Science.gov

Sample records for multi-pollutant control project

  1. Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel

    2008-10-18

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). There are about 400 units in the United States with capacities of 50-300 MW that currently are not equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. Many of these units, which collectively represent more than 55 GW of installed capacity, are difficult to retrofit for deep emission reductions because of space constraints and unfavorable economies of scale, making them increasingly vulnerable to retirement or fuel switching in the face of progressively more stringent environmental regulations. The Greenidge Project sought to confirm the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs by offering a combination of deep emission reductions, low capital costs, small space requirements, applicability to high-sulfur coals, mechanical simplicity, and operational flexibility. The multi-pollutant control system includes a NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE{reg_sign} hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct SCR system for NO{sub x} control and a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubbing system (with a new baghouse) for SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter control. Mercury removal is provided as a co-benefit of the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse, and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, if required. The multi-pollutant control system was installed and tested on the 107-MW{sub e}, 1953-vintage AES Greenidge Unit 4 by a team including

  2. Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P

    2009-01-12

    The Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative to demonstrate an innovative combination of air pollution control technologies that can cost-effectively reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, Hg, acid gases (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF), and particulate matter from smaller coal-fired electrical generating units (EGUs). The multi-pollutant control system includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NOx emissions by {ge}60%, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by {ge}95%. Mercury removal of {ge}90% is also targeted via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The technology is particularly well suited, because of its relatively low capital and maintenance costs and small space requirements, to meet the needs of coal-fired units with capacities of 50-300 MWe. There are about 440 such units in the United States that currently are not equipped with SCR, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), or mercury control systems. These smaller units are a valuable part of the nation's energy infrastructure, constituting about 60 GW of installed capacity. However, with the onset of the Clean Air Interstate Rule, Clean Air Mercury Rule, and various state environmental actions requiring deep reductions in emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury, the continued operation of these units increasingly depends upon the ability to identify viable air pollution control retrofit options for them. The large capital costs and sizable space requirements associated with conventional technologies such as SCR and wet FGD make these technologies unattractive for many smaller units. The Greenidge Project aims to confirm the

  3. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  4. Addendum to Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project: Additiona NH3, NOx, and CO Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P; Locke, James E

    2008-03-01

    On March 28-30 and May 1-4, 2007, CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-MW Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The testing in March and May demonstrated that the multi-pollutant control system attained its performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, acid gas (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF) removal efficiency, and mercury removal efficiency. However, the ammonia slip measured between the SCR outlet and air heater inlet was consistently greater than the guarantee of 2 ppmvd {at} 3% O{sub 2}. As a result, additional testing was performed on May 30-June 1 and on June 20-21, 2007, in conjunction with tuning of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system by BPEI, in an effort to achieve the performance target for ammonia slip. This additional testing occurred after the installation of a large particle ash (LPA) screen and removal system just above the SCR reactor and a fresh SCR catalyst layer in mid-May. This report describes the results of the additional tests. During the May 30-June 1 sampling period, CONSOL R&D and Clean Air Engineering (CAE) each measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the air heater inlet, downstream of the in-duct SCR reactor. In addition, CONSOL R&D measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the

  5. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE--BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    James Reynolds

    2003-04-30

    This is the second quarterly report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Upflow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members will conduct detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. Test results performed on the existing metallic WESP during November of 2002 showed consistent results with previous test results. Average collection efficiency of 89% on SO{sub 3} mist was achieved. Additionally, removal efficiencies of 62% were achieved at very high velocity, greater than 15 ft./sec. During the first quarter of 2003 final design and start of fabrication of the membrane wet ESP was undertaken.

  6. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE-BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    James Reynolds

    2003-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane--Based Upflow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members will conduct detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. Test results performed on the existing metallic WESP during November of 2002 showed consistent results with previous test results. Average collection efficiency of 89% on SO{sub 3} mist was achieved. Additionally, removal efficiencies of 62% were achieved at very high velocity, greater than 15 ft./sec.

  7. MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL USING MEMBRANE--BASED UP-FLOW WET ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    James Reynolds

    2004-10-29

    This is the Final Report of the ''Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-flow Wet Electrostatic Precipitation'' project funded by the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41592 to Croll-Reynolds Clean Air Technologies (CRCAT). In this 18 month project, CRCAT and its team members conducted detailed emission tests of metallic and new membrane collection material within a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) at First Energy's Penn Power's Bruce Mansfield (BMP) plant in Shippingport, Pa. The Membrane WESP was designed to be as similar as the metallic WESP in terms of collection area, air-flow, and electrical characteristics. Both units are two-field units. The membrane unit was installed during the 2nd and 3rd quarters of 2003. Testing of the metallic unit was performed to create a baseline since the Mansfield plant had installed selective catalytic reduction equipment for NOx control and a sodium bisulfate injection system for SO3 control during the spring of 2003. Tests results on the metallic WESP were consistent with previous testing for PM2.5, SO3 mist and mercury. Testing on the membrane WESP demonstrated no adverse impact and equivalent removal efficiencies as that of the metallic WESP. Testing on both units was performed at 8,000 acfm and 15,000 acfm. Summary results are shown.

  8. Managing Air Quality - Multi-Pollutant Planning and Control

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes how planning controls for multiple pollutants at the same time can save money and time and achieve significant benefits, and how control strategies can address both climate change and air quality.

  9. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-07-30

    baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury and other air pollutants, while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

  10. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL-ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-10-26

    baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

  11. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NOx or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NOx emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20-50%) on NOx, VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3-1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NOx (85%) and SO2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher R. McLaron

    2004-12-01

    Powerspan has conducted pilot scale testing of a multi-pollutant control technology at FirstEnergy's Burger Power Plant under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. The technology, Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO), simultaneously removes sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and mercury (Hg) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Powerspan's ECO{reg_sign} pilot test program focused on optimization of Hg removal in a 1-MWe slipstream pilot while maintaining greater than 90% removal of NO{sub x} and 98% removal of SO{sub 2}. This Final Technical Report discusses pilot operations, installation and maintenance of the Hg SCEMS instrumentation, and performance results including component and overall removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM and Hg from the flue gas and removal of captured Hg from the co-product fertilizer stream.

  13. Multi-Pollutant Planning and Control Strategies for Air Quality Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes how planning controls for multiple pollutants at the same time can save money and time and achieve significant benefits, and how control strategies can address both climate change and air quality.

  14. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL SIMULATIONS IN AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, we use the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the effect of several control strategies on simultaneous concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and three important HAPs: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene.

  15. Characterization of Coal Combustion Residues from Electric Utilities Using Wet Scrubbers for Multi-Pollutant Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates changes that may occur to coal combustion residues (CCRs) in response to changes in air pollution control technology at coal-fired power plants, which will reduce emissions from the flue gas stack by transferring pollutants to fly ash and other air pollution...

  16. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL SIMULATIONS IN AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, we use the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the effect of several control strategies on simultaneous concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and three important HAPs: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene.

  17. Characterization of Coal Combustion Residues from Electric Utilities Using Wet Scrubbers for Multi-Pollutant Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates changes that may occur to coal combustion residues (CCRs) in response to changes in air pollution control technology at coal-fired power plants, which will reduce emissions from the flue gas stack by transferring pollutants to fly ash and other air pollution...

  18. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2006-01-25

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  19. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven T. Derenne

    2006-04-28

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  20. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  1. Project management controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.S. ); Carnes, W.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Project management controls are utilized to enhance the probability that a project will be successful. The control system used by a project manager can take many forms and can be applied at different times to varying degrees on a given project depending upon its complexity. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is one project of many at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The United States Department of Energy Order 4700.1 is a project management system that is applied on a site-wide basis, thus including the CIF. The control system required by this order is proceduralized to ensure that it is applied in a consistent manner and will produce reliable results. These results provide the project manager with a correlation of both costs and schedule within the defined scope to adequately asses the status of the project. This is an iterative process and can be simply stated: plan, actual, variance, corrective action, prediction, and revision. This paper presents the basis for the project management controls applied at the Savannah River Site.

  2. Project management controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.S.; Carnes, W.S.

    1990-12-31

    Project management controls are utilized to enhance the probability that a project will be successful. The control system used by a project manager can take many forms and can be applied at different times to varying degrees on a given project depending upon its complexity. The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is one project of many at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The United States Department of Energy Order 4700.1 is a project management system that is applied on a site-wide basis, thus including the CIF. The control system required by this order is proceduralized to ensure that it is applied in a consistent manner and will produce reliable results. These results provide the project manager with a correlation of both costs and schedule within the defined scope to adequately asses the status of the project. This is an iterative process and can be simply stated: plan, actual, variance, corrective action, prediction, and revision. This paper presents the basis for the project management controls applied at the Savannah River Site.

  3. Device Oriented Project Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  4. Septic tank discharges as multi-pollutant hotspots in catchments.

    PubMed

    Richards, Samia; Paterson, Eric; Withers, Paul J A; Stutter, Marc

    2016-01-15

    Small point sources of pollutants such as septic tanks are recognised as significant contributors to streams' pathogen and nutrient loadings, however there is little data in the UK on which to judge the potential risks that septic tank effluents (STEs) pose to water quality and human health. We present the first comprehensive analysis of STE to help assess multi-pollutant characteristics, management-related risk factors and potential tracers that might be used to identify STE sources. Thirty-two septic tank effluents from residential households located in North East of Scotland were sampled along with adjacent stream waters. Biological, physical, chemical and fluorescence characterisation was coupled with information on system age, design, type of tank, tank management and number of users. Biological characterisation revealed that total coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration ranges were: 10(3)-10(8) and 10(3)-10(7)MPN/100 mL, respectively. Physical parameters such as electrical conductivity, turbidity and alkalinity ranged 160-1730 μS/cm, 8-916 NTU and 15-698 mg/L, respectively. Effluent total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonium-N (NH4-N) concentrations ranged 1-32, <1-26, 11-146 and 2-144 mg/L, respectively. Positive correlations were obtained between phosphorus, sodium, potassium, barium, copper and aluminium. Domestic STE may pose pollution risks particularly for NH4-N, dissolved P, SRP, copper, dissolved N, and potassium since enrichment factors were >1651, 213, 176, 63, 14 and 8 times that of stream waters, respectively. Fluorescence characterisation revealed the presence of tryptophan peak in the effluent and downstream waters but not detected upstream from the source. Tank condition, management and number of users had influenced effluent quality that can pose a direct risk to stream waters as multiple points of pollutants.

  5. Multi-pollutant exposures in an asthmatic cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ron; Rappold, Ana G.; Case, Martin; Schmitt, Mike; Stone, Susan; Jones, Paul; Thornburg, Jonathan; Devlin, Robert B.

    2012-12-01

    An investigation of personal fine and coarse particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10-2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) exposures was conducted with an adult asthmatic cohort as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Moderate and Severe Asthmatics and their Environment Study (MASAES). The overall goal of the MASAES was to determine the association of particulate matter on the degree of resulting lung inflammation, with those having severe asthma hypothesized to be more highly susceptible to such outcomes. The primary exposure objective was to determine the spatial (personal versus ambient) and temporal relationships associated with the aforementioned air pollutants and establish the precision of a new dual PM2.5, PM10-2.5 monitor (CPEM) for personal exposure monitoring. A total of 16 non-smoking adults of various asthma severities were monitored over the course of a 14 month period during 2008-2009. Participants were monitored for 24 continuous hours each monitoring day with a maximum of five events per participant. Median personal PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 exposures were 16.5 and 10.1 μg m-3, respectively. Daily ambient mass concentrations accounted for less than 1% of the observed variability in personal PM2.5 or PM10-2.5 exposures. Duplicate personal measures yielded R2 values of 0.92 PM2.5 and 0.77 PM10-2.5, respectively. Maximum daily personal exposures of 17.0 ppb NO2 and 21.7 ppb O3 occurred with respective mean exposures of 5.8 and 3.4 ppb. Ambient NO2 and O3 measures were observed to be poorly associated with personal exposures (R2 < 0.08) when viewed independent of the participant. The poor correlation between personal and ambient concentrations of PM as well as the various gaseous copollutants indicates the complexity of the multi-pollutant environment and the impact of non-ambient sources on these pollutants relative to total personal exposures.

  6. Project resources planning and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibbers, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains instructional guidelines for the resources planning and control of research and development (R&D) projects managed by NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC). Although written to serve primarily as a practical guide and reference for those LaRC personnel who perform resources planning, analysis, control, and reporting functions, it should also be meaningful to other NASA personnel who are directly or indirectly involved in or affected by these functions, especially project technical managers whose responsibilities include resources management. Certain sections should help Contractor personnel to better understand what resources information must usually be submitted on LaRC projects and what use is made of such information. The Project Manager of a large R&D project typicaly receives support from an Analyst in the area of resources management. The Analyst provides assistance in four functional areas: Planning, Analysis/Control, Administration, and Reporting. Each of these functions are discussed in detail. Examples of techniques used effectively on LaRC projects have been included where applicable. A considerable amount of information has been included on the use of Performance Measurement (Earned Value) Systems for contract cost control and reporting as little information is currently available on this subject in NASA publications.

  7. Microphonics control for Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Schappert, W.; Barbanotti, S.; Branlard, J.; Cancelo, G.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Champion, M.; Gonin, I.; Klebaner, A.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The proposed multi-MW Project X facility at Fermilab will employ cavities with bandwidths as narrow as 20 Hz. This combination of high RF power with narrow bandwidths combined requires careful attention to detuning control if these cavities are to be operated successfully. Detuning control for Projects X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various machine subsystems. Considerable progress in this area has been made over the past year. Detuning levels in the Project X cavities, specifically the Low and High {beta} 650 MHz elliptical types, can have a significant impact on the overall cost of the project. The narrow bandwidths, and the high RF Power requirements, and the large number of these cavities mean that careful attention to detuning control will be required if these cavities are to operate successfully. Limiting cavity detuning in Project X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various subsystems of the planned machine. Considerable progress towards this goal has been made by each of these groups over the past year.

  8. Simultaneous removal of multi-pollutants from flue gas by a vaporized composite absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Xue, Fangming; Feng, Yanan

    2017-01-05

    An economical process that was used to remove SO2, NO and Hg(0) simultaneously was developed, based on the pre-oxidations of Hg(0) and NO by a vaporized Fenton-based complex oxidant (FO) consisted of Fenton and NaClO. The effects of concentrations of FeSO4 and NaClO in the oxidant, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutant, the oxidant solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants, the flue gas flow and the concentrations of coexistence gases in flue gas on the simultaneous removals were investigated experimentally. The results showed that the removals of NO and Hg(0) were significantly depended on FeSO4 and NaClO concentrations, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutants, the FO solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants and flue gas flow. And higher concentration of SO2 and an appropriate concentration of NO had the promotion for Hg(0) removal. The average simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO2, 81% for NO and 91% for Hg(0) were obtained under the optimal reaction conditions. According to the characterization of the reaction removal products by SEM, EDS, XRD and AFS, the reaction mechanism was speculated.

  9. Statistical Approaches to Address Multi-Pollutant Mixtures and Multiple Exposures: the State of the Science.

    PubMed

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Breitner, Susanne; Hampel, Regina; Basagaña, Xavier

    2017-10-07

    The purpose of this review is to describe the most recent statistical approaches to estimate the effect of multi-pollutant mixtures or multiple correlated exposures on human health. The health effects of environmental chemicals or air pollutants have been widely described. Often, there exists a complex mixture of different substances, potentially highly correlated with each other and with other (environmental) stressors. Single-exposure approaches do not allow disentangling effects of individual factors and fail to detect potential interactions between exposures. In the last years, sophisticated methods have been developed to investigate the joint or independent health effects of multi-pollutant mixtures or multiple environmental exposures. A classification of the most recent methods is proposed. A non-technical description of each method is provided, together with epidemiological applications and operational details for implementation with standard software.

  10. UMTRA Project document control system manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This manual defines the Project Document Control System (PDCS) operated by the US DOE Uranium Mill tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project Office. The purpose of the PDCS is to provide an active and continuing program for acquiring, controlling, retaining, retrieving, retiring and disposing of all UMTRA Project documents. The PDCS also provides guidance and coordination in transferring documents by various UMTRA Projection document control centers to a central location.

  11. Framing air pollution epidemiology in terms of population interventions, with applications to multi-pollutant modeling

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Reid, Colleen E.; Tager, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiology continues moving toward the study of mixtures and multi-pollutant modeling. Simultaneously, there is a movement in epidemiology to estimate policy-relevant health effects that can be understood in reference to specific interventions. Scaling regression coefficients from a regression model by an interquartile range (IQR) is one common approach to presenting multi-pollutant health effect estimates. We are unaware of guidance on how to interpret these effect estimates as an intervention. To illustrate the issues of interpretability of IQR-scaled air pollution health effects, we analyzed how daily concentration changes in two air pollutants (NO2 and PM2.5; nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5μm) related to one another within two seasons (summer and winter), within three cities with distinct air pollution profiles (Burbank, California; Houston, Texas; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). In each city-season, we examined how realistically IQR-scaling in multipollutant lag-1 time-series studies reflects a hypothetical intervention that is possible given the observed data. We proposed 2 causal conditions to explicitly link IQR-scaled effects to a clearly defined hypothetical intervention. Condition 1 specified that the index pollutant had to experience a daily concentration change of greater than one IQR, reflecting the notion that the IQR is an appropriate measure of variability between consecutive days. Condition 2 specified that the co-pollutant had to remain relatively constant. We found that in some city-seasons, there were very few instances in which these conditions were satisfied (e.g., 1 day in Pittsburgh during summer). We discuss the practical implications of IQR scaling and suggest alternative approaches to presenting multi-pollutant effects that are supported by empirical data. PMID:25643106

  12. Mapping Exposure to Multi-Pollutants Using Environmental Biomonitors-A Multi-Exposure Index.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Helena C; Köbel, Melanie; Palma-Oliveira, José; Pinho, Pedro; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    Atmosphere is a major pathway for transport and deposition of pollutants in the environment. In industrial areas, organic compounds are released or formed as by-products, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F's). Inorganic chemical elements, including lead and arsenic, are also part of the pollutants mixture, and even in low concentrations may potentially be toxic and carcinogenic. However, assessing the spatial pattern of their deposition is difficult due to high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Lichens have been used as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition, because these organisms encompass greater spatial detail than air monitoring stations and provide an integration of overall pollution. Based upon the ability of lichens to concentrate pollutants such as PCDD/F and chemical elements, the main objectives of this study were to develop a new semi-quantitative multi-pollutant toxicity exposure index (TEQ-like), derived from risk estimates, in an attempt to correlate several atmospheric pollutants to human exposure levels. The actual pollutant concentrations were measured in the environment, from biomonitors (organisms that integrate multi-pollutants), enabling interpolation and mapping of contaminant deposition within the region. Thus, the TEQ-like index provides a spatial representation not from absolute accumulation of the different pollutants, but from the accumulation weighted by their relative risk. The assessment of environmental human exposure to multi-pollutants through atmospheric deposition may be applied to industries to improve mitigation processes or to health stakeholders to target populations for a comprehensive risk assessment, epidemiological studies, and health recommendations.

  13. Version Control in Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milentijevic, Ivan; Ciric, Vladimir; Vojinovic, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a generalized model for version control systems application as a support in a range of project-based learning methods. The model is given as UML sequence diagram and described in detail. The proposed model encompasses a wide range of different project-based learning approaches by assigning a supervisory…

  14. Version Control in Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milentijevic, Ivan; Ciric, Vladimir; Vojinovic, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a generalized model for version control systems application as a support in a range of project-based learning methods. The model is given as UML sequence diagram and described in detail. The proposed model encompasses a wide range of different project-based learning approaches by assigning a supervisory…

  15. Characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China: Comparison of three air quality indices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Wang, Yungang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Multi-pollutant air pollution (i.e., several pollutants reaching very high concentrations simultaneously) frequently occurs in many regions across China. Air quality index (AQI) is used worldwide to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. The current AQI approach used in China is based on the maximum value of individual pollutants, and does not consider the combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants. In this study, two novel alternative indices--aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI)--were calculated based on data collected in six megacities of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shjiazhuang, Xi'an, and Wuhan) during 2013 to 2014. Both AAQI and HAQI take into account the combined health effects of various pollutants, and the HAQI considers the exposure (or concentration)-response relationships of pollutants. AAQI and HAQI were compared to AQI to examine the effectiveness of the current AQI in characterizing multi-pollutant air pollution in China. The AAQI and HAQI values are higher than the AQI on days when two or more pollutants simultaneously exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) 24-hour Grade II standards. The results of the comparison of the classification of risk categories based on the three indices indicate that the current AQI approach underestimates the severity of health risk associated with exposure to multi-pollutant air pollution. For the AQI-based risk category of 'unhealthy', 96% and 80% of the days would be 'very unhealthy' or 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively; and for the AQI-based risk category of 'very unhealthy', 67% and 75% of the days would be 'hazardous' if based on AAQI and HAQI, respectively. The results suggest that the general public, especially sensitive population groups such as children and the elderly, should take more stringent actions than those currently suggested based on the AQI approach during

  16. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  17. The Indonesian treponematoses control project.

    PubMed

    SOETOPO, M; WASITO, R; SOEDARSONO, H; TJOKRODIPO, D

    1956-01-01

    Yaws control in Indonesia is based on use of the trained polyclinic nurse and his assistant, the "djuru-patek"; the polyclinics existed before the control began and each serves one subdistrict with a population of about 30 000. The campaign is thus part of the established health services from the start and consolidation presents few difficulties of integration. Surveys and resurveys are held by calling together the village population for examination and later for treatment. The maximum dose (1.2 million units of PAM) is given to active cases only. At resurveys most active cases are found in those who had latent or incubating yaws when seen earlier.It is pointed out that prevalence ratios of active cases to seroreactors of 1: 3-4 are probably due to previous treatment having been given; in previously untreated areas, a ratio of 1: 2 is more usual.In the consolidation stage, surveillance is maintained in polyclinics, villages and schools and the fullest co-operation of the population is sought, as it is at all stages of the campaign.

  18. NASA Project Planning and Control Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreland, Robert; Claunch, Cathy L.

    2016-01-01

    This handbook provides an overview of the fundamental principles and explains the functions and products that go into project planning and control. The 2010 Interim Results of the NASA Program Planning and Control (PPC) Study identified seven categories of activities for PPC, and those provide the basis for the seven functions described in this handbook. This handbook maps out the interfaces and interactions between PPC functions, as well as their external interfaces. This integration of information and products within and between functions is necessary to form the whole picture of how a project is progressing. The handbook descriptions are meant to facilitate consistent, common, and comprehensive approaches for providing valued analysis, assessment, and evaluation focused on the project level at NASA. The handbook also describes activities in terms of function rather than the job title or the specific person or organization responsible for the activity, which could differ by Center or size of a project. This handbook is primarily guidance for project planning and control: however, the same principles apply to programs and generally apply to institutional planning and control.

  19. Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Mult-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Daniel P; Locke, James E

    2008-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-megawatt (MW) Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/induct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. Testing was conducted through ports located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor to evaluate the performance of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system, as well as through ports located at the air heater outlet and baghouse outlet or stack to determine pollutant removal efficiencies across the Turbosorp{reg_sign} scrubber and baghouse. Data from the unit's stack continuous emission monitor (CEM) were also used for determining attainment of the performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiency.

  20. Simultaneous removal of multi-pollutants in an intimate integrated flocculation-adsorption fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dandan; Xu, Zhengxue; Wang, Yao; Wang, Jun; Hou, Dianxun; Dong, Shuangshi

    2015-03-01

    A novel intimate integrated flocculation-adsorption fluidized bed (IFAFB) was designed based on the hydraulic classification theory, and the operation, performance, characterization, and mechanisms of the novel process were developed. In this system, 150 mg · L(-1) kaolin clay and 100 mg · L(-1) phenol were used to simulate multi-pollutants in synthetic influent; resin beads and silica beads were the solid phases for the fluidized flocculator, and polymer aluminum chloride (PAC) and granular activated carbon were the flocculant and the adsorbent, respectively. The results showed that the Euler numeral was the most suitable dynamic parameter for flocculation in the fluidized bed when compared with the velocity gradient (G), Reynolds number (Re), and GRe (-1/2) . Additionally, the adsorption capacities of the fluidized regime were 8.77 and 24.70 mg · g(-1) greater than those of the fixed regime at superficial velocities of 6 and 8 mm · s(-1), respectively. In the IFAFB, the removal efficiencies of kaolin clay and phenol in the IFAFB reached 95 and 80 % simultaneously at total initial bed height of 35 mm. Flocs size, fractal dimension, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that the relationship of flocculation and adsorption in the IFAFB was mutually beneficial. Adsorption favored continuous growth of flocs and protected flocs from breakage, while flocculation removed fine particles as the first stage to prevent the adsorption of kaolin clay.

  1. Multi-pollutant surface objective analyses and mapping of air quality health index over North America.

    PubMed

    Robichaud, Alain; Ménard, Richard; Zaïtseva, Yulia; Anselmo, David

    2016-01-01

    Air quality, like weather, can affect everyone, but responses differ depending on the sensitivity and health condition of a given individual. To help protect exposed populations, many countries have put in place real-time air quality nowcasting and forecasting capabilities. We present in this paper an optimal combination of air quality measurements and model outputs and show that it leads to significant improvements in the spatial representativeness of air quality. The product is referred to as multi-pollutant surface objective analyses (MPSOAs). Moreover, based on MPSOA, a geographical mapping of the Canadian Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is also presented which provides users (policy makers, public, air quality forecasters, and epidemiologists) with a more accurate picture of the health risk anytime and anywhere in Canada and the USA. Since pollutants can also behave as passive atmospheric tracers, they provide information about transport and dispersion and, hence, reveal synoptic and regional meteorological phenomena. MPSOA could also be used to build air pollution climatology, compute local and national trends in air quality, and detect systematic biases in numerical air quality (AQ) models. Finally, initializing AQ models at regular time intervals with MPSOA can produce more accurate air quality forecasts. It is for these reasons that the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) in collaboration with the Air Quality Research Division (AQRD) of Environment Canada has recently implemented MPSOA in their daily operations.

  2. Bayesian kernel machine regression for estimating the health effects of multi-pollutant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bobb, Jennifer F; Valeri, Linda; Claus Henn, Birgit; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Godleski, John J; Coull, Brent A

    2015-07-01

    Because humans are invariably exposed to complex chemical mixtures, estimating the health effects of multi-pollutant exposures is of critical concern in environmental epidemiology, and to regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, most health effects studies focus on single agents or consider simple two-way interaction models, in part because we lack the statistical methodology to more realistically capture the complexity of mixed exposures. We introduce Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) as a new approach to study mixtures, in which the health outcome is regressed on a flexible function of the mixture (e.g. air pollution or toxic waste) components that is specified using a kernel function. In high-dimensional settings, a novel hierarchical variable selection approach is incorporated to identify important mixture components and account for the correlated structure of the mixture. Simulation studies demonstrate the success of BKMR in estimating the exposure-response function and in identifying the individual components of the mixture responsible for health effects. We demonstrate the features of the method through epidemiology and toxicology applications.

  3. Multi-pollutant mobile platform measurements of air pollutants adjacent to a major roadway

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Erin A.; Banks, Lyndsey; Fintzi, Jonathan; Gould, Timothy R.; Hartin, Kris; Schaal, LaNae; Davey, Mark; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Yost, Michael G.; Simpson, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    A mobile monitoring platform developed at the University of Washington Center for Clean Air Research (CCAR) measured 10 pollutant metrics (10 s measurements at an average speed of 22 km/hr) in two neighborhoods bordering a major interstate in Albuquerque, NM, USA from April 18-24 2012. 5 days of data sharing a common downwind orientation with respect to the roadway were analyzed. The aggregate results show a three-fold increase in black carbon (BC) concentrations within 10 meters of the edge of roadway, in addition to elevated nanoparticle concentration and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 1 μm (PN1) concentrations. A 30% reduction in ozone concentration near the roadway was observed, anti-correlated with an increase in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In this study, the pollutants measured have been expanded to include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particle size distribution (0.25-32 μm), and ultra-violet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM). The raster sampling scheme combined with spatial and temporal measurement alignment provide a measure of variability in the near roadway concentrations, and allow us to use a principal component analysis to identify multi-pollutant features and analyze their roadway influences. PMID:25364294

  4. Multi-pollutant mobile platform measurements of air pollutants adjacent to a major roadway.

    PubMed

    Riley, Erin A; Banks, Lyndsey; Fintzi, Jonathan; Gould, Timothy R; Hartin, Kris; Schaal, LaNae; Davey, Mark; Sheppard, Lianne; Larson, Timothy; Yost, Michael G; Simpson, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    A mobile monitoring platform developed at the University of Washington Center for Clean Air Research (CCAR) measured 10 pollutant metrics (10 s measurements at an average speed of 22 km/hr) in two neighborhoods bordering a major interstate in Albuquerque, NM, USA from April 18-24 2012. 5 days of data sharing a common downwind orientation with respect to the roadway were analyzed. The aggregate results show a three-fold increase in black carbon (BC) concentrations within 10 meters of the edge of roadway, in addition to elevated nanoparticle concentration and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 1 μm (PN1) concentrations. A 30% reduction in ozone concentration near the roadway was observed, anti-correlated with an increase in the oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In this study, the pollutants measured have been expanded to include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particle size distribution (0.25-32 μm), and ultra-violet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM). The raster sampling scheme combined with spatial and temporal measurement alignment provide a measure of variability in the near roadway concentrations, and allow us to use a principal component analysis to identify multi-pollutant features and analyze their roadway influences.

  5. The AFIT gross motion control project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Gross Motion Control project is to study alternative control approaches that will provide payload invariant high speed trajectory tracking for nonrepetitive motions in free space. The research has concentrated on modifications to the model-based control structure. Development and evaluation is being actively pursued of both adaptive primary (inner loop) and robust secondary (output loop) controllers. In-house developments are compared and contrasted to the techniques proposed by other researchers. The case study for the evaluation is the first three links of a PUMA-560. Incorporating the principals of multiple model adaptive estimation, artificial neural networks, and Lyapunov theory into the model based paradigm has shown the potential for enhanced tracking. Secondary controllers based on Quantitative Feedback Theory, or augmented with auxiliary inputs, significantly improve the robustness to payload variations and unmodeled drive system dynamics. An overview is presented of the different concepts under investigation and a sample is provided of the latest experimental results.

  6. Method oil shale pollutant sorption/NO.sub.x reburning multi-pollutant control

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2008-06-10

    A method of decreasing pollutants produced in a combustion process. The method comprises combusting coal in a combustion chamber to produce at least one pollutant selected from the group consisting of a nitrogen-containing pollutant, sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, chlorine, hydroiodic acid, iodine, hydrofluoric acid, fluorine, hydrobromic acid, bromine, phosphoric acid, phosphorous pentaoxide, elemental mercury, and mercuric chloride. Oil shale particles are introduced into the combustion chamber and are combusted to produce sorbent particulates and a reductant. The at least one pollutant is contacted with at least one of the sorbent particulates and the reductant to decrease an amount of the at least one pollutant in the combustion chamber. The reductant may chemically reduce the at least one pollutant to a benign species. The sorbent particulates may adsorb or absorb the at least one pollutant. A combustion chamber that produces decreased pollutants in a combustion process is also disclosed.

  7. Multi-pollutant treatment of crystalline cellulosic effluent: Function of dissolved oxygen on process control.

    PubMed

    Shanthi Sravan, J; Naresh Kumar, A; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of crystalline cellulose based wastewater was carried out in periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR). Specific influence of dissolved oxygen on treatment of crystalline cellulosic (CC) wastewater was evaluated in three different microenvironments such as aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic. PDBR-aerobic biosystem documented relatively higher substrate degradation [2.63kgCOD/m(3)-day (92%)] in comparison to PDBR-anoxic [2.12kgCOD/m(3)-day (71%)] and PDBR-anaerobic [1.81kgCOD/m(3)-day (63%)], which is in accordance with the observed DO levels. Similarly, multipollutants viz., phosphates and nitrates removal was observed to be higher in aerobic followed by anoxic and anaerobic operations. Higher nitrate removal in aerobic operation might be attributed to the efficient denitrification carried out by the biocatalyst, which utilizes both nitrates and oxygen as oxidizing agents. Multiscan spectral profiles depicted reduction in color intensity in all three microenvironments that correlated with the substrate degradation observed. Despite the high organic load, PDBR functioned well without exhibiting process inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Statistical Project Control Tool for Engineering Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of a Statistical Project Control Tool (SPCT) for managing engineering projects. A literature review pointed to a definition of project success, (i.e., A project is successful when the cost, schedule, technical performance, and quality satisfy the customer.) The literature review also pointed to project success factors, and traditional project control tools, and performance measures that are detailed in the report. The essential problem is that with resources becoming more limited, and an increasing number or projects, project failure is increasing, there is a limitation of existing methods and systematic methods are required. The objective of the work is to provide a new statistical project control tool for project managers. Graphs using the SPCT method plotting results of 3 successful projects and 3 failed projects are reviewed, with success and failure being defined by the owner.

  9. Project W-058 monitor and control system logic

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERTS, J.B.

    1999-05-12

    This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console.

  10. TRMM project contamination control using molecular adsorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, S.; Chen, P.; Thomson, S.; Bettini, R.; Triolo, J.; Carosso, N.

    1996-03-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a spacecraft under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and is scheduled for launch in August 1997. The spacecraft design includes the use of numerous optical instruments and the thermal control surfaces. In addition to the inherent contamination sensitivities of the optical and thermal systems, TRMM has had the added challenge of designing systems to function at a relatively low altitude (350 km), with solar exposure. Under these conditions, high atomic oxygen densities and potentially high levels of backscattered contamination (self-contamination), as well as UV photopolymerization effects, all pose major threats to sensitive TRMM elements. In considering the various contamination control paths to follow, the TRMM project management has opted for pursuing a relatively new, but very promising technology for the TRMM spacecraft in order to lower the on-orbit contamination levels. TRMM will be incorporating Molecular Adsorbers as part of the basic spacecraft design. This paper will summarize the TRMM requirements, describe the Molecular Adsorbers being fabricated for the mission, and discuss the expected benefits of this method of on-orbit contamination control. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. TRMM project contamination control using molecular adsorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Sharon; Chen, Philip; Thomson, Shaun; Bettini, Ron; Triolo, Jack; Carosso, Nancy

    1996-03-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a spacecraft under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and is scheduled for launch in August 1997. The spacecraft design includes the use of numerous optical instruments and the thermal control surfaces. In addition to the inherent contamination sensitivities of the optical and thermal systems, TRMM has had the added challenge of designing systems to function at a relatively low altitude (350 km), with solar exposure. Under these conditions, high atomic oxygen densities and potentially high levels of backscattered contamination (self-contamination), as well as UV photopolymerization effects, all pose major threats to sensitive TRMM elements. In considering the various contamination control paths to follow, the TRMM project management has opted for pursuing a relatively new, but very promising technology for the TRMM spacecraft in order to lower the on-orbit contamination levels. TRMM will be incorporating Molecular Adsorbers as part of the basic spacecraft design. This paper will summarize the TRMM requirements, describe the Molecular Adsorbers being fabricated for the mission, and discuss the expected benefits of this method of on-orbit contamination control.

  12. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (<0.3%). SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp) proved the best application method to remove PAH, mainly BaP, and detoxify the multi-polluted soil.

  13. Project Design Concept for Monitoring and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    This Project Design Concept represents operational requirements established for use in design the tank farm Monitoring and Control System. These upgrades are included within the scope of Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.

  14. Multi-pollutant emissions from the burning of major agricultural residues in China and the related health-economic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunlin; Hu, Yunjie; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Jianmin; Ma, Zhen; Ye, Xingnan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Tang, Xingfu; Zhang, Renhe; Mu, Mu; Wang, Guihua; Kan, Haidong; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2017-04-01

    Multi-pollutants in smoke particulate matter (SPM) were identified and quantified for the biomass burning of five major agricultural residues (wheat, rice, corn, cotton, and soybean straw) in China by an aerosol chamber system combined with various measurement techniques. The primary emission factors (EFs) for PM1. 0 and PM2. 5 are 3.04-12.64 and 3.25-15.16 g kg-1. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble inorganics (WSIs), water-soluble organic acids (WSOAs), water-soluble amine salts (WSAs), trace mineral elements (THMs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and phenols in smoke PM1. 0/PM2. 5 are 1.34-6.04/1.54-7.42, 0.58-2.08/0.61-2.18, 0.51-3.52/0.52-3.81, 0.13-0.64/0.14-0.77, (4.39-85.72/4.51-104.79) × 10-3, (11.8-51.1/14.0-131.6) × 10-3, (1.1-4.0/1.8-8.3) × 10-3, and (7.7-23.5/9.7-41.5) × 10-3 g kg-1, respectively. Black carbon (BC) mainly exists in PM1. 0; heavy-metal-bearing particles favour residing in the range of smoke PM1. 0-2. 5, which is also confirmed by individual particle analysis. With respect to the five scenarios of burning activities, the average emissions and overall propagation of uncertainties at the 95 % confidence interval (CI) of SPM from agricultural open burning in China in 2012 were estimated to be 1005.7 (-24.6, 33.7 %), 901.4 (-24.4, 33.5 %), 432.4 (-24.2, 33.5 %), 134.2 (-24., 34.0 %), 249.8 (-25.4, 34.9 %), 25.1 (-33.3, 41.4 %), 5.8 (-30.1, 38.5 %), 8.7 (-26.6, 35.6 %), 0.5 (-26.0, 34.9 %), and 2.7 (-26.1, 35.1 %) Gg for PM2. 5, PM1. 0, OC, EC, WSI, WSOA, WSA, THM, PAHs, and phenols , respectively. The emissions were further spatio-temporally characterized using a geographic information system (GIS) in different regions in the summer and autumn post-harvest periods. It was found that less than 25 % of the total emissions were released during the summer harvest, which was mainly contributed by the North Plain and the centre of China, especially Henan, Shandong, and Anhui, which are the top three provinces

  15. Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project - 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989-1993 are listed. The biomass production chamber to be used by the project is described.

  16. Self-Correcting HVAC Controls Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Cho, Heejin; Goddard, James K.; Dinh, Liem H.

    2010-01-04

    This document represents the final project report for the Self-Correcting Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Controls Project jointly funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP). The project, initiated in October 2008, focused on exploratory initial development of self-correcting controls for selected HVAC components in air handlers. This report, along with the companion report documenting the algorithms developed, Self-Correcting HVAC Controls: Algorithms for Sensors and Dampers in Air-Handling Units (Fernandez et al. 2009), document the work performed and results of this project.

  17. Northeastern Oregon bark beetle control project 1910-11.

    Treesearch

    H.E. Burke

    1990-01-01

    This history, from the memoirs of the entomologist in charge, describes the first large-scale cooperative bark beetle control project funded by Congress in the Western United States. It describes relations between the Forest Service, Bureau of Entomology, and private timber owners, how the project was organized and conducted, and results of the control measures. The...

  18. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 1: Planning Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the planning documents from the GCS project. Volume 1 contains five appendices: A. Plan for Software Aspects of Certification for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Development Standards for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Software Verification Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Guidance and Control Software Project; and E. Software Quality Assurance Activities.

  19. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 2: Development Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the development documents from the GCS project. Volume 2 contains three appendices: A. Guidance and Control Software Development Specification; B. Design Description for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and C. Source Code for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software

  20. Project impact analysis as an optimal control problem

    SciTech Connect

    Anandalingam, G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of a major investment project on a multi-sector less developed economy. Single investment projects with external effects reaching across the entire economy are frequently encountered in developing countries. This study concentrates on the Mahaweli Ganga Development Project in Sri Lanka, a multi-dam irrigation and hydroelectric power project. The Mahaweli Project calls for an annual investment level, in 1970 prices, of Rs 2200 million (US $150 million) over a period of six years, which is 50 percent of the annual expenditure of the government. The project would thus require a large fraction of total investment over a medium term planning period and would materially alter the existing supply and demand for major goods and services. The project is sufficiently large that its effect is economy-wide. The model we use is a dynamic input-output optimizing model having the mathematical structure of an Optimal Control problem.

  1. First-of-A-Kind Control Room Modernization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Kenneth David

    2016-02-01

    This project plan describes a comprehensive approach to the design of an end-state concept for a modernized control room for Palo Verde. It describes the collaboration arrangement between the DOE LWRS Program Control Room Modernization Project and the APS Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. It further describes the role of other collaborators, including the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It combines advanced tools, methodologies, and facilities to enable a science-based approach to the validation of applicable engineering and human factors principles for nuclear plant control rooms. It addresses the required project results and documentation to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. It describes the project tasks that will be conducted in the project, and the deliverable reports that will be developed through these tasks. This project plan will be updated as new tasks are added and as project milestones are completed. It will serve as an ongoing description on the project both for project participants and for industry stakeholders.

  2. R&D Project Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The recurrence of problems in connection with research and development (R and D) activities supported by the Audio-Visual Center of Indiana University led to the development of a proposed control system. This paper lists those problems and examines the assumptions which must be met by the control system--that the Center will support all types of R…

  3. Project W-049H instrument and control Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, M.C.

    1994-11-16

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) for the Project W-049H, Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, is to verify that the instrument and control systems have been installed in accordance with the design documents and function as required by the project criteria. The instrument and control system includes three operator control stations, modems, and general purpose LAN interface cabinets in the Effluent Treatment Facility control room; two pump stations; disposal station pumping building; and all local control units installed in the fold. Testing will be performed using actual signals when available and simulated signals when actual signals are unavailable.

  4. Environmental Risk Score as a New Tool to Examine Multi-Pollutants in Epidemiologic Research: An Example from the NHANES Study Using Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Tao, Yebin; Meeker, John D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and plasticizers play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. Most epidemiologic studies have examined environmental pollutants individually, but in real life, we are exposed to multi-pollutants and pollution mixtures, not single pollutants. Although multi-pollutant approaches have been recognized recently, challenges exist such as how to estimate the risk of adverse health responses from multi-pollutants. We propose an “Environmental Risk Score (ERS)” as a new simple tool to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research. Methods and Results We examined 134 environmental pollutants in relation to serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2006. Using a two-stage approach, stage-1 for discovery (n = 10818) and stage-2 for validation (n = 4615), we identified 13 associated pollutants for total cholesterol, 9 for HDL, 5 for LDL and 27 for triglycerides with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and serum nutrient levels. Using the regression coefficients (weights) from joint analyses of the combined data and exposure concentrations, ERS were computed as a weighted sum of the pollutant levels. We computed ERS for multiple lipid outcomes examined individually (single-phenotype approach) or together (multi-phenotype approach). Although the contributions of ERS to overall risk predictions for lipid outcomes were modest, we found relatively stronger associations between ERS and lipid outcomes than with individual pollutants. The magnitudes of the observed associations for ERS were comparable to or stronger than those for socio-demographic factors or BMI. Conclusions This study suggests ERS is

  5. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  6. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM - UNDERGROUND MINE SOURCE CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of the Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 8, Underground Mine Source Control Demonstration Project implemented and funded by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U. S. Department of E...

  7. Statistical Process Control. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, M.; Clark, I.

    A project was conducted to develop a curriculum and training materials to be used in training industrial operatives in statistical process control (SPC) techniques. During the first phase of the project, questionnaires were sent to 685 companies (215 of which responded) to determine where SPC was being used, what type of SPC firms needed, and how…

  8. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  9. Controls on project proponents and environmental impact assessment effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Ortolano, L. )

    1993-01-01

    The degree of effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) for particular projects is associated with the existence of mechanisms of organizational control. Five dimensions of EIA effectiveness are considered: procedural compliance, completeness of EIA documents, methods to assess impacts, influence on project decisions, and weight given to environmental factors. Six mechanisms of control are introduced and illustrated by programs and projects in several countries. Experience in the Philippines under President Marcos demonstrates that procedural control in the form of EIA regulations, when used without other control mechanisms, will lead at most to token compliance. Judicial control, as practiced in the US, yields high procedural compliance. Evaluative control can yield effective EIA, but some systems based on this form of control treat only a small fraction of the major projects proposed. Both control exerted by development assistance organizations and control by professionals have great potential for yielding effective EIA, but that potential has not been fully realized. Control exerted directly by citizens or agencies not otherwise involved in EIA is uncommon, but cases from Taiwan demonstrate that those controls can be significant. An understanding of relationships between control mechanisms and EIA effectiveness is useful in designing EIA policies and programs.

  10. Rebuilding Habitat and Shoreline Resilience through Improved Flood Control Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Rebuilding Habitat and Shoreline Resilience through Improved Flood Control Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  11. Design of decentralized multivariable excitation controllers in multimachine power systems by projective controls

    SciTech Connect

    Arnautovic, D.; Medanic, J.

    1987-12-01

    A methodology for the design of decentralized multivariable excitation and controllers in multimachine power systems is developed using projective controls. The existing methodology, is extended to permit the coordinated design of AVR and PSS controllers in power systems.

  12. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to the fuel provider, while

  13. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 3: Verification Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the verification documents from the GCS project. Volume 3 contains four appendices: A. Software Verification Cases and Procedures for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Verification Results for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; C. Review Records for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and D. Test Results Logs for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software.

  14. Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

  15. Projection Operator: A Step Towards Certification of Adaptive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larchev, Gregory V.; Campbell, Stefan F.; Kaneshige, John T.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major barriers to wider use of adaptive controllers in commercial aviation is the lack of appropriate certification procedures. In order to be certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), an aircraft controller is expected to meet a set of guidelines on functionality and reliability while not negatively impacting other systems or safety of aircraft operations. Due to their inherent time-variant and non-linear behavior, adaptive controllers cannot be certified via the metrics used for linear conventional controllers, such as gain and phase margin. Projection Operator is a robustness augmentation technique that bounds the output of a non-linear adaptive controller while conforming to the Lyapunov stability rules. It can also be used to limit the control authority of the adaptive component so that the said control authority can be arbitrarily close to that of a linear controller. In this paper we will present the results of applying the Projection Operator to a Model-Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC), varying the amount of control authority, and comparing controller s performance and stability characteristics with those of a linear controller. We will also show how adjusting Projection Operator parameters can make it easier for the controller to satisfy the certification guidelines by enabling a tradeoff between controller s performance and robustness.

  16. Dust control at Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Kissell, F.; Jurani, R.; Dresel, R.; Reaux, C.

    1999-07-01

    This report describes actions taken to control silica dust at the Yucca Mountain Exploratory Studies Facility, a tunnel located in Southern Nevada that is part of a scientific program to determine site suitability for a potential nuclear waste repository. The rock is a volcanic tuff containing significant percentages of both quartz and cristobalite. Water use for dust control was limited because of scientific test requirements, and this limitation made dust control a difficult task. Results are reported for two drifts, called the Main Loop Drift and the Cross Drift. In the Main Loop Drift, dust surveys and tracer gas tests indicated that air leakage from the TBM head, the primary ventilation duct, and movement of the conveyor belt were all significant sources of dust. Conventional dust control approaches yielded no significant reductions in dust levels. A novel alternative was to install an air cleaning station on a rear deck of the TBM trailing gear. It filtered dust from the contaminated intake air and discharged clean air towards the front of the TBM. The practical effect was to produce dust levels below the exposure limit for all TBM locations except close to the head. In the Cross Drift, better ventilation and an extra set of dust seals on the TBM served to cut down the leakage of dust from the TBM cutter head. However, the conveyor belt was much dustier than the belt in the main loop drift. The problem originated with dirt on the bottom of the belt return side and much spillage from the belt top side. Achieving lower dust levels in hard rock tunneling operations will require new approaches as well as a more meticulous application of existing technology. Planning for dust control will require specific means to deal with dust that leaks from the TBM head, dust that originates with leaky ventilation systems, and dust that comes from conveyor belts. Also, the application of water could be more efficient if automatic controls were used to adjust the water flow

  17. ANG coal gasification project management control system report. [Great Plains project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Much time, money and effort has been spent in the forefront of this project for project controls. The work breakdown structure for the systems has been custom designed. The systems, both manual and computerized, have been well scrutinized and chosen by ANG to represent the most cost effective and efficient way of controlling a project the magnitude of $1.5 billion. These systems have been developed in a manner so that information can be gathered as detailed or as summarized as necessary, and in the most timely and expeditious ways.

  18. [JICA Leprosy Control and Basic Health Services Project in Myanmar].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yutaka; Hikita, Kazuo

    2005-09-01

    Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) implemented a 5-year long bilateral technical cooperation project, "Leprosy Control and Basic Health Services Project" in Myanmar. The project was implemented by National Leprosy Control Program, Department of Health with close technical collaboration of JICA experts mainly from International Medical Center of Japan (IMCJ) and National Sanatoriums of leprosy in Japan. It accelerated to achieve the elimination of leprosy at national level, which was declared in January 2003, and at sub-national level onward. It also developed the appropriate technologies for prevention of disability and prevention of worsening of disability (POD/POWD), which were introduced in 9 townships as a pilot service program. The Government stratified the POD/POWD services as a national program since 2005 by taking up the former pilot area to start with. The project also strengthened the function of referral system of leprosy control (Diagnosis and treatment), POD/POWD and physical rehabilitation. Beside leprosy, the project conducted a series of refresher trainings for primary health care givers, Basic Health Service Staff (BHS), of project areas (48 townships) to improve the services on tuberculosis, Malaria, Leprosy, Trachoma and HIV/AIDS for 3 years (2001-2003), which was evaluated in 2004. It contributed to improve the services at township level hospitals in procurement of audio-visual equipments and in conducting microscope training on leprosy, Malaria and tuberculosis at project areas.

  19. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several sub-elements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles' thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

  20. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems (LSS) project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several subelements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of approximately six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids.

  1. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program includes the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, are manned space vehicles while the third element is broader and includes several subelements including Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The upcoming planned missions involving these systems and vehicles include several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal environment, many of these risks and challenges are associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The risks and design challenges are addressed through a rigorous technology development process that culminates with an integrated thermal control system test. The resulting hardware typically has a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six. This paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing assessments for thermal control system fluids. The current paper will provide an update to a similar overview paper published at last year s International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES).

  2. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  3. Controlled Environmental Agriculture and Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Chris

    2012-07-27

    Task A: Heating Plant - To design/build a Heating Plant Building with associated heating components for heating the greenhouse and to house the biomass gasification system. The subtasks for this task was and Engineering Design, Procurement and Construction activities. Overall milestones for this task were one construction permit, a code review and stamped drawings, engineered building vendor supplied sealed drawings, and the actual erection of a 1250 sq.ft. building. Task B: Heating System - The activities for this task included the procurement of the heating boilers and all ancillary components. This also included the installation of all heating system components in the new building plus the existing greenhouse structure. The milestone for this task was for the ability to heat 2500 gallons of water to 80 degrees F. Task C: Organic Matter Automated Hopper - The activities involved in this task involved design/fabrication of an automated hopper to feed the biomass gasification system. We need to procure materials and the automated motion components, have the system installed and factory acceptance test of the system. The milestone is to be able to feed wood chips at a rate of 20 Kg/Hr. Task D: Imbert Gasification System - The activities involved in this include the design/build of the gasifier with all accompany ductwork, cyclones and feeding system. Also there is a modification to the scrubber assembly with an automated ash removal system. Lastly a modification to the exhaust/flair system is made to capture heat from this component. Milestone for this task was to be able to produce 15 CFM of SynGas. Task E: Generator Powered by SynGas - Procure two 20kW 4 pole generator heads for installation on the gasifier system. Modification of the fuel plenum manifold with adjustment to the fuel curves for maximum power and load points. Milestone for this task is the ability to run two fuels, either SynGas or propane. This continues with the following tasks: Controls Heating

  4. Multi-pollutant exposure profiles associated with term low birth weight in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Coker, Eric; Liverani, Silvia; Ghosh, Jo Kay; Jerrett, Michael; Beckerman, Bernardo; Li, Arthur; Ritz, Beate; Molitor, John

    2016-05-01

    neighborhood cluster, both contribute to TLBW while controlling for the other.

  5. Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project).

    PubMed

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Shopland, D R

    2006-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity.

  6. F-15 837 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) for the F-15. The goals of the project are: (1) Demonstrate Revolutionary Control Approaches that can Efficiently Optimize Aircraft Performance in both Normal and Failure Conditions (2) Advance Neural Network-Based Flight Control Technology for New Aerospace Systems Designs. The motivation for the development are to reduce the chance and skill required for survival.

  7. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-05-17

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  8. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  9. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) theory principles and applying them to the human element of project management and control is not a new concept. As both the literature on the subject and the real-world applications are neither readily available nor comprehensive with regard to how such principles might be applied, this paper has been written to educate the project manager on the "laws of physics" of his or her project (not to teach a GN&C engineer how to become a project manager) and to provide an intuitive, mathematical explanation as to the control and behavior of projects. This paper will also address how the fundamental principles of modern GN&C were applied to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) space suit project, ensuring the project was managed within cost, schedule, and budget. A project that is akin to a physical system can be modeled and managed using the same over arching principles of GN&C that would be used if that project were a complex vehicle, a complex system(s), or complex software with time-varying processes (at times nonlinear) containing multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. The classic GN&C theory approach could thus be applied to small, well-defined projects; yet when working with larger, multiyear projects necessitating multiple organizational structures, numerous external influences, and a multitude of diverse resources, modern GN&C principles are required to model and manage the project. The fundamental principles of a GN&C system incorporate these basic concepts: State, Behavior, Feedback Control, Navigation, Guidance and Planning Logic systems. The State of a system defines the aspects of the system that can change over time; e.g., position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, and temperature, etc. The Behavior of the system focuses more on what changes are possible within the system; this is denoted in the state

  10. Overview of NASA's Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The now-cancelled Constellation Program included the Orion, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems project offices. The first two elements, Orion and Altair, were planned to be manned space vehicles while the third element was much more diverse and included several sub-elements. Among other things, these sub-elements were Rovers and a Lunar Habitat. The planned missions involving these systems and vehicles included several risks and design challenges. Due to the unique thermal operating environment, many of these risks and challenges were associated with the vehicles thermal control system. NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) consisted of various technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned thermal risks and design challenges was the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. These risks and design challenges were being addressed through a rigorous technology development process that was planned to culminate with an integrated thermal control system test. Although the technologies being developed were originally aimed towards mitigating specific Constellation risks, the technology development process is being continued within a new program. This continued effort is justified by the fact that many of the technologies are generically applicable to future spacecraft thermal control systems. The current paper summarizes the development efforts being performed by the technology development project. The development efforts involve heat acquisition and heat rejection hardware including radiators, heat exchangers, and evaporators. The project has also been developing advanced phase change material heat sinks and performing a material compatibility assessment for a promising thermal control system working fluid. The to-date progress and lessons-learned from these development efforts will be discussed throughout the paper.

  11. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-30

    A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  12. Projection learning algorithm for threshold - controlled neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik, A.M.

    1995-03-01

    The projection learning algorithm proposed in [1, 2] and further developed in [3] substantially improves the efficiency of memorizing information and accelerates the learning process in neural networks. This algorithm is compatible with the completely connected neural network architecture (the Hopfield network [4]), but its application to other networks involves a number of difficulties. The main difficulties include constraints on interconnection structure and the need to eliminate the state uncertainty of latent neurons if such are present in the network. Despite the encouraging preliminary results of [3], further extension of the applications of the projection algorithm therefore remains problematic. In this paper, which is a continuation of the work begun in [3], we consider threshold-controlled neural networks. Networks of this type are quite common. They represent the receptor neuron layers in some neurocomputer designs. A similar structure is observed in the lower divisions of biological sensory systems [5]. In multilayer projection neural networks with lateral interconnections, the neuron layers or parts of these layers may also have the structure of a threshold-controlled completely connected network. Here the thresholds are the potentials delivered through the projection connections from other parts of the network. The extension of the projection algorithm to the class of threshold-controlled networks may accordingly prove to be useful both for extending its technical applications and for better understanding of the operation of the nervous system in living organisms.

  13. Advanced Guidance and Control Project for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this project are to significantly reduce the time and cost associated with guidance and control design for reusable launch vehicles, and to increase their safety and reliability. Success will lead to reduced cycle times during vehicle design and to reduced costs associated with flying to new orbits, with new payloads, and with modified vehicles. Success will also lead to more robustness to unforeseen circumstances in flight thereby enhancing safety and reducing risk. There are many guidance and control methods available that hold some promise for improvement in the desired areas. Investigators are developing a representative set of independent guidance and control methods for this project. These methods are being incorporated into a high-fidelity off is being conducted across a broad range of flight requirements. The guidance and control methods that perform the best will have demonstrated the desired qualities.

  14. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  15. MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew B. Loomis

    2004-05-01

    This technical report describes the results from Task 1 of the Cooperative Agreement. Powerspan has installed, tested, and validated Hg SCEMS systems for measuring oxidized and elemental mercury at the pilot facility at R.E. Burger Generating Station in Shadyside, Ohio. When operating properly, these systems are capable of providing near real-time monitoring of inlet and outlet gas flow streams and are capable of extracting samples from different locations to characterize mercury removal at these different ECO process stages. This report discusses the final configuration of the Hg CEM systems and the operating protocols that increase the reliability of the HG SCEM measurements. Documentation on the testing done to verify the operating protocols is also provided. In addition the report provides details on the protocols developed and used for measurement of mercury in process liquid streams and in captured ash.

  16. Redesign of a Flood Control Project by Citizen Initiative

    Treesearch

    Bev Ortiz

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the process used to redesign a flood control project on three creeks in central Contra Costa County, California, about 15 miles east of San Francisco. Involved was door-to-door organizing to form a neighborhood group which in turn used a county-appointed committee, a city-appointed committee, a State grant and a private consultant working with the...

  17. DESCHUTES PROJECT – WICKIUP DAM, CONTROL TOWER COMPLETE TO ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DESCHUTES PROJECT – WICKIUP DAM, CONTROL TOWER COMPLETE TO ELEVATION 4348.5 WITH TEMPORARY ROOF. BURNING OPERATIONS ON RESERVOIR CLEARING IN THE DISTANCE. Photocopy of historic photographs (original photograph on file at National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, CO). Unknown USBR Photographer, August 31, 1943 - Wickiup Dam, Deschutes River, La Pine, Deschutes County, OR

  18. [Effect of schistosomiasis control projects in Hexi Reservoir on Oncomelania snail control].

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng-Ming; Zhang, Liu-Hong; Lu, Hong-Mei; Qin, Jia-Sheng; Cao, Wei-Min; Xie, Guang-Ping

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of schistosomiasis control projects in Hexi Reservoir on Oncomelania hupensis snail control. The canal hardening + main water system widening + the overflow dam project, the concrete slope protection, the banking and reclamation + concrete slope protection project, the environment reform project, and the comprehensive treatment were implemented in the tail area, the hydro-fluctuation belt, the rainwater harvesting zoon of the upstream area, the dam area, and the downstream area of the reservoir, respectively. The changes of the snail situation were investigated before and after the construction of the reservoir, and the snail control effects of the schistosomiasis control projects in different parts of the reservoir were analyzed. There were no Oncomelania snails found 3 years in the bottom area, dam area, hydro-fluctuation belt, tail region and downstream of the dam after the construction and storage of the reservoir and the implementation of the schistosomiasis control projects. In the rainwater harvesting zoon of the upstream area, the density of living snails decreased from 0.620 4 snails/0.1 m2 in 2009 to 0.113 2 snails/0.1 m2 in 2013, but the snail area still remained. The schistosomiasis control projects in Hexi Reservoir have effectively prevented the diffusion of Oncomelania snails from the rainwater harvesting zone of the upstream area to the dam area, and they are effective in the snail control.

  19. Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals during Pregnancy and Weight at 7 Years of Age: A Multi-pollutant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Martinez, David; Valvi, Damaskini; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -disrupting chemicals during pregnancy and weight at 7 years of age: a multi-pollutant approach. Environ Health Perspect 123:1030–1037; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409049 PMID:25956007

  20. A geometric approach to quantum control in projective hilbert spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, Davide

    2017-02-01

    A quantum theory in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space can be formulated as a proper geometric Hamiltonian theory as explained in [2, 3, 7, 9]. From this point of view a quantum system can be described within a classical-like framework where quantum dynamics is represented by a Hamiltonian flow in the phase space given by a projective Hilbert space. This paper is devoted to investigating how the notion of an accessibility algebra from classical control theory can be applied within the geometric Hamiltonian formulation of quantum mechanics to study controllability of a quantum system. A new characterization of quantum controllability in terms of Killing vector fields w.r.t. the Fubini-Study metric on projective space is also discussed.

  1. Version control friendly project management system for FPGA designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2016-09-01

    In complex FPGA designs, usage of version control system is a necessity. It is especially important in the case of designs developed by many developers or even by many teams. The standard development mode, however, offered by most FPGA vendors is the GUI based project mode. It is very convenient for a single developer, who can easily experiment with project settings, browse and modify the sources hierarchy, compile and test the design. Unfortunately, the project configuration is stored in files which are not suited for use with Version Control System (VCS). Another important problem in big FPGA designs is reuse of IP cores. Even though there are standard solutions like IEEE 1685-2014, they suffer from some limitations particularly significant for complex systems (e.g. only simple types are allowed for IP-core ports, it is not possible to use parametrized instances of IP-cores). Additionally, the overhead associated with packaging of IP-cores is significant and not justified for simple reusable blocks. This paper presents a system aimed at storing the whole design in a VCS oriented form. The hierarchy of sources is described with textual "extended project (EPRJ) files" which are fully controlled by the user and may also be put in a VCS. The IP blocks may be easily added to the project just by including the accompanying EPRJ file. Both absolute and relative file paths may be used which allows the flexible structure of directories. The sources of locally developed IP blocks may be stored in directories located inside the main source tree, while sources of independently developed blocks, using separate VCS repositories, may be located outside that tree. The environment allows splitting the design into smaller parts, which are synthesized independently. That reduces the time needed to recompile the whole design if only a few blocks are modified. The system creates the standard project, which can be used for convenient interactive work with the design. After the

  2. CE IGCC repowering project: Controls & instrumentation. Topical report, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The IGCC Control System is used to provide operator interface and controls for manual and auto operation of the IGCC Repowering Project Located at Springfield, Illinois. A Distributed Control System (DCS) is provided for analog (process control) loop functions and to provide the operator interface. A Data Acquisition System (DAS) is provided for gathering performance data and optimization. Programmable Logic Controllers will be provided for the following digital control systems: (a) GSSS (Gasifier Supervisory Safety System) including pulverized coal handling and char handling; (b) Coal Pulverization System; (c) HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generation); (d) Hot Gas Cleanup System; (e) Steam Turbine; and (f) Combined Cycle Operation. In general all systems are provided for auto/manual cascade operation; upstream equipment is interlocked to be proven in service operation and/or valve position before downstream equipment may operate.

  3. Project Management Using Modern Guidance, Navigation and Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Terry

    2010-01-01

    The idea of control theory and its application to project management is not new, however literature on the topic and real-world applications is not as readily available and comprehensive in how all the principals of Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) apply. This paper will address how the fundamental principals of modern GN&C Theory have been applied to NASA's Constellation Space Suit project and the results in the ability to manage the project within cost, schedule and budget. A s with physical systems, projects can be modeled and managed with the same guiding principles of GN&C as if it were a complex vehicle, system or software with time-varying processes, at times non-linear responses, multiple data inputs of varying accuracy and a range of operating points. With such systems the classic approach could be applied to small and well-defined projects; however with larger, multi-year projects involving multiple organizational structures, external influences and a multitude of diverse resources, then modern control theory is required to model and control the project. The fundamental principals of G N&C stated that a system is comprised of these basic core concepts: State, Behavior, Control system, Navigation system, Guidance and Planning Logic, Feedback systems. The state of a system is a definition of the aspects of the dynamics of the system that can change, such as position, velocity, acceleration, coordinate-based attitude, temperature, etc. The behavior of the system is more of what changes are possible rather than what can change, which is captured in the state of the system. The behavior of a system is captured in the system modeling and if properly done, will aid in accurate system performance prediction in the future. The Control system understands the state and behavior of the system and feedback systems to adjust the control inputs into the system. The Navigation system takes the multiple data inputs and based upon a priori knowledge of the input

  4. Intelligent control in mobile robotics: the PANORAMA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenway, Phil

    1994-03-01

    The European Community's strategic research initiative in information technology has been in place for seven years. A good example of the pan-European collaborative projects conducted under this initiative is PANORAMA: Perception and Navigation for Autonomous Mobile Robot Applications. This four-and-a-half-year project, completed in October 1993, aimed to prove the feasibility of an autonomous mobile robotic system replacing a human-operated vehicle working outdoors in a partially structured environment. The autonomous control of a mobile rock drilling machine was chosen as a challenging and representative test scenario. This paper presents an overview of intelligent mobile robot control architectures. Goals and objectives of the project are described, together with the makeup of the consortium and the roles of the members within it. The main technical achievements from PANORAMA are then presented, with emphasis given to the problems of realizing intelligent control. In particular, the planning and replanning of a mission, and the corresponding architectural choices and infrastructure required to support the chosen task oriented approach, are discussed. Specific attention is paid to the functional decomposition of the system, and how the requirements for `intelligent control' impact on the organization of the identified system components. Future work and outstanding problems are considered in some concluding remarks.

  5. Experiential learning in control systems laboratories and engineering project management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reck, Rebecca Marie

    2015, a panel of 40 control systems faculty members, from a variety of institutions, completed a multi-round Delphi survey in order to bring them toward consensus on the common aspects of their laboratories. The following winter, 45 additional faculty members and practitioners from the control systems community completed a follow-up survey to gather feedback on the results of the Delphi survey. During the Delphi study, the panelists identified 15 laboratory objectives, 26 concepts, and 15 components that were common in their laboratories. Then in both the Delphi survey and follow-up survey each participant rated the importance of each of these items. While the average ratings differed slightly between the two groups, the order of each set of items was compared with two different tests and the order was found to be similar. Some of the common and important learning objectives include connecting theory to what is implemented and observed in the laboratory, designing controllers, and modeling and simulating systems. The most common component in both groups was Math-Works software. Some of the common concepts include block diagrams, stability, and PID control. Defining common aspects of undergraduate control systems laboratories enables common development, detailed comparisons, and simplified adaptation of equipment and experiments between campuses and programs. Throughout an undergraduate program in engineering, there are multiple opportunities for hands-on laboratory experiences that are related to course content. However, a similarly immersive experience for project management graduate students is harder to incorporate for all students in a course at once. This study explores an experiential learning opportunity for graduate students in engineering management or project management programs. The project management students enroll in a project management course. Undergraduate students interested in working on a project with a real customer enroll in a different projects

  6. [Case control trial on putative factors antagonising the successful project course of MD thesis projects].

    PubMed

    Scharfenberg, J; Schaper, K; Krummenauer, F

    2015-05-01

    Award of the degree MD has special relevance in Germany since the underlying research project can be started during the qualification for admission to doctoral training. This leads to a large number of thesis projects with a not always sufficiently pronounced enthusiasm and thus poor chances of success. Accordingly a case control study was undertaken in the Department of Human Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University to investigate reported drop-outs of thesis projects. In autumn 2012 all students in the clinical phases of human medicine education were surveyed using a self-conceived questionnaire on previously initiated or terminated thesis projects, "terminated" is defined as the unsuccessful ending of a project after working for at least 3 months. Individually reported thesis terminations were evaluated using defined items in a 4-stage Likert scale regarding thesis plan and project, subsequently, graduate students who successfully completed a project received the same questionnaire. The items possibly corresponding to process determinants were averaged to a total of 7 dimensions prior to the analysis; the resulting scores were normalised in value ranges 0.0 to 1.0 (1.0 = optimal project situation) whereby individual items could be included in several scores. By means of 5 items a primary endpoint from the faculty's perspective on "compliance with formal procedures" was aggregated; by means of a two-sided Wilcoxon test at the 5 % level students with unsuccessful and successful courses were compared along the corresponding scores. 181 of 276 students from 7 study semesters participated in the screening; details of 17 terminations and 23 currently successful courses could be evaluated in the case control study. For significant differences (p < 0.001) between unsuccessful and successful courses in the primary endpoint, median scores of 0.17 (0.07-0.50) versus 0.73 (0.53-0.83) were estimated. There were differences between unsuccessful and (as yet) successful

  7. [Discussion on water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control in Poyang Lake area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Nan

    2013-02-01

    According to the schistosomiasis endemic situation in the Poyang Lake area, this paper analyzes the relationship between the water conservancy projects and schistosomiasis control, and reviews and discusses the effects of the Water Level Control Project of Poyang Lake, the Lake Dike Slope Hardening Project, and the Lifting Delta and Descending Beach Project on Oncomelania snail control.

  8. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  9. NIF Projects Controls and Information Systems Software Quality Assurance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fishler, B

    2011-03-18

    Quality achievement for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) is the responsibility of the NIF Projects line organization as described in the NIF and Photon Science Directorate Quality Assurance Plan (NIF QA Plan). This Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) is subordinate to the NIF QA Plan and establishes quality assurance (QA) activities for the software subsystems within Controls and Information Systems (CIS). This SQAP implements an activity level software quality assurance plan for NIF Projects as required by the LLNL Institutional Software Quality Assurance Program (ISQAP). Planned QA activities help achieve, assess, and maintain appropriate quality of software developed and/or acquired for control systems, shot data systems, laser performance modeling systems, business applications, industrial control and safety systems, and information technology systems. The objective of this SQAP is to ensure that appropriate controls are developed and implemented for management planning, work execution, and quality assessment of the CIS organization's software activities. The CIS line organization places special QA emphasis on rigorous configuration control, change management, testing, and issue tracking to help achieve its quality goals.

  10. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project management control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantor, Jeffrey P.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) program is jointly funded by the NSF, the DOE, and private institutions and donors. From an NSF funding standpoint, the LSST is a Major Research Equipment and Facilities (MREFC) project. The NSF funding process requires proposals and D&D reviews to include activity-based budgets and schedules; documented basis of estimates; risk-based contingency analysis; cost escalation and categorization. "Out-of-the box," the commercial tool Primavera P6 contains approximately 90% of the planning and estimating capability needed to satisfy R&D phase requirements, and it is customizable/configurable for remainder with relatively little effort. We describe the customization/configuration and use of Primavera for the LSST Project Management Control System (PMCS), assess our experience to date, and describe future directions. Examples in this paper are drawn from the LSST Data Management System (DMS), which is one of three main subsystems of the LSST and is funded by the NSF. By astronomy standards the LSST DMS is a large data management project, processing and archiving over 70 petabyes of image data, producing over 20 petabytes of catalogs annually, and generating 2 million transient alerts per night. Over the 6-year construction and commissioning phase, the DM project is estimated to require 600,000 hours of engineering effort. In total, the DMS cost is approximately 60% hardware/system software and 40% labor.

  11. Impact of Water Control Projects on Fisheries Resources in Bangladesh

    PubMed

    Mirza; Ericksen

    1996-07-01

    Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15-20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.

  12. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONTROL DECISION REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO CA

    2010-03-09

    This control decision addresses the Knock-Out Pot (KOP) Disposition KOP Processing System (KPS) conceptual design. The KPS functions to (1) retrieve KOP material from canisters, (2) remove particles less than 600 {micro}m in size and low density materials from the KOP material, (3) load the KOP material into Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) baskets, and (4) stage the MCO baskets for subsequent loading into MCOs. Hazard and accident analyses of the KPS conceptual design have been performed to incorporate safety into the design process. The hazard analysis is documented in PRC-STP-00098, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Project Conceptual Design Hazard Analysis. The accident analysis is documented in PRC-STP-CN-N-00167, Knock-Out Pot Disposition Sub-Project Canister Over Lift Accident Analysis. Based on the results of these analyses, and analyses performed in support of MCO transportation and MCO processing and storage activities at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and Canister Storage Building (CSB), control decision meetings were held to determine the controls required to protect onsite and offsite receptors and facility workers. At the conceptual design stage, these controls are primarily defined by their safety functions. Safety significant structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that could provide the identified safety functions have been selected for the conceptual design. It is anticipated that some safety SSCs identified herein will be reclassified based on hazard and accident analyses performed in support of preliminary and detailed design.

  13. Canada Chair in hypertension prevention and control: A pilot project

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Norm RC

    2007-01-01

    A five-year pilot project was initiated in Canada to fund an individual to lead the effort in improving hypertension prevention and control. As the initial recipient of the funding, the author’s objectives were to provide leadership to improve the management of hypertension through enhancements to the Canadian Hypertension Education Program, to increase public knowledge of hypertension, to reduce the prevalence of hypertension by reducing dietary sodium additives and to develop a comprehensive hypertension surveillance program. The initiative has received strong support from the hypertension community, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, and many Canadian health care professional and scientific organizations. Progress has been made on all objectives. The pilot project was funded by The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and sanofi-aventis, in partnership with Blood Pressure Canada, and will finish in July 2011. PMID:17534462

  14. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Silvan, G.R.

    1994-09-20

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; proper operation of all display data on the operator`s console; proper operation of all required alarms; and proper operation of all required interlocks. The MICON A/S control system is configured to replace all the control, indication, and alarm panels now located in the Power Control Room. Nine systems are covered by this control configuration, 2736-ZB HVAC, 234-5Z HVAC, Process Vacuum, Dry Air, 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling, Building Accelerometer, Evacuation Siren, Stack CAMs, and Fire. The 2736-ZB HVAC system consists of the ventilation controls for 2736-ZB and 2736-Z as well as alarms for the emergency generators and 232-Z. The 234-5Z HVAC system is the ventilation controls for 235-5Z and 236-Z buildings. Process Vacuum covers the controls for the 26 inch vacuum system. Dry Air covers the controls for the steam and electric air dryers. The 291-Z Closed Loop Cooling system consists of the status indications and alarms for the 291-Z compressor and vacuum pump closed loop cooling system. The rest of closed loop cooling was tested earlier. The Building Accelerometer system consists of the status indications for the two seismic system accelerometers. The Evacuation Siren system includes the controls for the evacuation and take cover sirens. Stack CAMs cover the alarms for the various building ventilation stack continuous air monitors. Finally, the Fire system covers the various fire alarms now located in Room 321-A.

  15. Project B610 process control configuration acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Silvan, G.R.

    1995-06-27

    The purpose of this test is to verify the Westinghouse configuration of the MICON A/S Distributed Control System for project B610. The following will be verified: (1) proper assignment and operation of all field inputs to and outputs from the MICON Termination panels; (2) proper operation of all display data on the operators` console; (3) proper operation of all required alarms; and (4) proper operation of all required interlocks. This test only verifies the proper operation of the Westinghouse control configuration (or program). It will not be responsible for verifying proper operation of the MICON hardware or operating software. Neither does it test any of the B610 instrument. The MICON hardware and software has been tested as part of the equipment procurement. Instrumentation and wiring installed under project B620 will be tested under a separate functional test. In some cases, precise transmitter ranges, alarm setpoints, and controller tuning parameters are not available at this time. Therefore, approximate values are used during the test. This should not affect the proper operation of the configuration or the validity of this test. Final values will be assigned during operability testing.

  16. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

  17. Development of a mediated whole cell-based electrochemical biosensor for joint toxicity assessment of multi-pollutants using a mixed microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanyue; Qian, Jun; Fang, Deyu; Yu, Yuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2016-06-14

    Since most risk assessment for toxicants is based on individual single-species test, the deduction of such results to ecosystem evaluation is afflicted with uncertainties. Herein, we successfully developed a p-benzoquinone mediated whole-cell electrochemical biosensor for multi-pollutants toxicological analysis by co-immobilizing mixed strains of microorganism, including Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive bacteria) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (fungus). The individual and combined toxicities of heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Cd(2+)), phenol (3,5-dichlorophenol) and pesticides (Ametryn, Acephate) were examined. The experimental results showed that the order of toxicity for individual toxicant was ranked as Cu(2+) > 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) > Ametryn > Cd(2+) > Acephate. Then the toxic unit (TU) model was applied to determine the nature of toxicological interaction of the toxicants which can be classified as concentration additive (IC50mix = 1TU), synergistic (IC50mix < 1TU) and antagonistic (IC50mix > 1TU) responses. The binary combination of Cu(2+) + Cd(2+), Cu(2+) + DCP, Cu(2+) + Acephate, DCP + Acephate, Acephate + Ametryn were analyzed and the three kind of joint toxicity effects (i.e. additive, synergistic and antagonistic) mentioned above were observed according to the dose-response relationship. The results indicate that the whole-cell electrochemical biosensor based on mixed microbial consortium is more reasonable to reflect the joint biotoxicity of multi-pollutants existing in real wastewater, and combined effects of toxicants is extremely necessary to be taken into account in ecological risk assessment. Thus, present study has provided a promising approach to the quality assessment of wastewater and a reliable way for early risk warning of acute biotoxicity.

  18. Application of the PnET-BGC - An integrated biogeochemical model - To assess the surface water ANC recovery in the Adirondack region of New York under three multi-pollutant proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2009-11-01

    SummaryWe applied an integrated biogeochemical model PnET-BGC to predict the response of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in lakes - a measure of the ability of water to neutralize inputs of strong acid - from 2001 to 2050 in the Adirondack region of New York, USA under three multi-pollutant proposal scenarios. Through model predictions, we assessed the impacts of these proposals on ecosystem recovery for research and policy initiatives. Our analysis indicated that the predicted recovery rates of surface water ANC obtained from the PnET-BGC model show low spatial autocorrelation. Predicted recovery rates are also closely related with the percentage of watershed areas of coniferous vegetation and deciduous vegetation, elevation and lake area, which turn out not to be significantly different from each other over the entire period of future scenarios (2001-2050). We applied a Geographic Weighted Regression model (GWR) to study the spatial patterns of predicted lake ANC in the Adirondacks through 2050 due to its high spatial autocorrelation. These results showed that lake depth and square of elevation can explain 40% of variation in the predicted ANC, which is 26% more variation than explained by the non-spatial Ordinary Least-Squares Regression (OLS). Our calculations also suggest that even under the Carper Bill, the most aggressive air pollutant control scenario considered, not all Adirondack lakes will recover (i.e., ANC > 50 μeq/L) from elevated acidic deposition by 2050. The research provides a basis for more informed emission controls and land use/land cover (LULC) policy-making in the north-eastern USA and elsewhere.

  19. A project plans to develop two ASICs for CCD controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qian; Wei, Mingzhi; Sun, Quan; Zhang, Yuheng

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical instrumentation, in many cases, especially the large field of view application while huge mosaic CCD or CMOS camera is needed, requires the camera electronics to be much more compact and of much smaller the size than the controller used to be. Making the major parts of CCD driving circuits into an ASIC or ASICs can greatly bring down the controller's volume, weight and power consumption and make it easier to control the crosstalk brought up by the long length of the cables that connect the CCD output ports and the signal processing electronics, and, therefore, is the most desirable approach to build the large mosaic CCD camera. A project endeavors to make two ASICs, one to achieve CCD signal processing and another to provide the clock drives and bias voltages, is introduced. The first round of design of the two ASICs has been completed and the devices have just been manufactured. Up to now the test of one of the two, the signal processing ASIC, was partially done and the linearity has reached the requirement of the design.

  20. Management of a large distributed control system development project

    SciTech Connect

    Gurd, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    Building an accelerator at six geographically dispersed sites is quite mad, but politically expedient. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), currently under construction in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, combines a pulsed 1 Gev H{sup -} superconducting linac with a compressor ring to deliver 2 MW of beam power to a liquid mercury target for neutron production [1]. Accelerator components, target and experimental (neutron-scattering) instruments are being developed collaboratively by Lawrence Berkeley (Ion Source and Front End), Los Alamos (Linac), Thomas Jefferson (Cryosystems), Brookhaven (Compressor Ring), Oak Ridge (Target and Conventional Facilities) and Argonne (Neutron Scattering Instruments) National Laboratories. Similarly, a team distributed among all of the participating laboratories is developing the EPICS-based control system. this paper discusses the management model and strategies being used to address the unusual issues of organization, communication, standardization, integration and hand-off inherent in this widely-distributed project.

  1. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    PubMed Central

    Framinan, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times. PMID:24895672

  2. Active Spacecraft Potential Control: Results From the Double Star Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, K.; Fazakerley, A.; Steiger, W.

    2006-10-01

    The ion emitter instrument "active spacecraft potential control" (ASPOC) has been used successfully in several magnetospheric missions including the European Space Agency Cluster Project. An improved version has been developed for the equatorial spacecraft of the Chinese-European Double Star mission (TC-1) launched in December 2003. The modifications include a new design of the ion emitter modules. As a result, higher currents than in previous missions can be achieved. The main objective of the investigation is the reduction of positive spacecraft potential in order to minimize perturbations to the plasma measurements onboard, in particular to the plasma electron instrument PEACE. These data show an almost complete suppression of photoelectrons when ASPOC is emitting at 30- to 50-muA beam current. The angular distribution of the electrons in the presence of the ion beam is investigated in detail. The measurement of ambient electron distributions is highly improved.

  3. Instantaneous Project Controls: Current Status, State of the Art, Benefits, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbaszadegan, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in construction and construction-related technology, capital project performance deviations, typically overruns, remain endemic within the capital projects industry. Currently, management is generally unaware of the current status of their projects, and thus monitoring and control of projects are not achieved effectively. In…

  4. Instantaneous Project Controls: Current Status, State of the Art, Benefits, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbaszadegan, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in construction and construction-related technology, capital project performance deviations, typically overruns, remain endemic within the capital projects industry. Currently, management is generally unaware of the current status of their projects, and thus monitoring and control of projects are not achieved effectively. In…

  5. Army Corps of Engineers: Cost Increases in Flood Control Projects and Improving Communication with Nonfederal Sponsors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Protection Project, CA South Pacific Sacramento Sacramento River, Glenn -Colusa Irrigation District, CA South Pacific Sacramento South Sacramento County ...state, tribal, county , or local government or agency. When Congress approves a flood control project for construction, it authorizes a total cost for...and maintains a wide range of water resources projects for purposes such as flood control, navigation, and environmental restoration. The Civil

  6. An alternate approach to hospital cost control: the Rochester project.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, A A; Saward, E W

    1978-01-01

    The rapid escalation in health care costs has demonstrated a need to control costs in general and hospital costs in particular. In New York State, efforts at control have followed one of several paths, including reduction of Medicaid program expenditures, elimination of hospital beds, and prospective reimbursement of hospital costs. Although some success has been achieved in each of these areas, hospital costs containment has not been as successful as had been hoped. A new project called MAXICAP, being developed in the Rochester region, seeks to link payment with regional hospital planning. MAXICAP represents a voluntary attempt by hospitals, third party payers, planners, consumers, and governmental agencies to devise a prospective hospital payment system. Under this system community hospital plans in the Rochester region would be integrated and a cap imposed on both revenues and expenses for acute hospital care. The principal advantage of the MAXICAP is that it offers a mechanism for linking hospital planning with payment functions on a regional basis. The principal disadvantage is that the success of the MAXICAP depends upon the voluntary cooperation of the vast majority of the acute care hospitals in the area--hospitals that may be scattered throughout a relatively large region. PMID:98805

  7. Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

  8. Suboptimal projective control of a pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Saif, M. )

    1989-12-01

    The time- and oxide field-dependencies of interface trap (N{sub it}) formation in MOSFETs have been studied following pulsed ionizing radiation. Results are compared with the two-stage model for Nit formation involving slow drift of radiation-induced H{sup +} ions in the SiO{sub 2}. Detailed data on the gate oxide field dependence during each individual stage are presented and discussed. A model is developed for the production of H{sup +} throughout the oxide. Calculations based on this model correctly predict the complete time dependent N{sub it} formation is at a maximum near zero first stage gate bias. This unexpected behavior apparently arises from the oxide field dependence of the H{sup +} production during the first stage. A suboptimal output feedback approach for control of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) in the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant is presented. Optimal state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory with pole placement capability is extended to obtain a suboptimal projective controller for such cases where the entire state vector is inaccessible for measurement and feedback purposes. The appealing feature of the proposed approach is that it is possible to select the weighting matrices in the quadratic cost functional such that the resulting control law would nearly minimize the cost, and at the same time can assign a subspectrum of the closed-loop system to preassigned desired locations. Additionally, the design algorithm is computationally attractive, since regardless of the dimension of the PWR model the approach mainly involves low-order matrix computations.

  9. Effective Monitoring and Control of Outsourced Software Development Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponisio, Laura; Vruggink, Peter

    In our study of four outsourcing projects we discover mechanisms to support managerial decision making during software development processes. We report on Customer Office, a framework used in practice that facilitates reasoning about projects by highlighting information paths and making co-ordination issues explicit. The results suggest a key role of modularisation and standardisation to assist in value creation, by facilitating information flow and keeping the overview of the project. The practical implications of our findings are guidelines for managing outsourcing projects such as to have a modularised view of the project based on knowledge domains and to standardise co-ordination operations.

  10. Role of projection in the control of bird flocks

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Daniel J. G.; Miller, Adam M.; Rowlands, George; Turner, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Swarming is a conspicuous behavioral trait observed in bird flocks, fish shoals, insect swarms, and mammal herds. It is thought to improve collective awareness and offer protection from predators. Many current models involve the hypothesis that information coordinating motion is exchanged among neighbors. We argue that such local interactions alone are insufficient to explain the organization of large flocks of birds and that the mechanism for the exchange of long-range information necessary to control their density remains unknown. We show that large flocks self-organize to the maximum density at which a typical individual still can see out of the flock in many directions. Such flocks are marginally opaque—an external observer also still can see a substantial fraction of sky through the flock. Although this seems intuitive, we show it need not be the case; flocks might easily be highly diffuse or entirely opaque. The emergence of marginal opacity strongly constrains how individuals interact with one another within large swarms. It also provides a mechanism for global interactions: an individual can respond to the projection of the flock that it sees. This provides for faster information transfer and hence rapid flock dynamics, another advantage over local models. From a behavioral perspective, it optimizes the information available to each bird while maintaining the protection of a dense, coherent flock. PMID:25002501

  11. Project W-320 SAR and process control thermal analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1997-06-19

    This report summarizes the results of thermal hydraulic computer modeling supporting Project W-320 for process control and SAR documentation. Parametric analyses were performed for the maximum steady state waste temperature. The parameters included heat load distribution, tank heat load, fluffing factor and thermal conductivity. Uncertainties in the fluffing factor and heat load distribution had the largest effect on maximum waste temperature. Safety analyses were performed for off normal events including loss of ventilation, loss of evaporation and loss of secondary chiller. The loss of both the primary and secondary ventilation was found to be the most limiting event with saturation temperature in the bottom waste reaching in just over 30 days. An evaluation was performed for the potential lowering of the supernatant level in tank 241-AY-102. The evaluation included a loss of ventilation and steam bump analysis. The reduced supernatant level decreased the time to reach saturation temperature in the waste for the loss of ventilation by about one week. However, the consequence of a steam bump were dramatically reduced.

  12. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the Flood...

  13. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the Flood...

  14. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the Flood...

  15. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the Flood...

  16. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 4: Configuration Management and Quality Assurance Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes configuration management and quality assurance documents from the GCS project. Volume 4 contains six appendices: A. Software Accomplishment Summary for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Configuration Index for the Guidance and Control Software Project; C. Configuration Management Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; D. Software Quality Assurance Records for the Guidance and Control Software Project; E. Problem Report for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software Project; and F. Support Documentation Change Reports for the Guidance and Control Software Project.

  17. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  18. Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) - An Engineering–Economic and Multi-Pollutant Modeling Framework for Comprehensive Regulatory Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on the National Academy of Science’s 2004 report, “Air Quality Management in the United States”, the National Research Council (NRC) recommended to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that standard setting, planning, and control strategy development should be based...

  19. Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) - An Engineering–Economic and Multi-Pollutant Modeling Framework for Comprehensive Regulatory Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on the National Academy of Science’s 2004 report, “Air Quality Management in the United States”, the National Research Council (NRC) recommended to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that standard setting, planning, and control strategy development should be based...

  20. Computerized adaptive control weld skate with CCTV weld guidance project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes progress of the automatic computerized weld skate development portion of the Computerized Weld Skate with Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Arc Guidance Project. The main goal of the project is to develop an automatic welding skate demonstration model equipped with CCTV weld guidance. The three main goals of the overall project are to: (1) develop a demonstration model computerized weld skate system, (2) develop a demonstration model automatic CCTV guidance system, and (3) integrate the two systems into a demonstration model of computerized weld skate with CCTV weld guidance for welding contoured parts.

  1. Requirements management: keeping your technology acquisition project under control.

    PubMed

    Carr, J J

    2000-03-01

    Whether you are acquiring clinical or business information systems, patient monitoring systems, or therapeutic and diagnostic systems, the odds are good that the project will be delivered late, will cost far more than predicted, and will not provide all the features promised. The principal reason for project failure is improper management of the requirements of the system. Requirements engineering and management is a skill from the systems engineering profession that can be learned by nearly any professional who is managing a technology acquisition project. The author discusses what requirements engineering and management is and how it is done.

  2. The Economics of Tobacco Control: Evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviors, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the ITC Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximize the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  3. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: I. Industry and transport sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadavarte, Pankaj; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Emissions estimation, for research and regulatory applications including reporting to international conventions, needs treatment of detailed technology divisions and high-emitting technologies. Here we estimate Indian emissions, for 1996-2015, of aerosol constituents (PM2.5, BC and OC) and precursor gas SO2, ozone precursors (CO, NOx, NMVOC and CH4) and greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O), using a common fuel consumption database and consistent assumptions. Six source categories and 45 technologies/activities in the industry and transport sectors were used for estimating emissions for 2010. Mean emission factors, developed at the source-category level, were used with corresponding fuel consumption data, available for 1996-2011, projected to 2015. New activities were included to account for fugitive emissions of NMVOC from chemical and petrochemical industries. Dynamic emission factors, reflecting changes in technology-mix and emission regulations, were developed for thermal power plants and on-road transport vehicles. Modeled emission factors were used for gaseous pollutants for on-road vehicles. Emissions of 2.4 (0.6-7.5) Tg y-1 PM2.5, 0.23 (0.1-0.7) Tg y-1 BC, 0.15 (0.04-0.5) Tg y-1 OC, 7.3 (6-10) Tg y-1 SO2, 19 (7.5-33) Tg y-1 CO, 1.5 (0.1-9) Tg y-1 CH4, 4.3 (2-9) Tg y-1 NMVOC, 5.6 (1.7-15.9) Tg y-1 NOx, 1750 (1397-2231) Tg y-1 CO2 and 0.13 (0.05-0.3) Tg y-1 N2O were estimated for 2015. Significant emissions of aerosols and their precursors were from coal use in thermal power and industry (PM2.5 and SO2), and on-road diesel vehicles (BC), especially superemitters. Emissions of ozone precursors were largely from thermal power plants (NOx), on-road gasoline vehicles (CO and NMVOC) and fugitive emissions from mining (CH4). Highly uncertain default emission factors were the principal contributors to uncertainties in emission estimates, indicating the need for region specific measurements.

  4. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority. Section...

  5. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority. Section...

  6. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority. Section...

  7. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority. Section...

  8. 33 CFR 263.26 - Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). 263.26 Section 263.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS....26 Small beach erosion control project authority (Section 103). (a) Legislative authority. Section...

  9. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  10. Two Undergraduate Projects for Data Acquisition and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiersche, Kelly; Pena, Tara; Grogan, Tanner; Wright, Matthew

    We are designing two separate instruments for use in our undergraduate laboratory. In the first project, a Raspberry Pi is used to simultaneously monitor a large number of current and voltage readings and store them in a database. In our second project, we are constructing our own microcontrollers to work as a general-purpose interface based off work carried out in Review of Scientific Instruments 84, 103101 (2013). It was designed for low cost and simple construction, making it ideal for undergraduate level work. This circuit has room for two interchangeable daughter boards, giving it the capability to work as a general lab interface, lock-in detector, or waveform generator.

  11. Noise prediction and control of Pudong International Airport expansion project.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bin; Yang, Xin; Yang, Jianguo

    2009-04-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process of the third runway building project of Pudong International Airport is briefly introduced in the paper. The basic principle, the features, and the operation steps of newly imported FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) are discussed for evaluating the aircraft noise impacts. The prediction of the aircraft noise and the countermeasures for the noise mitigation are developed, which includes the reasonable runway location, the optimized land use, the selection of low noise aircrafts, the Fly Quit Program, the relocation of sensitive receptors and the noise insulation of sensitive buildings. Finally, the expansion project is justified and its feasibility is confirmed.

  12. Skills Conversion Project, Chapter 8, Pollution Control. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    The Skills Conversion Project conducted by the National Society of Professional Engineers sought to study the transition mechanisms required to transfer available technical manpower from aerospace and defense industries into other areas of employment in private industry and public service. Fourteen study teams assessed the likelihood of future…

  13. Towards Greater Learner Control: Web Supported Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Project-based learning has been suggested as an appropriate pedagogy to prepare students in information systems for the realities of the business world. Web-based resources have been used to support such pedagogy with mixed results. The paper argues that the design of web-based learning support to cater to different learning styles may give…

  14. Skills Conversion Project, Chapter 8, Pollution Control. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Society of Professional Engineers, Washington, DC.

    The Skills Conversion Project conducted by the National Society of Professional Engineers sought to study the transition mechanisms required to transfer available technical manpower from aerospace and defense industries into other areas of employment in private industry and public service. Fourteen study teams assessed the likelihood of future…

  15. Towards Greater Learner Control: Web Supported Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Project-based learning has been suggested as an appropriate pedagogy to prepare students in information systems for the realities of the business world. Web-based resources have been used to support such pedagogy with mixed results. The paper argues that the design of web-based learning support to cater to different learning styles may give…

  16. Preventive Planning for Behavior Control: A Project APT Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendreau, Joan C.; And Others

    One of a series of materials developed by Project APT (Administrators, Parents, and Teachers/Assessment, Programing, and Training), a program designed to foster home/school coordination in educational planning and program implementation for severely mentally retarded and/or multiply handicapped students; the booklet focuses on techniques for…

  17. Perception of a schistosomiasis control project in rural Kenya by the beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Katsivo, M N; Muthami, L N; Karama, M; Kingori, F

    1993-10-01

    A schistosomiasis control project was implemented in Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme in Central Kenya between late 1983 and December 1988 by Kenya Medical Research Institute scientists in collaboration with the National Irrigation Board. The aim of the project was to control schistosomiasis through provision of alternative water sources, bath and laundry units, latrines, chemotherapy and health education. The community participated fully. Five years later in December 1988, 203 household heads were interviewed on their perception of the control project in terms of purpose, project ownership and management, benefits, continuity and their knowledge of schistosomiasis transmission cycle. 61% of the respondents were females and 39% males. 92% of them said that the purpose for the project was to treat, control and prevent bilharzia from spreading, and to promote good health. Slightly over 50% said that the project belonged to them but that they would have liked to be more involved in its management. 74% said that they are able to save time because the facilities are now nearer to them; whilst 79% felt that they were saving money because they did not have to buy drugs since they felt healthier. 99% said that they thought that bilharzia has been controlled, and 82% said that their children looked healthier. 95% said that they could see the project surviving for a long time period suggesting that it was self sustaining and they were willing to start a maintenance of facilities fund. Overall, the community appreciated the social, economic and health benefits derived from the control project.

  18. Multi-Use Rate Disturbance Observer Controller (Project Have MURDOC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    This test report presents the results for the Have MURDOC Test Management Project (TMP). The Have MURDOC test team from the USAF Test Pilot School... team was required to accept less than ideal flying and handling qualities while completing objectives two and three. The flying and handling qualities...was centered and set to zero. The safety pilot was flying straight and level, however the pitch rate sensor was sensing approximately -0.2 deg/sec

  19. Incorporation of Environmental Features in Flood Control Channel Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    lists the types of mate- rials used and some representative costs . On the other hand, equestrian trails are usually graded soil and are correspondingly...34 :: : ’ • ’ -o .- type structures are planned for the Chillicothe Local Protec- tion Project. (USAED, Huntington 1975) modified in 1977, at a cost of $140,000...34Design; Construction, Cost of Rock Check Dams," U. S. Forest Service Research Paper RM-20, U. S. Department of Agricul- ture, Fort Collins, Colo

  20. Archeological Investigations at the Three Rivers Flood Control Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    pallida), lignum vitae (Porliera augustifoLia), cenizo (LeucophylZum texanum), white brush ( Aloysia texana), prickly pear (Opuntia lindheimeri), tasajillo...derived from these previous assessments of the project area. METHODOLOGY The excavation plan at sites 41LK114, LK116 and LK228 followed essentially the same...consisting of earthenware and glass sherds, metal fragments and square nails is attributable to oil well drilling operations conducted during the early

  1. Demonstration Erosion Control Project Monitoring Program. Fiscal Year 1994 Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    effect of the structures on channel stability. The portion of the DEC Monitoring Program being conducted by the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways...watershed response to DEC Project features will allow the participating agencies a unique opportunity to determine the effectiveness of existing design...document the state of the DEC based on the WES monitoring activities. Approach To provide the information necessary for the effective evaluation of

  2. Critical issues in process control system security : DHS spares project.

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Jacquelynne; McIntyre, Annie; Henrie, Morgan

    2010-10-01

    The goals of this event are: (1) Discuss the next-generation issues and emerging risks in cyber security for control systems; (2) Review and discuss common control system architectures; (3) Discuss the role of policy, standards, and supply chain issues; (4) Interact to determine the most pertinent risks and most critical areas of the architecture; and (5) Merge feedback from Control System Managers, Engineers, IT, and Auditors.

  3. Development of a controlled vocabulary for semantic interoperability of mineral exploration geodata for mining projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Wu, Chonglong; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Schetselaar, Ernst M.; van der Meer, Freek D.; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xinqing; Zhang, Xialin

    2010-12-01

    Semantic interoperability of mineral exploration geodata is a long-term concern in mining projects. Inconsistent conceptual schemas and heterogeneous professional terms among various geodata sources in a mining project often hinder their efficient use and/or reuse. Our study of a controlled vocabulary focuses on interoperability of mineral exploration geodata of different mining projects of a mining group in China. In order to achieve this purpose, a proper representation of concepts and their inter-relationships in the knowledge domain of mineral exploration for mining projects is proposed. In addition, we propose that for wider interoperability of mining project geodata the controlled vocabulary underpinning them should be interoperable with concepts in related applications in the mineral exploration domain. In developing our controlled vocabulary, we adopted/adapted national standards of geosciences taxonomies and terminologies. The organization structure of terms, coding method, metadata schema for database applications and an extensible structure of our controlled vocabulary are discussed. The controlled vocabulary we developed was then used to reconcile heterogeneous geodata and to set up integrated databases for various mining projects of the mining group. Our study shows that a properly organized controlled vocabulary not only allows for efficient reconciliation of heterogeneous geodata sources in similar or related projects, but also makes related geodata to be interoperable with extramural applications in the same knowledge domain.

  4. Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qingxing; Liang, Youyun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    A design project that focuses on the subject of controlled-release drug delivery devices is presented for use in an undergraduate course on mass transfer. The purpose of the project is to introduce students to the various technologies used in the fabrication of drug delivery systems and provide a practical design exercise for understanding the…

  5. A Multidisciplinary PBL Robot Control Project in Automation and Electronic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Houcine; Domínguez, Carlos; Martínez, Juan-Miguel; Perles, Angel; Capella, Juan-Vicente; Albaladejo, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) project consisting of the development of a robot arm prototype and the implementation of its control system. The project is carried out as part of Industrial Informatics (II), a compulsory third-year course in the Automation and Electronic Engineering (AEE) degree program at the…

  6. Design Project on Controlled-Release Drug Delivery Devices: Implementation, Management, and Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qingxing; Liang, Youyun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    A design project that focuses on the subject of controlled-release drug delivery devices is presented for use in an undergraduate course on mass transfer. The purpose of the project is to introduce students to the various technologies used in the fabrication of drug delivery systems and provide a practical design exercise for understanding the…

  7. Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project Full Scale Flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Provide validation of adaptive control law concepts through full scale flight evaluation. Technical Approach: a) Engage failure mode - destabilizing or frozen surface. b) Perform formation flight and air-to-air tracking tasks. Evaluate adaptive algorithm: a) Stability metrics. b) Model following metrics. Full scale flight testing provides an ability to validate different adaptive flight control approaches. Full scale flight testing adds credence to NASA's research efforts. A sustained research effort is required to remove the road blocks and provide adaptive control as a viable design solution for increased aircraft resilience.

  8. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Cryogenics Test Lab Control System Upgrade Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janice Leshay

    2014-01-01

    This project will outfit the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) at KSC's Cryogenics Test Laboratory with a new programmable logic control system. The control system upgrade enables the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenace Element Integration Team and other users of the SPLS to conduct testing in a controls environment similar to that used at the launch pad.

  9. [Effect of water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects in rivers and estuaries connecting with the Yangtze River on Oncomelania snail control].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zi-Xin; Zhu, Zhao-Feng; Hang, De-Rong; Li, Wei; Chen, Shi-Jun; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Zheng-Qiu; Li, Shui-Mingt; Peng, Xun

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of the water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects in rivers and estuaries connecting with the Yangtze River on Oncomelania snail control. Three water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects of Laobianmin River, Panjia River and Bianmin River were chosen for the objects of the study. The concrete slope protection and the overflow dam, the concrete slope protection and the check sluice, and the simple concrete slope protection were built respectively in above mentioned three rivers. The changes of the area with snails and density of snails were investigated before and after the interventions, and the results were compared among the three projects. In the condition of the routine snail control with the molluscicide, the snails were eliminated in the main riverway of the Laobianmin River, but the snails still existed in the target protected area (tributaries of the river and irrigation areas); the snails were eliminated in the Panjia River and its irrigation areas; in the Bianmin River, the areas with snails dropped by 89.22% in the main river and still remained in the tributaries and irrigation areas after the project implementation. The sluice and overflow dam more contribute to control and eliminate snails in the project areas and the target protected areas in the rivers and estuaries connecting with the Yangtze River. The priority of consideration should be given to the water level control and prevention of snail spreading in the water level instability rivers connecting with the Yangtze River.

  10. Lessons for Aboriginal tobacco control in remote communities: an evaluation of the Northern Territory 'Tobacco Project'.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David; Johnston, Vanessa; Fitz, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate a Northern Territory (NT) government-led pilot 'Tobacco Project' in six remote communities. Monthly surveys of staff, semi-structured interviews with staff and community members, observation of the delivery of tobacco control interventions, review of Project documents, and monitoring of tobacco consumption using sales (or wholesale orders) of tobacco. There was a substantive amount of tobacco control activity delivered in three of the Project communities. In two of these locations, the majority of work was primarily driven and undertaken by resident staff. Overall, most of the Project's efforts related to community education and awareness-raising. There was variable impact of the Project on tobacco consumption across the six communities. More tobacco control activity was consistently associated with a greater reduction in tobacco consumption. An important predictor of local activity was the presence of strong community drivers. A significant obstacle to the Project was the lack of new resources. Despite the minimal impact of this Project on tobacco consumption overall, there was a consistent association between on-the-ground tobacco control activity and reductions in tobacco consumption. New initiatives will not only need to provide new funding, but identify and then support local staff, who are central to improving local tobacco control activity and so reducing smoking and smoking-related illnesses and deaths. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Advanced emissions control development project. Phase I final report appendices, November 1, 1993--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, G.A.

    1996-06-01

    Appendices are presented on the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project on the following: wet scrubber sampling and analysis; DBA/lime chemical analysis; limestone forced oxidation chemical analysis; benchmarking on baghouse conditions, electrostatic precipitators, and wet scrubber conditions.

  12. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative Approaches To Preventing Teen Pregnancy..., Innovative Approaches to Preventing Teen Pregnancy among Underserved Populations & SIP 10-035, Impact of High...

  13. Control Systems for Information Systems Development Projects (Part I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Gary W.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses control of management information systems and finds a similarity in management of research and development activity. Part II will appear in AEDS Journal, Volume 4, number 2, December 1970. (JF)

  14. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    , Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts: multi-pollutant models based on elastic net regression. Environ Health Perspect 124:365–372; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408933 PMID:26115335

  15. SST Control by Subsurface Mixing during Indian Ocean Monsoons: 1-yr Pilot Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    public release; distribution is unlimited. SST Control by Subsurface Mixing during Indian Ocean Monsoons : 1-yr Pilot Project Emily Shroyer and James...observational basis and physical interpretation for new mixing parameterizations that will contribute to improved monsoon predictions in this sensitive...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SST Control by Subsurface Mixing during Indian Ocean Monsoons : 1-yr Pilot Project 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  16. Limited-angle holographic tomography with optically controlled projection generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuś, A.; Krauze, W.; Kujawińska, M.

    2015-03-01

    In the paper we demonstrate a holographic tomography system with limited angle of projections, realized by optical- only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with high Numerical Aperture illumination module and a Spatial Light Modulator. Such solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to the viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied to non-piecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and processing path proposed is tested for a calibrated 3D microobject.

  17. Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in Northeast Thailand: The Lawa Project

    PubMed Central

    Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mallory, Frank F.; Smith, John F.; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode is a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. Despite a long history of control programs in Thailand and a nationwide reduction, O. viverrini infection prevalence remains high in the Northeastern Provinces. Therefore, a new strategy for controlling the liver fluke infection using the EcoHealth/One Health approach was introduced into the Lawa Lake area in Khon Kaen province where the liver fluke is endemic. A program has been carried using anthelminthic treatment, novel intensive health education methods both in the communities and in schools, ecosystem monitoring and active community participation. As a result, the infection rate in the more than 10 villages surrounding the Lake has declined to approximate one third of the average of 50% as estimated by a baseline survey. Strikingly, the Cyprinoid fish species in the Lake, which are the intermediate host, now showed less than 1% prevalence compared to a maximum of 70% at baseline. This liver fluke control program, named “Lawa model,” is now recognized nationally and internationally, and being expanding to other parts of Thailand and neighboring Mekong countries. Challenges to O. viverrini disease control, and lessons learned in developing an integrative control program using a community-based, ecosystem approach, and scaling-up regionally based on Lawa as a model are described. PMID:25102053

  18. Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in northeast Thailand: the Lawa project.

    PubMed

    Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mallory, Frank F; Smith, John F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode is a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. Despite a long history of control programmes in Thailand and a nationwide reduction, O. viverrini infection prevalence remains high in the northeastern provinces. Therefore, a new strategy for controlling the liver fluke infection using the EcoHealth/One Health approach was introduced into the Lawa Lake area in Khon Kaen province where the liver fluke is endemic. A programme has been carried using anthelminthic treatment, novel intensive health education methods both in the communities and in schools, ecosystem monitoring and active community participation. As a result, the infection rate in the more than 10 villages surrounding the lake has declined to approximate one third of the average of 50% as estimated by a baseline survey. Strikingly, the Cyprinoid fish species in the lake, which are the intermediate host, now showed less than 1% prevalence compared to a maximum of 70% at baseline. This liver fluke control programme, named "Lawa model," is now recognised nationally and internationally, and being expanding to other parts of Thailand and neighbouring Mekong countries. Challenges to O. viverrini disease control, and lessons learned in developing an integrative control programme using a community-based, ecosystem approach, and scaling-up regionally based on Lawa as a model are described.

  19. [Performance evaluation of small snail control projects in Hubei Province in 2009 and 2010].

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Zhu, Zhi-Hua; Huang, Xi-Bao; Tan, Xiao-Dong

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the performance of small Oncomelania snail control projects in Hubei Province in 2009 and 2010, so as to explore the best snail control project in different areas. The expense-effect, expense-efficiency and cost-utility analyses were carried out to analyze the small snail control projects with reference to the relevant schistosomiasis japonica prevention and control index system. The coverage rate of snail control was 40.15%, the decrease rate of the snail areas was 32.86%, the unit cost for the snail control was 0.39 Yuan/m2, the cost of reducing 1% of the snail area was 67.34 ten thousand Yuan, the total benefit was 15 554.14 ten thousand Yuan, the ratio of cost to benefit was 7.03, the net benefit was 13 341.44 ten thousand Yuan, and the ratio of cost to net benefit was 6.03, and the investment ratio was 1 : 2.11 in the 183 small snail control projects. There is an obvious and respectable short-period effect of the small snail control projects.

  20. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project.

    PubMed

    Turusbekova, N; Ljungqvist, I; Davidavičiene, E; Mikaityte, J; van der Werf, M J

    2016-03-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan.

  1. The hickory project: controlling healthcare costs and improving outcomes for diabetes using the asheville project model.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Barry A; Lee, Grover; Knowles, Grant; Lee, Christine; Allen, Paul

    2011-09-01

    The results of the Asheville Project have shown the success of a community-based, chronic disease management model in improving clinical outcomes in patients with chronic disease while reducing annual costs of care per participant. The question arose whether other programs using a similar management model and implemented in other communities could replicate the success of the Asheville Project in improving clinical outcomes and reducing costs for patients with a chronic disease. To assess the long-term clinical and financial outcomes of a chronic care management model for patients with diabetes, using the Asheville care management model that was successful in the management of several chronic diseases. Longitudinal, 3-year (2007-2009), quasi-experimental, multisite, pre-/postenrollment study. Self-insured health plan members with diabetes agreed to meet on a regular basis (ie, an average of every 3 months) with a healthcare professional. Participants received reduced copayments on diabetes-related medications and supplies as an incentive for participating in the study. Providers utilized a web-based electronic medical record system that provided updated medical and prescription data and highlighted gaps in care based on national standards. Program providers included community pharmacists, population health management company pharmacists, and nurses at on-site clinics, trained in use of evidence-based guidelines of care. Providers assessed patients' medications, knowledge level, and lifestyle; provided patient education and goal setting; and referred patients for physician follow-up and recommendations to physicians. The majority of the encounters were face-to-face. The study included 95 plan members in the clinical cohort participating for 1 year or more, and 54 members in the financial cohort who have been participating in the program for 3 years. At the end of 3 years, the percentages of those achieving guideline goals increased from baseline to the latest follow

  2. Market-based collaborative control of distributed multiple product development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yonghan; Kumara, Soundar R. T.

    2000-12-01

    Due to the widespread availability of the Internet large scale distributed projects in manufacturing are becoming popular. We present a distributed, collaborative, and adaptive control approach for distributed multiple product development projects (DMPDP), which is a representative project environment in modern e-enterprises. In DMPDP environment, multiple project groups share and compete for limited resources to achieve their own goals. On the other hand, the shared resource divisions try to utilize their resources efficiently. We suggest that this kind of situation can be well modeled and efficiently solved by using two novel approaches: multiagent based information infrastructure and market-based control mechanism. In this paper, we formalize the DMPDP control problem, and propose a market-based negotiation mechanism called sequential market clearing (SMC) protocol. For clear presentation, some of information system design and implementation issues are also presented.

  3. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  4. The Hickory Project: Controlling Healthcare Costs and Improving Outcomes for Diabetes Using the Asheville Project Model

    PubMed Central

    Bunting, Barry A.; Lee, Grover; Knowles, Grant; Lee, Christine; Allen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background The results of the Asheville Project have shown the success of a community-based, chronic disease management model in improving clinical outcomes in patients with chronic disease while reducing annual costs of care per participant. The question arose whether other programs using a similar management model and implemented in other communities could replicate the success of the Asheville Project in improving clinical outcomes and reducing costs for patients with a chronic disease. Objective To assess the long-term clinical and financial outcomes of a chronic care management model for patients with diabetes, using the Asheville care management model that was successful in the management of several chronic diseases. Study design Longitudinal, 3-year (2007–2009), quasi-experimental, multisite, pre-/postenrollment study. Methods Self-insured health plan members with diabetes agreed to meet on a regular basis (ie, an average of every 3 months) with a healthcare professional. Participants received reduced copayments on diabetes-related medications and supplies as an incentive for participating in the study. Providers utilized a web-based electronic medical record system that provided updated medical and prescription data and highlighted gaps in care based on national standards. Program providers included community pharmacists, population health management company pharmacists, and nurses at on-site clinics, trained in use of evidence-based guidelines of care. Providers assessed patients' medications, knowledge level, and lifestyle; provided patient education and goal setting; and referred patients for physician follow-up and recommendations to physicians. The majority of the encounters were face-to-face. Results The study included 95 plan members in the clinical cohort participating for 1 year or more, and 54 members in the financial cohort who have been participating in the program for 3 years. At the end of 3 years, the percentages of those achieving

  5. Designing a controlled medical vocabulary server: the VOSER project.

    PubMed

    Rocha, R A; Huff, S M; Haug, P J; Warner, H R

    1994-12-01

    The authors describe their experience designing a controlled medical vocabulary server created to support the exchange of patient data and medical decision logic. The first section introduces practical and theoretical premises that guided the design of the vocabulary server. The second section describes a series of structures needed to implement the proposed server, emphasizing their conformance to the design premises. The third section introduces potential applications that provide services to end users and also a group of tools necessary for maintaining the server corpus. In the fourth section, the authors propose an implementation strategy based on a common framework and on the participation of groups from different health-related domains.

  6. Hexapartite safeguards project team 3: material accounting and control questionnaire

    SciTech Connect

    Swindle, Jr, D W

    1981-06-16

    Information provided in this report reflects the current design and operating procedures for the GCEP. However, since the installation is currently under construction, facility design and operating procedures discussed in this report are subject to change. Where applicable, the responses are based on material control and accounting practices of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's (GDP) operating contractor (Goodyear Atomic Corporation). These practices meet US Department of Energy (DOE) standards and are assumed to be the reference practices for the GCEP. This report covers data collection and record keeping actions of the operator.

  7. Allocation of control rights in the PPP Project: a cooperative game model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Feng, Jingchun; Yang, Shengtao

    2017-06-01

    Reasonable allocation of control rights is the key to the success of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects. PPP are services or ventures which are financed and operated through cooperation between governmental and private sector actors and which involve reasonable control rights sharing between these two partners. After professional firm with capital and technology as a shareholder participating in PPP project firms, the PPP project is diversified in participants and input resources. Meanwhile the allocation of control rights of PPP project tends to be complicated. According to the diversification of participants and input resources of PPP projects, the key participants are divided into professional firms and pure investors. Based on the cost of repurchase of different input resources in markets, the cooperative game relationship between these two parties is analyzed, on the basis of which the allocation model of the cooperative game for control rights is constructed to ensure optimum allocation ration of control rights and verify the share of control rights in proportion to the cost of repurchase.

  8. National Ignition Facility Project Completion and Control System Status

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P J; Azevedo, S G; Beeler, R G; Bryant, R M; Carey, R W; Demaret, R D; Fisher, J M; Frazier, T M; Lagin, L J; Ludwigsen, A P; Marshall, C D; Mathisen, D G; Reed, R K

    2009-10-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. Completed in 2009, NIF is a stadium-sized facility containing a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW 192-beam ultraviolet laser and target chamber. A cryogenic tritium target system and suite of optical, X-ray and nuclear diagnostics will support experiments in a strategy to achieve fusion ignition starting in 2010. Automatic control of NIF is performed by the large-scale Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is implemented by 2 MSLOC of Java and Ada running on 1300 front-end processors and servers. The ICCS framework uses CORBA distribution for interoperation between heterogeneous languages and computers. Laser setup is guided by a physics model and shots are coordinated by data-driven distributed workflow engines. The NIF information system includes operational tools and a peta-scale repository for provisioning experimental results. This paper discusses results achieved and the effort now underway to conduct full-scale operations and prepare for ignition.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of the Health X Project for tuberculosis control in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, W-B; Zhang, H; Petzold, M; Zhao, Q; Xu, B; Zhao, G-M

    2014-08-01

    Between 2002 and 2008, China's National Tuberculosis Control Programme created the Health X Project, financed in part by a World Bank loan, with additional funding from the UK Department for International Development. To assess the cost-effectiveness of the Project and its impact from a financial point of view on tuberculosis (TB) control in China. A decision-analytic model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Project. Sensitivity analysis was used to assess the impact of different scenarios and assumptions on results. The primary outcome of the study was cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) saved and incremental DALYs saved. In comparison with alternative scenario 1, the Project detected 1.6 million additional cases, 44 000 deaths were prevented and a total of 18.4 million DALYs saved. The Project strategies cost approximately Chinese yuan (CNY) 953 per DALY saved (vs. CNY1140 in the control areas), and saved an estimated CNY17.5 billion in comparison with the unchanged alternative scenario (scenario 1) or CNY10.8 billion with the control scenario (scenario 2). The Project strategies were affordable and of comparable cost-effectiveness to those of other developing countries. The results also provide strong support for the existing policy of scaling up DOTS in China.

  10. Multi-Canister overpack pressurization monitoring and control methodology for the spent nuclear fuel project

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-19

    A control methodology is developed and monitoring alternatives evaluated for controlling pressurization in a Multi- Canister Overpack for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Monitoring alternative evaluations include concept description, identification of uncertainties, and identification of experimental work required for implementation. A monitoring alternative is recommended and implementation requirements, risks and start up testing associated with the recommendation are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of the USDA Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project by Meta-analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using USDA ‘4-Poster’ devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed d...

  12. Chaos control and function projective synchronization of fractional-order systems through the backstepping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Yadav, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    We study the chaos control and the function projective synchronization of a fractional-order T-system and Lorenz chaotic system using the backstepping method. Based on stability theory, we consider the condition for the local stability of nonlinear three-dimensional commensurate fractional-order system. Using the feedback control method, we control the chaos in the considered fractional-order T-system. We simulate the function projective synchronization between the fractional-order T-system and Lorenz system numerically using MATLAB and depict the results with plots.

  13. Projective synchronization of uncertain scale-free network based on modified sliding mode control technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengren; Lü, Ling; Zhao, Guannan; Li, Gang; Tian, Jing; Gu, Jiajia; Wang, Zhouyang

    2017-05-01

    We modify sliding mode control technique from the synchronization of a single dynamic system to the synchronization of complex network. Projective synchronization of uncertain scale-free network is investigated based on modified sliding mode control technique. Further, the sliding surfaces, the identification laws of uncertain parameters and the control inputs are designed, and the condition of realizing projective synchronization of uncertain scale-free network is obtained. Finally, the Logistic systems with chaotic behavior are taken as nodes to constitute the scale-free network and the synchronization target. The simulation results show that the synchronization mechanism is effective.

  14. A Manual of Mosquito Control Projects and Committee Assignments for 4-H and Scouts Biology Class Projects, Organized Community Service Programs, and Individuals Interested in Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Richard A.

    The mosquito control projects presented in this manual were prepared from an educational viewpoint and are intended for use by students in 4-H and Scouts and as a supplement to high school and college biology course work. The major emphasis of the projects is on integrated pest management, an approach utilizing cost-effective control methods which…

  15. Transition from control to elimination: impact of the 10-year global fund project on malaria control and elimination in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Zheng, Bin; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Tang, Lin-Hua; Gao, Qi; Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, Rong-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) supported a project on the control and elimination of malaria in People's Republic of China which was one of the biggest-scale international cooperation programmes to control malaria in the country during the past 10 years. The project promoted the effective implementation of the Chinese national malaria control programme. On the basis of epidemiologic data, an overview of the project activities and key performance indicators, the overall impact of the GFATM project was evaluated. We also reviewed relevant programme features including technological and management approaches, with a focus on best practice, innovations in implementation and the introduction of international standards. Last, we summarised the multi-stakeholder cooperation mechanism and comments on its sustainability in the post-GFATM period. Recommendations for the future management of the Chinese national malaria elimination programme are put forward after considering the challenges, shortcomings and lessons learnt during the implementation of the GFATM project in China to sustain past achievements and foster the attainment of the ultimate goal of malaria elimination for the country.

  16. Flood control projects in Bangladesh: reasons for failure and recommendations for improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Siddique, M A

    1995-09-01

    Flood control and drainage projects in Bangladesh are intended to give protection from main river floods, flash floods in the east and northeast of the country, and saline intrusion in the lower delta and to improve drainage in order to avoid crop damage. While in some cases such projects have had positive results, in many others their benefits have fallen well below expectations. One of the major reasons for the poor performance of projects is embankment failure, brought about by poor planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance. Recommended measures to improve the efficiency of projects include the involvement of local people in the planning and operation of projects, better training of management staff and the allocation of adequate funds for maintenance.

  17. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  18. Remote Imaging Applied to Schistosomiasis Control: The Anning River Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Maszle, Don R.; Spear, Robert C.; Gong, Peng

    1997-01-01

    The use of satellite imaging to remotely detect areas of high risk for transmission of infectious disease is an appealing prospect for large-scale monitoring of these diseases. The detection of large-scale environmental determinants of disease risk, often called landscape epidemiology, has been motivated by several authors (Pavlovsky 1966; Meade et al. 1988). The basic notion is that large-scale factors such as population density, air temperature, hydrological conditions, soil type, and vegetation can determine in a coarse fashion the local conditions contributing to disease vector abundance and human contact with disease agents. These large-scale factors can often be remotely detected by sensors or cameras mounted on satellite or aircraft platforms and can thus be used in a predictive model to mark high risk areas of transmission and to target control or monitoring efforts. A review of satellite technologies for this purpose was recently presented by Washino and Wood (1994) and Hay (1997) and Hay et al. (1997).

  19. Control room crew operations research project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, G.W.; Mosleh, A.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents an assessment of the current state of the art in human reliability analysis (HRA) and highlights the principal shortcomings of current approaches. Issues that should be addressed in an improved HRA approach as well as the constraints imposed by current methodologies used to perform Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSAs) are identified. A generalized conceptual model for estimating the probabilities of the human failure events that are included in a PSA logic model is presented. The model is expressed as a sum over error modes and error causes. The report emphasizes the importance of understanding the causality of error and suggests one approach to the representation of error causes. An example approach to the qualitative screening of errors of commission is presented. The second part of the report describes an alternative approach to modeling accident scenarios that explicitly considers the dynamic interactions of the various elements and provides the needed environment for implementation of advanced human reliability models. This approach has been incorporated into the Accident Dynamic Simulator (ADS), a computer tool that removes the main roadblock to implementation of this methodology by handling the computational complexities of an integrated model of a large system, its physical processes, and the human behavior of the control room operators. ADS runs on a personal computer and is designed to facilitate the PSA of nuclear power plants. The application of the code to a SGTR initiating event at a Westinghouse PWR is presented.

  20. Control of the formation of projective synchronisation in lower-dimensional discrete-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Chin Yi; Xu, Daolin

    2003-11-01

    Projective synchronisation was recently observed in partially linear discrete-time systems. The scaling factor that characterises the behaviour of projective synchronisation is however unpredictable. In order to manipulate the ultimate state of the synchronisation, a control algorithm based on Schur-Chon stability criteria is proposed to direct the scaling factor onto any predestined value. In the numerical experiment, we illustrate the application on two chaotic discrete-time systems.

  1. Joint power and multiple access control for wireless mesh network with Rose projection method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches.

  2. Joint Power and Multiple Access Control for Wireless Mesh Network with Rose Projection Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches. PMID:24883384

  3. Stimulation Controls and Mitigation of Induced Seismicity for EGS Project: Examples from the Newberry EGS Demonstration Project (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, S.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Osborn, W.; Iovenitti, J.

    2010-12-01

    Creating an EGS reservoir depends upon injection induced seismicity (IIS) to create fracture permeability and allow the reservoir to be mapped using passive microseismic monitoring. However, in some cases, the seismicity induced through the stimulation has been felt by surrounding populations and in one case caused sufficient concern to force shut-down of the project. AltaRock Energy, Inc. is working with universities, national labs and consultants on the Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Project (Funded in part through a grant from the US DOE: DE-EE0002777). This project will attempt to stimulate a very low permeability existing deep geothermal well with high temperature to develop a circulating geothermal system that be able to sustain production of economic quantities of hot water and steam for power production. In order to allay concerns that IIS might become hazardous at Newberry, AltaRock Energy has agreed to a robust series of safeguards and mitigation controls. The safeguards detail how the EGS stimulation will be monitored and under what circumstances the stimulation should be safely reduced or halted to avoid perceptible seismic events that would alarm or possibly cause damage to the local community. The International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Cooperative Programme on Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, or Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA), developed an induced seismicity mitigation protocol which has been adopted by the US Department of Energy for their funded EGS Demonstration Projects. AltaRock is the process of making this protocol site specific for the Newberry project.The Notice of Intent (NOI) to the BLM for the Newberry EGS Demonstration includes plans to conduct an induced seismicity hazards and risk assessment. These plans include implementing the Protocol for Induced Seismicity Associated with Geothermal System (Majer et al., 2008), adopted by the International Energy Agency. The theory of IIS has recently

  4. Projective synchronization of nonidentical fractional-order neural networks based on sliding mode controller.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhixia; Shen, Yi

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates global projective synchronization of nonidentical fractional-order neural networks (FNNs) based on sliding mode control technique. We firstly construct a fractional-order integral sliding surface. Then, according to the sliding mode control theory, we design a sliding mode controller to guarantee the occurrence of the sliding motion. Based on fractional Lyapunov direct methods, system trajectories are driven to the proposed sliding surface and remain on it evermore, and some novel criteria are obtained to realize global projective synchronization of nonidentical FNNs. As the special cases, some sufficient conditions are given to ensure projective synchronization of identical FNNs, complete synchronization of nonidentical FNNs and anti-synchronization of nonidentical FNNs. Finally, one numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  5. Overview of implementing a project control system in the nuclear utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cooprider, D.H. )

    1994-03-01

    During the late 1980s, a metamorphosis began at Florida Power and Light Company (FPL). A strategic step in nuclear engineering's efforts to become more cost effective began in January 1990. A project control department was formed. The initial mission was to provide support for nuclear engineering design activities associated with FPL's two twin-unit nuclear power generation facilities - Turkey Point and St. Lucie. Later, the goal expanded to include the division's materials management, nuclear licensing, and information management departments. The project control group was organized along the lines of the organizations served. Separate dedicated groups were established for each plant. Since most engineering activity was based at the Juno Beach headquarters, the project control staff also was based there.

  6. Lessons Learned and Flight Results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the lessons learned and flight results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project is shown. The topics include: 1) F-15 IFCS Project Goals; 2) Motivation; 3) IFCS Approach; 4) NASA F-15 #837 Aircraft Description; 5) Flight Envelope; 6) Limited Authority System; 7) NN Floating Limiter; 8) Flight Experiment; 9) Adaptation Goals; 10) Handling Qualities Performance Metric; 11) Project Phases; 12) Indirect Adaptive Control Architecture; 13) Indirect Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; 14) Gen II Direct Adaptive Control Architecture; 15) Current Status; 16) Effect of Canard Multiplier; 17) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop; 18) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop Freq. Resp.; 19) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop with Adaptation; 20) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop with Adaptation; 21) Gen 2 NN Wts from Simulation; 22) Direct Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; and 23) Conclusions

  7. Spinal sensory projection neuron responses to spinal cord stimulation are mediated by circuits beyond gate control

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianhe C.; Janik, John J.; Peters, Ryan V.; Chen, Gang; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a therapy used to treat intractable pain with a putative mechanism of action based on the Gate Control Theory. We hypothesized that sensory projection neuron responses to SCS would follow a single stereotyped response curve as a function of SCS frequency, as predicted by the Gate Control circuit. We recorded the responses of antidromically identified sensory projection neurons in the lumbar spinal cord during 1- to 150-Hz SCS in both healthy rats and neuropathic rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI). The relationship between SCS frequency and projection neuron activity predicted by the Gate Control circuit accounted for a subset of neuronal responses to SCS but could not account for the full range of observed responses. Heterogeneous responses were classifiable into three additional groups and were reproduced using computational models of spinal microcircuits representing other interactions between nociceptive and nonnociceptive sensory inputs. Intrathecal administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, increased spontaneous and evoked activity in projection neurons, enhanced excitatory responses to SCS, and reduced inhibitory responses to SCS, suggesting that GABAA neurotransmission plays a broad role in regulating projection neuron activity. These in vivo and computational results challenge the Gate Control Theory as the only mechanism underlying SCS and refine our understanding of the effects of SCS on spinal sensory neurons within the framework of contemporary understanding of dorsal horn circuitry. PMID:25972582

  8. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non-smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre-specified, theory-driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first-ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy-specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC.

  9. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non‐smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre‐specified, theory‐driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first‐ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy‐specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC. PMID:16754944

  10. Inverting the Pendulum Using Fuzzy Control (Center Director's Discretionary Fund (Project 93-02)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, R. R.; Sutherland, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    A single pendulum was simulated in software and then built on a rotary base. A fuzzy controller was used to show its advantages as a nonlinear controller since bringing the pendulum inverted is extremely nonlinear. The controller was implemented in a Motorola 6811 microcontroller. A double pendulum was simulated and fuzzy control was used to hold it in a vertical position. The double pendulum was not built into hardware for lack of time. This project was for training and to show advantages of fuzzy control.

  11. DOE/NETL's advanced NOx emissions control technology R & D program

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.W.; Feeley, T.J. III; Miller, C.E.; Carney, B.A.; Murphy, J.T.

    2006-11-15

    Efforts are underway to provide more cost-effective options for coal-fired power plants to meet stringent emissions limits. Several recently completed DOE/NETL R & D projects were successful in achieving the short-term goal of controlling NOx emissions at 0.15 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies. In anticipation of CAIR and possible congressional multi-pollutant legislation, DOE/NETL issued a solicitation in 2004 to continue R & D efforts to meet the 2007 goal and to initiate R & D targeting the 2010 goal of achieving 0.10 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies in lieu of SCR. As a result, four new NOx R & D projects are currently underway and will be completed over the next three years. The article outlines: ALSTOM's Project on developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx burner for tangentially-fired boilers; Babcock and Wilcox's demonstration of an advanced NOx control technology to achieve an emission rate of 0.10 lb/MMBtu while burning bituminous coal for both wall- and cyclone-fired boilers; Reaction Engineering International's (REI) full-scale field testing of advanced layered technology application (ALTA) NOx control for cyclone fired boilers; and pilot-scale testing of ALTA NOx control of coal-fired boilers also by REI. DOE/NETL has begun an R & D effort to optimize performance of SCR controls to achieve the long term goal of 0.01 lb/MMBtu NOx emission rate by 2020. 1 fig.

  12. Hydraulic Model Investigation: Walnut Creek Flood-Control Project Contra Costa County, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT HL-87-14 WALNUT CREEK FLOOD-CONTROL PROJECT CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Hydraulic Model Investigation by W. G. Davis O11C tLE...34’ : AA Ii iA e d S O a :::: SCALE IN MILES 5 0 5 10 Figure 1. Vicinity map 4~ 4.. %- . " . " %____ WALNUT CREEK FLOOD-CONTROL PROJECT CONTRA COSTA COUNTY...Pleasant Hi-1, nd Martinez, California, on its way to the Suisin Bay. All of th.e planned imcrovements are located in Contra Costa County, California

  13. ERIP Project No. 670, Nevada Energy Control Systems, Inc.. Final techincal progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimber, D.J.

    1998-02-11

    In order to gauge the effectiveness of the ERIP Project No. 670, Nevada Energy Control Systems, Inc., Grant Number DE-FG01-96EE15670, the Statement of Work must be compared to the achievements by NECSI during the grant period. The following report reflects the aforementioned statement and is coordinated directly with it. The project goal is to gather data and test in order to validate earlier tests of energy savings,safety,reliability and practicality of the NECSI Evaporator Fan Controller in order to fully commercialize and market the product.

  14. Control room modernization at Finnish nuclear power plants - Two projects compared

    SciTech Connect

    Laarni, J.; Norros, L.

    2006-07-01

    The modernization of automation systems and human-machine interfaces is a current issue at both of the two nuclear power plants (i.e., Fortum's Loviisa plant and TVO's Olkiluoto plant) in Finland. Since the plants have been launched in the 1970's or 1980's, technology is in part old-fashioned and needs to be renewed. At Olkiluoto upgrades of the turbine operator systems have already been conducted; at Loviisa the first phase of the modernization project has just started. Basically, there is a question of the complete digitalization of the information streams at the two plants, and transition from a conventional hard-wired or hybrid control room to a screen-based one. The new human-machine interfaces will comprise new technology, such as PC workstations, soft control, touch screens and large-screen overall displays. The modernization of human-system interfaces is carried out in a stepwise manner at both plants. At both plants the main driver has not been the need to renew the user interfaces of the control room, but the need to upgrade the automation systems. In part because of this, there is a lack of a systematic top-down approach in which different aspects of human factors (HF) engineering are considered in relationship to higher level goals. Our aim here is to give an overview description of the control room modernization projects at the two plants and provide a preliminary evaluation of their progress to date. The projects are also compared, for example, in terms of duration, scope and phasing, and who is responsible for the realization of the project. In addition, we also compare experiences from the Finnish projects to experiences from similar projects abroad. The main part of the data used in this study is based on designers' and project members' interviews. (authors)

  15. Thermal sensitivity of motor control of muscle-powered versus elastically powered tongue projection in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Scales, Jeffrey A; O'Donnell, Mary Kate; Deban, Stephen M

    2017-03-01

    Elastic-recoil mechanisms can improve organismal performance and circumvent the thermal limitations of muscle contraction, yet they require the appropriate motor control to operate. We compare muscle activity during tongue projection in salamanders with elastically powered, ballistic projection with activity of those with muscle-powered, non-ballistic projection across a range of temperatures to understand how motor control is integrated with elastically powered movements, and how this integration contributes to reduced thermal sensitivity. Species with ballistic tongue projection activated and deactivated their projector muscles significantly earlier than non-ballistic species, in a pattern consistent with a mechanism in which the muscle strains elastic tissue that subsequently recoils to power projection. Tongue projection was more thermally robust in ballistic species, but in both ballistic and non-ballistic species the projector muscles were activated earlier and for longer as temperature decreased. The retractor muscles showed a pattern similar to that of the projector muscles, but declined in a similar manner in the two groups. Muscle activity intensity also decreased at low temperatures in both groups, revealing that compensatory muscle activation does not account for the improved thermal robustness in ballistic species. Thus, relatively minor shifts in motor patterns accompanying morphological changes such as increased elastic tissue are sufficient to improve performance and decrease its thermal sensitivity without specialization of muscle contractile physiology. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Auditory cortex controls sound-driven innate defense behaviour through corticofugal projections to inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xiaorui R.; Liang, Feixue; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Ibrahim, Leena A.; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

    2015-01-01

    Defense against environmental threats is essential for animal survival. However, the neural circuits responsible for transforming unconditioned sensory stimuli and generating defensive behaviours remain largely unclear. Here, we show that corticofugal neurons in the auditory cortex (ACx) targeting the inferior colliculus (IC) mediate an innate, sound-induced flight behaviour. Optogenetic activation of these neurons, or their projection terminals in the IC, is sufficient for initiating flight responses, while the inhibition of these projections reduces sound-induced flight responses. Corticocollicular axons monosynaptically innervate neurons in the cortex of the IC (ICx), and optogenetic activation of the projections from the ICx to the dorsal periaqueductal gray is sufficient for provoking flight behaviours. Our results suggest that ACx can both amplify innate acoustic-motor responses and directly drive flight behaviours in the absence of sound input through corticocollicular projections to ICx. Such corticofugal control may be a general feature of innate defense circuits across sensory modalities. PMID:26068082

  17. Controllable 3D Display System Based on Frontal Projection Lenticular Screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Q.; Sang, X.; Yu, X.; Gao, X.; Wang, P.; Li, C.; Zhao, T.

    2014-08-01

    A novel auto-stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) projection display system based on the frontal projection lenticular screen is demonstrated. It can provide high real 3D experiences and the freedom of interaction. In the demonstrated system, the content can be changed and the dense of viewing points can be freely adjusted according to the viewers' demand. The high dense viewing points can provide smooth motion parallax and larger image depth without blurry. The basic principle of stereoscopic display is described firstly. Then, design architectures including hardware and software are demonstrated. The system consists of a frontal projection lenticular screen, an optimally designed projector-array and a set of multi-channel image processors. The parameters of the frontal projection lenticular screen are based on the demand of viewing such as the viewing distance and the width of view zones. Each projector is arranged on an adjustable platform. The set of multi-channel image processors are made up of six PCs. One of them is used as the main controller, the other five client PCs can process 30 channel signals and transmit them to the projector-array. Then a natural 3D scene will be perceived based on the frontal projection lenticular screen with more than 1.5 m image depth in real time. The control section is presented in detail, including parallax adjustment, system synchronization, distortion correction, etc. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel controllable 3D display system.

  18. ACFA 2020 - An FP7 project on active control of flexible fuel efficient aircraft configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper gives an overview about the project ACFA 2020 which is funded by the European Commission within the 7th framework program. The acronym ACFA 2020 stands for Active Control for Flexible Aircraft 2020. The project is dealing with the design of highly fuel efficient aircraft configurations and, in particular, on innovative active control concepts with the goal to reduce loads and structural weight. Major focus lays on blended wing body (BWB) aircraft. Blended wing body type aircraft configurations are seen as the most promising future concept to fulfill the so-called ACARE (Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe) vision 2020 goals in regards to reduce fuel consumption and external noise. The paper discusses in some detail the overall goals and how they are addressed in the workplan. Furthermore, the major achievements of the project are outlined and a short outlook on the remaining work is given.

  19. An interdisciplinary school project using a Nintendo Wii controller for measuring car speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Nils Kristian; Mitchell, James Robert

    2013-03-01

    This work examines the feasibility of employing a Nintendo Wii game controller for measuring car speed in an interdisciplinary school project. It discusses the physical characteristics of the controller and of vehicle headlights. It suggests how an experiment may be linked to topics in mathematics, statistics, physics and computer science. An algorithm for calculating speed from repeated recordings of car headlights is provided. Finally the results of repeated experiments with an approaching car are provided.

  20. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Paul H.

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 6-hour introductory module on statistical process control (SPC), designed to develop competencies in the following skill areas: (1) identification of the three classes of SPC use; (2) understanding a process and how it works; (3)…

  1. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  2. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  3. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  4. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  10. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health Input for Vaccine Policy Decisions SIP..., discussion, and evaluation of applications received in response to ``Provider and Public Health Input for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. The Santa Margarita River Arundo donax control project: development of methods and plant community response

    Treesearch

    Dawn M. Lawson; Jesse A. Giessow; Jason H. Giessow

    2005-01-01

    A large-scale effort to control the aggressively invasive exotic species Arundo donax in the Santa Margarita River watershed in California’s south coast ecoregion was initiated in 1997. The project was prompted by the need for Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton to address impacts to habitat for federally-listed endangered species and wetlands regulated...

  12. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  13. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study--Cancer Survivorship Care Planning & SIP 10-030, Evaluating Special Events as a Recruitment Strategy for Cancer Screening, Initial Review In...-029, Pilot Study--Cancer Survivorship Care Planning & SIP 10- 030, Evaluating Special Events as a...

  14. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. 203.85 Section 203.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL...

  15. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. 203.85 Section 203.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL...

  16. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. 203.85 Section 203.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL...

  17. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. 203.85 Section 203.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL...

  18. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. 203.85 Section 203.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE EMERGENCY EMPLOYMENT OF ARMY AND OTHER RESOURCES, NATURAL...

  19. A quality improvement project using statistical process control methods for type 2 diabetes control in a resource-limited setting.

    PubMed

    Flood, David; Douglas, Kate; Goldberg, Vera; Martinez, Boris; Garcia, Pablo; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rohloff, Peter

    2017-05-09

    Quality improvement (QI) is a key strategy for improving diabetes care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study reports on a diabetes QI project in rural Guatemala whose primary aim was to improve glycemic control of a panel of adult diabetes patients. Formative research suggested multiple areas for programmatic improvement in ambulatory diabetes care. This project utilized the Model for Improvement and Agile Global Health, our organization's complementary healthcare implementation framework. A bundle of improvement activities were implemented at the home, clinic and institutional level. Control charts of mean hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) and proportion of patients meeting target HbA1C showed improvement as special cause variation was identified 3 months after the intervention began. Control charts for secondary process measures offered insights into the value of different components of the intervention. Intensity of home-based diabetes education emerged as an important driver of panel glycemic control. Diabetes QI work is feasible in resource-limited settings in LMICs and can improve glycemic control. Statistical process control charts are a promising methodology for use with panels or registries of diabetes patients.

  20. Identification and selection of cases and controls in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health project.

    PubMed

    Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Feikin, Daniel R; Scott, J Anthony G; O'Brien, Katherine L; DeLuca, Andrea N; Driscoll, Amanda J; Levine, Orin S

    2012-04-01

    Methods for the identification and selection of patients (cases) with severe or very severe pneumonia and controls for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project were needed. Issues considered include eligibility criteria and sampling strategies, whether to enroll hospital or community controls, whether to exclude controls with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) or nonsevere pneumonia, and matching criteria, among others. PERCH ultimately decided to enroll community controls and an additional human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected control group at high HIV-prevalence sites matched on age and enrollment date of cases; controls with symptoms of URTI or nonsevere pneumonia will not be excluded. Systematic sampling of cases (when necessary) and random sampling of controls will be implemented. For each issue, we present the options that were considered, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the rationale for the methods selected for PERCH, and remaining implications and limitations.

  1. Identification and Selection of Cases and Controls in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; O’Brien, Katherine L.; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Driscoll, Amanda J.; Levine, Orin S.

    2012-01-01

    Methods for the identification and selection of patients (cases) with severe or very severe pneumonia and controls for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project were needed. Issues considered include eligibility criteria and sampling strategies, whether to enroll hospital or community controls, whether to exclude controls with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) or nonsevere pneumonia, and matching criteria, among others. PERCH ultimately decided to enroll community controls and an additional human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected control group at high HIV-prevalence sites matched on age and enrollment date of cases; controls with symptoms of URTI or nonsevere pneumonia will not be excluded. Systematic sampling of cases (when necessary) and random sampling of controls will be implemented. For each issue, we present the options that were considered, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the rationale for the methods selected for PERCH, and remaining implications and limitations. PMID:22403225

  2. A homotopy algorithm for digital optimal projection control GASD-HADOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen; Davis, Lawrence D.

    1993-01-01

    The linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) compensator was developed to facilitate the design of control laws for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems. The compensator is computed by solving two algebraic equations for which standard closed-loop solutions exist. Unfortunately, the minimal dimension of an LQG compensator is almost always equal to the dimension of the plant and can thus often violate practical implementation constraints on controller order. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control-design for high-order systems such as flexible space structures. This deficiency motivated the development of techniques that enable the design of optimal controllers whose dimension is less than that of the design plant. A homotopy approach based on the optimal projection equations that characterize the necessary conditions for optimal reduced-order control. Homotopy algorithms have global convergence properties and hence do not require that the initializing reduced-order controller be close to the optimal reduced-order controller to guarantee convergence. However, the homotopy algorithm previously developed for solving the optimal projection equations has sublinear convergence properties and the convergence slows at higher authority levels and may fail. A new homotopy algorithm for synthesizing optimal reduced-order controllers for discrete-time systems is described. Unlike the previous homotopy approach, the new algorithm is a gradient-based, parameter optimization formulation and was implemented in MATLAB. The results reported may offer the foundation for a reliable approach to optimal, reduced-order controller design.

  3. Inter-Model Warming Projection Spread: Inherited Traits from Control Climate Diversity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoming; Taylor, Patrick C; Cai, Ming; Yang, Song; Deng, Yi; Sejas, Sergio

    2017-06-27

    Since Chaney's report, the range of global warming projections in response to a doubling of CO2-from 1.5 °C to 4.5 °C or greater -remains largely unscathed by the onslaught of new scientific insights. Conventional thinking regards inter-model differences in climate feedbacks as the sole cause of the warming projection spread (WPS). Our findings shed new light on this issue indicating that climate feedbacks inherit diversity from the model control climate, besides the models' intrinsic climate feedback diversity that is independent of the control climate state. Regulated by the control climate ice coverage, models with greater (lesser) ice coverage generally possess a colder (warmer) and drier (moister) climate, exhibit a stronger (weaker) ice-albedo feedback, and experience greater (weaker) warming. The water vapor feedback also inherits diversity from the control climate but in an opposite way: a colder (warmer) climate generally possesses a weaker (stronger) water vapor feedback, yielding a weaker (stronger) warming. These inherited traits influence the warming response in opposing manners, resulting in a weaker correlation between the WPS and control climate diversity. Our study indicates that a better understanding of the diversity amongst climate model mean states may help to narrow down the range of global warming projections.

  4. Operational research on malaria control and elimination: a review of projects published between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shui-sen; Rietveld, Aafje E C; Velarde-Rodriguez, Mar; Ramsay, Andrew R; Zhang, Shao-sen; Zhou, Xiao-nong; Cibulskis, Richard E

    2014-12-04

    A literature review for operational research on malaria control and elimination was conducted using the term 'malaria' and the definition of operational research (OR). A total of 15 886 articles related to malaria were searched between January 2008 and June 2013. Of these, 582 (3.7%) met the definition of operational research. These OR projects had been carried out in 83 different countries. Most OR studies (77%) were implemented in Africa south of the Sahara. Only 5 (1%) of the OR studies were implemented in countries in the pre-elimination or elimination phase. The vast majority of OR projects (92%) were led by international or local research institutions, while projects led by National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCP) accounted for 7.8%. With regards to the topic under investigation, the largest percentage of papers was related to vector control (25%), followed by epidemiology/transmission (16.5%) and treatment (16.3%). Only 19 (3.8%) of the OR projects were related to malaria surveillance. Strengthening the capacity of NMCPs to conduct operational research and publish its findings, and improving linkages between NMCPs and research institutes may aid progress towards malaria elimination and eventual eradication world-wide.

  5. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O'Neill, Barbara

    2016-01-21

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to

  6. Control of visually guided behavior by distinct populations of spinal projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Orger, Michael B; Kampff, Adam R; Severi, Kristen E; Bollmann, Johann H; Engert, Florian

    2008-03-01

    A basic question in the field of motor control is how different actions are represented by activity in spinal projection neurons. We used a new behavioral assay to identify visual stimuli that specifically drive basic motor patterns in zebrafish. These stimuli evoked consistent patterns of neural activity in the neurons projecting to the spinal cord, which we could map throughout the entire population using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging. We found that stimuli that drive distinct behaviors activated distinct subsets of projection neurons, consisting, in some cases, of just a few cells. This stands in contrast to the distributed activation seen for more complex behaviors. Furthermore, targeted cell by cell ablations of the neurons associated with evoked turns abolished the corresponding behavioral response. This description of the functional organization of the zebrafish motor system provides a framework for identifying the complete circuit underlying a vertebrate behavior.

  7. A historical overview of the United States-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Kenney, Rita V; Ruiz-Holguín, Rosalba; de Cosío, Federico G; Ramos, Rebeca; Rodríguez, Betsy; Beckles, Gloria L; Valdez, Rodolfo; Thompson-Reid, Patricia E

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is a serious public health problem in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, reflecting and by some measures surpassing the extent of national diabetes burden of each country. The U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a two-phase prevalence study on type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, was conceived and developed by culturally diverse groups of people representing more than 100 government agencies and nongovernmental organizations; health care providers; and residents of 10 U.S. and Mexican border states, using a participatory approach, to address this disproportionate incidence of diabetes. This report describes the project's history, conceptualization, participatory approach, implementation, accomplishments, and challenges, and recommends a series of steps for carrying out other binational participatory projects based on lessons learned.

  8. Can Earthquakes Induced by Deep Fluid Injection Projects Be Controlled or Limited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.; Williams, C. F.; Hickman, S.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Projects that involve the injection of high-pressure fluids at depth include Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration and liquid waste disposal. We consider some case histories to address the question of the extent to which earthquakes induced by fluid injection can be controlled or limited. For instance, can induced earthquakes be controlled in ways that don't compromise the effectiveness of a given injection project? It is difficult to answer this question definitively because, to our knowledge, only one successful experiment in earthquake control has been performed (Raleigh et al., Science, v. 191, pp. 1230-1237, 1976). Moreover, for numerous injection projects, the induced earthquakes of maximum magnitude have been post shut-in, e.g., the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well, a liquid waste disposal project for which the three largest induced earthquakes occurred more than a year after injection had been terminated. For EGS operations requiring the injection of liquid into rock of low permeability, estimations of maximum magnitudes based on the volume of injected fluid have been moderately successful. For a typical magnitude distribution of induced earthquakes, it can be shown that the largest event accounts for about half of the total induced seismic moment, which is given by the volume of injected liquid multiplied by the modulus of rigidity (McGarr, J. Geophys. Res., v. 81, p. 1487, 1976). The Basel Deep Heat Mining project, an EGS injection of 11,500 cubic meters of water into low-permeability rock at a depth of five km, induced earthquakes with magnitudes that exceeded the safety threshold and so injection was discontinued (Deichmann and Giardini, Seismol. Res. Letters, v. 80, p. 784, 2009). Approximately half a day after shut-in, however, an earthquake of magnitude 3.4 occurred, the largest event of the sequence. It is worth noting that the magnitude of this earthquake is quite close to what could have been estimated based on the volume of injected

  9. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  10. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, retrieval control system software configuration management plan

    SciTech Connect

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-02-23

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the W-211 Project, Retrieval Control System (RCS) software after initial approval/release but prior to the transfer of custody to the waste tank operations contractor. This plan applies to the W-211 system software developed by the project, consisting of the computer human-machine interface (HMI) and programmable logic controller (PLC) software source and executable code, for production use by the waste tank operations contractor. The plan encompasses that portion of the W-211 RCS software represented on project-specific AUTOCAD drawings that are released as part of the C1 definitive design package (these drawings are identified on the drawing list associated with each C-1 package), and the associated software code. Implementation of the plan is required for formal acceptance testing and production release. The software configuration management plan does not apply to reports and data generated by the software except where specifically identified. Control of information produced by the software once it has been transferred for operation is the responsibility of the receiving organization.

  11. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

    2006-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

  12. Projection and synaptic connectivity of trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus neurons controlling jaw reflexes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Atsushi; Moritani, Masayuki; Nagase, Yoshitaka; Bae, Yong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) receive deep sensation (proprioception) from jaw-closing muscle spindles and periodontal ligaments and project primarily to the jaw-closing motoneuron pool (jaw-closing nucleus) of the trigeminal motor nucleus and to the supratrigeminal nucleus. Numerous articles have described the morphology and physiology of the central projections of Vmes afferents originating from the muscle spindles and periodontal ligaments. However, no report has provided a detailed description of projection and synaptic connectivity, especially of single afferents, and their functional implications. In this review, we reanalyze data obtained by single intra-axonal recording and labeling of functionally identified Vmes muscle spindle afferents and periodontal ligament afferents and by electron microscopic observation of their projection features and synaptic organization of boutons, to compare the data for the jaw-closing nucleus and supratrigeminal nucleus. Our analysis shows that each Vmes afferent type has characteristic projection pattern and synaptic feature that may be important in jaw-reflex control.

  13. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the... (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, App. D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980—Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control...

  14. Response of loblolly pine to complete woody and herbaceous control: projected yields and economic outcomes - the COMProject

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; R.L. Busby; B.R. Zutter; S.M. Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    1995-01-01

    Abstract.Age-8 and -9 data from the 13 study plantations of the Competition Omission Monitoring Project (COMP) were used to project yields and derive economic outcomes for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). COMP treatments were chop-burn, complete woody plant control, complete herbaceous plant control for 4 years, and complete woody...

  15. Radiometric compensation for cooperative distributed multi-projection system through 2-DOF distributed control.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Jun; Iwai, Daisuke; Kashima, Kenji

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel radiometric compensation technique for cooperative projection system based-on distributed optimization. To achieve high scalability and robustness, we assume cooperative projection environments such that 1. each projector does not have information about other projectors as well as target images, 2. the camera does not have information about the projectors either, while having the target images, and 3. only a broadcast communication from the camera to the projectors is allowed to suppress the data transfer bandwidth. To this end, we first investigate a distributed optimization based feedback mechanism that is suitable for the required decentralized information processing environment. Next, we show that this mechanism works well for still image projection, however not necessary for moving images due to the lack of dynamic responsiveness. To overcome this issue, we propose to implement an additional feedforward mechanism. Such a 2 Degree Of Freedom (2-DOF) control structure is well-known in control engineering community as a typical method to enhance not only disturbance rejection but also reference tracking capability, simultaneously. We theoretically guarantee and experimentally demonstrate that this 2-DOF structure yields the moving image projection accuracy that is overwhelming the best achievable performance only by the distributed optimization mechanisms.

  16. EMPRESS: A European Project to Enhance Process Control Through Improved Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. V.; Edler, F.; Elliott, C. J.; Rosso, L.; Sutton, G.; Andreu, A.; Machin, G.

    2017-08-01

    A new European project called EMPRESS, funded by the EURAMET program `European Metrology Program for Innovation and Research,' is described. The 3 year project, which started in the summer of 2015, is intended to substantially augment the efficiency of high-value manufacturing processes by improving temperature measurement techniques at the point of use. The project consortium has 18 partners and 5 external collaborators, from the metrology sector, high-value manufacturing, sensor manufacturing, and academia. Accurate control of temperature is key to ensuring process efficiency and product consistency and is often not achieved to the level required for modern processes. Enhanced efficiency of processes may take several forms including reduced product rejection/waste; improved energy efficiency; increased intervals between sensor recalibration/maintenance; and increased sensor reliability, i.e., reduced amount of operator intervention. Traceability of temperature measurements to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is a critical factor in establishing low measurement uncertainty and reproducible, consistent process control. Introducing such traceability in situ (i.e., within the industrial process) is a theme running through this project.

  17. Combating tropical infectious diseases: report of the Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries Project.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Remme, Jan H F; Buss, Paulo; Alleyne, George; Morel, Carlos; Breman, Joel G

    2004-03-15

    Infectious diseases are responsible for >25% of the global disease toll. The new Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries Project (DCPP) aims to decrease the burden of these diseases by producing science-based analyses from demographic, epidemiologic, disease intervention, and economic evidence for the purpose of defining disease priorities and implementing control measures. The DCPP recently reviewed selected tropical infectious diseases, examined successful control experiences, and defined unsettled patient treatment, prevention, and research issues. Disease elimination programs against American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, trachoma, and measles are succeeding. Dengue, leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis, malaria, diarrheal diseases, helminthic infections, and tuberculosis have reemerged because of inadequate interventions and control strategies and the breakdown of health delivery systems. Application of technologies must be cost-effective and intensified research is essential if these and other scourges are to be controlled or eliminated in the 21st century.

  18. Knowledge based and interactive control for the Superfluid Helium On-orbit Transfer Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellano, Timothy P.; Raymond, Eric A.; Shapiro, Jeff C.; Robinson, Frank A.; Rosenthal, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) project is a Shuttle-based experiment designed to acquire data on the properties of superfluid helium in micro-gravity. Aft Flight Deck Computer Software for the SHOOT experiment is comprised of several monitoring programs which give the astronaut crew visibility into SHOOT systems and a rule based system which will provide process control, diagnosis and error recovery for a helium transfer without ground intervention. Given present Shuttle manifests, this software will become the first expert system to be used in space. The SHOOT Command and Monitoring System (CMS) software will provide a near real time highly interactive interface for the SHOOT principal investigator to control the experiment and to analyze and display its telemetry. The CMS software is targeted for all phases of the SHOOT project: hardware development, pre-flight pad servicing, in-flight operations, and post-flight data analysis.

  19. Targeting Erosion Control: Adoption of Erosion Control Practices. A Report from a National Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Peter; And Others

    Research analyzed adoption of erosion control practices by farm operators in two counties in each of four states: Alabama, Missouri, Tennessee, and Washington. Analysis was based on farm survey data and technical and financial assistance information from county Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service…

  20. Cultural Resources Survey for the Oneida Creek Flood Control Project, NY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    PERIOD COVERED Cultural Resources Survey for the Oneida Final Creek Flood Control Project, N.Y. S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER... Silurian and Devonian deposits. These are, in turn, overlaid in some areas by deposits of commercial grade gypsum, glass sand and rock salt (Van Driver...the Wisconsin STate Historical Society. 1972 Crew member on excavations conducted by Dr. Jan Spector. 1972 - 1980 During this period I was a volunteer

  1. Projective synchronization in coupled fractional order chaotic Rossler system and its control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shi-Quan; Gao, Xin; Liu, Xing-Wen

    2007-09-01

    This paper proposes a method to achieve projective synchronization of the fractional order chaotic Rossler system. First, construct the fractional order Rossler system's corresponding approximate integer order system, then a control method based on a partially linear decomposition and negative feedback of state errors is utilized on the new integer order system. Mathematic analyses prove the feasibility and the numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California Mid-Valley Area, Phase 3. Design Memorandum Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    hydraulic excavator, crane, concrete pumps , loader, transit mixer, water trucks, and miscellaneous equipment. g. For other construction items, drainage...Flood Control Acts of December 1944 and May 1950 and incorporated under Sacramento River and Major and Minor Tributaries. Although construction of the...project was initiated in 1918, many of the levees were originally constructed by local interests prior to that time and subsequently modified and

  3. Air Traffic Control Specialists in the Airway Science Curriculum Demonstration Project 1984-1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    DOT/FAAAM-91/18 Air Traffic Control Specialists in the Airway Science Curriculum Demonstration Office of Aviation Medicine Washington, D.C. 20591...16. Abstract The objective of this summative evaluation of the Airway Science Curriculum Demonstration Project (ASCDP) was to compare the performance...job attitudes, retention rates, and perceived supervisory potential of graduates from recognized Airway Science programs with those of individuals

  4. Maximum Entropy/Optimal Projection (MEOP) control design synthesis: Optimal quantification of the major design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, D. C.; Bernstein, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying philosophy and motivation of the optimal projection/maximum entropy (OP/ME) stochastic modeling and reduced control design methodology for high order systems with parameter uncertainties are discussed. The OP/ME design equations for reduced-order dynamic compensation including the effect of parameter uncertainties are reviewed. The application of the methodology to several Large Space Structures (LSS) problems of representative complexity is illustrated.

  5. Philip Morris's Project Sunrise: weakening tobacco control by working with it

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, P A; Smith, E A; Malone, R E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the implications of Philip Morris USA's (PM's) overtures toward tobacco control and other public health organisations, 1995–2006. Data sources Internal PM documents made available through multi‐state US attorneys general lawsuits and other cases, and newspaper sources. Methods Documents were retrieved from several industry documents websites and analysed using a case study approach. Results PM's Project Sunrise, initiated in 1995 and proposed to continue through 2006, was a long‐term plan to address tobacco industry delegitimisation and ensure the social acceptability of smoking and of the company itself. Project Sunrise laid out an explicit divide‐and‐conquer strategy against the tobacco control movement, proposing the establishment of relationships with PM‐identified “moderate” tobacco control individuals and organisations and the marginalisation of others. PM planned to use “carefully orchestrated efforts” to exploit existing differences of opinion within tobacco control, weakening its opponents by working with them. PM also planned to thwart tobacco industry delegitimisation by repositioning itself as “responsible”. We present evidence that these plans were implemented. Conclusion Sunrise exposes differences within the tobacco control movement that should be further discussed. The goal should not be consensus, but a better understanding of tensions within the movement. As the successes of the last 25 years embolden advocates to think beyond passage of the next clean indoor air policy or funding of the next cessation programme, movement philosophical differences may become more important. If tobacco control advocates are not ready to address them, Project Sunrise suggests that Philip Morris is ready to exploit them. PMID:16728753

  6. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology to an Advanced Subsonic Transport Project, established as one element of the NASA/Boeing Energy Efficient Transport Technology Program. The performance assessment showed that incorporating ACT into an airplane designed to fly approximately 200 passengers approximately 2,000 nmi could yield block fuel savings from 6 to 10 percent at the design range. The principal risks associated with incorporating these active control functions into a commercial airplane are those involved with the ACT system implementation. The Test and Evaluation phase of the IAAC Project focused on the design, fabrication, and test of a system that implemented pitch axis fly-by-wire, pitch axis augmentation, and wing load alleviation. The system was built to be flight worthy, and was planned to be experimentally flown on the 757. The system was installed in the Boeing Digital Avionics Flight Controls Laboratory (DAFCL), where open loop hardware and software tests, and a brief examination of a direct drive valve (DDV) actuation concept were accomplished. The IAAC Project has shown that ACT can be beneficially incorporated into a commercial transport airplane. Based on the results achieved during the testing phase, there appears to be no fundamental reason(s) that would preclude the commercial application of ACT, assuming an appropriate development effort is included.

  7. MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) - APOLLO-SOYUZ TEST PROJECT (ASTP) - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-17

    S75-28682 (17 July 1975) --- An overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project docking mission in Earth orbit. The large television monitor shows a view of the Soyuz spacecraft as seen from the Apollo spacecraft during rendezvous and docking maneuvers. Eugene F. Kranz, JSC Deputy Director of Flight Operations, is standing in the foreground. M.P. Frank, the American senior ASTP flight director, is partially obscured on the right.

  8. NERI PROJECT 99-119. TASK 1. ADVANCED CONTROL TOOLS AND METHODS. FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, J.A.

    2002-09-09

    Nuclear plants of the 21st century will employ higher levels of automation and fault tolerance to increase availability, reduce accident risk, and lower operating costs. Key developments in control algorithms, fault diagnostics, fault tolerance, and communication in a distributed system are needed to implement the fully automated plant. Equally challenging will be integrating developments in separate information and control fields into a cohesive system, which collectively achieves the overall goals of improved performance, safety, reliability, maintainability, and cost-effectiveness. Under the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), the U. S. Department of Energy is sponsoring a project to address some of the technical issues involved in meeting the long-range goal of 21st century reactor control systems. This project, ''A New Paradigm for Automated Development Of Highly Reliable Control Architectures For Future Nuclear Plants,'' involves researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Tennessee, and North Carolina State University. This paper documents a research effort to develop methods for automated generation of control systems that can be traced directly to the design requirements. Our final goal is to allow the designer to specify only high-level requirements and stress factors that the control system must survive (e.g. a list of transients, or a requirement to withstand a single failure.) To this end, the ''control engine'' automatically selects and validates control algorithms and parameters that are optimized to the current state of the plant, and that have been tested under the prescribed stress factors. The control engine then automatically generates the control software from validated algorithms. Examples of stress factors that the control system must ''survive'' are: transient events (e.g., set-point changes, or expected occurrences such a load rejection,) and postulated component failures. These stress factors are specified by the

  9. Forebrain dopamine neurons project down to a brainstem region controlling locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Grätsch, Swantje; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Bergeron, Saskia; Alpert, Michael H.; Cone, Jackson J.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of dopamine (DA) to locomotor control is traditionally attributed to ascending dopaminergic projections from the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area to the basal ganglia, which in turn project down to the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a brainstem region controlling locomotion in vertebrates. However, a dopaminergic innervation of the pedunculopontine nucleus, considered part of the MLR, was recently identified in the monkey. The origin and role of this dopaminergic input are unknown. We addressed these questions in a basal vertebrate, the lamprey. Here we report a functional descending dopaminergic pathway from the posterior tuberculum (PT; homologous to the substantia nigra pars compacta and/or ventral tegmental area of mammals) to the MLR. By using triple labeling, we found that dopaminergic cells from the PT not only project an ascending pathway to the striatum, but send a descending projection to the MLR. In an isolated brain preparation, PT stimulation elicited excitatory synaptic inputs into patch-clamped MLR cells, accompanied by activity in reticulospinal cells. By using voltammetry coupled with electrophysiological recordings, we demonstrate that PT stimulation evoked DA release in the MLR, together with the activation of reticulospinal cells. In a semi-intact preparation, stimulation of the PT elicited reticulospinal activity together with locomotor movements. Microinjections of a D1 antagonist in the MLR decreased the locomotor output elicited by PT stimulation, whereas injection of DA had an opposite effect. It appears that this descending dopaminergic pathway has a modulatory role on MLR cells that are known to receive glutamatergic projections and promotes locomotor output. PMID:23918379

  10. Aircraft interior sound field analysis in view of active control: Results from the ASANCA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Auweraer, Herman; Otte, Dirk; Venet, G.; Catalifaud, J.

    Control of interior noise by active and passive measures is currently an important issue in the transportation industry. Essential to the optimal design and configuration of such control measures is the thorough understanding of the vibro-acoustic response characteristics of the system under study. This includes both the sound and vibration response fields in normal operating conditions, as well as the intrisic vibro-acoustic characteristics of the structure and the cabin cavity. In the present paper, this test and analysis procedure is discussed in view of the active control of interior aircraft noise. The work was performed in the context of the Brite/Euram project ASANCA, in which demonstrator active control systems for the reduction of periodic aircraft noise were developed. To realize this goal, an extensive flight and ground test program was set up and executed on four selected aircraft: the Dornier 228, the Alenia ATR 42, the Saab 340 and the Fokker 100.

  11. Distribution automation and control support; Analysis and interpretation of DAC working group results for use in project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klock, P.; Evans, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Executive Summary and Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting was analyzed to identify specific projects appropriate for Distribution Automation and Control DAC RD&D. Specific projects that should be undertaken in the DAC RD&D program were recommended. The projects are presented under broad categories of work selected based on ESC's interpretation of the results of the Working Group Meeting. Some of the projects are noted as utility industry projects. The ESC recommendations regarding program management are presented. Utility versus Government management responsibilities are noted.

  12. Decreasing the Use of Damage Control Laparotomy in Trauma: A Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Harvin, John A; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K; Adams, Sasha D; McNutt, Michelle K; Love, Joseph D; Moore, Laura J; Wade, Charles E; Cotton, Bryan A; Holcomb, John B

    2017-08-01

    Our institution has published damage control laparotomy (DCL) rates of 30% and documented the substantial morbidity associated with the open abdomen. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to decrease the rate of DCL at a busy, Level I trauma center in the US. A prospective cohort of all emergent trauma laparotomies from November 2013 to October 2015 (QI group) was followed. The QI intervention was multifaceted and included audit and feedback for every DCL case. Morbidity and mortality of the QI patients were compared with those from a published control (control group: emergent laparotomy from January 2011 to October 2013). A significant decrease was observed immediately on beginning the QI project, from a 39% DCL rate in the control period to 23% in the QI group (p < 0.001). This decrease was sustained over the 2-year study period. There were no differences in demographics, Injury Severity Score, or transfusions between the groups. No differences organ/space infection (control 16% vs QI 12%; p = 0.15), fascial dehiscence (6% vs 8%; p = 0.20), unplanned relaparotomy (11% vs 10%; p = 0.58), or mortality (9% vs 10%; p = 0.69) were observed. The reduction in use resulted in a decrease of 68 DCLs over the 2-year period. There was a further reduction in the rate of DCL to 17% after completion of the QI project. A QI initiative rapidly changed the use of DCL and improved quality of care by decreasing resource use without an increase morbidity or mortality. This decrease was sustained during the QI period and further improved upon after its completion. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Model and controller reduction of large-scale structures based on projection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildin, Eduardo

    The design of low-order controllers for high-order plants is a challenging problem theoretically as well as from a computational point of view. Frequently, robust controller design techniques result in high-order controllers. It is then interesting to achieve reduced-order models and controllers while maintaining robustness properties. Controller designed for large structures based on models obtained by finite element techniques yield large state-space dimensions. In this case, problems related to storage, accuracy and computational speed may arise. Thus, model reduction methods capable of addressing controller reduction problems are of primary importance to allow the practical applicability of advanced controller design methods for high-order systems. A challenging large-scale control problem that has emerged recently is the protection of civil structures, such as high-rise buildings and long-span bridges, from dynamic loadings such as earthquakes, high wind, heavy traffic, and deliberate attacks. Even though significant effort has been spent in the application of control theory to the design of civil structures in order increase their safety and reliability, several challenging issues are open problems for real-time implementation. This dissertation addresses with the development of methodologies for controller reduction for real-time implementation in seismic protection of civil structures using projection methods. Three classes of schemes are analyzed for model and controller reduction: nodal truncation, singular value decomposition methods and Krylov-based methods. A family of benchmark problems for structural control are used as a framework for a comparative study of model and controller reduction techniques. It is shown that classical model and controller reduction techniques, such as balanced truncation, modal truncation and moment matching by Krylov techniques, yield reduced-order controllers that do not guarantee stability of the closed-loop system, that

  14. Motor cortical control of cardiovascular bulbar neurones projecting to spinal autonomic areas.

    PubMed

    Viltart, Odile; Mullier, Olivia; Bernet, François; Poulain, Pierre; Ba-M'Hamed, Saadia; Sequeira, Henrique

    2003-07-01

    There is evidence that the motor cortex is involved in cardiovascular adjustments associated with somatic motor activity, as it has functional connections with the ventrolateral medulla, a brainstem region critically involved in the control of blood pressure and the regulation of plasma catecholamine levels. The ventrolateral medulla sends projections to the spinal intermediolateral nucleus, where preganglionic neurones controlling heart and blood vessels (T2 segment) and adrenal medulla (T8 segment) are found. The aim of the present study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of the rat motor cortex induces cardiovascular responses and Fos expression in ventrolateral medulla neurones projecting to the T2 and T8 segments. After a set of experiments designed to record cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels), injections of retrograde tracer (Fluorogold) were performed in the intermediolateral nucleus of two groups of rats, at the T2 or at the T8 segmental levels. Five days later, the motor cortex was stimulated in order to induce Fos expression in the ventrolateral medulla. Stimulation of the motor cortex induced: (1). hypotension and a significant decrease in plasma noradrenaline levels, and (2). a significant increase in the number of the double-labelled neurones in the rostral ventrolateral medulla projecting to T2. These data demonstrate that cardiovascular adjustments, preparatory to, or concomitant with, motor activity may be initiated in the motor cortex and transmitted to cardiac and vasomotor spinal preganglionic neurones, via the ventrolateral medulla. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Coordinating robot motion, sensing, and control in plans. LDRD project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, P.G.; Brown, R.G.; Watterberg, P.A.

    1997-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a framework for robotic planning and execution that provides a continuum of adaptability with respect to model incompleteness, model error, and sensing error. For example, dividing robot motion into gross-motion planning, fine-motion planning, and sensor-augmented control had yielded productive research and solutions to individual problems. Unfortunately, these techniques could only be combined by hand with ad hoc methods and were restricted to systems where all kinematics are completely modeled in planning. The original intent was to develop methods for understanding and autonomously synthesizing plans that coordinate motion, sensing, and control. The project considered this problem from several perspectives. Results included (1) theoretical methods to combine and extend gross-motion and fine-motion planning; (2) preliminary work in flexible-object manipulation and an implementable algorithm for planning shortest paths through obstacles for the free-end of an anchored cable; (3) development and implementation of a fast swept-body distance algorithm; and (4) integration of Sandia`s C-Space Toolkit geometry engine and SANDROS motion planer and improvements, which yielded a system practical for everyday motion planning, with path-segment planning at interactive speeds. Results (3) and (4) have either led to follow-on work or are being used in current projects, and they believe that (2) will eventually be also.

  16. Advanced emissions control development project. Phase I, Final report, November 1, 1993--February 19, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-29

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. B&W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) and the AECDP equipment combined to form a state-of-the-art facility for integrated evaluation of combustion and post-combustion emissions control options. Phase 1 activities were primarily aimed at providing a reliable, representative test facility for conducting air toxic emissions control development work later in the project. This report summarizes the AECDP Phase I activities which consisted of the design, installation, shakedown, verification, and air toxics benchmarking of the AECDP facility. All verification and air toxic tests were conducted with a high sulfur, bituminous Ohio coal.

  17. Advanced emissions control development project. Final report, November 1, 1993--February 29, 1996. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Farthing, G.A.

    1996-02-29

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization. B&W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) and the AECDP equipment combined to form a state-of-the-art facility for integrated evaluation of combustion and post-combustion emissions control options. Phase I activities were primarily directed at providing a reliable, representative test facility for conducting air toxic emission control development work later in the project. This report summarizes the AECDP Phase I activities which consisted of the design, installation, shakedown, verification, and air toxics benchmarking of the AECDP facility. The AECDP facility consists of an ESP, pulse-jet baghouse, and wet scrubber. All verification and air toxic tests were conducted with a high sulfur, bituminous Ohio coal. In order to successfully apply the results of the program to utility systems, the relationship between the performance of the CEDF/AECDP test equipment and commercial units had to be established. The first step in the verification process was to validate that the flue gas treatment devices - boiler/convection pass simulator, ESP, baghouse, and wet SO{sub 2} scrubber - operate in a manner representative of commercial units.

  18. An estimation method of the direct benefit of a waterlogging control project applicable to the changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengmei, L.; Guanghua, Q.; Zishen, C.

    2015-05-01

    The direct benefit of a waterlogging control project is reflected by the reduction or avoidance of waterlogging loss. Before and after the construction of a waterlogging control project, the disaster-inducing environment in the waterlogging-prone zone is generally different. In addition, the category, quantity and spatial distribution of the disaster-bearing bodies are also changed more or less. Therefore, under the changing environment, the direct benefit of a waterlogging control project should be the reduction of waterlogging losses compared to conditions with no control project. Moreover, the waterlogging losses with or without the project should be the mathematical expectations of the waterlogging losses when rainstorms of all frequencies meet various water levels in the drainage-accepting zone. So an estimation model of the direct benefit of waterlogging control is proposed. Firstly, on the basis of a Copula function, the joint distribution of the rainstorms and the water levels are established, so as to obtain their joint probability density function. Secondly, according to the two-dimensional joint probability density distribution, the dimensional domain of integration is determined, which is then divided into small domains so as to calculate the probability for each of the small domains and the difference between the average waterlogging loss with and without a waterlogging control project, called the regional benefit of waterlogging control project, under the condition that rainstorms in the waterlogging-prone zone meet the water level in the drainage-accepting zone. Finally, it calculates the weighted mean of the project benefit of all small domains, with probability as the weight, and gets the benefit of the waterlogging control project. Taking the estimation of benefit of a waterlogging control project in Yangshan County, Guangdong Province, as an example, the paper briefly explains the procedures in waterlogging control project benefit estimation. The

  19. Draxin from neocortical neurons controls the guidance of thalamocortical projections into the neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Shinmyo, Yohei; Asrafuzzaman Riyadh, M.; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Bin Naser, Iftekhar; Hossain, Mahmud; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Ohta, Kunimasa; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The thalamocortical tract carries sensory information to the neocortex. It has long been recognized that the neocortical pioneer axons of subplate neurons are essential for thalamocortical development. Herein we report that an axon guidance cue, draxin, is expressed in early-born neocortical neurons, including subplate neurons, and is necessary for thalamocortical development. In draxin−/− mice, thalamocortical axons do not enter the neocortex. This phenotype is sufficiently rescued by the transgenic expression of draxin in neocortical neurons. Genetic interaction data suggest that draxin acts through Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and Neogenin (Neo1), to regulate thalamocortical projections in vivo. Draxin promotes the outgrowth of thalamic axons in vitro and this effect is abolished in thalamic neurons from Dcc and Neo1 double mutants. These results suggest that draxin from neocortical neurons controls thalamocortical projections into the neocortex, and that this effect is mediated through the DCC and Neo1 receptors. PMID:26659141

  20. Draxin from neocortical neurons controls the guidance of thalamocortical projections into the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Shinmyo, Yohei; Asrafuzzaman Riyadh, M; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Bin Naser, Iftekhar; Hossain, Mahmud; Takebayashi, Hirohide; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Ohta, Kunimasa; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-12-14

    The thalamocortical tract carries sensory information to the neocortex. It has long been recognized that the neocortical pioneer axons of subplate neurons are essential for thalamocortical development. Herein we report that an axon guidance cue, draxin, is expressed in early-born neocortical neurons, including subplate neurons, and is necessary for thalamocortical development. In draxin(-/-) mice, thalamocortical axons do not enter the neocortex. This phenotype is sufficiently rescued by the transgenic expression of draxin in neocortical neurons. Genetic interaction data suggest that draxin acts through Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and Neogenin (Neo1), to regulate thalamocortical projections in vivo. Draxin promotes the outgrowth of thalamic axons in vitro and this effect is abolished in thalamic neurons from Dcc and Neo1 double mutants. These results suggest that draxin from neocortical neurons controls thalamocortical projections into the neocortex, and that this effect is mediated through the DCC and Neo1 receptors.

  1. Large Water Management Projects and Schistosomiasis Control, Dongting Lake Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue-Sheng; Zhao, Zheng-Yuan; He, Yong-Kang; Ellis, Magda K.; McManus, Donald P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction of the Three Gorges Dam across the Yangtze River will substantially change the ecology of the Dongting Lake in southern China. In addition, the Central and Hunan Provinces’ governmental authorities have instigated a Return Land to Lake Program that will extend the Dongting Lake surface area from the current 2,681 km2 to 4,350 km2.The previous construction of embankments and the large silt deposits made by the Yangtze River and other connecting rivers have contributed to frequent disastrous flooding. As a consequence of the 2 water projects, >2 million persons and their domestic animals are being resettled. This article provides an overview of the historical background of these 2 large water management projects, the associated population movement, and their impact on future transmission and control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area. The dam will likely substantially extend the range of the snail habitats and increase schistosome transmission and schistosomiasis cases. PMID:18214167

  2. C-BORD project: "Effective container inspection at BORDer control points"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etilé, Asénath; Roig, Olivier; Bauge, Eric; Gaudefroy, Laurent; Méot, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    In the framework of the C-BORD project of the H2020 programme to provide a safety chain for container inspection at border control points, CEA-DAM is involved to develop an identification method of Special Nuclear Material. Using active interrogation the main purpose is to specifically discriminate fissile actinides from fertile ones through the detection of γ-rays emitted by very short-lived isomers. We present here the interdependance of such a project with nuclear data. We first introduce the SNM identification method. Then, will be detailed the needs in nuclear data and first yields of specific short-lived isomers of 252Cf spontaneous fission. Perspectives and conclusions will end the article.

  3. Measuring software development characteristics in the local environment. [considering project requirements for spacecraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, V. R.; Zelkowitz, M. V.

    1978-01-01

    In a brief evaluation of software-related considerations, it is found that suitable approaches for software development depend to a large degree on the characteristics of the particular project involved. An analysis is conducted of development problems in an environment in which ground support software is produced for spacecraft control. The amount of work involved is in the range from 6 to 10 man-years. Attention is given to a general project summary, a programmer/analyst survey, a component summary, a component status report, a resource summary, a change report, a computer program run analysis, aspects of data collection on a smaller scale, progress forecasting, problems of overhead, and error analysis.

  4. Power monitoring and control for large scale projects: SKA, a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Domingos; Barraca, João. Paulo; Maia, Dalmiro; Carvalho, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Swart, Paul; Le Roux, Gerhard; Natarajan, Swaminathan; van Ardenne, Arnold; Seca, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Large sensor-based science infrastructures for radio astronomy like the SKA will be among the most intensive datadriven projects in the world, facing very high demanding computation, storage, management, and above all power demands. The geographically wide distribution of the SKA and its associated processing requirements in the form of tailored High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, require a Greener approach towards the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) adopted for the data processing to enable operational compliance to potentially strict power budgets. Addressing the reduction of electricity costs, improve system power monitoring and the generation and management of electricity at system level is paramount to avoid future inefficiencies and higher costs and enable fulfillments of Key Science Cases. Here we outline major characteristics and innovation approaches to address power efficiency and long-term power sustainability for radio astronomy projects, focusing on Green ICT for science and Smart power monitoring and control.

  5. An integral projection model with YY-males and application to evaluating grass carp control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Brey, Marybeth; Hansen, Michael J.; Kocovsky, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fish species disrupt ecosystems and cause economic damage. Several methods have been discussed to control populations of invasive fish including the release of YY-males. YY-males are fish that have 2 male chromosomes compared to a XY-male. When YY-males mate, they only produce male (XY) offspring. This decreases the female proportion of the population and can, in theory, eradicate local populations by biasing the sex-ratio. YY-males have been used as a population control tool for brook trout in montane streams and lakes in Idaho, USA. The YY-male control method has been discussed for grass carp in Lake Erie, North America. We developed and presented an integral projection model for grass carp to model the use of YY-males as a control method for populations in this lake. Using only the YY-male control method, we found that high levels of YY-males would need to be release annually to control the species. Specifically, these levels were the same order of magnitude as the baseline adult population (e.g., 1000 YY-males needed to be released annual for 20 years to control a baseline adult population of 2500 grass carp). These levels may not be reasonable or obtainable for fisheries managers given the impacts of YY-males on aquatic vegetation and other constraints of natural resource management.

  6. New perspectives of malaria control in India under World Bank Project.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, R K; Thakor, Hitendrasinh G; Sonal, G S; Dhillon, G P S

    2009-12-01

    The World Bank has been assisting Government of India (GoI) for a number of years with development of effective health services for the control of vector borne diseases (VBDs). An Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) under financial assistance from Bank was implemented in selected tribal states and districts from 1997 to 2005. While most of the project districts did report a decline in malaria incidence, the Implementation Completion Report (ICR) highlighted the need for major reform. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria, which accounts for almost all malaria related mortality, has been increasing in India and there is widespread resistance to chloroquine. The needed reform would require, first and foremost, updating of policy on malaria case management in public and private sectors. Also needed are innovative approaches for promoting the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and strengthening institutions at the district and state levels for effective implementation of new policies. Several important changes in the policy on diagnosis and treatment of malaria are being implemented in this new project. The most important of these are: Use of artesunate combination therapy (ACT) as the first line treatment for all confirmed Pf malaria cases, introduction of rapid diagnostic kits for quick diagnosis of Pf cases, promotion of long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) in vulnerable population. Supervision and monitoring will be strengthened by deployment of Malarial/Kala azar Technical Supervisors (MTS/KTS) and VBD consultants at district level. The project has also envisaged two important components like Environment Management Plan (EMP) for safe use of insecticides and materials and Vulnerable Community Plan (VCP) for the benefit of underprivileged population.

  7. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  8. Generalized projective synchronization of the fractional-order chaotic system using adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Ming; Tang, Yong-Guang; Chai, Yong-Quan; Wu, Feng

    2014-10-01

    An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode strategy is developed for the generalized projective synchronization of a fractional-order chaotic system, where the slave system is not necessarily known in advance. Based on the designed adaptive update laws and the linear feedback method, the adaptive fuzzy sliding controllers are proposed via the fuzzy design, and the strength of the designed controllers can be adaptively adjusted according to the external disturbances. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, the stability and the robustness of the controlled system are proved theoretically. Numerical simulations further support the theoretical results of the paper and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Moreover, it is revealed that the proposed method allows us to manipulate arbitrarily the response dynamics of the slave system by adjusting the desired scaling factor λi and the desired translating factor ηi, which may be used in a channel-independent chaotic secure communication.

  9. Controlled Sonar Exposure Experiments on Cetaceans in Norwegian Waters: Overview of the 3S-Project.

    PubMed

    Lam, Frans-Peter A; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Miller, Patrick J O; Tyack, Peter L; Ainslie, Michael A; Curé, Charlotte; Kleivane, Lars; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; van Ijsselmuide, Sander P; Visser, Fleur; von Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M; Wensveen, Paul J; Dekeling, René P A

    2016-01-01

    In mitigating the risk of sonar operations, the behavioral response of cetaceans is one of the major knowledge gaps that needs to be addressed. The 3S-Project has conducted a number of controlled exposure experiments with a realistic sonar source in Norwegian waters from 2006 to 2013. In total, the following six target species have been studied: killer, long-finned pilot, sperm, humpback, minke, and northern bottlenose whales. A total of 38 controlled sonar exposures have been conducted on these species. Responses from controlled and repeated exposure runs have been recorded using acoustic and visual observations as well as with electronic tags on the target animal. So far, the first dose-response curves as well as an overview of the scored severity of responses have been revealed. In this paper, an overview is presented of the approach for the study, including the results so far as well as the current status of the ongoing analysis.

  10. [Prevention and control of infectious diseases with pandemic potential: the EU-project SARSControl].

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A; Krumkamp, R; Richardus, J H; Reintjes, R

    2009-06-01

    The influenza pandemics of the 20th century, the SARS epidemic in 2002/03 and the growing number of human cases infected with the H5N1 avian influenza virus clearly demonstrate that the threat of new pandemics is very real. These events have intensified pandemic prevention and control activities worldwide. "SARSControl" is a three-year project funded by the European Commission with the objective to aid European member states in the public health management of new emerging infections. This article summarises the main research results and recommendations arising from this project. The reports and papers published in the SARSControl project form the basis of this article. In addition, a literature search for SARS and pandemic influenza was conducted and information on pandemic planning and management guidelines obtained from the WHO and EU websites. The project results are discussed in this context. A lack of knowledge and delayed international communication resulted in the rapid spread of SARS, highlighting the importance of a global system for rapid and transparent information transfer. Epidemiological and economic modelling studies have shown that, in comparison to travel restrictions, applying intervention measures to interrupt local transmission within a country and investing into vaccine research and anti-viral stockpiling, is a more cost-effective and efficient use of resources for the containment of pandemics. A study investigating the perceived threat associated with pandemics showed that the subjective risk perception of people varies among countries. This influences human behaviour and should hence be considered during risk communication and implementation of pandemic control measures. The basic prerequisites of an efficient pandemic management are operationalisable pandemic plans, subjected to regular exercises, backed by adequate resources and a sound health-care infrastructure. At international level cross-border co-operation and information exchange on

  11. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  12. Projection-free parallel quadratic programming for linear model predictive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cairano, S.; Brand, M.; Bortoff, S. A.

    2013-08-01

    A key component in enabling the application of model predictive control (MPC) in fields such as automotive, aerospace, and factory automation is the availability of low-complexity fast optimisation algorithms to solve the MPC finite horizon optimal control problem in architectures with reduced computational capabilities. In this paper, we introduce a projection-free iterative optimisation algorithm and discuss its application to linear MPC. The algorithm, originally developed by Brand for non-negative quadratic programs, is based on a multiplicative update rule and it is shown to converge to a fixed point which is the optimum. An acceleration technique based on a projection-free line search is also introduced, to speed-up the convergence to the optimum. The algorithm is applied to MPC through the dual of the quadratic program (QP) formulated from the MPC finite time optimal control problem. We discuss how termination conditions with guaranteed degree of suboptimality can be enforced, and how the algorithm performance can be optimised by pre-computing the matrices in a parametric form. We show computational results of the algorithm in three common case studies and we compare such results with the results obtained by other available free and commercial QP solvers.

  13. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing... of Part 1980—Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control (I... codes and requirements. (B) Proven equipment and processes are employed in all project facilities unless...

  14. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... written commitments to mitigation measures must be obtained prior to a positive conformity determination... scope and project-level mitigation and control measures. 93.125 Section 93.125 Protection of Environment... measures. (a) Prior to determining that a transportation project is in conformity, the MPO, other...

  15. Project SUCCESS' Effects on Substance Use-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Alternative High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled effectiveness trial, we examined the effects of Project SUCCESS on a range of secondary outcomes, including the program's mediating variables. Project SUCCESS, which is based both on the Theory of Reasoned Action and on Cognitive Behavior Theory, is a school-based substance use prevention program that targets…

  16. Project SUCCESS' Effects on Substance Use-Related Attitudes and Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Alternative High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled effectiveness trial, we examined the effects of Project SUCCESS on a range of secondary outcomes, including the program's mediating variables. Project SUCCESS, which is based both on the Theory of Reasoned Action and on Cognitive Behavior Theory, is a school-based substance use prevention program that targets…

  17. Improvement in the control aspect of laser frequency stabilization for SUNLITE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zia, Omar

    1992-01-01

    Flight Electronics Division of Langley Research Center is developing a spaceflight experiment called the Stanford University and NASA Laser In-Space Technology (SUNLITE). The objective of the project is to explore the fundamental limits on frequency stability using an FM laser locking technique on a Nd:YAG non-planar ring (free-running linewidth of 5 KHz) oscillator in the vibration free, microgravity environment of space. Compact and automated actively stabilized terahertz laser oscillators will operate in space with an expected linewidth of less than 3 Hz. To implement and verify this experiment, NASA engineers have designed and built a state of the art, space qualified high speed data acquisition system for measuring the linewidth and stability limits of a laser oscillator. In order to achieve greater stability and better performance, an active frequency control scheme requiring the use of a feedback control loop has been applied. In the summer of 1991, the application of control theory in active frequency control as a frequency stabilization technique was investigated. The results and findings were presented in 1992 at the American Control Conference in Chicago, and have been published in Conference Proceedings. The main focus was to seek further improvement in the overall performance of the system by replacing the analogue controller by a digital algorithm.

  18. Advanced emissions control development project. Phase 1 final report appendices, November 1, 1993--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-29

    The report contains three appendices from the Phase 1 final report. Appendix A contains wet scrubber sampling and analysis schedules, DBA/lime chemical analysis, and limestone forced oxidation chemical analysis. Appendix B consists of data on air toxic benchmarking baghouse conditions, ESP conditions, and wet scrubber conditions. Appendix C contains the quality assurance results. The primary objective of this project is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Phase 1 was aimed at providing a reliable test facility for conducting air toxic emissions control development work and is described more fully in the main report (OCDO--96013945).

  19. Sri Lanka: an innovative approach to the implementation of integrated parasite control, nutrition and family planning projects.

    PubMed

    Devendra, T

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Sri Lanka Integrated Project of Parasite Control, Nutrition, and Family Planning is to approach the community through the medium of parasite control and lead it to a better life through community participation in an integrated health program built on the 3 pillars of parasite control, better nutrition, and family planning. Other objectives include studying the mechanism of community participation in 3 very different environments, which were typical of different regions of the country and therefore replicable models. The progress of the project areas was to be monitored so that they would provide viable models for future expansion. The 3 project areas selected are broadly typical of Sri Lanka, while, at the same time, being distinctly different from each other. The Nakulugamuwa Project may be described as a typical Sinhala rural area over 120 miles southeast of the capital city of Colombo. The project area consists of the 2 adjoining villages of Nakulagamuwa and Kudawella. The Panadura Project is a semi urban area of about 20 miles from Colombo and also exhibits typical characteristics. Its population of 10,358 is not homogeneous and consists of various conclaves as well as "mixed areas." The Galnewa Project is located over 100 miles northeast of Colombo in the Mahaweli Project area. It is a new settlement of over 10,000 persons. JOICFP's link organization in Sri Lanka has been the government's Ministry of Family Health. This contributed greatly to the success of the pilot project thanks to the high level and good coordination at the National Steering Committee (NSC). The key organization is the Project Committee. Volunteers constitute the backbone of the Project Committee and link the Committee with the community. Development of human resources in the integrated project areas has been a great success. The field level officials of the Health Department (nurses, sanitarians, midwives, and health educators) have been in the forefront of activities

  20. [Differences between office and ambulatory control of hypertension in very elderly patients. The CARDIORISC - MAPAPRES project].

    PubMed

    Llisterri, José L; Alonso, Francisco J; Gorostidi, Manuel; Sierra, Cristina; de La Sierra, Alejandro; Banegas, José R; Segura, Julián; Sobrino, Javier; De La Cruz, Juan J; Madruga, Felipe; Aranda, Pedro; Redon, Josep; Ruilope, Luis M

    2009-11-28

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in the very elderly. We studied control rates of hypertension according to clinic blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in treated hypertensives aged > or =80 years. Data came from the Spanish Society of Hypertension ABPM Registry (CARDIORISC - MAPAPRES project), which comprises a nation-wide network of more than 1,000 physicians sending standardized ABPM registries via web. Between June 2004 and April 2007 we obtained a 33.829-patient database. Control of hypertension was defined at the clinic when office BP was <140/90mmHg and at the ABPM when mean BP during the 24-h period was <130/80mmHg. We identified 2,311 patients (6.8%) aged > or =80 years. Mean age (SD) was 83.1 (3.2) years and 63% were women. Control of clinic BP was observed in 21.5% of cases (95%CI: 19.1-23.9) and control of 24-h BP in ABPM was 42.1% (95%CI: 39.7-45.3). Prevalence of masked hypertension was 7.0% (95%CI: 6.0-8.0) and prevalence of office-resistant control (white coat) was 27.6% (95% CI: 25.7-29.4). Diabetes, kidney disease, and duration of hypertension were associated with lack of control in ABPM. In very old hypertensives, control of clinic BP was 21.5% but ambulatory-based hypertension control was 42.1%. Physicians should be aware that the likelihood of misestimating BP control is high in these subjects. A wider use of ABPM in the elderly with hypertension should be considered.

  1. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Martha Marie; Orth, René; Cheruy, Frederique; Hagemann, Stefan; Lorenz, Ruth; van den Hurk, Bart; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate here the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multi-model experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate physical processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America and between 42%-52% in Amazonia, Northern Australia and Southern Africa. Soil moisture trends (multi-decadal soil moisture variability) are more important for this response than short-term (e.g. seasonal, interannual) soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections. Vogel, M.M. et al.,2017. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks. Geophysical Research Letters, accepted.

  2. Sfm_georef: Automating image measurement of ground control points for SfM-based projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mike R.

    2016-04-01

    Deriving accurate DEM and orthomosaic image products from UAV surveys generally involves the use of multiple ground control points (GCPs). Here, we demonstrate the automated collection of GCP image measurements for SfM-MVS processed projects, using sfm_georef software (James & Robson, 2012; http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm). Sfm_georef was originally written to provide geo-referencing procedures for SfM-MVS projects. It has now been upgraded with a 3-D patch-based matching routine suitable for automating GCP image measurement in both aerial and ground-based (oblique) projects, with the aim of reducing the time required for accurate geo-referencing. Sfm_georef is compatible with a range of SfM-MVS software and imports the relevant files that describe the image network, including camera models and tie points. 3-D survey measurements of ground control are then provided, either for natural features or artificial targets distributed over the project area. Automated GCP image measurement is manually initiated through identifying a GCP position in an image by mouse click; the GCP is then represented by a square planar patch in 3-D, textured from the image and oriented parallel to the local topographic surface (as defined by the 3-D positions of nearby tie points). Other images are then automatically examined by projecting the patch into the images (to account for differences in viewing geometry) and carrying out a sub-pixel normalised cross-correlation search in the local area. With two or more observations of a GCP, its 3-D co-ordinates are then derived by ray intersection. With the 3-D positions of three or more GCPs identified, an initial geo-referencing transform can be derived to relate the SfM-MVS co-ordinate system to that of the GCPs. Then, if GCPs are symmetric and identical, image texture from one representative GCP can be used to search automatically for all others throughout the image set. Finally, the GCP observations can be

  3. Introduction to the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

    2006-05-01

    Early in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the ''Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project'' solicitation. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact and performance of fuel cell vehicles and the requisite hydrogen infrastructure in real-world applications. The integrated nature of the project enables DOE to work with industry to test, demonstrate, and validate optimal system solutions. Information learned from the vehicles and infrastructure will be fed back into DOE's R&D program to guide and refocus future research as needed, making this project truly a ''learning demonstration''.

  4. Demonstration and Erosion Control Project Monitoring Program, Fiscal Year 1992 Report. Volume 5, Appendix D. Stream Gauging Data Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    Monitoring Program Fiscal Year 1992 Report Volume V: Appendix D Stream Gauging Data Report DTICS ELECTEmmm by David D. Abraham, Steve Sutton EJAN04...November 1993 Demonstration Erosion Control Project Monitoring Program Fiscal Year 1992 Report Volume V: Appendix D Stream Gauging Data Report by David D...39180-5191 us Ai Co"p of engine.. Walsuways Experimen Sim~on Calmiogingn-Pufcatn Date Abraham, David D. DemostraionErosion Control Project Monitoring

  5. Gender differences in hypertension control among older korean adults: Korean social life, health, and aging project.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sang Hui; Baek, Ji Won; Kim, Eun Sook; Stefani, Katherine M; Lee, Won Joon; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2015-01-01

    Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients' attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one's blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003) and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011) might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013). This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.

  6. Human Connectome Project Informatics: quality control, database services, and data visualization

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Daniel S.; Harms, Michael P.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Jenkinson, Mark; Wilson, J Anthony; Glasser, Matthew F.; Barch, Deanna M.; Archie, Kevin A.; Burgess, Gregory C.; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Hodge, Michael; Horton, William; Herrick, Rick; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; House, Matthew; Hileman, Michael; Reid, Erin; Harwell, John; Coalson, Timothy; Schindler, Jon; Elam, Jennifer S.; Curtiss, Sandra W.; Van Essen, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The Human Connectome Project (HCP) has developed protocols, standard operating and quality control procedures, and a suite of informatics tools to enable high throughput data collection, data sharing, automated data processing and analysis, and data mining and visualization. Quality control procedures include methods to maintain data collection consistency over time, to measure head motion, and to establish quantitative modality-specific overall quality assessments. Database services developed as customizations of the XNAT imaging informatics platform support both internal daily operations and open access data sharing. The Connectome Workbench visualization environment enables user interaction with HCP data and is increasingly integrated with the HCP's database services. Here we describe the current state of these procedures and tools and their application in the ongoing HCP study. PMID:23707591

  7. A Web-Based System for Monitoring and Controlling Multidisciplinary Design Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Andrea O.; Rogers, James L.

    1997-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, both industry and government agencies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of multidisciplinary design projects. A number of frameworks have been introduced to assist in this process by facilitating the integration of and communication among diverse disciplinary codes. An examination of current frameworks reveals weaknesses in various areas such as sequencing, displaying, monitoring, and controlling the design process. The objective of this research is to explore how Web technology, in conjunction with an existing framework, can improve these areas of weakness. This paper describes a system that executes a sequence of programs, monitors and controls the design process through a Web-based interface, and visualizes intermediate and final results through the use of Java(Tm) applets. A small sample problem, which includes nine processes with two analysis programs that are coupled to an optimizer, is used to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  8. Quality of surface water before implementation of a flood-control project in Chaska, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    Samples were collected for 1 year from East Creek, Chaska Creek, and Courthouse Lake in Chaska, Minnesota, to determine the water quality before implementation of a flood-control project proposed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The creeks had similar water-quality characteristics. Data indicate that ground water may be the primary source of dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and chromium in the creeks. The pesticides alachlor, atrazine, simazine, and 2,4-D were found in water samples from both creeks but were well below the lethal concentrations for fish. Courthouse Lake, a 57-foot-deep stream-trout lake, had a mean summer trophic-state index of 35. Phytoplankton populations varied seasonally, and blue-green algae were predominant only in late summer. The algal-pollution index was highest in late summer, but did not provide evidence of high organic pollution. The apparently successful recovery of Courthouse Lake from past inundations by Minnesota River floodwaters having total phosphorus concentrations as high as 0.66 milligram per liter suggests that the lake, in time, will also recover from the added runoff expected as a result of implementing the flood-control project. The runoff could temporarily raise the total phosphorus concentration in the lake from 0.03 to 0.12 milligram per liter and raise the spring trophic-state index from 49 to 69.

  9. Filtered-X Affine Projection Algorithms for Active Noise Control Using Volterra Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, Alberto; Sicuranza, Giovanni L.

    2004-12-01

    We consider the use of adaptive Volterra filters, implemented in the form of multichannel filter banks, as nonlinear active noise controllers. In particular, we discuss the derivation of filtered-X affine projection algorithms for homogeneous quadratic filters. According to the multichannel approach, it is then easy to pass from these algorithms to those of a generic Volterra filter. It is shown in the paper that the AP technique offers better convergence and tracking capabilities than the classical LMS and NLMS algorithms usually applied in nonlinear active noise controllers, with a limited complexity increase. This paper extends in two ways the content of a previous contribution published in Proc. IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03), Grado, Italy, June 2003. First of all, a general adaptation algorithm valid for any order [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] of affine projections is presented. Secondly, a more complete set of experiments is reported. In particular, the effects of using multichannel filter banks with a reduced number of channels are investigated and relevant results are shown.

  10. Integrated computer control system CORBA-based simulator FY98 LDRD project final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, R M; Holloway, F W; Van Arsdall, P J

    1999-01-15

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control architecture. The simulator project used a three-prong approach comprised of a study of object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. This summary report highlights the findings of the team and provides the architectural context of the study. For the last several years LLNL has been developing the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS), which is an abstract object-oriented software framework for constructing distributed systems. The framework is capable of implementing large event-driven control systems for mission-critical facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Tools developed in this project were applied to the NIF example architecture in order to gain experience with a complex system and derive immediate benefits from this LDRD. The ICCS integrates data acquisition and control hardware with a supervisory system, and reduces the amount of new coding and testing necessary by providing prebuilt components that can be reused and extended to accommodate specific additional requirements. The framework integrates control point hardware with a supervisory system by providing the services needed for distributed control such as database persistence, system start-up and configuration, graphical user interface, status monitoring, event logging, scripting language, alert management, and access control. The design is interoperable among computers of different kinds and provides plug-in software connections by leveraging a common object request brokering architecture (CORBA) to transparently distribute software objects across the network of computers. Because object broker distribution applied to control systems is relatively new and its inherent performance is roughly threefold less than traditional point

  11. Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control (II&C) Research and Development Facility Buildout and Project Execution of LWRS II&C Pilot Projects 1 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Farris; Johanna Oxstrand; Gregory Weatherby

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on light water reactor sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current reactors. As technologies are introduced that change the operation of the plant, the LWRS pilot projects can help identify their best-advanced uses and help demonstrate the safety of these technologies. In early testing of operator performance given these emerging technologies will ensure the safety and usability of systems prior to large-scale deployment and costly verification and validation at the plant. The aim of these collaborations, demonstrations, and approaches are intended to lessen the inertia that sustains the current status quo of today's II&C systems technology, and to motivate transformational change and a shift in strategy to a long-term approach to II&C modernization that is more sustainable. Research being conducted under Pilot Project 1 regards understanding the conditions and behaviors that can be modified, either through process improvements and/or technology deployment, to improve the overall safety and efficiency of outage control at nuclear facilities. The key component of the research in this pilot project is accessing the delivery of information that will allow researchers to simulate the control room, outage control center (OCC) information, and plant status data. The simulation also allows researchers to identify areas of opportunity where plant operating status and outage activities can be analyzed to increase overall plant efficiency. For Pilot Project 3 the desire is to demonstrate the ability of technology deployment and the subsequent impact on maximizing the 'Collective Situational Awareness' of the various stakeholders in a commercial nuclear power plant. Specifically, the desire is to show positive results in plant

  12. Trends in multi-pollutant emissions from a technology-linked inventory for India: II. Residential, agricultural and informal industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Sadavarte, Pankaj; Rao, Anand B.; Venkataraman, Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Dispersed traditional combustion technologies, characterized by inefficient combustion and significant emissions, are widely used in residential cooking and "informal industries" including brick production, food and agricultural product processing operations like drying and cooking operations related to sugarcane juice, milk, food-grain, jute, silk, tea and coffee. In addition, seasonal agricultural residue burning in field is a discontinuous source of significant emissions. Here we estimate fuel consumption in these sectors and agricultural residue burned using detailed technology divisions and survey-based primary data for 2010 and projected between 1996 and 2015. In the residential sector, a decline in the fraction of solid biomass users for cooking from 79% in 1996 to 65% in 2010 was offset by a growing population, leading to a nearly constant population of solid biomass users, with a corresponding increase in the population of LPG users. Emissions from agriculture followed the growth in agricultural production and diesel use by tractors and pumps. Trends in emissions from the informal industries sector followed those in coal combustion in brick kilns. Residential biomass cooking stoves were the largest contributors to emissions of PM2.5, OC, CO, NMVOC and CH4. Highest emitting technologies of BC were residential kerosene wick lamps. Emissions of SO2 were largely from coal combustion in Bull's trench kilns and other brick manufacturing technologies. Diesel use in tractors was the major source of NOx emissions. Uncertainties in emission estimates were principally from highly uncertain emission factors, particularly for technologies in the informal industries.

  13. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  14. An Overview of the 3C-STAR project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Over the past three decades, city clusters have played a leading role in the economic growth of China, owing to their collective economic capacity and interdependency. However, pollution prevention lags behind the economic boom, led to a general decline in air quality in city clusters. As a result, industrial emissions and traffic exhausts together contribute to high levels of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution problems ranging from urban to regional scale. Such high levels of both primary and secondary airborne pollutants lead to the development of a (perhaps typically Chinese) "air pollution complex" concept. Air pollution complex is particularly true and significant in Beijing-Tianjin area, Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Yangtze River Delta. The concurrent high concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 in PRD as well as in other China city clusters have led to rather unique pollution characteristics due to interactions between primary emissions and photochemical processes, between gaseous compounds and aerosol phase species, and between local and regional scale processes. The knowledge and experience needed to find solutions to the unique pollution complex in China are still lacking. Starting from 2007, we launch a major project "Synthesized Prevention Techniques for Air Pollution Complex and Integrated Demonstration in Key City-Cluster Region" (3C-STAR) to address those problems scientifically and technically. The purpose of the project is to build up the capacity of regional air pollution control and to establish regional coordination mechanism for joint implementation of pollution control. The project includes a number of key components technically: regional air quality monitoring network and super-sites, regional dynamic emission inventory of multi-pollutants, regional ensemble air quality forecasting model system, and regional management system supported by decision making platform. The 3C-STAR project selected PRD as a core area to have technical

  15. Precise control and animation creation over the DMD for projection-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudsi, Badia

    2014-03-01

    Digital micromirror devices (DMDs) are used in a variety of display and projection applications to produce high resolution images, both static and animated. A common obstacle to working with DMDs in research and development applications is the steep learning curve required to obtain proficiency in programming the boards that control the behavior of the DMDs. This can discourage developers who wish to use DMDs in new or novel research and development applications which might benefit from their light-control properties. A new software package called Light Animator has been developed that provides a user friendly and more intuitive interface for controlling the DMD. The software allows users to address the micromirror array by the drawing and animation of objects in a style similar to that of commercial drawing programs. Sequences and animation are controlled by dividing the sequence into frames which the user can draw individually or the software can fill in for the user. Examples and descriptions of the software operation are described and operational performance measures are provided. Potential applications include 3D volumetric displays, a 3D scanner when combining the DMD with a CCD camera, and most any 2D application for which DMDs are currently used. The software's capabilities allow scientists to develop applications more easily and effectively.

  16. The environmental control and life support system advanced automation project. Phase 1: Application evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewberry, Brandon S.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is a Freedom Station distributed system with inherent applicability to advanced automation primarily due to the comparatively large reaction times of its subsystem processes. This allows longer contemplation times in which to form a more intelligent control strategy and to detect or prevent faults. The objective of the ECLSS Advanced Automation Project is to reduce the flight and ground manpower needed to support the initial and evolutionary ECLS system. The approach is to search out and make apparent those processes in the baseline system which are in need of more automatic control and fault detection strategies, to influence the ECLSS design by suggesting software hooks and hardware scars which will allow easy adaptation to advanced algorithms, and to develop complex software prototypes which fit into the ECLSS software architecture and will be shown in an ECLSS hardware testbed to increase the autonomy of the system. Covered here are the preliminary investigation and evaluation process, aimed at searching the ECLSS for candidate functions for automation and providing a software hooks and hardware scars analysis. This analysis shows changes needed in the baselined system for easy accommodation of knowledge-based or other complex implementations which, when integrated in flight or ground sustaining engineering architectures, will produce a more autonomous and fault tolerant Environmental Control and Life Support System.

  17. PMP Estimations at Sparsely Controlled Andinian Basins and Climate Change Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos Zúñiga, M. A.; Vargas, X.

    2012-12-01

    Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) estimation implies an extensive review of hydrometeorological data and understandig of precipitation formation processes. There exists different methodology processes that apply for their estimations and all of them require a good spatial and temporal representation of storms. The estimation of hydrometeorological PMP on sparsely controlled basins is a difficult task, specially if the studied area has an important orographic effect due to mountains and the mixed precipitation occurrence in the most several storms time period, the main task of this study is to propose and estimate PMP in a sparsely controlled basin, affected by abrupt topography and mixed hidrology basin; also analyzing statystic uncertainties estimations and possible climate changes effects in its estimation. In this study the PMP estimation under statistical and hydrometeorological aproaches (watershed-based and traditional depth area duration analysis) was done in a semi arid zone at Puclaro dam in north Chile. Due to the lack of good spatial meteorological representation at the study zone, we propose a methodology to consider the orographic effects of Los Andes due to orographic effects patterns based in a RCM PRECIS-DGF and annual isoyetal maps. Estimations were validated with precipitation patterns for given winters, considering snow route and rainfall gauges at the preferencial wind direction, finding good results. The estimations are also compared with the highest areal storms in USA, Australia, India and China and with frequency analysis in local rain gauge stations in order to decide about the most adequate approach for the study zone. Climate change projections were evaluated with ECHAM5 GCM model, due to its good quality representation in the seasonality and the magnitude of meteorological variables. Temperature projections, for 2040-2065 period, show that there would be a rise in the catchment contributing area that would lead to an increase of the

  18. Multimodal neural correlates of cognitive control in the Human Connectome Project.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Sui, Jing; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Kandala, Sridhar; Calhoun, Vince D; Barch, Deanna M

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive control is a construct that refers to the set of functions that enable decision-making and task performance through the representation of task states, goals, and rules. The neural correlates of cognitive control have been studied in humans using a wide variety of neuroimaging modalities, including structural MRI, resting-state fMRI, and task-based fMRI. The results from each of these modalities independently have implicated the involvement of a number of brain regions in cognitive control, including dorsal prefrontal cortex, and frontal parietal and cingulo-opercular brain networks. However, it is not clear how the results from a single modality relate to results in other modalities. Recent developments in multimodal image analysis methods provide an avenue for answering such questions and could yield more integrated models of the neural correlates of cognitive control. In this study, we used multiset canonical correlation analysis with joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA) to identify multimodal patterns of variation related to cognitive control. We used two independent cohorts of participants from the Human Connectome Project, each of which had data from four imaging modalities. We replicated the findings from the first cohort in the second cohort using both independent and predictive analyses. The independent analyses identified a component in each cohort that was highly similar to the other and significantly correlated with cognitive control performance. The replication by prediction analyses identified two independent components that were significantly correlated with cognitive control performance in the first cohort and significantly predictive of performance in the second cohort. These components identified positive relationships across the modalities in neural regions related to both dynamic and stable aspects of task control, including regions in both the frontal-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks, as well as regions

  19. Examining the Dynamics of Managing Information Systems Development Projects: A Control Loss Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayanaswamy, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    The failure rate of information systems development (ISD) projects continues to pose a big challenge for organizations. The success rate of ISD projects is less then forty percent. Factors such as disagreements and miscommunications among project manager and team members, poor monitoring and intermediary problems contribute to project failure.…

  20. Examining the Dynamics of Managing Information Systems Development Projects: A Control Loss Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayanaswamy, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    The failure rate of information systems development (ISD) projects continues to pose a big challenge for organizations. The success rate of ISD projects is less then forty percent. Factors such as disagreements and miscommunications among project manager and team members, poor monitoring and intermediary problems contribute to project failure.…

  1. Preliminary projections of the effects of chloride-control structures on the Quaternary aquifer at Great Salt Plains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    About 1,200 tons of chloride per day are added to the salt load of the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River at Great Salt Plains Lake from natural sources. The source of this chloride is brine discharge from the rocks of Permian age in the vicinity of the lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has planned a chloride-control project. The Corps requested that the U.S. Geological Survey use a digital model to project the effects of the chloride-control plan on ground water. Ground-water flow and ground-water transport models were calibrated to represent the Quaternary aquifer that is the near-surface part of the flow system. The models were used to project the effects of planned chloride-control structures. Based on model results, ground-water levels are projected to rise as much as 19 feet. However, these water-level rises will occur only in areas near three reservoirs. Changes in ground-water level caused by the project will be small throughout most of the area. Chloride concentration of ground water is projected to increase by more than 90,000 milligrams per liter at one location. However, significant increases in chloride concentration during the 50-year period simulated are projected to be limited to areas where the ground water already contains excessive chloride concentrations.

  2. Reduction of urogenital schistosomiasis with an integrated control project in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Ha; Jeong, Hoo Gn; Kong, Woo Hyun; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Cho, Han-Ik; Nam, Hae-Sung; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Alla, Gibril Nouman Abd; Oh, Chung Hyeon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011. The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done. The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6-9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI = 0.331-0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI = 0.933-6.891). At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this project, the integrated intervention should

  3. Controlled Vocabularies and Ontologies for Oceanographic Data: The R2R Eventlogger Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Raymond, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Research vessels coordinated by the United States University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (US-UNOLS) collect data which is considered an important oceanographic resource. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to this data and diminish the barriers to use. One aspect of the R2R project has been to develop a shipboard scientific event logging system, Eventlogger, that incorporates best practice guidelines, controlled vocabularies, a cruise metadata schema, and a scientific event log. This will facilitate the eventual ingestion of datasets into oceanographic data repositories for subsequent integration and synthesis by investigators. One important aspect of this system is the careful use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies. Existing ontologies, where available, will be used and others will be developed. The use of internationally-informed, consensus-driven controlled vocabularies will make datasets more interoperable, and discoverable. The R2R Eventlogger project is led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the management of the controlled vocabularies and mapping of these vocabularies to authoritative community vocabularies are led by the Data Librarian in the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library. The first target vocabulary is oceanographic instruments. Management of this vocabulary has thus far consisted of reconciling local community terms with the more widely used SeaDataNet Device Vocabulary terms. Rather than adopt existing terms, often the local terms are mapped by data managers in the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to the existing terms as they are given by investigators and often provide important information and meaning. New terms (often custom, or modified instruments) are submitted for review to the SeaDataNet community listserv for discussion and eventual incorporation into the Device

  4. Inferential and forward projection modeling to evaluate options for controlling invasive mammals on islands.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D P; McMurtrie, P; Edge, K-A; Baxter, P W J; Byrom, A E

    2016-12-01

    Successful pest-mammal eradications from remote islands have resulted in important biodiversity benefits. Near-shore islands can also serve as refuges for native biota but require ongoing effort to maintain low-pest or pest-free status. Three management options are available in the presence of reinvasion risk: (1) control-to-zero density, in which immigration may occur but reinvaders are removed; (2) sustained population suppression (to relatively low numbers); or (3) no action. Biodiversity benefits can result from options one and two. The management challenge is to make evidence-based decisions on the selection of an appropriate objective and to identify a financially feasible control strategy that has a high probability of success. This requires understanding the pest species population dynamics and how it will respond to a range of potential management strategies, each with an associated financial cost. We developed a two-stage modeling approach that consisted of (1) Bayesian inferential modeling to estimate parameters for a model of pest population dynamics and control, and (2) a forward projection model to simulate a range of plausible management scenarios and quantify the probability of obtaining zero density within four years. We applied the model to an ongoing, six-year trapping program to control stoats (Mustela erminea) on Resolution Island, New Zealand. Zero density has not yet been achieved. Results demonstrate that management objectives were impeded by a combination of a highly fecund population, insufficient trap attractiveness, and a substantial proportion of the population that did not enter traps. Immigration is known to occur because the founding population arrived on the island by swimming from the mainland. However, immigration rate during this study was indistinguishable from zero. The forward projection modeling showed that control-to-zero density was feasible but required greater than a two-fold budget increase to intensify the trapping

  5. Bibliographic control of audiovisuals: analysis of a cataloging project using OCLC.

    PubMed

    Curtis, J A; Davison, F M

    1985-04-01

    The staff of the Quillen-Dishner College of Medicine Library cataloged 702 audiovisual titles between July 1, 1982, and June 30, 1983, using the OCLC database. This paper discusses the library's audiovisual collection and describes the method and scope of a study conducted during this project, the cataloging standards and conventions adopted, the assignment and use of NLM classification, the provision of summaries for programs, and the amount of staff time expended in cataloging typical items. An analysis of the use of OCLC for this project resulted in the following findings: the rate of successful searches for audiovisual copy was 82.4%; the error rate for records used was 41.9%; modifications were required in every record used; the Library of Congress and seven member institutions provided 62.8% of the records used. It was concluded that the effort to establish bibliographic control of audiovisuals is not widespread and that expanded and improved audiovisual cataloging by the Library of Congress and the National Library of Medicine would substantially contribute to that goal.

  6. The ESA FRM4DOAS project: Towards a quality-controlled MAXDOAS Centralized Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrick, Francois; Fayt, Caroline; Friess, Udo; Kreher, Karin; Piters, Ankie; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas; Cede, Alexander; Spinei, Elena; von Bismarck, Jonas; Fehr, Thorsten; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The Fiducial Reference Measurements for Ground-Based DOAS Air-Quality Observations (FRM4DOAS) is a two-year project funded by the European Space Agency (ESA). Started in July 2016, FRM4DOAS aims at further harmonizing MAXDOAS measurements and data sets, through (1) the specification of best practices for instrument operation, (2) the selection of state-of-the art retrieval algorithms, procedures, and settings, (3) the demonstration of a centralised rapid-delivery (6-24h latency) processing system for MAXDOAS instruments to be operated within the international Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The project also links with the Pandonia initiative. In a first phase, the system concentrates on the development of 3 key products: NO2 vertical profiles, total O3 and tropospheric HCHO profiles, which will be retrieved at 11 MAXDOAS pilot stations. The system will also be tested and validated on data from the CINDI-2 campaign, and designed to allow further extension after commissioning. These activities will help and guarantee that homogenous, fully traceable, and quality-controlled datasets are generated from reference ground-based UV-vis instruments, which will play a crucial role in the validation of future ESA/Copernicus Sentinel satellite missions S-5P, S-4, and S-5.

  7. Off-line front-end safety control system for the SPES project at the LNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, J.; Andrighetto, A.; Costa, L.; Bassato, G.; Giacchini, M.

    2012-02-01

    The off-line front-end apparatus of the Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project, developed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) in Italy, involves a number of subsystems and procedures that are potentially dangerous for both human operators and equipments. Among the most potentially dangerous systems are: the high voltage power supply, the ion source complex power supplies, the target chamber handling mechanisms and the laser source. In order to prevent possible injuries to the operators and damages to the equipments, a safety interlock system and logic monitoring have been developed, tested and are now in operation. The solution is based on Schneider Electrics Preventa family safety modules with capability to control the power supplied to critical subsystems in conjunction with safety detectors for critical variable monitoring. Moreover, a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC),model BMXP342020 from the Schneider Electrics Modicon M340 family, is used to monitor the status of the system as well as to control the sequence of preestablished operations. With the aim to have a user friendly system, a Human Machine Interface (HMI) have been developed using a touch screen model XBTGT5330 from the Schneider Electrics Magelis family, driven by the PLC.

  8. Ebola infection control in Sierra Leonean health clinics: A large cross-agency cooperative project.

    PubMed

    Levy, Benjamin; Rao, Carol Y; Miller, Laura; Kennedy, Ngozi; Adams, Monica; Davis, Rosemary; Hastings, Laura; Kabano, Augustin; Bennett, Sarah D; Sesay, Momodu

    2015-07-01

    The Ebola virus disease outbreak occurring in West Africa has resulted in at least 199 cases of Ebola in Sierra Leonean health care workers, many as a result of transmission occurring in health facilities. The Ministry of Health and Sanitation of Sierra Leone recognized that improvements in infection prevention and control (IPC) were necessary at all levels of health care delivery. To this end, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United Nations Children's Fund, and multiple nongovernmental organizations implemented a national IPC training program in 1,200 peripheral health units (PHUs) in Sierra Leone. A tiered training of trainers program was used. Trainers conducted multiday trainings at PHUs and coordinated the delivery of personal protective equipment (gloves, gowns, masks, boots) and infection control supplies (chlorine, buckets, disposable rags, etc) to all PHU staff. Under the ongoing project, 4,264 health workers have already been trained, and 98% of PHUs have received their first shipment of supplies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Aeroelastic Sizing for High-Speed Research (HSR) Longitudinal Control Alternatives Project (LCAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Dunn, H. J.; Stroud, W. Jefferson; Barthelemy, J.-F.; Weston, Robert P.; Martin, Carl J.; Bennett, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The Longitudinal Control Alternatives Project (LCAP) compared three high-speed civil transport configurations to determine potential advantages of the three associated longitudinal control concepts. The three aircraft configurations included a conventional configuration with a layout having a horizontal aft tail, a configuration with a forward canard in addition to a horizontal aft tail, and a configuration with only a forward canard. The three configurations were aeroelastically sized and were compared on the basis of operational empty weight (OEW) and longitudinal control characteristics. The sized structure consisted of composite honeycomb sandwich panels on both the wing and the fuselage. Design variables were the core depth of the sandwich and the thicknesses of the composite material which made up the face sheets of the sandwich. Each configuration was sized for minimum structural weight under linear and nonlinear aeroelastic loads subject to strain, buckling, ply-mixture, and subsonic and supersonic flutter constraints. This report describes the methods that were used and the results that were generated for the aeroelastic sizing of the three configurations.

  10. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: current and advanced act control system definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability (2) angle of attack limiting (3) lateral/directional augmented stability (4) gust load alleviation (5) maneuver load control and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  11. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  12. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  13. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  14. Project Cerberus: Tobacco Industry Strategy to Create an Alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  15. Tobacco control among disadvantaged youth living in low-income communities in India: Introducing Project ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Melissa; Gupta, Vinay; Bassi, Shalini; Dhavan, Poonam; Mathur, Neha; Tripathy, Vikal; Perry, Cheryl; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of Project ACTIVITY, a group randomized intervention trial designed to test the efficacy of a community-based, comprehensive approach to tobacco control for youth (10-19 years) living in low-income communities in India. In doing so, details regarding baseline characteristics of the study sample are provided. Methods Fourteen slum communities in Delhi, India were matched and randomized to intervention (n=7) and control (n=7) conditions. The intervention included multiple strategies to promote prevention and cessation of tobacco use among youth. A census was conducted in selected blocks in all study communities (n=78,133), as well as a baseline survey of eligible youth (n=6,023). Main outcomes measures on the survey included ever use, past six months use and current use of multiple forms of tobacco. Mixed effects regression models were used to examine differences between study conditions in (a) demographic characteristics and (b) the prevalence of tobacco consumption. Results Census data revealed that 31.9% of sampled population was in the age group of 10-19 years. No differences between study conditions in demographic characteristics (e.g. age, gender, religion, education, and occupation) among either adults or youth were noted (p>0.05). The baseline survey data revealed the prevalence of ever tobacco use among youth was 7.99%, past six months use was 5.70%, and current use was 4.88%. No differences between study conditions in these prevalence rates were observed, either (p>0.05). Conclusion The two study conditions in Project ACTIVITY are comparable. The evaluation should provide a robust test of this intervention's efficacy. PMID:20593929

  16. Human adipose tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants and metabolic syndrome components: Combining a cross-sectional with a 10-year longitudinal study using a multi-pollutant approach.

    PubMed

    Mustieles, Vicente; Fernández, Mariana F; Martin-Olmedo, Piedad; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Fontalba-Navas, Andrés; Hauser, Russ; Olea, Nicolás; Arrebola, Juan P

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to assess the influence of long-term exposure to POPs on the risk of metabolic syndrome, combining a cross-sectional with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up design. Residues of eight POPs were quantified in adipose tissue samples from 387 participants recruited between 2003 and 2004 in Granada province (Spain). The outcome ("metabolically compromised") was defined as having ≥1 diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and/or low HDL cholesterol. The cross-sectional analysis was conducted in the initial cohort, while the 10-year longitudinal analysis was conducted in those 154 participants free of any of the so-mentioned metabolic diseases and classified as "metabolically healthy" at recruitment. Statistical analyses were performed using single and multi-pollutant approaches through logistic and Cox regression analyses with elastic net penalty. After adjusting for confounders, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were independently associated with an increased risk of being metabolically compromised (unpenalized ORs=1.17, 95% CI=1.01-1.36 and 1.17, 95% CI=0.99-1.38, respectively). Very similar results were found in the 10-year longitudinal analysis [HRs=1.28, 95% CI=1.01-1.61 (β-HCH); 1.26, 95% CI=1.00-1.59 (HCB)] and were in line with those obtained using elastic net regression. Finally, when the arithmetic sum of both compounds was used as independent variable, risk estimates increased to OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.03-1.52 and HR=1.32, 95% CI=1.02-1.70. Our results suggest that historical exposure to HCB and β-HCH is consistently associated with the risk of metabolic disorders, and that these POPs might be partly responsible for the morbidity risk traditionally attributed to age and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. West Magnesia Canyon Channel, City of Rancho Mirage, Riverside County, California. Detailed Project Report. Rancho Mirage Flood Control. Technical Appendixes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    SPF Peak Discharges--With Project A-11. Standard Project Flood Hydrograph -Debris Basin Site A-12. Probable Maximum Flood Hydrograph -Debris Basin...to outline the methods and techniques used to model the runoff process and to determine discharge frequency relationships; (c) to present standard...report was forwarded for review and comment to Riverside County Sanitation and Flood Control District, Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD), and

  18. Projected effects of proposed chloride-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the Wichita River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional mathematical computer models were developed for aquifer simulation of: (1) Steady-state conditions in a fresh-water system and (2) transient conditions in a brine- fresh-water system where the density effects of the brine are considered. The main results 'of projecting the effects of the proposed Truscott Brine Lake on the fresh-water aquifer are: (1) Hydraulic head rises of 5 to 40 feet would be confined to areas near the proposed dam and along the lake shoreline, and (2) migration of salt water downstream from the dam generally would be limited to less than 1 mile and apparently would not reach equilibrium during the 100-year duration of the project. The modeling efforts did not include possible effects related to hydrodynamic dispersion in the brine- fresh-water system. Possible changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, due to physical and chemical interactions in the brine and fresh-water environments, also were not considered.

  19. Control time reduction using virtual source projection for treating a leg sarcoma with nonlinear perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kung-Shan; Yuan, Yu; Li, Zhen; Stauffer, Paul R.; Joines, William T.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Das, Shiva K.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Blood perfusion is a well-known factor that complicates accurate control of heating during hyperthermia treatments of cancer. Since blood perfusion varies as a function of time, temperature and location, determination of appropriate power deposition pattern from multiple antenna array Hyperthermia systems and heterogeneous tissues is a difficult control problem. Therefore, we investigate the applicability of a real-time eigenvalue model reduction (virtual source - VS) reduced-order controller for hyperthermic treatments of tissue with nonlinearly varying perfusion. Methods: We impose a piecewise linear approximation to a set of heat pulses, each consisting of a 1-min heat-up, followed by a 2-min cool-down. The controller is designed for feedback from magnetic resonance temperature images (MRTI) obtained after each iteration of heat pulses to adjust the projected optimal setting of antenna phase and magnitude for selective tumor heating. Simulated temperature patterns with additive Gaussian noise with a standard deviation of 1.0°C and zero mean were used as a surrogate for MRTI. Robustness tests were conducted numerically for a patient's right leg placed at the middle of a water bolus surrounded by a 10-antenna applicator driven at 150 MHz. Robustness tests included added discrepancies in perfusion, electrical and thermal properties, and patient model simplifications. Results: The controller improved selective tumor heating after an average of 4-9 iterative adjustments of power and phase, and fulfilled satisfactory therapeutic outcomes with approximately 75% of tumor volumes heated to temperatures >43°C while maintaining about 93% of healthy tissue volume < 41°C. Adequate sarcoma heating was realized by using only 2 to 3 VSs rather than a much larger number of control signals for all 10 antennas, which reduced the convergence time to only 4 to 9% of the original value. Conclusions: Using a piecewise linear approximation to a set of heat pulses in a VS

  20. Developing a corss-project support system during mission operations: Deep Space 1 extended mission flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarffe, V. A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA is focusing on small, low-cost spacecraft for both planetary and earth science missions. Deep Space 1 (DS1) was the first mission to be launched by the NMP. The New Millennium Project (NMP) is designed to develop and test new technology that can be used on future science missions with lower cost and risk. The NMP is finding ways to reduce cost not only in development, but also in operations. DS 1 was approved for an extended mission, but the budget was not large, so the project began looking into part time team members shared with other projects. DS1 launched on October 24, 1998, in it's primary mission it successfully tested twelve new technologies. The extended mission started September 18, 1999 and ran through the encounter with Comet Borrelly on September 22,2001. The Flight Control Team (FCT) was one team that needed to use part time or multi mission people. Circumstances led to a situation where for the few months before the Borrelly encounter in September of 2001 DSl had no certified full time Flight Control Engineers also known as Aces. This paper examines how DS 1 utilized cross-project support including the communication between different projects, and the how the tools used by the Flight Control Engineer fit into cross-project support.

  1. Performance of predictors: evaluating sustainability in community-directed treatment projects of the African programme for onchocerciasis control.

    PubMed

    Amazigo, Uche; Okeibunor, Joseph; Matovu, Victoria; Zouré, Honorat; Bump, Jesse; Seketeli, Azodoga

    2007-05-01

    The predictors of sustainability of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) at four implementation levels were evaluated in 41 African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) projects, encompassing 492 communities in 10 countries. A model protocol provided information on indicators corresponding to nine aspects of a project that is likely to be sustainable at community level after the cessation of external support. Six of the nine aspects had components of community ownership as predictors of project sustainability. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were used to obtain individual community scores and an overall sustainability score for each project graded on a scale of 0-4. Of the 41 projects evaluated, 70% scored "satisfactorily" to "highly sustainable" at the community level. We found variations among countries and that health system weaknesses could hamper community efforts in sustaining a project, such as when ivermectin was delivered late. Community ownership was of primary importance to the community score, and the community-level scores correlated with overall project sustainability. The therapeutic coverage achieved in each project correlated with the ratio of volunteer ivermectin distributors per population served. Surprisingly, the performance of these distributors was not affected by the direct incentives offered, and coverage appeared to be highest when cash or in-kind compensation was not given at all. Although further research is required, anecdotal evidence pointed to diverse indirect benefits for distributors-political goodwill, personal satisfaction and altruistic fulfillment. The results demonstrate that community ownership is among the important determining factors of sustainability of community-based programmes.

  2. Pleasant Prairie Power Plant air quality control upgrade project, Pleasant Praire, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhart, S.; Pennline, D.; Brodsky, I.; Bichler, D.

    2007-10-15

    We Energies recently completed a multiyear project at its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant to add a selective catalytic reduction system to one of its two units and a scrubber to both. These projects are described. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Project MEDSAT: The design of a remote sensing platform for malaria research and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Project MEDSAT was proposed with the specific goal of designing a satellite to remotely sense pertinent information useful in establishing strategies to control malaria. The 340 kg MEDSAT satellite is to be inserted into circular earth orbit aboard the Pegasus Air-Launched Space Booster at an inclination of 21 degrees and an altitude of 473 km. It is equipped with a synthetic aperture radar and a visible thermal/infrared sensor to remotely sense conditions at the target area of Chiapas, Mexico. The orbit is designed so that MEDSAT will pass over the target site twice each day. The data from each scan will be downlinked to Hawaii for processing, resulting in maps indicating areas of high malaria risk. These will be distributed to health officials at the target site. A relatively inexpensive launch by Pegasus and a design using mainly proven, off-the-shelf technology permit a low mission cost, while innovations in the satellite controls and the scientific instruments allow a fairly complex mission.

  4. Project MEDSAT: The design of a remote sensing platform for malaria research and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    Project MEDSAT was proposed with the specific goal of designing a satellite to remotely sense pertinent information useful in establishing strategies to control malaria. The 340 kg MEDSAT satellite is to be inserted into circular earth orbit aboard the Pegasus Air-Launched Space Booster at an inclination of 21 degrees and an altitude of 473 km. It is equipped with a synthetic aperture radar and a visible thermal/infrared sensor to remotely sense conditions at the target area of Chiapas, Mexico. The orbit is designed so that MEDSAT will pass over the target site twice each day. The data from each scan will be downlinked to Hawaii for processing, resulting in maps indicating areas of high malaria risk. These will be distributed to health officials at the target site. A relatively inexpensive launch by Pegasus and a design using mainly proven, off-the-shelf technology permit a low mission cost, while innovations in the satellite controls and the scientific instruments allow a fairly complex mission.

  5. Application of quality assurance controls to TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J.D.

    1996-06-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), a 7.62-meter diameter tunnel is being constructed using a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). This tunnel, which may form a portion of a permanent high-level nuclear waste repository, is being constructed under the auspices of a nuclear quality assurance (QA) program. The YMP nuclear QA program applies to items and activities determined to be important to radiological safety, waste isolation, and potential interactions with the environment. The items and activities determined to be important have been assigned a quality assurance classification. This paper focuses on the items (rockbolts, steel sets, and shotcrete) and quality affecting activities involved in providing ground support and excavating the tunnel. Typical activities that have been assigned QA classifications include TBM maintenance, control of water used in the tunnel during construction, and control of diesel emissions in the tunnel. The paper concludes that the key to the successful implementation of nuclear QA requirements for tunneling at Yucca Mountain was the assignment of personnel with the appropriate mix of tunneling and nuclear experience.

  6. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation.

  7. Riparian and Related Values Associated with Flood Control Project Alternatives at Wildcat and San Pablo Creeks

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Meyer

    1989-01-01

    This analysis will consider Riparian benefits from alternative project designs at Wildcat and San Pablo Creeks. Particular emphasis will be placed on quantification of riparian values and on the relationship of projects benefits for each project alternative to estimated costs of implementation.

  8. BETTER PROJECT PLANNING AND CONTROL THROUGH THE USE OF SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COOK, DESMOND L.

    THE COMBINED APPLICATION OF SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IS DESCRIBED AS AN EFFECTIVE WAY TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM RESULTS IN THE PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF PROJECTS IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION. PROJECTS OF THIS TYPE ARE GENERALLY FINITE, COMPLEX, HOMOGENOUS, AND NONREPETITIVE. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF A PROJECT INCLUDES ITS DISASSEMBLY INTO…

  9. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  10. Quality improvement in cancer symptom assessment and control: the Provincial Palliative Care Integration Project (PPCIP).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Julie E; Howell, Doris; King, Susan; Sawka, Carol; Hughes, Erin; Angus, Helen; Dudgeon, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The Provincial Palliative Care Integration Project (PPCIP) was implemented in Ontario, Canada, to enhance the quality of palliative care delivery. The PPCIP promoted collaboration and integration across service sectors to improve screening and assessment, palliative care processes, as well as clinician practice and outcomes for cancer patients. The project involved 1) implementation of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) for symptom screening, 2) use of "rapid-cycle change" quality improvement processes to improve screening and symptom management, and 3) improvements in integration and access to palliative care services. Symptom scores were collected and made accessible to the care team through a web-based tool and kiosk technology, which helped patients enter their ESAS scores at each visit to the regional cancer center or at home with their nurse. Symptom response data were gathered through clinical chart audits. Within one year of implementation, regional cancer centers saw improvements in symptom screening (54% of lung cancer patients), symptom control (69% of patients with pain scores and 31% of patients with dyspnea scores seven or more were reduced to six or less within 72 hours), and functional assessment (23% of all patients and 64% of palliative care clinic patients). ESAS screening rates reached 29%, and functional assessment reached 26% of targeted home care patients. The PPCIP demonstrated that significant strides in symptom screening and response can be achieved within a year using rapid-cycle change and collaborative approaches. It showed that both short- and long-term improvement require ongoing facilitation to embed the changes in system design and change the culture of clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction of Urogenital Schistosomiasis with an Integrated Control Project in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Ha; Jeong, Hoo Gn; Kong, Woo Hyun; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Cho, Han-Ik; Nam, Hae-Sung; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Alla, Gibril Nouman Abd; Oh, Chung Hyeon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in Sudan, particularly Schistosoma haematobium infection. This study presents the disease-reduction outcomes of an integrated control program for schistosomiasis in Al Jabalain locality of White Nile State, Sudan from 2009 through 2011. Methods The total population of the project sites was 482,902, and the major target group for intervention among them was 78,615 primary school students. For the cross-sectional study of the prevalence, urine and stool specimens were examined using the urine sedimentation method and the Kato cellophane thick smear method, respectively. To assess the impacts of health education for students and a drinking water supply facility at Al Hidaib village, questionnaire survey was done. Results The overall prevalence for S. haematobium and S. mansoni at baseline was 28.5% and 0.4%, respectively. At follow-up survey after 6–9 months post-treatment, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced to 13.5% (95% CI = 0.331–0.462). A higher reduction in prevalence was observed among girls, those with moderately infected status (around 20%), and residents in rural areas, than among boys, those with high prevalence (>40%), and residents in urban areas. After health education, increased awareness about schistosomiasis was checked by questionnaire survey. Also, a drinking water facility was constructed at Al Hidaib village, where infection rate was reduced more compared to that in a neighboring village within the same unit. However, we found no significant change in the prevalence of S. mansoni infection between baseline and follow-up survey (95% CI = 0.933–6.891). Conclusions At the end of the project, the prevalence of S. haematobium infection was reduced by more than 50% in comparison with the baseline rate. Approximately 200,000 subjects had received either praziquantel therapy, health education, or supply of clean water. To consolidate the achievements of this

  12. The Y-Worri Project: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are one of the most common psychological problems in adolescents. The school system has been identified as an ideal setting for the implementation of prevention and early intervention programs for anxiety; however, few programs are routinely delivered in schools and little is known about the best delivery methods. The aim of the current project is two-fold: to test the effectiveness of an intervention program for anxiety relative to a control condition, and to compare two methods of implementing the program. Methods/design This study is a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial consisting of a wait-list control condition and two intervention conditions evaluating the effectiveness of an Internet-based program for preventing generalised anxiety. The first intervention condition will involve classroom teachers supervising student completion of the intervention program, while the second intervention condition will involve the classroom teacher and an education officer from the local youth mental health centre supervising the program’s completion. At least 30 schools from across Australia will be recruited to the trial, with adolescents aged between 14 and 18 years invited to participate. Participants in the intervention conditions will complete the e-couch Anxiety and Worry program during class periods over six weeks. The primary outcome measure will be a scale reflecting the number and severity of generalised anxiety symptoms, while secondary outcomes will be symptoms of depression, social anxiety and anxiety sensitivity. Data will be collected at pre-intervention, post-intervention, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses will be conducted. Discussion If demonstrated effective, a new service delivery model for the implementation of mental health programs in schools could be indicated. Such a model would significantly contribute to the mental health of young people in Australia by providing preventive interventions

  13. The Electronic Documentation Project in the NASA mission control center environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Leigh, Albert

    1994-01-01

    NASA's space programs like many other technical programs of its magnitude is supported by a large volume of technical documents. These documents are not only diverse but also abundant. Management, maintenance, and retrieval of these documents is a challenging problem by itself; but, relating and cross-referencing this wealth of information when it is all on a medium of paper is an even greater challenge. The Electronic Documentation Project (EDP) is to provide an electronic system capable of developing, distributing and controlling changes for crew/ground controller procedures and related documents. There are two primary motives for the solution. The first motive is to reduce the cost of maintaining the current paper based method of operations by replacing paper documents with electronic information storage and retrieval. And, the other is to improve the efficiency and provide enhanced flexibility in document usage. Initially, the current paper based system will be faithfully reproduced in an electronic format to be used in the document viewing system. In addition, this metaphor will have hypertext extensions. Hypertext features support basic functions such as full text searches, key word searches, data retrieval, and traversal between nodes of information as well as speeding up the data access rate. They enable related but separate documents to have relationships, and allow the user to explore information naturally through non-linear link traversals. The basic operational requirements of the document viewing system are to: provide an electronic corollary to the current method of paper based document usage; supplement and ultimately replace paper-based documents; maintain focused toward control center operations such as Flight Data File, Flight Rules and Console Handbook viewing; and be available NASA wide.

  14. Bibliographic control of medical illustrations--a case study in the development of a library subsystem: II. Project implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, D; Roberts, J; Zinn, N W

    1983-01-01

    This second part of a two-part paper describes how the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Library implemented a bibliographic control system for a medical illustrations collection. Discussed are the staffing of the project, the design of formats and computer programs, further design changes, the input process, quality evaluation of the illustrations, and production and distribution of the control products (printed indexes and microfiche replicas). The report ends with a note on the applicability of the UCSF system to other libraries, and some benefits of the project. PMID:6688747

  15. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  16. HOP'N after-school project: an obesity prevention randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dzewaltowski, David A; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Geller, Karly S; Coleman, Karen J; Welk, Gregory J; Hastmann, Tanis J; Milliken, George A

    2010-12-13

    This paper reports the primary outcomes of the Healthy Opportunities for Physical Activity and Nutrition (HOP'N) after-school project, which was an effectiveness trial designed to evaluate the prevention of childhood obesity through building the capacity of after-school staff to increase physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. We conducted a three-year, nested cross-sectional group randomized controlled effectiveness trial. After a baseline assessment year (2005-2006), schools and their after-school programs were randomized to the HOP'N after-school program (n = 4) or control (n = 3), and assessed for two subsequent years (intervention year 1, 2006-2007; intervention year 2, 2007-2008). Across the three years, 715 fourth grade students, and 246 third and fourth grade after-school program participants were included in the study. HOP'N included community government human service agency (Cooperative Extension) led community development efforts, a three-time yearly training of after-school staff, daily PA for 30 minutes following CATCH guidelines, a daily healthful snack, and a weekly nutrition and PA curriculum (HOP'N Club). Child outcomes included change in age- and gender-specific body mass index z-scores (BMIz) across the school year and PA during after-school time measured by accelerometers. The success of HOP'N in changing after-school program opportunities was evaluated by observations over the school year of after-school program physical activity sessions and snack FV offerings. Data were analyzed in 2009. The intervention had no impact on changes in BMIz. Overweight/obese children attending HOP'N after-school programs performed 5.92 minutes more moderate-to-vigorous PA per day after intervention, which eliminated a baseline year deficit of 9.65 minutes per day (p < 0.05) compared to control site overweight/obese children. Active recreation program time at HOP'N sites was 23.40 minutes (intervention year 1, p = 0.01) and 14.20 minutes

  17. Study methodology and diabetes control in patients from the non-English diabetes management project (NEDMP).

    PubMed

    Dirani, Mohamed; Dang, Trung M; Xie, Jing; Gnanasekaran, Sivashanth; Nicolaou, Theona; Rees, Gwyneth; Fenwick, Eva; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2017-03-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of non-English speaking patients from the Diabetes Management Project (NEDMP), and compare their diabetes management and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with the English-speaking DMP sample (EDMP). A prospective study was conducted on non-English speaking adults with diabetes who attended the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital. 136 (90.1%) non-English speaking adults were assessed, with a mean age of 72.2 years (range: 50-88 years); 74 (54.4%) were male. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent visual acuity, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, biochemistry and anthropometric measurements. The EDMP assessed 609 patients in 2009 using a similar protocol. Type and duration of diabetes, diabetes control and diabetic retinopathy. A total of 127 (93.4%) and 8 (5.9%) participants reported having type 2 and type 1 diabetes, respectively, with a median (IQR) duration of 17 (14) years. The proportion of patients with poor diabetes control (HbA1c ≥ 7%) in the NEDMP was similar to the EDMP (64.0% and 68.2%, respectively; P = 0.411). A significantly higher proportion of patients with DR in the NEDMP were found to have poor diabetes control (HbA1c ≥ 7%) compared to those without DR (80.9% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.003). Almost two-thirds of NEDMP patients (74/118) had DR and 23% (27/115) had diabetic macular edema. The prevalence of DR was similar between the NEDMP and EDMP studies, ranging from 25-30% and 28-29%. The clinical characteristics, diabetes control, and DR severity of English and non-English-speaking patients were similar. The high proportion of poor diabetes management in non-English speaking patients with DR suggests educational and behavioural interventions to improve glycaemic control are warranted. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. The Diabetes Care Project: an Australian multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial [study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder that is associated with substantial disease burden. Australia has an opportunity to improve ways of caring for the growing number of people with diabetes, but this may require changes to the way care is funded, organised and delivered. To inform how best to care for people with diabetes, and to identify the extent of change that is required to achieve this, the Diabetes Care Project (DCP) will evaluate the impact of two different, evidence-based models of care (compared to usual care) on clinical quality, patient and provider experience, and cost. Methods/Design The DCP uses a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial design. Accredited general practices that are situated within any of the seven Australian Medicare Locals/Divisions of General Practice that have agreed to take part in the study were invited to participate. Consenting practices will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups for approximately 18 to 22 months: (a) control group (usual care); (b) Intervention 1 (which tests improvements that could be made within the current funding model, facilitated through the use of an online chronic disease management network); or (c) Intervention 2 (which includes the same components as Intervention 1, as well as altered funding to support voluntary patient registration with their practice, incentive payments and a care facilitator). Adult patients who attend the enrolled practices and have established (≥12 month’s duration) type 1 diabetes mellitus or newly diagnosed or established type 2 diabetes mellitus are invited to participate. Multiple outcomes will be studied, including changes in glycosylated haemoglobin (primary outcome), changes in other biochemical and clinical metrics, incidence of diabetes-related complications, quality of life, clinical depression, success of tailored care, patient and practitioner satisfaction, and budget sustainability. Discussion

  19. Assessment of hypertension levels control and management (hypertension "AUDIT" project). Study in a population of workers.

    PubMed

    Carp, C; Enăchescu, D; David, I; Nandriş, G; Calangiu, G; Coman, I; Apetrei, E; Stoian, I; Ginghină, C

    1990-01-01

    The hypertension AUDIT project (WHO) was used for the study of large populations of workers in two Romanian industrial centers, Slatina and Sibiu, constituted into two main groups. The objects of the study were: the detection of new cases of arterial hypertension (AH) and of their proportion as compared with older cases, the assessment of the quality of diagnosis control and treatment methodology as well as the estimation of the patient's attitude regarding the conditions of treatment and of the physician's knowledge and attitude regarding AH. Group I (Slatina) included 22,839 workers and the program was applied in 15,740 randomly chosen subjects. Group II (Sibiu) included 14,874 workers of whom 2,838 were randomly chosen for study. From a total of 606 (6.20%) subjects aged 35 to 64 years with AH in both groups, 494 (81.51%) were older cases and 112 (18.48%) were newly detected. The prevalence of AH was found to increase with age and to be higher in women aged 55 to 64 years. The treatment in older cases from both groups was considered effective in 232 cases (46.96%) (of which 26 (11.2%) with overtreatment) and insufficient in 262 (53%). The reasons alleged by the patients for the late detection of AH were the absence of symptoms and a casual interest for their state of health. The risk factors were systematically checked. Smoking was found in 30.36% of the subjects in group I and in 31% of those in group II. The use of diagnostic laboratory procedures was corresponding to the present recommendations. The nonpharmaceutic therapy was frequently recommended, especially reduction of salt consumption. Besides that, pharmaceutic treatment was indicated in most of the patients (63% in group I and 90% in group II). Diuretics (41.26% in group I and 75% in group II), and beta blocking drugs (35.3% in group I and 70% in group II) were the most frequently administered and in a lesser proportion vasodilators with central or peripheral action, calcium blockers, Rauwolfia and

  20. The Diabetes Care Project: an Australian multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial [study protocol].

    PubMed

    Leach, Matthew J; Segal, Leonie; Esterman, Adrian; Armour, Caroline; McDermott, Robyn; Fountaine, Tim

    2013-12-20

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder that is associated with substantial disease burden. Australia has an opportunity to improve ways of caring for the growing number of people with diabetes, but this may require changes to the way care is funded, organised and delivered. To inform how best to care for people with diabetes, and to identify the extent of change that is required to achieve this, the Diabetes Care Project (DCP) will evaluate the impact of two different, evidence-based models of care (compared to usual care) on clinical quality, patient and provider experience, and cost. The DCP uses a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial design. Accredited general practices that are situated within any of the seven Australian Medicare Locals/Divisions of General Practice that have agreed to take part in the study were invited to participate. Consenting practices will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups for approximately 18 to 22 months: (a) control group (usual care); (b) Intervention 1 (which tests improvements that could be made within the current funding model, facilitated through the use of an online chronic disease management network); or (c) Intervention 2 (which includes the same components as Intervention 1, as well as altered funding to support voluntary patient registration with their practice, incentive payments and a care facilitator). Adult patients who attend the enrolled practices and have established (≥12 month's duration) type 1 diabetes mellitus or newly diagnosed or established type 2 diabetes mellitus are invited to participate. Multiple outcomes will be studied, including changes in glycosylated haemoglobin (primary outcome), changes in other biochemical and clinical metrics, incidence of diabetes-related complications, quality of life, clinical depression, success of tailored care, patient and practitioner satisfaction, and budget sustainability. This project responds to a need for robust

  1. Effects of image orientation and ground control points distribution on unmanned aerial vehicle photogrammetry projects on a road cut slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal-Ramírez, Fernando; Agüera-Vega, Francisco; Martínez-Carricondo, Patricio J.

    2016-07-01

    The morphology of road cut slopes, such as length and high slopes, is one of the most prevalent causes of landslides and terrain stability troubles. Digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthoimages are used for land management purposes. Two flights with different orientations with respect to the target surface were planned, and four photogrammetric projects were carried out during these flights to study the image orientation effects. Orthogonal images oriented to the cut slope with only sidelaps were compared to the classical vertical orientation, with sidelapping, endlapping, and both types of overlapping simultaneously. DEM and orthoimages obtained from the orthogonal project showed smaller errors than those obtained from the other three photogrammetric projects, with the first one being much easier to manage. One additional flight and six photogrammetric projects were used to establish an objective criterion to locate the three ground control points for georeferencing and rectification DEMs and orthoimages. All possible sources of errors were evaluated in the DEMs and orthoimages.

  2. Status report of the SRT radiotelescope control software: the DISCOS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlati, A.; Bartolini, M.; Buttu, M.; Fara, A.; Migoni, C.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.

    2016-08-01

    The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a 64-m fully-steerable radio telescope. It is provided with an active surface to correct for gravitational deformations, allowing observations from 300 MHz to 100 GHz. At present, three receivers are available: a coaxial LP-band receiver (305-410 MHz and 1.5-1.8 GHz), a C-band receiver (5.7-7.7 GHz) and a 7-feed K-band receiver (18-26.5 GHz). Several back-ends are also available in order to perform the different data acquisition and analysis procedures requested by scientific projects. The design and development of the SRT control software started in 2004, and now belongs to a wider project called DISCOS (Development of the Italian Single-dish COntrol System), which provides a common infrastructure to the three Italian radio telescopes (Medicina, Noto and SRT dishes). DISCOS is based on the Alma Common Software (ACS) framework, and currently consists of more than 500k lines of code. It is organized in a common core and three specific product lines, one for each telescope. Recent developments, carried out after the conclusion of the technical commissioning of the instrument (October 2013), consisted in the addition of several new features in many parts of the observing pipeline, spanning from the motion control to the digital back-ends for data acquisition and data formatting; we brie y describe such improvements. More importantly, in the last two years we have supported the astronomical validation of the SRT radio telescope, leading to the opening of the first public call for proposals in late 2015. During this period, while assisting both the engineering and the scientific staff, we massively employed the control software and were able to test all of its features: in this process we received our first feedback from the users and we could verify how the system performed in a real-life scenario, drawing the first conclusions about the overall system stability and performance. We examine how the system behaves in terms of network

  3. Projection of controlled repeatable real-time moving targets to test and evaluate motion imagery quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopatz, Stephen D.; Mendez, Michael; Trent, Randall

    2015-05-01

    The projection of controlled moving targets is key to the quantitative testing of video capture and post processing for Motion Imagery. This presentation will discuss several implementations of target projectors with moving targets or apparent moving targets creating motion to be captured by the camera under test. The targets presented are broadband (UV-VIS-IR) and move in a predictable, repeatable and programmable way; several short videos will be included in the presentation. Among the technical approaches will be targets that move independently in the camera's field of view, as well targets that change size and shape. The development of a rotating IR and VIS 4 bar target projector with programmable rotational velocity and acceleration control for testing hyperspectral cameras is discussed. A related issue for motion imagery is evaluated by simulating a blinding flash which is an impulse of broadband photons in fewer than 2 milliseconds to assess the camera's reaction to a large, fast change in signal. A traditional approach of gimbal mounting the camera in combination with the moving target projector is discussed as an alternative to high priced flight simulators. Based on the use of the moving target projector several standard tests are proposed to provide a corresponding test to MTF (resolution), SNR and minimum detectable signal at velocity. Several unique metrics are suggested for Motion Imagery including Maximum Velocity Resolved (the measure of the greatest velocity that is accurately tracked by the camera system) and Missing Object Tolerance (measurement of tracking ability when target is obscured in the images). These metrics are applicable to UV-VIS-IR wavelengths and can be used to assist in camera and algorithm development as well as comparing various systems by presenting the exact scenes to the cameras in a repeatable way.

  4. Comorbidities, Concomitant Medications, and Diet as Factors Affecting Levothyroxine Therapy: Results of the CONTROL Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Marjorie; Rotenberg, Keith S; Vora, Kevin; Sterman, Arnold B; Thevathasan, Lionel; Ryan, Michael F; Mehra, Munish; Sandulli, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The CONTROL Surveillance Project was a comprehensive patient-based survey conducted among hypothyroid patients undergoing treatment. The primary objective of the study was to specifically quantify the prevalence of factors adversely affecting levothyroxine therapy. Participants were selected from a large proprietary database. Those eligible for the study completed a 21-question survey. Of the eligible hypothyroid patients, 925 (92.5%) were being treated with levothyroxine monotherapy. The mean age was 60.4 years; 755 (81.6%) were female and 168 (18.2%) were male. Almost half of those receiving levothyroxine (435, 47.0%) had at least one comorbid condition that could adversely affect its absorption: gastroesophageal reflux disease (33.8% of patients), irritable bowel syndrome (9.7%), lactose intolerance (7.8%), or a history of gastric bypass surgery or bowel resection (3.0%). Other factors reported by many patients that could adversely affect levothyroxine absorption included use of prescription medications (20.6%) and over-the-counter medications (34.3%) used to treat comorbid gastrointestinal (GI) conditions; use of dietary supplements (51.8%, primarily calcium and iron); and intake of foods/beverages high in fiber, iodine, or soy (68.0%). Of the 13.4% who reported difficulty controlling their hypothyroid symptoms, significantly more patients with comorbid GI conditions reported such difficulty (7.8 versus 5.6%, P < 0.01). Frequent changes in levothyroxine dosing (two or more dose changes in the past year) were reported by 8.0% of survey participants. Those with GI comorbidities were nearly twice as likely to have such changes (5.0 versus 3.0%, P < 0.01). Better initial workup of patients, including identification of relevant GI comorbidities and allergies, may help in the early detection of factors that may affect the performance of levothyroxine.

  5. Control of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: vaccine development and our Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Since December 2013, West Africa has experienced the worst Ebola virus outbreak in recorded history. Of the 28,639 cases reported to the World Health Organization as of March 2016, nearly half (14,124) occurred in Sierra Leone. With a case fatality rate of approximately 40%, this outbreak has claimed the lives of 11,316 individuals. No FDA-approved vaccines or drugs are available to prevent or treat Ebola virus infection. Experimental vaccines and therapies are being developed; however, their safety and efficacy are still being evaluated. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop control measures to prevent or limit future Ebola virus outbreaks.Previously, we developed a replication-defective Ebola virus that lacks the coding region for the essential viral transcription activator VP30 (Ebola ΔVP30 virus). Here, we evaluated the vaccine efficacy of Ebola ΔVP30 virus in a non-human primate model and describe our collaborative Ebola project in Sierra Leone.

  6. Control of basal ganglia output by direct and indirect pathway projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Freeze, Benjamin S; Kravitz, Alexxai V; Hammack, Nora; Berke, Joshua D; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2013-11-20

    The direct and indirect efferent pathways from striatum ultimately reconverge to influence basal ganglia output nuclei, which in turn regulate behavior via thalamocortical and brainstem motor circuits. However, the distinct contributions of these two efferent pathways in shaping basal ganglia output are not well understood. We investigated these processes using selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways, in combination with single-unit recording in the basal ganglia output nucleus substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice. Optogenetic activation of striatal direct and indirect pathway projection neurons produced diverse cellular responses in SNr neurons, with stimulation of each pathway eliciting both excitations and inhibitions. Despite this response heterogeneity, the effectiveness of direct pathway stimulation in producing movement initiation correlated selectively with the subpopulation of inhibited SNr neurons. In contrast, effective indirect pathway-mediated motor suppression was most strongly influenced by excited SNr neurons. Our results support the theory that key basal ganglia output neurons serve as an inhibitory gate over motor output that can be opened or closed by striatal direct and indirect pathways, respectively.

  7. Control of Basal Ganglia Output by Direct and Indirect Pathway Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Benjamin S.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Hammack, Nora; Berke, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    The direct and indirect efferent pathways from striatum ultimately reconverge to influence basal ganglia output nuclei, which in turn regulate behavior via thalamocortical and brainstem motor circuits. However, the distinct contributions of these two efferent pathways in shaping basal ganglia output are not well understood. We investigated these processes using selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways, in combination with single-unit recording in the basal ganglia output nucleus substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice. Optogenetic activation of striatal direct and indirect pathway projection neurons produced diverse cellular responses in SNr neurons, with stimulation of each pathway eliciting both excitations and inhibitions. Despite this response heterogeneity, the effectiveness of direct pathway stimulation in producing movement initiation correlated selectively with the subpopulation of inhibited SNr neurons. In contrast, effective indirect pathway-mediated motor suppression was most strongly influenced by excited SNr neurons. Our results support the theory that key basal ganglia output neurons serve as an inhibitory gate over motor output that can be opened or closed by striatal direct and indirect pathways, respectively. PMID:24259575

  8. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy FCM testing at Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1991, pilot testing was performed at the Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Plant in Copenhagen, Denmark in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), which is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Ill Program. The HCCP is a proposed new coal fired power plant, located in Healy, Alaska. It consists of a TRW entrained combustion system, coupled with a limestone calciner, which operates in synergism with a Joy/Niro Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA) system equipped with a lime activation system that is designed to increase the utilization of the calcined product for sulfur capture in the SDA. The pilot tests, which were funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), were conducted to investigate the characteristics of the TRW combustor/limestone calciner product, referred to as Flash Calcined Material (FCM) with respect to its ability to remove S0[sub 2 ] in the Joy/Niro Activated Recycle SDA system. This report describes the pilot facility, the test objectives and methods, and the results of the tests.

  9. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy FCM testing at Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1991, pilot testing was performed at the Niro Air Pollution Control Pilot Plant in Copenhagen, Denmark in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), which is part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Ill Program. The HCCP is a proposed new coal fired power plant, located in Healy, Alaska. It consists of a TRW entrained combustion system, coupled with a limestone calciner, which operates in synergism with a Joy/Niro Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA) system equipped with a lime activation system that is designed to increase the utilization of the calcined product for sulfur capture in the SDA. The pilot tests, which were funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), were conducted to investigate the characteristics of the TRW combustor/limestone calciner product, referred to as Flash Calcined Material (FCM) with respect to its ability to remove S0{sub 2 } in the Joy/Niro Activated Recycle SDA system. This report describes the pilot facility, the test objectives and methods, and the results of the tests.

  10. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program, under Round 2, a project for Full Scale Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x},) Control was selected. DOE sponsored The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company, with Wisconsin Power & Light (WP&L) as the host utility, to demonstrate coal reburning technology at WP&L`s 110 MW{sub c}, cyclone-fired Unit No.2 at the Nelson Dewey Generating Station in Cassville, Wisconsin. The coal reburning demonstration was justified based on two prior studies. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and B&W sponsored engineering feasibility study indicated that the majority of cyclone-equipped boilers could successfully apply reburning technology to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions by 50 to 70%. An EPRI/Gas Research Institute (GRI)/B&W pilot-scale evaluation substantiated this conclusion through pilot-scale testing in B&W`s 6 million Btu/hr Small Boiler Simulator. Three different reburning fuels, natural gas, No. 6 oil, and pulverized coal were tested. This work showed that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects of combustion efficiency. Coal was selected for a full scale demonstration since it is available to all cyclone units and represents the highest level of technical difficulty-in demonstrating the technology.

  11. Mobile Phone Diabetes Project Led To Improved Glycemic Control And Net Savings For Chicago Plan Participants

    PubMed Central

    Nundy, Shantanu; Dick, Jonathan J.; Chou, Chia-Hung; Nocon, Robert S.; Chin, Marshall H.; Peek, Monica E.

    2014-01-01

    Even with the best health care available, patients with chronic illnesses typically spend no more than a few hours a year in a health care setting, while their outcomes are largely determined by their activities during the remaining 5,000 waking hours of the year. As a widely available, low-cost technology, mobile phones are a promising tool to use in engaging patients in behavior change and facilitating self-care between visits. We examined the impact of a six-month mobile health (mHealth) demonstration project among adults with diabetes who belonged to an academic medical center’s employee health plan. In addition to pre-post improvements in glycemic control (p = 0.01) and patients’ satisfaction with overall care (p = 0.04), we observed a net cost savings of 8.8 percent. Those early results suggest that mHealth programs can support health care organizations’ pursuit of the triple aim of improving patients’ experiences with care, improving population health, and reducing the per capita cost of health care. PMID:24493770

  12. Evaluation by villagers of the malaria control project on Lombok and Sumbawa Islands, west Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Takeshi; Minematsu, Kazuo; Abe, Tomoko; Basuki, Sukmawati; Artasutra, Ketut; Dachlan, Yoes Prijatna; Moji, Kazuhiko; Kanbara, Hiroji; Rakue, Yasuyuki; Mizota, Tsutomu

    2007-03-01

    The cooperative malaria control project between Indonesian and Japanese institutions was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at small malaria endemic foci on Lombok and Sumbawa Islands. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of the project according to the opinions of the villagers. We conducted a KAP survey of a simple random sample of 300 householders on each island. The conclusion of the study was that the project reduced malaria incidence significantly on Lombok. However, the effects were not as clear on Sumbawa. Poor socio-economic status and lack of school education were important related factors. Therefore, health education, or behavioral change communication, was an essential component of malaria control.

  13. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators,…

  14. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators,…

  15. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... measures which are identified as conditions for NEPA process completion with respect to local CO, PM10,...

  16. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... measures which are identified as conditions for NEPA process completion with respect to local CO, PM10,...

  17. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... measures which are identified as conditions for NEPA process completion with respect to local CO, PM10,...

  18. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... measures which are identified as conditions for NEPA process completion with respect to local CO, PM10,...

  19. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. ACT/Control/Guidance System study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The active control technology (ACT) control/guidance system task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the NASA energy efficient transport program was documented. The air traffic environment of navigation and air traffic control systems and procedures were extrapolated. An approach to listing flight functions which will be performed by systems and crew of an ACT configured airplane of the 1990s, and a determination of function criticalities to safety of flight, are the basis of candidate integrated ACT/Control/Guidance System architecture. The system mechanizes five active control functions: pitch augmented stability, angle of attack limiting, lateral/directional augmented stability, gust load alleviation, and maneuver load control. The scope and requirements of a program for simulating the integrated ACT avionics and flight deck system, with pilot in the loop, are defined, system and crew interface elements are simulated, and mechanization is recommended. Relationships between system design and crew roles and procedures are evaluated.

  20. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    PubMed Central

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D.; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control. PMID:15682248

  1. Hydrologic evaluation of salinity control and reclamation projects in the Indus Plain, Pakistan--A summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, Maurice John; Carrigan, P.H.; Steele, T.D.; Randall, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes the observations and findings of a team of four specialists from the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to Pakistan under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development during May to August 1972 for a hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects in the Indus Plain Individual members of the team undertook comprehensive studies related to climatology, surface-water hydrology, and the canal system; streamflow and sediment yields of the rivers; computer applications to hydrologic data; aquifer characteristics; hydrologic evaluation of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPs); tubewell performance; hydrology of shallow versus deep tubewells; well and well-screen design in the Indus Plain; evaluation of observed and anticipated trends in both private and public tubewell development; evaluation of water-quality programs, data analysis, and records, and computer coding of special water-quality data; and evaluation of water-level data, well discharge and specific-capacity tests and aquifer tests. The reclamation program, by pumping from tubewells, has been notably successful in lowering the water table, in providing supplemental water for irrigation and for leaching of salinized soils, and in improving crop production. Some changes in water quality have been observed in SCARP-I and the Mona Scheme of SCARP-II, but these have not as yet (1972) significantly affected the utility of the water for irrigation. Problems associated with reclamation include control of deterioration in performance of tubewells and their rehabilitation, local brackish or saline-water encroachment, and maintenance of a favorable salt balance in the ground-water system. Rapid and as yet (1972) unregulated growth of shallow private tubewell development in the past decade has introduced complicating factors to the reclamation planning of the early 1960's which had emphasized public tubewell development through the SCARP program. In

  2. Innovations from the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control Project: PDA experience.

    PubMed

    Phawaphutanond, P

    1990-04-01

    Since 1976, the Integrated Family Planning and Parasite Control (IP) has been conducted by the Population and Community Development Association (PDA) through the financial support of the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP). Family planning was integrated with other activities starting with parasite control and then environmental sanitation. In 1976, PDAs activities were focused on a community-based delivery (CBD) system for contraception in rural Thailand. In the IPs first years, the PDA conducted mass treatment campaigns using both the local plant "maklua" and modern medicines. Various motivational activities were included, such as letting children see the parasites under a microscope. Many villagers showed up for treatment. Later, however, they were reinfected and failed to get further treatment. Since 1981, the major emphasis of the IP rural program has been to push building of latrines and improved water resources. PDA has started a major project for safe storage of rainwater. Some 11,300 liter bamboo-reinforced concrete rainwater storage tanks are being built in northeast Thailand. Giant water jars for rainwater catchment with a 2000-liter capacity are produced. The financing of PDAs environmental sanitation construction activities is unique. Villagers pay back the cost of the raw materials of the tank, latrine, or jar they received. Repayments go into a revolving fund which can be lent to other families. Peer pressure has made repayment levels approach or exceed 100% in target districts. Villagers are trained to produce the casings, bricks, and other things needed for building. Individuals from building crews are selected and given special training in construction techniques and are taught the potential health benefits of each activity. These people become village sanitation engineers. Villagers can engage in income-generating activities and receive technical assistance from the PDA. The IP has taken on a community

  3. Marine Data Management within the EMODNet Chemistry project: data aggregation, quality control and products preparation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iona, Athanasia Sissy; Karagevrekis, Pelopidas; Balopoulou, Stavroula; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Schaap, Dick

    2015-04-01

    graphics of station time series. Quality control and quality assurance guidelines have been created and followed by all regional groups in order to ensure that the data and their derived products are of uniform quality and reliability. The Hellenic National Oceanographic Data Centre (HNODC) is the Regional Coordinator for the Mediterranean Sea products preparation. During the first one and a half year of the project, almost 90000 chemical datasets covering the four Mediterranean MSFD regions were harvested, processed, quality controlled, validated and analyzed. In this presentation, the work carried out by HNODC and the first data products will be described.

  4. Pumped up prices? Advice on controlling scope creep in health care construction projects.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, J Kenneth; McLendon, Mary Huston

    2003-03-01

    Changes in the scope of any health care construction project are inevitable. They happen for a number of reasons, including pressure from doctors and staff. While some are justified by factors that influence space requirements, such as changing market needs, new physicians or new technology, others inflate the cost of a construction project without adding significant benefits.

  5. Welcome address [to Workshop/Seminar for More Effective Promotion and Management of Integrated Projects (Family Planning and Parasite Control)].

    PubMed

    Aziz, N L

    1979-10-01

    The Project to Integrate Family Planning with Parasite Control was first launched in 1975; currently it has 6 member countries, with several more Asian and Latin American countries planning to develop similar projects. The Integrated Approach has proved beneficial in stimulating further research in parasitology, family planning and related fields. One of the aims of this workshop is to evaluate the administrative/management aspect of the project, particularly in the areas of community participation and mobilization, resource needs, coordination and credibility of the project. Although family planning or fertility regulation is not an end in itself, its importance lies in its role in controlling population growth and hence in its contribution to the betterment of the social and material well-being of the population. Unfortunately, most governments today are faced with many constraints on their administrative efforts and responsibilities, and family planning programs are no exceptions. It is hoped that this workshop will shed new light on how to improve the implementation of family planning projects.

  6. Nuclear Rocket Facility Decommissioning Project: Controlled Explosive Demolition of Neutron Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R. Kruzic

    2007-09-16

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Test Cell A (TCA) Facility was used in the early to mid-1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program, to further space travel. Nuclear rocket testing resulted in the activation of materials around the reactors and the release of fission products and fuel particles in the immediate area. Identified as Corrective Action Unit 115, the TCA facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) from December 2004 to July 2005 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. The SAFER process allows environmental remediation and facility closure activities (i.e., decommissioning) to occur simultaneously provided technical decisions are made by an experienced decision maker within the site conceptual site model, identified in the Data Quality Objective process. Facility closure involved a seven-step decommissioning strategy. Key lessons learned from the project included: (1) Targeted preliminary investigation activities provided a more solid technical approach, reduced surprises and scope creep, and made the working environment safer for the D&D worker. (2) Early identification of risks and uncertainties provided opportunities for risk management and mitigation planning to address challenges and unanticipated conditions. (3) Team reviews provided an excellent mechanism to consider all aspects of the task, integrated safety into activity performance, increase team unity and ''buy-in'' and promoted innovative and time saving ideas. (4) Development of CED protocols ensured safety and control. (5) The same proven D&D strategy is now being employed on the larger ''sister'' facility, Test Cell C.

  7. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  8. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Guindon, G. Emmanuel; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes at reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes. Objectives First, this study aims to document, using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), levels and trends in cigarette users’ tax avoidance and tax evasion behaviour in a sample of sixteen low-, middle- and high-income countries. Second, this study explores factors associated with cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. Methods We use data from ITC surveys conducted in 16 countries to estimate the extent and the type of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion between countries and across time. We use self-reported information about the source of a smoker’s last purchase of cigarettes or self-reported packaging information, or similar information gathered by the interviewers during face-to-face interviews to measure tax avoidance/evasion behaviours. We use generalized estimating equations (GEE) to explore individual-level factors that may affect the likelihood of cigarette tax avoidance or evasion in Canada, United States, United Kingdom and France. Findings We find prevalence estimates of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion vary substantially between countries and across time. In Canada, France and the United Kingdom, more than 10% of smokers report last purchasing cigarettes from low or untaxed sources while in Malaysia, some prevalence estimates suggest substantial cigarette tax avoidance/evasion. We also find important associations between household income and education and the likelihood to engage in tax avoidance/evasion. These associations, however, vary both in

  9. Inhibitory control of nociceptive responses of trigeminal spinal nucleus cells by somatosensory corticofugal projection in rat.

    PubMed

    Malmierca, E; Martin, Y B; Nuñez, A

    2012-09-27

    The caudal division of the trigeminal spinal nucleus (Sp5C) is an important brainstem relay station of orofacial pain transmission. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of cortical electrical stimulation on nociceptive responses in Sp5C neurons. Extracellular recordings were performed in the Sp5C nucleus by tungsten microelectrodes in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Nociceptive stimulation was produced by application of capsaicin cream on the whisker pad or by constriction of the infraorbital nerve. Capsaicin application evoked a long-lasting increase in the spontaneous firing rate from 1.4±0.2 to 3.4±0.6 spikes/s. Non-noxious tactile responses from stimuli delivered to the receptive field (RF) center decreased 5 min. after capsaicin application (from 2.3±0.1 to 1.6±0.1 spikes/stimulus) while responses from the whisker located at the RF periphery increased (from 1.3±0.2 to 2.0±0.1 spikes/stimulus under capsaicin). Electrical train stimulation of the primary (S1) or secondary (S2) somatosensory cortical areas reduced the increase in the firing rate evoked by capsaicin. Also, S1, but not S2, cortical stimulation reduced the increase in non-noxious tactile responses from the RF periphery. Inhibitory cortical effects were mediated by the activation of GABAergic and glycinergic neurons because they were blocked by bicuculline or strychnine. The S1 and S2 cortical stimulation also inhibited Sp5C neurons in animals with constriction of the infraorbital nerve. Consequently, the corticofugal projection from S1 and S2 cortical areas modulates nociceptive responses of Sp5C neurons and may control the transmission of nociceptive sensory stimulus.

  10. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.

    PubMed

    Guindon, G Emmanuel; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes in reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes. First, this study aims to document, using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), levels and trends in cigarette users' tax avoidance and tax evasion behaviour in a sample of 16 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Second, this study explores factors associated with cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. We used data from ITC surveys conducted in 16 countries to estimate the extent and type of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion between countries and across time. We used self-reported information about the source of a smoker's last purchase of cigarettes or self-reported packaging information, or similar information gathered by the interviewers during face-to-face interviews to measure tax avoidance/evasion behaviours. We used generalised estimating equations to explore individual-level factors that may affect the likelihood of cigarette tax avoidance or evasion in Canada, the USA, the UK and France. We found prevalence estimates of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion vary substantially between countries and across time. In Canada, France and the UK, more than 10% of smokers reported last purchasing cigarettes from low or untaxed sources, while in Malaysia some prevalence estimates suggested substantial cigarette tax avoidance/evasion. We also found important associations between household income and education and the likelihood to engage in tax avoidance/evasion. These associations, however, varied both in direction and magnitude across countries.

  11. Effect of sediment settling on controlling golden mussel invasion in water transfer project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Bogen, Jim; Pan, Baozhu

    2013-04-01

    Inter-basin water transfer projects have been widely used to solve uneven distribution of water resources and water shortage in China. Along with the transferring of water resources, golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), the filter-collector macro-invertebrate species originating from southern China has also been inadvertently transferred to new aquatic environment, resulting in quick and uncontrolled spread of the species. The golden mussels are invasive by nature and endowed with a strong byssus for attaching onto their habitat, allowing them to easily invade natural and artificial aquatic systems, which was resulted in high-density golden mussel attachment that causes serious bio-fouling. Invasion and bio-fouling by golden mussels in water transfer systems has drawn attention widely because it has resulted in high resistance to water flow, corrosion of pipe walls and even clogging of tunnels, as well as causing water pollution and ecological imbalance in the regions that receive water infested with golden mussels. Field investigation was conducted along the East River, which is the main drinking water resource for Cantong province and Hongkong, China, to study the natural habitats of golden mussels. Surveys of water transfer tunnels which carry water from the East River to several big cities in Cantong province were done to study golden mussel invasion and attachment in tunnels. It is found that in the natural habitat, golden mussels mainly attach to bedrock and bank stones and solid surfaces facing upstream, while no golden mussels are attached on the surfaces facing downstream and suffering sediment deposition. In the water transfer tunnels, golden mussel attachment densities of 40,000 individuals/m2 mainly occurred on the portion of tunnel walls which face downwards and thus avoid sedimentation. An experiment was designed to study the effect of sediment settling on golden mussel attachment. The results showed that settling of fine sediment particles affects

  12. The Anticoagulation of Calf Thrombosis (ACT) project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Half of all lower limb deep vein thrombi (DVT) in symptomatic ambulatory patients are located in the distal (calf) veins. While proximal disease warrants therapeutic anticoagulation to reduce the associated risks, distal DVT often goes untreated. However, a proportion of untreated distal disease will undoubtedly propagate or embolize. Concern also exists that untreated disease could lead to long-term post thrombotic changes. Currently, it is not possible to predict which distal thrombi will develop such complications. Whether these potential risks outweigh those associated with unrestricted anticoagulation remains unclear. The Anticoagulation of Calf Thrombosis (ACT) trial aims to compare therapeutic anticoagulation against conservative management for patients with acute symptomatic distal deep vein thrombosis. Methods ACT is a pragmatic, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Adult patients diagnosed with acute distal DVT will be allocated to either therapeutic anticoagulation or conservative management. All patients will undergo 3 months of clinical and assessor blinded sonographic follow-up, followed by 2-year final review. The project will commence initially as an external pilot study, recruiting over a 16-month period at a single center to assess feasibility measures and clinical event rates. Primary outcome measures will assess feasibility endpoints. Secondary clinical outcomes will be collected to gather accurate data for the design of a definitive clinical trial and will include: (1) a composite endpoint combining thrombus propagation to the popliteal vein or above, development of symptomatic pulmonary embolism or sudden death attributable to venous thromboembolic disease; (2) the incidence of major and minor bleeding episodes; (3) the incidence of post-thrombotic leg syndrome at 2 years using a validated screening tool; and (4) the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrence at 2 years. Discussion The ACT trial will explore the

  13. The Project ENABLE II Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T.; Balan, Stefan; Brokaw, Frances C.; Seville, Janette; Hull, Jay G.; Li, Zhongze; Tosteson, Tor; Byock, Ira R.; Ahles, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Context There are few randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of palliative care. Objective To determine the effect of a palliative care intervention on quality of life (QOL), symptom intensity, mood, and resource utilization. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled trial (November 2003-May 2008) of 322 patients with advanced cancer and an identified caregiver in a rural, NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center (the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH) and affiliated outreach clinics and Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center (White River Junction, VT). Intervention A multi-component, psycho-educational, palliative care intervention (Project ENABLE) conducted by an advanced practice nurse consisting of 4 weekly educational sessions and monthly follow-up until death or study completion. Main Outcome Measures (1) The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative (range: 0 to 184; higher scores indicate better QOL), (2) Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (range: 0 to 900; higher scores indicate greater symptom intensity), (3) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (range: 0 to 60; higher scores indicate more depressive symptoms), completed at baseline, 1 month and every 3 months until death or study completion, (4) days in hospital, intensive care unit (ICU), and emergency department visits recorded in the medical record. Results 322 participants with gastrointestinal (41%), lung (36%), genitourinary (12%), and breast (10%) cancer were randomized. Estimated treatment effects (intervention minus usual care) for all subjects were 4.6 (P = .02) for QOL, −27.8 (P = .06) for symptom intensity, and −1.8 (P = .02) for depressed mood. Estimated average treatment effects in the sample of participants who died during the study were 8.6 (P = .02) for QOL, −24.2 (P = .24) for symptom intensity, and −2.7 (P = .03) for depressed mood. Days in hospital, intensive care unit, and emergency department visits were not different

  14. Quality control of ultrasound for fetal biometry: results from the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Angelo; Ash, Stephen T; Napolitano, Raffaele; Wanyonyi, Sikolia; Ohuma, Eric O; Molloholli, Malid; Sande, Joyce; Sarris, Ippokratis; Ioannou, Christos; Norris, Tess; Donadono, Vera; Carvalho, Maria; Purwar, Manorama; Barros, Fernando C; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Bertino, Enrico; Pang, Ruyan; Gravett, Michael G; Salomon, Laurent J; Noble, Julia Alison; Altman, Douglas G; Papageorghiou, Aris T

    2017-07-18

    To assess a comprehensive package of ultrasound quality control in a large multicentre study of fetal growth - the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project. We performed quality control (QC) measures on 20,313 ultrasound scan images taken prospectively from 4,321 fetuses at 14-41 weeks' gestation in eight geographical locations. At the time of each ultrasound examination, three fetal biometric variables were measured in triplicate on separately generated images: head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). All measurements were taken in a blinded fashion. QC had two elements: 1) qualitative QC: visual assessment by sonographers at each study site of their images based on specific criteria with 10% of images being re-assessed at the Oxford-based Ultrasound Quality Unit (compared using an adjusted kappa statistic), and 2) quantitative QC: measurement data were assessed by (a) comparing the first, second and third measurement (intraobserver variability); (b) re-measurement of caliper replacement in 10% (interobserver variability), both by Bland-Altman plots, and (c) plotting frequency histograms of the SDs of triplicate measurements and assessing how many were above or below 2SDs of the expected distribution. The system allowed the sonographers' performance to be regularly monitored. A high level of agreement between the self- and external scoring was demonstrated for all measurements (kappa = 0.99 [95% confidence interval: 0.98, 0.99] for HC, 0.98 [0.97, 0.99] for AC, and 0.96 [0.95, 0.98] for FL. Intraobserver variability (95% limits of agreement (LoA)) of ultrasound measures for HC, AC and FL were ±3%, ±6% and ±6%, respectively; the corresponding values for interobserver variability were ±4%, ±6% and ±6%. The SD distribution of triplicate measurements for all biometric variables showed excessive variability for three of 31 sonographers, allowing prompt identification and retraining. Qualitative and

  15. Quality control and data-handling in multicentre studies: the case of the Multicentre Project for Tuberculosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Caloto, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Background The Multicentre Project for Tuberculosis Research (MPTR) was a clinical-epidemiological study on tuberculosis carried out in Spain from 1996 to 1998. In total, 96 centres scattered all over the country participated in the project, 19935 "possible cases" of tuberculosis were examined and 10053 finally included. Data-handling and quality control procedures implemented in the MPTR are described. Methods The study was divided in three phases: 1) preliminary phase, 2) field work 3) final phase. Quality control procedures during the three phases are described. Results: Preliminary phase: a) organisation of the research team; b) design of epidemiological tools; training of researchers. Field work: a) data collection; b) data computerisation; c) data transmission; d) data cleaning; e) quality control audits; f) confidentiality. Final phase: a) final data cleaning; b) final analysis. Conclusion The undertaking of a multicentre project implies the need to work with a heterogeneous research team and yet at the same time attain a common goal by following a homogeneous methodology. This demands an additional effort on quality control. PMID:11860603

  16. The control panel for the joint NASA/Gulfstream Quiet Spike project, located in the backseat of NASA's F-15B testbed aircraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-16

    The control panel for the joint NASA/Gulfstream Quiet Spike project, located in the backseat of NASA's F-15B testbed aircraft. The project seeks to verify the structural integrity of the multi-segmented, articulating spike attachment designed to reduce and control a sonic boom.

  17. Descending control of electroreception. I. Properties of nucleus praeeminentialis neurons projecting indirectly to the electrosensory lateral line lobe.

    PubMed

    Bastian, J; Bratton, B

    1990-04-01

    The first-order CNS processing region within the electrosensory system, the electrosensory lateral line lobe, receives massive descending inputs from the nucleus praeeminentialis as well as the primary afferent projection. The n. praeeminentialis receives its input from the electrosensory lateral line lobe as well as from higher centers; hence this nucleus occupies an important position in a feedback loop within the electrosensory system. This report describes the physiological properties of a category of n. praeeminentialis neurons characterized by very high spontaneous firing frequency, but relatively poor sensitivity to electrolocation targets as compared to neurons in the electrosensory lateral line lobe. These neurons are specialized to encode long-term changes in electric organ discharge amplitude with high resolution. Intracellular recording and Lucifer yellow staining of these neurons show that they are the previously described multipolar neurons of the n. praeeminentialis, and they project bilaterally to the posterior eminentia granularis. Posterior eminentia granularis efferents project to the electrosensory lateral line lobe forming its dorsal molecular layer. Hence, these multipolar cells influence the electrosensory lateral line lobe circuitry indirectly. The information that the multipolar cells encode regarding the electric organ discharge amplitude may be needed for a gain control mechanism operative within the electrosensory lateral line lobe. Previous studies have shown that the indirect projection from the n. praeeminentialis to the electrosensory lateral line lobe must be intact for this gain control mechanism to operate.

  18. The Impact of the Project K Youth Development Program on Self-Efficacy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Deane, Kelsey L; Harré, Niki; Moore, Julie; Courtney, Matthew G R

    2017-03-01

    A key issue for youth development programs is whether the learning they provide is transferred to participants' daily lives. It is also important that they are effective for the diverse range of participants they attract. This study used a randomized controlled trial design to measure the impact of Project K, a New Zealand-based youth development program, on academic and social self-efficacy. Project K combines a 3-week wilderness adventure, a 10 day community service component, and 1 year of mentoring to promote positive growth in 14-15 year olds with low self-efficacy. At baseline, the evaluation included 600 Project K (46 % female) and 577 Control participants (48 % female) and revealed that Project K was effective in improving both social and academic self-efficacy from pre- to post-program with effects being sustained 1 year later. Parents' perceptions of changes in the participants' interpersonal skills supported these findings. Differential program effects were found across participant subgroups, particularly 1 year after program completion. The implications of these differences are discussed.

  19. Projections from neocortex mediate top-down control of memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Rajasethupathy, Priyamvada; Sankaran, Sethuraman; Marshel, James H.; Kim, Christina K.; Ferenczi, Emily; Lee, Soo Yeun; Berndt, Andre; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Jaffe, Anna; Lo, Maisie; Liston, Conor; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Top-down prefrontal cortex inputs to the hippocampus have been hypothesized to be important in memory consolidation, retrieval, and the pathophysiology of major psychiatric diseases; however, no such direct projections have been identified and functionally described. Here we report the discovery of a monosynaptic prefrontal cortex (predominantly anterior cingulate) to hippocampus (CA3 to CA1 region) projection in mice, and find that optogenetic manipulation of this projection (here termed AC–CA) is capable of eliciting contextual memory retrieval. To explore the network mechanisms of this process, we developed and applied tools to observe cellular-resolution neural activity in the hippocampus while stimulating AC–CA projections during memory retrieval in mice behaving in virtual-reality environments. Using this approach, we found that learning drives the emergence of a sparse class of neurons in CA2/CA3 that are highly correlated with the local network and that lead synchronous population activity events; these neurons are then preferentially recruited by the AC–CA projection during memory retrieval. These findings reveal a sparsely implemented memory retrieval mechanism in the hippocampus that operates via direct top-down prefrontal input, with implications for the patterning and storage of salient memory representations. PMID:26436451

  20. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Test act system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The engineering and fabrication of the test ACT system, produced in the third program element of the IAAC Project is documented. The system incorporates pitch-augmented stability and wing-load alleviation, plus full authority fly-by-wire control of the elevators. The pitch-augmented stability is designed to have reliability sufficient to allow flight with neutral or negative inherent longitudinal stability.

  1. Project management and control of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, Joseph P.; McVeigh, William; Warner, Mark; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Craig, Simon C.; Ferayorni, Andrew; Goodrich, Bret D.; Hubbard, Robert P.; Hunter, Rex; Jeffers, Paul; Johansson, Erik; Marshall, Heather; McBride, William R.; Phelps, LeEllen; Shimko, Steve; Tritschler, Alexandra; Williams, Timothy R.; Wöger, Friedrich

    2016-08-01

    We provide a brief update on the construction status of the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, a $344M, 10-year construction project to design and build the world's largest solar physics observatory. We review the science drivers along with the challenges in meeting the evolving scientific needs over the course of the construction period without jeopardizing the systems engineering and management realization. We review the tools, processes and performance measures in use in guiding the development as well as the risks and challenges as the project transitions through various developmental phases. We elaborate on environmental and cultural compliance obligations in building in Hawai'i. We discuss the broad "lessons learned". Finally, we discuss the project in the context of the evolving management oversight within the US (in particular under the NSF).

  2. Project SUTOR Superconducting Speed-Controlled Torque Motor for 25.000Nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, B.; de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Söll, M.; Reis, T.; Maier, T.; Oswald, J.; Teigelkötter, J.; Kowalski, T.

    SUTOR is a project that is supported by the german ministry of economy and technology (FKZ 0327866A). The partners working on this project are Oswald Elektromotoren and Hochschule Aschaffenburg. Oswald is responsible for the layout of the Motor and its cryostat. Together with the Hochschule Aschaffenburg, Oswald has build a number of coils to determine the loss rates of superconductors when used with AC current and in external, oscillating magnetic fields. These results are taken to proof the at Oswald developed calculations for superconducting motors. The Hochschule Aschaffenburg is measuring the loss rates in superconducting coils and builds an inverter to fit the special requests a motor has when running with superconducting wires. The aim of this project is to realize a high torque motor that has compared to conventional torque motors a lower volume and weight, a higher efficiency and an increased dynamic acceleration.

  3. Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

  4. The potential effects of tobacco control in China: projections from the China SimSmoke simulation model

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Buño, Ricardo L; Hu, Teh-Wei; Moran, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use a computer simulation model to project the potential impact in China of tobacco control measures on smoking, as recommended by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), being fully implemented. Design Modelling study. Setting China. Population Males and females aged 15-74 years. Intervention Incremental impact of more complete implementation of WHO FCTC policies simulated using SimSmoke, a Markov computer simulation model of tobacco smoking prevalence, smoking attributable deaths, and the impact of tobacco control policies. Data on China’s adult population, current and former smoking prevalence, initiation and cessation rates, and past policy levels were entered into SimSmoke in order to predict past smoking rates and to project future status quo rates. The model was validated by comparing predicted smoking prevalence with smoking prevalence measured in tobacco surveys from 1996-2010. Main outcome measures Projected future smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths from 2013-50. Results Status quo tobacco policy simulations projected a decline in smoking prevalence from 51.3% in 2015 to 46.5% by 2050 in males and from 2.1% to 1.3% in females. Of the individual FCTC recommended tobacco control policies, increasing the tobacco excise tax to 75% of the retail price was projected to be the most effective, incrementally reducing current smoking compared with the status quo by 12.9% by 2050. Complete and simultaneous implementation of all FCTC policies was projected to incrementally reduce smoking by about 40% relative to the 2050 status quo levels and to prevent approximately 12.8 million smoking attributable deaths and 154 million life years lost by 2050. Conclusions Complete implementation of WHO FCTC recommended policies would prevent more than 12.8 million smoking attributable deaths in China by 2050. Implementation of FCTC policies would alleviate a substantial portion of the tobacco related health

  5. Attenuation data bank in the project COST 205: Generation, control, and preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraboni, A.

    1983-03-01

    The data acquisition responsibilities of members of the COST 205 project are reported. The final product will be a data bank in a computer memory as well as a magnetic tape recording of those data for exchange between researchers. The project is concerned with the rain attenuation in microwave transmission. Three lists are included in the data bank: the duration and gradient of rain events, days with rain and days with attenuation. The parameters to be measured during the transmissions from the SIRIO and OTS satellites are detailed.

  6. Project C-018H, 242-A evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility Instrumentation and Control (I&C)

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, A.

    1995-05-26

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Collection System Instrumentation & Control System for Project C-018H performs according to design. Specifically, this ATP is designed to verify the following overall system requirements: The input and outputs properly connected to the LCU terminal strips. The control system software conforms to the configuration specified by the logic diagrams, piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID), and the LERF operating philosophy. Testing will be performed using actual signals. If actual signals are not available, then simulated signals will be used to complete the tests.

  7. Evaluation of pilot-scale air pollution control devices on a municipal waterfall incinerator. Project report, June 1978-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.D.; Bruck, J.M.; Albrinck, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    The project report describes the results of a program for the testing of two pilot-scale pollution control devices, a fabric filter, and a venturi scrubber at the Braintree, Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator. It includes operation, sampling, and analytical efforts and outlines the plant operating conditions at the time of testing of the two pilot control devices. The Braintree Municipal Incinerator is a mass-burn, water-wall type consisting of two furnaces, each designed to burn 4.7 Mg (5 tons) per hour of unprocessed refuse.

  8. Computer system requirements specification for 101-SY hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    McNeece, S.G.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-10-12

    The system requirements specification for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project (HMTP) data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) documents the system requirements for the DACS-1 project. The purpose of the DACS is to provide data acquisition and control capabilities for the hydrogen mitigation testing of Tank SY-101. Mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste, directed at varying angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. Tank and supporting instrumentation is brought into the DACS to monitor the status of the tank and to provide information on the effectiveness of the mitigation test. Instrumentation is also provided for closed loop control of the pump operation. DACS is also capable for being expanded to control and monitor other mitigation testing. The intended audience for the computer system requirements specification includes the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test data acquisition and control system designers: analysts, programmers, instrument engineers, operators, maintainers. It is intended for the data users: tank farm operations, mitigation test engineers, the Test Review Group (TRG), data management support staff, data analysis, Hanford data stewards, and external reviewers.

  9. Lac Qui Parle Flood Control Project Master Plan for Public Use Development and Resource Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    project. 43 TABLE 8 RECOMMENDED PLANT LIST Coumon Name Botanical Name Trees *Soft Maple Acer saccharinum Box Elder Acer negundo *Green (Red) Ash Fraxinus...pennsylvanica Basswood Tilia americana Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa *Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor * Cottonwood Salix alba *River Birch Betula nutra

  10. The Results of a Randomized Control Trial of the Milwaukee Community Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    The tutoring component of the Investing in Innovations (i3) funded Milwaukee Community Literacy Project (MCLP) is based on the Reading Recovery program. Reading Recovery focuses on in-school tutoring with lesson plans written, and assessments analyzed, by the tutors themselves. The objective of this study is to measure the impact of the MCLP on…

  11. Sensory Cortical Control of a Visually Induced Arrest Behavior via Corticotectal Projections

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Feixue; Xiong, Xiaorui R.; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Zhang, Li I.; Tao, Huizhong W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Innate defense behaviors (IDBs) evoked by threatening sensory stimuli are essential for animal survival. Although subcortical circuits are implicated in IDBs, it remains largely unclear whether sensory cortex modulates IDBs and what are the underlying neural pathways. Here, we show that optogenetic silencing of corticotectal projections from layer 5 (L5) of the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) to the superior colliculus (SC) significantly reduces a SC-dependent innate behavior, i.e. temporary suspension of locomotion upon a sudden flash of light as short as milliseconds. Surprisingly, optogenetic activation of SC-projecting neurons in V1 or their axon terminals in SC sufficiently elicits the behavior, in contrast to other major L5 corticofugal projections. Thus, via the same corticofugal projection, visual cortex not only modulates the light-induced arrest behavior, but also can directly drive the behavior. Our results suggest that sensory cortex may play a previously unrecognized role in the top-down initiation of sensory-motor behaviors. PMID:25913860

  12. Use of a Modern Polymerization Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate Control Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza-Bustos, S. A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Described is a project where students gain experience in handling large volumes of hazardous materials, process start up and shut down, equipment failures, operational variations, scaling up, equipment cleaning, and run-time scheduling while working in a modern pilot plant. Included are the system design, experimental procedures, and results. (KR)

  13. Sensory Cortical Control of a Visually Induced Arrest Behavior via Corticotectal Projections.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feixue; Xiong, Xiaorui R; Zingg, Brian; Ji, Xu-ying; Zhang, Li I; Tao, Huizhong W

    2015-05-06

    Innate defense behaviors (IDBs) evoked by threatening sensory stimuli are essential for animal survival. Although subcortical circuits are implicated in IDBs, it remains largely unclear whether sensory cortex modulates IDBs and what the underlying neural pathways are. Here, we show that optogenetic silencing of corticotectal projections from layer 5 (L5) of the mouse primary visual cortex (V1) to the superior colliculus (SC) significantly reduces an SC-dependent innate behavior (i.e., temporary suspension of locomotion upon a sudden flash of light as short as milliseconds). Surprisingly, optogenetic activation of SC-projecting neurons in V1 or their axon terminals in SC sufficiently elicits the behavior, in contrast to other major L5 corticofugal projections. Thus, via the same corticofugal projection, visual cortex not only modulates the light-induced arrest behavior, but also can directly drive the behavior. Our results suggest that sensory cortex may play a previously unrecognized role in the top-down initiation of sensory-motor behaviors.

  14. ‘Like sugar and honey’: The embedded ethics of a larval control project in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ann H.; Ameh, David; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steve; Pinder, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a malaria research project in The Gambia to provoke thinking on the social value of transnational research. The Larval Control Project (LCP) investigated the efficacy of a microbial insecticide to reduce vector density and, ultimately, clinical malaria in Gambian children. The LCP’s protocol delineated a clinical surveillance scheme that involved Village Health Workers (VHWs) supported by project nurses. Combining insights from ethnographic fieldwork conducted at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratories in Farafenni from 2005 to 2009, open-ended interviews with project nurses, and eight focus group discussions held with participant mothers in October 2007, we consider the social impact of the LCP’s investigative method against the backdrop of several years of research activity. We found that while participants associated the LCP with the clinical care it provided, they also regarded the collaboration between the nurses and VHWs added additional benefits. Organised around the operational functions of the trial, small-scale collaborations provided the platform from which to build local capacity. While ethical guidelines emphasise the considerations that must be added to experimental endeavour in southern countries (e.g. elaborating processes of informed consent, developing strategies of community engagement or providing therapeutic access to participants after the trial concludes), these findings suggest that shifting attention from supplementing ethical protocols to the everyday work of research – embedding ethics through scientific activity – may provide a sounder basis to reinforce the relationship between scientific rigour and social value. PMID:20362381

  15. Selective activation of dorsal raphe nucleus-projecting neurons in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex by controllable stress

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Michael V.; Zarza, Christina M.; Gomez, Devan M.; Campeau, Serge; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to uncontrollable stressors produces a variety of behavioral consequences (e.g. exaggerated fear, reduced social exploration) that do not occur if the stressor is controllable. In addition, an initial experience with a controllable stressor can block the behavioral and neural responses to a later uncontrollable stressor. The serotonergic (5-HT) dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) has come to be viewed as a critical structure in mediating the behavioral effects of uncontrollable stress. Recent work suggests that the buffering effects of behavioral control on the DRN-dependent behavioral outcomes of uncontrollable stress require ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv) activation at the time of behavioral control. The present studies were conducted to directly determine whether or not controllable stress selectively activates DRN-projecting neurons within the mPFCv. To examine this possibility in the rat, we combined retrograde tracing (fluorogold iontophoresed into the DRN) with Fos immunohistochemistry, a marker for neural activation. Exposure to controllable, relative to uncontrollable, stress increased Fos expression in fluorogold-labeled neurons in the prelimbic region (PL) of the mPFCv. Furthermore, in a separate experiment, a prior experience with controllable stress led to potentiation of Fos expression in retrogradely labeled PL neurons in response to an uncontrollable stressor one week later. These results suggest that the PL selectively responds to behavioral control and utilizes such information to regulate the brainstem response to ongoing and subsequent stressors. PMID:19686468

  16. [Control of blood pressure by using an intelligent telephone application with feedback and competitiveness strategy. HTApp Control project].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Prieto, J; Sabatel, F; Villarrubia Mendez, G; Divisón, J A; Garcia-Donaire, J A; Rodríguez-Padial, L

    2017-09-04

    Arterial hypertension is a highly important cardiovascular risk factor, with low control percentages. New technologies can help to obtain a better control of this disease. The intention is to know if a mobile application can help achieve this goal. A mobile phone application is used to give feedback to physicians with the aim of generate competitiveness in achieving objectives. The application could, at any time, determine the rate of controlled patients (<140/90mmHg) by each physician, and compare them with the mean number of the patients controlled by the group. The possible changes in the therapeutic attitude of physicians are also analysed and the differences in achieving objectives are compared based on specific characteristics of patients. The study included 220 patients aged 18-80 years, with mean blood pressure>140/90mmHg, despite medical treatment, tracked for 4 visits. At the end of the follow-up, 69.03% achieved good control, compared to 12.8% in the baseline study (P<.001), with no differences between gender (control of 68.6 and 69.29% of women and men, respectively), nor among the different levels of cardiovascular risk. The use of interactive tools that allow the dynamic process of feedback on the results fosters the motivation and improves the therapeutic inertia in the control of blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Framework for Small-Scale Experiments in Software Engineering: Guidance and Control Software Project: Software Engineering Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    1998-01-01

    Software is becoming increasingly significant in today's critical avionics systems. To achieve safe, reliable software, government regulatory agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Defense mandate the use of certain software development methods. However, little scientific evidence exists to show a correlation between software development methods and product quality. Given this lack of evidence, a series of experiments has been conducted to understand why and how software fails. The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project is the latest in this series. The GCS project is a case study of the Requirements and Technical Concepts for Aviation RTCA/DO-178B guidelines, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification. All civil transport airframe and equipment vendors are expected to comply with these guidelines in building systems to be certified by the FAA for use in commercial aircraft. For the case study, two implementations of a guidance and control application were developed to comply with the DO-178B guidelines for Level A (critical) software. The development included the requirements, design, coding, verification, configuration management, and quality assurance processes. This paper discusses the details of the GCS project and presents the results of the case study.

  18. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Wing planform study and final configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Wing Planform Study and Final Configuration Selection Task of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program is documented. Application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span resulted in significant improvements over the Conventional Baseline Configuration (Baseline) and the Initial ACT Configuration previously established. The configurations use the same levels of technology, takeoff gross weight, and payload as the Baseline. The Final ACT Configuration (Model 768-107) incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 44% reduction in horizontal tail size), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle-of-attack limiter, and wing-load alleviation. Flutter-mode control was not beneficial for this configuration. This resulted in an 890 kg (1960 lb) reduction in airplane takeoff gross weight and a 9.8% improvement in cruise lift/drag. At the Baseline mission range (3589 km 1938 nmi), this amounts to 10% block-fuel reduction. Results of this task strongly indicate that the IAAC Project should proceed with the Final ACT evaluation, and begin the required control system development and test.

  19. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Wing planform study and final configuration selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the Wing Planform Study Task and Final Configuration Selection of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program. Application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) in combination with increased wing span resulted in significant improvements over the Conventional Baseline Configuration (Baseline) and the Initial ACT Configuration previously established. The configurations use the same levels of technology (except for ACT), takeoff gross weight, and payload as the Baseline. The Final ACT Configuration (Model 768-107) incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 45% reduction in horizontal tail sizes), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle-of-attack limiter, and wing-load alleviation. Flutter-mode control was not beneficial for this configuration. This resulted in an 890 kg (1960 lb) reduction in airplane takeoff gross weight and a 9.8% improvement in cruise lift/drag. At the Baseline mission range (3590 km) (1938 nmi), this amounts to 10% block fuel reduction. Good takeoff performance at high-altitude airports on a hot day was also achieved. Results of this task strongly indicate that the IAAC Project should proceed with the Final ACT evaluation and begin the required control system development and testing.

  20. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  1. Surfaces designed to control the projected area and shape of individual cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C H; Lhoest, J B; Castner, D G; McFarland, C D; Healy, K E

    1999-02-01

    Materials with spatially resolved surface chemistry were designed to isolate individual mammalian cells to determine the influence of projected area on specific cell functions (e.g., proliferation, cytoskeletal organization). Surfaces were fabricated using a photolithographic process resulting in islands of cell binding N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (EDS) separated by a nonadhesive interpenetrating polymer network [poly (acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol); P (AAm-co-EG)]. The surfaces contained over 3800 adhesive islands/cm2, allowing for isolation of single cells with projected areas ranging from 100 microns 2 to 10,000 microns 2. These surfaces provide a useful tool for researching how cell morphology and mechanical forces affect cell function.

  2. Feasibility Report. Mississippi River at Saint Paul, Minnesota. Reevaluation of Saint Paul Flood Control Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    four major electric plants and three hydroelectric generating stations in the Twin Cities area. Many municipalities in the area have developed water...the National Weather Service to allow emergency evacuation and limited flood protection measures. Nonstructural Measures The word "nonstructural" has...solutions over the different reaches of the present project. These are presented starting with station 0+00 at the upper end and ending at station 152+00

  3. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Tactical Control Squadron Operations in SEAsia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-10-15

    WCs), working out of the Royal Thai Air Force Operations Center. These men also trained RTAF personnel and provided advisory services for up-country...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Department of the Air Force REPORT NUMBER Headquarters Pacific Air Forces , CHECO Division Hickam AFB, HI 9

  4. Big Creek Flood Control Project, Cleveland, Ohio. Phase II. General Design Memorandum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    life, property, and industry within the flood plain described above is subject to flood damage. The project is based on the need to protect these...Flood Insurance Program requriements for new development and th Corps policy for human health and safety, property, and industry protection. The plan... enviromental measure to -minii polluted leachate, if say, from flowing down the embashment. 1. Comnt 12(a). The freboard on the chute will be revised

  5. Intensive Archeological Survey, Proposed Advanced Measures Flood Control Project. Volume 2. Hampton Township, Bay County, Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    archeoiogical survey of the Presque Isle Pipeline, Michigan. Principal Investigator/Project Manager, archeoiogical, historical and architectural...Manager, Phase I cultural resource survey of a proposed natural gas pipeline, Pennsylvania . V-4/87 Gilb«rt/Commonwealth - DONALD J. WEIR (Cont’d...site, Erie County, Ohio for Ohio Edison Company. Field Director, archeological survey for a nuclear power plant site environmental study, Lorain

  6. The NeuroProbes project: a concept for electronic depth control.

    PubMed

    Neves, Herc P; Torfs, Tom; Yazicioglu, Refet F; Aslam, Junaid; Aarts, Arno A; Merken, Patrick; Ruther, Patrick; Van Hoof, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The European project NeuroProbes has introduced a new methodology to allow the fine positioning of electrodes within an implantable probe with respect to individual neurons. In this approach, probes are built with a very large number of electrodes which are electronically selectable. This feature is implemented thanks to the modular approach adopted in NeuroProbes, which will allow the implementation of integrated electronics both along the probe shaft and on the array backbone.

  7. Cis and trans RET signaling control the survival and central projection growth of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Michael S; Vysochan, Anna; Paixão, Sόnia; Niu, Jingwen; Klein, Rüdiger; Savitt, Joseph M; Luo, Wenqin

    2015-04-02

    RET can be activated in cis or trans by its co-receptors and ligands in vitro, but the physiological roles of trans signaling are unclear. Rapidly adapting (RA) mechanoreceptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) express Ret and the co-receptor Gfrα2 and depend on Ret for survival and central projection growth. Here, we show that Ret and Gfrα2 null mice display comparable early central projection deficits, but Gfrα2 null RA mechanoreceptors recover later. Loss of Gfrα1, the co-receptor implicated in activating RET in trans, causes no significant central projection or cell survival deficit, but Gfrα1;Gfrα2 double nulls phenocopy Ret nulls. Finally, we demonstrate that GFRα1 produced by neighboring DRG neurons activates RET in RA mechanoreceptors. Taken together, our results suggest that trans and cis RET signaling could function in the same developmental process and that the availability of both forms of activation likely enhances but not diversifies outcomes of RET signaling.

  8. Controls of the Geomorphic Effectiveness of Passive Restoration Projects in the Interior Columbia River Basin, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P.; Mowry, A.

    2002-12-01

    Low-order montane tributaries in watersheds of the interior Columbia River Basin historically were highly productive habitat for anadromous and resident salmonids, now greatly reduced in numbers and listed under the Endangered Species Act. Historical impacts, including cattle grazing, other land use activities and direct channel modification, have resulted in loss of streamside vegetation, and channel widening and simplification. Over the past fifteen years, many stream restoration projects have been completed, using both active (instream structures) and passive (cattle grazing exclosure) approaches. The implicit goal of most projects has been to restore multiple structural and functional characteristics, with the ultimate goal of increasing salmonid populations. Very little evaluation of effectiveness of these projects has been done. Previous work has suggested several hypotheses concerning restoration effectiveness: 1) channel narrowing may be driven by increased vegetation cover in response to treatment; 2) adjustment of bed morphology may be controlled by stream power and competence, or channel constraint; 3) response to restoration may require several years. We selected eleven passive restoration sites and measured vegetation and channel morphology at adjacent paired reaches (grazing exclosure vs. grazed reach). All sites were gravel-bedded, <100 km2 drainage area, moderately to highly sinuous; all except one had channel gradients <0.0015. Exclosure age was 2 to 36 years. We used statistical analysis and data visualization to test the hypotheses discussed above. Overall, exclosure reaches were narrower, deeper and had more pool area than comparable grazed reaches. Most exclosure reaches had more sedge cover and riparian shrub cover, and less bare ground. Degree of narrowing was not strongly related vegetation cover, but young sites that did not show vegetation response also failed to show channel narrowing. Adjustment of bed morphology was limited, at

  9. Integrative application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. Initial act configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The performance and economic benefits of a constrained application of Active Controls Technology (ACT) are identified, and the approach to airplane design is established for subsequent steps leading to the development of a less constrained final ACT configuration. The active controls configurations are measured against a conventional baseline configuration, a state-of-the-art transport, to determine whether the performance and economic changes resulting from ACT merit proceeding with the project. The technology established by the conventional baseline configuration was held constant except for the addition of ACT. The wing, with the same planform, was moved forward on the initial ACT configuration to move the loading range aft relative to the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Wing trailing-edge surfaces and surface controls also were reconfigured for load alleviation and structural stabilization.

  10. Muscarinic receptor subtypes differentially control synaptic input and excitability of cerebellum-projecting medial vestibular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-04-01

    Neurons in the vestibular nuclei have a vital function in balance maintenance, gaze stabilization, and posture. Although muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are expressed and involved in regulating vestibular function, it remains unclear how individual mAChR subtypes regulate vestibular neuronal activity. In this study, we determined which specific subtypes of mAChRs control synaptic input and excitability of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons that project to the cerebellum. Cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons were labeled by a fluorescent retrograde tracer and then identified in rat brainstem slices. Quantitative PCR analysis suggested that M2 and M3 were the possible major mAChR subtypes expressed in the MVN. The mAChR agonist oxotremorine-M significantly reduced the amplitude of glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic currents evoked by stimulation of vestibular primary afferents, and this effect was abolished by the M2-preferring antagonist AF-DX 116. However, oxotremorine-M had no effect on GABA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents of labeled MVN neurons. Furthermore, oxotremorine-M significantly increased the firing activity of labeled MVN neurons, and this effect was blocked by the M3-preferring antagonist J104129 in most neurons tested. In addition, AF-DX 116 reduced the onset latency and prolonged the excitatory effect of oxotremorine-M on the firing activity of labeled MVN neurons. Our findings suggest that M3 is the predominant post-synaptic mAChR involved in muscarinic excitation of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. Pre-synaptic M2 mAChR regulates excitatory glutamatergic input from vestibular primary afferents, which in turn influences the excitability of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. This new information has important therapeutic implications for treating vestibular disorders with mAChR subtype-selective agents. Medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons projecting to the cerebellum are involved in balance control. We

  11. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  12. The Streambank Erosion Control Evaluation and Demonstration Act of 1974, Section 32, Public Law 93-251. Appendix E. Missouri River Demonstration Projects. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    VOLUME I OF 2 Consisting of A COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY REPORT ON TWENTY-EIGHT STREAMBANK EROSION CONTROL DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS ON THE MISSOURI RIVER IN THE...on the Missouri River in this reach between Garrison Dam and Lake Oahe. The names and locations of all the demonstration projects are shown in Table 1...1. All locations are designated according to 1960 river mileage. B. AVMOITT The authority for the projects in this reach is the Streambank Ero- sion

  13. A quality improvement plan for hypertension control: the INCOTECA Project (INterventions for COntrol of hyperTEnsion in CAtalonia)

    PubMed Central

    Vallès-Fernandez, Roser; Rosell-Murphy, Magdalena; Correcher-Aventin, Olga; Mengual-Martínez, Lucas; Aznar-Martínez, Núria; Prieto-De Lamo, Gemma; Franzi-Sisó, Alícia; Puig-Manresa, Jordi; Ma Bonet-Simó, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Background Different studies have shown insufficient blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive patients. Multiple factors influence hypertension management, and the quality of primary care is one of them. We decided therefore to evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement plan directed at professionals of Primary Health Care Teams (PHCT) with the aim to achieve a better control of hypertension. The hypothesis of the study is that the implementation of a quality improvement plan will improve the control of hypertension. The primary aim of this study will be to evaluate the effectiveness of this plan. Methods and design Design: multicentric study quasi-experimental before – after with control group. The non-randomised allocation of the intervention will be done at PHCT level. Setting: 18 PHCT in the Barcelona province (Spain). Sample: all patients with a diagnosis of hypertension (population based study). Exclusion criteria: patients with a diagnosis of hypertension made later than 01/01/2006 and patients younger than 18 years. Intervention: a quality improvement plan, which targets primary health care professionals and includes educational sessions, feedback to health professionals, audit and implementation of recommended clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertensive patients. Measurements: age, sex, associated co-morbidity (diabetes mellitus type I and II, heart failure and renal failure). The following variables will be recorded: BP measurement, cardiovascular risk and antihypertensive drugs used. Results will be measured before the start of the intervention and twelve months after the start of the study. Dependent variable: prevalence of hypertensive patients with poor BP control. Analysis: Chi-square test and Student's t-test will be used to measure the association between independent qualitative and quantitative variables, respectively. Non-parametric tests will be used for the analysis of non-normally distributed variables

  14. Field activity cost estimates for the first 3 years of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Booth, M; Jenkins, J; Wang, H; Tanner, M

    1998-12-01

    The World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis in China commenced field activities in 1992. In this paper, we describe disease control strategies for levels of different endemicity, and estimate unit costs and total expenditure of screening, treatment (cattle and humans) and snail control for 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum infection is endemic. Overall, we estimate that more than 21 million US dollars were spent on field activities during the first three years of the project. Mollusciciding (43% of the total expenditure) and screening (28% of the total) are estimated to have the most expensive field activities. However, despite the expense of screening, a simple model predicts that selective chemotherapy could have been cheaper than mass chemotherapy in areas where infection prevalence was higher than 15%, which was the threshold for mass chemotherapy intervention. It is concluded that considerable cost savings could be made in the future by narrowing the scope of snail control activities, redefining the threshold infection prevalence for mass chemotherapy, defining smaller administrative units, and developing rapid assessment tools.

  15. Computer Numerical Control: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinn, John W.

    This instructional manual contains five learning activity packets for use in a workshop on computer numerical control for computer-aided manufacturing. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer-aided manufacturing, understanding the lathe, using the computer, computer numerically controlled part programming, and executing a…

  16. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Adults to Inform Future Public Health Policy Efforts to Prevent Skin Cancer, SIP12-054, Pilot Study to... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date 11:00 a.m.-5:30...

  17. Computer Controlled Interactive Motion and Still Image Film Projection System for Vocational Education for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Raymond G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a micro-processor controlled instruction delivery system being developed for use with deaf students which incorporates film cassette, frame or sequence addressable, color motion or still visuals under computer program control for local or remote delivery. An authoring capability for development and validation and a program are also…

  18. Computer Numerical Control: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinn, John W.

    This instructional manual contains five learning activity packets for use in a workshop on computer numerical control for computer-aided manufacturing. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction to computer-aided manufacturing, understanding the lathe, using the computer, computer numerically controlled part programming, and executing a…

  19. Control Room Training for the Hyper-X Project Utilizing Aircraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux-Baumann, Jesica; Dees, Ray; Fratello, David

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center flew two Hyper-X research vehicles and achieved hypersonic speeds over the Pacific Ocean in March and November 2004. To train the flight and mission control room crew, the NASA Dryden simulation capability was utilized to generate telemetry and radar data, which was used in nominal and emergency mission scenarios. During these control room training sessions personnel were able to evaluate and refine data displays, flight cards, mission parameter allowable limits, and emergency procedure checklists. Practice in the mission control room ensured that all primary and backup Hyper-X staff were familiar with the nominal mission and knew how to respond to anomalous conditions quickly and successfully. This report describes the technology in the simulation environment and the Mission Control Center, the need for and benefit of control room training, and the rationale and results of specific scenarios unique to the Hyper-X research missions.

  20. Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) Project Book: Fiscal Year 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-12

    MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 21-6 FORCE LEVEL AIRLAND BATTLE MGT ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY TRANSITION DEMONSTRATiON 21-7 I LOWER ECHELON C2 KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM 21-7...deployed. Jan 90 - V3. 5 - PANS Display Manager (PON) fielded (po".u menus). PAWS/RAIDES deployed to Operation Desert Shield/Storm.F2 91 - V4.0 - NaJor...I83 - Project Manager established - tasked with the coordination of the Worldwide Information system within AvW. Sep 83 -Dpsdocmaentation for

  1. South Fork Zumbro River Stage 1B, Rochester, Minnesota. Design Memorandum Number 2, Flood Control Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    06 8 4 4 18 E PT O0 2405900 194. 1 S3 53 341 1ISP 2.495 24135,00" 2405 850 45 37.871 S29 573 02W114PT 37 ,:tsmoco, 24055715000 o 4 29.614 S 41...115.00 2,530.00 Reinforcing Steel Lbs. 1,400 0.40 560.00 Cement Cwt. 156 5.00 780.00 Expansion Joint Material L.F. 140 2.00 280.00 Wall Toe Drain 8 ...breaching to minimize the effect of upstream flooding.; 8 . CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL AVAILABILITY Construction materials required for the project consist of

  2. Projecting the impact of climate change on the effectiveness of Controlled Drainage in the U.S. Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface tile drainage systems are used to create arable conditions for agriculture in low-gradient regions with poorly drained soils, such as the U.S. Corn Belt. Traditionally these systems allow excess water to continually drain from the landscape until the water table underlying the field drops below the depth of the tile drain. These 'free draining' systems increase the volume of subsurface water, and thus increase the amount of nutrients, leaving fields. Controlled Drainage (CD) is a water conservation practice that allows farmers to decrease the volume of water leaving their field by using a control structure to manually raise the resting water table above the tile drains. In order to better understand the potential impacts of climate change on agricultural drainage in the Corn Belt, this study focuses on evaluating differences in the simulated effectiveness of CD under different climate change scenarios. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrology model, with a subsurface drainage algorithm, was calibrated to nine sites across the Midwest with drainflow records from 1987 to 2012. It is used to simulate drainflow from 1980-2010 and 2035-2064 using projections for the A1B, A2 and B1 emissions scenarios from the GFDL, PCM and HadCM3 models to represent variation in the severity of projected climate change. Simulated drainflow volume, timing, and variability for both freely-drained and controlled scenarios is used to quantify projected changes in drainflow and calculate metrics of CD effectiveness in mitigating negative water quality impacts, spatially under different climate scenarios. Assessing potential changes in effectiveness of CD due to climate change is necessary to investigate potential long-term benefits and drawbacks of this best management practice.

  3. Variable Cycle Engine Control System Definition Study. Turbine Engine Technology Demonstrator Component Development Program, Project 668A. Controls Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    JULY 1973 to MARCH 1976 Approved for public rtlease; distribution unlimited DDC R 191r Alit V0tCE, AKt *IRO-10ROU14,40N LAHIORATf0lty .71 L y ~j Alit...engine parameters to "scheduled" optimal poramelric relationships successfully attained minimum sfc and maximum thrust at all the selected test points in... test plan woa formulated for the JTD control system. Table of Contents Page 1.0 Introduction 1-1 2.0 Summary 2- 1 3.0 Joint Technology Demonstrator

  4. ALARA Controls and the Radiological Lessons Learned During the Uranium Fuel Removal Projects at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, B. J.; Chapman, J. A.; Jugan, M. R.

    2002-02-26

    The removal of uranium-233 (233 U) from the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), performed from January through May 2001, created both unique radiological challenges and widely-applicable lessons learned. In addition to the criticality concerns and alpha contamination, 233U has an associated intense gamma photon from the cocontaminant uranium-232 (232U) decaying to thallium-208 (208Tl). Therefore, rigorous contamination controls and significant shielding were implemented. Extensive, timed mock-up training was also imperative to minimize individual and collective personnel exposures. Back-up shielding and containment techniques (that had been previously developed for defense in depth) were used successfully to control significant, changed conditions. Additional controls were placed on tests and on recovery designs to assure a higher level of safety throughout the removal operations. This paper delineates the manner in which each difficulty was solved, while relating the relevance of the results and the methodology to other projects with high dose-rate, highly-contaminated ionizing radiation hazards. Because of the distinctive features of and current interest in molten salt technology, a brief overview is provided. Also presented is the detailed, practical application of radiological controls integrated into, rather than added after, each evolution of the project--thus demonstrating the broad-based benefits of radiological engineering and ALARA reviews. The resolution of the serious contamination-control problems caused by unexpected uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gaseous diffusion is also explicated. Several tables and figures document the preparations, equipment and operations. A comparison of the pre-job dose calculations for the various functions of the uranium deposit removal (UDR) and the post-job dose-rate data are included in the conclusion.

  5. 33 CFR 208.11 - Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allocated for flood control or navigation and/or project operation at reservoirs subject to prescription of rules and regulations by the Secretary of the Army in the interest of flood control and navigation. 208..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.11 Regulations for use of storage allocated for flood...

  6. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 9. Science Applications, Incorporated Phase 2 - definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the effort required to implement the design of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Engineering Test Facility, SCEA-ETF. This report is a basic blueprint for the Phase 2 activities which have as a goal the construction of the ETF. These activities have been broken down into five major tasks, namely Project Management; Engineering and Design; Procurement/Fabrication; Construction, Installation and Checkout; and Operation and Maintenance. The type of activities required under each of these tasks are described followed by a detailed work breakdown structure. The Phase 2 project organization is discussed. A 13 month schedule for the total project is also given. Lastly, two appendices discuss cost adjustment factors for an ETF located in the KSA, and an update of the commercial system cost estimate based on preliminary cost quotations for the ETF. The results show a 63% cost increase for the KSA ETF primarily due to higher construction costs and greater well depth. The commercial system cost required an adjustment upwards of 7.7%.

  7. The controlled ecological life support system Antarctic analog project: Analysis of wastewater from the South Pole Station, Antarctica, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Bubenheim, David L.; Straight, Christian L.; Belisle, Warren

    1994-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support system (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint National Science Foundation (NSF) and NASA project for the development, deployment and operation of CELSS technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. NASA goals are operational testing of CELSS technologies and the conduct of scientific studies to facilitate technology selection and system design. The NSF goals are that the food production, water purification, and waste treatment capabilities which will be provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. This report presents an analysis of wastewater samples taken from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The purpose of the work is to develop a quantitative understanding of the characteristics of domestic sewage streams at the South Pole Station. This information will contribute to the design of a proposed plant growth/waste treatment system which is part of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP).

  8. High and equitable tuberculosis awareness coverage in the community-driven Axshya TB control project in India.

    PubMed

    Thapa, B; Chadha, S S; Das, A; Mohanty, S; Tonsing, J

    2015-03-21

    Data from surveys on knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) on tuberculosis (TB) conducted under the Axshya project at two time points (baseline 2010-2011 and mid-line 2012-2013) were analysed for changes in coverage and equity of TB awareness after project interventions. Overall coverage increased from 84% at baseline to 88% at midline (5% increase, P < 0.05). In comparison to baseline results, coverage at the midline survey had significantly increased, from 81% to 87% among the rural population, from 81% to 86% among women, from 73% to 85% in the ⩾55 years age group, from 71% to 80% among illiterates and from 73% to 81% in the south zone (P < 0.05). The equity gap among the different study groups (settlement, sex, age, education and zones) decreased from 6-23% at baseline to 3-11% during the midline survey. The maximum decline was observed for type of settlement (rural vs. urban), from 10% to 3% (P < 0.05). This community-driven TB control project has achieved high and equitable coverage of TB awareness, offering valuable lessons for the global community.

  9. Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, P.R.

    1996-09-25

    This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

  10. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITIES. Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally agreed that both quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) are essential to the proper installation and eventual performance of environmentally safe and secure waste containment systems. Even further, there are both manufacturing and construction aspects to...

  11. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITIES. Project Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally agreed that both quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) are essential to the proper installation and eventual performance of environmentally safe and secure waste containment systems. Even further, there are both manufacturing and construction aspects to...

  12. Maximum Entropy/Optimal Projection Design Synthesis for Decentralized Control of Large Space Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    of this problem obtained thus far can be found in [122. The development in [122] includes, in particular, noisy and nonnoisy measurements, weighted and...control weighting . By utilizing a Lyapunov function to guarantee robust stability, these optimality conditions serve as sufficient conditions for...authority designs we chose quadratic weights so that the closed-loop performance of the centralized controller yielded an order of magnitude performance

  13. Command, Control, Communications And Intelligence (C3I) Project Book, Fiscal Year 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-30

    clear or encrypted environment. SMCT is composed of two Central Processing Units, two Mass Memory TEMPEST MCN (Disks). two Keyboards. four Video ...OSSTTEectronic Counter Counter Measure (ECCM) Control Subsystem (DECS) will provide automated control of the AN/USC-28 ECCN network to allow the most effective...performns line power monitoring and automated polline responses at the NTs. In addition, adCS will allow the ECCN network to operate in a stressed environment

  14. Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes Differentially Control Synaptic Input and Excitability of Cerebellum-Projecting Medial Vestibular Nucleus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the vestibular nuclei have a vital function in balance maintenance, gaze stabilization, and posture. Although muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are expressed and involved in regulating vestibular function, it is unclear how individual mAChR subtypes regulate vestibular neuronal activity. In this study, we determined which specific subtypes of mAChRs control synaptic input and excitability of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons that project to the cerebellum. Cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons were labeled by a fluorescent retrograde tracer and then identified in rat brainstem slices. Quantitative PCR analysis suggested that M2 and M3 were the possible major mAChR subtypes expressed in the MVN. The mAChR agonist oxotremorine-M significantly reduced the amplitude of glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents evoked by stimulation of vestibular primary afferents, and this effect was abolished by the M2-preferring antagonist AF-DX 116. However, oxotremorine-M had no effect on GABA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents of labeled MVN neurons. Furthermore, oxotremorine-M significantly increased the firing activity of labeled MVN neurons, and this effect was blocked by the M3-preferring antagonist J104129 in most neurons tested. In addition, AF-DX 116 reduced the onset latency and prolonged the excitatory effect of oxotremorine-M on the firing activity of labeled MVN neurons. Our findings suggest that M3 is the predominant postsynaptic mAChR involved in muscarinic excitation of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. Presynaptic M2 mAChR regulates excitatory glutamatergic input from vestibular primary afferents, which in turn influences the excitability of cerebellum-projecting MVN neurons. This new information has important therapeutic implications for treating vestibular disorders with mAChR subtype-selective agents. PMID:26823384

  15. Project of an attitude control system (three axis) of a satellite using the LQG/LTR methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscati, Ney Ricardo

    1992-02-01

    In Earth remote sensing satellites, an Attitude Control System (ACS) is necessary for stabilization, due to the fact that even if the vehicle is precisely oriented in launch, it can deviate from this orientation due the influence of ambiental torques, internal changes and coupling between attitude dynamics and a satellite's orbital and flexible dynamics. The configuration adopted for the ACS (a momentum wheel and two reaction wheels) exhibits a strong coupling between roll and yaw, hence it is a multivariable system, while the pitch axis is practically decoupled. The linear model for the attitude dynamics of this satellite exhibits uncertainties due to non-modeled dynamics of the flexible panels and giroscopic coupling variations, caused by momentum wheel velocity changes. The LQG/LTR methodology is used to project the ACS operating on the normal mode. This methodology is inherently a multivariable tool, where the compensator's structure is known as MBC, the same structure as LQG compensators. It is based on both time and frequency domain approaches, and has the great advantage of treating the robustness at project level. The frequency project specifications, usually used for SISO systems such as gain and phase margins, bandwidth, disturbance rejection characteristics and insensitivity to parameter variations are extended to the MIMO case through the singular value concept. The LQG/LTR methodology provides, basically, the recovery of the excellent robustness characteristics of systems with LQR regulators when the state is completely measured. On the other hand, specifications on the time domain are difficult to deal with. In view of the easy usage of the methodology and good simulations results obtained, it has been concluded that the LQG/LTR methodology is an attractive option to project ACS when the model is a MIMO type.

  16. Big Creek Flood Control Project, Cleveland, Ohio. Phase II. General Design Memorandum. Appendix B. Alternative Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    ceJlc ,)roje(# 54oV/r Aalf 0,- 4cey a aoe weJ toe e /c. K/~ /Ce 5h0/ core /e C nes ,pcivde re6ovogd 4~,1 w*34) 0. 0 8 33 J( I ’ = 0. 9 g4 / SY /’:701-7C47...Buffalo, New York 14207 NOVEMBER 1978 ~?SDOCITNFT IS BEST flJTTTY PMAMreA3 :tiSRODUCE LEGIBLY. ft--wn- ,r~81 8 04 002 DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT...features of the project. Generally, for individual features, these studies will be limited to type of construction materials used and/or combination thereof

  17. Evaluation of the United States Department of Agriculture Northeast Area-Wide Tick Control Project by Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brei, Brandon; George, John E.; Pound, J. Mathews; Miller, J. Allen; Daniels, Thomas J.; Falco, Richard C.; Stafford, Kirby C.; Schulze, Terry L.; Mather, Thomas N.; Carroll, John F.; Fish, Durland

    2009-01-01

    Abstract As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using U.S. Department of Agriculture “4-Poster” devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed deer. Although reductions in the abundance of all life-stages of Ixodes scapularis were the measured outcomes, this study focused on metrics associated with I. scapularis nymphal tick densities as this measure has consistently proven to directly correlate with human risk of acquiring Lyme disease. Since independent tick sampling schemes were undertaken at each of the five environmentally distinct study locations, a meta-analytic approach permitted estimation of a single true control-effect size for each treatment year of the NEATCP. The control-effect is expressed as the annual percent I. scapularis nymphal control most consistent with meta-analysis data for each treatment year. Our meta-analyses indicate that by the sixth treatment year, the NEATCP effectively reduced the relative density of I. scapularis nymphs by 71% on the 5.14 km2 treatment sites, corresponding to a 71% lower relative entomologic risk index for acquiring Lyme disease. PMID:19650737

  18. Evaluation of the United States Department Of Agriculture Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project by meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brei, Brandon; Brownstein, John S; George, John E; Pound, J Mathews; Miller, J Allen; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Stafford, Kirby C; Schulze, Terry L; Mather, Thomas N; Carroll, John F; Fish, Durland

    2009-08-01

    As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using U.S. Department of Agriculture "4-Poster" devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed deer. Although reductions in the abundance of all life-stages of Ixodes scapularis were the measured outcomes, this study focused on metrics associated with I. scapularis nymphal tick densities as this measure has consistently proven to directly correlate with human risk of acquiring Lyme disease. Since independent tick sampling schemes were undertaken at each of the five environmentally distinct study locations, a meta-analytic approach permitted estimation of a single true control-effect size for each treatment year of the NEATCP. The control-effect is expressed as the annual percent I. scapularis nymphal control most consistent with meta-analysis data for each treatment year. Our meta-analyses indicate that by the sixth treatment year, the NEATCP effectively reduced the relative density of I. scapularis nymphs by 71% on the 5.14 km(2) treatment sites, corresponding to a 71% lower relative entomologic risk index for acquiring Lyme disease.

  19. Master of the house: Why a company should take control of its building projects.

    PubMed

    Thurm, David

    2005-10-01

    When you head up a big construction project for your organization, coming in on time and on budget isn't enough. If you want to avoid squandering what is probably your company's largest capital investment, it's important to create a building that reflects your company's mission and produces a truly energizing work environment, says David Thurm, CIO of the New York Times Company and head of the team responsible for designing and building the Times' new corporate headquarters in Manhattan. The only way to get this kind of package-great design and innovative features that together further your business goals- is to take an active role. Assemble the right team, and then stay involved, asking hard questions about things that are generally taken as givens. Articulate a vision of your future work space, and drive the search for ways to realize this vision. In short, be a builder, not merely an owner. It's easy to understand why this approach is the exception rather than the rule. To most companies, design and construction seem foreign and forbidding, rife with pitfalls. Because of the murkiness of the field and a lack of experience and confidence, most companies play a relatively minor role in their construction projects. But it's a giant mistake to be a passive consumer when it comes to one of your most important assets. At best, you'll get well-intentioned guesses by others as to what you want; at worst, you'll end up with a building that's at odds with your identity. The author shares a series of lessons learned. Implicit in all of them: You have to push yourself as hard as you push your contractors.

  20. Preparedness for the prevention and control of influenza outbreaks on passenger ships in the EU: the SHIPSAN TRAINET project communication.

    PubMed

    Mouchtouri, Va; Black, N; Nichols, G; Paux, T; Riemer, T; Rjabinina, J; Schlaich, C; Menel Lemos, C; Kremastinou, J; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2009-05-28

    Passenger ships carry a large number of people in confined spaces. A case of the new influenza A (H1N1) virus aboard a passenger ship is an expected event and would lead to rapid spread of the virus, if preventive measures are not in place. However, many cruise lines have detailed policies and procedures to deal with cases of influenza like illness (ILI). The EU SHIPSAN and SHIPSAN TRAINET projects include in their objectives guidelines for the prevention and control of communicable diseases aboard passenger ships. A literature review showed that from 1997 to 2005, nine confirmed outbreaks of influenza were linked to passenger ships, with attack rates up to 37%. It is important to establish and maintain a surveillance system for ILI aboard passenger ships, in order to systematically collect data that can help to determine the baseline illness levels. Monitoring these will enable early identification of outbreaks and allow timely implementation of control measures.

  1. Design, analysis, and interpretation of field quality-control data for water-sampling projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David K.; Schertz, Terry L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The report provides extensive information about statistical methods used to analyze quality-control data in order to estimate potential bias and variability in environmental data. These methods include construction of confidence intervals on various statistical measures, such as the mean, percentiles and percentages, and standard deviation. The methods are used to compare quality-control results with the larger set of environmental data in order to determine whether the effects of bias and variability might interfere with interpretation of these data. Examples from published reports are presented to illustrate how the methods are applied, how bias and variability are reported, and how the interpretation of environmental data can be qualified based on the quality-control analysis.

  2. Yucca Mountain Project: ESF Title I design control process review report

    SciTech Connect

    1989-01-19

    The Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) Title 1 Design Control Process Review was initiated in response to direction from the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) (letter: Kale to Gertz, NRC Concerns on Title 1 Design Control Process, November 17, 1988). The direction was to identify the existing documentation that described ``{hor_ellipsis} the design control process and the quality assurance that governed {hor_ellipsis}`` (a) the development of the requirements documents for the ESF design, (b) the various interfaces between activities, (c) analyses and definitions leading to additional requirements in the System Design Requirements Documents and, (d) completion of Title 1 Design. This report provides historical information for general use in determining the extent of the quality assurance program in existence during the ESF Title 1 Design.

  3. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Control of Air Strikes in SEA 1961-1966

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-03-01

    I of US ground forces . A close working relationship was developed with the ground commanders, who were more familiar than their ARVN counterparts I...stationed in Thai- land were assigned to 13th Air Force in the Philippines and were under ]_! the operational control of 7AF. USMC air wings worked ...II II I I • I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1.0414-74 AIR FORCE EYES ONLY CONTROL OF AIR STRIKES in SEA 1881-1888 . 1 March 1967

  4. Controlled motion in an elastic world. Research project: Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1992-01-01

    The flexibility of the drives and structures of controlled motion systems are presented as an obstacle to be overcome in the design of high performance motion systems, particularly manipulator arms. The task and the measure of performance to be applied determine the technology appropriate to overcome this obstacle. Included in the technologies proposed are control algorithms (feedback and feed forward), passive damping enhancement, operational strategies, and structural design. Modeling of the distributed, nonlinear system is difficult, and alternative approaches are discussed. The author presents personal perspectives on the history, status, and future directions in this area.

  5. New process modeling [sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-06-05

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice.

  6. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES...-risk animal, is unlikely to spread scrapie; and (b) The requirement that high-risk animals must be... the further spread of scrapie without removing high-risk animals from the flock. ...

  7. Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology to an Advanced Subsonic Transport: Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art of active controls technology (ACT) and a recommended ACT development program plan are reviewed. The performance benefits and cost of ownership of an integrated application of ACT to civil transport aircraft is to be assessed along with the risk and laboratory and/or flight experiments designed to reduce the technical risks to a commercially acceptable level.

  9. Recreational Appendix Report, Elm Fork Flood Control Project, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-05-01

    to be expanded both upstream and downstream along the meanders of the River extending from California Crossing Road downstream to the Wildflower ...Plan for Wildflower Meadow ........ ....... 62 11 Small Trail Side Museum and Rest Area . . . . ....... 63 12 Large Trail Side Museum...64 13 Plan - Trail Side Museum Area ..... .............. 65 14 Motorcycle Barrier and Control Gate. . . . ......... 67 15 California Crossing

  10. Status of biological control projects on terrestrial invasive alien weeds in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In cooperation with foreign scientists, we are currently developing new classical biological control agents for five species of invasive alien terrestrial weeds. Cape-Ivy. A gall-forming fly, Parafreutreta regalis, and a stem-boring moth, Digitivalva delaireae, have been favorably reviewed by TAG...

  11. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 11 a.m.-5 p.m., June 14, 2011 (Closed... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K-92, BJC4@cdc.gov ....

  12. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Review of Effective Community-based Interventions of Clinical Preventive Services for Older Adults SIP11-045, and Measuring Impact of Multi-Component Interventions to Prevent Older Adult Falls and...

  13. Planning an Authority Control Project at a Medium-Sized University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Sha Li

    2001-01-01

    Authority control is a vital part of providing students and faculty with adequate access to collections in university libraries. Small and medium-sized libraries find it challenging to meet rising user expectations and provide adequate access in an online environment through appropriate authority work. A planning process is offered on an authority…

  14. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25{degrees}C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  15. Tobacco control recommendations identified by LGBT Atlantans in a community-based participatory research project.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Lawrence; Damarin, Amanda K; Marshall, Zack

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are increasingly aware that disproportionately high smoking rates severely impact the health of their communities. Motivated to make a change, a group of LGBT community members, policymakers, and researchers from Atlanta carried out a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. This formative research study sought to identify recommendations for culturally relevant smoking prevention and cessation interventions that could improve the health of Atlanta's LGBT communities. Data presented here come from four focus groups with 36 participants and a community meeting with 30 participants. Among study participants, the most favored interventions were providing LGBT-specific cessation programs, raising awareness about LGBT smoking rates, and getting community venues to go smoke-free. Participants also suggested providing reduced-cost cessation products for low-income individuals, using LGBT "role models" to promote cessation, and ensuring that interventions reach all parts of the community. Findings reinforce insights from community-based research with other marginalized groups. Similarities include the importance of tailoring cessation programs for specific communities, the need to acknowledge differences within communities, and the significance of community spaces in shaping discussions of cessation. Further, this study highlights the need for heightened awareness. The Atlanta LGBT community is largely unaware that high smoking rates affect its health, and is unlikely to take collective action to address this problem until it is understood.

  16. Food contamination control in European new Member States and associated candidate countries: data collected within the SAFEFOODNET project.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Silvia; Benfenati, Emilio; Colosio, Claudio; Moretto, Angelo; Roots, Ott; Tasiopoulou, Stavroula; Visentin, Sara

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports the results obtained from the data collected within the European Commission funded project SAFEFOODNET regarding the state of the art in the control of chemical food contaminants in twelve European New Member States and one Associated Candidate Country (Turkey). Information has been gathered on institutions involved in food chemical contamination control, types of contaminants and matrices analyzed, procedures for data quality assurance, purposes of the analyses and accessibility of data in the participant countries. The resulting picture points out the general availability of adequate capabilities for the analysis of food contaminants in the laboratories in charge of control and the performance of the analysis of a large variety of chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals, radionuclides) in almost each country with few exceptions (dioxins in Bulgaria, Turkey, Latvia, persistent organic pollutants in Lithuania and Malta, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Malta). The application of validated analytical methods and the process of laboratory accreditation are partially fulfilled within the investigated countries, but still forthcoming for some countries, as in Romania, Turkey and Malta. Information collected on food controls is only partially available online and the language used is prevalently local and English to a lesser extent.

  17. A study of a solar central power plant with a gas turbine - Project Sirocco modelling and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacim, M.

    A thermodynamics and receiver design analysis is presented for a solar tower power plant, together with a control model for operations in varying working conditions. The analysis covers the central receiver and the gas-air turbine, adapted for functioning at 820 C, such as was experienced with the 100 kW Project Sirocco test station. A heliostat field concentrates solar energy onto a central receiver traversed by compressed air, which is allowed to expand while driving a turbine generator. A combustion chamber is included in the loop to augment the thermal performance when insufficient solar energy is available. The plant can be either grid-connected or stand alone. Static and dynamic characteristics of the thermal loop are modelled, and are included in the development of control laws based on quadratic criteria. An optimized control scheme is devised which features weighting criteria matrices, and the results of simulations covering different insolation levels are reported. Finally, an adjoint state control system is produced to account for peculiarities of the power plant.

  18. The Swift Project Contamination Control Program: A Case Study of Balancing Cost, Schedule and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Day, Diane T.; Secunda, Mark S.; Rosecrans, Glenn P.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory will be launched in early 2004 to examine the dynamic process of gamma ray burst (GRB) events. The multi-wavelength Observatory will study the GRB afterglow characteristics, which will help to answer fundamental questions about both the structure and the evolution of the universe. The Swift Observatory Contamination Control Program has been developed to aid in ensuring the success of the on-orbit performance of two of the primary instruments: the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). During the design phase of the Observatory, the contamination control program evolved and trade studies were performed to assess the risk of contaminating the sensitive UVOT and XRT optics during both pre-launch testing and on-orbit operations, within the constraints of the overall program cost and schedule.

  19. The Swift Project Contamination Control Program: A Case study of Balancing Cost, Schedule and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Day, Diane; Secunda, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The Swift Observatory will be launched in early 2004 to examine the dynamic process of gamma ray burst (GRB) events. The multi-wavelength Observatory will study the GRB afterglow characteristics, which will help to answer fundamental questions about both the structure and the evolution of the universe. The Swift Observatory Contamination Control Program has been developed to aid in ensuring the success of the on-orbit performance of two of the primary instruments: the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). During the design phase of the Observatory, the contamination control program evolved and trade studies were performed to assess the risk of contaminating the sensitive UVOT and XRT optics during both pre-launch testing and on-orbit operations, within the constraints of the overall program cost and schedule.

  20. High-order aberration control during exposure for leading-edge lithography projection optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Yasuhiro; Tsuge, Yosuke; Hirayama, Toru; Ikezawa, Hironori; Inoue, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Koizumi, Yukio; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Takahisa; Onda, Minoru; Takase, Yohei; Nagahiro, Akimasa; Isago, Susumu; Kawahara, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    High throughput with high resolution imaging has been key to the development of leading-edge microlithography. However, management of thermal aberrations due to lens heating during exposure has become critical for simultaneous achievement of high throughput and high resolution. Thermal aberrations cause CD drift and overlay error, and these errors lead directly to edge placement errors (EPE). Management and control of high order thermal aberrations is a critical requirement. In this paper, we will show practical performance of the lens heating with dipole and other typical illumination conditions for finer patterning. We confirm that our new control system can reduce the high-order aberrations and enable critical-dimension uniformity CDU during the exposure.

  1. The Valium Project: Diagnostic restrictions as a utilization control in a Medicaid drug program

    PubMed Central

    Boisseree, Victor R.; Keith, John C.; Little, Daniel L.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of diagnosis restrictions as a drug utilization control in California's Medi-Cal (Medicaid) program. The numbers of Valium prescriptions dispensed, the numbers of Medi-Cal beneficiaries using Valium and the expenditures represented by those prescriptions were measured during application of a diagnosis restriction for a 33-month base period, followed by removal of the diagnosis restriction for a 14-month period. PMID:10310598

  2. Ensuring Success of Adaptive Control Research Through Project Lifecycle Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate M.

    2011-01-01

    Lessons Learne: 1. Design-out unnecessary risk to prevent excessive mitigation management during flight. 2. Consider iterative checkouts to confirm or improve human factor characteristics. 3. Consider the total flight test profile to uncover unanticipated human-algorithm interactions. 4. Consider test card cadence as a metric to assess test readiness. 5. Full-scale flight test is critical to development, maturation, and acceptance of adaptive control laws for operational use.

  3. Functional Corticospinal Projections from Human Supplementary Motor Area Revealed by Corticomuscular Coherence during Precise Grip Force Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sophie; Entakli, Jonathan; Bonnard, Mireille; Berton, Eric; De Graaf, Jozina B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area (SMA) are functional during precise force control with the precision grip (thumb-index opposition). Since beta band corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is well-accepted to reflect efferent corticospinal transmission, we analyzed the beta band CMC obtained with simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) signals. Subjects performed a bimanual precise visuomotor force tracking task by applying isometric low grip forces with their right hand precision grip on a custom device with strain gauges. Concurrently, they held the device with their left hand precision grip, producing similar grip forces but without any precision constraints, to relieve the right hand. Some subjects also participated in a unimanual control condition in which they performed the task with only the right hand precision grip while the device was held by a mechanical grip. We analyzed whole scalp topographies of beta band CMC between 64 EEG channels and 4 EMG intrinsic hand muscles, 2 for each hand. To compare the different topographies, we performed non-parametric statistical tests based on spatio-spectral clustering. For the right hand, we obtained significant beta band CMC over the contralateral M1 region as well as over the SMA region during static force contraction periods. For the left hand, however, beta band CMC was only found over the contralateral M1. By comparing unimanual and bimanual conditions for right hand muscles, no significant difference was found on beta band CMC over M1 and SMA. We conclude that the beta band CMC found over SMA for right hand muscles results from the precision constraints and not from the bimanual aspect of the task. The result of the present study strongly suggests that the corticospinal projections from human SMA become functional when high precision force control is required. PMID:23555945

  4. Command and Control Architectures for Autonomous Micro-Robotic Forces - FY-2000 Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean

    2001-04-01

    Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and micro-technologies will soon give rise to production of large-scale forces of autonomous micro-robots with systems of innate behaviors and with capabilities of self-organization and real world tasking. Such organizations have been compared to schools of fish, flocks of birds, herds of animals, swarms of insects, and military squadrons. While these systems are envisioned as maintaining a high degree of autonomy, it is important to understand the relationship of man with such machines. In moving from research studies to the practical deployment of large-scale numbers of robots, one of critical pieces that must be explored is the command and control architecture for humans to re-task and also inject global knowledge, experience, and intuition into the force. Tele-operation should not be the goal, but rather a level of adjustable autonomy and high-level control. If a herd of sheep is comparable to the collective of robots, then the human element is comparable to the shepherd pulling in strays and guiding the herd in the direction of greener pastures. This report addresses the issues and development of command and control for largescale numbers of autonomous robots deployed as a collective force.

  5. Pecos River Ecosystem Project: What are the Hydrologic Effects of Large-Scale Saltcedar Control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A. K.; Sheng, Z.; Wilcox, B. P.; Hart, C. R.

    2005-12-01

    Control of saltcedar ( Tamarix spp.) to reduce evapotranspiration (ET) and provide additional streamflow is not a new concept. However, previous studies failed to attribute a measurable increase in streamflow to a reduction in saltcedar. Why? Based on the water budget paradigm, a reduction in output (ET) generates an increase in another component of the water budget. However, it may be too simplistic to assume that phreatophyte control will increase streamflow. Does vegetation management induce a measurable change to the water budget? At what scale can we expect to measure this difference? The answers to these questions come by understanding hydrologic processes. In 2000 a saltcedar control program was implemented to improve irrigation delivery efficiency along the Upper Pecos River in Texas. Since then, saltcedar along 270 miles has been treated. A monitoring well network was established at two sites to estimate changes in water budgets of one treated and one untreated segment. Analysis of hourly water level data revealed reduced water loss (ET) along the treated segment. Although differences in water budget can be measured at these points, can those differences be detected at a larger scale? This study aims at gaining a better understanding of the interaction between the river and the shallow aquifer through inflow-outflow measurements and analysis of subsurface flow using monitored water levels. It is anticipated that the predicted response of the system to different management options can be determined.

  6. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  7. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Puneet; Casey, Dan

    2011-03-29

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14286 by Chevron Technology Ventures (CTV, a division of Chevron U.S.A., Inc.), Hyundai Motor Company (HMC), and UTC Power (UTCP, a United Technologies company) to validate hydrogen (H2) infrastructure technology and fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Chevron established hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage, and dispensing. CTV constructed five demonstration stations to support a vehicle fleet of 33 fuel cell passenger vehicles, eight internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, three fuel cell transit busses, and eight internal combustion engine shuttle busses. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2010. HMC introduced 33 fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the course of the project. Generation I included 17 vehicles that used UTCP fuel cell power plants and operated at 350 bar. Generation II included 16 vehicles that had upgraded UTC fuel cell power plants and demonstrated options such as the use of super-capacitors and operation at 700 bar. All 33 vehicles used the Hyundai Tucson sports utility vehicle (SUV) platform. Fleet operators demonstrated commercial operation of the vehicles in three climate zones (hot, moderate, and cold) and for various driving patterns. Fleet operators were Southern California Edison (SCE), AC Transit (of Oakland, California), Hyundai America Technical Center Inc. (HATCI), and the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, in a site agreement with Selfridge Army National Guard Base in Selfridge, Michigan).

  8. Measuring Progress on the Control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) at a Regional Level: The Minnesota N212 Regional Control Project (Rcp) as a Working Example

    PubMed Central

    Valdes-Donoso, Pablo; Jarvis, Lovell S.; Wright, Dave; Alvarez, Julio; Perez, Andres M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly transmissible nature of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), implementation of regional programs to control the disease may be critical. Because PRRS is not reported in the US, numerous voluntary regional control projects (RCPs) have been established. However, the effect of RCPs on PRRS control has not been assessed yet. This study aims to quantify the extent to which RCPs contribute to PRRS control by proposing a methodological framework to evaluate the progress of RCPs. Information collected between July 2012 and June 2015 from the Minnesota Voluntary Regional PRRS Elimination Project (RCP-N212) was used. Demography of premises (e.g. composition of farms with sows = SS and without sows = NSS) was assessed by a repeated analysis of variance. By using general linear mixed-effects models, active participation of farms enrolled in the RCP-N212, defined as the decision to share (or not to share) PRRS status, was evaluated and used as a predictor, along with other variables, to assess the PRRS trend over time. Additionally, spatial and temporal patterns of farmers’ participation and the disease dynamics were investigated. The number of farms enrolled in RCP-N212 and its geographical coverage increased, but the proportion of SS and NSS did not vary significantly over time. A significant increasing (p<0.001) trend in farmers’ decision to share PRRS status was observed, but with NSS producers less willing to report and a large variability between counties. The incidence of PRRS significantly (p<0.001) decreased, showing a negative correlation between degree of participation and occurrence of PRRS (p<0.001) and a positive correlation with farm density at the county level (p = 0.02). Despite a noted decrease in PRRS, significant spatio-temporal patterns of incidence of the disease over 3-weeks and 3-kms during the entire study period were identified. This study established a systematic approach to quantify the effect of RCPs on PRRS

  9. Measuring Progress on the Control of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) at a Regional Level: The Minnesota N212 Regional Control Project (Rcp) as a Working Example.

    PubMed

    Valdes-Donoso, Pablo; Jarvis, Lovell S; Wright, Dave; Alvarez, Julio; Perez, Andres M

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly transmissible nature of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), implementation of regional programs to control the disease may be critical. Because PRRS is not reported in the US, numerous voluntary regional control projects (RCPs) have been established. However, the effect of RCPs on PRRS control has not been assessed yet. This study aims to quantify the extent to which RCPs contribute to PRRS control by proposing a methodological framework to evaluate the progress of RCPs. Information collected between July 2012 and June 2015 from the Minnesota Voluntary Regional PRRS Elimination Project (RCP-N212) was used. Demography of premises (e.g. composition of farms with sows = SS and without sows = NSS) was assessed by a repeated analysis of variance. By using general linear mixed-effects models, active participation of farms enrolled in the RCP-N212, defined as the decision to share (or not to share) PRRS status, was evaluated and used as a predictor, along with other variables, to assess the PRRS trend over time. Additionally, spatial and temporal patterns of farmers' participation and the disease dynamics were investigated. The number of farms enrolled in RCP-N212 and its geographical coverage increased, but the proportion of SS and NSS did not vary significantly over time. A significant increasing (p<0.001) trend in farmers' decision to share PRRS status was observed, but with NSS producers less willing to report and a large variability between counties. The incidence of PRRS significantly (p<0.001) decreased, showing a negative correlation between degree of participation and occurrence of PRRS (p<0.001) and a positive correlation with farm density at the county level (p = 0.02). Despite a noted decrease in PRRS, significant spatio-temporal patterns of incidence of the disease over 3-weeks and 3-kms during the entire study period were identified. This study established a systematic approach to quantify the effect of RCPs on PRRS

  10. Status Report on the Development of Micro-Scheduling Software for the Advanced Outage Control Center Project

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, Shawn St.; Thomas, Kenneth; Farris, Ronald; Joe, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    The long-term viability of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States (U.S.) is dependent upon a number of factors, including maintaining high capacity factors, maintaining nuclear safety, and reducing operating costs, particularly those associated with refueling outages. Refueling outages typically take 20-30 days, and for existing light water NPPs in the U.S., the reactor cannot be in operation during the outage. Furthermore, given that many NPPs generate between $1-1.5 million/day in revenue when in operation, there is considerable interest in shortening the length of refueling outages. Yet, refueling outages are highly complex operations, involving multiple concurrent and dependent activities that are difficult to coordinate. Finding ways to improve refueling outage performance while maintaining nuclear safety has proven to be difficult. The Advanced Outage Control Center project is a research and development (R&D) demonstration activity under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a R&D program which works with industry R&D programs to establish technical foundations for the licensing and managing of long-term, safe, and economical operation of current NPPs. The Advanced Outage Control Center project has the goal of improving the management of commercial NPP refueling outages. To accomplish this goal, this INL R&D project is developing an advanced outage control center (OCC) that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. This report describes specific recent efforts to develop a capability called outage Micro-Scheduling. Micro-Scheduling is the ability to allocate and schedule outage support task resources on a sub-hour basis. Micro-Scheduling is the real-time fine-tuning of the outage schedule to react to the actual progress of the primary outage activities to ensure that support task resources are

  11. Maximum Entropy/Optimal Projection Design Synthesis for Decentralized Control of Large Space Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    case aspects in accordance with physical considerations. PERFORMANCE CRITERION J(Ac, Bc ,Cc) sup lim sup E [xTR1 x + 2xTR 1 2u + uTR2 u] oI t-oc Worst...Steady- Average Quadratic Case State I Over Over Parameters Disturbance Statistics ROBUST PERFORMANCE PROBLEM Minimize J(Ac, Bc ,Cc) over the class of...robustly stabilizing controllers (Ac, Bc ,Cc) Figure 12. Performance Is Defined To Be Worst Case Over the Uncertain Parameters and Average Over the

  12. The Healthy Worker Project: a work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, R W; Forster, J L; French, S A; Kelder, S H; Lando, H A; McGovern, P G; Jacobs, D R; Baxter, J E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. A randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a work-site health promotion program in reducing obesity and the prevalence of cigarette smoking. METHODS. Thirty-two work sites were randomized to treatment or no treatment for 2 years. Treatment consisted of health education classes combined with a payroll-based incentive system. Evaluation was based on cohort and cross-sectional surveys. RESULTS. Of 10,000 total employees in treatment work sites, 2041 and 270 participated in weight control and smoking cessation programs, respectively. Weight losses averaged 4.8 lbs, and 43% of smoking participants quit. Net 2-year reductions in smoking prevalence in treatment vs control work sites were 4.0% and 2.1% in cross-sectional and cohort surveys, respectively. No treatment effect was found for weight. Treatment effects for smoking prevalence and weight were both positively correlated with participation rates in the intervention programs (r = .45 for smoking and r = .55 for weight). CONCLUSIONS. This work-site health promotion program was effective in reducing smoking prevalence at a cost that is believed to make the investment worthwhile. PMID:8438979

  13. Cost Control Best Practices for Net Zero Energy Building Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-02-01

    For net zero energy (NZE) buildings to become the norm in commercial construction, it will be necessary to design and construct these buildings cost effectively. While industry leaders have developed workflows (for procurement, design, and construction) to achieve cost-effective NZE buildings for certain cases, the expertise embodied in those workflows has limited penetration within the commercial building sector. Documenting cost control best practices of industry leaders in NZE and packaging those strategies for adoption by the commercial building sector will help make the business case for NZE. Furthermore, it will promote market uptake of the innovative technologies and design approaches needed to achieve NZE. This paper summarizes successful cost control strategies for NZE procurement, design, and construction that key industry users (such as building owners, architects, and designers) can incorporate into their everyday workflows. It will also evaluate the current state of NZE economics and propose a path forward for greater market penetration of NZE buildings. By demonstrating how to combine NZE technologies and design approaches into an overall efficiency package that can be implemented at minimal (zero, in certain cases) incremental capital cost, the domain of NZE design and construction can be expanded from a niche market to the commercial construction mainstream.

  14. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  15. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  16. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  17. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  18. Quality assurance of HIV prevention counseling in a multi-center randomized controlled trial. Project RESPECT Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Kamb, M L; Dillon, B A; Fishbein, M; Willis, K L

    1996-01-01

    Current HIV prevention counseling strategies rely largely on interventions aimed at changing behaviors. Among these is HIV prevention counseling and testing, which has been a prominent component in the federally supported strategies for HIV/AIDS prevention in the United States. To assess the efficacy of HIV counseling in reducing risk behaviors and preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial is being conducted among sexually transmitted disease clinic patients (Project RESPECT). The trial compares three separate HIV prevention strategies on increasing condom use and decreasing new cases of sexually transmitted diseases. The strategies are (a) Enhanced HIV Prevention Counseling, a 4-session individual counseling intervention based on behavioral and social science theory; (b) HIV Prevention Counseling, a 2-session individual pre- and post test counseling strategy that attempts to increase perception of risk and reduce risk behaviors using small, achievable steps; and (c) HIV Education, a brief 2-session pre- and post-test strategy that is purely informational. One difficulty in conducting randomized trials of behavioral interventions is assuring that the interventions are being conducted both as conceptualized and in a consistent manner by different counselors and, for multicenter studies, at different study sites. This article describes the quality assurance measures that have been used for Project RESPECT. These have included development of standard tools, standard training, frequent observation and feedback to study personnel, and process evaluation. PMID:8862164

  19. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 2: Project planning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Project planning data for a rotor and control system procurement and testing program for modifications to the XV-15 tilt-rotor research demonstrator aircraft is presented. The design, fabrication, and installation of advanced composite blades compatible with the existing hub, an advanced composite hub, and a nonmechanical control system are required.

  20. Integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. Initial ACT configuration design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The initial ACT configuration design task of the integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program is summarized. A constrained application of active controls technology (ACT) resulted in significant improvements over a conventional baseline configuration previously established. The configuration uses the same levels of technology, takeoff gross weight, payload, and design requirements/objectives as the baseline, except for flying qualities, flutter, and ACT. The baseline wing is moved forward 1.68 m. The configuration incorporates pitch-augmented stability (which enabled an approximately 10% aft shift in cruise center of gravity and a 45% reduction in horizontal tail size), lateral/directional-augmented stability, an angle of attack limiter, wing load alleviation, and flutter mode control. This resulted in a 930 kg reduction in airplane operating empty weight and a 3.6% improvement in cruise efficiency, yielding a 13% range increase. Adjusted to the 3590 km baseline mission range, this amounts to 6% block fuel reduction and a 15.7% higher incremental return on investment, using 1978 dollars and fuel cost.