklet model for the evidence collected over multiple frames substantially improves performance. The approach is evaluated for different types of challenging onboard sequences. We first show a substantial improvement to the state of the art in 3D multipeople tracking. Moreover, a similar performance gain is achieved for multiclass 3D tracking of cars and trucks on a challenging dataset.

  3. Adaptive surrogate model based multi-objective transfer trajectory optimization between different libration points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haijun; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    An adaptive surrogate model-based multi-objective optimization strategy that combines the benefits of invariant manifolds and low-thrust control toward developing a low-computational-cost transfer trajectory between libration orbits around the L1 and L2 libration points in the Sun-Earth system has been proposed in this paper. A new structure for a multi-objective transfer trajectory optimization model that divides the transfer trajectory into several segments and gives the dominations for invariant manifolds and low-thrust control in different segments has been established. To reduce the computational cost of multi-objective transfer trajectory optimization, a mixed sampling strategy-based adaptive surrogate model has been proposed. Numerical simulations show that the results obtained from the adaptive surrogate-based multi-objective optimization are in agreement with the results obtained using direct multi-objective optimization methods, and the computational workload of the adaptive surrogate-based multi-objective optimization is only approximately 10% of that of direct multi-objective optimization. Furthermore, the generating efficiency of the Pareto points of the adaptive surrogate-based multi-objective optimization is approximately 8 times that of the direct multi-objective optimization. Therefore, the proposed adaptive surrogate-based multi-objective optimization provides obvious advantages over direct multi-objective optimization methods.

  4. Development & optimization of a rule-based energy management strategy for fuel economy improvement in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfoor, Mostafa

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of conventional vehicle drive systems. This dissertation builds on prior hybrid powertrain development at the University of Idaho. Advanced vehicle models of a passenger car with a conventional powertrain and three different hybrid powertrain layouts were created using GT-Suite. These different powertrain models were validated against a variety of standard driving cycles. The overall fuel economy, energy consumption, and losses were monitored, and a comprehensive energy analysis was performed to compare energy sources and sinks. The GT-Suite model was then used to predict the formula hybrid SAE vehicle performance. Inputs to this model were a numerically predicted engine performance map, an electric motor torque curve, vehicle geometry, and road load parameters derived from a roll-down test. In this case study, the vehicle had a supervisory controller that followed a rule-based energy management strategy to insure a proper power split during hybrid mode operation. The supervisory controller parameters were optimized using discrete grid optimization method that minimized the total amount of fuel consumed during a specific urban driving cycle with an average speed of approximately 30 [mph]. More than a 15% increase in fuel economy was achieved by adding supervisory control and managing power split. The vehicle configuration without the supervisory controller displayed a fuel economy of 25 [mpg]. With the supervisory controller this rose to 29 [mpg]. Wider applications of this research include hybrid vehicle controller designs that can extend the range and survivability of military combat platforms. Furthermore, the

  5. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  6. Evaluation of a ducted-fan power plant designed for high output and good cruise fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behun, M; Rom, F E; Hensley, R V

    1950-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of performance of a ducted-fan power plant designed both for high-output, high-altitude operation at low supersonic Mach numbers and for good fuel economy at lower fight speeds is presented. Performance of ducted fan is compared with performance (with and without tail-pipe burner) of two hypothetical turbojet engines. At maximum power, the ducted fan has propulsive thrust per unit of frontal area between thrusts obtained by turbojet engines with and without tail-pipe burners. At cruise, the ducted fan obtains lowest thrust specific fuel consumption. For equal maximum thrusts, the ducted fan obtains cruising flight duration and range appreciably greater than turbojet engines.

  7. Alignment and Performance of the Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, Joseph A.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Mentzell, J. Eric; Madison, Timothy J.; Hylan, Jason E.; Mink, Ronald G.; Saha, Timo T.; Tveekrem, June L.; Sparr, Leroy M.; Chambers, V. John; Fitzgerald, Danetter; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; MacKenty, John W.

    2004-01-01

    The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer (IRMOS) is a principle investigator class instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 and 2.1 meter telescopes. IRMOS is a near-IR (0.8 - 2.5 micron) spectrometer with low-to mid-resolving power (R = 300 - 3000). IRMOS produces simultaneous spectra of approximately 100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arc-min field of view (4 m telescope) using a commercial Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) micro-mirror array (MMA) from Texas Instruments. The IRMOS optical design consists of two imaging subsystems. The focal reducer images the focal plane of the telescope onto the MMA field stop, and the spectrograph images the MMA onto the detector. We describe ambient breadboard subsystem alignment and imaging performance of each stage independently, and ambient imaging performance of the fully assembled instrument. Interferometric measurements of subsystem wavefront error serve as a qualitative alignment guide, and are accomplished using a commercial, modified Twyman-Green laser unequal path interferometer. Image testing provides verification of the optomechanical alignment method and a measurement of near-angle scattered light due to mirror small-scale surface error. Image testing is performed at multiple field points. A mercury-argon pencil lamp provides a spectral line at 546.1 nanometers, a blackbody source provides a line at 1550 nanometers, and a CCD camera and IR camera are used as detectors. We use commercial optical modeling software to predict the point-spread function and its effect on instrument slit transmission and resolution. Our breadboard and instrument level test results validate this prediction. We conclude with an instrument performance prediction for cryogenic operation and first light in late 2003.

  8. Valuing hydrological alteration in multi-objective water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Simone; Pianosi, Francesca; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe management of water through the impoundment of rivers by dams and reservoirs is necessary to support key human activities such as hydropower production, agriculture and flood risk mitigation. Advances in multi-objective optimization techniques and ever growing computing power make it possible to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal tradeoffs between multiple interests. On the one hand, such optimization methods can enhance performances of commonly targeted objectives (such as hydropower production or water supply), on the other hand they risk strongly penalizing all the interests not directly (i.e. mathematically) included in the optimization algorithm. The alteration of the downstream hydrological regime is a well established cause of ecological degradation and its evaluation and rehabilitation is commonly required by recent legislation (as the Water Framework Directive in Europe). However, it is rarely embedded in reservoir optimization routines and, even when explicitly considered, the criteria adopted for its evaluation are doubted and not commonly trusted, undermining the possibility of real implementation of environmentally friendly policies. The main challenges in defining and assessing hydrological alterations are: how to define a reference state (referencing); how to define criteria upon which to build mathematical indicators of alteration (measuring); and finally how to aggregate the indicators in a single evaluation index (valuing) that can serve as objective function in the optimization problem. This paper aims to address these issues by: (i) discussing the benefits and constrains of different approaches to referencing, measuring and valuing hydrological alteration; (ii) testing two alternative indices of hydrological alteration, one based on the established framework of Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (Richter et al., 1996), and one satisfying the mathematical properties required by widely used optimization

  9. Multi-objective Optimization of the Mississippi Headwaters Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, B. A.; Harou, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is participating in a re- operation study of the Mississippi Headwaters reservoir system. The study, termed ROPE (Reservoir Operation Plan Evaluation), will develop a new operation policy for the reservoir system in a Shared Vision Planning effort. The current operating plan is 40 years old and does not account for the diverse objectives of the system altered by increased development and resource awareness. Functions of the six-reservoir system include flood damage reduction, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat considerations, tribal resources, water quality, water supply, erosion and sedimentation control, and hydropower production. Experience has shown that a modeling approach using both optimization, which makes decisions based on their value to objectives, and simulation, which makes decisions that follow operating instructions or rules, is an effective way to improve or develop new operating policies. HEC's role in this study was to develop a multi- objective optimization model of the system using HEC-PRM (Prescriptive Reservoir Model), a generalized computer program that performs multi-period deterministic network-flow optimization of reservoir systems. The optimization model's purpose is to enable stakeholders and decision makers to select appropriate tradeoffs between objectives, and have these tradeoffs reflected in proposed rules. Initial single-objective optimizations allow stakeholders to verify that the penalty functions developed by experts accurately represent their interests. Once penalty functions are confirmed, trade-off curves between pairs of system objectives are developed, and stakeholders and decision makers choose a desired balance between the two objectives. These chosen balance points are maintained in optimizations that consider all objectives. Finally, optimal system decisions are studied to infer operating patterns that embody the chosen tradeoffs. The

  10. Joint Geophysical Inversion With Multi-Objective Global Optimization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelievre, P. G.; Bijani, R.; Farquharson, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Pareto multi-objective global optimization (PMOGO) methods generate a suite of solutions that minimize multiple objectives (e.g. data misfits and regularization terms) in a Pareto-optimal sense. Providing a suite of models, as opposed to a single model that minimizes a weighted sum of objectives, allows a more complete assessment of the possibilities and avoids the often difficult choice of how to weight each objective. We are applying PMOGO methods to three classes of inverse problems. The first class are standard mesh-based problems where the physical property values in each cell are treated as continuous variables. The second class of problems are also mesh-based but cells can only take discrete physical property values corresponding to known or assumed rock units. In the third class we consider a fundamentally different type of inversion in which a model comprises wireframe surfaces representing contacts between rock units; the physical properties of each rock unit remain fixed while the inversion controls the position of the contact surfaces via control nodes. This third class of problem is essentially a geometry inversion, which can be used to recover the unknown geometry of a target body or to investigate the viability of a proposed Earth model. Joint inversion is greatly simplified for the latter two problem classes because no additional mathematical coupling measure is required in the objective function. PMOGO methods can solve numerically complicated problems that could not be solved with standard descent-based local minimization methods. This includes the latter two classes of problems mentioned above. There are significant increases in the computational requirements when PMOGO methods are used but these can be ameliorated using parallelization and problem dimension reduction strategies.

  11. The effects of velocity difference changes with memory on the dynamics characteristics and fuel economy of traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Zhao, Xiangmo; Xu, Zhigang; Zhang, Licheng

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of velocity difference changes with memory in the intelligent transportation environment on the dynamics and fuel consumptions of traffic flow, we first investigate the linkage between velocity difference changes with memory and car-following behaviors with the measured data in cities, and then propose an improved cooperative car-following model considering multiple velocity difference changes with memory in the cooperative adaptive cruise control strategy, finally carry out several numerical simulations under the periodic boundary condition and at signalized intersections to explore how velocity difference changes with memory affect car's velocity, velocity fluctuation, acceleration and fuel consumptions in the intelligent transportation environment. The results show that velocity difference changes with memory have obvious effects on car-following behaviors, that the improved cooperative car-following model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion, that the stability and fuel economy of traffic flow simulated by the improved car-following model with velocity difference changes with memory is obviously superior to those without velocity difference changes, and that taking velocity difference changes with memory into account in designing the advanced adaptive cruise control strategy can significantly improve the stability and fuel economy of traffic flow.

  12. Stability enhancement and fuel economy of the 4-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicles by optimal tyre force distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Mohammadi, Masoud

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, vehicle stability control and fuel economy for a 4-wheel-drive hybrid vehicle are investigated. The integrated controller is designed within three layers. The first layer determines the total yaw moment and total lateral force made by using an optimal controller method to follow the desired dynamic behaviour of a vehicle. The second layer determines optimum tyre force distribution in order to optimise tyre usage and find out how the tyres should share longitudinal and lateral forces to achieve a target vehicle response under the assumption that all four wheels can be independently steered, driven, and braked. In the third layer, the active steering, wheel slip, and electrical motor torque controllers are designed. In the front axle, internal combustion engine (ICE) is coupled to an electric motor (EM). The control strategy has to determine the power distribution between ICE and EM to minimise fuel consumption and allowing the vehicle to be charge sustaining. Finally, simulations performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment show that the proposed structure could enhance the vehicle stability and fuel economy in different manoeuvres.

  13. Simulated Fuel Economy and Emissions Performance during City and Interstate Driving for a Heavy-Duty Hybrid Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C. Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E.; Laclair, Tim J.; Pihl, Josh A.; Edwards, K. Dean

    2013-04-08

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  15. Multi-objective vs. single-objective calibration of a hydrologic model using single- and multi-objective screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Shafii, Mahyar; Zink, Matthias; Schäfer, David; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis; Tolson, Bryan

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic models are traditionally calibrated against observed streamflow. Recent studies have shown however, that only a few global model parameters are constrained using this kind of integral signal. They can be identified using prior screening techniques. Since different objectives might constrain different parameters, it is advisable to use multiple information to calibrate those models. One common approach is to combine these multiple objectives (MO) into one single objective (SO) function and allow the use of a SO optimization algorithm. Another strategy is to consider the different objectives separately and apply a MO Pareto optimization algorithm. In this study, two major research questions will be addressed: 1) How do multi-objective calibrations compare with corresponding single-objective calibrations? 2) How much do calibration results deteriorate when the number of calibrated parameters is reduced by a prior screening technique? The hydrologic model employed in this study is a distributed hydrologic model (mHM) with 52 model parameters, i.e. transfer coefficients. The model uses grid cells as a primary hydrologic unit, and accounts for processes like snow accumulation and melting, soil moisture dynamics, infiltration, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, subsurface storage and discharge generation. The model is applied in three distinct catchments over Europe. The SO calibrations are performed using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) algorithm with a fixed budget while the MO calibrations are achieved using the Pareto Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS) algorithm allowing for the same budget. The two objectives used here are the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of the simulated streamflow and the NSE of the logarithmic transformation. It is shown that the SO DDS results are located close to the edges of the Pareto fronts of the PA-DDS. The MO calibrations are hence preferable due to their supply of multiple equivalent solutions from which the

  16. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  17. Valuing hydrological alteration in Multi-Objective reservoir management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, S.; Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation for agricultural production, and flood risk mitigation. Advances in multi-objectives (MO) optimization techniques and ever growing computing power make it possible to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal tradeoffs between the multiple interests analysed. These progresses if on one hand are likely to enhance performances of commonly targeted objectives (such as hydropower production or water supply), on the other risk to strongly penalize all the interests not directly (i.e. mathematically) optimized within the MO algorithm. Alteration of hydrological regime, although is a well established cause of ecological degradation and its evaluation and rehabilitation are commonly required by recent legislation (as the Water Framework Directive in Europe), is rarely embedded as an objective in MO planning of optimal releases from reservoirs. Moreover, even when it is explicitly considered, the criteria adopted for its evaluation are doubted and not commonly trusted, undermining the possibility of real implementation of environmentally friendly policies. The main challenges in defining and assessing hydrological alterations are: how to define a reference state (referencing); how to define criteria upon which to build mathematical indicators of alteration (measuring); and finally how to aggregate the indicators in a single evaluation index that can be embedded in a MO optimization problem (valuing). This paper aims to address these issues by: i) discussing benefits and constrains of different approaches to referencing, measuring and valuing hydrological alteration; ii) testing two alternative indices of hydrological alteration in the context of MO problems, one based on the established framework of Indices of Hydrological Alteration (IHA, Richter et al., 1996), and a novel satisfying the

  18. Geophysical Inversion With Multi-Objective Global Optimization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelièvre, Peter; Bijani, Rodrigo; Farquharson, Colin

    2016-04-01

    We are investigating the use of Pareto multi-objective global optimization (PMOGO) methods to solve numerically complicated geophysical inverse problems. PMOGO methods can be applied to highly nonlinear inverse problems, to those where derivatives are discontinuous or simply not obtainable, and to those were multiple minima exist in the problem space. PMOGO methods generate a suite of solutions that minimize multiple objectives (e.g. data misfits and regularization terms) in a Pareto-optimal sense. This allows a more complete assessment of the possibilities and provides opportunities to calculate statistics regarding the likelihood of particular model features. We are applying PMOGO methods to four classes of inverse problems. The first are discrete-body problems where the inversion determines values of several parameters that define the location, orientation, size and physical properties of an anomalous body represented by a simple shape, for example a sphere, ellipsoid, cylinder or cuboid. A PMOGO approach can determine not only the optimal shape parameters for the anomalous body but also the optimal shape itself. Furthermore, when one expects several anomalous bodies in the subsurface, a PMOGO inversion approach can determine an optimal number of parameterized bodies. The second class of inverse problems are standard mesh-based problems where the physical property values in each cell are treated as continuous variables. The third class of problems are lithological inversions, which are also mesh-based but cells can only take discrete physical property values corresponding to known or assumed rock units. In the fourth class, surface geometry inversions, we consider a fundamentally different type of problem in which a model comprises wireframe surfaces representing contacts between rock units. The physical properties of each rock unit remain fixed while the inversion controls the position of the contact surfaces via control nodes. Surface geometry inversion can be

  19. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quayle, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

  20. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: test results of a prototype Fiat 131 TC 2. 4-liter automobile. Final report, January 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Quayle, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    The equipment and procedures used to test the fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of a prototype Fiat 131 2.4 liter diesel automobile with turbocharging(TC) and with natural aspiration (NA) are described. The tests included four cyclic tests, e.g., urban driving cycle, expressway driving cycle, and steady state driving at 15, 25, 40, 50, and 60 mph in the appropriate gear. Data are presented for CO, NO/sub x/ and particulate emissions and for fuel economy. The results showed that diesel vehicle turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications appears to be a viable emissions control technology and should be further examined. (LCL)

  1. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  2. Application of multi-objective nonlinear optimization technique for coordinated ramp-metering

    SciTech Connect

    Haj Salem, Habib; Farhi, Nadir; Lebacque, Jean Patrick E-mail: nadir.frahi@ifsttar.fr

    2015-03-10

    This paper aims at developing a multi-objective nonlinear optimization algorithm applied to coordinated motorway ramp metering. The multi-objective function includes two components: traffic and safety. Off-line simulation studies were performed on A4 France Motorway including 4 on-ramps.

  3. Interim Joint Technical Assessment Report: Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards for Model Years 2017-2025

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the NHTSA collaborated with CARB on this joint Technical Assessment Report to build on the success of the first phase of the National Program to regulate fuel economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from U.S. light-duty vehicles.

  4. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Edward; Gough, Charles

    2015-07-07

    This report summarizes activities conducted in support of the project “The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-EE0005654, as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated May 2012.

  5. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  6. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... (NMHC) and methane (CH4) for the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally,...

  7. 40 CFR 600.113-08 - Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. 600.113-08 Section 600.113-08 Protection of... Fuel economy calculations for FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. The Administrator... (NMHC) and methane (CH4) for the FTP, HFET, US06, SC03 and cold temperature FTP tests. Additionally,...

  8. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01

    In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.

  9. Modeling the Effects of Transmission Type, Gear Count and Ratio Spread on Fuel Economy and Performance Using ALPHA (SAE 2016-01-1143)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of varying the absolute and relative gear ratios of a given transmission on fuel economy and performance, considers alternative methods of selecting absolute gear ratios, examines the effect of alternative engines on the selections o...

  10. Automotive Fuel Economy: A Technical Study and Curriculum Development Project. A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Education, Mankato State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Kirk Lewis

    Automotive fuel economy was the topic of a study during which technical and background information was gathered, curriculum materials were sought, and curricula were developed. Technical information came from written materials and actual mileage tests of selected factors. Background came from written materials, field trips, and building and…

  11. [Comfort: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jia-Ling; Lee, Ya-Ling; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2012-02-01

    Comfort is an important concept and core value of nursing. The defining attributes, antecedents and consequences of comfort need further analysis and exploration, even though the concept of comfort has been addressed previously in nursing literature. We employed the strategies of concept analysis as described by Walker&Avant (2005) to analyze the concept of comfort. The defining attributes of comfort include: 1) effective communication; 2) family and meaningful relationships; 3) maintaining functionality; 4) self-characteristics; 5) physical symptom relief, states, and interventions; 6) psychological, spiritual activities and states; and 7) a sense of safety and security. Antecedents consist of discomfort, distress and suffering. Consequences consist of (1) met/satisfied needs; (2) increased sense of control; (3) sense of inner peace; (4) a pleasant experience; (5) feeling cared for; (6) relief of symptoms; (7) reduced suffering; (8) decreased disequilibrium; and (9) absence of discomfort. We also outline the construction of cases, empirical references and comfort measurement tools. Analysis found comfort to have multiple dimensions and confirmed it as a clinical issue that should receive greater emphasis and valuation. Findings are hoped to increase nurse understanding of the concept of comfort and enable nurses to evaluate level of comfort and follow up on variations in such using empirical tools. Concept analysis can guide further comfort related interventions and research to benefit patients.

  12. Robotic comfort zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  13. Runtime analysis of an evolutionary algorithm for stochastic multi-objective combinatorial optimization.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    For stochastic multi-objective combinatorial optimization (SMOCO) problems, the adaptive Pareto sampling (APS) framework has been proposed, which is based on sampling and on the solution of deterministic multi-objective subproblems. We show that when plugging in the well-known simple evolutionary multi-objective optimizer (SEMO) as a subprocedure into APS, ε-dominance has to be used to achieve fast convergence to the Pareto front. Two general theorems are presented indicating how runtime complexity results for APS can be derived from corresponding results for SEMO. This may be a starting point for the runtime analysis of evolutionary SMOCO algorithms.

  14. Multi-Objective Optimization of an In situ Bioremediation Technology to Treat Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation shows how a multi-objective optimization method is integrated into a transport simulator (MT3D) for estimating parameters and cost of in-situ bioremediation technology to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of multi-objective optimization of CPG parameters for quadruped robot locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Miguel; Santos, Cristina P.; Costa, Lino

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a study based on sensitivity analysis is performed for a gait multi-objective optimization system that combines bio-inspired Central Patterns Generators (CPGs) and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on NSGA-II. In this system, CPGs are modeled as autonomous differential equations, that generate the necessary limb movement to perform the required walking gait. In order to optimize the walking gait, a multi-objective problem with three conflicting objectives is formulated: maximization of the velocity, the wide stability margin and the behavioral diversity. The experimental results highlight the effectiveness of this multi-objective approach and the importance of the objectives to find different walking gait solutions for the quadruped robot.

  16. Strength Pareto particle swarm optimization and hybrid EA-PSO for multi-objective optimization.

    PubMed

    Elhossini, Ahmed; Areibi, Shawki; Dony, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique that can handle multi-objective optimization problems. It is based on the strength Pareto approach originally used in evolutionary algorithms (EA). The proposed modified particle swarm algorithm is used to build three hybrid EA-PSO algorithms to solve different multi-objective optimization problems. This algorithm and its hybrid forms are tested using seven benchmarks from the literature and the results are compared to the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) and a competitive multi-objective PSO using several metrics. The proposed algorithm shows a slower convergence, compared to the other algorithms, but requires less CPU time. Combining PSO and evolutionary algorithms leads to superior hybrid algorithms that outperform SPEA2, the competitive multi-objective PSO (MO-PSO), and the proposed strength Pareto PSO based on different metrics.

  17. Multi-objective possibilistic model for portfolio selection with transaction cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, P.; Roy, T. K.; Mazumder, S. K.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce the possibilistic mean value and variance of continuous distribution, rather than probability distributions. We propose a multi-objective Portfolio based model and added another entropy objective function to generate a well diversified asset portfolio within optimal asset allocation. For quantifying any potential return and risk, portfolio liquidity is taken into account and a multi-objective non-linear programming model for portfolio rebalancing with transaction cost is proposed. The models are illustrated with numerical examples.

  18. Learning in Comfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Students spend hours a day in classrooms, so it is critical to their learning to have places to sit that are healthful and comfortable. Schools and universities should outfit their classrooms and other learning spaces with furniture that enables students to carry out their school work comfortably and does not detract from their ability to focus…

  19. Simulating Study of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models to simulate the impact of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty (LD) diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results indicate that utilizing PCCI combustion significantly reduces fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for the conventional diesel-powered vehicle with NOx and particulate emissions controls. These benefits result from a favorable engine speed-load distribution over the cycle combined with a corresponding reduction in the need to regenerate the LNT and DPF. However, the current PCCI technology appears to offer less potential benefit for diesel HEVs equipped with similar emissions controls. This is because PCCI can only be activated over a relatively small part of the drive cycle. Thus we conclude that future utilization of PCCI in diesel HEVs will require significant extension of the available speed-load range for PCCI and revision of current HEV engine management strategies before significant benefits can be realized.

  20. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  1. Analysis of the capabilities of domestic auto-manufacturers to improve corporate average fuel economy (information current as of November 1985)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    Since 1978, the Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted periodic reviews of the ability of domestic automobile manufacturers to improve their corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) values. This work has allowed DOE to develop a detailed understanding of manufacturer technological capabilities and to forecast the cost, fuel economy improvement, and rate of introduction of individual technologies over a ten-year horizon. DOE uses these forecasts to fulfill its responsibilities under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), to support its forecasts of energy demand and to conduct policy analyses relevant to automobile and energy production industries. Chapters are given for the following areas: (1) review of 1985 CAFE, (2) analysis of current capabilities, (3) modifications of the Technology Cost Segment Model (TCSM), (4) review of market share forecasts, and (5) forecasts of CAFE using the TCSM.

  2. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  3. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of a diesel vehicle: results of the prototype Volkswagen 1. 5-liter turbocharged rabbit tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, R.A.; Quayle, S.S.; Sturm, J.C.

    1981-10-01

    Tests were performed on a prototype Volkswagen (VW) Turbocharged (TC) Rabbit diesel vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle was tested for fuel economy and emissions on the Urban Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), Congested Urban Expressway (CUE), and New York City Cycle (NYCC). Steady state measurements were performed at three speeds. Particulate measurements were completed at all test conditions. Approximately 250 grams of particulate matter were collected over the HFET cycle for inclusion in the Environmental Protection Agency Diesel Health Effects Research Program. During the urban cycle the vehicle obtained 45.7 mpg, with emission rates of 0.14, 0.89 and 1.07 grams per mile of HC, CO, and NOx, respectively. The Rabbit obtained 56.5 mpg during the HFET cycle.

  4. Improved multi-objective ant colony optimization algorithm and its application in complex reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinqing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Huijie; Zhang, Qing

    2013-09-01

    The problem of fault reasoning has aroused great concern in scientific and engineering fields. However, fault investigation and reasoning of complex system is not a simple reasoning decision-making problem. It has become a typical multi-constraint and multi-objective reticulate optimization decision-making problem under many influencing factors and constraints. So far, little research has been carried out in this field. This paper transforms the fault reasoning problem of complex system into a paths-searching problem starting from known symptoms to fault causes. Three optimization objectives are considered simultaneously: maximum probability of average fault, maximum average importance, and minimum average complexity of test. Under the constraints of both known symptoms and the causal relationship among different components, a multi-objective optimization mathematical model is set up, taking minimizing cost of fault reasoning as the target function. Since the problem is non-deterministic polynomial-hard(NP-hard), a modified multi-objective ant colony algorithm is proposed, in which a reachability matrix is set up to constrain the feasible search nodes of the ants and a new pseudo-random-proportional rule and a pheromone adjustment mechinism are constructed to balance conflicts between the optimization objectives. At last, a Pareto optimal set is acquired. Evaluation functions based on validity and tendency of reasoning paths are defined to optimize noninferior set, through which the final fault causes can be identified according to decision-making demands, thus realize fault reasoning of the multi-constraint and multi-objective complex system. Reasoning results demonstrate that the improved multi-objective ant colony optimization(IMACO) can realize reasoning and locating fault positions precisely by solving the multi-objective fault diagnosis model, which provides a new method to solve the problem of multi-constraint and multi-objective fault diagnosis and

  5. A computer program (HEVSIM) for heavy duty vehicle fuel economy and performance simulation. Volume I: Description and analysis. Final report Mar-Oct 80

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents a description of a vehicle simulation program, which can determine the fuel economy and performance of a specified motor vehicle over a defined route as it executes a given driving schedule. Vehicle input accommodated by HEVSIM include accessories, engine, rear axle, converter, transmission, tires, aerodynamic drag coefficient, and shift logic. The report consists of three volumes. Volume I presents a description of the numerical approach and equations, Volume II is a user's manual, and Volume III contains the program listings.

  6. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles.

  7. Multi-objective optimization of empirical hydrological model for streamflow prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun; Zhou, Jianzhong; Lu, Jiazheng; Zou, Qiang; Zhang, Huajie; Bi, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Traditional calibration of hydrological models is performed with a single objective function. Practical experience with the calibration of hydrologic models reveals that single objective functions are often inadequate to properly measure all of the characteristics of the hydrologic system. To circumvent this problem, in recent years, a lot of studies have looked into the automatic calibration of hydrological models with multi-objective functions. In this paper, the multi-objective evolution algorithm MODE-ACM is introduced to solve the multi-objective optimization of hydrologic models. Moreover, to improve the performance of the MODE-ACM, an Enhanced Pareto Multi-Objective Differential Evolution algorithm named EPMODE is proposed in this research. The efficacy of the MODE-ACM and EPMODE are compared with two state-of-the-art algorithms NSGA-II and SPEA2 on two case studies. Five test problems are used as the first case study to generate the true Pareto front. Then this approach is tested on a typical empirical hydrological model for monthly streamflow forecasting. The results of these case studies show that the EPMODE, as well as MODE-ACM, is effective in solving multi-objective problems and has great potential as an efficient and reliable algorithm for water resources applications.

  8. Effective multi-objective optimization with the coral reefs optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S.; Pastor-Sánchez, A.; Portilla-Figueras, J. A.; Prieto, L.

    2016-06-01

    In this article a new algorithm for multi-objective optimization is presented, the Multi-Objective Coral Reefs Optimization (MO-CRO) algorithm. The algorithm is based on the simulation of processes in coral reefs, such as corals' reproduction and fight for space in the reef. The adaptation to multi-objective problems is a process based on domination or non-domination during the process of fight for space in the reef. The final MO-CRO is an easily-implemented and fast algorithm, simple and robust, since it is able to keep diversity in the population of corals (solutions) in a natural way. The experimental evaluation of this new approach for multi-objective optimization problems is carried out on different multi-objective benchmark problems, where the MO-CRO has shown excellent performance in cases with limited computational resources, and in a real-world problem of wind speed prediction, where the MO-CRO algorithm is used to find the best set of features to predict the wind speed, taking into account two objective functions related to the performance of the prediction and the computation time of the regressor.

  9. US EPA, US DOT, California’s Air Resources Board Issue Draft Technical Assessment Report of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Economy Standards for Model Year 2022-2025 Cars and Light Trucks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA News Release: US EPA, US DOT, California’s Air Resources Board Issue Draft Technical Assessment Report of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Economy Standards for Model Year 2022-2025 Cars and Light Trucks

  10. Multi-objective metaheuristics for preprocessing EEG data in brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aler, Ricardo; Vega, Alicia; Galván, Inés M.; Nebro, Antonio J.

    2012-03-01

    In the field of brain-computer interfaces, one of the main issues is to classify the electroencephalogram (EEG) accurately. EEG signals have a good temporal resolution, but a low spatial one. In this article, metaheuristics are used to compute spatial filters to improve the spatial resolution. Additionally, from a physiological point of view, not all frequency bands are equally relevant. Both spatial filters and relevant frequency bands are user-dependent. In this article a multi-objective formulation for spatial filter optimization and frequency-band selection is proposed. Several multi-objective metaheuristics have been tested for this purpose. The experimental results show, in general, that multi-objective algorithms are able to select a subset of the available frequency bands, while maintaining or improving the accuracy obtained with the whole set. Also, among the different metaheuristics tested, GDE3, which is based on differential evolution, is the most useful algorithm in this context.

  11. An improved version of the multiple trajectory search for real value multi-objective optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun; Tseng, Lin-Yu

    2014-10-01

    Multi-objective optimization is widely used in science, engineering and business. In this article, an improved version of the multiple trajectory search (MTS) called MTS2 is presented and successfully applied to real-value multi-objective optimization problems. In the first step, MTS2 generates M initial solutions distributed over the solution space. These solutions are called seeds. Some seeds with good objective values are selected as foreground seeds. Then, MTS2 chooses a suitable region search method for each foreground seed according to the landscape of the neighbourhood of the seed. During the search, MTS2 focuses its search on some promising areas specified by the foreground seeds. The performance of MTS2 was examined by applying it to solve the benchmark problems provided by the Competition of Performance Assessment of Constrained/Bound Constrained Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms held at the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation.

  12. Multi-objective game-theory models for conflict analysis in reservoir watershed management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    This study focuses on the development of a multi-objective game-theory model (MOGM) for balancing economic and environmental concerns in reservoir watershed management and for assistance in decision. Game theory is used as an alternative tool for analyzing strategic interaction between economic development (land use and development) and environmental protection (water-quality protection and eutrophication control). Geographic information system is used to concisely illustrate and calculate the areas of various land use types. The MOGM methodology is illustrated in a case study of multi-objective watershed management in the Tseng-Wen reservoir, Taiwan. The innovation and advantages of MOGM can be seen in the results, which balance economic and environmental concerns in watershed management and which can be interpreted easily by decision makers. For comparison, the decision-making process using conventional multi-objective method to produce many alternatives was found to be more difficult.

  13. Multi-Object Spectroscopy in the Next Decade: A Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trager, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    I present a highly-biased summary of the conference "Multi-Object Spectroscopy in the Next Decade: Big Questions, Large Surveys, and Wide Fields," held 2-6 March 2015 in Santa Cruz de la Palma, Spain. I focus on four issues in this summary: (1) complexity in objects, physics, and instruments is driving the field of large-scale multi-object spectroscopic surveys; (2) statistics is important to drive conclusions, but inference is as or even more important; (3) multi-wavelength surveys are necessary, particularly for understanding galaxies and cosmology; and (4) a large number of new multi-object spectrographs at a wide variety of wavelengths are either already here or will rapidly be available. This conference shows that we are just learning how to get the most (astrophysics) out of these instruments.

  14. A new fuzzy multi-objective higher order moment portfolio selection model for diversified portfolios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Wei; Wang, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    Due to the important effect of the higher order moments to portfolio returns, the aim of this paper is to make use of the third and fourth moments for fuzzy multi-objective portfolio selection model. Firstly, in order to overcome the low diversity of the obtained solution set and lead to corner solutions for the conventional higher moment portfolio selection models, a new entropy function based on Minkowski measure is proposed as a new objective function and a novel fuzzy multi-objective weighted possibilistic higher order moment portfolio model is presented. Secondly, to solve the proposed model efficiently, a new multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is designed. Thirdly, several portfolio performance evaluation techniques are used to evaluate the performance of the portfolio models. Finally, some experiments are conducted by using the data of Shanghai Stock Exchange and the results indicate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  15. Greedy Set Cover Field Selection for Multi-object Spectroscopy in C++ MPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, T. N.

    2015-09-01

    Multi-object spectrographs allow efficient observation of clustered targets. Observational programs of many targets not encompassed within a telescope's field of view, however, require multiple pointings. Here, a greedy set cover algorithmic approach to efficient field selection in such a scenario is examined. The goal of this approach is not to minimize the total number of pointings needed to cover a given target set, but rather maximize the observational return for a restricted number of pointings. Telescope field of view and maximum targets per field are input parameters, allowing algorithm application to observation planning for the current range of active multi-object spectrographs (e.g. the 2dF/AAOmega, Fiber Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph, Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph, Hectochelle, Hectospec and Hydra systems), and for any future systems. A parallel version of the algorithm is implemented with the message passing interface, facilitating execution on both shared and distributed memory systems.

  16. Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Pannone, Greg; Thomas, John F; Reale, Michael; Betz, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the on-cycle energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. Oncycle energy conversion of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain. Similarly, by combining thermodynamic, mechanical efficiency, and kinetic energy recovery fundamentals with logical proxies, achievable levels of energy conversion efficiency can be established to allow for the evaluation of future powertrain requirements. Combining the plausible levels of tractive energy and on-cycle efficiency provides a means to compute sustainable vehicle and propulsion system scenarios that can achieve future regulations. Using these principles, the regulations established in the United States (U.S.) for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are evaluated. Fleet-level scenarios are generated and compared to the technology deployment assumptions made during rule-making. When compared to the rule-making assumptions, the results indicate that a greater level of advanced vehicle and propulsion system technology deployment will be required to achieve the model year 2025 U.S. standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions.

  17. Particle swarm optimization for feature selection in classification: a multi-objective approach.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bing; Zhang, Mengjie; Browne, Will N

    2013-12-01

    Classification problems often have a large number of features in the data sets, but not all of them are useful for classification. Irrelevant and redundant features may even reduce the performance. Feature selection aims to choose a small number of relevant features to achieve similar or even better classification performance than using all features. It has two main conflicting objectives of maximizing the classification performance and minimizing the number of features. However, most existing feature selection algorithms treat the task as a single objective problem. This paper presents the first study on multi-objective particle swarm optimization (PSO) for feature selection. The task is to generate a Pareto front of nondominated solutions (feature subsets). We investigate two PSO-based multi-objective feature selection algorithms. The first algorithm introduces the idea of nondominated sorting into PSO to address feature selection problems. The second algorithm applies the ideas of crowding, mutation, and dominance to PSO to search for the Pareto front solutions. The two multi-objective algorithms are compared with two conventional feature selection methods, a single objective feature selection method, a two-stage feature selection algorithm, and three well-known evolutionary multi-objective algorithms on 12 benchmark data sets. The experimental results show that the two PSO-based multi-objective algorithms can automatically evolve a set of nondominated solutions. The first algorithm outperforms the two conventional methods, the single objective method, and the two-stage algorithm. It achieves comparable results with the existing three well-known multi-objective algorithms in most cases. The second algorithm achieves better results than the first algorithm and all other methods mentioned previously.

  18. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  19. A Pareto Optimal Design Analysis of Magnetic Thrust Bearings Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Jagu S.; Tiwari, R.

    2015-03-01

    A Pareto optimal design analysis is carried out on the design of magnetic thrust bearings using multi-objective genetic algorithms. Two configurations of bearings have been considered with the minimization of power loss and weight of the bearing as objectives for performance comparisons. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is utilized to generate Pareto frontiers at different operating loads. As the load increases, the Pareto frontier reduces to a single point at a peak load for both configurations. Pareto optimal design analysis is used to study characteristics of design variables and other parameters. Three distinct operating load zones have been observed.

  20. Multi-Objective Bidding Strategy for Genco Using Non-Dominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksinchai, Apinat; Boonchuay, Chanwit; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes a multi-objective bidding strategy for a generation company (GenCo) in uniform price spot market using non-dominated sorting particle swarm optimization (NSPSO). Instead of using a tradeoff technique, NSPSO is introduced to solve the multi-objective strategic bidding problem considering expected profit maximization and risk (profit variation) minimization. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to simulate rivals' bidding behavior. Test results indicate that the proposed approach can provide the efficient non-dominated solution front effectively. In addition, it can be used as a decision making tool for a GenCo compromising between expected profit and price risk in spot market.

  1. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The customer (scientist or project manager) most often does not want just one point solution to the mission design problem Instead, an exploration of a multi-objective trade space is required. For a typical main-belt asteroid mission the customer might wish to see the trade-space of: Launch date vs. Flight time vs. Deliverable mass, while varying the destination asteroid, planetary flybys, launch year, etcetera. To address this question we use a multi-objective discrete outer-loop which defines many single objective real-valued inner-loop problems.

  2. SAMI: Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. T.; Green, A. W.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Sharp, R.; Nielsen, J.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Taylor, E. N.; Scott, N.; Cortese, L.; Richards, S. N.; Croom, S.; Owers, M. S.; Bauer, A. E.; Sweet, S. M.; Bryant, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    The SAMI (Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph) pipeline reduces data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) for the SAMI Galaxy Survey. The python code organizes SAMI data and, along with the AAO 2dfdr package, carries out all steps in the data reduction, from raw data to fully calibrated datacubes. The principal steps are: data management, use of 2dfdr to produce row-stacked spectra, flux calibration, correction for telluric absorption, removal of atmospheric dispersion, alignment of dithered exposures, and drizzling onto a regular output grid. Variance and covariance information is tracked throughout the pipeline. Some quality control routines are also included.

  3. Cone Quasi-Concave Multi-Objective Programming Theory and Dominance Cone Constructions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    4 Cone Quasi-Concave Multi-Objective Prog ramm in(I Theory and Dominance Cone Constructions by A. Chames Z. M. Huang J. J. Rousseau 0. B. Sun 0. L...Report 606 Cone Quasi-Concave Multi-Objective Programming: Theory and Dominance Cone Constructions by A. Chames Z. M. Huang J. J. Rousseau D. B. Sun...permitted for any purpose of the U.S. Govemement. Tr% C CENTER FOR CYBERNETIC STUDIES cV- A. Chames , Director V 3 D 1 College of Business Administration

  4. Multivariate Multi-Objective Allocation in Stratified Random Sampling: A Game Theoretic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Ijaz; Shoukry, Alaa Mohamd

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of multivariate multi-objective allocation where no or limited information is available within the stratum variance. Results show that a game theoretic approach (based on weighted goal programming) can be applied to sample size allocation problems. We use simulation technique to determine payoff matrix and to solve a minimax game. PMID:27936039

  5. Evaluation of multi-algorithm optimization approach in multi-objective rainfall-runoff calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafii, M.; de Smedt, F.

    2009-04-01

    Calibration of rainfall-runoff models is one of the issues in which hydrologists have been interested over past decades. Because of the multi-objective nature of rainfall-runoff calibration, and due to advances in computational power, population-based optimization techniques are becoming increasingly popular to be applied for multi-objective calibration schemes. Over past recent years, such methods have shown to be powerful search methods for this purpose, especially when there are a large number of calibration parameters. However, application of these methods is always criticised based on the fact that it is not possible to develop a single algorithm which is always efficient for different problems. Therefore, more recent efforts have been focused towards development of simultaneous multiple optimization algorithms to overcome this drawback. This paper involves one of the most recent population-based multi-algorithm approaches, named AMALGAM, for application to multi-objective rainfall-runoff calibration in a distributed hydrological model, WetSpa. This algorithm merges the strengths of different optimization algorithms and it, thus, has proven to be more efficient than other methods. In order to evaluate this issue, comparison between results of this paper and those previously reported using a normal multi-objective evolutionary algorithm would be the next step of this study.

  6. Multi-objective model calibration and validation based on runoff and groundwater levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldring, S.

    2003-04-01

    The multi-objective calibration procedure MOCOM-UA was used to evaluate the validity of a precipitation-runoff model by forcing the model to simulate several observed system responses simultaneously. The model is based on kinematic wave approximations to saturated subsurface flow and saturation overland flow at the hillslope scale in a landcape with a shallow layer of permeable deposits overlying a relatively impermeable bedrock. Data from a catchment with till deposits in the boreal forest zone in south-east Norway were used in this study. The following results were found; (i) The MOCOM-UA method was capable of exploiting information about the physical system contained in the measurement data time series; (ii) The multi-objective calibration procedure provided estimates of the uncertainty associated with model predictions and parameters; (iii) Multi-objective calibration constraining the behaviour of the precipitation-runoff model to observed runoff and groundwater levels reduced the uncertainty of model predictions; (iv) The multi-objective method reduced the uncertainty of the estimates of model parameters; (v) The precipitation-runoff model was able to reproduce several observed system responses simultaneously during both calibration and validation periods; and (vi) Groundwater table depths exerted a major control on the hydrological response of the investigated catchment.

  7. Advantages of Task-Specific Multi-Objective Optimisation in Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Trianni, Vito; López-Ibáñez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The application of multi-objective optimisation to evolutionary robotics is receiving increasing attention. A survey of the literature reveals the different possibilities it offers to improve the automatic design of efficient and adaptive robotic systems, and points to the successful demonstrations available for both task-specific and task-agnostic approaches (i.e., with or without reference to the specific design problem to be tackled). However, the advantages of multi-objective approaches over single-objective ones have not been clearly spelled out and experimentally demonstrated. This paper fills this gap for task-specific approaches: starting from well-known results in multi-objective optimisation, we discuss how to tackle commonly recognised problems in evolutionary robotics. In particular, we show that multi-objective optimisation (i) allows evolving a more varied set of behaviours by exploring multiple trade-offs of the objectives to optimise, (ii) supports the evolution of the desired behaviour through the introduction of objectives as proxies, (iii) avoids the premature convergence to local optima possibly introduced by multi-component fitness functions, and (iv) solves the bootstrap problem exploiting ancillary objectives to guide evolution in the early phases. We present an experimental demonstration of these benefits in three different case studies: maze navigation in a single robot domain, flocking in a swarm robotics context, and a strictly collaborative task in collective robotics.

  8. Advantages of Task-Specific Multi-Objective Optimisation in Evolutionary Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Trianni, Vito; López-Ibáñez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The application of multi-objective optimisation to evolutionary robotics is receiving increasing attention. A survey of the literature reveals the different possibilities it offers to improve the automatic design of efficient and adaptive robotic systems, and points to the successful demonstrations available for both task-specific and task-agnostic approaches (i.e., with or without reference to the specific design problem to be tackled). However, the advantages of multi-objective approaches over single-objective ones have not been clearly spelled out and experimentally demonstrated. This paper fills this gap for task-specific approaches: starting from well-known results in multi-objective optimisation, we discuss how to tackle commonly recognised problems in evolutionary robotics. In particular, we show that multi-objective optimisation (i) allows evolving a more varied set of behaviours by exploring multiple trade-offs of the objectives to optimise, (ii) supports the evolution of the desired behaviour through the introduction of objectives as proxies, (iii) avoids the premature convergence to local optima possibly introduced by multi-component fitness functions, and (iv) solves the bootstrap problem exploiting ancillary objectives to guide evolution in the early phases. We present an experimental demonstration of these benefits in three different case studies: maze navigation in a single robot domain, flocking in a swarm robotics context, and a strictly collaborative task in collective robotics. PMID:26295151

  9. Design Optimization of an Axial Fan Blade Through Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Choi, Jae-Ho; Husain, Afzal; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents design optimization of an axial fan blade with hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (hybrid MOEA). Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with shear stress transport turbulence model are discretized by the finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids for the flow analyses. The validation of the numerical results was performed with the experimental data for the axial and tangential velocities. Six design variables related to the blade lean angle and blade profile are selected and the Latin hypercube sampling of design of experiments is used to generate design points within the selected design space. Two objective functions namely total efficiency and torque are employed and the multi-objective optimization is carried out to enhance total efficiency and to reduce the torque. The flow analyses are performed numerically at the designed points to obtain values of the objective functions. The Non-dominated Sorting of Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with ɛ -constraint strategy for local search coupled with surrogate model is used for multi-objective optimization. The Pareto-optimal solutions are presented and trade-off analysis is performed between the two competing objectives in view of the design and flow constraints. It is observed that total efficiency is enhanced and torque is decreased as compared to the reference design by the process of multi-objective optimization. The Pareto-optimal solutions are analyzed to understand the mechanism of the improvement in the total efficiency and reduction in torque.

  10. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making.

  11. Alloys-by-Design Strategies Using Stochastic Multi-Objective Optimization: Initial Formulation and Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Technical Report (15 Aug., 02 - 14 Jan., 03) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Alloys-by-Design Strategies Using...objective of this research was to develop and demonstrate a technique for multi...objective optimization of the chemical composition of steel alloys with the use of an existing experimental database. The technique consists in the

  12. Multi-objective optimization in systematic conservation planning and the representation of genetic variability among populations.

    PubMed

    Schlottfeldt, S; Walter, M E M T; Carvalho, A C P L F; Soares, T N; Telles, M P C; Loyola, R D; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2015-06-18

    Biodiversity crises have led scientists to develop strategies for achieving conservation goals. The underlying principle of these strategies lies in systematic conservation planning (SCP), in which there are at least 2 conflicting objectives, making it a good candidate for multi-objective optimization. Although SCP is typically applied at the species level (or hierarchically higher), it can be used at lower hierarchical levels, such as using alleles as basic units for analysis, for conservation genetics. Here, we propose a method of SCP using a multi-objective approach. We used non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II in order to identify the smallest set of local populations of Dipteryx alata (baru) (a Brazilian Cerrado species) for conservation, representing the known genetic diversity and using allele frequency information associated with heterozygosity and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We worked in 3 variations for the problem. First, we reproduced a previous experiment, but using a multi-objective approach. We found that the smallest set of populations needed to represent all alleles under study was 7, corroborating the results of the previous study, but with more distinct solutions. In the 2nd and 3rd variations, we performed simultaneous optimization of 4 and 5 objectives, respectively. We found similar but refined results for 7 populations, and a larger portfolio considering intra-specific diversity and persistence with populations ranging from 8-22. This is the first study to apply multi-objective algorithms to an SCP problem using alleles at the population level as basic units for analysis.

  13. Leveraging Human Insights by Combining Multi-Objective Optimization with Interactive Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    outperforms NA-IEC, pure novelty search, and an au- tomated multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) that uses the same fitness vector, finding...of human selections, providing impetus for further fatigue reduction techniques based on au- tomation of human selections. The results show that the

  14. Improving multi-objective reservoir operation optimization with sensitivity-informed dimension reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, J.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.; Li, Y.; Zhou, H.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a sensitivity-informed method for multi-objective operation of reservoir systems, which uses global sensitivity analysis as a screening tool to reduce computational demands. Sobol's method is used to screen insensitive decision variables and guide the formulation of the optimization problems with a significantly reduced number of decision variables. This sensitivity-informed method dramatically reduces the computational demands required for attaining high-quality approximations of optimal trade-off relationships between conflicting design objectives. The search results obtained from the reduced complexity multi-objective reservoir operation problems are then used to pre-condition the full search of the original optimization problem. In two case studies, the Dahuofang reservoir and the inter-basin multi-reservoir system in Liaoning province, China, sensitivity analysis results show that reservoir performance is strongly controlled by a small proportion of decision variables. Sensitivity-informed dimension reduction and pre-conditioning are evaluated in their ability to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of multi-objective evolutionary optimization. Overall, this study illustrates the efficiency and effectiveness of the sensitivity-informed method and the use of global sensitivity analysis to inform dimension reduction of optimization problems when solving complex multi-objective reservoir operation problems.

  15. Multi Objective Optimization for Calibration and Efficient Uncertainty Analysis of Computationally Expensive Watershed Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, T.; Shoemaker, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing the sensitivity of calibration results to different calibration criteria can be done through multi objective optimization that considers multiple calibration criteria. This analysis can be extended to uncertainty analysis by comparing the results of simulation of the model with parameter sets from many points along a Pareto Front. In this study we employ multi-objective optimization in order to understand which parameter values should be used for flow parameters of a SWAT model, (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) designed to simulate flow in the Cannonsville Reservoir in upstate New York. The comprehensive analysis procedure encapsulates identification of suitable objectives, analysis of trade-offs obtained through multi-objective optimization, and the impact of the trade-offs uncertainty. Examples of multiple criteria can include a) quality of the fit in different seasons, b) quality of the fit for high flow events and for low flow events, c) quality of the fit for different constituents (e.g. water versus nutrients). Many distributed watershed models are computationally expensive and include a large number of parameters that are to be calibrated. Efficient optimization algorithms are hence needed to find good solutions to multi-criteria calibration problems in a feasible amount of time. We apply a new algorithm called Gap Optimized Multi-Objective Optimization using Response Surfaces (GOMORS), for efficient multi-criteria optimization of the Cannonsville SWAT watershed calibration problem. GOMORS is a stochastic optimization method, which makes use of Radial Basis Functions for approximation of the computationally expensive objectives. GOMORS performance is also compared against other multi-objective algorithms ParEGO and NSGA-II. ParEGO is a kriging based efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm, whereas NSGA-II is a well-known multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm. GOMORS is more efficient than both ParEGO and NSGA-II in providing

  16. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the

  17. Systematic Design of a Metal Ion Biosensor: A Multi-Objective Optimization Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    With the recent industrial expansion, heavy metals and other pollutants have increasingly contaminated our living surroundings. Heavy metals, being non-degradable, tend to accumulate in the food chain, resulting in potentially damaging toxicity to organisms. Thus, techniques to detect metal ions have gradually begun to receive attention. Recent progress in research on synthetic biology offers an alternative means for metal ion detection via the help of promoter elements derived from microorganisms. To make the design easier, it is necessary to develop a systemic design method for evaluating and selecting adequate components to achieve a desired detection performance. A multi-objective (MO) H2/H∞ performance criterion is derived here for design specifications of a metal ion biosensor to achieve the H2 optimal matching of a desired input/output (I/O) response and simultaneous H∞ optimal filtering of intrinsic parameter fluctuations and external cellular noise. According to the two design specifications, a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is employed to interpolate several local linear stochastic systems to approximate the nonlinear stochastic metal ion biosensor system so that the multi-objective H2/H∞ design of the metal ion biosensor can be solved by an associated linear matrix inequality (LMI)-constrained multi-objective (MO) design problem. The analysis and design of a metal ion biosensor with optimal I/O response matching and optimal noise filtering ability then can be achieved by solving the multi-objective problem under a set of LMIs. Moreover, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA)-based library search method is employed to find adequate components from corresponding libraries to solve LMI-constrained MO H2/H∞ design problems. It is a useful tool for the design of metal ion biosensors, particularly regarding the tradeoffs between the design factors under consideration. PMID:27832110

  18. Systematic Design of a Metal Ion Biosensor: A Multi-Objective Optimization Approach.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    With the recent industrial expansion, heavy metals and other pollutants have increasingly contaminated our living surroundings. Heavy metals, being non-degradable, tend to accumulate in the food chain, resulting in potentially damaging toxicity to organisms. Thus, techniques to detect metal ions have gradually begun to receive attention. Recent progress in research on synthetic biology offers an alternative means for metal ion detection via the help of promoter elements derived from microorganisms. To make the design easier, it is necessary to develop a systemic design method for evaluating and selecting adequate components to achieve a desired detection performance. A multi-objective (MO) H2/H∞ performance criterion is derived here for design specifications of a metal ion biosensor to achieve the H2 optimal matching of a desired input/output (I/O) response and simultaneous H∞ optimal filtering of intrinsic parameter fluctuations and external cellular noise. According to the two design specifications, a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is employed to interpolate several local linear stochastic systems to approximate the nonlinear stochastic metal ion biosensor system so that the multi-objective H2/H∞ design of the metal ion biosensor can be solved by an associated linear matrix inequality (LMI)-constrained multi-objective (MO) design problem. The analysis and design of a metal ion biosensor with optimal I/O response matching and optimal noise filtering ability then can be achieved by solving the multi-objective problem under a set of LMIs. Moreover, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA)-based library search method is employed to find adequate components from corresponding libraries to solve LMI-constrained MO H2/H∞ design problems. It is a useful tool for the design of metal ion biosensors, particularly regarding the tradeoffs between the design factors under consideration.

  19. Influence of test fuel properties and composition on UNECE R101 CO2 and fuel economy valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 emission and fuel consumption of passenger cars is now assessed by using a simplistic procedure measuring the emission during a test performed without any control of the fuel properties and computing the fuel consumption through an unsophisticated formula. As pump gasoline and diesel fuels are refinery products mixture of many different hydrocarbons, and in case of gasoline may also contain a significant amount of oxygenates, the fuel properties, including the density, carbon and energy content may strongly vary from one pump fuel to the other. Being the specific test fuels carefully selected by the car manufacturers and everything but randomly chosen pump fuels, the claimed CO2 emission and fuel economy figures may differ largely from the certification values. I show from the analysis of the 2014 UK government data for 2358 diesel and 2103 petrol vehicles how same volumes of only theoretically same pump fuels used during the certification test by the cars manufacturers unfortunately do not produce the same carbon dioxide emission, and very likely do not have the same energy content. The CO2 emission per liter of diesel fuel is shown to oscillate froma maximum of 3049 g to a minimum of 2125 g, with an average of 2625 g, froma +16.13% to a -19.06% of the average. TheCO2 emission per liter of petrol fuel is shown to oscillate even more from a maximum of 3735 g to a minimum of 1767 g with an average of 2327 g, from a +60.48% to a -24.05% of the average. The proposed solution is to center the assessment on the energy demand by measuring with accuracy the mass of fuel consumed and the fuel properties of the test fuel starting from the lower heating. The corrected fuel consumption and the corrected carbon dioxide emission to mention from the test are then computed by using pure hydrocarbon reference fuels for diesel and petrol having a given lower heating value and a given hydrocarbon composition. Alternatively, exactly the same test fuel should be used by all the

  20. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  1. Coupled Low-thrust Trajectory and System Optimization via Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrina, Matthew A.; Englander, Jacob Aldo; Ghosh, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of low-thrust trajectories is tightly coupled with the spacecraft hardware. Trading trajectory characteristics with system parameters ton identify viable solutions and determine mission sensitivities across discrete hardware configurations is labor intensive. Local independent optimization runs can sample the design space, but a global exploration that resolves the relationships between the system variables across multiple objectives enables a full mapping of the optimal solution space. A multi-objective, hybrid optimal control algorithm is formulated using a multi-objective genetic algorithm as an outer loop systems optimizer around a global trajectory optimizer. The coupled problem is solved simultaneously to generate Pareto-optimal solutions in a single execution. The automated approach is demonstrated on two boulder return missions.

  2. Multi-objective optimal design of active vibration absorber with delayed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Rong-Hua; Chen, Long-Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimal design of delayed feedback control of an actively tuned vibration absorber for a stochastically excited linear structure is investigated. The simple cell mapping (SCM) method is used to obtain solutions of the multi-objective optimization problem (MOP). The continuous time approximation (CTA) method is applied to analyze the delayed system. Stability is imposed as a constraint for MOP. Three conflicting objective functions including the peak frequency response, vibration energy of primary structure and control effort are considered. The Pareto set and Pareto front for the optimal feedback control design are presented for two examples. Numerical results have found that the Pareto optimal solutions provide effective delayed feedback control design.

  3. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexandre; Gaouyat, Lucie; Nicolay, Delphine; Carletti, Timoteo; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-10-20

    We present a multi-objective genetic algorithm we developed for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector. This collector consists of a waffle-shaped Al substrate with NiCrOx cermet and SnO(2) anti-reflection conformal coatings. Optimal geometrical parameters are determined in order to (i) maximize the solar absorptance α and (ii) minimize the thermal emittance ε. The multi-objective genetic algorithm eventually provides a whole set of Pareto-optimal solutions for the optimization of α and ε, which turn out to be competitive with record values found in the literature. In particular, a solution that enables α = 97.8% and ε = 4.8% was found.

  4. Multi-objective shape and material optimization of composite structures including damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-objective optimal design methodology is developed for light-weight, low cost composite structures of improved dynamic performance. The design objectives include minimization of resonance amplitudes (or maximization of modal damping), weight, and material cost. The design vector includes micromechanics, laminate, and structural shape parameters. Performance constraints are imposed on static displacements, dynamic amplitudes, and natural frequencies. The effects of damping on the dynamics of composite structures are incorporated. Preliminary applications on a cantilever composite beam illustrated that only the proposed multi-objective optimization, as opposed to single objective functions, simultaneously improved all objectives. The significance of composite damping in the design of advanced composite structures was also demonstrated, indicating the design methods based on undamped dynamics may fail to improve the dynamic performance near resonances.

  5. Extraction of battery parameters of the equivalent circuit model using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Jonathan; Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K.

    2014-02-01

    A simple but reasonably accurate battery model is required for simulating the performance of electrical systems that employ a battery for example an electric vehicle, as well as for investigating their potential as an energy storage device. In this paper, a relatively simple equivalent circuit based model is employed for modeling the performance of a battery. A computer code utilizing a multi-objective genetic algorithm is developed for the purpose of extracting the battery performance parameters. The code is applied to several existing industrial batteries as well as to two recently proposed high performance batteries which are currently in early research and development stage. The results demonstrate that with the optimally extracted performance parameters, the equivalent circuit based battery model can accurately predict the performance of various batteries of different sizes, capacities, and materials. Several test cases demonstrate that the multi-objective genetic algorithm can serve as a robust and reliable tool for extracting the battery performance parameters.

  6. Multi-objective shape and material optimization of composite structures including damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-objective optimal design methodology is developed for light-weight, low-cost composite structures of improved dynamic performance. The design objectives include minimization of resonance amplitudes (or maximization of modal damping), weight, and material cost. The design vector includes micromechanics, laminate, and structural shape parameters. Performance constraints are imposed on static displacements, dynamic amplitudes, and natural frequencies. The effects of damping on the dynamics of composite structures are incorporated. Preliminary applications on a cantilever composite beam illustrated that only the proposed multi-objective optimization, as opposed to single objective functions, simultaneously improved all objectives. The significance of composite damping in the design of advanced composite structures was also demonstrated, indicating that design methods based on undamped dynamics may fail to improve the dynamic performance near resonances.

  7. Memetic algorithm-based multi-objective coverage optimization for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Li, Shuai; Yue, Wenjing

    2014-10-30

    Maintaining effective coverage and extending the network lifetime as much as possible has become one of the most critical issues in the coverage of WSNs. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective coverage optimization algorithm for WSNs, namely MOCADMA, which models the coverage control of WSNs as the multi-objective optimization problem. MOCADMA uses a memetic algorithm with a dynamic local search strategy to optimize the coverage of WSNs and achieve the objectives such as high network coverage, effective node utilization and more residual energy. In MOCADMA, the alternative solutions are represented as the chromosomes in matrix form, and the optimal solutions are selected through numerous iterations of the evolution process, including selection, crossover, mutation, local enhancement, and fitness evaluation. The experiment and evaluation results show MOCADMA can have good capabilities in maintaining the sensing coverage, achieve higher network coverage while improving the energy efficiency and effectively prolonging the network lifetime, and have a significant improvement over some existing algorithms.

  8. Design for sustainability of industrial symbiosis based on emergy and multi-objective particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-08-15

    Industrial symbiosis provides novel and practical pathway to the design for the sustainability. Decision support tool for its verification is necessary for practitioners and policy makers, while to date, quantitative research is limited. The objective of this work is to present an innovative approach for supporting decision-making in the design for the sustainability with the implementation of industrial symbiosis in chemical complex. Through incorporating the emergy theory, the model is formulated as a multi-objective approach that can optimize both the economic benefit and sustainable performance of the integrated industrial system. A set of emergy based evaluation index are designed. Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm is proposed to solve the model, and the decision-makers are allowed to choose the suitable solutions form the Pareto solutions. An illustrative case has been studied by the proposed method, a few of compromises between high profitability and high sustainability can be obtained for the decision-makers/stakeholders to make decision.

  9. Multi-Objective Design Exploration and Its Application to Regional-Jet Wing Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayashi, Shigeru; Jeong, Shinkyu; Chiba, Kazuhisa; Morino, Hiroyuki

    A new approach, Multi-Objective Design Exploration (MODE), is presented to address multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problems using computational fluid dynamics-computational structural dynamics (CFD-CSD) coupling. MODE reveals the structure of the design space from the trade-off information and visualizes it as a panorama for Decision Maker. The present form of MODE consists of the Kriging Model, adaptive range multi objective genetic algorithms, analysis of variance and a self-organizing map. The main emphasis of this approach is visual data mining. An MDO system using high-fidelity simulation codes, a Navier-Stokes solver and NASTRAN has been developed and applied to a regional-jet wing design. Because the optimization system becomes very expensive computationally, only brief exploration of the design space has been performed. However, visual data mining results demonstrate that design knowledge can produce a good design even after brief design exploration.

  10. A Generalized Decision Framework Using Multi-objective Optimization for Water Resources Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdekas, L.; Stewart, N.; Triana, E.

    2013-12-01

    Colorado Springs Utilities (CSU) is currently engaged in an Integrated Water Resource Plan (IWRP) to address the complex planning scenarios, across multiple time scales, currently faced by CSU. The modeling framework developed for the IWRP uses a flexible data-centered Decision Support System (DSS) with a MODSIM-based modeling system to represent the operation of the current CSU raw water system coupled with a state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithm. Three basic components are required for the framework, which can be implemented for planning horizons ranging from seasonal to interdecadal. First, a water resources system model is required that is capable of reasonable system simulation to resolve performance metrics at the appropriate temporal and spatial scales of interest. The system model should be an existing simulation model, or one developed during the planning process with stakeholders, so that 'buy-in' has already been achieved. Second, a hydrologic scenario tool(s) capable of generating a range of plausible inflows for the planning period of interest is required. This may include paleo informed or climate change informed sequences. Third, a multi-objective optimization model that can be wrapped around the system simulation model is required. The new generation of multi-objective optimization models do not require parameterization which greatly reduces problem complexity. Bridging the gap between research and practice will be evident as we use a case study from CSU's planning process to demonstrate this framework with specific competing water management objectives. Careful formulation of objective functions, choice of decision variables, and system constraints will be discussed. Rather than treating results as theoretically Pareto optimal in a planning process, we use the powerful multi-objective optimization models as tools to more efficiently and effectively move out of the inferior decision space. The use of this framework will help CSU

  11. Robust multi-objective optimization of state feedback controllers for heat exchanger system with probabilistic uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfi, Babak; Wang, Qiuwang

    2013-07-01

    The performance of thermal control systems has, in recent years, improved in numerous ways due to developments in control theory and information technology. The shell-and-tube heat exchanger (STHX) is a medium where heat transfer process occurred. The accuracy of the heat exchanger depends on the performance of both elements. Therefore, both components need to be controlled in order to achieve a substantial result in the process. For this purpose, the actual dynamics of both shell and tube of the heat exchanger is crucial. In this paper, optimal reliability-based multi-objective Pareto design of robust state feedback controllers for a STHX having parameters with probabilistic uncertainties. Accordingly, the probabilities of failure of those objective functions are also considered in the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) approach. A new multi-objective uniform-diversity genetic algorithm (MUGA) is presented and used for Pareto optimum design of linear state feedback controllers for STHX problem. In this way, Pareto front of optimum controllers is first obtained for the nominal deterministic STHX using the conflicting objective functions in time domain. Such Pareto front is then obtained for STHX having probabilistic uncertainties in its parameters using the statistical moments of those objective functions through a Hammersley Sequence Sampling (HSS) approach. It is shown that multi-objective reliability-based Pareto optimization of the robust state feedback controllers using MUGA includes those that may be obtained by various crisp threshold values of probability of failures and, thus, remove the difficulty of selecting suitable crisp values. Besides, the multi-objective Pareto optimization of such robust feedback controllers using MUGA unveils some very important and informative trade-offs among those objective functions. Consequently, some optimum robust state feedback controllers can be compromisingly chosen from the Pareto frontiers.

  12. Weapon Release Scheduling from Multiple-Bay Aircraft using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1993. URL citeseer.ist.psu.edu/fang93promising.html. 32. Fogel, David. Introduction to evolutionary computation , chapter 1...Aircraft using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School...8 2.2.2 Schedule Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.3 Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 Evolutionary Computation

  13. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996–2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  14. Artificial emotion triggered stochastic behavior transitions with motivational gain effects for multi-objective robot tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents artificial emotional system based autonomous robot control architecture. Hidden Markov model developed as mathematical background for stochastic emotional and behavior transitions. Motivation module of architecture considered as behavioral gain effect generator for achieving multi-objective robot tasks. According to emotional and behavioral state transition probabilities, artificial emotions determine sequences of behaviors. Also motivational gain effects of proposed architecture can be observed on the executing behaviors during simulation.

  15. Multi-objective optimization of a parallel ankle rehabilitation robot using modified differential evolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Congzhe; Fang, Yuefa; Guo, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Dimensional synthesis is one of the most difficult issues in the field of parallel robots with actuation redundancy. To deal with the optimal design of a redundantly actuated parallel robot used for ankle rehabilitation, a methodology of dimensional synthesis based on multi-objective optimization is presented. First, the dimensional synthesis of the redundant parallel robot is formulated as a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem. Then four objective functions, separately reflecting occupied space, input/output transmission and torque performances, and multi-criteria constraints, such as dimension, interference and kinematics, are defined. In consideration of the passive exercise of plantar/dorsiflexion requiring large output moment, a torque index is proposed. To cope with the actuation redundancy of the parallel robot, a new output transmission index is defined as well. The multi-objective optimization problem is solved by using a modified Differential Evolution(DE) algorithm, which is characterized by new selection and mutation strategies. Meanwhile, a special penalty method is presented to tackle the multi-criteria constraints. Finally, numerical experiments for different optimization algorithms are implemented. The computation results show that the proposed indices of output transmission and torque, and constraint handling are effective for the redundant parallel robot; the modified DE algorithm is superior to the other tested algorithms, in terms of the ability of global search and the number of non-dominated solutions. The proposed methodology of multi-objective optimization can be also applied to the dimensional synthesis of other redundantly actuated parallel robots only with rotational movements.

  16. FLAMINGOS-2: A Near-IR Multi-Object Spectrometer Ideal for Surveying the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raines, S. Nicholas; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.

    2008-05-01

    FLAMINGOS-2 (PI: S. Eikenberry) is a $5M facility-class near-infrared (1-2.5 μm) multi-object spectrometer and wide-field imager being built at the University of Florida for Gemini South. Here we highlight the capabilities of FLAMINGOS-2, as it will be an ideal instrument for surveying the accreting binary population in the Galactic Center.

  17. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

  18. Stochastic resource allocation in emergency departments with a multi-objective simulation optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yen-Yi; Wu, I-Chin; Chen, Tzu-Li

    2017-03-01

    The number of emergency cases or emergency room visits rapidly increases annually, thus leading to an imbalance in supply and demand and to the long-term overcrowding of hospital emergency departments (EDs). However, current solutions to increase medical resources and improve the handling of patient needs are either impractical or infeasible in the Taiwanese environment. Therefore, EDs must optimize resource allocation given limited medical resources to minimize the average length of stay of patients and medical resource waste costs. This study constructs a multi-objective mathematical model for medical resource allocation in EDs in accordance with emergency flow or procedure. The proposed mathematical model is complex and difficult to solve because its performance value is stochastic; furthermore, the model considers both objectives simultaneously. Thus, this study develops a multi-objective simulation optimization algorithm by integrating a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) with multi-objective computing budget allocation (MOCBA) to address the challenges of multi-objective medical resource allocation. NSGA II is used to investigate plausible solutions for medical resource allocation, and MOCBA identifies effective sets of feasible Pareto (non-dominated) medical resource allocation solutions in addition to effectively allocating simulation or computation budgets. The discrete event simulation model of ED flow is inspired by a Taiwan hospital case and is constructed to estimate the expected performance values of each medical allocation solution as obtained through NSGA II. Finally, computational experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness and performance of the integrated NSGA II and MOCBA method, as well as to derive non-dominated medical resource allocation solutions from the algorithms.

  19. Scheduling for the National Hockey League Using a Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Sam; While, Lyndon; Barone, Luigi

    We describe a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm that derives schedules for the National Hockey League according to three objectives: minimising the teams' total travel, promoting equity in rest time between games, and minimising long streaks of home or away games. Experiments show that the system is able to derive schedules that beat the 2008-9 NHL schedule in all objectives simultaneously, and that it returns a set of schedules that offer a range of trade-offs across the objectives.

  20. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management.

    PubMed

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-09-01

    In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH4 generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application of the model in a Greek region.

  1. CFD-based multi-objective optimization method for ship design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Tohyama, Satoshi; Katsui, Tokihiro

    2006-10-01

    This paper concerns development and demonstration of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based multi-objective optimization method for ship design. Three main components of the method, i.e. computer-aided design (CAD), CFD, and optimizer modules are functionally independent and replaceable. The CAD used in the present study is NAPA system, which is one of the leading CAD systems in ship design. The CFD method is FLOWPACK version 2004d, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS) solver developed by the present authors. The CFD method is implemented into a self-propulsion simulator, where the RaNS solver is coupled with a propeller-performance program. In addition, a maneuvering simulation model is developed and applied to predict ship maneuverability performance. Two nonlinear optimization algorithms are used in the present study, i.e. the successive quadratic programming and the multi-objective genetic algorithm, while the former is mainly used to verify the results from the latter. For demonstration of the present method, a multi-objective optimization problem is formulated where ship propulsion and maneuverability performances are considered. That is, the aim is to simultaneously minimize opposite hydrodynamic performances in design tradeoff. In the following, an overview of the present method is given, and results are presented and discussed for tanker stern optimization problem including detailed verification work on the present numerical schemes.

  2. An improved generalized differential evolution algorithm for multi-objective reactive power dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, S.; Kannan, S.; Baskar, S.

    2012-04-01

    An improved multi-objective generalized differential evolution (I-GDE3) approach to solve optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD) with multiple and competing objectives is proposed in this article. The objective functions are minimization of real power loss and bus voltage profile improvement. For maintaining good diversity, the concepts of simulated binary crossover (SBX) based recombination and dynamic crowding distance (DCD), are implemented in the GDE3 algorithm. I-GDE3 obtains the Pareto-solution set for ORPD that is impervious to load drifts and perturbations. The performance of the proposed approach is tested in standard IEEE 118-bus and IEEE 300-bus test systems and the result demonstrates the capability of the I-GDE3 algorithm in generating diverse and well distributed Pareto-optimal solutions that are less sensitive to various loading conditions along with load perturbations. The performance of I-GDE3 is compared with respect to multi-objective performance measures namely span, hyper-volume and C-measure. The results show the effectiveness of I-GDE3 and confirm its potential to solve the multi-objective RPD problem.

  3. Nonlinear bioheat transfer models and multi-objective numerical optimization of the cryosurgery operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Shilnikov, Kirill E.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical computation of the three dimensional problem of the freezing interface propagation during the cryosurgery coupled with the multi-objective optimization methods is used in order to improve the efficiency and safety of the cryosurgery operations performing. Prostate cancer treatment and cutaneous cryosurgery are considered. The heat transfer in soft tissue during the thermal exposure to low temperature is described by the Pennes bioheat model and is coupled with an enthalpy method for blurred phase change computations. The finite volume method combined with the control volume approximation of the heat fluxes is applied for the cryosurgery numerical modeling on the tumor tissue of a quite arbitrary shape. The flux relaxation approach is used for the stability improvement of the explicit finite difference schemes. The method of the additional heating elements mounting is studied as an approach to control the cellular necrosis front propagation. Whereas the undestucted tumor tissue and destucted healthy tissue volumes are considered as objective functions, the locations of additional heating elements in cutaneous cryosurgery and cryotips in prostate cancer cryotreatment are considered as objective variables in multi-objective problem. The quasi-gradient method is proposed for the searching of the Pareto front segments as the multi-objective optimization problem solutions.

  4. Hybrid multi-objective optimisation for concurrent activities consolidating two docked spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Tang, Guo-jin; Luo, Ya-zhong

    2015-12-01

    Rendezvous and docking (RVD) is a key technology for performing complicated space missions. After an RVD process, several activities are executed to consolidate two docked spacecraft into a spacecraft complex, and this task phase is referred to as a spacecraft consolidation mission. It can save the mission time to execute these activities in parallel, but a high degree of parallelism could result in a disordered execution profile and many violations of precedence constraints. To solve this contradiction, a hybrid multi-objective optimisation approach is proposed. The precedence requirements within each activity are satisfied using an encoding and scheduling process, while the precedence requirements between different activities are treated by adding release time variables. A compact-execution index is designed to express the preference of an orderly and compact execution profile. Furthermore, a multi-objective hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm is employed to find optimal solutions. Finally, the proposed approach is demonstrated for a numerical example. The results show that optimal solutions satisfying precedence requirements both within each activity and between different activities are successfully obtained, and the trade-off between saving mission time and obtaining an orderly and compact execution profile can be effectively made. The performance of the proposed method is validated by comparison with two other multi-objective genetic algorithms.

  5. A multi-objective constraint-based approach for modeling genome-scale microbial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Jérémie; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Eveillard, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Interplay within microbial communities impacts ecosystems on several scales, and elucidation of the consequent effects is a difficult task in ecology. In particular, the integration of genome-scale data within quantitative models of microbial ecosystems remains elusive. This study advocates the use of constraint-based modeling to build predictive models from recent high-resolution -omics datasets. Following recent studies that have demonstrated the accuracy of constraint-based models (CBMs) for simulating single-strain metabolic networks, we sought to study microbial ecosystems as a combination of single-strain metabolic networks that exchange nutrients. This study presents two multi-objective extensions of CBMs for modeling communities: multi-objective flux balance analysis (MO-FBA) and multi-objective flux variability analysis (MO-FVA). Both methods were applied to a hot spring mat model ecosystem. As a result, multiple trade-offs between nutrients and growth rates, as well as thermodynamically favorable relative abundances at community level, were emphasized. We expect this approach to be used for integrating genomic information in microbial ecosystems. Following models will provide insights about behaviors (including diversity) that take place at the ecosystem scale. PMID:28187207

  6. An Efficacious Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming Approach for Optimal Power Flow Considering Distributed Generation

    PubMed Central

    Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality. PMID:26954783

  7. Online multi-object tracking with efficient track drift and fragmentation handling.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jaeyong; Kim, Daehun; Ku, Bonhwa; Han, David K; Ko, Hanseok

    2017-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of multi-object tracking in complex scenes by a single, static, uncalibrated camera. Tracking-by-detection is a widely used approach for multi-object tracking. Challenges still remain in complex scenes, however, when this approach has to deal with occlusions, unreliable detections (e.g., inaccurate position/size, false positives, or false negatives), and sudden object motion/appearance changes, among other issues. To handle these problems, this paper presents a novel online multi-object tracking method, which can be fully applied to real-time applications. First, an object tracking process based on frame-by-frame association with a novel affinity model and an appearance update that does not rely on online learning is proposed to effectively and rapidly assign detections to tracks. Second, a two-stage drift handling method with novel track confidence is proposed to correct drifting tracks caused by the abrupt motion change of objects under occlusion and prolonged inaccurate detections. In addition, a fragmentation handling method based on a track-to-track association is proposed to solve the problem in which an object trajectory is broken into several tracks due to long-term occlusions. Based on experimental results derived from challenging public data sets, the proposed method delivers an impressive performance compared with other state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, additional performance analysis demonstrates the effect and usefulness of each component of the proposed method.

  8. Multidisciplinary design optimization of vehicle instrument panel based on multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Wu, Guangqiang

    2013-03-01

    Typical multidisciplinary design optimization(MDO) has gradually been proposed to balance performances of lightweight, noise, vibration and harshness(NVH) and safety for instrument panel(IP) structure in the automotive development. Nevertheless, plastic constitutive relation of Polypropylene(PP) under different strain rates, has not been taken into consideration in current reliability-based and collaborative IP MDO design. In this paper, based on tensile test under different strain rates, the constitutive relation of Polypropylene material is studied. Impact simulation tests for head and knee bolster are carried out to meet the regulation of FMVSS 201 and FMVSS 208, respectively. NVH analysis is performed to obtain mainly the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes, while the crashworthiness analysis is employed to examine the crash behavior of IP structure. With the consideration of lightweight, NVH, head and knee bolster impact performance, design of experiment(DOE), response surface model(RSM), and collaborative optimization(CO) are applied to realize the determined and reliability-based optimizations, respectively. Furthermore, based on multi-objective genetic algorithm(MOGA), the optimal Pareto sets are completed to solve the multi-objective optimization(MOO) problem. The proposed research ensures the smoothness of Pareto set, enhances the ability of engineers to make a comprehensive decision about multi-objectives and choose the optimal design, and improves the quality and efficiency of MDO.

  9. Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Approach for Cost-Based Feature Selection in Classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Gong, Dun-Wei; Cheng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Feature selection is an important data-preprocessing technique in classification problems such as bioinformatics and signal processing. Generally, there are some situations where a user is interested in not only maximizing the classification performance but also minimizing the cost that may be associated with features. This kind of problem is called cost-based feature selection. However, most existing feature selection approaches treat this task as a single-objective optimization problem. This paper presents the first study of multi-objective particle swarm optimization (PSO) for cost-based feature selection problems. The task of this paper is to generate a Pareto front of nondominated solutions, that is, feature subsets, to meet different requirements of decision-makers in real-world applications. In order to enhance the search capability of the proposed algorithm, a probability-based encoding technology and an effective hybrid operator, together with the ideas of the crowding distance, the external archive, and the Pareto domination relationship, are applied to PSO. The proposed PSO-based multi-objective feature selection algorithm is compared with several multi-objective feature selection algorithms on five benchmark datasets. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can automatically evolve a set of nondominated solutions, and it is a highly competitive feature selection method for solving cost-based feature selection problems.

  10. Environment Sensitivity-based Cooperative Co-evolutionary Algorithms for Dynamic Multi-objective Optimization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Biao; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Dunwei; Guo, Yinan; Rong, Miao

    2017-01-16

    Dynamic multi-objective optimization problems (DMOPs) not only involve multiple conflicting objectives, but these objectives may also vary with time, raising a challenge for researchers to solve them. This paper presents a cooperative co-evolutionary strategy based on environment sensitivities for solving DMOPs. In this strategy, a new method that groups decision variables is first proposed, in which all the decision variables are partitioned into two subcomponents according to their interrelation with environment. Adopting two populations to cooperatively optimize the two subcomponents, two prediction methods, i.e., differential prediction and Cauchy mutation, are then employed respectively to speed up their responses on the change of the environment. Furthermore, two improved dynamic multi-objective optimization algorithms, i.e., DNSGAII-CO and DMOPSO-CO, are proposed by incorporating the above strategy into NSGA-II and multi-objective particle swarm optimization, respectively. The proposed algorithms are compared with three state-of-the-art algorithms by applying to seven benchmark DMOPs. Experimental results reveal that the proposed algorithms significantly outperform the compared algorithms in terms of convergence and distribution on most DMOPs.

  11. Mauna Kea Spectrographic Explorer (MSE): a conceptual design for multi-object high resolution spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yongtian; Hu, Zhongwen

    2016-08-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) project will transform the CFHT 3.6m optical telescope into a 10m class dedicated multi-object spectroscopic facility, with an ability to simultaneously measure thousands of objects with a spectral resolution range spanning 2,000 to 40,000. MSE will develop two spectrographic facilities to meet the science requirements. These are respectively, the Low/Medium Resolution spectrographs (LMRS) and High Resolution spectrographs (HRS). Multi-object high resolution spectrographs with total of 1,156 fibers is a big challenge, one that has never been attempted for a 10m class telescope. To date, most spectral survey facilities work in single order low/medium resolution mode, and only a few Wide Field Spectrographs (WFS) provide a cross-dispersion high resolution mode with a limited number of orders. Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT) propose a conceptual design with the use of novel image slicer arrays and single order immersed Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grating for the MSE multi-object high resolution spectrographs. The conceptual scheme contains six identical fiber-link spectrographs, each of which simultaneously covers three restricted bands (λ/30, λ/30, λ/15) in the optical regime, with spectral resolution of 40,000 in Blue/Visible bands (400nm / 490nm) and 20,000 in Red band (650nm). The details of the design is presented in this paper.

  12. An Efficacious Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming Approach for Optimal Power Flow Considering Distributed Generation.

    PubMed

    Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality.

  13. Multi-objective optimization to predict muscle tensions in a pinch function using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensghaier, Amani; Romdhane, Lotfi; Benouezdou, Fethi

    2012-03-01

    This work is focused on the determination of the thumb and the index finger muscle tensions in a tip pinch task. A biomechanical model of the musculoskeletal system of the thumb and the index finger is developed. Due to the assumptions made in carrying out the biomechanical model, the formulated force analysis problem is indeterminate leading to an infinite number of solutions. Thus, constrained single and multi-objective optimization methodologies are used in order to explore the muscular redundancy and to predict optimal muscle tension distributions. Various models are investigated using the optimization process. The basic criteria to minimize are the sum of the muscle stresses, the sum of individual muscle tensions and the maximum muscle stress. The multi-objective optimization is solved using a Pareto genetic algorithm to obtain non-dominated solutions, defined as the set of optimal distributions of muscle tensions. The results show the advantage of the multi-objective formulation over the single objective one. The obtained solutions are compared to those available in the literature demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach in the analysis of the fingers musculoskeletal systems when predicting muscle tensions.

  14. Development of multi-objective genetic algorithm concurrent subspace optimization (MOGACSSO) method with robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Sumeet

    Most engineering design problems are complex and multidisciplinary in nature, and quite often require more than one objective (cost) function to be extremized simultaneously. For multi-objective optimization problems, there is not a single optimum solution, but a set of optimum solutions called the Pareto set. The primary goal of this research is to develop a heuristic solution strategy to enable multi-objective optimization of highly coupled multidisciplinary design applications, wherein each discipline is able to retain some degree of autonomous control during the process. To achieve this goal, this research extends the capability of the Multi-Objective Pareto Concurrent Subspace Optimization (MOPCSSO) method to generate large numbers of non-dominated solutions in each cycle, with subsequent update and refinement, thereby greatly increasing efficiency. While the conventional MOPCSSO approach is easily able to generate Pareto solutions, it will only generate one Pareto solution at a time. In order to generate the complete Pareto front, MOPCSSO requires multiple runs (translating into many system convergence cycles) using different initial staring points. In this research, a Genetic Algorithm-based heuristic solution strategy is developed for multi-objective problems in coupled multidisciplinary design. The Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Concurrent Subspace Optimization (MOGACSSO) method allows for the generation of relatively evenly distributed Pareto solutions in a faster and more efficient manner than repeated implementation of MOPCSSO. While achieving an optimum design, it is often also desirable that the optimum design be robust to uncontrolled parameter variations. In this research, the capability of the MOGACSSO method is also extended to generate Pareto points that are robust in terms of performance and feasibility, for given uncontrolled parameter variations. The Roust-MOGACSSO method developed in this research can generate a large number of designs

  15. Comfortably saving energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elich, H. J.

    1984-04-01

    A central heating control system saving energy and improving comfort was digitally implemented. Based on control principles and simulation a control algorithm was determined. Two microcomputers are used to process room and boiler sensor data and are connected with each other by two-wire communication. The system provides a low and constant boiler temperature, an accurately controlled room temperature, a built-in pump switch, and the possibility to adjust the temperature four times a day.

  16. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for greywater reuse in municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, Roni; Friedler, Eran; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable design and implementation of greywater reuse (GWR) has to achieve an optimum compromise between costs and potable water demand reduction. Studies show that GWR is an efficient tool for reducing potable water demand. This study presents a multi-objective optimization model for estimating the optimal distribution of different types of GWR homes in an existing municipal sewer system. Six types of GWR homes were examined. The model constrains the momentary wastewater (WW) velocity in the sewer pipes (which is responsible for solids movement). The objective functions in the optimization model are the total WW flow at the outlet of the neighborhoods sewer system and the cost of the on-site GWR treatment system. The optimization routing was achieved by an evolutionary multi-objective optimization coupled with hydrodynamic simulations of a representative sewer system of a neighborhood located at the coast of Israel. The two non-dominated best solutions selected were the ones having either the smallest WW flow discharged at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system or the lowest daily cost. In both solutions most of the GWR types chosen were the types resulting with the smallest water usage. This lead to only a small difference between the two best solutions, regarding the diurnal patterns of the WW flows at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system. However, in the upstream link a substantial difference was depicted between the diurnal patterns. This difference occurred since to the upstream links only few homes, implementing the same type of GWR, discharge their WW, and in each solution a different type of GWR was implemented in these upstream homes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first multi-objective optimization model aimed at quantitatively trading off the cost of local/onsite GW spatially distributed reuse treatments, and the total amount of WW flow discharged into the municipal sewer system under unsteady flow conditions.

  17. Multi objectives model to optimise the economical value of agriculture water use in Gaza Strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouda, O.; Bardossy, A.

    2003-04-01

    Multi objectives model to optimise the economical value of agriculture water use in Gaza Strip. O. Ouda (1), A. Bárdossy (1) (1) Institut fuer Wasserbau, Universitaet Stuttgart Fax: +49-(0)711-685-4746/ e-mail: omar.ouda@iws.uni-stuttgart.de Key words: Multi objectives model, agriculture water use, and Gaza Strip. ============================================================================ Abstract The Gaza Strip faces a serious water shortage problem, with a present water shortage of about 61 Mm3/year. The problem is projected to become even larger in the future due to a high population growth of about 3.2%. The water deficit is presently covered by abstraction of the groundwater beyond the sustainable yield, where groundwater is the only natural source in Gaza strip. Irrigated agriculture consumed about 60% (90 Mm3/year) of water in Gaza strip. The economical value of water used for agriculture propose is very low in comparison with water opportunity cost of 1 US/m3 , ( seawater desalination cost). A Multi objective optimisation model (MOM) based on mathematical programming techniques aimed to optimise the economical return value of agriculture water use has been formulated, where 20 crops distributed over 16 zones have been considered. The available agriculture area, Available treated wastewater, Local agriculture products demand were considered as constrains. Irrigation water demand for each crop for three meteorological conditions dry, wet and average year, and Average product prices were considered as variables. A modification of the MOM models has been made toward equitable profit distribution (US/hectare) among the different 16 zones, where additional constrain of minimum profit per hectare in each zone has been implemented. Finally a sensitivity analysis for the effect of water price, crop price and crop products demand on the model output has been made. The MOM presents a good analytical basis for policy makers toward optimising the economical return of

  18. Automated multi-objective calibration of biological agent-based simulations.

    PubMed

    Read, Mark N; Alden, Kieran; Rose, Louis M; Timmis, Jon

    2016-09-01

    Computational agent-based simulation (ABS) is increasingly used to complement laboratory techniques in advancing our understanding of biological systems. Calibration, the identification of parameter values that align simulation with biological behaviours, becomes challenging as increasingly complex biological domains are simulated. Complex domains cannot be characterized by single metrics alone, rendering simulation calibration a fundamentally multi-metric optimization problem that typical calibration techniques cannot handle. Yet calibration is an essential activity in simulation-based science; the baseline calibration forms a control for subsequent experimentation and hence is fundamental in the interpretation of results. Here, we develop and showcase a method, built around multi-objective optimization, for calibrating ABSs against complex target behaviours requiring several metrics (termed objectives) to characterize. Multi-objective calibration (MOC) delivers those sets of parameter values representing optimal trade-offs in simulation performance against each metric, in the form of a Pareto front. We use MOC to calibrate a well-understood immunological simulation against both established a priori and previously unestablished target behaviours. Furthermore, we show that simulation-borne conclusions are broadly, but not entirely, robust to adopting baseline parameter values from different extremes of the Pareto front, highlighting the importance of MOC's identification of numerous calibration solutions. We devise a method for detecting overfitting in a multi-objective context, not previously possible, used to save computational effort by terminating MOC when no improved solutions will be found. MOC can significantly impact biological simulation, adding rigour to and speeding up an otherwise time-consuming calibration process and highlighting inappropriate biological capture by simulations that cannot be well calibrated. As such, it produces more accurate

  19. Remote sensing imagery classification using multi-objective gravitational search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aizhu; Sun, Genyun; Wang, Zhenjie

    2016-10-01

    Simultaneous optimization of different validity measures can capture different data characteristics of remote sensing imagery (RSI) and thereby achieving high quality classification results. In this paper, two conflicting cluster validity indices, the Xie-Beni (XB) index and the fuzzy C-means (FCM) (Jm) measure, are integrated with a diversity-enhanced and memory-based multi-objective gravitational search algorithm (DMMOGSA) to present a novel multi-objective optimization based RSI classification method. In this method, the Gabor filter method is firstly implemented to extract texture features of RSI. Then, the texture features are syncretized with the spectral features to construct the spatial-spectral feature space/set of the RSI. Afterwards, cluster of the spectral-spatial feature set is carried out on the basis of the proposed method. To be specific, cluster centers are randomly generated initially. After that, the cluster centers are updated and optimized adaptively by employing the DMMOGSA. Accordingly, a set of non-dominated cluster centers are obtained. Therefore, numbers of image classification results of RSI are produced and users can pick up the most promising one according to their problem requirements. To quantitatively and qualitatively validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the proposed classification method was applied to classifier two aerial high-resolution remote sensing imageries. The obtained classification results are compared with that produced by two single cluster validity index based and two state-of-the-art multi-objective optimization algorithms based classification results. Comparison results show that the proposed method can achieve more accurate RSI classification.

  20. Fuzzy Multi-Objective Transportation Planning with Modified S-Curve Membership Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peidro, D.; Vasant, P.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the S-Curve membership function methodology is used in a transportation planning decision (TPD) problem. An interactive method for solving multi-objective TPD problems with fuzzy goals, available supply and forecast demand is developed. The proposed method attempts simultaneously to minimize the total production and transportation costs and the total delivery time with reference to budget constraints and available supply, machine capacities at each source, as well as forecast demand and warehouse space constraints at each destination. We compare in an industrial case the performance of S-curve membership functions, representing uncertainty goals and constraints in TPD problems, with linear membership functions.