Science.gov

Sample records for multi-robot control architecture

  1. A Hybrid Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    System (PRS), and topological planning [32]. The sen- sor processing, actuator output, and LPS could all reclassify as the Controller Layer, 10...13. Camacho, David, Fernando Fernández, and Miguel A. Rodelgo. “Roboskeleton: An architecture for coordinating robot soccer agents”. Engineering

  2. A Biologically Inspired Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. The prototype control architecture emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  3. A Stigmergic Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howsman, Thomas G.; O'Neil, Daniel; Craft, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture which may be suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed which emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically, i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  4. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  5. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  6. A modular approach to multi-robot control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.J.; Lilly, K.W.

    1996-03-01

    The ability to rapidly command multi-robot behavior is crucial for the acceptance and effective utilization of multiple robot control. To achieve this, a modular- multiple robot control solution is being, pursued using the SMART modular control architecture. This paper investigates the development of a new dual-arm kinematics module (DUAL-KLN) which allows multiple robots, previously controlled as separate stand-alone systems, to be controlled as a coordinated multi-robot system. The DUAL-KIN module maps velocity and force information from a center point of interest on a grasped object to the tool centers of each grasping robot. Three-port network equations are used and mapped into the scattering operator domain in a computationally efficient form. Application examples of the DUAL-KLN module in multi-robot coordinated control are given.

  7. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot`s own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup.

  8. Design and Evaluation of a Multi-Robot Control Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    Baur “Multi-Robot Remote Driving with Collaborative Control”, in Proc. of the IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication , Bordeaux...International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication , Bordeaux, Paris, France 2001.

  9. Multi-robot motion control for cooperative observation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1997-06-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring (or observing) the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications involving limited-range sensors, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the use of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for the observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to minimize the total time in which targets escape observation by some robot team member in the area of interest. This paper first formalizes the problem and discusses related work. The authors then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level reasoning control based on the ALLIANCE formalism. They analyze the effectiveness of the approach by comparing it to 3 other feasible algorithms for cooperative control, showing the superiority of the approach for a large class of problems.

  10. The Control Based on Internal Average Kinetic Energy in Complex Environment for Multi-robot System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mao; Tian, Yantao; Yin, Xianghua

    In this paper, reference trajectory is designed according to minimum energy consumed for multi-robot system, which nonlinear programming and cubic spline interpolation are adopted. The control strategy is composed of two levels, which lower-level is simple PD control and the upper-level is based on the internal average kinetic energy for multi-robot system in the complex environment with velocity damping. Simulation tests verify the effectiveness of this control strategy.

  11. Nonlinear robust controller design for multi-robot systems with unknown payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Y. D.; Anderson, J. N.; Homaifar, A.; Lai, H. Y.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned with the control problem of a multi-robot system handling a payload with unknown mass properties. Force constraints at the grasp points are considered. Robust control schemes are proposed that cope with the model uncertainty and achieve asymptotic path tracking. To deal with the force constraints, a strategy for optimally sharing the task is suggested. This strategy basically consists of two steps. The first detects the robots that need help and the second arranges that help. It is shown that the overall system is not only robust to uncertain payload parameters, but also satisfies the force constraints.

  12. Towards Human-Friendly Efficient Control of Multi-Robot Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Theodoridis, Theodoros; Barrero, David F.; Hu, Huosheng; McDonald-Maiers, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores means to increase efficiency in performing tasks with multi-robot teams, in the context of natural Human-Multi-Robot Interfaces (HMRI) for command and control. The motivating scenario is an emergency evacuation by a transport convoy of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) that have to traverse, in shortest time, an unknown terrain. In the experiments the operator commands, in minimal time, a group of rovers through a maze. The efficiency of performing such tasks depends on both, the levels of robots' autonomy, and the ability of the operator to command and control the team. The paper extends the classic framework of levels of autonomy (LOA), to levels/hierarchy of autonomy characteristic of Groups (G-LOA), and uses it to determine new strategies for control. An UGVoriented command language (UGVL) is defined, and a mapping is performed from the human-friendly gesture-based HMRI into the UGVL. The UGVL is used to control a team of 3 robots, exploring the efficiency of different G-LOA; specifically, by (a) controlling each robot individually through the maze, (b) controlling a leader and cloning its controls to followers, and (c) controlling the entire group. Not surprisingly, commands at increased G-LOA lead to a faster traverse, yet a number of aspects are worth discussing in this context.

  13. A reinforcement learning trained fuzzy neural network controller for maintaining wireless communication connections in multi-robot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xu; Zhou, Yu

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a decentralized multi-robot motion control strategy to facilitate a multi-robot system, comprised of collaborative mobile robots coordinated through wireless communications, to form and maintain desired wireless communication coverage in a realistic environment with unstable wireless signaling condition. A fuzzy neural network controller is proposed for each robot to maintain the wireless link quality with its neighbors. The controller is trained through reinforcement learning to establish the relationship between the wireless link quality and robot motion decision, via consecutive interactions between the controller and environment. The tuned fuzzy neural network controller is applied to a multi-robot deployment process to form and maintain desired wireless communication coverage. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified through simulations under different wireless signal propagation conditions.

  14. Locally oriented potential field for controlling multi-robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Roseli A. F.; Prestes, Edson; Idiart, Marco A. P.; Faria, Gedson

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present an extension of the boundary value problem path planner (BVP PP) to control multiple robots in a robot soccer scenario. This extension is called Locally Oriented Potential Field (LOPF) and computes a potential field from the numerical solution of a BVP using local relaxations in different patches of the solution space. This permits that a single solution of the BVP endows distinct robots with different behaviors in a team. We present the steps to implement LOPF as well as several results obtained in simulation.

  15. Development and human factors analysis of an augmented reality interface for multi-robot tele-operation and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sam; Lucas, Nathan P.; Ellis, R. Darin; Pandya, Abhilash

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a seamlessly controlled human multi-robot system comprised of ground and aerial robots of semiautonomous nature for source localization tasks. The system combines augmented reality interfaces capabilities with human supervisor's ability to control multiple robots. The role of this human multi-robot interface is to allow an operator to control groups of heterogeneous robots in real time in a collaborative manner. It used advanced path planning algorithms to ensure obstacles are avoided and that the operators are free for higher-level tasks. Each robot knows the environment and obstacles and can automatically generate a collision-free path to any user-selected target. It displayed sensor information from each individual robot directly on the robot in the video view. In addition, a sensor data fused AR view is displayed which helped the users pin point source information or help the operator with the goals of the mission. The paper studies a preliminary Human Factors evaluation of this system in which several interface conditions are tested for source detection tasks. Results show that the novel Augmented Reality multi-robot control (Point-and-Go and Path Planning) reduced mission completion times compared to the traditional joystick control for target detection missions. Usability tests and operator workload analysis are also investigated.

  16. Distributed control of multi-robot teams: Cooperative baton passing task

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, they describe the implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative baton passing task. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes during the task.

  17. Adaptive Division of Labor in Large-Scale Minimalist Multi-Robot Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Matarić. A general, local algorithm for robot formations. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Special Issue on Multi- Robot Systems, 18(5):837...Matarić. Sold!: Auction meth- ods for multi-robot coordination. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Special Issue on Multi- Robot Systems...Alliance: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 14(2):220–240, 1998. [15] G

  18. Formation control of multi-robots for on-orbit assembly of large solar sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Quan; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Jingrui; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the formation control of four robots used for the on-orbit construction of a large solar sail. The solar sail under consideration is non-spinning and has a 1 km2 area. It includes a hub as the central body and four large booms supporting the lightweight films. Four formation operating space robots capable of walking on the boom structure are utilized to deploy the sail films. Because of the large size and mass of the sail, the robots should remain in formation during the sail deployment to avoid dramatic changes in the system properties. In this paper, the formation control issue of the four robots is solved by an adaptive sliding mode controller. A disturbance observer with finite-time convergence is embedded to improve the control performance. The proposed controller is capable of resisting the strong uncertainties in the operation and do not require the accurate parameters of the system. The stability is proven, and numerical simulations are provided to validate the effectiveness of the control strategy.

  19. Semi-Autonomous Collaborative Control of Multi-Robotic Systems for Multi-Task Multi-Target Pairing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    this paper proposes a control method for a single- master multi-slave ( SMMS ) teleoperator to cooperatively con- trol a team of mobile robots for a multi... SMMS ) teleoperator to cooperatively control a team of mobile robots for a multi-target mission. The major components of the proposed control method...required human resources and amplifying the human effort, the single-master multi-slave ( SMMS ) teleoperation has been con- sidered in this paper. Fong et

  20. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface—Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Elsa A.; Kim, Su K.; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  1. An Intelligent Man-Machine Interface-Multi-Robot Control Adapted for Task Engagement Based on Single-Trial Detectability of P300.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Elsa A; Kim, Su K; Tabie, Marc; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Maurus, Michael; Kirchner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Advanced man-machine interfaces (MMIs) are being developed for teleoperating robots at remote and hardly accessible places. Such MMIs make use of a virtual environment and can therefore make the operator immerse him-/herself into the environment of the robot. In this paper, we present our developed MMI for multi-robot control. Our MMI can adapt to changes in task load and task engagement online. Applying our approach of embedded Brain Reading we improve user support and efficiency of interaction. The level of task engagement was inferred from the single-trial detectability of P300-related brain activity that was naturally evoked during interaction. With our approach no secondary task is needed to measure task load. It is based on research results on the single-stimulus paradigm, distribution of brain resources and its effect on the P300 event-related component. It further considers effects of the modulation caused by a delayed reaction time on the P300 component evoked by complex responses to task-relevant messages. We prove our concept using single-trial based machine learning analysis, analysis of averaged event-related potentials and behavioral analysis. As main results we show (1) a significant improvement of runtime needed to perform the interaction tasks compared to a setting in which all subjects could easily perform the tasks. We show that (2) the single-trial detectability of the event-related potential P300 can be used to measure the changes in task load and task engagement during complex interaction while also being sensitive to the level of experience of the operator and (3) can be used to adapt the MMI individually to the different needs of users without increasing total workload. Our online adaptation of the proposed MMI is based on a continuous supervision of the operator's cognitive resources by means of embedded Brain Reading. Operators with different qualifications or capabilities receive only as many tasks as they can perform to avoid mental

  2. Neural Architectures for Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  3. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  4. The MDS autonomous control architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, E.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the autonomous control architecture for the JPL Mission Data System (MDS). MDS is a comprehensive new software infrastructure for supporting unmanned space exploration. The autonomous control architecture is one component of MDS designed to enable autonomous operations.

  5. L-ALLIANCE: a mechanism for adaptive action selection in heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    In practical applications of robotics, it is usually quite difficult, if not impossible, for the system designer to fully predict the environmental states in which the robots will operate. The complexity of the problem is further increased when dealing with teams of robots which themselves may be incompletely known and characterized in advance. It is thus highly desirable for robot teams to be able to adapt their performance during the mission due to changes in the environment, or to changes in other robot team members. In previous work, we introduced a behavior-based mechanism called the ALLIANCE architecture -- that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of multi-robot teams. However, this previous work did not address the issue of how to dynamically update the control parameters during a mission to adapt to ongoing changes in the environment or in the robot team, and to ensure the efficiency of the collective team actions. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, which defines an automated method whereby robots can use knowledge learned from previous experience to continually improve their collective action selection when working on missions composed of loosely coupled, discrete subtasks. This ability to dynamically update robotic control parameters provides a number of distinct advantages: it alleviates the need for human tuning of control parameters, it facilitates the use of custom-designed multi-robot teams for any given application, it improves the efficiency of the mission performance, and It allows robots to continually adapt their performance over time due to changes in the robot team and/or the environment. We describe the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, present the results of various alternative update strategies we investigated, present the formal model of the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, and present the results of a simple proof of concept implementation on a small team of heterogeneous mobile robots.

  6. Power Systems Control Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    James Davidson

    2005-01-01

    A diagram provided in the report depicts the complexity of the power systems control architecture used by the national power structure. It shows the structural hierarchy and the relationship of the each system to those other systems interconnected to it. Each of these levels provides a different focus for vulnerability testing and has its own weaknesses. In evaluating each level, of prime concern is what vulnerabilities exist that provide a path into the system, either to cause the system to malfunction or to take control of a field device. An additional vulnerability to consider is can the system be compromised in such a manner that the attacker can obtain critical information about the system and the portion of the national power structure that it controls.

  7. Dynamical Behavior of Multi-Robot Systems Using Lattice Gas Automata

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, S.M.; Robinett, R.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1999-03-11

    Recent attention has been given to the deployment of an adaptable sensor array realized by multi-robotic systems. Our group has been studying the collective behavior of autonomous, multi-agent systems and their applications in the area of remote-sensing and emerging threats. To accomplish such tasks, an interdisciplinary research effort at Sandia National Laboratories are conducting tests in the fields of sensor technology, robotics, and multi-robotic and multi-agents architectures. Our goal is to coordinate a constellation of point sensors that optimizes spatial coverage and multivariate signal analysis using unmanned robotic vehicles (e.g., RATLERs, Robotic All-ten-sin Lunar Exploration Rover-class vehicles). Overall design methodology is to evolve complex collective behaviors realized through simple interaction (kinetic) physics and artificial intelligence to enable real-time operational responses to emerging threats. This paper focuses on our recent work understanding the dynamics of many-body systems using the physics-based hydrodynamic model of lattice gas automata. Three design features are investigated. One, for single-speed robots, a hexagonal nearest-neighbor interaction topology is necessary to preserve standard hydrodynamic flow. Two, adaptability, defined by the swarm's deformation rate, can be controlled through the hydrodynamic viscosity term, which, in turn, is defined by the local robotic interaction rules. Three, due to the inherent non-linearity of the dynamical equations describing large ensembles, development of stability criteria ensuring convergence to equilibrium states is developed by scaling information flow rates relative to a swarm's hydrodynamic flow rate. An initial test case simulates a swarm of twenty-five robots that maneuvers past an obstacle while following a moving target. A genetic algorithm optimizes applied nearest-neighbor forces in each of five spatial regions distributed over the simulation domain. Armed with knowledge, the

  8. Cooperative multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.; Emmons, B.A.

    1997-03-01

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many security, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks is that of monitoring, or observing, the movements of targets navigating in a bounded area of interest. A key research issue in these problems is that of sensor placement--determining where sensors should be located to maintain the targets in view. In complex applications of this type, the use of multiple sensors dynamically moving over time is required. In this paper, the authors investigate the sue of a cooperative team of autonomous sensor-based robots for multi-robot observation of multiple moving targets. They focus primarily on developing the distributed control strategies that allow the robot team to attempt to maximize the collective tie during which each object is being observed by at least one robot in the area of interest. The initial efforts in this problem address the aspects of distributed control in homogeneous robot teams with equivalent sensing and movement capabilities working in an uncluttered, bounded area. This paper first formalizes the problem, discusses related work, and then shows that this problem is NP-hard. They then present a distributed approximate approach to solving this problem that combines low-level multi-robot control with higher-level control.

  9. Behavior-based multi-robot collaboration for autonomous construction tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghazarian, Hrand; Robinson, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    The Robot Construction Crew (RCC) is a heterogeneous multi-robot system for autonomous construction of a structure through assembly of Long components. The two robot team demonstrates component placement into an existing structure in a realistic environment. The task requires component acquisition, cooperative transport, and cooperative precision manipulation. A behavior-based architecture provides adaptability. The RCC approach minimizes computation, power, communication, and sensing for applicability to space-related construction efforts, but the techniques are applicable to terrestrial construction tasks.

  10. Effects of Agent Transparency on Multi-Robot Management Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    war” with its inherent complex, ambiguous, and time -challenged conditions. Mission effectiveness will rely on rapid identification and management of...ARL-TR-7466 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Effects of Agent Transparency on Multi-Robot Management Effectiveness by...SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Effects of Agent Transparency on Multi-Robot Management Effectiveness by Joseph E Mercado Oak

  11. An open architecture motion controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossol, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    Nomad, an open architecture motion controller, is described. It is formed by a combination of TMOS, C-WORKS, and other utilities. Nomad software runs in a UNIX environment and provides for sensor-controlled robotic motions, with user replaceable kinematics. It can also be tailored for highly specialized applications. Open controllers such as Nomad should have a major impact on the robotics industry.

  12. Open architecture CMM motion controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, David; Spence, Allan D.; Bigg, Steve; Heslip, Joe; Peterson, John

    2001-12-01

    Although initially the only Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) sensor available was a touch trigger probe, technological advances in sensors and computing have greatly increased the variety of available inspection sensors. Non-contact laser digitizers and analog scanning touch probes require very well tuned CMM motion control, as well as an extensible, open architecture interface. This paper describes the implementation of a retrofit CMM motion controller designed for open architecture interface to a variety of sensors. The controller is based on an Intel Pentium microcomputer and a Servo To Go motion interface electronics card. Motor amplifiers, safety, and additional interface electronics are housed in a separate enclosure. Host Signal Processing (HSP) is used for the motion control algorithm. Compared to the usual host plus DSP architecture, single CPU HSP simplifies integration with the various sensors, and implementation of software geometric error compensation. Motion control tuning is accomplished using a remote computer via 100BaseTX Ethernet. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is used to enter geometric error compensation data, and to optimize the motion control tuning parameters. It is shown that this architecture achieves the required real time motion control response, yet is much easier to extend to additional sensors.

  13. Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  14. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  15. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  16. Probabilistic Verification of Multi-Robot Missions in Uncertain Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    However, establishing a guarantee for the behavior of an autonomous robot operating in an uncertain environment with obstacles is a challenging problem...This paper addresses the challenges involved in building a software tool for verifying the behavior of a multi-robot waypoint mission that...this approach on a two-robot, bounding overwatch mission. Keywords-component; Probabilistic Verification, Validation, Multi-robot Missions, Behavior

  17. Behavior-Based Multi-Robot Collaboration for Autonomous Construction Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghazarian, Hrand; Robinson, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    We present a heterogeneous multi-robot system for autonomous construction of a structure through assembly of long components. Placement of a component within an existing structure in a realistic environment is demonstrated on a two-robot team. The task requires component acquisition, cooperative transport, and cooperative precision manipulation. Far adaptability, the system is designed as a behavior-based architecture. Far applicability to space-related construction efforts, computation, power, communication, and sensing are minimized, though the techniques developed are also applicable to terrestrial construction tasks.

  18. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot System for Mapping Environmental Variables of Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Garcia-Aunon, Pablo; Garzón, Mario; de León, Jorge; del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of greenhouses highly depends on the environmental conditions of crops, such as temperature and humidity. The control and monitoring might need large sensor networks, and as a consequence, mobile sensory systems might be a more suitable solution. This paper describes the application of a heterogeneous robot team to monitor environmental variables of greenhouses. The multi-robot system includes both ground and aerial vehicles, looking to provide flexibility and improve performance. The multi-robot sensory system measures the temperature, humidity, luminosity and carbon dioxide concentration in the ground and at different heights. Nevertheless, these measurements can be complemented with other ones (e.g., the concentration of various gases or images of crops) without a considerable effort. Additionally, this work addresses some relevant challenges of multi-robot sensory systems, such as the mission planning and task allocation, the guidance, navigation and control of robots in greenhouses and the coordination among ground and aerial vehicles. This work has an eminently practical approach, and therefore, the system has been extensively tested both in simulations and field experiments. PMID:27376297

  19. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot System for Mapping Environmental Variables of Greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Garcia-Aunon, Pablo; Garzón, Mario; de León, Jorge; Del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The productivity of greenhouses highly depends on the environmental conditions of crops, such as temperature and humidity. The control and monitoring might need large sensor networks, and as a consequence, mobile sensory systems might be a more suitable solution. This paper describes the application of a heterogeneous robot team to monitor environmental variables of greenhouses. The multi-robot system includes both ground and aerial vehicles, looking to provide flexibility and improve performance. The multi-robot sensory system measures the temperature, humidity, luminosity and carbon dioxide concentration in the ground and at different heights. Nevertheless, these measurements can be complemented with other ones (e.g., the concentration of various gases or images of crops) without a considerable effort. Additionally, this work addresses some relevant challenges of multi-robot sensory systems, such as the mission planning and task allocation, the guidance, navigation and control of robots in greenhouses and the coordination among ground and aerial vehicles. This work has an eminently practical approach, and therefore, the system has been extensively tested both in simulations and field experiments.

  20. A Case Study of Collaboration with Multi-Robots and Its Effect on Children's Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Learning how to carry out collaborative tasks is critical to the development of a student's capacity for social interaction. In this study, a multi-robot system was designed for students. In three different scenarios, students controlled robots in order to move dice; we then examined their collaborative strategies and their behavioral…

  1. Immunology-directed methods for distributed robotics: a novel immunity-based architecture for robust control and coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surya P. N.; Thayer, Scott M.

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithmic architecture for the coordination and control of large scale distributed robot teams derived from the constructs found within the human immune system. Using this as a guide, the Immunology-derived Distributed Autonomous Robotics Architecture (IDARA) distributes tasks so that broad, all-purpose actions are refined and followed by specific and mediated responses based on each unit's utility and capability to timely address the system's perceived need(s). This method improves on initial developments in this area by including often overlooked interactions of the innate immune system resulting in a stronger first-order, general response mechanism. This allows for rapid reactions in dynamic environments, especially those lacking significant a priori information. As characterized via computer simulation of a of a self-healing mobile minefield having up to 7,500 mines and 2,750 robots, IDARA provides an efficient, communications light, and scalable architecture that yields significant operation and performance improvements for large-scale multi-robot coordination and control.

  2. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M.; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-12-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions.

  3. A switching formation strategy for obstacle avoidance of a multi-robot system based on robot priority model.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanyan; Kim, YoonGu; Wee, SungGil; Lee, DongHa; Lee, SukGyu

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a switching formation strategy for multi-robots with velocity constraints to avoid and cross obstacles. In the strategy, a leader robot plans a safe path using the geometric obstacle avoidance control method (GOACM). By calculating new desired distances and bearing angles with the leader robot, the follower robots switch into a safe formation. With considering collision avoidance, a novel robot priority model, based on the desired distance and bearing angle between the leader and follower robots, is designed during the obstacle avoidance process. The adaptive tracking control algorithm guarantees that the trajectory and velocity tracking errors converge to zero. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed methods, simulation and experiment results present that multi-robots effectively form and switch formation avoiding obstacles without collisions.

  4. Architecture For Intelligent Control Of Robotic Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Chang, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Proposed architecture for control of such robotic devices as artificial hands calls for data-abstracting hierarchies of processing, controlling, and sensing equipment that plans, executes, and corrects movements of devices at acceptably high rates. Combines features developed in research on artificial intelligence and control theory. Characterized by casual connections between layers of hierarchy, approximately equal complexities of layers, and directed focus of attention.

  5. A task control architecture for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Mitchell, Tom

    1990-01-01

    An architecture is presented for controlling robots that have multiple tasks, operate in dynamic domains, and require a fair degree of autonomy. The architecture is built on several layers of functionality, including a distributed communication layer, a behavior layer for querying sensors, expanding goals, and executing commands, and a task level for managing the temporal aspects of planning and achieving goals, coordinating tasks, allocating resources, monitoring, and recovering from errors. Application to a legged planetary rover and an indoor mobile manipulator is described.

  6. A Software Architecture for Semiautonomous Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kortenkamp, David

    2004-01-01

    A software architecture has been developed to increase the safety and effectiveness with which tasks are performed by robots that are capable of functioning autonomously but sometimes are operated under control by humans. The control system of such a robot designed according to a prior software architecture has no way of taking account of how the environment has changed or what parts of a task were performed during an interval of control by a human, so that errors can occur (and, hence, safety and effectiveness jeopardized) when the human relinquishes control. The present architecture incorporates the control, task-planning, and sensor-based-monitoring features of typical prior autonomous-robot software architectures, plus features for updating information on the environment and planning of tasks during control by a human operator in order to enable the robot to track the actions taken by the operator and to be ready to resume autonomous operation with minimal error. The present architecture also provides a user interface that presents, to the operator, a variety of information on the internal state of the robot and the status of the task.

  7. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  8. Domain specific software architectures: Command and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Christine; Hatch, William; Ruegsegger, Theodore; Balzer, Bob; Feather, Martin; Goldman, Neil; Wile, Dave

    1992-01-01

    GTE is the Command and Control contractor for the Domain Specific Software Architectures program. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an architecture-driven, component-based capability for the automated generation of command and control (C2) applications. Such a capability will significantly reduce the cost of C2 applications development and will lead to improved system quality and reliability through the use of proven architectures and components. A major focus of GTE's approach is the automated generation of application components in particular subdomains. Our initial work in this area has concentrated in the message handling subdomain; we have defined and prototyped an approach that can automate one of the most software-intensive parts of C2 systems development. This paper provides an overview of the GTE team's DSSA approach and then presents our work on automated support for message processing.

  9. Integrated computer control system architectural overview

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P.

    1997-06-18

    This overview introduces the NIF Integrated Control System (ICCS) architecture. The design is abstract to allow the construction of many similar applications from a common framework. This summary lays the essential foundation for understanding the model-based engineering approach used to execute the design.

  10. Software control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; DeAnda, Juan R.; Fox, Richard K.; Meng, Xiannong

    1999-07-01

    The Strategic-Tactical-Execution Software Control Architecture (STESCA) is a tri-level approach to controlling autonomous vehicles. Using an object-oriented approach, STESCA has been developed as a generalization of the Rational Behavior Model (RBM). STESCA was initially implemented for the Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (Naval Postgraduate School -- Monterey, CA), and is currently being implemented for the Pioneer AT land-based wheeled vehicle. The goals of STESCA are twofold. First is to create a generic framework to simplify the process of creating a software control architecture for autonomous vehicles of any type. Second is to allow for mission specification system by 'anyone' with minimal training to control the overall vehicle functionality. This paper describes the prototype implementation of STESCA for the Pioneer AT.

  11. An intelligent CNC machine control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.; Loucks, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent, agile manufacturing relies on automated programming of digitally controlled processes. Currently, processes such as Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining are difficult to automate because of highly restrictive controllers and poor software environments. It is also difficult to utilize sensors and process models for adaptive control, or to integrate machining processes with other tasks within a factory floor setting. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, a CNC machine control system architecture based on object-oriented design and graphical programming has been developed to address some of these problems and to demonstrate automated agile machining applications using platform-independent software.

  12. Open architecture control for laser materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmann, Juergen; Kahmen, A.; Kaierle, Stefan; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2001-12-01

    In laser materials processing, usually CNC controls come into operation that are fitted to conventional applications of machining, like milling. Because of the flexibility required and the large variety of applications in laser technology the use of an open architecture control is necessary. Open controls based on the OSACA (Open System Architecture for Controls within Automation systems) specification gain an increasing importance when innovative technology is integrated into controls. OSACA defines a uniform system platform that provides services for communication and configuration. The OSACA platform has been developed as a modular system for different operating systems with or without real-time capability and different hardware platforms. The functionality of the control is subdivided into single functional units, which communicate provided by the OSACA platform. Every unit can access the internal control data in a standardized way. The contribution reports about the implementation of an OSACA based control into a laser manufacturing plant. The problems and components concerning a linkage to the laser control and the implementation of some laser specific control units are discussed.

  13. Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

  14. Neural network architecture for crossbar switch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troudet, Terry P.; Walters, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    A Hopfield neural network architecture for the real-time control of a crossbar switch for switching packets at maximum throughput is proposed. The network performance and processing time are derived from a numerical simulation of the transitions of the neural network. A method is proposed to optimize electronic component parameters and synaptic connections, and it is fully illustrated by the computer simulation of a VLSI implementation of 4 x 4 neural net controller. The extension to larger size crossbars is demonstrated through the simulation of an 8 x 8 crossbar switch controller, where the performance of the neural computation is discussed in relation to electronic noise and inhomogeneities of network components.

  15. Genetic control of inflorescence architecture in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Benlloch, Reyes; Berbel, Ana; Ali, Latifeh; Gohari, Gholamreza; Millán, Teresa; Madueño, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of the inflorescence, the shoot system that bears the flowers, is a main component of the huge diversity of forms found in flowering plants. Inflorescence architecture has also a strong impact on the production of fruits and seeds, and on crop management, two highly relevant agronomical traits. Elucidating the genetic networks that control inflorescence development, and how they vary between different species, is essential to understanding the evolution of plant form and to being able to breed key architectural traits in crop species. Inflorescence architecture depends on the identity and activity of the meristems in the inflorescence apex, which determines when flowers are formed, how many are produced and their relative position in the inflorescence axis. Arabidopsis thaliana, where the genetic control of inflorescence development is best known, has a simple inflorescence, where the primary inflorescence meristem directly produces the flowers, which are thus borne in the main inflorescence axis. In contrast, legumes represent a more complex inflorescence type, the compound inflorescence, where flowers are not directly borne in the main inflorescence axis but, instead, they are formed by secondary or higher order inflorescence meristems. Studies in model legumes such as pea (Pisum sativum) or Medicago truncatula have led to a rather good knowledge of the genetic control of the development of the legume compound inflorescence. In addition, the increasing availability of genetic and genomic tools for legumes is allowing to rapidly extending this knowledge to other grain legume crops. This review aims to describe the current knowledge of the genetic network controlling inflorescence development in legumes. It also discusses how the combination of this knowledge with the use of emerging genomic tools and resources may allow rapid advances in the breeding of grain legume crops. PMID:26257753

  16. MACOP modular architecture with control primitives

    PubMed Central

    Waegeman, Tim; Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Walking, catching a ball and reaching are all tasks in which humans and animals exhibit advanced motor skills. Findings in biological research concerning motor control suggest a modular control hierarchy which combines movement/motor primitives into complex and natural movements. Engineers inspire their research on these findings in the quest for adaptive and skillful control for robots. In this work we propose a modular architecture with control primitives (MACOP) which uses a set of controllers, where each controller becomes specialized in a subregion of its joint and task-space. Instead of having a single controller being used in this subregion [such as MOSAIC (modular selection and identification for control) on which MACOP is inspired], MACOP relates more to the idea of continuously mixing a limited set of primitive controllers. By enforcing a set of desired properties on the mixing mechanism, a mixture of primitives emerges unsupervised which successfully solves the control task. We evaluate MACOP on a numerical model of a robot arm by training it to generate desired trajectories. We investigate how the tracking performance is affected by the number of controllers in MACOP and examine how the individual controllers and their generated control primitives contribute to solving the task. Furthermore, we show how MACOP compensates for the dynamic effects caused by a fixed control rate and the inertia of the robot. PMID:23888140

  17. NASA Laboratory telerobotic manipulator control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. C.; Butler, P. L.; Glassell, R. L.; Herndon, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software.

  18. Online Mapping and Perception Algorithms for Multi-robot Teams Operating in Urban Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Online mapping and perception algorithms for multi-robot teams operating in urban environments by Johannes H. Strom A dissertation submitted in...REPORT DATE 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Online Mapping and Perception Algorithms for...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This thesis investigates some of the sensing and perception challenges faced by multi-robot teams equipped with

  19. Multi-Robot Systems in Military Domains (Les Systemes Multi-Robots Dans les Domaines Militaires)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Institute of Control and Systems Engineering ul. Piotrowo 3a 60-965 Poznan POLAND Phone: +48 (61) 665 21 97 Fax: +48 (61) 665 21 99 E...performance because of use of any protective equipment (gloves, vest, NBC gear ). ANNEX A – PUBLICATION FROM THE CORE GROUP RTO-TR-IST-032 A - 9...Unmanned Ground vehicles), planetary exploration, assembly in space, clean up, and urban search and rescue. This proceedings volume represents the

  20. Regulatory modules controlling maize inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Eveland, Andrea L; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Pautler, Michael; Morohashi, Kengo; Liseron-Monfils, Christophe; Lewis, Michael W; Kumari, Sunita; Hiraga, Susumu; Yang, Fang; Unger-Wallace, Erica; Olson, Andrew; Hake, Sarah; Vollbrecht, Erik; Grotewold, Erich; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, David

    2014-03-01

    Genetic control of branching is a primary determinant of yield, regulating seed number and harvesting ability, yet little is known about the molecular networks that shape grain-bearing inflorescences of cereal crops. Here, we used the maize (Zea mays) inflorescence to investigate gene networks that modulate determinacy, specifically the decision to allow branch growth. We characterized developmental transitions by associating spatiotemporal expression profiles with morphological changes resulting from genetic perturbations that disrupt steps in a pathway controlling branching. Developmental dynamics of genes targeted in vivo by the transcription factor RAMOSA1, a key regulator of determinacy, revealed potential mechanisms for repressing branches in distinct stem cell populations, including interactions with KNOTTED1, a master regulator of stem cell maintenance. Our results uncover discrete developmental modules that function in determining grass-specific morphology and provide a basis for targeted crop improvement and translation to other cereal crops with comparable inflorescence architectures.

  1. Advanced Active Thermal Control Systems Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanford, Anthony J.; Ewert, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) initiated a dynamic study to determine possible improvements available through advanced technologies (not used on previous or current human vehicles), identify promising development initiatives for advanced active thermal control systems (ATCS's), and help prioritize funding and personnel distribution among many research projects by providing a common basis to compare several diverse technologies. Some technologies included were two-phase thermal control systems, light-weight radiators, phase-change thermal storage, rotary fluid coupler, and heat pumps. JSC designed the study to estimate potential benefits from these various proposed and under-development thermal control technologies for five possible human missions early in the next century. The study compared all the technologies to a baseline mission using mass as a basis. Each baseline mission assumed an internal thermal control system; an external thermal control system; and aluminum, flow-through radiators. Solar vapor compression heat pumps and light-weight radiators showed the greatest promise as general advanced thermal technologies which can be applied across a range of missions. This initial study identified several other promising ATCS technologies which offer mass savings and other savings compared to traditional thermal control systems. Because the study format compares various architectures with a commonly defined baseline, it is versatile and expandable, and is expected to be updated as needed.

  2. Design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Lee, C. William; Strickland, Michael J.; Torkelson, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture is described. The design is based on a prevalidation methodology that uses both reliability and performance. A detailed account is given for the testing associated with a subset of the architecture and concludes with general observations of applying the methodology to the architecture.

  3. A Gradient Optimization Approach to Adaptive Multi-Robot Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    optimization through the evolution of a dynamical system. Some existing approaches do not fit under the framework we propose in this chap- ter. A...parameters are coupled among robots, we must consider the evolution of all the robots’ parameters together. Let = [ a]. (4.39) be a concatenated...dynamics * Synchronous evolution of equa- tions * Exact Voronoi cells computed from exact positions of all Voronoi neighbors * Exact integrals over

  4. An Open Specification for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A.; Heuser, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An 'open specification' for Space Project Mission Operations Control Architectures is under development in the Spacecraft Control Working Group of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astro- nautics. This architecture identifies 5 basic elements incorporated in the design of similar operations systems: Data, System Management, Control Interface, Decision Support Engine, & Space Messaging Service.

  5. Architectures for mission control at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Reger A.; Murphy, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    JPL is currently converting to an innovative control center data system which is a distributed, open architecture for telemetry delivery and which is enabling advancement towards improved automation and operability, as well as new technology, in mission operations at JPL. The scope of mission control within mission operations is examined. The concepts of a mission control center and how operability can affect the design of a control center data system are discussed. Examples of JPL's mission control architecture, data system development, and prototype efforts at the JPL Operations Engineering Laboratory are provided. Strategies for the future of mission control architectures are outlined.

  6. A Framework for Information Distribution, Task Execution and Decision Making in Multi-Robot Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambow, Matthias; Rohrmüller, Florian; Kourakos, Omiros; Bršcic, Drazen; Wollherr, Dirk; Hirche, Sandra; Buss, Martin

    Robotic systems operating in the real-world have to cope with unforeseen events by determining appropriate decisions based on noisy or partial knowledge. In this respect high functional robots are equipped with many sensors and actuators and run multiple processing modules in parallel. The resulting complexity is even further increased in case of cooperative multi-robot systems, since mechanisms for joint operation are needed. In this paper a complete and modular framework that handles this complexity in multi-robot systems is presented. It provides efficient exchange of generated data as well as a generic scheme for task execution and robot coordination.

  7. Software architecture of INO340 telescope control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanmehr, Reza; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    The software architecture plays an important role in distributed control system of astronomical projects because many subsystems and components must work together in a consistent and reliable way. We have utilized a customized architecture design approach based on "4+1 view model" in order to design INOCS software architecture. In this paper, after reviewing the top level INOCS architecture, we present the software architecture model of INOCS inspired by "4+1 model", for this purpose we provide logical, process, development, physical, and scenario views of our architecture using different UML diagrams and other illustrative visual charts. Each view presents INOCS software architecture from a different perspective. We finish the paper by science data operation of INO340 and the concluding remarks.

  8. Different micromanipulation applications based on common modular control architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipola, Risto; Vallius, Tero; Pudas, Marko; Röning, Juha

    2010-01-01

    This paper validates a previously introduced scalable modular control architecture and shows how it can be used to implement research equipment. The validation is conducted by presenting different kinds of micromanipulation applications that use the architecture. Conditions of the micro-world are very different from those of the macro-world. Adhesive forces are significant compared to gravitational forces when micro-scale objects are manipulated. Manipulation is mainly conducted by automatic control relying on haptic feedback provided by force sensors. The validated architecture is a hierarchical layered hybrid architecture, including a reactive layer and a planner layer. The implementation of the architecture is modular, and the architecture has a lot in common with open architectures. Further, the architecture is extensible, scalable, portable and it enables reuse of modules. These are the qualities that we validate in this paper. To demonstrate the claimed features, we present different applications that require special control in micrometer, millimeter and centimeter scales. These applications include a device that measures cell adhesion, a device that examines properties of thin films, a device that measures adhesion of micro fibers and a device that examines properties of submerged gel produced by bacteria. Finally, we analyze how the architecture is used in these applications.

  9. Multi-robot terrain coverage and task allocation for autonomous detection of landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Prithviraj; Muñoz-Meléndez, Angélica; Guruprasad, K. R.

    2012-06-01

    Multi-robot systems comprising of heterogeneous autonomous vehicles on land, air, water are being increasingly used to assist or replace humans in different hazardous missions. Two crucial aspects in such multi-robot systems are to: a) explore an initially unknown region of interest to discover tasks, and, b) allocate and share the discovered tasks between the robots in a coordinated manner using a multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) algorithm. In this paper, we describe results from our research on multi-robot terrain coverage and MRTA algorithms within an autonomous landmine detection scenario, done as part of the COMRADES project. Each robot is equipped with a different type of landmine detection sensor and different sensors, even of the same type, can have different degrees of accuracy. The landmine detection-related operations performed by each robot are abstracted as tasks and multiple robots are required to complete a single task. First, we describe a distributed and robust terrain coverage algorithm that employs Voronoi partitions to divide the area of interest among the robots and then uses a single-robot coverage algorithm to explore each partition for potential landmines. Then, we describe MRTA algorithms that use the location information of discovered potential landmines and employ either a greedy strategy, or, an opportunistic strategy to allocate tasks among the robots while attempting to minimize the time (energy) expended by the robots to perform the tasks. We report experimental results of our algorithms using accurately-simulated Corobot robots within the Webots simulator performing a multi-robot, landmine detection operation.

  10. System design document U-AVLIS control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Viebeck, P.G.

    1994-02-16

    This document describes the architecture of the integrated control system for the U-AVLIS process. It includes an overview of the major control system components and their interfaces to one another. Separate documents are utilized to fully describe each component mentioned herein. The purpose of this document is to introduce the reader to the integrated U-AVLIS control system. It describes the philosophy of the control system architecture and how all of the control system components are integrated. While the other System Design Documents describe in detail the design of individual control system components, this document puts those components into their correct context within the entire integrated control system.

  11. Evaluating the Multicast Control Protocol on a Multicasting Network Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, E.; Meletiou, G.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.; Margariti, S. V.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper a reliable multicasting architecture presented. This architecture operates using a Multicasting Firewall over the Multicast Control Protocol (MCP). Our aim was to evaluate the transition times of specific packets such as the IGMPv2 reports in the proposed multicasting network. In our study, multicasting experiments presented and analyzed. The obtained results of our experiments clearly show that the average validation times of IGMP reports on the Multicast Control Server smoothly increase versus the number of clients.

  12. Interacting with Multi-Robot Systems Using BML

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Research & Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) held 19-21 June, 2013 in Alexandria, VA. U.S. Government or Federal Rights License 14. ABSTRACT Using a multi...within the MRS easily. © Fraunhofer FKIE Communication Architecture ~ ~ Fraunhofer FKIE © Fraunhofer FKIE Battle Mangement Language BML...Fraunhofer FKIE Battle Mangement Language Orders Orders move patrol observe distribute guard recce imagery intelligence gathering

  13. INO340 telescope control system: software architecture and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanmehr, Reza; Jafarzadeh, Asghar

    2014-07-01

    The Iranian National Observatory telescope (INO340) is a 3.4m Alt-Az reflecting optical telescope under design and development. It is f/11 Ritchey-Chretien with a 0.3° field-of-view. INO340 telescope control system utilizes a distributed control system paradigm that includes four major systems: Telescope Control System (TCS), Observation System Supervisor (OSS), Interlock System (ILS) and Observatory Monitoring System (OMS). The control system software also employs 3-tiered hierarchical architecture. In this paper, after presenting the fundamental concepts and operations of the INO340 control system, we propose the distributed control system software architecture including technical and functional architecture, middleware and infrastructure design and finally the software development process.

  14. Critical Branches and Lucky Loads in Control-Independence Architectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Kshitiz

    2009-01-01

    Branch mispredicts have a first-order impact on the performance of integer applications. Control Independence (CI) architectures aim to overlap the penalties of mispredicted branches with useful execution by spawning control-independent work as separate threads. Although control independent, such threads may consume register and memory values…

  15. Multi-Robot Dynamic Task Allocation Using Modified Ant Colony System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Xia, Feng; Zhang, Xianchao

    This paper presents a dynamic task allocation algorithm for multiple robots to visit multiple targets. This algorithm is specifically designed for the environment where robots have dissimilar starting and ending locations. And the constraint of balancing the number of targets visited by each robot is considered. More importantly, this paper takes into account the dynamicity of multi-robot system and the obstacles in the environment. This problem is modeled as a constrained MTSP which can not be transformed to TSP and can not be solved by classical Ant Colony System (ACS). The Modified Ant Colony System (MACS) is presented to solve this problem and the unvisited targets are allocated to appropriate robots dynamically. The simulation results show that the output of the proposed algorithm can satisfy the constraints and dynamicity for the problem of multi-robot task allocation.

  16. Experiments Toward the Application of Multi-Robot Systems to Disaster-Relief Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    addressed along with a suite of autonomy-enabled behaviors that support operation in a communications-limited setting. Finally, we present extensive...experimental results evaluating this system. autonomous systems, intelligent behaviors , task-level autonomy, disaster relief 54 Jason Gregory 301-394...Multi-Robot Capabilities 14 4. Behaviors Supporting Autonomy 14 5. Operator Interface 16 5.1 Visualization of the System State 16 5.2 Tasking the System

  17. Multi-Robot Coalitions Formation with Deadlines: Complexity Analysis and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Multi-robot task allocation is one of the main problems to address in order to design a multi-robot system, very especially when robots form coalitions that must carry out tasks before a deadline. A lot of factors affect the performance of these systems and among them, this paper is focused on the physical interference effect, produced when two or more robots want to access the same point simultaneously. To our best knowledge, this paper presents the first formal description of multi-robot task allocation that includes a model of interference. Thanks to this description, the complexity of the allocation problem is analyzed. Moreover, the main contribution of this paper is to provide the conditions under which the optimal solution of the aforementioned allocation problem can be obtained solving an integer linear problem. The optimal results are compared to previous allocation algorithms already proposed by the first two authors of this paper and with a new method proposed in this paper. The results obtained show how the new task allocation algorithms reach up more than an 80% of the median of the optimal solution, outperforming previous auction algorithms with a huge reduction of the execution time. PMID:28118384

  18. Multi-Robot Coalitions Formation with Deadlines: Complexity Analysis and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Jose; Oliver, Gabriel; Valero, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Multi-robot task allocation is one of the main problems to address in order to design a multi-robot system, very especially when robots form coalitions that must carry out tasks before a deadline. A lot of factors affect the performance of these systems and among them, this paper is focused on the physical interference effect, produced when two or more robots want to access the same point simultaneously. To our best knowledge, this paper presents the first formal description of multi-robot task allocation that includes a model of interference. Thanks to this description, the complexity of the allocation problem is analyzed. Moreover, the main contribution of this paper is to provide the conditions under which the optimal solution of the aforementioned allocation problem can be obtained solving an integer linear problem. The optimal results are compared to previous allocation algorithms already proposed by the first two authors of this paper and with a new method proposed in this paper. The results obtained show how the new task allocation algorithms reach up more than an 80% of the median of the optimal solution, outperforming previous auction algorithms with a huge reduction of the execution time.

  19. Wireless Content Repurposing Architecture for DC Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    COMMAND AND CONTROL by Robert J. Suh September 2003 Thesis Advisor: Gurminder Singh Second Reader: Perry McDowell...data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Wireless Content Repurposing Architecture for DC Command and Control

  20. The Integrated Airframe/Propulsion Control System Architecture program (IAPSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Cohen, Gerald C.; Meissner, Charles W.

    1990-01-01

    The Integrated Airframe/Propulsion Control System Architecture program (IAPSA) is a two-phase program which was initiated by NASA in the early 80s. The first phase, IAPSA 1, studied different architectural approaches to the problem of integrating engine control systems with airframe control systems in an advanced tactical fighter. One of the conclusions of IAPSA 1 was that the technology to construct a suitable system was available, yet the ability to create these complex computer architectures has outpaced the ability to analyze the resulting system's performance. With this in mind, the second phase of IAPSA approached the same problem with the added constraint that the system be designed for validation. The intent of the design for validation requirement is that validation requirements should be shown to be achievable early in the design process. IAPSA 2 has demonstrated that despite diligent efforts, integrated systems can retain characteristics which are difficult to model and, therefore, difficult to validate.

  1. Control system architecture for robotic welding of tubular joints

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, O.; Holm, H.; Lauridsen, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the architecture of a geometry model and sensor based control system for robotic welding of tubular joints. The functional architecture of the system is described with the main emphasis on the overall mode of operation of the system. Furthermore, it is described how measurements of the physical seam profile are used to update a reference geometry model, and how welding control variables are generated based on the updated reference geometry. Finally, it is illustrated how the use of a reference geometry can improve the flexibility and robustness of the system.

  2. Supervisory Control System Architecture for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Sacit M; Cole, Daniel L; Fugate, David L; Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Muhlheim, Michael David; Rao, Nageswara S; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular SMR Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular advanced SMR (AdvSMR) plants. This research activity advances the state-of-the art by incorporating decision making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides a brief history of hierarchical functional architectures and the current state-of-the-art, describes a reference AdvSMR to show the dependencies between systems, presents a hierarchical structure for supervisory control, indicates the importance of understanding trip setpoints, applies a new theoretic approach for comparing architectures, identifies cyber security controls that should be addressed early in system design, and describes ongoing work to develop system requirements and hardware/software configurations.

  3. Centralized and distributed control architectures under Foundation Fieldbus network.

    PubMed

    Persechini, Maria Auxiliadora Muanis; Jota, Fábio Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at discussing possible automation and control system architectures based on fieldbus networks in which the controllers can be implemented either in a centralized or in a distributed form. An experimental setup is used to demonstrate some of the addressed issues. The control and automation architecture is composed of a supervisory system, a programmable logic controller and various other devices connected to a Foundation Fieldbus H1 network. The procedures used in the network configuration, in the process modelling and in the design and implementation of controllers are described. The specificities of each one of the considered logical organizations are also discussed. Finally, experimental results are analysed using an algorithm for the assessment of control loops to compare the performances between the centralized and the distributed implementations.

  4. A portable modular architecture for robotic manipulator control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. L.

    1993-04-01

    A control architecture has been developed to provide a framework for robotic manipulator control. This architecture, called the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA), has been successfully applied to two different manipulator systems. MICA is a portable system in two respects. First, it can be used for the control of different types of manipulator systems. Second, the MICA code is portable across several operating environments. This portability allows the sharing of common control code among various systems. A major portion of MICA is the precise control of multiple processors that have to be coordinated to control a manipulator system. By having MICA control the processor synchronization, the system developer can concentrate on the specific aspects of a new manipulator system. MICA also provides standard functions for trajectory generation that can be used for most manipulators. Custom trajectory generators can be easily added to suit the needs of a particular robotic control system. Another facility that MICA provides is a simulation of the manipulator, allowing the control code to be simulated before trying it on a manipulator system. Using this technique, one can develop code for a manipulator system without risking damage to the arm during development.

  5. Control system architecture for a minimally invasive surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Fodero, Kenneth; King, H Hawkeye; Lum, Mitchell J H; Bland, Clint; Rosen, Jacob; Sinanan, Mika; Hannaford, Blake

    2006-01-01

    As the field of surgical robotics continues to evolve, it is important to keep patient safety in mind. This paper describes a safety control architecture aimed at moving an experimental system in the direction of intrinsically safe operation. The system includes safety features such as: a small number of states, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) state transition control, active enable, brakes, E-STOP, and a surgeon foot pedal.

  6. Background and architecture for an autonomous ground station controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paal, L.; Golshan, N.; Fisher, F.; James, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Deep Space Station Controller (DSSC) is state of the art ground station control architecture being developed at JPL. During the past few years the technology development program at JPL demonstrated a series of increasingly competent automated ground station prototypes of which the DSSC is the latest. It has been designed for robust closed loop control of ground stations utilized for forward and return link communications with NASA's deep space exploration missions.

  7. On-board processing satellite network architecture and control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campanella, S. Joseph; Pontano, Benjamin A.; Chalmers, Harvey

    1987-01-01

    The market for telecommunications services needs to be segmented into user classes having similar transmission requirements and hence similar network architectures. Use of the following transmission architecture was considered: satellite switched TDMA; TDMA up, TDM down; scanning (hopping) beam TDMA; FDMA up, TDM down; satellite switched MF/TDMA; and switching Hub earth stations with double hop transmission. A candidate network architecture will be selected that: comprises multiple access subnetworks optimized for each user; interconnects the subnetworks by means of a baseband processor; and optimizes the marriage of interconnection and access techniques. An overall network control architecture will be provided that will serve the needs of the baseband and satellite switched RF interconnected subnetworks. The results of the studies shall be used to identify elements of network architecture and control that require the greatest degree of technology development to realize an operational system. This will be specified in terms of: requirements of the enabling technology; difference from the current available technology; and estimate of the development requirements needed to achieve an operational system. The results obtained for each of these tasks are presented.

  8. Regulatory modules controlling maize inflorescence architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic control of branching is a primary determinant of yield, regulating seed number and harvesting ability, yet little is known about the molecular networks that shape grain-bearing inflorescences of cereal crops. Here, we used the maize (Zea mays) inflorescence to investigate gene networks that...

  9. Hybrid Architecture Active Wavefront Sensing and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Dean, Bruce; Hyde, Tupper

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed for performing relatively high-speed wavefront sensing and control to overcome thermal instabilities in a segmented primary mirror telescope [e.g., James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at L2], by using the onboard fine guidance sensor (FGS) to minimize expense and complexity. This FGS performs centroiding on a bright star to feed the information to the pointing and control system. The proposed concept is to beam split the image of the guide star (or use a single defocused guide star image) to perform wavefront sensing using phase retrieval techniques. Using the fine guidance sensor star image for guiding and fine phasing eliminates the need for other, more complex ways of achieving very accurate sensing and control that is needed for UV-optical applications. The phase retrieval occurs nearly constantly, so passive thermal stability over fourteen days is not required. Using the FGS as the sensor, one can feed segment update information to actuators on the primary mirror that can update the primary mirror segment fine phasing with this frequency. Because the thermal time constants of the primary mirror are very slow compared to this duration, the mirror will appear extremely stable during observations (to the level of accuracy of the sensing and control). The sensing can use the same phase retrieval techniques as the JWST by employing an additional beam splitter, and having each channel go through a weak lens (one positive and one negative). The channels can use common or separate detectors. Phase retrieval can be performed onboard. The actuation scheme would include a coarse stage able to achieve initial alignment of several millimeters of range (similar to JWST and can use a JWST heritage sensing approach in the science camera) and a fine stage capable of continual updates.

  10. NASA Integrated Network Monitor and Control Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter; Anderson, Michael; Kowal, Steve; Levesque, Michael; Sindiy, Oleg; Donahue, Kenneth; Barnes, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) has commissioned a series of trade studies to define a new architecture intended to integrate the three existing networks that it operates, the Deep Space Network (DSN), Space Network (SN), and Near Earth Network (NEN), into one integrated network that offers users a set of common, standardized, services and interfaces. The integrated monitor and control architecture utilizes common software and common operator interfaces that can be deployed at all three network elements. This software uses state-of-the-art concepts such as a pool of re-programmable equipment that acts like a configurable software radio, distributed hierarchical control, and centralized management of the whole SCaN integrated network. For this trade space study a model-based approach using SysML was adopted to describe and analyze several possible options for the integrated network monitor and control architecture. This model was used to refine the design and to drive the costing of the four different software options. This trade study modeled the three existing self standing network elements at point of departure, and then described how to integrate them using variations of new and existing monitor and control system components for the different proposed deployments under consideration. This paper will describe the trade space explored, the selected system architecture, the modeling and trade study methods, and some observations on useful approaches to implementing such model based trade space representation and analysis.

  11. Flexible distributed architecture for semiconductor process control and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, Aaron E.; Boning, Duane S.; McIlrath, Michael B.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor fabrication requires an increasingly expensive and integrated set of tightly controlled processes, driving the need for a fabrication facility with fully computerized, networked processing equipment. We describe an integrated, open system architecture enabling distributed experimentation and process control for plasma etching. The system was developed at MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratories and employs in-situ CCD interferometry based analysis in the sensor-feedback control of an Applied Materials Precision 5000 Plasma Etcher (AME5000). Our system supports accelerated, advanced research involving feedback control algorithms, and includes a distributed interface that utilizes the internet to make these fabrication capabilities available to remote users. The system architecture is both distributed and modular: specific implementation of any one task does not restrict the implementation of another. The low level architectural components include a host controller that communicates with the AME5000 equipment via SECS-II, and a host controller for the acquisition and analysis of the CCD sensor images. A cell controller (CC) manages communications between these equipment and sensor controllers. The CC is also responsible for process control decisions; algorithmic controllers may be integrated locally or via remote communications. Finally, a system server images connections from internet/intranet (web) based clients and uses a direct link with the CC to access the system. Each component communicates via a predefined set of TCP/IP socket based messages. This flexible architecture makes integration easier and more robust, and enables separate software components to run on the same or different computers independent of hardware or software platform.

  12. A control architecture for a Mars walking vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    A design framework for a Mars Rover, intended for missions where a high degree of autonomy is dictated, is presented. The framework provides a logical computing architecture for rover mobility and local navigation subsystem design by defining a set of functional modules and interfaces to facilitate software and hardware specification. The similarities and dissimilarities between the present approach and related architectures for autonomous navigation and robotic control are discussed. An approach is presented for specifying actions to be taken by the mobility and local navigation subsystems of the rover.

  13. Architectures & requirements for advanced weapon controllers.

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtrey, Brian J.; Klarer, Paul Richard; Bryan, Jon R.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes work done in FY2003 under Advanced and Exploratory Studies funding for Advanced Weapons Controllers. The contemporary requirements and envisioned missions for nuclear weapons are changing from the class of missions originally envisioned during development of the current stockpile. Technology available today in electronics, computing, and software provides capabilities not practical or even possible 20 years ago. This exploratory work looks at how Weapon Electrical Systems can be improved to accommodate new missions and new technologies while maintaining or improving existing standards in nuclear safety and reliability.

  14. Instrumentation and control building, architectural, sections and elevation. Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control building, architectural, sections and elevation. Specifications No. Eng -04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 65 of 148; file no. 1321/16. Stamped: record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. UPenn Multi-Robot Unmanned Vehicle System (MAGIC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-05

    procedure upon confirmation from a human operator (a) indoor barn environment (b) maze environment (c) static OOI Figure 1: Representative images from the...control station: Potential OOIs identified by UGVs are displayed in both omnidirectional and high-resolution images for validation by the OOI operator...confirms visual acquisition of the correct target using images streamed from the disrupter UGVs forward camera (Figure 11). The sensor UGV cameras

  16. Proposed Methodology for Application of Human-like gradual Multi-Agent Q-Learning (HuMAQ) for Multi-robot Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan Ray, Dip; Majumder, Somajyoti

    2014-07-01

    Several attempts have been made by the researchers around the world to develop a number of autonomous exploration techniques for robots. But it has been always an important issue for developing the algorithm for unstructured and unknown environments. Human-like gradual Multi-agent Q-leaming (HuMAQ) is a technique developed for autonomous robotic exploration in unknown (and even unimaginable) environments. It has been successfully implemented in multi-agent single robotic system. HuMAQ uses the concept of Subsumption architecture, a well-known Behaviour-based architecture for prioritizing the agents of the multi-agent system and executes only the most common action out of all the different actions recommended by different agents. Instead of using new state-action table (Q-table) each time, HuMAQ uses the immediate past table for efficient and faster exploration. The proof of learning has also been established both theoretically and practically. HuMAQ has the potential to be used in different and difficult situations as well as applications. The same architecture has been modified to use for multi-robot exploration in an environment. Apart from all other existing agents used in the single robotic system, agents for inter-robot communication and coordination/ co-operation with the other similar robots have been introduced in the present research. Current work uses a series of indigenously developed identical autonomous robotic systems, communicating with each other through ZigBee protocol.

  17. Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing (CARACaS) is a recent product of a continuing effort to develop architectures for controlling either a single autonomous robotic vehicle or multiple cooperating but otherwise autonomous robotic vehicles. CARACaS is potentially applicable to diverse robotic systems that could include aircraft, spacecraft, ground vehicles, surface water vessels, and/or underwater vessels. CARACaS incudes an integral combination of three coupled agents: a dynamic planning engine, a behavior engine, and a perception engine. The perception and dynamic planning en - gines are also coupled with a memory in the form of a world model. CARACaS is intended to satisfy the need for two major capabilities essential for proper functioning of an autonomous robotic system: a capability for deterministic reaction to unanticipated occurrences and a capability for re-planning in the face of changing goals, conditions, or resources. The behavior engine incorporates the multi-agent control architecture, called CAMPOUT, described in An Architecture for Controlling Multiple Robots (NPO-30345), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 65. CAMPOUT is used to develop behavior-composition and -coordination mechanisms. Real-time process algebra operators are used to compose a behavior network for any given mission scenario. These operators afford a capability for producing a formally correct kernel of behaviors that guarantee predictable performance. By use of a method based on multi-objective decision theory (MODT), recommendations from multiple behaviors are combined to form a set of control actions that represents their consensus. In this approach, all behaviors contribute simultaneously to the control of the robotic system in a cooperative rather than a competitive manner. This approach guarantees a solution that is good enough with respect to resolution of complex, possibly conflicting goals within the constraints of the mission to

  18. Cooperative Environment Scans Based on a Multi-Robot System

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji-Wook

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a cooperative environment scan system (CESS) using multiple robots, where each robot has low-cost range finders and low processing power. To organize and maintain the CESS, a base robot monitors the positions of the child robots, controls them, and builds a map of the unknown environment, while the child robots with low performance range finders provide obstacle information. Even though each child robot provides approximated and limited information of the obstacles, CESS replaces the single LRF, which has a high cost, because much of the information is acquired and accumulated by a number of the child robots. Moreover, the proposed CESS extends the measurement boundaries and detects obstacles hidden behind others. To show the performance of the proposed system and compare this with the numerical models of the commercialized 2D and 3D laser scanners, simulation results are included. PMID:25789491

  19. A Free Market Architecture for Coordinating Multiple Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    L. E., “ALLIANCE: An Architecture for Fault Tolerant Multi-Robot Cooperation”, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 14, No.2, pp. 220...Automation, pp. 582-587, 1993. 18. 6FKQHLGHU)RQWiQ00DWDULü0-³7HUULWRULDO0XOWL5RERW7DVN’LYLVLRQ´ IEEE Transactions on Robotics and

  20. Optimization of shared autonomy vehicle control architectures for swarm operations.

    PubMed

    Sengstacken, Aaron J; DeLaurentis, Daniel A; Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad R

    2010-08-01

    The need for greater capacity in automotive transportation (in the midst of constrained resources) and the convergence of key technologies from multiple domains may eventually produce the emergence of a "swarm" concept of operations. The swarm, which is a collection of vehicles traveling at high speeds and in close proximity, will require technology and management techniques to ensure safe, efficient, and reliable vehicle interactions. We propose a shared autonomy control approach, in which the strengths of both human drivers and machines are employed in concert for this management. Building from a fuzzy logic control implementation, optimal architectures for shared autonomy addressing differing classes of drivers (represented by the driver's response time) are developed through a genetic-algorithm-based search for preferred fuzzy rules. Additionally, a form of "phase transition" from a safe to an unsafe swarm architecture as the amount of sensor capability is varied uncovers key insights on the required technology to enable successful shared autonomy for swarm operations.

  1. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  2. Design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Lee, C. William; Strickland, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an integrated airframe/propulsion control system architecture is described. The design is based on a prevalidation methodology that used both reliability and performance tools. An account is given of the motivation for the final design and problems associated with both reliability and performance modeling. The appendices contain a listing of the code for both the reliability and performance model used in the design.

  3. Multi-robot task allocation based on two dimensional artificial fish swarm algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Taixiong; Li, Xueqin; Yang, Liangyi

    2007-12-01

    The problem of task allocation for multiple robots is to allocate more relative-tasks to less relative-robots so as to minimize the processing time of these tasks. In order to get optimal multi-robot task allocation scheme, a twodimensional artificial swarm algorithm based approach is proposed in this paper. In this approach, the normal artificial fish is extended to be two dimension artificial fish. In the two dimension artificial fish, each vector of primary artificial fish is extended to be an m-dimensional vector. Thus, each vector can express a group of tasks. By redefining the distance between artificial fish and the center of artificial fish, the behavior of two dimension fish is designed and the task allocation algorithm based on two dimension artificial swarm algorithm is put forward. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the problem of multi-robot task allocation and comparer with GA and SA based algorithm is done. Simulation and compare result shows the proposed algorithm is effective.

  4. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  5. Mark 4A antenna control system data handling architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, H. C.; Eldred, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    A high-level review was conducted to provide an analysis of the existing architecture used to handle data and implement control algorithms for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas and to make system-level recommendations for improving this architecture so that the DSN antennas can support the ever-tightening requirements of the next decade and beyond. It was found that the existing system is seriously overloaded, with processor utilization approaching 100 percent. A number of factors contribute to this overloading, including dated hardware, inefficient software, and a message-passing strategy that depends on serial connections between machines. At the same time, the system has shortcomings and idiosyncrasies that require extensive human intervention. A custom operating system kernel and an obscure programming language exacerbate the problems and should be modernized. A new architecture is presented that addresses these and other issues. Key features of the new architecture include a simplified message passing hierarchy that utilizes a high-speed local area network, redesign of particular processing function algorithms, consolidation of functions, and implementation of the architecture in modern hardware and software using mainstream computer languages and operating systems. The system would also allow incremental hardware improvements as better and faster hardware for such systems becomes available, and costs could potentially be low enough that redundancy would be provided economically. Such a system could support DSN requirements for the foreseeable future, though thorough consideration must be given to hard computational requirements, porting existing software functionality to the new system, and issues of fault tolerance and recovery.

  6. A fault-tolerant control architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozeski, Graham R.

    Research has presented several approaches to achieve varying degrees of fault-tolerance in unmanned aircraft. Approaches in reconfigurable flight control are generally divided into two categories: those which incorporate multiple non-adaptive controllers and switch between them based on the output of a fault detection and identification element, and those that employ a single adaptive controller capable of compensating for a variety of fault modes. Regardless of the approach for reconfigurable flight control, certain fault modes dictate system restructuring in order to prevent a catastrophic failure. System restructuring enables active control of actuation not employed by the nominal system to recover controllability of the aircraft. After system restructuring, continued operation requires the generation of flight paths that adhere to an altered flight envelope. The control architecture developed in this research employs a multi-tiered hierarchy to allow unmanned aircraft to generate and track safe flight paths despite the occurrence of potentially catastrophic faults. The hierarchical architecture increases the level of autonomy of the system by integrating five functionalities with the baseline system: fault detection and identification, active system restructuring, reconfigurable flight control; reconfigurable path planning, and mission adaptation. Fault detection and identification algorithms continually monitor aircraft performance and issue fault declarations. When the severity of a fault exceeds the capability of the baseline flight controller, active system restructuring expands the controllability of the aircraft using unconventional control strategies not exploited by the baseline controller. Each of the reconfigurable flight controllers and the baseline controller employ a proven adaptive neural network control strategy. A reconfigurable path planner employs an adaptive model of the vehicle to re-shape the desired flight path. Generation of the revised

  7. CAMPOUT: a control architecture for multirobot planetary outposts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjanian, Paolo; Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Aghazarian, Hrand; Das, Hari; Joshi, Sanjay S.; Schenker, Paul S.

    2000-10-01

    A manned Mars habitat will require a significant amount of infrastructure that can be deployed using robotic precursor missions. This infrastructure deployment will probably include the use of multiple, heterogeneous, mobile robotic platforms. Delays due to the long communication path to Mars limit the amount of teleoperation that is possible. A control architecture called CAMPOUT (Control Architecture for Multirobot Planetary Outposts) is currently under development at the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, CA. It is a three layer behavior-based system that incorporates the low level control routines currently used on the JPL SRR/FIDO/LEMUR rovers. The middle behavior layer uses either the BISMARC (Biologically Inspired System for Map- based Autonomous Rover Control) or MOBC (Multi-Objective Behavior Control) action selection mechanisms. CAMPOUT includes the necessary group behaviors and communication mechanisms for coordinated/cooperative control of heterogeneous robotic platforms. We report the results of some ongoing work at the jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, CA on the transport phase of a photovoltaic (PV) tent deployment mission.

  8. Tandem riboswitch architectures exhibit complex gene control functions.

    PubMed

    Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Hammond, Ming C; Block, Kirsten F; Welz, Rüdiger; Barrick, Jeffrey E; Roth, Adam; Breaker, Ronald R

    2006-10-13

    Riboswitches are structured RNAs typically located in the 5' untranslated regions of bacterial mRNAs that bind metabolites and control gene expression. Most riboswitches sense one metabolite and function as simple genetic switches. However, we found that the 5' region of the Bacillus clausii metE messenger RNA includes two riboswitches that respond to S-adenosylmethionine and coenzyme B12. This tandem arrangement yields a composite gene control system that functions as a two-input Boolean NOR logic gate. These findings and the discovery of additional tandem riboswitch architectures reveal how simple RNA elements can be assembled to make sophisticated genetic decisions without involving protein factors.

  9. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  10. A reinforcement learning-based architecture for fuzzy logic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for learning to refine a rule-based fuzzy logic controller. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multilayer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The approximate reasoning based intelligent control (ARIC) architecture proposed here learns by updating its prediction of the physical system's behavior and fine tunes a control knowledge base. Its theory is related to Sutton's temporal difference (TD) method. Because ARIC has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine tuning it through the process of learning, it learns faster than systems that train networks from scratch. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  11. An architecture for designing fuzzy logic controllers using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1991-01-01

    Described here is an architecture for designing fuzzy controllers through a hierarchical process of control rule acquisition and by using special classes of neural network learning techniques. A new method for learning to refine a fuzzy logic controller is introduced. A reinforcement learning technique is used in conjunction with a multi-layer neural network model of a fuzzy controller. The model learns by updating its prediction of the plant's behavior and is related to the Sutton's Temporal Difference (TD) method. The method proposed here has the advantage of using the control knowledge of an experienced operator and fine-tuning it through the process of learning. The approach is applied to a cart-pole balancing system.

  12. A structured architecture for advanced plasma control experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    Recent new and improved plasma control regimes have evolved from enhancements to the systems responsible for managing the plasma configuration on the DIII-D tokamak. The collection of hardware and software components designed for this purpose is known at DIII-D as the Plasma Control System or PCS. Several new user requirements have contributed to the rapid growth of the PCS. Experiments involving digital control of the plasma vertical position have resulted in the addition of new high performance processors to operate in real-time. Recent studies in plasma disruptions involving the use of neural network based software have resulted in an increase in the number of input diagnostic signals sampled. Better methods for estimating the plasma shape and position have brought about numerous software changes and the addition of several new code modules. Furthermore, requests for performing multivariable control and feedback on the current profile are continuing to add to the demands being placed on the PCS. To support all of these demands has required a structured yet flexible hardware and software architecture for maintaining existing capabilities and easily adding new ones. This architecture along with a general overview of the DIII-D Plasma Control System is described. In addition, the latest improvements to the PCS are presented.

  13. The NASA Mission Operations and Control Architecture Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul J.; Carper, Richard D.; Jeffries, Alan J.

    1994-01-01

    The conflict between increases in space mission complexity and rapidly declining space mission budgets has created strong pressures to radically reduce the costs of designing and operating spacecraft. A key approach to achieving such reductions is through reducing the development and operations costs of the supporting mission operations systems. One of the efforts which the Communications and Data Systems Division at NASA Headquarters is using to meet this challenge is the Mission Operations Control Architecture (MOCA) project. Technical direction of this effort has been delegated to the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). MOCA is to develop a mission control and data acquisition architecture, and supporting standards, to guide the development of future spacecraft and mission control facilities at GSFC. The architecture will reduce the need for around-the-clock operations staffing, obtain a high level of reuse of flight and ground software elements from mission to mission, and increase overall system flexibility by enabling the migration of appropriate functions from the ground to the spacecraft. The end results are to be an established way of designing the spacecraft-ground system interface for GSFC's in-house developed spacecraft, and a specification of the end to end spacecraft control process, including data structures, interfaces, and protocols, suitable for inclusion in solicitation documents for future flight spacecraft. A flight software kernel may be developed and maintained in a condition that it can be offered as Government Furnished Equipment in solicitations. This paper describes the MOCA project, its current status, and the results to date.

  14. Distributed Sensor Architecture for Intelligent Control that Supports Quality of Control and Quality of Service

    PubMed Central

    Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó-Ten, José-Enrique; Simarro, Raúl; Benet, Ginés

    2015-01-01

    This paper is part of a study of intelligent architectures for distributed control and communications systems. The study focuses on optimizing control systems by evaluating the performance of middleware through quality of service (QoS) parameters and the optimization of control using Quality of Control (QoC) parameters. The main aim of this work is to study, design, develop, and evaluate a distributed control architecture based on the Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) communication standard as proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). As a result of the study, an architecture called Frame-Sensor-Adapter to Control (FSACtrl) has been developed. FSACtrl provides a model to implement an intelligent distributed Event-Based Control (EBC) system with support to measure QoS and QoC parameters. The novelty consists of using, simultaneously, the measured QoS and QoC parameters to make decisions about the control action with a new method called Event Based Quality Integral Cycle. To validate the architecture, the first five Braitenberg vehicles have been implemented using the FSACtrl architecture. The experimental outcomes, demonstrate the convenience of using jointly QoS and QoC parameters in distributed control systems. PMID:25723145

  15. Distributed sensor architecture for intelligent control that supports quality of control and quality of service.

    PubMed

    Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó-Ten, José-Enrique; Simarro, Raúl; Benet, Ginés

    2015-02-25

    This paper is part of a study of intelligent architectures for distributed control and communications systems. The study focuses on optimizing control systems by evaluating the performance of middleware through quality of service (QoS) parameters and the optimization of control using Quality of Control (QoC) parameters. The main aim of this work is to study, design, develop, and evaluate a distributed control architecture based on the Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) communication standard as proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). As a result of the study, an architecture called Frame-Sensor-Adapter to Control (FSACtrl) has been developed. FSACtrl provides a model to implement an intelligent distributed Event-Based Control (EBC) system with support to measure QoS and QoC parameters. The novelty consists of using, simultaneously, the measured QoS and QoC parameters to make decisions about the control action with a new method called Event Based Quality Integral Cycle. To validate the architecture, the first five Braitenberg vehicles have been implemented using the FSACtrl architecture. The experimental outcomes, demonstrate the convenience of using jointly QoS and QoC parameters in distributed control systems.

  16. On-board processing satellite network architecture and control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campanella, S. Joseph; Pontano, B.; Chalmers, H.

    1987-01-01

    For satellites to remain a vital part of future national and international communications, system concepts that use their inherent advantages to the fullest must be created. Network architectures that take maximum advantage of satellites equipped with onboard processing are explored. Satellite generations must accommodate various services for which satellites constitute the preferred vehicle of delivery. Such services tend to be those that are widely dispersed and present thin to medium loads to the system. Typical systems considered are thin and medium route telephony, maritime, land and aeronautical radio, VSAT data, low bit rate video teleconferencing, and high bit rate broadcast of high definition video. Delivery of services by TDMA and FDMA multiplexing techniques and combinations of the two for individual and mixed service types are studied. The possibilities offered by onboard circuit switched and packet switched architectures are examined and the results strongly support a preference for the latter. A detailed design architecture encompassing the onboard packet switch and its control, the related demand assigned TDMA burst structures, and destination packet protocols for routing traffic are presented. Fundamental onboard hardware requirements comprising speed, memory size, chip count, and power are estimated. The study concludes with identification of key enabling technologies and identifies a plan to develop a POC model.

  17. Chemical control of graphene architecture: tailoring shape and properties.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Raymond L D

    2014-10-28

    Single layer graphene and graphene oxide feature useful and occasionally unique properties by virtue of their two-dimensional structure. Given that there is a strong correlation between graphene architecture and its conductive, mechanical, chemical, and sorptive properties, which lead to useful technologies, the ability to systematically deform graphene into three-dimensional structures, therefore, provides a controllable, scalable route toward tailoring such properties in the final system. However, the advent of chemical methods to control graphene architecture is still coming to fruition and requires focused attention. The flexibility of the graphene system and the direct and indirect methods available to induce morphology changes of graphene sheets are first discussed in this review. Focus is then given toward chemical reactions that influence the shape of presynthesized graphene and graphene oxide sheets, from which a toolbox can be extrapolated and used in controlling the spatial arrangement of graphene sheets within composite materials and ultimately tailoring graphene-based device performance. Finally, the properties of three-dimensionally controlled graphene-based systems are highlighted for their use as batteries, strengthening additives, gas or liquid sorbents, chemical reactor platforms, and supercapacitors.

  18. An Architecture to Enable Autonomous Control of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Dever, Timothy P.; Soeder, James F.; George, Patrick J.; Morris, Paul H.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Frank, Jeremy D.; Schwabacher, Mark A.; Wang, Liu; LawLer, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Autonomy is required for manned spacecraft missions distant enough that light-time communication delays make ground-based mission control infeasible. Presently, ground controllers develop a complete schedule of power modes for all spacecraft components based on a large number of factors. The proposed architecture is an early attempt to formalize and automate this process using on-vehicle computation resources. In order to demonstrate this architecture, an autonomous electrical power system controller and vehicle Mission Manager are constructed. These two components are designed to work together in order to plan upcoming load use as well as respond to unanticipated deviations from the plan. The communication protocol was developed using "paper" simulations prior to formally encoding the messages and developing software to implement the required functionality. These software routines exchange data via TCP/IP sockets with the Mission Manager operating at NASA Ames Research Center and the autonomous power controller running at NASA Glenn Research Center. The interconnected systems are tested and shown to be effective at planning the operation of a simulated quasi-steady state spacecraft power system and responding to unexpected disturbances.

  19. Multi-Robot, Multi-Target Particle Swarm Optimization Search in Noisy Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2009-05-01

    Multiple small robots (swarms) can work together using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for a single robot to accomplish. The problem considered in this paper is exploration of an unknown environment with the goal of finding a target(s) at an unknown location(s) using multiple small mobile robots. This work demonstrates the use of a distributed PSO algorithm with a novel adaptive RSS weighting factor to guide robots for locating target(s) in high risk environments. The approach was developed and analyzed on multiple robot single and multiple target search. The approach was further enhanced by the multi-robot-multi-target search in noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrated how the availability of radio frequency signal can significantly affect robot search time to reach a target.

  20. Architectures for parallel DSP-based adaptive optics feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Daniel F.

    1999-11-01

    We have developed a digital image processing system for real-time digital image processing feedback control of adaptive optics systems and simulation of optical image processing algorithms. The system uses multi-computer architecture to capture data from an imaging device such as a charge coupled device camera, process the image data, and control a spatial light-modulator, typically a liquid crystal modulator or a micro-electro mechanical system. The system is a Windows NT Pentium-based system combined with a commercial off-the-shelf peripheral component interconnect bus multi-processor system. The multi-processor is based on the Analog Devices super Harvard architecture computer (SHARC) processor, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The SHARCs provide a scalable reconfigurable C language-based digital signal processing (DSP) development environment. The FPGAs are typically used as reprogrammable interface controllers designed to integrate several off-the- shelf and custom imagers and light modulators into the system. The FPGAs can also be used in concert with the SHARCs for implementation of application-specific high-speed DSP algorithms.

  1. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue networks with controllable architecture

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Weining; Bursac, Nenad

    2009-01-01

    The engineering of functional skeletal muscle tissue substitutes holds promise for the treatment of various muscular diseases and injuries. However, no tissue fabrication technology currently exists for the generation of a relatively large and thick bioartificial muscle made of densely packed, uniformly aligned, and differentiated myofibers. In this study, we describe a versatile cell/hydrogel micromolding approach where polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds containing an array of elongated posts were used to fabricate relatively large neonatal rat skeletal muscle tissue networks with reproducible and controllable architecture. By combining cell-mediated fibrin gel compaction and precise microfabrication of mold dimensions including the length and height of the PDMS posts, we were able to simultaneously support high cell viability, guide cell alignment along the microfabricated tissue pores, and reproducibly control the overall tissue porosity, size, and thickness. The interconnected muscle bundles within the porous tissue networks were composed of densely packed, aligned, and highly differentiated myofibers. The formed myofibers expressed myogenin, developed abundant cross-striations, and generated spontaneous tissue contractions at the macroscopic spatial scale. The proliferation of non-muscle cells was significantly reduced compared to monolayer cultures. The more complex muscle tissue architectures were fabricated by controlling the spatial distribution and direction of the PDMS posts. PMID:19070360

  2. Architecture for Control of the K9 Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Bualat, maria; Fair, Michael; Wright, Anne; Washington, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Software featuring a multilevel architecture is used to control the hardware on the K9 Rover, which is a mobile robot used in research on robots for scientific exploration and autonomous operation in general. The software consists of five types of modules: Device Drivers - These modules, at the lowest level of the architecture, directly control motors, cameras, data buses, and other hardware devices. Resource Managers - Each of these modules controls several device drivers. Resource managers can be commanded by either a remote operator or the pilot or conditional-executive modules described below. Behaviors and Data Processors - These modules perform computations for such functions as planning paths, avoiding obstacles, visual tracking, and stereoscopy. These modules can be commanded only by the pilot. Pilot - The pilot receives a possibly complex command from the remote operator or the conditional executive, then decomposes the command into (1) more-specific commands to the resource managers and (2) requests for information from the behaviors and data processors. Conditional Executive - This highest-level module interprets a command plan sent by the remote operator, determines whether resources required for execution of the plan are available, monitors execution, and, if necessary, selects an alternate branch of the plan.

  3. Novel architecture for data management and control for small satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, G.; Fossati, D.; Turri, M.

    1995-12-01

    The paper introduces an innovative architecture for the on-board units that are responsible to provide the data interface, control and processing capability normally allocated in separated electronics boxes in the data handling subsystem of the space system. A new solution for the attitude control of the space vehicle has been studied and developed and the utilization of this technological growth, in particular that concerns the GPS receiver, is matter for novel architecture. This new approach also involves in general the small satellite ground segment product as matter of a dedicated development approach. Small and medium satellites are considered an attractive solution for the low cost scientific experimentation, communication or remote sensing satellites. The functional and performance capability of the studied on-board units and ground segment are assessed in tight conjunction with the evolution of the European and the USA market. The design of these units has to be based on few and simple driving requirements, directly derived from the new modified scenario: (1) The limited budgets available for space system. (2) The quick mission data return, i.e., low development time by specific and tailored system development tools. The quick availability of data to scientists/user is requested without jeopardizing the maximum and guaranteed scientific or commercial return. The proposed system is then given thinking to an architecture based on a high degree of modularity (and reuse of existing library of modules) thus allowing to keep down costs and to speed up the time to market. The design ground rules are so established in order to cope with the following performance: (1) capability to adapt with few impacts the system interfaces, in particular for attitude sensors and actuators that are tightly mission dependent; (2) easy adaptation of on board computational performances and memory capacity (including mass memory storage capability); (3) definition of a hierarchical

  4. Simulation and implementation of an open architecture controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Frederick M.; Shackleford, William P.; Yang, Charles; Barbera, Tony; Fitzgerald, M. L.; Frampton, Nat; Bradford, Keith; Koogle, Dwight; Bankard, Mark

    1995-11-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a modular definition of components for machine control, and a specification to their interfaces, with broad application to robots, machine tools, and coordinate measuring machines. These components include individual axis control, coordinate trajectory generation, discrete input/output, language interpretation, and task planning and execution. The intent of the specification is to support interoperability of components provided by independent vendors. NIST has installed a machine tool controller based on these interfaces on a 4-axis horizontal machining center at the Pontiac Powertrain Division of General Motors. The intent of this system is to validate that the interfaces are comprehensive enough to serve a demanding application, and to demonstrate several key concepts of open architecture controllers: component interoperability, controller scalability, and function extension. In particular, the GM-NIST Enhanced Machine Controller demonstrates interoperability of motion control hardware, scalability across computing platforms, and extensibility via user-defined graphical user interfaces. An important benefit of platform scalability is the ease with which the developers could test the controller in simulation before site installation. The EMC specifications are serving a larger goal of driving the development of true industry standards that will ultimately benefit users of machine tools, robots, and coordinate measuring machines. To this end, a consortium has been established and cooperative participation with the Department of Energy TEAM program and the US Air Force Title III program has been undertaken.

  5. L1 adaptive output-feedback control architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharisov, Evgeny

    This research focuses on development of L 1 adaptive output-feedback control. The objective is to extend the L1 adaptive control framework to a wider class of systems, as well as obtain architectures that afford more straightforward tuning. We start by considering an existing L1 adaptive output-feedback controller for non-strictly positive real systems based on piecewise constant adaptation law. It is shown that L 1 adaptive control architectures achieve decoupling of adaptation from control, which leads to bounded away from zero time-delay and gain margins in the presence of arbitrarily fast adaptation. Computed performance bounds provide quantifiable performance guarantees both for system output and control signal in transient and steady state. A noticeable feature of the L1 adaptive controller is that its output behavior can be made close to the behavior of a linear time-invariant system. In particular, proper design of the lowpass filter can achieve output response, which almost scales for different step reference commands. This property is relevant to applications with human operator in the loop (for example: control augmentation systems of piloted aircraft), since predictability of the system response is necessary for adequate performance of the operator. Next we present applications of the L1 adaptive output-feedback controller in two different fields of engineering: feedback control of human anesthesia, and ascent control of a NASA crew launch vehicle (CLV). The purpose of the feedback controller for anesthesia is to ensure that the patient's level of sedation during surgery follows a prespecified profile. The L1 controller is enabled by anesthesiologist after he/she achieves sufficient patient sedation level by introducing sedatives manually. This problem formulation requires safe switching mechanism, which avoids controller initialization transients. For this purpose, we used an L1 adaptive controller with special output predictor initialization routine

  6. Modular planning/control architecture for the semiautonomous control of telerobots in a hazardous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Brady, Kevin; Xi, Ning; Love, Lonnie; Lloyd, Peter; Burks, Barry; Davis, Hurley

    1997-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has demonstrated, evaluated, and deployed a telerobotic approach for the remote retrieval of hazardous and radioactive wastes from underground storage tanks. The telerobotic system, built by Spar Aerospace Ltd., is capable of dislodging and removing sludge and gravel- like wastes without endangering the human operators through contact with the environment. Working in partnership with Washington University, ORNL has implemented an Event based planner/function based sharing control (FBSC) as an integral part of their overall telerobotic architecture. These aspects of the system enable the seamless union of the human operator and an autonomous controller in such a way to emphasize safety without any loss of performance. The cooperation between ORNL, Spar, and Washington University requires an open and modular control software architecture to enable the parallel development of various components of the system. ControlShell has been used as the underlying software architecture to help meet these criteria of generality and modularity.

  7. Controlled architecture for improved macromolecular memory within polymer networks.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, Stephen A; Byrne, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    This brief review analyzes recent developments in the field of living/controlled polymerization and the potential of this technique for creating imprinted polymers with highly structured architecture with macromolecular memory. As a result, it is possible to engineer polymers at the molecular level with increased homogeneity relating to enhanced template binding and transport. Only recently has living/controlled polymerization been exploited to decrease heterogeneity and substantially improve the efficiency of the imprinting process for both highly and weakly crosslinked imprinted polymers. Living polymerization can be utilized to create imprinted networks that are vastly more efficient than similar polymers produced using conventional free radical polymerization, and these improvements increase the role that macromolecular memory can play in the design and engineering of new drug delivery and sensing platforms.

  8. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System architecture: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, L.R.; Hill, J.O.; Kraimer, M.; Lewis, S.; Murray, D.; Hunt, S.; Claussen, M.; Watson, W.; Dalesio, J.

    1993-11-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), has been used at a number of sites for performing data acquisition, supervisory control, closed-loop control, sequential control, and operational optimization. The EPICS architecture was originally developed by a group with diverse backgrounds in physics and industrial control. The current architecture represents one instance of the ``standard model.`` It provides distributed processing and communication from any LAN device to the front end controllers. This paper will present the genealogy, current architecture, performance envelope, current installations, and planned extensions for requirements not met by the current architecture.

  9. Can we manipulate root system architecture to control soil erosion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ola, A.; Dodd, I. C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2015-09-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to soil functioning. The use of vegetation to control erosion has long been a topic for research. Much of this research has focused on the above-ground properties of plants, demonstrating the important role that canopy structure and cover plays in the reduction of water erosion processes. Less attention has been paid to plant roots. Plant roots are a crucial yet under-researched factor for reducing water erosion through their ability to alter soil properties, such as aggregate stability, hydraulic function and shear strength. However, there have been few attempts to specifically manipulate plant root system properties to reduce soil erosion. Therefore, this review aims to explore the effects that plant roots have on soil erosion and hydrological processes, and how plant root architecture might be manipulated to enhance its erosion control properties. We demonstrate the importance of root system architecture for the control of soil erosion. We also show that some plant species respond to nutrient-enriched patches by increasing lateral root proliferation. The erosional response to root proliferation will depend upon its location: at the soil surface dense mats of roots may reduce soil erodibility but block soil pores thereby limiting infiltration, enhancing runoff. Additionally, in nutrient-deprived regions, root hair development may be stimulated and larger amounts of root exudates released, thereby improving aggregate stability and decreasing erodibility. Utilizing nutrient placement at specific depths may represent a potentially new, easily implemented, management strategy on nutrient-poor agricultural land or constructed slopes to control erosion, and further research in this area is needed.

  10. Can we manipulate root system architecture to control soil erosion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ola, A.; Dodd, I. C.; Quinton, J. N.

    2015-03-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to soil functioning. The use of vegetation to control erosion has long been a topic for research. Much of this research has focused on the above ground properties of plants, demonstrating the important role that canopy structure and cover plays in the reduction of water erosion processes. Less attention has been paid to plant roots. Plant roots are a crucial yet under-researched factor for reducing water erosion through their ability to alter soil properties, such as aggregate stability, hydraulic function and shear strength. However, there have been few attempts to manipulate plant root system properties to reduce soil erosion. Therefore, this review aims to explore the effects that plant roots have on soil erosion and hydrological processes, and how plant root architecture might be manipulated to enhance its erosion control properties. We clearly demonstrate the importance of root system architecture for the control of soil erosion. We also demonstrate that some plant species respond to nutrient enriched patches by increasing lateral root proliferation. The soil response to root proliferation will depend upon its location: at the soil surface dense mats of roots may block soil pores thereby limiting infiltration, enhancing runoff and thus erosion; whereas at depth local increases in shear strength may reinforce soils against structural failure at the shear plane. Additionally, in nutrient deprived regions, root hair development may be stimulated and larger amounts of root exudates released, thereby improving aggregate stability and decreasing erodibility. Utilising nutrient placement at depth may represent a potentially new, easily implemented, management strategy on nutrient poor agricultural land or constructed slopes to control erosion, and further research in this area is needed.

  11. The software architecture to control the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, I.; Füßling, M.; Antonino, P. O.; Conforti, V.; Hagge, L.; Melkumyan, D.; Morgenstern, A.; Tosti, G.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, J.; Wegner, P.; Colomé, J.; Lyard, E.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project is an initiative to build two large arrays of Cherenkov gamma- ray telescopes. CTA will be deployed as two installations, one in the northern and the other in the southern hemisphere, containing dozens of telescopes of different sizes. CTA is a big step forward in the field of ground- based gamma-ray astronomy, not only because of the expected scientific return, but also due to the order-of- magnitude larger scale of the instrument to be controlled. The performance requirements associated with such a large and distributed astronomical installation require a thoughtful analysis to determine the best software solutions. The array control and data acquisition (ACTL) work-package within the CTA initiative will deliver the software to control and acquire the data from the CTA instrumentation. In this contribution we present the current status of the formal ACTL system decomposition into software building blocks and the relationships among them. The system is modelled via the Systems Modelling Language (SysML) formalism. To cope with the complexity of the system, this architecture model is sub-divided into different perspectives. The relationships with the stakeholders and external systems are used to create the first perspective, the context of the ACTL software system. Use cases are employed to describe the interaction of those external elements with the ACTL system and are traced to a hierarchy of functionalities (abstract system functions) describing the internal structure of the ACTL system. These functions are then traced to fully specified logical elements (software components), the deployment of which as technical elements, is also described. This modelling approach allows us to decompose the ACTL software in elements to be created and the ow of information within the system, providing us with a clear way to identify sub-system interdependencies. This architectural approach allows us to build the ACTL system model and

  12. A run-time control architecture for the JPL telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Lokshin, A.; Kreutz, K.; Beahan, J.

    1987-01-01

    An architecture for implementing the process-level decision making for a hierarchically structured telerobot currently being implemented at the Jet Propolusion Laboratory (JPL) is described. Constraints on the architecture design, architecture partitioning concepts, and a detailed description of the existing and proposed implementations are provided.

  13. Light signaling controls nuclear architecture reorganization during seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Bourbousse, Clara; Mestiri, Imen; Zabulon, Gerald; Bourge, Mickaël; Formiggini, Fabio; Koini, Maria A; Brown, Spencer C; Fransz, Paul; Bowler, Chris; Barneche, Fredy

    2015-05-26

    The spatial organization of chromatin can be subject to extensive remodeling in plant somatic cells in response to developmental and environmental signals. However, the mechanisms controlling these dynamic changes and their functional impact on nuclear activity are poorly understood. Here, we determined that light perception triggers a switch between two different nuclear architectural schemes during Arabidopsis postembryonic development. Whereas progressive nucleus expansion and heterochromatin rearrangements in cotyledon cells are achieved similarly under light and dark conditions during germination, the later steps that lead to mature nuclear phenotypes are intimately associated with the photomorphogenic transition in an organ-specific manner. The light signaling integrators DE-ETIOLATED 1 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 maintain heterochromatin in a decondensed state in etiolated cotyledons. In contrast, under light conditions cryptochrome-mediated photoperception releases nuclear expansion and heterochromatin compaction within conspicuous chromocenters. For all tested loci, chromatin condensation during photomorphogenesis does not detectably rely on DNA methylation-based processes. Notwithstanding, the efficiency of transcriptional gene silencing may be impacted during the transition, as based on the reactivation of transposable element-driven reporter genes. Finally, we report that global engagement of RNA polymerase II in transcription is highly increased under light conditions, suggesting that cotyledon photomorphogenesis involves a transition from globally quiescent to more active transcriptional states. Given these findings, we propose that light-triggered changes in nuclear architecture underlie interplays between heterochromatin reorganization and transcriptional reprogramming associated with the establishment of photosynthesis.

  14. Photo-active collagen systems with controlled triple helix architecture.

    PubMed

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J; Wood, David J

    2013-08-14

    The design of photo-active collagen systems is presented as a basis for establishing biomimetic materials with varied network architecture and programmable macroscopic properties. Following in-house isolation of type I collagen, reaction with vinyl-bearing compounds of varied backbone rigidity, i.e. 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (4VBC) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), was carried out. TNBS colorimetric assay, (1)H-NMR and ATR-FTIR confirmed covalent and tunable functionalization of collagen lysines. Depending on the type and extent of functionalization, controlled stability and thermal denaturation of triple helices were observed via circular dichroism (CD), whereby the hydrogen-bonding capability of introduced moieties was shown to play a major role. Full gel formation was observed following photo-activation of functionalized collagen solutions. The presence of a covalent network only slightly affected collagen triple helix conformation (as observed by WAXS and ATR-FTIR), confirming the structural organization of functionalized collagen precursors. Photo-activated hydrogels demonstrated an increased denaturation temperature (DSC) with respect to native collagen, suggesting that the formation of the covalent network successfully stabilized collagen triple helices. Moreover, biocompatibility and mechanical competence of obtained hydrogels were successfully demonstrated under physiologically-relevant conditions. These results demonstrate that this novel synthetic approach enabled the formation of biocompatible collagen systems with defined network architecture and programmable macroscopic properties, which can only partially be obtained with current synthetic methods.

  15. Light signaling controls nuclear architecture reorganization during seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Bourbousse, Clara; Mestiri, Imen; Zabulon, Gerald; Bourge, Mickaël; Formiggini, Fabio; Koini, Maria A.; Brown, Spencer C.; Fransz, Paul; Bowler, Chris; Barneche, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    The spatial organization of chromatin can be subject to extensive remodeling in plant somatic cells in response to developmental and environmental signals. However, the mechanisms controlling these dynamic changes and their functional impact on nuclear activity are poorly understood. Here, we determined that light perception triggers a switch between two different nuclear architectural schemes during Arabidopsis postembryonic development. Whereas progressive nucleus expansion and heterochromatin rearrangements in cotyledon cells are achieved similarly under light and dark conditions during germination, the later steps that lead to mature nuclear phenotypes are intimately associated with the photomorphogenic transition in an organ-specific manner. The light signaling integrators DE-ETIOLATED 1 and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 maintain heterochromatin in a decondensed state in etiolated cotyledons. In contrast, under light conditions cryptochrome-mediated photoperception releases nuclear expansion and heterochromatin compaction within conspicuous chromocenters. For all tested loci, chromatin condensation during photomorphogenesis does not detectably rely on DNA methylation-based processes. Notwithstanding, the efficiency of transcriptional gene silencing may be impacted during the transition, as based on the reactivation of transposable element-driven reporter genes. Finally, we report that global engagement of RNA polymerase II in transcription is highly increased under light conditions, suggesting that cotyledon photomorphogenesis involves a transition from globally quiescent to more active transcriptional states. Given these findings, we propose that light-triggered changes in nuclear architecture underlie interplays between heterochromatin reorganization and transcriptional reprogramming associated with the establishment of photosynthesis. PMID:25964332

  16. Scaffold architecture controls insulinoma clustering, viability, and insulin production.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Britani N; Palmer, Andre F; Rilo, Horacio R; Powell, Heather M

    2014-07-01

    Recently, in vitro diagnostic tools have shifted focus toward personalized medicine by incorporating patient cells into traditional test beds. These cell-based platforms commonly utilize two-dimensional substrates that lack the ability to support three-dimensional cell structures seen in vivo. As monolayer cell cultures have previously been shown to function differently than cells in vivo, the results of such in vitro tests may not accurately reflect cell response in vivo. It is therefore of interest to determine the relationships between substrate architecture, cell structure, and cell function in 3D cell-based platforms. To investigate the effect of substrate architecture on insulinoma organization and function, insulinomas were seeded onto 2D gelatin substrates and 3D fibrous gelatin scaffolds with three distinct fiber diameters and fiber densities. Cell viability and clustering was assessed at culture days 3, 5, and 7 with baseline insulin secretion and glucose-stimulated insulin production measured at day 7. Small, closely spaced gelatin fibers promoted the formation of large, rounded insulinoma clusters, whereas monolayer organization and large fibers prevented cell clustering and reduced glucose-stimulated insulin production. Taken together, these data show that scaffold properties can be used to control the organization and function of insulin-producing cells and may be useful as a 3D test bed for diabetes drug development.

  17. Development of a modular integrated control architecture for flexible manipulators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Battiston, G.

    1994-12-08

    In April 1994, ORNL and SPAR completed the joint development of a manipulator controls architecture for flexible structure controls under a CRADA between the two organizations. The CRADA project entailed design and development of a new architecture based upon the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA) previously developed by ORNL. The new architecture, dubbed MICA-II, uses an object-oriented coding philosophy to provide a highly modular and expandable architecture for robotic manipulator control. This architecture can be readily ported to control of many different manipulator systems. The controller also provides a user friendly graphical operator interface and display of many forms of data including system diagnostics. The capabilities of MICA-II were demonstrated during oscillation damping experiments using the Flexible Beam Experimental Test Bed at Hanford.

  18. Grass architecture: genetic and environmental control of branching.

    PubMed

    Doust, Andrew N

    2007-02-01

    Variation in grass architecture profoundly affects light capture, competition, and reproductive success, and is responsive to environmental factors such as crowding and nutrient limitation. Recent work in both model and crop systems has uncovered many aspects of the genetic control of branching, including conservation of the MONOCULM1 and MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING/DECREASED APICAL DOMINANCE/RAMOSUS (MAX/DAD/RMS) genetic pathways among the grasses and the model dicot systems of tomato, Arabidopsis, Petunia and pea. Parallel studies on the effect of environment on branching have also begun to uncover links between environmental sensing through phytochrome pathways, and resultant changes in TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 expression, and meristem inhibition. Future work promises to integrate knowledge of phenotypic responses to environment with our understanding of the genetic and hormonal changes that underlie phenotypic change.

  19. Fuel-Controlled Reassembly of Metal–Organic Architectures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many examples exist of biological self-assembled structures that restructure in response to external stimuli, then return to their previous state over a defined time scale, but most synthetic investigations so far have focused on systems that switch between states representing energetic minima upon stimulus application. Here we report an approach in which triphenylphosphine is used as a chemical fuel to maintain CuI-based self-assembled metallosupramolecular architectures for defined periods of time. This method was used to exert control over the threading and dethreading of the ring of a pseudorotaxane’s axle, as well as to direct the uptake and release of a guest from a metal–organic host. Management of the amount of fuel and catalyst added allowed for time-dependent regulation of product concentration. PMID:26779566

  20. Automation of Data Traffic Control on DSM Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    The design of distributed shared memory (DSM) computers liberates users from the duty to distribute data across processors and allows for the incremental development of parallel programs using, for example, OpenMP or Java threads. DSM architecture greatly simplifies the development of parallel programs having good performance on a few processors. However, to achieve a good program scalability on DSM computers requires that the user understand data flow in the application and use various techniques to avoid data traffic congestions. In this paper we discuss a number of such techniques, including data blocking, data placement, data transposition and page size control and evaluate their efficiency on the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks. We also present a tool which automates the detection of constructs causing data congestions in Fortran array oriented codes and advises the user on code transformations for improving data traffic in the application.

  1. Synthesis of branched metal nanostructures with controlled architecture and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Nancy

    On account of their small size, metal nanoparticles are proven to be outstanding catalysts for numerous chemical transformations and represent promising platforms for applications in the fields of electronics, chemical sensing, medicine, and beyond. Many properties of metal nanoparticles are size-dependent and can be further manipulated through their shape and architecture (e.g., spherical vs. branched). Achieving morphology control of nanoparticles through solution-based techniques has proven challenging due to limited knowledge of morphology development in nanosyntheses. To overcome these complications, a systematic examination of the local ligand environment of metal precursors on nanostructure formation was undertaken to evaluate its contribution to nanoparticle nucleation rate and subsequent growth processes. Specifically, this thesis will provide evidence from ex situ studies---Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis)---that support the hypothesis that strongly coordinated ligands delay burst-like nucleation to generate spherical metal nanoparticles and ligands with intermediate binding affinity regulate the gradual reduction of metal precursors to promote aggregated assembly of nanodendrites. These ex situ studies were coupled with a new in situ perspective, providing detailed understanding of metal precursor transformation, its direct relation to nanoparticle morphology development, and the ligand influence towards the formation of structurally complex metal nanostructures, using in situ synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Ultra Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The principles extracted from the study of monometallic nanostructure formation were also found to be generally applicable to the synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures, e.g., Pd-Pt architectures, with either core-shell or alloyed structures that were readily achieved by ligand selection. These outcomes provide a direct connection between fundamental

  2. Open architecture controller solution for custom machine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ronald L.; Reagin, J. M.; Garner, T. D.; Sweeny, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    In today's marketplace, product quality and price have become requirements for entry and are no longer sufficient to differentiate one's product and gain a competitive advantage. A key to competition in the future will be a company's ability to respond quickly to a rapidly-changing global marketplace. Developers of manufacturing equipment must play a role in the reduction of the product development cycle time by increasing the flexibility of their equipment and decreasing its cost and time to market. This paper will discuss the implementation of an open-architecture machine controller on a flip-chip placement machine and how this implementation supports the goals of reduced development time and increased equipment flexibility. The following subjects are discussed: 1) Issues related to the selection of a standard operating system, including real-time performance, preemptive multi-tasking, multi-threaded applications, and development tools. 2) The use of a common API for motion, and I/O. 3) Use of a rapid application development and object-oriented programming techniques on the machine controller to shorten development time and support code reuse. 4) Specific hardware and software issues related to the implementation of the flip chip controller. This includes hardware and software implementation details, controller performance, and human interface issues.

  3. RBAC Driven Least Privilege Architecture For Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, Julie; Markham, Mark

    2014-01-25

    The concept of role based access control (RBAC) within the IT environment has been studied by researchers and was supported by NIST (circa 1992). This earlier work highlighted the benefits of RBAC which include reduced administrative workload and policies which are easier to analyze and apply. The goals of this research were to expand the application of RBAC in the following ways. • Apply RBAC to the control systems environment: The typical RBAC model within the IT environment is used to control a user’s access to files. Within the control system environment files are replaced with measurement (e.g., temperature) and control (e.g. valve) points organized as a hierarchy of control assets (e.g. a boiler, compressor, refinery unit). Control points have parameters (e.g., high alarm limit, set point, etc.) associated with them. The RBAC model is extended to support access to points and their parameters based upon roles while at the same time allowing permissions for the points to be defined at the asset level or point level directly. In addition, centralized policy administration with distributed access enforcement mechanisms was developed to support the distributed architecture of distributed control systems and SCADA. • Extend the RBAC model to include access control for software and devices: The established RBAC approach is to assign users to roles. This work extends that notion by first breaking the control system down into three layers 1) users, 2) software and 3) devices. An RBAC model is then created for each of these three layers. The result is that RBAC can be used to define machine-to-machine policy enforced via the IP security (IPsec) protocol. This highlights the potential to use RBAC for machine-to-machine connectivity within the internet of things. • Enable dynamic policy based upon the operating mode of the system: The IT environment is generally static with respect to policy. However, large cyber physical systems such as industrial controls have

  4. Performance impact of mutation operators of a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm for multi-robot task allocation problems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun; Kroll, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Multi-robot task allocation determines the task sequence and distribution for a group of robots in multi-robot systems, which is one of constrained combinatorial optimization problems and more complex in case of cooperative tasks because they introduce additional spatial and temporal constraints. To solve multi-robot task allocation problems with cooperative tasks efficiently, a subpopulation-based genetic algorithm, a crossover-free genetic algorithm employing mutation operators and elitism selection in each subpopulation, is developed in this paper. Moreover, the impact of mutation operators (swap, insertion, inversion, displacement, and their various combinations) is analyzed when solving several industrial plant inspection problems. The experimental results show that: (1) the proposed genetic algorithm can obtain better solutions than the tested binary tournament genetic algorithm with partially mapped crossover; (2) inversion mutation performs better than other tested mutation operators when solving problems without cooperative tasks, and the swap-inversion combination performs better than other tested mutation operators/combinations when solving problems with cooperative tasks. As it is difficult to produce all desired effects with a single mutation operator, using multiple mutation operators (including both inversion and swap) is suggested when solving similar combinatorial optimization problems.

  5. Adapting an Ant Colony Metaphor for Multi-Robot Chemical Plume Tracing

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang; Li, Fei; Zeng, Ming

    2012-01-01

    We consider chemical plume tracing (CPT) in time-varying airflow environments using multiple mobile robots. The purpose of CPT is to approach a gas source with a previously unknown location in a given area. Therefore, the CPT could be considered as a dynamic optimization problem in continuous domains. The traditional ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm has been successfully used for combinatorial optimization problems in discrete domains. To adapt the ant colony metaphor to the multi-robot CPT problem, the two-dimension continuous search area is discretized into grids and the virtual pheromone is updated according to both the gas concentration and wind information. To prevent the adapted ACO algorithm from being prematurely trapped in a local optimum, the upwind surge behavior is adopted by the robots with relatively higher gas concentration in order to explore more areas. The spiral surge (SS) algorithm is also examined for comparison. Experimental results using multiple real robots in two indoor natural ventilated airflow environments show that the proposed CPT method performs better than the SS algorithm. The simulation results for large-scale advection-diffusion plume environments show that the proposed method could also work in outdoor meandering plume environments. PMID:22666056

  6. Adapting an ant colony metaphor for multi-robot chemical plume tracing.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-Hao; Yang, Wei-Xing; Wang, Yang; Li, Fei; Zeng, Ming

    2012-01-01

    We consider chemical plume tracing (CPT) in time-varying airflow environments using multiple mobile robots. The purpose of CPT is to approach a gas source with a previously unknown location in a given area. Therefore, the CPT could be considered as a dynamic optimization problem in continuous domains. The traditional ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm has been successfully used for combinatorial optimization problems in discrete domains. To adapt the ant colony metaphor to the multi-robot CPT problem, the two-dimension continuous search area is discretized into grids and the virtual pheromone is updated according to both the gas concentration and wind information. To prevent the adapted ACO algorithm from being prematurely trapped in a local optimum, the upwind surge behavior is adopted by the robots with relatively higher gas concentration in order to explore more areas. The spiral surge (SS) algorithm is also examined for comparison. Experimental results using multiple real robots in two indoor natural ventilated airflow environments show that the proposed CPT method performs better than the SS algorithm. The simulation results for large-scale advection-diffusion plume environments show that the proposed method could also work in outdoor meandering plume environments.

  7. Molecular Aspects of Transport in Thin Films of Controlled Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Bohn

    2009-04-16

    Our laboratory focuses on developing spatially localized chemistries which can produce structures of controlled architecture on the supermolecular length scale -- structures which allow us to control the motion of molecular species with high spatial resolution, ultimately on nanometer length scales. Specifically, nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) contain an array of nanometer diameter pores connecting vertically separated microfluidic channels. NCAMs can manipulate samples with sub-femtoliter characteristic volumes and attomole sample amounts and are opening the field of chemical analysis of mass-limited samples, because they are capable of digital control of fluid switching down to sub-attoliter volumes; extension of analytical “unit operations” down to sub-femtomole sample sizes; and exerting spatiotemporal control over fluid mixing to enable studies of reaction dynamics. Digital flow switching mediated by nanocapillary array membranes can be controlled by bias, ionic strength, or pore diameter and is being studied by observing the temporal characteristics of transport across a single nanopore in thin PMMA membranes. The control of flow via nanopore surface characteristics, charge density and functional group presentation, is being studied by coupled conductivity and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. Reactive mixing experiments previously established low millisecond mixing times for NCAM-mediated fluid transfer, and this has been exploited to demonstrate capture of mass-limited target species by Au colloids. Voltage and thermally-activated polymer switches have been developed for active control of transport in NCAMs. Thermally-switchable and size-selective transport was achieved by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes onto the exterior surface of a Au-coated polycarbonate track-etched membrane, while the voltage-gated properties of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) were characterized dynamically. Electrophoretic separations have been

  8. Cross-CZO Contrasts: Aspect Controls and Critical Zone Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, B. A.; Kirby, E.; Burbank, D. W.; West, N.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate aspect controls on Critical Zone (CZ) architecture, mobile regolith transport, and landscape morphology, based on a cross-CZO comparison of 1) Niwot Ridge, Boulder Creek CZO (BcCZO), a high alpine site with minimal soil/veg cover, characterized by steep S-facing and shallow N-facing hillslopes and 2) Shale Hills CZO (SSHCZO), a temperate, densely-forested, soil-mantled site with steep N-facing slopes and shallow S-facing slopes. We use high-resolution 2D seismic tomography of P- and S-wave velocities (Vp, Vs) to characterize CZ architecture and constrain depths of weathering fronts, as well as the thickness, character, and transport efficiency of mobile regolith layers. The 2D imagery allows assessment of changes in material properties both lateral and vertical (depth), thus mapping variability in CZ structures along the survey profile. The combination of Vp and Vs are used to better quantify material properties, (i.e., elastics moduli, density, fractures porosity), rock-mass strength, and weathering intensity - and when applied to the very shallow subsurface can help constrain the transport efficiency (strength or erodibility) of mobile regolith layers On Niwot Ridge, the depth of the weathering front and thickness of mobile regolith are substantially greater on shallower N-facing slopes, consistent with frost/freeze driven processes. However, the depth of the weathering front far exceeds modeled extents of frost-cracking depth (for past or present climates), suggesting additional processes also influence deep weathering. Mobile regolith is considerably thicker on shallow N-facing aspects and composed of large, disintegrated cobbles, however, velocity-based estimates of transport efficiency are higher on S-facing slopes composed of small talus blocks and thin soil/veg cover. Although, thin mobile regolith on S-facing slopes may be weak (slow V), the lower gradient of N-facing slopes and southward asymmetry of the ridge divide, suggests that

  9. An Architecture to Promote the Commercialization of Space Mission Command and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a command and control architecture that encompasses space mission operations centers, ground terminals, and spacecraft. This architecture is intended to promote the growth of a lucrative space mission operations command and control market through a set of open standards used by both gevernment and profit-making space mission operators.

  10. Control system architecture of QUIJOTE multi-frequency instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Reñasco, María. F.; Aguiar, Marta; Herreros, José Miguel; Hoyland, Roger J.; Sánchez de la Rosa, Vicente; Vega-Moreno, Afrodisio; Viera-Curbelo, Teodora; Génova-Santos, Ricardo; López-Caraballo, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martín, Jose Alberto

    2012-09-01

    The QUIJOTE-CMB experiment has been described in previous publications. Here we describe the architecture of the control system, hardware and software, of the QUIJOTE I instrument (MFI). It is a multi-channel instrument with five separate polarimeters: two of which operate at 10-14 GHz, two of which operate at 16-20 GHz, and a central polarimeter at 26-36 GHz. Each polarimeter can rotate at a speed of up to 1 Hz and also can move to discrete angular positions which allow the linear polar parameters Q, U and I to be derived. The instrument is installed in an alt-azimuth telescope which implements several operational modes: movement around the azimuth axis at a constant velocity while the elevation axis is held at a fixed elevation; tracking of a sky object; and raster of a rectangular area both in horizontal and sky coordinates. The control system of both, telescope and instrument, is based in the following technologies: an LXI-VXI bus is used for the signal acquisition system; an EtherCAT bus implements software PLCs developed in TwinCAT to perform the movement of the 5 polarimeters and the 2 axes of the telescope. Science signal, angular positions of the 5 polarimeters and telescope coordinates are sampled at up to 4000 Hz. All these data are correlated by a time stamp obtained from an external GPS clock implementing the Precise Time Protocol-1588 which provides synchronization to less than 1 microsecond. The control software also acquires housekeeping (HK) from the different subsystems. LabVIEW implements the instrument user interface.

  11. The Large Binocular Telescope mount control system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, David S.; McKenna, Dan; Brynnel, Joar G.; Sargent, Tom; Cox, Dan; Little, John; Powell, Keith; Holmberg, Gene

    2006-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) features dual 8.4 m diameter mirrors in a common elevation-over-azimuth mount. The LBT moves in elevation on two large crescent-shaped C-rings that are supported by radial hydrostatic bearing pads located near the four corners of the rectangular azimuth frame. The azimuth frame, in turn, is supported by four hydrostatic bearing pads and uses hydrodynamic roller bearings for centering. Each axis is gear driven by four large electric motors. In addition to precision optical motor encoders, each axis is equipped with Farrand Inductosyn strip encoders which yield 0.005 arcsecond resolution. The telescope weighs 580 metric tons and is designed to track with 0.03 arcsecond or better servo precision under wind speeds as high as 24 km/hr. Though the telescope is still under construction, the Mount Control System (MCS) has been routinely exercised to achieve First Light. The authors present a description of the unique, DSP-based synchronous architecture of the MCS and its capabilities.

  12. Quaternion-Based Control Architecture for Determining Controllability/Maneuverability Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic inversion has often been used in the simulation environment to rapidly prototype controls for the full flight envelope, because of its capacity for assessing a vehicle s maneuver performance and proper sizing of control surfaces. Generally, the architectures involve either a direct inversion of the entire set of equations of motion or a sequential set of inversions exploiting time scale separation in the vehicle dynamics where faster parameters are considered as controls for slower varying parameters. The proposed architecture builds on the latter using a quaternion formulation that provides singularity free tracking. Of interest, the proposed architecture simplifies the sequential approach by exploiting a simpler kinematic inversion in place of a more difficult inversion typically used. This kinematic relationship accurately describes the angular rate required to drive some reference frame of interest to a desired attitude at some desired quaternion error rate. A simple PID control is used to define the desired quaternion error rate. The paper develops the theoretical framework for the approach, and shows results in tracking a desired trajectory.

  13. The Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF) Architecture: Coordination of Multiple Oceanic Robot Boats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, Alberto; Podnar, Gregg W.; Dolan, John M.; Stancliff, Stephen; Lin, Ellie; Hosler, Jeffrey C.; Ames, Troy J.; Higinbotham, John; Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A.; Kulczycki, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth s climate and ecology. Ocean sensing is typically done with satellites, buoys, and crewed research ships. The limitations of these systems include the fact that satellites are often blocked by cloud cover, and buoys and ships have spatial coverage limitations. This paper describes a multi-robot science exploration software architecture and system called the Telesupervised Adaptive Ocean Sensor Fleet (TAOSF). TAOSF supervises and coordinates a group of robotic boats, the OASIS platforms, to enable in-situ study of phenomena in the ocean/atmosphere interface, as well as on the ocean surface and sub-surface. The OASIS platforms are extended deployment autonomous ocean surface vehicles, whose development is funded separately by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAOSF allows a human operator to effectively supervise and coordinate multiple robotic assets using a sliding autonomy control architecture, where the operating mode of the vessels ranges from autonomous control to teleoperated human control. TAOSF increases data-gathering effectiveness and science return while reducing demands on scientists for robotic asset tasking, control, and monitoring. The first field application chosen for TAOSF is the characterization of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). We discuss the overall TAOSF architecture, describe field tests conducted under controlled conditions using rhodamine dye as a HAB simulant, present initial results from these tests, and outline the next steps in the development of TAOSF.

  14. Integrating Computer Architectures into the Design of High-Performance Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Leyland, Jane A.; Warmbrodt, William

    1986-01-01

    Modern control systems must typically perform real-time identification and control, as well as coordinate a host of other activities related to user interaction, on-line graphics, and file management. This paper discusses five global design considerations that are useful to integrate array processor, multimicroprocessor, and host computer system architecture into versatile, high-speed controllers. Such controllers are capable of very high control throughput, and can maintain constant interaction with the non-real-time or user environment. As an application example, the architecture of a high-speed, closed-loop controller used to actively control helicopter vibration will be briefly discussed. Although this system has been designed for use as the controller for real-time rotorcraft dynamics and control studies in a wind-tunnel environment, the control architecture can generally be applied to a wide range of automatic control applications.

  15. A Multi-Robot Sense-Act Approach to Lead to a Proper Acting in Environmental Incidents.

    PubMed

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Valente, João; Del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio; Ribeiro, Angela

    2016-08-10

    Many environmental incidents affect large areas, often in rough terrain constrained by natural obstacles, which makes intervention difficult. New technologies, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, may help address this issue due to their suitability to reach and easily cover large areas. Thus, unmanned aerial vehicles may be used to inspect the terrain and make a first assessment of the affected areas; however, nowadays they do not have the capability to act. On the other hand, ground vehicles rely on enough power to perform the intervention but exhibit more mobility constraints. This paper proposes a multi-robot sense-act system, composed of aerial and ground vehicles. This combination allows performing autonomous tasks in large outdoor areas by integrating both types of platforms in a fully automated manner. Aerial units are used to easily obtain relevant data from the environment and ground units use this information to carry out interventions more efficiently. This paper describes the platforms and sensors required by this multi-robot sense-act system as well as proposes a software system to automatically handle the workflow for any generic environmental task. The proposed system has proved to be suitable to reduce the amount of herbicide applied in agricultural treatments. Although herbicides are very polluting, they are massively deployed on complete agricultural fields to remove weeds. Nevertheless, the amount of herbicide required for treatment is radically reduced when it is accurately applied on patches by the proposed multi-robot system. Thus, the aerial units were employed to scout the crop and build an accurate weed distribution map which was subsequently used to plan the task of the ground units. The whole workflow was executed in a fully autonomous way, without human intervention except when required by Spanish law due to safety reasons.

  16. A Multi-Robot Sense-Act Approach to Lead to a Proper Acting in Environmental Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Conesa-Muñoz, Jesús; Valente, João; del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio; Ribeiro, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Many environmental incidents affect large areas, often in rough terrain constrained by natural obstacles, which makes intervention difficult. New technologies, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, may help address this issue due to their suitability to reach and easily cover large areas. Thus, unmanned aerial vehicles may be used to inspect the terrain and make a first assessment of the affected areas; however, nowadays they do not have the capability to act. On the other hand, ground vehicles rely on enough power to perform the intervention but exhibit more mobility constraints. This paper proposes a multi-robot sense-act system, composed of aerial and ground vehicles. This combination allows performing autonomous tasks in large outdoor areas by integrating both types of platforms in a fully automated manner. Aerial units are used to easily obtain relevant data from the environment and ground units use this information to carry out interventions more efficiently. This paper describes the platforms and sensors required by this multi-robot sense-act system as well as proposes a software system to automatically handle the workflow for any generic environmental task. The proposed system has proved to be suitable to reduce the amount of herbicide applied in agricultural treatments. Although herbicides are very polluting, they are massively deployed on complete agricultural fields to remove weeds. Nevertheless, the amount of herbicide required for treatment is radically reduced when it is accurately applied on patches by the proposed multi-robot system. Thus, the aerial units were employed to scout the crop and build an accurate weed distribution map which was subsequently used to plan the task of the ground units. The whole workflow was executed in a fully autonomous way, without human intervention except when required by Spanish law due to safety reasons. PMID:27517934

  17. Fabrication of magneto-controlled moveable architecture to develop reusable electrochemical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Feng, Chang; Ye, Zonghuang; Chen, Yangyang; Li, Genxi

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical biosensors have been studied intensively for several decades. Numerous sensing concepts and related interface architectures have been developed. However, all such architectures suffer a trade-off: simple architectures favour usability, whereas complex architectures favour better performance. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel concept by introducing a magneto-controlled moveable architecture (MCMA) instead of the conventional surface-fixed architecture. As a model, human breast cancer cells were used in this study. The results showed that a detection range from 100 to 1 × 106 cells could be achieved. Moreover, the whole detection cycle, including the measurement and the regeneration, could be completed in only 2 min. Thus, usability and excellent performance can be achieved in a single biosensor. PMID:24566810

  18. Fabrication of magneto-controlled moveable architecture to develop reusable electrochemical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Feng, Chang; Ye, Zonghuang; Chen, Yangyang; Li, Genxi

    2014-02-25

    Electrochemical biosensors have been studied intensively for several decades. Numerous sensing concepts and related interface architectures have been developed. However, all such architectures suffer a trade-off: simple architectures favour usability, whereas complex architectures favour better performance. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel concept by introducing a magneto-controlled moveable architecture (MCMA) instead of the conventional surface-fixed architecture. As a model, human breast cancer cells were used in this study. The results showed that a detection range from 100 to 1 × 10(6) cells could be achieved. Moreover, the whole detection cycle, including the measurement and the regeneration, could be completed in only 2 min. Thus, usability and excellent performance can be achieved in a single biosensor.

  19. Constellation's Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.

    2007-01-01

    Operations concepts are highly effective for: 1) Developing consensus; 2) Discovering stakeholder needs, goals, objectives; 3) Defining behavior of system components (especially emergent behaviors). An interoperability standard can provide an excellent lever to define the capabilities needed for system evolution. Two categories of architectures are needed in a program of this size are: 1) Generic - Needed for planning, design and construction standards; 2) Specific - Needed for detailed requirement allocations, interface specs. A wide variety of architectural views are needed to address stakeholder concerns, including: 1) Physical; 2) Information (structure, flow, evolution); 3) Processes (design, manufacturing, operations); 4) Performance; 5) Risk.

  20. Design of a Holonic Control Architecture for Distributed Sensor Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    architecture holonique pour la gestion des capteurs . Il s’inscrit dans le prolongement de deux documents précédents, détaillant respectivement, la...problématique de la gestion des capteurs militaires et les propriétés du contrôle holo- nique. L’architecture holonique proposée ici constitue une approche...novatrice au problème de la gestion des capteurs , en cela qu’elle supporte l’établissement de liens dynamiques, permettant ainsi au système

  1. Distributed multi-robot sensing and tracking: a behavior-based approach

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    An important issue that arises in the automation of many large-scale surveillance and reconnaissance tasks is that of tracking the movements of (or maintaining passive contact with) objects navigating in a bounded area of interest. Oftentimes in these problems, the area to be monitored will move over time or will not permit fixed sensors, thus requiring a team of mobile sensors -- or robots -- to monitor the area collectively. In these situations, the robots must not only have mechanisms for determining how to track objects and how to fuse information from neighboring robots, but they must also have distributed control strategies for ensuring that the entire area of interest is continually covered to the greatest extent possible. This paper focuses on the distributed control issue by describing a proposed decentralized control mechanism that allows a team of robots to collectively track and monitor objects in an uncluttered area of interest. The approach is based upon an extension to the ALLIANCE behavior-based architecture that generalizes from the domain of loosely-coupled, independent applications to the domain of strongly cooperative applications, in which the action selection of a robot is dependent upon the actions selected by its teammates. We conclude the paper by describing our ongoing implementation of the proposed approach on a team of four mobile robots.

  2. Human-Agent Teaming for Multi-Robot Control: A Literature Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    enhance their SA of their tasking environments (for a review on human factors issues related to information visualization, see Robertson et al., 2009...Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1985, 49, 95–112. Robertson , G.; Czerwinski, M.; Fisher, D.; Lee, B. Selected Human Factors Issues in...Portugal, 12–16 May 2008. 44 Schumacher, E.; Seymour , T.; Glass, J.; Fencsik, D.; Lauber, E.; Kieras, D. et al. Virtually Perfect Time Sharing in

  3. Using a cognitive architecture for general purpose service robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puigbo, Jordi-Ysard; Pumarola, Albert; Angulo, Cecilio; Tellez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    A humanoid service robot equipped with a set of simple action skills including navigating, grasping, recognising objects or people, among others, is considered in this paper. By using those skills the robot should complete a voice command expressed in natural language encoding a complex task (defined as the concatenation of a number of those basic skills). As a main feature, no traditional planner has been used to decide skills to be activated, as well as in which sequence. Instead, the SOAR cognitive architecture acts as the reasoner by selecting which action the robot should complete, addressing it towards the goal. Our proposal allows to include new goals for the robot just by adding new skills (without the need to encode new plans). The proposed architecture has been tested on a human-sized humanoid robot, REEM, acting as a general purpose service robot.

  4. Robotic Vehicle Control Architecture for FCS. Program Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    operation test of Crusher UGV with brass board ANS (no LADAR), and base BC architecture. • Why: Conducted to evaluate Crusher performance and collect...evaluate Crusher performance in the avoidance of obstacles during the execution of a way-point plan. • Who: TARDEC, NREC, DCS, PM FCS BCT, GDRS, BAE...Conducted to evaluate Crusher performance during autonomous maneuvering and tele-operation over long distance natural terrain courses. Evaluate performance

  5. Supramolecular Control in Nanostructured Film Architectures for Detecting Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Soares, Juliana Coatrini; Shimizu, Flavio Makoto; Soares, Andrey Coatrini; Caseli, Luciano; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2015-06-10

    The need for early detection of various diseases, including breast cancer, has motivated research into nanomaterials that can be assembled in organized films which serve as biosensors. Owing to the variety of possible materials and film architectures, procedures are required to design optimized biosensors. In this study, we combine surface-specific methods to monitor the assembly of antibodies on nanostructured films with two distinct architectures. In the first, a layer of the antibody type mouse anti-HER2 (clone tab250) was immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC). In the second approach, a SAM of cysteamine was coated with a biotin/spreptavidin bilayer on which a layer of biotinylated antibody type MSx2HUp185/her biotin was adsorbed. The rougher, less passivating coating with cysteamine determined from cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy led to biosensors that are more sensitive to detect the breast cancer ERBB2 (HER2) biomarker in impedance spectroscopy measurements. This higher distinguishing ability of the cysteamine-containing film architecture was proven with information visualization methods to treat the impedance data. Polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) confirmed that biosensing resulted from the antibody-ERBB2 antigen affinity.

  6. JPL control/structure interaction test bed real-time control computer architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    1989-01-01

    The Control/Structure Interaction Program is a technology development program for spacecraft that exhibit interactions between the control system and structural dynamics. The program objectives include development and verification of new design concepts - such as active structure - and new tools - such as combined structure and control optimization algorithm - and their verification in ground and possibly flight test. A focus mission spacecraft was designed based upon a space interferometer and is the basis for design of the ground test article. The ground test bed objectives include verification of the spacecraft design concepts, the active structure elements and certain design tools such as the new combined structures and controls optimization tool. In anticipation of CSI technology flight experiments, the test bed control electronics must emulate the computation capacity and control architectures of space qualifiable systems as well as the command and control networks that will be used to connect investigators with the flight experiment hardware. The Test Bed facility electronics were functionally partitioned into three units: a laboratory data acquisition system for structural parameter identification and performance verification; an experiment supervisory computer to oversee the experiment, monitor the environmental parameters and perform data logging; and a multilevel real-time control computing system. The design of the Test Bed electronics is presented along with hardware and software component descriptions. The system should break new ground in experimental control electronics and is of interest to anyone working in the verification of control concepts for large structures.

  7. Software Architecture for Simultaneous Process Control and Software Development/Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Lenarduzzi, Roberto; Hileman, Michael S; McMillan, David E; Holmes Jr, William; Blankenship, Mark; Wilder, Terry

    2011-01-01

    A software architecture is described that allows modification of some application code sections while the remainder of the application continues executing. This architecture facilitates long term testing and process control because the overall process need not be stopped and restarted to allow modifications or additions to the software. A working implementation using National Instruments LabVIEW{trademark} sub-panel and shared variable features is described as an example. This architecture provides several benefits in both the program development and execution environments. The software is easier to maintain and it is not necessary to recompile the entire program after a modification.

  8. Instrumentation Standard Architectures for Future High Availability Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2005-10-13

    Architectures for next-generation modular instrumentation standards should aim to meet a requirement of High Availability, or robustness against system failure. This is particularly important for experiments both large and small mounted on production accelerators and light sources. New standards should be based on architectures that (1) are modular in both hardware and software for ease in repair and upgrade; (2) include inherent redundancy at internal module, module assembly and system levels; (3) include modern high speed serial inter-module communications with robust noise-immune protocols; and (4) include highly intelligent diagnostics and board-management subsystems that can predict impending failure and invoke evasive strategies. The simple design principles lead to fail-soft systems that can be applied to any type of electronics system, from modular instruments to large power supplies to pulsed power modulators to entire accelerator systems. The existing standards in use are briefly reviewed and compared against a new commercial standard which suggests a powerful model for future laboratory standard developments. The past successes of undertaking such projects through inter-laboratory engineering-physics collaborations will be briefly summarized.

  9. Controlled architectural and chemotactic studies of 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Tayalia, Prakriti; Mazur, Eric; Mooney, David J

    2011-04-01

    Chemotaxis plays a critical role in tissue development and wound repair, and is widely studied using ex vivo model systems in applications such as immunotherapy. However, typical chemotactic models employ 2D systems that are less physiologically relevant or use end-point assays, that reveal little about the stepwise dynamics of the migration process. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new model system using microfabrication techniques, sustained drug delivery approaches, and theoretical modeling of chemotactic agent diffusion. This model system allows us to study the effects of 3D architecture and chemotactic agent gradient on immune cell migration in real time. We find that dendritic cell migration is characterized by a strong interplay between matrix architecture and chemotactic gradients, and migration is also influenced dramatically by the cell activation state. Our results indicate that Lipopolysaccharide-activated dendritic cells studied in a traditional transwell system actually exhibit anomalous migration behavior. Such a 3D ex vivo system lends itself for analyzing cell migratory behavior in response to single or multiple competitive cues and could prove useful in vaccine development.

  10. Status, Vision, and Challenges of an Intelligent Distributed Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behbahani, Alireza; Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay; Millar, Richard; Smith, Bert; Wood, Jim; Mahoney, Tim; Quinn, Ronald; Carpenter, Sheldon; Mailander, Bill; Battestin, Gary; Roney, Walter; Bluish, Colin; Rhoden, William; Storey, Bill

    2007-01-01

    A Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) consisting of the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) and industry has been formed to examine the current and future requirements of propulsion engine systems. The scope of this study will include an assessment of the paradigm shift from centralized engine control architecture to an architecture based on distributed control utilizing open system standards. Included will be a description of the work begun in the 1990's, which continues today, followed by the identification of the remaining technical challenges which present barriers to on-engine distributed control.

  11. Advanced Design and Implementation of a Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Alvarez, A.; Hayati, S.; Volpe, R.; Petras, R.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced design and implementation of a Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers is presented using a hierarchical top-down task decomposition, and the common structure of each design is presented based on feedback control theory. Graphical programming is presented as a common intuitive language for the design when a large design team is composed of managers, architecture designers, engineers, programmers, and maintenance personnel. The whole design of the control architecture consists in the classic control concepts of cyclic data processing and event-driven reaction to achieve all the reasoning and behaviors needed. For this purpose, a commercial graphical tool is presented that includes the mentioned control capabilities. Messages queues are used for inter-communication among control functions, allowing Artificial Intelligence (AI) reasoning techniques based on queue manipulation. Experimental results show a highly autonomous control system running in real time on top the JPL micro-rover Rocky 7 controlling simultaneously several robotic devices. This paper validates the sinergy between Artificial Intelligence and classic control concepts in having in advanced Control Architecture for Long Range Autonomous Planetary Rovers.

  12. Guidance and Control Architecture Design and Demonstration for Low Ballistic Coefficient Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swei, Sean

    2014-01-01

    We propose to develop a robust guidance and control system for the ADEPT (Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology) entry vehicle. A control-centric model of ADEPT will be developed to quantify the performance of candidate guidance and control architectures for both aerocapture and precision landing missions. The evaluation will be based on recent breakthroughs in constrained controllability/reachability analysis of control systems and constrained-based energy-minimum trajectory optimization for guidance development operating in complex environments.

  13. A Demonstration of a Retrofit Architecture for Intelligent Control and Diagnostics of a Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Turso, James A.; Shah, Neerav; Sowers, T. Shane; Owen, A. Karl

    2005-01-01

    A retrofit architecture for intelligent turbofan engine control and diagnostics that changes the fan speed command to maintain thrust is proposed and its demonstration in a piloted flight simulator is described. The objective of the implementation is to increase the level of autonomy of the propulsion system, thereby reducing pilot workload in the presence of anomalies and engine degradation due to wear. The main functions of the architecture are to diagnose the cause of changes in the engine s operation, warning the pilot if necessary, and to adjust the outer loop control reference signal in response to the changes. This requires that the retrofit control architecture contain the capability to determine the changed relationship between fan speed and thrust, and the intelligence to recognize the cause of the change in order to correct it or warn the pilot. The proposed retrofit architecture is able to determine the fan speed setting through recognition of the degradation level of the engine, and it is able to identify specific faults and warn the pilot. In the flight simulator it was demonstrated that when degradation is introduced into an engine with standard fan speed control, the pilot needs to take corrective action to maintain heading. Utilizing the intelligent retrofit control architecture, the engine thrust is automatically adjusted to its expected value, eliminating yaw without pilot intervention.

  14. Enhanced bandwidth of a microstrip antenna using a parasitic mushroom-like metamaterial structure for multi-robot cooperative navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cherl-Hee; Lee, Jonghun; Kim, Yoon-Gu; An, Jinung

    2015-01-01

    The broadband design of a microstrip patch antenna is presented and experimentally studied for multi-robot cooperation. A parasitic mushroom-like metamaterial (MTM) patch close to a microstrip top patch is excited through gap-coupling, thereby producing a resonance frequency. Because of the design, the resonance frequency of the parasitic MTM patch is adjacent to that of the main patch, and the presented antenna can achieve an enhanced bandwidth of 450 MHz, which is about two times the bandwidth of a conventional patch antenna without the MTM parasitic patch. The error rate of packet transmissions for measuring the distance between a leader robot and a follower robot was also improved by almost two-fold.

  15. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Pre-conceptual Design, for Information

    SciTech Connect

    JM Ross

    2005-10-20

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1&C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I&C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I&C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured.

  16. Adaptive Distributed Intelligent Control Architecture for Future Propulsion Systems (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Distributed Control Applications, TTTech, http://www.vmars.tuwien.ac.at/projects/nexttta, http://www.tttech.com/ press /pressreleases.htm, Vienna, Austria...Bamieh, F. Paganini , and M. Dahleh, Distributed Control of Spatially Invariant Systems, IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control, 1998. [18] P. J

  17. Adoption of new software and hardware solutions at the VLT: the ESPRESSO control architecture case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirami, R.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Coretti, I.; Santin, P.; Mannetta, M.; Baldini, V.; Cristiani, S.; Abreu, M.; Cabral, A.; Monteiro, M.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F.

    2012-09-01

    ESPRESSO is a fiber-fed cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph which can be operated with one or up to 4 UT (Unit Telescope) of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will be located in the Combined-Coudé Laboratory (CCL) of the VLT and it will be the first permanent instrument using a 16-m equivalent telescope. The ESPRESSO control software and electronics are in charge of the control of all instrument subsystems: the four Coudé Trains (one for each UT), the front-end and the fiber-fed spectrograph itself contained within a vacuum vessel. The spectrograph is installed inside a series of thermal enclosures following an onion-shell principle with increasing temperature stability from outside to inside. The proposed electronics architecture will use the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) as a standard layer to communicate with PLCs (Programmable Logical Controller), replacing the old Instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) for ESO instruments based on VME technology. The instrument control software will be based on the VLT Control Software package and will use the IC0 Field Bus extension for the control of the instrument hardware. In this paper we present the ESPRESSO software architectural design proposed at the Preliminary Design Review as well as the control electronics architecture.

  18. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory shared control architecture and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad

    1990-01-01

    A hardware and software environment for shared control of telerobot task execution has been implemented. Modes of task execution range from fully teleoperated to fully autonomous as well as shared where hand controller inputs from the human operator are mixed with autonomous system inputs in real time. The objective of the shared control environment is to aid the telerobot operator during task execution by merging real-time operator control from hand controllers with autonomous control to simplify task execution for the operator. The operator is the principal command source and can assign as much autonomy for a task as desired. The shared control hardware environment consists of two PUMA 560 robots, two 6-axis force reflecting hand controllers, Universal Motor Controllers for each of the robots and hand controllers, a SUN4 computer, and VME chassis containing 68020 processors and input/output boards. The operator interface for shared control, the User Macro Interface (UMI), is a menu driven interface to design a task and assign the levels of teleoperated and autonomous control. The operator also sets up the system monitor which checks safety limits during task execution. Cartesian-space degrees of freedom for teleoperated and/or autonomous control inputs are selected within UMI as well as the weightings for the teleoperation and autonmous inputs. These are then used during task execution to determine the mix of teleoperation and autonomous inputs. Some of the autonomous control primitives available to the user are Joint-Guarded-Move, Cartesian-Guarded-Move, Move-To-Touch, Pin-Insertion/Removal, Door/Crank-Turn, Bolt-Turn, and Slide. The operator can execute a task using pure teleoperation or mix control execution from the autonomous primitives with teleoperated inputs. Presently the shared control environment supports single arm task execution. Work is presently underway to provide the shared control environment for dual arm control. Teleoperation during shared

  19. A cellular control architecture for compliant artificial muscles.

    PubMed

    Odhner, Lael U; Ueda, Jun; Asada, H Harry

    2006-01-01

    Dividing an artificial muscle material into a network of small cells could provide performance benefits and eliminate unwanted behaviors such as hysteresis. This paper presents a scheme for the position control or compliance control of an artificial muscle having this kind of cellular structure. Each cell contracts or relaxes probabilistically in response to a global feedback control loop, which measures only the aggregate force and displacement of the muscle. The stochastic nature of the cells produces smooth, reliable global behavior in the artificial muscle. By choosing a control law such that the expected response of the artificial muscle is equal to the desired response, good tracking control is achieved.

  20. Planning assistance for the NASA 30/20 GHz program. Network control architecture study.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inukai, T.; Bonnelycke, B.; Strickland, S.

    1982-01-01

    Network Control Architecture for a 30/20 GHz flight experiment system operating in the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) was studied. Architecture development, identification of processing functions, and performance requirements for the Master Control Station (MCS), diversity trunking stations, and Customer Premises Service (CPS) stations are covered. Preliminary hardware and software processing requirements as well as budgetary cost estimates for the network control system are given. For the trunking system control, areas covered include on board SS-TDMA switch organization, frame structure, acquisition and synchronization, channel assignment, fade detection and adaptive power control, on board oscillator control, and terrestrial network timing. For the CPS control, they include on board processing and adaptive forward error correction control.

  1. Distributed Hierarchical Control Architecture for Transient Dynamics Improvement in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-08-24

    In this paper, a novel distributed hierarchical coordinated control architecture is proposed for large scale power systems. The newly considered architecture facilitates frequency restoration and power balancing functions to be decoupled and implemented at different levels. At the local level, decentralized robust generator controllers are designed to quickly restore frequency after large faults and disturbances in the system. The controllers presented herein are shown to improve transient stability performance, as compared to conventional governor and excitation control. At the area level, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is modified and coordinates with the decentralized robust controllers to reach the interchange schedule in the tie lines. The interaction of local and zonal controllers is validated through detailed simulations.

  2. Rifted continental margins: geometric control on crustal architecture and melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Erik; Redfield, Tim; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn

    2014-05-01

    A new model is provided for the distribution of magma-poor and magma-rich rifted margins. The South Atlantic, Central Atlantic, North Atlantic - Arctic (Eurasia Basin), and Red Sea all are magma-rich at their distal ends and magma-poor at their proximal ends (with respect to their poles of rotation). The well-known architectural zonation across fully developed magma-poor margins (limited crustal stretching, hyperextension, exhumed mantle, oceanic crust) is also observed along the lengths of many margins at the super-regional scale. Zones of exhumed mantle, marking magma-poor margin, can be mapped for thousands of kilometers. Likewise can zones of seaward dipping reflectors (SDR) marking magma-rich margins. At this scale, the age of the oceanic crust becomes younger in the direction of the rotation pole, implying that the continents ruptured by rift tip propagation (and rotation pole propagation). Propagation is also manifested by the age of pre-break-up magmatism, break-up unconformity, and margin uplift. Hence, the classic cross-sectional depiction of margin evolution has a third dimension. The degree of melting follows the same pattern. At the distal end of e.g. the South Atlantic, SDR zones are wide and gradually thin toward the rotation pole. Eventually exhumed mantle takes over, marking the transition to the magma-poor margins, which remain to the proximal end of rifting. SDR zones also thin laterally from ca 10-15 km thickness at the continent-ocean boundary (COB) to ca 7 km thick oceanic crust beyond the SDRs. Outcrop data demonstrate that also exhumed mantle contains up to ca 12% melt, infiltrated in the peridotites. Thus, melting is largest at the distal ends near the COB, and decreases both laterally toward the evolving ocean and along strike toward the rift tip. Accepting that continents are rigid to a first order, the linear rate of extension at any given location along an evolving rift and ocean, is governed by the angular rate of opening, the distance

  3. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline control law for research into adaptive elements and other advanced flight control law components. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation; the simulation results show excellent handling qualities throughout the limited flight envelope. A simple angular momentum formulation was chosen because it can be included in the stability proofs for many basic adaptive theories, such as model reference adaptive control. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as basic as possible to simplify the addition of the adaptive elements. Those design choices are explained, along with their predicted impact on the handling qualities.

  4. A candidate architecture for monitoring and control in chemical transfer propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Millis, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    To support the exploration of space, a reusable space-based rocket engine must be developed. This engine must sustain superior operability and man-rated levels of reliability over several missions with limited maintenance or inspection between flights. To meet these requirements, an expander cycle engine incorporating a hghly capable control and health monitoring system is planned. Alternatives for the functional organization and the implementation architecture of the engine's monitoring and control system are discussed. On the basis of this discussion, a decentralized architecture is favored. The trade-offs between several implementation options are outlined and future work is proposed.

  5. A candidate architecture for monitoring and control in chemical transfer propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael P.; Millis, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    To support the exploration of space, a reusable space-based rocket engine must be developed. This engine must sustain superior operability and man-rated levels of reliability over several missions with limited maintenance or inspection between flights. To meet these requirements, an expander cycle engine incorporating a highly capable control and health monitoring system is planned. Alternatives for the functional organization and the implementation architecture of the engine's monitoring and control system are discussed. On the basis of this discussion, a decentralized architecture is favored. The trade-offs between several implementation options are outlined and future work is proposed.

  6. Service Independent Access Control Architecture for User Generated Content (UGC) and Its Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Akira; Kubota, Ayumu; Miyake, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Kazuo

    Using Web-based content management systems such as Blog, an end user can easily publish User Generated Content (UGC). Although publishing of UGCs is easy, controlling access to them is a difficult problem for end users. Currently, most of Blog sites offer no access control mechanism, and even when it is available to users, it is not sufficient to control users who do not have an account at the site, not to mention that it cannot control accesses to content hosted by other UGC sites. In this paper, we propose new access control architecture for UGC, in which third party entities can offer access control mechanism to users independently of UGC hosting sites. With this architecture, a user can control accesses to his content that might be spread over many different UGC sites, regardless of whether those sites have access control mechanism or not. The key idea to separate access control mechanism from UGC sites is to apply cryptographic access control and we implemented the idea in such a way that it requires no modification to UGC sites and Web browsers. Our prototype implementation shows that the proposed access control architecture can be easily deployed in the current Web-based communication environment and it works quite well with popular Blog sites.

  7. Novel L1 neural network adaptive control architecture with guaranteed transient performance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel neural network (NN) adaptive control architecture with guaranteed transient performance. With this new architecture, both input and output signals of an uncertain nonlinear system follow a desired linear system during the transient phase, in addition to stable tracking. This new architecture uses a low-pass filter in the feedback loop, which consequently enables to enforce the desired transient performance by increasing the adaptation gain. For the guaranteed transient performance of both input and output signals of the uncertain nonlinear system, the L1 gain of a cascaded system, comprised of the low-pass filter and the closed-loop desired reference model, is required to be less than the inverse of the Lipschitz constant of the unknown nonlinearities in the system. The tools from this paper can be used to develop a theoretically justified verification and validation framework for NN adaptive controllers. Simulation results illustrate the theoretical findings.

  8. Software Defined Networking (SDN) controlled all optical switching networks with multi-dimensional switching architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongli; Ji, Yuefeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hui; Xiong, Qianjin; Qiu, Shaofeng

    2014-08-01

    Ultrahigh throughout capacity requirement is challenging the current optical switching nodes with the fast development of data center networks. Pbit/s level all optical switching networks need to be deployed soon, which will cause the high complexity of node architecture. How to control the future network and node equipment together will become a new problem. An enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN) control architecture is proposed in the paper, which consists of Provider NOX (P-NOX) and Node NOX (N-NOX). With the cooperation of P-NOX and N-NOX, the flexible control of the entire network can be achieved. All optical switching network testbed has been experimentally demonstrated with efficient control of enhanced Software Defined Networking (eSDN). Pbit/s level all optical switching nodes in the testbed are implemented based on multi-dimensional switching architecture, i.e. multi-level and multi-planar. Due to the space and cost limitation, each optical switching node is only equipped with four input line boxes and four output line boxes respectively. Experimental results are given to verify the performance of our proposed control and switching architecture.

  9. Towards a State Based Control Architecture for Large Telescopes: Laying a Foundation at the VLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karban, R.; Kornweibel, N.; Dvorak, D.; Ingham, M.; Wagner, D.

    2011-01-01

    Large telescopes are characterized by a high level of distribution of control-related tasks and will feature diverse data flow patterns and large ranges of sampling frequencies; there will often be no single, fixed server-client relationship between the control tasks. the architecture is also challenged by the task of integrating heterogeneous subsystems which will be delivered by multiple different contractors. Due to the high number of distributed components, the control system needs to effectively detect errors and faults, impede their propagation, and accurately mitigate them in the shortest time possible, enabling the service to be restored. The presented Data-Driven Architecture is based on a decentralized approach with an end-to-end integration of disparate, independently developed software components. These components employ a high-performance standards-based communication middle-ware infrastructure, based on the Data Distribution Service. A set of rules and principles, based on JPL's State Analysis method and architecture, are use to constrain component-to component interactions, where the Control System and System Under Control are clearly separated. State Analysis provide a model-based process for capturing system and software requirements and design, greatly reducing the gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation by software engineers. The method and architecture has been field tested at the Very Large Telescope, where it has been integrated into an operational system.

  10. Bio-inspired adaptive feedback error learning architecture for motor control.

    PubMed

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Luque, Niceto R; Garrido, Jesús A; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    This study proposes an adaptive control architecture based on an accurate regression method called Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) and on a bio-inspired module, such as a cerebellar-like engine. This hybrid architecture takes full advantage of the machine learning module (LWPR kernel) to abstract an optimized representation of the sensorimotor space while the cerebellar component integrates this to generate corrective terms in the framework of a control task. Furthermore, we illustrate how the use of a simple adaptive error feedback term allows to use the proposed architecture even in the absence of an accurate analytic reference model. The presented approach achieves an accurate control with low gain corrective terms (for compliant control schemes). We evaluate the contribution of the different components of the proposed scheme comparing the obtained performance with alternative approaches. Then, we show that the presented architecture can be used for accurate manipulation of different objects when their physical properties are not directly known by the controller. We evaluate how the scheme scales for simulated plants of high Degrees of Freedom (7-DOFs).

  11. A software architecture for hard real-time execution of automatically synthesized plans or control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoppers, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    The design of a flexible, real-time software architecture for trajectory planning and automatic control of redundant manipulators is described. Emphasis is placed on a technique of designing control systems that are both flexible and robust yet have good real-time performance. The solution presented involves an artificial intelligence algorithm that dynamically reprograms the real-time control system while planning system behavior.

  12. Design and reliability analysis of DP-3 dynamic positioning control architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Wan, Lei; Jiang, Da-Peng; Xu, Yu-Ru

    2011-12-01

    As the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas proliferate throughout deepwater area, the requirements on the reliability of dynamic positioning system become increasingly stringent. The control objective ensuring safety operation at deep water will not be met by a single controller for dynamic positioning. In order to increase the availability and reliability of dynamic positioning control system, the triple redundancy hardware and software control architectures were designed and developed according to the safe specifications of DP-3 classification notation for dynamically positioned ships and rigs. The hardware redundant configuration takes the form of triple-redundant hot standby configuration including three identical operator stations and three real-time control computers which connect each other through dual networks. The function of motion control and redundancy management of control computers were implemented by software on the real-time operating system VxWorks. The software realization of task loose synchronization, majority voting and fault detection were presented in details. A hierarchical software architecture was planed during the development of software, consisting of application layer, real-time layer and physical layer. The behavior of the DP-3 dynamic positioning control system was modeled by a Markov model to analyze its reliability. The effects of variation in parameters on the reliability measures were investigated. The time domain dynamic simulation was carried out on a deepwater drilling rig to prove the feasibility of the proposed control architecture.

  13. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  14. Service-oriented architecture for the ARGOS instrument control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borelli, J.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Kulas, M.; Rabien, Sebastian

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Rayleigh Guided ground layer Adaptive optic System, ARGOS, equips the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with a constellation of six rayleigh laser guide stars. By correcting atmospheric turbulence near the ground, the system is designed to increase the image quality of the multi-object spectrograph LUCIFER approximately by a factor of 3 over a field of 4 arc minute diameter. The control software has the critical task of orchestrating several devices, instruments, and high level services, including the already existing adaptive optic system and the telescope control software. All these components are widely distributed over the telescope, adding more complexity to the system design. The approach used by the ARGOS engineers is to write loosely coupled and distributed services under the control of different ownership systems, providing a uniform mechanism to offer, discover, interact and use these distributed capabilities. The control system counts with several finite state machines, vibration and flexure compensation loops, and safety mechanism, such as interlocks, aircraft, and satellite avoidance systems.

  15. State Analysis: A Control Architecture View of Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the state analysis process is shown. The topics include: 1) Issues with growing complexity; 2) Limits of common practice; 3) Exploiting a control point of view; 4) A glimpse at the State Analysis process; 5) Synergy with model-based systems engineering; and 6) Bridging the systems to software gap.

  16. Evaluation of an Outer Loop Retrofit Architecture for Intelligent Turbofan Engine Thrust Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane

    2006-01-01

    The thrust control capability of a retrofit architecture for intelligent turbofan engine control and diagnostics is evaluated. The focus of the study is on the portion of the hierarchical architecture that performs thrust estimation and outer loop thrust control. The inner loop controls fan speed so the outer loop automatically adjusts the engine's fan speed command to maintain thrust at the desired level, based on pilot input, even as the engine deteriorates with use. The thrust estimation accuracy is assessed under nominal and deteriorated conditions at multiple operating points, and the closed loop thrust control performance is studied, all in a complex real-time nonlinear turbofan engine simulation test bed. The estimation capability, thrust response, and robustness to uncertainty in the form of engine degradation are evaluated.

  17. Arranging computer architectures to create higher-performance controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    1988-01-01

    Techniques for integrating microprocessors, array processors, and other intelligent devices in control systems are reviewed, with an emphasis on the (re)arrangement of components to form distributed or parallel processing systems. Consideration is given to the selection of the host microprocessor, increasing the power and/or memory capacity of the host, multitasking software for the host, array processors to reduce computation time, the allocation of real-time and non-real-time events to different computer subsystems, intelligent devices to share the computational burden for real-time events, and intelligent interfaces to increase communication speeds. The case of a helicopter vibration-suppression and stabilization controller is analyzed as an example, and significant improvements in computation and throughput rates are demonstrated.

  18. A Coordinated Control Architecture for Disaster Response Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    height map can be displayed directly as an image (e.g., Figure 27) or unpacked to reconstruct a colored 3D point cloud (e.g., Figures 28 and 29). Since...OI window encapsulating the RViz "camera view", which overlays information on a camera image , alongside operator controls for incremental individual...terrain environment; (bottom) with simulated LIDAR scan. 51 Figure 35: Two views of the planes that have been found in this environment. Different colors

  19. H2, fixed architecture, control design for large scale systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1990-01-01

    The H2, fixed architecture, control problem is a classic linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) problem whose solution is constrained to be a linear time invariant compensator with a decentralized processing structure. The compensator can be made of p independent subcontrollers, each of which has a fixed order and connects selected sensors to selected actuators. The H2, fixed architecture, control problem allows the design of simplified feedback systems needed to control large scale systems. Its solution becomes more complicated, however, as more constraints are introduced. This work derives the necessary conditions for optimality for the problem and studies their properties. It is found that the filter and control problems couple when the architecture constraints are introduced, and that the different subcontrollers must be coordinated in order to achieve global system performance. The problem requires the simultaneous solution of highly coupled matrix equations. The use of homotopy is investigated as a numerical tool, and its convergence properties studied. It is found that the general constrained problem may have multiple stabilizing solutions, and that these solutions may be local minima or saddle points for the quadratic cost. The nature of the solution is not invariant when the parameters of the system are changed. Bifurcations occur, and a solution may continuously transform into a nonstabilizing compensator. Using a modified homotopy procedure, fixed architecture compensators are derived for models of large flexible structures to help understand the properties of the constrained solutions and compare them to the corresponding unconstrained ones.

  20. Data acquisition, storage and control architecture for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, Alan; Cardoso, Guilherme; Chramowicz, John; Marriner, John; Rivera, Ryan; Turqueti, Marcos; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    The SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) instrument is being designed to collect image and spectroscopic data for the study of dark energy in the universe. In this paper, we describe a distributed architecture for the data acquisition system which interfaces to visible light and infrared imaging detectors. The architecture includes the use of NAND flash memory for the storage of exposures in a file system. Also described is an FPGA-based lossless data compression algorithm with a configurable pre-scaler based on a novel square root data compression method to improve compression performance. The required interactions of the distributed elements with an instrument control unit will be described as well.

  1. Micro guidance and control synthesis: New components, architectures, and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    1993-01-01

    New GN&C (guidance, navigation and control) system capabilities are shown to arise from component innovations that involve the synergistic use of microminiature sensors and actuators, microelectronics, and fiber optics. Micro-GN&C system and component concepts are defined that include micro-actuated adaptive optics, micromachined inertial sensors, fiber-optic data nets and light-power transmission, and VLSI microcomputers. The thesis is advanced that these micro-miniaturization products are capable of having a revolutionary impact on space missions and systems, and that GN&C is the pathfinder micro-technology application that can bring that about.

  2. Synchronized computational architecture for generalized bilateral control of robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A master six degree of freedom Force Reflecting Hand Controller (FRHC) is available at a master site where a received image displays, in essentially real time, a remote robotic manipulator which is being controlled in the corresponding six degree freedom by command signals which are transmitted to the remote site in accordance with the movement of the FRHC at the master site. Software is user-initiated at the master site in order to establish the basic system conditions, and then a physical movement of the FRHC in Cartesean space is reflected at the master site by six absolute numbers that are sensed, translated and computed as a difference signal relative to the earlier position. The change in position is then transmitted in that differential signal form over a high speed synchronized bilateral communication channel which simultaneously returns robot-sensed response information to the master site as forces applied to the FRHC so that the FRHC reflects the feel of what is taking place at the remote site. A system wide clock rate is selected at a sufficiently high rate that the operator at the master site experiences the Force Reflecting operation in real time.

  3. 10 Management Controller for Time and Space Partitioning Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaize, Jerome; Deredempt, Marie-Helene; Galizzi, Julien

    2015-09-01

    The Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) has been industrialized in aeronautical domain to enable the independent qualification of different application softwares from different suppliers on the same generic computer, this latter computer being a single terminal in a deterministic network. This concept allowed to distribute efficiently and transparently the different applications across the network, sizing accurately the HW equipments to embed on the aircraft, through the configuration of the virtual computers and the virtual network. , This concept has been studied for space domain and requirements issued [D04],[D05]. Experiments in the space domain have been done, for the computer level, through ESA and CNES initiatives [D02] [D03]. One possible IMA implementation may use Time and Space Partitioning (TSP) technology. Studies on Time and Space Partitioning [D02] for controlling resources access such as CPU and memories and studies on hardware/software interface standardization [D01] showed that for space domain technologies where I/O components (or IP) do not cover advanced features such as buffering, descriptors or virtualization, CPU overhead in terms of performances is mainly due to shared interface management in the execution platform, and to the high frequency of I/O accesses, these latter leading to an important number of context switches. This paper will present a solution to reduce this execution overhead with an open, modular and configurable controller.

  4. Pointing Control System Architecture for the Eclipse Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kia, Tooraj; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Alexander, James W.; Li, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the high performance pointing control system used to point the Eclipse telescope. Eclipse is a new mission under study at Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a proposal as a discovery mission. Eclipse is a space telescope for high-contrast optical astronomy. It will be used to investigate the planetary bodies and environments. The main objective of the Eclipse mission is to study planets around nearby stars. Eclipse is designed to reveal planets or dust structures by reducing the scattered and diffracted light within a few arcseconds of a star to a level three orders of magnitude lower than any instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Eclipse achieves this high contrast using a 1.8 meter diameter telescope, a coronagraphic system for control of diffracted light, and active wavefront correction using a Precision Deformable Mirror (DM) for the suppression of scattered light. The observatory will be launched into a Sun-synchronous 690 Km, 98.2(deg) Earth Orbit in 2012.

  5. Object-based task-level control: A hierarchical control architecture for remote operation of space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, H. D.; Miles, E. S.; Rock, S. J.; Cannon, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Expanding man's presence in space requires capable, dexterous robots capable of being controlled from the Earth. Traditional 'hand-in-glove' control paradigms require the human operator to directly control virtually every aspect of the robot's operation. While the human provides excellent judgment and perception, human interaction is limited by low bandwidth, delayed communications. These delays make 'hand-in-glove' operation from Earth impractical. In order to alleviate many of the problems inherent to remote operation, Stanford University's Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed the Object-Based Task-Level Control architecture. Object-Based Task-Level Control (OBTLC) removes the burden of teleoperation from the human operator and enables execution of tasks not possible with current techniques. OBTLC is a hierarchical approach to control where the human operator is able to specify high-level, object-related tasks through an intuitive graphical user interface. Infrequent task-level command replace constant joystick operations, eliminating communications bandwidth and time delay problems. The details of robot control and task execution are handled entirely by the robot and computer control system. The ARL has implemented the OBTLC architecture on a set of Free-Flying Space Robots. The capability of the OBTLC architecture has been demonstrated by controlling the ARL Free-Flying Space Robots from NASA Ames Research Center.

  6. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Security Architecture Lab Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannicca, Dennis C.; McKim, James H.; Stewart, David H.; Thadhani, Suresh K.; Young, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, in cooperation with Rockwell Collins, is working to develop a prototype Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) radio platform as part of NASA Integrated Systems Research Program's (ISRP) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. A primary focus of the project is to work with the FAA and industry standards bodies to build and demonstrate a safe, secure, and efficient CNPC architecture that can be used by industry to evaluate the feasibility of deploying a system using these technologies in an operational capacity. GRC has been working in conjunction with these groups to assess threats, identify security requirements, and to develop a system of standards-based security controls that can be applied to the current GRC prototype CNPC architecture as a demonstration platform. The security controls were integrated into a lab test bed mock-up of the Mobile IPv6 architecture currently being used for NASA flight testing, and a series of network tests were conducted to evaluate the security overhead of the controls compared to the baseline CNPC link without any security. The aim of testing was to evaluate the performance impact of the additional security control overhead when added to the Mobile IPv6 architecture in various modes of operation. The statistics collected included packet captures at points along the path to gauge packet size as the sample data traversed the CNPC network, round trip latency, jitter, and throughput. The effort involved a series of tests of the baseline link, a link with Robust Header Compression (ROHC) and without security controls, a link with security controls and without ROHC, and finally a link with both ROHC and security controls enabled. The effort demonstrated that ROHC is both desirable and necessary to offset the additional expected overhead of applying security controls to the CNPC link.

  7. Telerobot local-remote control architecture for space flight program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul; Steele, Robert; Long, Mark; Bon, Bruce; Beahan, John

    1993-01-01

    The JPL Supervisory Telerobotics (STELER) Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a unique local-remote robot control architecture which enables management of intermittent communication bus latencies and delays such as those expected for ground-remote operation of Space Station robotic systems via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) communication platform. The current work at JPL in this area has focused on enhancing the technologies and transferring the control architecture to hardware and software environments which are more compatible with projected ground and space operational environments. At the local site, the operator updates the remote worksite model using stereo video and a model overlay/fitting algorithm which outputs the location and orientation of the object in free space. That information is relayed to the robot User Macro Interface (UMI) to enable programming of the robot control macros. This capability runs on a single Silicon Graphics Inc. machine. The operator can employ either manual teleoperation, shared control, or supervised autonomous control to manipulate the intended object. The remote site controller, called the Modular Telerobot Task Execution System (MOTES), runs in a multi-processor VME environment and performs the task sequencing, task execution, trajectory generation, closed loop force/torque control, task parameter monitoring, and reflex action. This paper describes the new STELER architecture implementation, and also documents the results of the recent autonomous docking task execution using the local site and MOTES.

  8. Flexible, low-latency architecture for qubit control and measurement in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlothuizen, Wouter; Deurloo, D.; Sterke, J. De; Vermeulen, R.; Schouten, R. N.; Dicarlo, Leo

    Increasing qubit numbers in circuit QED requires an extensible architecture for digital waveform generation of qubit control and measurement signals. For quantum error correction, the ability to select from a number of predetermined waveforms based on measurement results will become paramount. We present a room-temperature architecture with very low latency from measurement to waveform output. This modular FPGA-based system can generate both baseband and RF modulated signals using DACs clocked at 1 GHz. A backplane that interconnects several modules allows exchange of (measurement) information between modules and maintains deterministic timing across those modules. We replace the typical line based sequencer used in arbitrary waveform generators by a user programmable processor that treats waveforms and measurements as instructions added to a conventional CPU architecture. This allows for flexible coding of triggering, repetitions, delays and interactions between measurement and signal generation. We acknowledge funding from the Dutch Research Organization (NWO), an ERC Synergy Grant, and European project SCALEQIT.

  9. Distributed model predictive control with hierarchical architecture for communication: application in automated irrigation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza; Khodabandehlou, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with a distributed model predictive control (DMPC) method that is based on a distributed optimisation method with two-level architecture for communication. Feasibility (constraints satisfaction by the approximated solution), convergence and optimality of this distributed optimisation method are mathematically proved. For an automated irrigation channel, the satisfactory performance of the proposed DMPC method in attenuation of the undesired upstream transient error propagation and amplification phenomenon is illustrated and compared with the performance of another DMPC method that exploits a single-level architecture for communication. It is illustrated that the DMPC that exploits a two-level architecture for communication has a better performance by better managing communication overhead.

  10. Getting to the roots of it: Genetic and hormonal control of root architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Janelle K. H.; McCouch, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) – the spatial configuration of a root system – is an important developmental and agronomic trait, with implications for overall plant architecture, growth rate and yield, abiotic stress resistance, nutrient uptake, and developmental plasticity in response to environmental changes. Root architecture is modulated by intrinsic, hormone-mediated pathways, intersecting with pathways that perceive and respond to external, environmental signals. The recent development of several non-invasive 2D and 3D root imaging systems has enhanced our ability to accurately observe and quantify architectural traits on complex whole-root systems. Coupled with the powerful marker-based genotyping and sequencing platforms currently available, these root phenotyping technologies lend themselves to large-scale genome-wide association studies, and can speed the identification and characterization of the genes and pathways involved in root system development. This capability provides the foundation for examining the contribution of root architectural traits to the performance of crop varieties in diverse environments. This review focuses on our current understanding of the genes and pathways involved in determining RSA in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) response pathways, and provides a brief overview of the latest root system phenotyping technologies and their potential impact on elucidating the genetic control of root development in plants. PMID:23785372

  11. Shift changes, updates, and the on-call architecture in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Woods, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted to investigate what it means to update a supervisory controller on the status of a continuous, anomaly-driven process in a complex, distributed environment. Sixteen shift changes, or handovers, at the NASA Johnson Space Center were observed during the STS-76 Space Shuttle mission. The findings from this observational study highlight the importance of prior knowledge in the updates and demonstrate how missing updates can leave flight controllers vulnerable to being unprepared. Implications for mitigating risk in the transition to 'on-call' architectures are discussed.

  12. The NIST Real-Time Control System (RCS): A Reference Model Architecture for Computational Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1996-01-01

    The Real-time Control System (RCS) developed at NIST and elsewhere over the past two decades defines a reference model architecture for design and analysis of complex intelligent control systems. The RCS architecture consists of a hierarchically layered set of functional processing modules connected by a network of communication pathways. The primary distinguishing feature of the layers is the bandwidth of the control loops. The characteristic bandwidth of each level is determined by the spatial and temporal integration window of filters, the temporal frequency of signals and events, the spatial frequency of patterns, and the planning horizon and granularity of the planners that operate at each level. At each level, tasks are decomposed into sequential subtasks, to be performed by cooperating sets of subordinate agents. At each level, signals from sensors are filtered and correlated with spatial and temporal features that are relevant to the control function being implemented at that level.

  13. Shift changes, updates, and the on-call architecture in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Woods, D D

    2001-01-01

    In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted to investigate what it means to update a supervisory controller on the status of a continuous, anomaly-driven process in a complex, distributed environment. Sixteen shift changes, or handovers, at the NASA Johnson Space Center were observed during the STS-76 Space Shuttle mission. The findings from this observational study highlight the importance of prior knowledge in the updates and demonstrate how missing updates can leave flight controllers vulnerable to being unprepared. Implications for mitigating risk in the transition to 'on-call' architectures are discussed.

  14. Design and evaluation of a trilateral shared-control architecture for teleoperated training robots.

    PubMed

    Shamaei, Kamran; Kim, Lawrence H; Okamura, Allison M

    2015-08-01

    Multilateral teleoperated robots can be used to train humans to perform complex tasks that require collaborative interaction and expert supervision, such as laparoscopic surgical procedures. In this paper, we explain the design and performance evaluation of a shared-control architecture that can be used in trilateral teleoperated training robots. The architecture includes dominance and observation factors inspired by the determinants of motor learning in humans, including observational practice, focus of attention, feedback and augmented feedback, and self-controlled practice. Toward the validation of such an architecture, we (1) verify the stability of a trilateral system by applying Llewellyn's criterion on a two-port equivalent architecture, and (2) demonstrate that system transparency remains generally invariant across relevant observation factors and movement frequencies. In a preliminary experimental study, a dyad of two human users (one novice, one expert) collaborated on the control of a robot to follow a trajectory. The experiment showed that the framework can be used to modulate the efforts of the users and adjust the source and level of haptic feedback to the novice user.

  15. ERECTA signaling controls Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture through chromatin-mediated activation of PRE1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hanyang; Zhao, Lihua; Wang, Lulu; Zhang, Man; Su, Zhenxia; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Heming; Qin, Yuan

    2017-03-13

    Flowering plants display a remarkable diversity in inflorescence architecture, and pedicel length is one of the key contributors to this diversity. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the receptor-like kinase ERECTA (ER) mediated signaling pathway plays important roles in regulating inflorescence architecture by promoting cell proliferation. However, the regulating mechanism remains elusive in the pedicel. Genetic interactions between ERECTA signaling and the chromatin remodeling complex SWR1 in the control of inflorescence architecture were studied. Comparative transcriptome analysis was applied to identify downstream components. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and nucleosome occupancy was further investigated. The results indicated that the chromatin remodeler SWR1 coordinates with ERECTA signaling in regulating inflorescence architecture by activating the expression of PRE1 family genes and promoting pedicel elongation. It was found that SWR1 is required for the incorporation of the H2A.Z histone variant into nucleosomes of the whole PRE1 gene family and the ERECTA controlled expression of PRE1 gene family through regulating nucleosome dynamics. We propose that utilization of a chromatin remodeling complex to regulate gene expression is a common theme in developmental control across kingdoms. These findings shed light on the mechanisms through which chromatin remodelers orchestrate complex transcriptional regulation of gene expression in coordination with a developmental cue.

  16. Instrumentation and control building, architectural, floor plans. Specifications no. Eng043535572; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control building, architectural, floor plans. Specifications no. Eng-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12' sheet 64 of 148; file no. 1321/15. Stamped: record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  18. Control System Architectures, Technologies and Concepts for Near Term and Future Human Exploration of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Richard; Overland, David

    2004-01-01

    Technologies that facilitate the design and control of complex, hybrid, and resource-constrained systems are examined. This paper focuses on design methodologies, and system architectures, not on specific control methods that may be applied to life support subsystems. Honeywell and Boeing have estimated that 60-80Y0 of the effort in developing complex control systems is software development, and only 20-40% is control system development. It has also been shown that large software projects have failure rates of as high as 50-65%. Concepts discussed include the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and design patterns with the goal of creating a self-improving, self-documenting system design process. Successful architectures for control must not only facilitate hardware to software integration, but must also reconcile continuously changing software with much less frequently changing hardware. These architectures rely on software modules or components to facilitate change. Architecting such systems for change leverages the interfaces between these modules or components.

  19. Transition in Gas Turbine Control System Architecture: Modular, Distributed, and Embedded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Controls systems are an increasingly important component of turbine-engine system technology. However, as engines become more capable, the control system itself becomes ever more constrained by the inherent environmental conditions of the engine; a relationship forced by the continued reliance on commercial electronics technology. A revolutionary change in the architecture of turbine-engine control systems will change this paradigm and result in fully distributed engine control systems. Initially, the revolution will begin with the physical decoupling of the control law processor from the hostile engine environment using a digital communications network and engine-mounted high temperature electronics requiring little or no thermal control. The vision for the evolution of distributed control capability from this initial implementation to fully distributed and embedded control is described in a roadmap and implementation plan. The development of this plan is the result of discussions with government and industry stakeholders

  20. A Flight Control System Architecture for the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    A flight control system architecture for the NASA AirSTAR infrastructure has been designed to address the challenges associated with safe and efficient flight testing of research control laws in adverse flight conditions. The AirSTAR flight control system provides a flexible framework that enables NASA Aviation Safety Program research objectives, and includes the ability to rapidly integrate and test research control laws, emulate component or sensor failures, inject automated control surface perturbations, and provide a baseline control law for comparison to research control laws and to increase operational efficiency. The current baseline control law uses an angle of attack command augmentation system for the pitch axis and simple stability augmentation for the roll and yaw axes.

  1. Cross-talk compensation of hyperfine control in donor-qubit architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, G.; Wellard, C. J.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2006-09-01

    We theoretically investigate cross-talk in hyperfine gate control of donor-qubit quantum computer architectures, in particular the Kane proposal. By solving the Poisson and Schrödinger equations numerically for the gated donor system, we calculate the change in hyperfine coupling and thus the error in spin-rotation for the donor nuclear-electron spin system, as the gate-donor distance is varied. We thus determine the effect of cross-talk—the inadvertent effect on non-target neighbouring qubits—which occurs due to closeness of the control gates (20-30 nm). The use of compensation protocols is investigated, whereby the extent of cross-talk is limited by the application of compensation bias to a series of gates. In the light of these factors, architectural implications are then considered.

  2. The Backseat Control Architecture for Autonomous Robotic Vehicles: A Case Study with the Iver2 AUV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    the vehicle to perform real-time adaptive environ- mental sampling. In addition to the oceanographic sensors, each vehicle is equipped with a 16...acoustic data to a set of 8-channel analog to digital (A/D) converter boards described in II-A.5, allowing the vehicle to perform real-time underwater target...for oceanographic sampling with the autonomous kayaks are described in [9]. III. THE BACKSEAT CONTROL ARCHITECTURE A. Overview The iOceanServerComms

  3. High-speed, automatic controller design considerations for integrating array processor, multi-microprocessor, and host computer system architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, S. A.; Leyland, J. A.; Warmbrodt, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modern control systems must typically perform real-time identification and control, as well as coordinate a host of other activities related to user interaction, online graphics, and file management. This paper discusses five global design considerations which are useful to integrate array processor, multimicroprocessor, and host computer system architectures into versatile, high-speed controllers. Such controllers are capable of very high control throughput, and can maintain constant interaction with the nonreal-time or user environment. As an application example, the architecture of a high-speed, closed-loop controller used to actively control helicopter vibration is briefly discussed. Although this system has been designed for use as the controller for real-time rotorcraft dynamics and control studies in a wind tunnel environment, the controller architecture can generally be applied to a wide range of automatic control applications.

  4. Proposed Functional Architecture and Associated Benefits Analysis of a Common Ground Control Station for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    to unique Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Ground Control Station (GCS) designs. A former Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology...includes a common Air Vehicle Operator (AVO) Human-Machine Interface. These requirements enabled the creation of an innovative functional architecture for...Station (GCS), Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), common, commonality, interoperability, architecture, training, Air Vehicle

  5. Special purpose parallel computer architecture for real-time control and simulation in robotic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Bejczy, Antal K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This is a real-time robotic controller and simulator which is a MIMD-SIMD parallel architecture for interfacing with an external host computer and providing a high degree of parallelism in computations for robotic control and simulation. It includes a host processor for receiving instructions from the external host computer and for transmitting answers to the external host computer. There are a plurality of SIMD microprocessors, each SIMD processor being a SIMD parallel processor capable of exploiting fine grain parallelism and further being able to operate asynchronously to form a MIMD architecture. Each SIMD processor comprises a SIMD architecture capable of performing two matrix-vector operations in parallel while fully exploiting parallelism in each operation. There is a system bus connecting the host processor to the plurality of SIMD microprocessors and a common clock providing a continuous sequence of clock pulses. There is also a ring structure interconnecting the plurality of SIMD microprocessors and connected to the clock for providing the clock pulses to the SIMD microprocessors and for providing a path for the flow of data and instructions between the SIMD microprocessors. The host processor includes logic for controlling the RRCS by interpreting instructions sent by the external host computer, decomposing the instructions into a series of computations to be performed by the SIMD microprocessors, using the system bus to distribute associated data among the SIMD microprocessors, and initiating activity of the SIMD microprocessors to perform the computations on the data by procedure call.

  6. Control software and electronics architecture design in the framework of the E-ELT instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Coretti, I.; Cirami, R.; Comari, M.; Santin, P.; Pucillo, M.

    2010-07-01

    During the last years the European Southern Observatory (ESO), in collaboration with other European astronomical institutes, has started several feasibility studies for the E-ELT (European-Extremely Large Telescope) instrumentation and post-focal adaptive optics. The goal is to create a flexible suite of instruments to deal with the wide variety of scientific questions astronomers would like to see solved in the coming decades. In this framework INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste (INAF-AOTs) is currently responsible of carrying out the analysis and the preliminary study of the architecture of the electronics and control software of three instruments: CODEX (control software and electronics) and OPTIMOS-EVE/OPTIMOS-DIORAMAS (control software). To cope with the increased complexity and new requirements for stability, precision, real-time latency and communications among sub-systems imposed by these instruments, new solutions have been investigated by our group. In this paper we present the proposed software and electronics architecture based on a distributed common framework centered on the Component/Container model that uses OPC Unified Architecture as a standard layer to communicate with COTS components of three different vendors. We describe three working prototypes that have been set-up in our laboratory and discuss their performances, integration complexity and ease of deployment.

  7. The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L.; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Lazaridis, Christos

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

  8. Genes and QTLs controlling inflorescence and stem branch architecture in Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) Wildrye.

    PubMed

    Larson, Steven R; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Kevin B

    2013-01-01

    Grass inflorescence and stem branches show recognizable architectural differences among species. The inflorescence branches of Triticeae cereals and grasses, including wheat, barley, and 400-500 wild species, are usually contracted into a spike formation, with the number of flowering branches (spikelets) per node conserved within species and genera. Perennial Triticeae grasses of genus Leymus are unusual in that the number of spikelets per node varies, inflorescences may have panicle branches, and vegetative stems may form subterranean rhizomes. Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides show discrete differences in inflorescence length, branching architecture, node number, and density; number of spikelets per node and florets per spikelet; culm length and width; and perimeter of rhizomatous spreading. Quantitative trait loci controlling these traits were detected in 2 pseudo-backcross populations derived from the interspecific hybrids using a linkage map with 360 expressed gene sequence markers from Leymus tiller and rhizome branch meristems. Alignments of genes, mutations, and quantitative trait loci controlling similar traits in other grass species were identified using the Brachypodium genome reference sequence. Evidence suggests that loci controlling inflorescence and stem branch architecture in Leymus are conserved among the grasses, are governed by natural selection, and can serve as possible gene targets for improving seed, forage, and grain production.

  9. Dynamics and Design Principles of a Basic Regulatory Architecture Controlling Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Emmitt R; DeRisi, Joe; Li, Hao

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic features of a genetic network's response to environmental fluctuations represent essential functional specifications and thus may constrain the possible choices of network architecture and kinetic parameters. To explore the connection between dynamics and network design, we have analyzed a general regulatory architecture that is commonly found in many metabolic pathways. Such architecture is characterized by a dual control mechanism, with end product feedback inhibition and transcriptional regulation mediated by an intermediate metabolite. As a case study, we measured with high temporal resolution the induction profiles of the enzymes in the leucine biosynthetic pathway in response to leucine depletion, using an automated system for monitoring protein expression levels in single cells. All the genes in the pathway are known to be coregulated by the same transcription factors, but we observed drastically different dynamic responses for enzymes upstream and immediately downstream of the key control point—the intermediate metabolite α-isopropylmalate (αIPM), which couples metabolic activity to transcriptional regulation. Analysis based on genetic perturbations suggests that the observed dynamics are due to differential regulation by the leucine branch-specific transcription factor Leu3, and that the downstream enzymes are strictly controlled and highly expressed only when αIPM is available. These observations allow us to build a simplified mathematical model that accounts for the observed dynamics and can correctly predict the pathway's response to new perturbations. Our model also suggests that transient dynamics and steady state can be separately tuned and that the high induction levels of the downstream enzymes are necessary for fast leucine recovery. It is likely that principles emerging from this work can reveal how gene regulation has evolved to optimize performance in other metabolic pathways with similar architecture. PMID:18563967

  10. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria

    PubMed Central

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture. PMID:26985990

  11. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    PubMed

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  12. Task definition, decoupling and redundancy resolution by nonlinear feedback in multi-robot object handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramadorai, A. K.; Tarn, T. J.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of rigid object handling by multiple robot arms is investigated. The primary goal is to make the object exhibit a prescribed behavior while in contact with a fully known environment. Point contacts are assumed between the object and the arms. The aspect of task definition to achieve decoupling and linearizing control laws is discussed. Control laws are first formulated at the object level to provide decoupled force and position servo loops. It is then used to form control laws for the individual arms. Redundancies exist at the object and arm levels. The object level redundancy is used to achieve secondary goals in object handling. The arm level redundancies are the zero dynamics and can be controlled by redundant inputs. Full use of the available inputs are used to control the system as a whole. Numerical simulations for a dual-arm situation illustrate the validity of the approach.

  13. Performance analysis and overload control of an open service access (OSA) architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Jens K.; Nyberg, Christian; Kihl, Maria

    2003-08-01

    The trend of the service architectures developed in telecommunications today is that they should be open in the sense that they can communicate over the borders of different networks. Instead of each network having their own service architecture with their own applications, all networks should be able to use the same applications. 3GPP, the organization developing specifications for the 3G networks has specified the standard Open Service Access (OSA), as a part of the 3G specification. OSA offers different Application Protocol Interfaces that enable an application that resides outside a network to use the capabilities of the network. This paper analyses the performance of an OSA gateway. It is examined how the overload control can be dealt with in a way to best satisfy the operators and the 3'rd parties. There are some guiding principles in the specifications, but a lot of decisions have to be made by the implementors of application servers and OSA gateways. Proposals of different requirements for an OSA architecture exist such as, minimum amount of accepted calls per second and time constraint for the maximal total delay for an application. Maximal and fair throughput have to be prioritized from the 3'rd parties view, but profit is the main interest from the operators point of view. Therefore this paper examines a priority based proposal of an overload control mechanism taking these aspects and requirements into account.

  14. Control architecture for human-robot integration: application to a robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Cipriano; Gonzalez, Javier; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Completely autonomous performance of a mobile robot within noncontrolled and dynamic environments is not possible yet due to different reasons including environment uncertainty, sensor/software robustness, limited robotic abilities, etc. But in assistant applications in which a human is always present, she/he can make up for the lack of robot autonomy by helping it when needed. In this paper, the authors propose human-robot integration as a mechanism to augment/improve the robot autonomy in daily scenarios. Through the human-robot-integration concept, the authors take a further step in the typical human-robot relation, since they consider her/him as a constituent part of the human-robot system, which takes full advantage of the sum of their abilities. In order to materialize this human integration into the system, they present a control architecture, called architecture for human-robot integration, which enables her/him from a high decisional level, i.e., deliberating a plan, to a physical low level, i.e., opening a door. The presented control architecture has been implemented to test the human-robot integration on a real robotic application. In particular, several real experiences have been conducted on a robotic wheelchair aimed to provide mobility to elderly people.

  15. PTEN regulates EG5 to control spindle architecture and chromosome congression during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinxue; Zhang, Zhong; Ouyang, Meng; Yang, Fan; Hao, Hongbo; Lamb, Kristy L.; Yang, Jingyi; Yin, Yuxin; Shen, Wen H.

    2016-01-01

    Architectural integrity of the mitotic spindle is required for efficient chromosome congression and accurate chromosome segregation to ensure mitotic fidelity. Tumour suppressor PTEN has multiple functions in maintaining genome stability. Here we report an essential role of PTEN in mitosis through regulation of the mitotic kinesin motor EG5 for proper spindle architecture and chromosome congression. PTEN depletion results in chromosome misalignment in metaphase, often leading to catastrophic mitotic failure. In addition, metaphase cells lacking PTEN exhibit defects of spindle geometry, manifested prominently by shorter spindles. PTEN is associated and co-localized with EG5 during mitosis. PTEN deficiency induces aberrant EG5 phosphorylation and abrogates EG5 recruitment to the mitotic spindle apparatus, leading to spindle disorganization. These data demonstrate the functional interplay between PTEN and EG5 in controlling mitotic spindle structure and chromosome behaviour during mitosis. We propose that PTEN functions to equilibrate mitotic phosphorylation for proper spindle formation and faithful genomic transmission. PMID:27492783

  16. Boeing Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support System Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiidi, Mo; Lewis, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The Boeing Company under the teaming agreement with the Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation and in compliance with the NASA Phase 1 contract, had the responsibilities for the CEV architecture development of the Environmental control and life support (ECLS) system under the NASA Phase 1 contract. The ECLS system was comprised of the various subsystems which provided for a shirt-sleeve habitable environment for crew to live and work in the crew module of the CEV. This architecture met the NASA requirements to ferry cargo and crew to ISS, and Lunar sortie missions, with extensibility to long duration missions to Moon and MARS. This paper provides a summary overview of the CEV ECLS subsystems which was proposed in compliance with the contract activities.

  17. An architectural approach to create self organizing control systems for practical autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, Helen

    1991-01-01

    For practical industrial applications, the development of trainable robots is an important and immediate objective. Therefore, the developing of flexible intelligence directly applicable to training is emphasized. It is generally agreed upon by the AI community that the fusion of expert systems, neural networks, and conventionally programmed modules (e.g., a trajectory generator) is promising in the quest for autonomous robotic intelligence. Autonomous robot development is hindered by integration and architectural problems. Some obstacles towards the construction of more general robot control systems are as follows: (1) Growth problem; (2) Software generation; (3) Interaction with environment; (4) Reliability; and (5) Resource limitation. Neural networks can be successfully applied to some of these problems. However, current implementations of neural networks are hampered by the resource limitation problem and must be trained extensively to produce computationally accurate output. A generalization of conventional neural nets is proposed, and an architecture is offered in an attempt to address the above problems.

  18. An Active Noise Control (ACN) system for a commercially available HVAC using feedback architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasbekar, Prashanth

    This thesis report discusses design of an Active Noise Control (ANC) system for a commercially available HVAC using Feedback architecture. Reducing noise in living environments is an important problem to create quieter residential and work places. The main contributions of this thesis include development of a real time, stable and fast single channel Feedback ANC prototype ANC using a FPGA to cancel the compressor noise. Based on observations from the real time implementation a multichannel Feedback ANC with novel delayless subband architecture has been developed to reduce computational complexity and to improve performance. This work represents an important step in developing an ANC system for the HVAC due to application of novel delayless subband multichannel Feedback ANC algorithm on real data collected from the HVAC system. It also discusses the practical issues involved in developing an ANC system prototype using a FPGA.

  19. A fully genetically encoded protein architecture for optical control of peptide ligand concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Daniel; Tillberg, Paul W.; Chen, Fei; Boyden, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Ion channels are among the most important proteins in biology, regulating the activity of excitable cells and changing in diseases. Ideally it would be possible to actuate endogenous ion channels, in a temporally precise and reversible manner, and without requiring chemical cofactors. Here we present a modular protein architecture for fully genetically encoded, light-modulated control of ligands that modulate ion channels of a targeted cell. Our reagent, which we call a lumitoxin, combines a photoswitch and an ion channel-blocking peptide toxin. Illumination causes the photoswitch to unfold, lowering the toxin's local concentration near the cell surface, and enabling the ion channel to function. We explore lumitoxin modularity by showing operation with peptide toxins that target different voltage-dependent K+ channels. The lumitoxin architecture may represent a new kind of modular protein-engineering strategy for designing light-activated proteins, and thus may enable development of novel tools for modulating cellular physiology.

  20. Robust mobile robot localization: From single-robot uncertainties to multi-robot interdependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumeliotis, Stergios I.

    2000-10-01

    Robust localization is the problem of determining the position of a mobile robot with respect to a global or local frame of reference in the presence of sensor noise, uncertainties and potential failures. Previous work in this field has used Kalman filters to reduce the effects of sensor noise on updates of the vehicle position estimate or Bayesian multiple hypothesis to resolve the ambiguity associated with the identification of detected landmarks. This dissertation introduces a general framework for localization that subsumes both approaches in a single architecture and applies it to the general problem of localizing a mobile robot within a known environment. Odometric and/or inertial sensors are fused with data obtained from exteroceptive sensors. The approach is validated by solution of the "kidnapped robot" problem. The second problem treated in this dissertation concerns the common assumption that all sensors provide information at the same rate. This assumption is relaxed by allowing high rate noisy odometric or inertial data from kinetic sensors while absolute attitude and/or position data (e.g., from sun sensors) are obtained infrequently. We address the resulting observability limitation by incorporating a Smoother in the attitude estimation algorithm. Smoothing of the attitude estimates reduces the overall uncertainty and allows for longer traverses before a new absolute orientation measurement is required. Simulation examples also show the ability of this method to increase the accuracy of robot mapping. The third problem concerns multiple robots collaborating on a single task. In prior research with a group of, say M, robots the group localization problem is usually approached by independently solving M pose estimation problems. When collaboration among robots exists, current methods usually require that at least one member of the group holds a fixed position while visual contact with all the other members of the team is maintained. If these two

  1. A Retro-Fit Control Architecture to Maintain Engine Performance With Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    An outer loop retrofit engine control architecture is presented which modifies fan speed command to obtain a desired thrust based on throttle position. This maintains the throttle-to-thrust relationship in the presence of engine degradation, which has the effect of changing the engine s thrust output for a given fan speed. Such an approach can minimize thrust asymmetry in multi-engine aircraft, and reduce pilot workload. The outer loop control is demonstrated under various levels of engine deterioration using a standard deterioration profile as well as an atypical profile. It is evaluated across various transients covering a wide operating range. The modified fan speed command still utilizes the standard engine control logic so all original life and operability limits remain in place. In all cases it is shown that with the outer loop thrust control in place, the deteriorated engine is able to match the thrust performance of a new engine up to the limits the controller will allow.

  2. Improving transient performance of adaptive control architectures using frequency-limited system error dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucelen, Tansel; De La Torre, Gerardo; Johnson, Eric N.

    2014-11-01

    Although adaptive control theory offers mathematical tools to achieve system performance without excessive reliance on dynamical system models, its applications to safety-critical systems can be limited due to poor transient performance and robustness. In this paper, we develop an adaptive control architecture to achieve stabilisation and command following of uncertain dynamical systems with improved transient performance. Our framework consists of a new reference system and an adaptive controller. The proposed reference system captures a desired closed-loop dynamical system behaviour modified by a mismatch term representing the high-frequency content between the uncertain dynamical system and this reference system, i.e., the system error. In particular, this mismatch term allows the frequency content of the system error dynamics to be limited, which is used to drive the adaptive controller. It is shown that this key feature of our framework yields fast adaptation without incurring high-frequency oscillations in the transient performance. We further show the effects of design parameters on the system performance, analyse closeness of the uncertain dynamical system to the unmodified (ideal) reference system, discuss robustness of the proposed approach with respect to time-varying uncertainties and disturbances, and make connections to gradient minimisation and classical control theory. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture.

  3. Real-Time Motion Planning and Safe Navigation in Dynamic Multi-Robot Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    ARM7 core handles communication, runs the PD control calculations, and monitors onboard systems. The FPGA implements the quadrature decoders, PWM gener ...4.6.1 Simple General Path Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 4.6.2 Robust Planning... generations of Carnegie Mellon robots: (from left) 1997, 1998-99, 2001, 2002-03, 2006

  4. A new bio-inspired perceptual control architecture applied to solving navigation tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, P.; De Fiore, S.; Patané, L.; Vitanza, A.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper a new general purpose perceptual control architecture is presented and applied to robot navigation in cluttered environments. In nature, insects show the ability to react to certain stimuli with simple reflexes using direct sensory-motor pathways, which can be considered as basic behaviors, while high brain regions provide secondary pathway allowing the emergence of a cognitive behavior which modulates the basic abilities. Taking inspiration from this evidence, our architecture modulates, through a reinforcement learning, a set of competitive and concurrent basic behaviors in order to accomplish the task assigned through a reward function. The core of the architecture is constituted by the Representation layer, where different stimuli, triggering competitive reflexes, are fused to form a unique abstract picture of the environment. The representation is formalized by means of Reaction-Diffusion nonlinear partial differential equations, under the paradigm of the Cellular Neural Networks, whose dynamics converges to steady-state Turing patterns. A suitable unsupervised learning, introduced at the afferent (input) stage, leads to the shaping of the basins of attractions of the Turing patterns in order to incrementally drive the association between sensor stimuli and patterns. In this way, at the end of the leaning stage, each pattern is characteristic of a particular behavior modulation, while its trained basin of attraction contains the set of all the environment conditions, as recorded through the sensors, leading to the emergence of that particular behavior modulation. Robot simulations are reported to demonstrate the potentiality and the effectiveness of the approach.

  5. Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

  6. Wavefront sensing and control architecture for the Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Smith, Jeff S.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Feinberg, Lee

    2006-06-01

    Testbed results are presented demonstrating high-speed image-based wavefront sensing and control for a spherical primary optical telescope (SPOT). The testbed incorporates a phase retrieval camera coupled to a 3-Mirror Vertex testbed (3MV) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Actuator calibration based on the Hough transform is discussed as well as several supercomputing architectures for image-based wavefront sensing. Timing results are also presented based on various algorithm implementations using a cluster of 64 TigerSharc TS101 DSP's (digital-signal processors).

  7. An Autonomous Sensor System Architecture for Active Flow and Noise Control Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M, Jr.; Culliton, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-channel sensor fusion represents a powerful technique to simply and efficiently extract information from complex phenomena. While the technique has traditionally been used for military target tracking and situational awareness, a study has been successfully completed that demonstrates that sensor fusion can be applied equally well to aerodynamic applications. A prototype autonomous hardware processor was successfully designed and used to detect in real-time the two-dimensional flow reattachment location generated by a simple separated-flow wind tunnel model. The success of this demonstration illustrates the feasibility of using autonomous sensor processing architectures to enhance flow control feedback signal generation.

  8. A Hierarchical Control Architecture for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Macken, K.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.N.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    The idea of building power conversion systems around Power Electronic Building Blocks (PEBBs) was initiated by the U.S. Office of Naval Research in the mid 1990s. A PEBB-based design approach is advantageous in terms of power density, modularity, reliability, and serviceability. It is obvious that this approach has much appeal for pulsed power conversion including the International Linear Collider (ILC) klystron modulator application. A hierarchical control architecture has the inherent capability to support the integration of PEBBs. This has already been successfully demonstrated in a number of industrial applications in the recent past. This paper outlines the underlying concepts of a hierarchical control architecture for a PEBB-based Marx-topology ILC klystron modulator. The control in PEBB-based power conversion systems can be functionally partitioned into (three) hierarchical layers; system layer, application layer, and PEBB layer. This has been adopted here. Based on such a hierarchical partition, the interfaces are clearly identified and defined and, consequently, are easily characterised. A conceptual design of the hardware manager, executing low-level hardware oriented tasks, is detailed. In addition, the idea of prognostics is briefly discussed.

  9. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  10. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40,000) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  11. Distributed event-triggered cooperative attitude control of multiple rigid bodies with leader-follower architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Shengxuan; Yue, Dong

    2016-02-01

    In this note, the distributed event-triggered cooperative attitude control of multiple rigid bodies with leader-follower architecture is investigated, where both the cases of static and dynamic leaders are all considered. Two distributed triggering procedures are first introduced for the followers and leaders, and then the distributed cooperative controllers are designed under the proposed triggering schemes. Under the designed controllers with the event-triggered strategies, it is shown that the orientations of followers converge to the convex hull formed by the desired leaders' orientations with zero angular velocities. Moreover, the communication pressure in network is reduced and the energy of each agent is saved. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Gravity response mechanisms of lateral organs and the control of plant architecture in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, J.; Hangarter, R.

    Most research on gravity responses in plants has focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically grow in a vertical orientation. However, the patterns of lateral organ formation and their growth orientation, which typically are not vertical, govern plant architecture. For example, in Arabidopsis, when lateral roots emerge from the primary root, they grow at a nearly horizontal orientation. As they elongate, the roots slowly curve until they eventually reach a vertical orientation. The regulation of this lateral root orientation is an important component affecting the overall root system architecture. We have found that this change in orientation is not simply due to the onset of gravitropic competence, as non-vertical lateral roots are capable of both positive and negative gravitropism. Thus, the horizontal growth of the new lateral roots is determined by what is called the gravitropic set-point angle (GSA). In Arabidopsis shoots, rosette leaves and inflorescence branches also display GSA-dependent developmental changes in their orientation. The developmental control of the GSA of lateral organs in Arabidopsis provides us with a useful system for investigating the components involved in regulating directionality of tropistic responses. We have identified several Arabidopsis mutants that have either altered lateral root orientations, altered orientation of lateral organs in the shoot, or both, but maintain normal primary organ orientation. The mgsa ({m}odified {g}ravitropic {s}et-point {a}ngle) mutants with both altered lateral root and shoot orientation show that there are common components in the regulation of growth orientation in the different organs. Rosette leaves and lateral roots also have in common a regulation of positioning by red light. Further molecular and physiological analyses of the GSA mutants will provide insight into the basis of GSA regulation and, thus, a better understanding of how gravity controls plant architecture. [This work was

  13. A human motor control perspective to multiple manipulator modelling.

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, C; Rajasekharan, S

    2003-10-01

    This paper describes the aspects involved in modelling a multi-robot system from a human motor control perspective. The human motor control system has a hierarchical and decentralised structure, and building a control system for a multi-robot system that attains human features would require a decomposable model. Decomposition of a complex robotic system is difficult due to the interactions between the subsystems, so these have to be first separated before the system is modelled. The proposed method of separating the interconnections is applied with the aid of fuzzy modelling to derive a fully decomposable model of two manipulator robots handling a common object.

  14. Exploiting redundancy for flexible behavior: unsupervised learning in a modular sensorimotor control architecture.

    PubMed

    Butz, Martin V; Herbort, Oliver; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2007-10-01

    Autonomously developing organisms face several challenges when learning reaching movements. First, motor control is learned unsupervised or self-supervised. Second, knowledge of sensorimotor contingencies is acquired in contexts in which action consequences unfold in time. Third, motor redundancies must be resolved. To solve all 3 of these problems, the authors propose a sensorimotor, unsupervised, redundancy-resolving control architecture (SURE_REACH), based on the ideomotor principle. Given a 3-degrees-of-freedom arm in a 2-dimensional environment, SURE_REACH encodes 2 spatial arm representations with neural population codes: a hand end-point coordinate space and an angular arm posture space. A posture memory solves the inverse kinematics problem by associating hand end-point neurons with neurons in posture space. An inverse sensorimotor model associates posture neurons with each other action-dependently. Together, population encoding, redundant posture memory, and the inverse sensorimotor model enable SURE_REACH to learn and represent sensorimotor grounded distance measures and to use dynamic programming to reach goals efficiently. The architecture not only solves the redundancy problem but also increases goal reaching flexibility, accounting for additional task constraints or realizing obstacle avoidance. While the spatial population codes resemble neurophysiological structures, the simulations confirm the flexibility and plausibility of the model by mimicking previously published data in arm-reaching tasks.

  15. Cross-regulation between Aurora B and Citron kinase controls midbody architecture in cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Callum; Bassi, Zuni I; Debski, Janusz; Gottardo, Marco; Callaini, Giuliano; Dadlez, Michal; D'Avino, Pier Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Cytokinesis culminates in the final separation, or abscission, of the two daughter cells at the end of cell division. Abscission relies on an organelle, the midbody, which forms at the intercellular bridge and is composed of various proteins arranged in a precise stereotypic pattern. The molecular mechanisms controlling midbody organization and function, however, are obscure. Here we show that proper midbody architecture requires cross-regulation between two cell division kinases, Citron kinase (CIT-K) and Aurora B, the kinase component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). CIT-K interacts directly with three CPC components and is required for proper midbody architecture and the orderly arrangement of midbody proteins, including the CPC. In addition, we show that CIT-K promotes Aurora B activity through phosphorylation of the INCENP CPC subunit at the TSS motif. In turn, Aurora B controls CIT-K localization and association with its central spindle partners through phosphorylation of CIT-K's coiled coil domain. Our results identify, for the first time, a cross-regulatory mechanism between two kinases during cytokinesis, which is crucial for establishing the stereotyped organization of midbody proteins.

  16. Cross-regulation between Aurora B and Citron kinase controls midbody architecture in cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Callum; Bassi, Zuni I.; Debski, Janusz; Gottardo, Marco; Callaini, Giuliano; Dadlez, Michal; D'Avino, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis culminates in the final separation, or abscission, of the two daughter cells at the end of cell division. Abscission relies on an organelle, the midbody, which forms at the intercellular bridge and is composed of various proteins arranged in a precise stereotypic pattern. The molecular mechanisms controlling midbody organization and function, however, are obscure. Here we show that proper midbody architecture requires cross-regulation between two cell division kinases, Citron kinase (CIT-K) and Aurora B, the kinase component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). CIT-K interacts directly with three CPC components and is required for proper midbody architecture and the orderly arrangement of midbody proteins, including the CPC. In addition, we show that CIT-K promotes Aurora B activity through phosphorylation of the INCENP CPC subunit at the TSS motif. In turn, Aurora B controls CIT-K localization and association with its central spindle partners through phosphorylation of CIT-K's coiled coil domain. Our results identify, for the first time, a cross-regulatory mechanism between two kinases during cytokinesis, which is crucial for establishing the stereotyped organization of midbody proteins. PMID:27009191

  17. Controls on the architecture of the Himalayan thrust belt, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Paul, S. K.; Chambers, J. A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, the syntaxes at the eastern and western terminations of the orogen connect a 2400 km long thrust belt. If the two syntaxes are locked, the behavior of the thrust belt may be different in the syntaxes than in the central part of the thrust belt. In fact, recent work in the central part of the Himalayan thrust belt reveals shortening estimates of ~700-900 km while closer to the syntaxes, the amount of shortening may be nearly half that (~470 km). Thus, there should be an identifiable region where the character of the thrust belt changes from that of the syntaxes to that of the central part of the thrust belt. In the Himachal Pradesh region of NW India, a transition exists in the architecture of the thrust belt. North of the Kanga reentrant, the high mountains are close to the frontal part of the thrust belt; yet, near the Beas River, ~90 km to the east, and further east still in the Sutlej and Yamuna valleys, the high mountains of the thrust belt are located far into the hinterland. The presence or absence of the Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface appears to control this pattern: when Greater Himalayan rocks are absent at the surface, as near the town of Dharamsala, the thrust belt is very narrow (<20 km) and the high mountains are located near the front of the thrust belt; however, when Greater Himalayan rocks are present, as they are further eastward, the thrust belt is wider (>150 km) and the high mountains are located in the hinterland. The presence/absence of Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface also appears to control where focused erosion is presently occurring and, subsequently, the erosional exposure of Lesser Himalayan rocks. Three models reveal the possible kinematic roles of the Greater Himalayan rocks and its subsequent control of the architecture of the thrust belt: 1) the fault that carries Greater Himalayan rocks may tip out at depth; 2) slip on that fault may continue to the surface; 3) the fault tips out and

  18. Role of feedback and network architecture in controlling virulence gene expression in Bordetella.

    PubMed

    Prajapat, Mahendra Kumar; Saini, Supreet

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for causing whooping cough in a broad range of host organisms. For successful infection, Bordetella controls expression of four distinct classes of genes (referred to as class 1, 2, 3, and 4 genes) at distinct times in the infection cycle. This control is executed by a single two-component system, BvgAS. Interestingly, the transmembrane component of the two-component system, BvgS, consists of three phospho-transfer domains leading to phosphorylation of the response regulator, BvgA. Phosphorylated BvgA then controls expression of virulence genes and also controls bvgAS transcription. In this work, we perform simulations to characterize the role of the network architecture in governing gene expression in Bordetella. Our results show that the wild-type network is locally optimal for controlling the timing of expression of the different classes of genes involved in infection. In addition, the interplay between environmental signals and positive feedback aids the bacterium identify precise conditions for and control expression of virulence genes.

  19. Abnormal small-world architecture of top–down control networks in obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tijiang; Wang, Jinhui; Yang, Yanchun; Wu, Qizhu; Li, Bin; Chen, Long; Yue, Qiang; Tang, Hehan; Yan, Chaogan; Lui, Su; Huang, Xiaoqi; Chan, Raymond C.K.; Zang, Yufeng; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts, ideas or images and repetitive ritualistic behaviours. Although focal structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain regions have been widely studied in populations with OCD, changes in the functional relations among them remain poorly understood. This study examined OCD–related alterations in functional connectivity patterns in the brain’s top–down control network. Methods We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the correlation patterns of intrinsic or spontaneous blood oxygen level–dependent signal fluctuations in 18 patients with OCD and 16 healthy controls. The brain control networks were first constructed by thresholding temporal correlation matrices of 39 brain regions associated with top–down control and then analyzed using graph theory-based approaches. Results Compared with healthy controls, the patients with OCD showed decreased functional connectivity in the posterior temporal regions and increased connectivity in various control regions such as the cingulate, precuneus, thalamus and cerebellum. Furthermore, the brain’s control networks in the healthy controls showed small-world architecture (high clustering coefficients and short path lengths), suggesting an optimal balance between modularized and distributed information processing. In contrast, the patients with OCD showed significantly higher local clustering, implying abnormal functional organization in the control network. Further analysis revealed that the changes in network properties occurred in regions of increased functional connectivity strength in patients with OCD. Limitations The patient group in the present study was heterogeneous in terms of symptom clusters, and most of the patients with OCD were medicated. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that the organizational patterns of

  20. Architectural study of the design and operation of advanced force feedback manual controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Kim, Whee-Kuk

    1990-01-01

    A teleoperator system consists of a manual controller, control hardware/software, and a remote manipulator. It was employed in either hazardous or unstructured, and/or remote environments. In teleoperation, the main-in-the-loop is the central concept that brings human intelligence to the teleoperator system. When teleoperation involves contact with an uncertain environment, providing the feeling of telepresence to the human operator is one of desired characteristics of the teleoperator system. Unfortunately, most available manual controllers in bilateral or force-reflecting teleoperator systems can be characterized by their bulky size, high costs, or lack of smoothness and transparency, and elementary architectures. To investigate other alternatives, a force-reflecting, 3 degree of freedom (dof) spherical manual controller is designed, analyzed, and implemented as a test bed demonstration in this research effort. To achieve an improved level of design to meet criteria such as compactness, portability, and a somewhat enhanced force-reflecting capability, the demonstration manual controller employs high gear-ratio reducers. To reduce the effects of the inertia and friction on the system, various force control strategies are applied and their performance investigated. The spherical manual controller uses a parallel geometry to minimize inertial and gravitational effects on its primary task of transparent information transfer. As an alternative to the spherical 3-dof manual controller, a new conceptual (or parallel) spherical 3-dof module is introduced with a full kinematic analysis. Also, the resulting kinematic properties are compared to those of other typical spherical 3-dof systems. The conceptual design of a parallel 6-dof manual controller and its kinematic analysis is presented. This 6-dof manual controller is similar to the Stewart Platform with the actuators located on the base to minimize the dynamic effects. Finally, a combination of the new 3-dof and 6-dof

  1. RACE/A: An Architectural Account of the Interactions between Learning, Task Control, and Retrieval Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Maanen, Leendert; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how sequential sampling models can be integrated in a cognitive architecture. The new theory Retrieval by Accumulating Evidence in an Architecture (RACE/A) combines the level of detail typically provided by sequential sampling models with the level of task complexity typically provided by cognitive architectures. We will use…

  2. Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The nonlinear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.

  3. Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The non-linear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.

  4. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jégu, Teddy; Domenichini, Séverine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Aurélie; Kim, Soon-Kap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Mouille, Grégory; Bourge, Mickaël; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression. PMID:26457678

  5. Control for Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Comparison of Blackboard Architectures and Discourse Management Networks. Report No. R-6267.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William R.

    This paper compares two alternative computer architectures that have been proposed to provide the control mechanism that enables an intelligent tutoring system to decide what instructional action to perform next, i.e., discourse management networks and blackboards. The claim that an intelligent tutoring system controlled by a blackboard…

  6. Including inputs and control within equation-free architectures for complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Joshua L.; Brunton, Steven L.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2016-11-01

    The increasing ubiquity of complex systems that require control is a challenge for existing methodologies in characterization and controller design when the system is high-dimensional, nonlinear, and without physics-based governing equations. We review standard model reduction techniques such as Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) with Galerkin projection and Balanced POD (BPOD). Further, we discuss the link between these equation-based methods and recently developed equation-free methods such as the Dynamic Mode Decomposition and Koopman operator theory. These data-driven methods can mitigate the challenge of not having a well-characterized set of governing equations. We illustrate that this equation-free approach that is being applied to measurement data from complex systems can be extended to include inputs and control. Three specific research examples are presented that extend current equation-free architectures toward the characterization and control of complex systems. These examples motivate a potentially revolutionary shift in the characterization of complex systems and subsequent design of objective-based controllers for data-driven models.

  7. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  8. The Effects of Level of Autonomy on Human-Agent Teaming for Multi-Robot Control and Local Security Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    LOAs, as these can lead to a less active information processing mode by the operator (Chen and Barnes, 2012a; Wickens et al., 2003), which forces the...infrared (IR) camera-based tracking system and allows completely noncontact operation (SMI, 2013). Eye and head movements, which were observed at

  9. Agent-based Cyber Control Strategy Design for Resilient Control Systems: Concepts, Architecture and Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Rieger; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of automated regulatory control has been around since the middle of the last century through analog means. It has allowed engineers to operate the plant more consistently by focusing on overall operations and settings instead of individual monitoring of local instruments (inside and outside of a control room). A similar approach is proposed for cyber security, where current border-protection designs have been inherited from information technology developments that lack consideration of the high-reliability, high consequence nature of industrial control systems. Instead of an independent development, however, an integrated approach is taken to develop a holistic understanding of performance. This performance takes shape inside a multiagent design, which provides a notional context to model highly decentralized and complex industrial process control systems, the nervous system of critical infrastructure. The resulting strategy will provide a framework for researching solutions to security and unrecognized interdependency concerns with industrial control systems.

  10. Supervisory control of mobile robots: architectures and distributed intelligence (Proceedings Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, William J.; Chun, Wendell H.

    1992-02-01

    There are two themes addressed in this paper: (1) the contrast between hierarchical and feedback-based approaches to designing robot systems, and (2) the need for an efficient human-machine interface. In the rapid pursuit of automation it is sometimes overlooked that an elaborate human-machine interface is quite necessary, despite the fact that a fully automated system, by definition, would not require much human interaction. In the future, real-time sensing, intelligent processors, and dextrous manipulators will become more viable, but until then it is necessary for human operators to provide the intelligent control functions. It is not obvious, however, how automated subsystems could account for human intervention, especially if a philosophy of pure automation dominates the design process. Teleoperation, on the other hand, emphasizes the creation of fast hardware pathways (e.g., hand controllers, exoskeletons) to communicate low-level control data to various mechanisms, while providing sensory feedback in a format suitable for human consumption (e.g., stereo display, force reflection), leaving the `intelligent' control functions to the human. These differences make it difficult to tie automation together with teleoperation while providing for graceful transitions at the appropriate times. The analysis of these issues has come of late under the title: supervisory control. Supervisory control systems must deal with various types of intelligence distributed throughout the layers of control. Typical layers are real-time servo control, off-line planning and reasoning subsystems and finally, the human operator. Design methodologies must account for the fact that the majority of the intelligence will reside with the human operator. This paper focuses on hierarchical decompositions and feedback loops as conceptual building blocks that provide a common ground for man-machine interaction. Several examples and candidate computer architectures are also discussed.

  11. Multimodal sensory integration in insects--towards insect brain control architectures.

    PubMed

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Webb, Barbara

    2006-09-01

    Although a variety of basic insect behaviours have inspired successful robot implementations, more complex capabilities in these 'simple' animals are often overlooked. By reviewing the general architecture of their nervous systems, we gain insight into how they are able to integrate behaviours, perform pattern recognition, context-dependent learning, and combine many sensory inputs in tasks such as navigation. We review in particular what is known about two specific 'higher' areas in the insect brain, the mushroom bodies and the central complex, and how they are involved in controlling an insect's behaviour. While much of the functional interpretation of this information is still speculative, it nevertheless suggests some promising new approaches to obtaining adaptive behaviour in robots.

  12. Two-Channel Transparency-Optimized Control Architectures in Bilateral Teleoperation With Time Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Chang, Pyung Hun; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces transparency-optimized control architectures (TOCAs) using two communication channels. Two classes of two-channel TOCAs are found, thereby showing that two channels are sufficient to achieve transparency. These TOCAs achieve a greater level of transparency but poorer stability than three-channel TOCAs and four-channel TOCAs. Stability of the two-channel TOCAs has been enhanced while minimizing transparency degradation by adding a filter; and a combined use of the two classes of two-channel TOCAs is proposed for both free space and constrained motion, which involve switching between two TOCAs for transition between free space and constrained motions. The stability condition of the switched teleoperation system is derived for practical applications. Through the one degree-of-freedom (DOF) experiment, the proposed two-channel TOCAs were shown to operate stably, while achieving better transparency under time delay than the other TOCAs. PMID:23833548

  13. Hydrologic regime controls pattern and architecture of woody debris in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, L. A.; Grant, G.; Lewis, S.

    2015-12-01

    differences in flow-dictated wood architecture control channel stability and key channel structures. Understanding how flow regimes control wood accumulations and patterns is therefore fundamental to properly interpreting the geomorphic and ecologic role of wood in streams.

  14. Architectures and Evaluation for Adjustable Control Autonomy for Space-Based Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, a number of automation applications for control of crew life support systems have been developed and evaluated in the Adjustable Autonomy Testbed at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This paper surveys progress on an adjustable autonomous control architecture for situations where software and human operators work together to manage anomalies and other system problems. When problems occur, the level of control autonomy can be adjusted, so that operators and software agents can work together on diagnosis and recovery. In 1997 adjustable autonomy software was developed to manage gas transfer and storage in a closed life support test. Four crewmembers lived and worked in a chamber for 91 days, with both air and water recycling. CO2 was converted to O2 by gas processing systems and wheat crops. With the automation software, significantly fewer hours were spent monitoring operations. System-level validation testing of the software by interactive hybrid simulation revealed problems both in software requirements and implementation. Since that time, we have been developing multi-agent approaches for automation software and human operators, to cooperatively control systems and manage problems. Each new capability has been tested and demonstrated in realistic dynamic anomaly scenarios, using the hybrid simulation tool.

  15. Building highly available control system applications with Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture and open standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Artem; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2010-11-01

    Requirements for modern and future control systems for large projects like International Linear Collider demand high availability for control system components. Recently telecom industry came up with a great open hardware specification - Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA). This specification is aimed for better reliability, availability and serviceability. Since its first market appearance in 2004, ATCA platform has shown tremendous growth and proved to be stable and well represented by a number of vendors. ATCA is an industry standard for highly available systems. On the other hand Service Availability Forum, a consortium of leading communications and computing companies, describes interaction between hardware and software. SAF defines a set of specifications such as Hardware Platform Interface, Application Interface Specification. SAF specifications provide extensive description of highly available systems, services and their interfaces. Originally aimed for telecom applications, these specifications can be used for accelerator controls software as well. This study describes benefits of using these specifications and their possible adoption to accelerator control systems. It is demonstrated how EPICS Redundant IOC was extended using Hardware Platform Interface specification, which made it possible to utilize benefits of the ATCA platform.

  16. Evolution of a common controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

    2012-06-01

    Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

  17. Optimal Control through Biologically-Inspired Pursuit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Transactions on Automatic Control 48, 988– 1001. Roumeliotis, S.I. and G.A. Bekey (2002). Distributed multi-robot localization. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...1999). Distributed covering by ant- robots using evaporating traces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation 15(5), 918–933.

  18. Simulink-Based Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David m.; Bacon, Barton J.

    2006-01-01

    The Simulation Architecture for Evaluating Controls for Aerospace Vehicles (SAREC-ASV) is a Simulink-based approach to providing an engineering quality desktop simulation capability for finding trim solutions, extracting linear models for vehicle analysis and control law development, and generating open-loop and closed-loop time history responses for control system evaluation. It represents a useful level of maturity rather than a finished product. The layout is hierarchical and supports concurrent component development and validation, with support from the Concurrent Versions System (CVS) software management tool. Real Time Workshop (RTW) is used to generate pre-compiled code for substantial component modules, and templates permit switching seamlessly between original Simulink and code compiled for various platforms. Two previous limitations are addressed. Turn around time for incorporating tabular model components was improved through auto-generation of required Simulink diagrams based on data received in XML format. The layout was modified to exploit a Simulink "compile once, evaluate multiple times" capability for zero elapsed time for use in trimming and linearizing. Trim is achieved through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) with a narrow, script definable interface to the vehicle model which facilitates incorporating new models.

  19. Command and Control Architectures for Autonomous Micro-Robotic Forces - FY-2000 Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean

    2001-04-01

    Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and micro-technologies will soon give rise to production of large-scale forces of autonomous micro-robots with systems of innate behaviors and with capabilities of self-organization and real world tasking. Such organizations have been compared to schools of fish, flocks of birds, herds of animals, swarms of insects, and military squadrons. While these systems are envisioned as maintaining a high degree of autonomy, it is important to understand the relationship of man with such machines. In moving from research studies to the practical deployment of large-scale numbers of robots, one of critical pieces that must be explored is the command and control architecture for humans to re-task and also inject global knowledge, experience, and intuition into the force. Tele-operation should not be the goal, but rather a level of adjustable autonomy and high-level control. If a herd of sheep is comparable to the collective of robots, then the human element is comparable to the shepherd pulling in strays and guiding the herd in the direction of greener pastures. This report addresses the issues and development of command and control for largescale numbers of autonomous robots deployed as a collective force.

  20. Tracker controls development and control architecture for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Jason R.; Beno, Joe; Rafferty, Tom H.; Cornell, Mark E.

    2010-07-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade, the University of Texas Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory are developing a precision tracker system - a 15,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 14 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). This level of system complexity and emphasis on fail-safe operation is typical of large modern telescopes and numerous industrial applications. Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, a highly versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that easily links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential. The Matlab/Simulink simulation environment, coupled with dSPACE controller hardware, was selected for controls development and realization. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. Custom designed position feedback loops, supplemented by feed forward force commands for enhanced performance, and algorithms to accommodate self-locking gearboxes (for safety), reside in dSPACE. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of software and hardware, design choices and analysis, and supporting simulations (primarily Simulink).

  1. The Rational Behavior Model: A Multi-Paradigm, Tri-Level Software Architecture for the Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    control system can be built . Despite the relaxing of the requirement to represent the uncertain environment mathematically, the software architecture...vehicle and its associated control soft- ware have been developed in tandem. When a new autonomous vehicle is built , the control software system is...likewise built from scratch. Design, implementation, and testing meth- odologies are, at this time, introduced in an ad hoc manner. In addition, the issue

  2. Separating essentials from incidentals: an execution architecture for real-time control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Daniel; Reinholtz, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an execution architecture that makes such systems far more analyzable and verifiable by aggressive separation of concerns. The architecture separates two key software concerns: transformations of global state, as defined in pure functions; and sequencing/timing of transformations, as performed by an engine that enforces four prime invariants. The important advantage of this architecture, besides facilitating verification, is that it encourages formal specification of systems in a vocabulary that brings systems engineering closer to software engineering.

  3. bFGF-containing electrospun gelatin scaffolds with controlled nano-architectural features for directed angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Ramon B.; Vial, Ximena; Nguyen, Dat Tat; Farhand, Sepehr; Reardon, Mark; Pham, Si M.; Tsechpenakis, Gavriil; Andreopoulos, Fotios M.

    2011-01-01

    Current therapeutic angiogenesis strategies are focused on the development of biologically responsive scaffolds that can deliver multiple angiogenic cytokines and/or cells in ischemic regions. Herein, we report on a novel electrospinning approach to fabricate cytokine-containing nanofibrous scaffolds with tunable architecture to promote angiogenesis. Fiber diameter and uniformity were controlled by varying the concentration of the polymeric (i.e. gelatin) solution, the feed rate, needle to collector distance, and electric field potential between the collector plate and injection needle. Scaffold fiber orientation (random vs. aligned) was achieved by alternating the polarity of two parallel electrodes placed on the collector plate thus dictating fiber deposition patterns. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was physically immobilized within the gelatin scaffolds at variable concentrations and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were seeded on the top of the scaffolds. Cell proliferation and migration was assessed as a function of growth factor loading and scaffold architecture. HUVECs successfully adhered onto gelatin B scaffolds and cell proliferation was directly proportional to the loading concentrations of the growth factor (0–100 bFGF ng/mL). Fiber orientation had a pronounced effect on cell morphology and orientation. Cells were spread along the fibers of the electrospun scaffolds with the aligned orientation and developed a spindle-like morphology parallel to the scaffold's fibers. In contrast, cells seeded onto the scaffolds with random fiber orientation, did not demonstrate any directionality and appeared to have a rounder shape. Capillary formation (i.e. sprouts length and number of sprouts per bead), assessed in a 3-D in vitro angiogenesis assay, was a function of bFGF loading concentration (0 ng, 50 ng and 100 ng per scaffold) for both types of electrospun scaffolds (i.e. with aligned or random fiber orientation). PMID:22200610

  4. Controlled Film Architectures to Detect a Biomarker for Pancreatic Cancer Using Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Soares, Andrey C; Soares, Juliana C; Shimizu, Flavio M; Melendez, Matias E; Carvalho, André L; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2015-11-25

    The need for analytical devices for detecting cancer at early stages has motivated research into nanomaterials where synergy is sought to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity in low-cost biosensors. In this study, we developed a film architecture combining self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and layer-by-layer (LbL) films of polysaccharide chitosan and the protein concanavalin A, on which a layer of anti-CA19-9 antibody was adsorbed. Using impedance spectroscopy with this biosensor, we were capable of detecting low concentrations of the antigen CA19-9, an important biomarker for pancreatic cancer. The limit of detection of 0.69U/mL reached is sufficient for detecting pancreatic cancer at very early stages. The selectivity of the biosensor was inferred from a series of control experiments with samples of cell lines that were tested positive (HT29) and negative (SW620) for the biomarker CA19-9, in addition to the lack of changes in the capacitance value for other analytes and antigen that are not related to this type of cancer. The high sensitivity and selectivity are ascribed to the very specific antigen-antibody interaction, which was confirmed with PM-IRRAS and atomic force microscopy. Also significant is that used information visualization methods to show that different cell lines and commercial samples containing distinct concentrations of CA19-9 and other analytes can be easily distinguished from each other. These computational methods are generic and may be used in optimization procedures to tailor biosensors for specific purposes, as we demonstrated here by comparing the performance of two film architectures in which the concentration of chitosan was varied.

  5. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana M.; Sánchez, Laura; Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD) is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD), a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two reference species of

  6. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana M; Sánchez, Laura; Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD) is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD), a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two reference species of

  7. Antifouling Thin-Film Composite Membranes by Controlled Architecture of Zwitterionic Polymer Brush Layer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caihong; Lee, Jongho; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-02-21

    In this study, we demonstrate a highly antifouling thin-film composite (TFC) membrane by grafting a zwitterionic polymer brush via atom-transfer radical-polymerization (ATRP), a controlled, environmentally benign chemical process. Initiator molecules for polymerization were immobilized on the membrane surface by bioinspired catechol chemistry, leading to the grafting of a dense zwitterionic polymer brush layer. Surface characterization revealed that the modified membrane exhibits reduced surface roughness, enhanced hydrophilicity, and lower surface charge. Chemical force microscopy demonstrated that the modified membrane displayed foulant-membrane interaction forces that were 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of the pristine TFC membrane. The excellent fouling resistance imparted by the zwitterionic brush layer was further demonstrated by significantly reduced adsorption of proteins and bacteria. In addition, forward osmosis fouling experiments with a feed solution containing a mixture of organic foulants (bovine-serum albumin, alginate, and natural organic matter) indicated that the modified membrane exhibited significantly lower water flux decline compared to the pristine TFC membrane. The controlled architecture of the zwitterionic polymer brush via ATRP has the potential for a facile antifouling modification of a wide range of water treatment membranes without compromising intrinsic transport properties.

  8. Temperature Control at DBS Electrodes using Heat Sink: Experimentally Validated FEM Model of DBS lead Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Elwassif, Maged M.; Datta, Abhishek; Rahman, Asif; Bikson, Marom

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of Deep Brain Stimulation for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders and other neurological and psychiatric conditions. The extent of temperature increases around DBS electrodes during normal operation (joule heating and increased metabolic activity) or coupling with an external source (e.g. MRI) remains poorly understood and methods to mitigate temperature increases are being actively investigated. We developed a heat transfer finite element method simulation of DBS incorporating the realistic architecture of Medtronic 3389 leads. The temperature changes were analyzed considering different electrode configurations, stimulation protocols, and tissue properties. The heat-transfer model results were then validated using micro-thermocouple measurements during DBS lead stimulation in a saline bath. FEM results indicate that lead design (materials and geometry) may have a central role in controlling temperature rise by conducting heat. We show how modifying lead design can effectively control temperature increases. The robustness of this heat-sink approach over complimentary heat-mitigation technologies follows from several features: 1) it is insensitive to the mechanisms of heating (e.g. nature of magnetic coupling); 2) does not interfere with device efficacy; and 3) can be practically implemented in a broad range of implanted devices without modifying the normal device operations or the implant procedure. PMID:22764359

  9. A Programmer-Interpreter Neural Network Architecture for Prefrontal Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Francesco; Prevete, Roberto; Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    There is wide consensus that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is able to exert cognitive control on behavior by biasing processing toward task-relevant information and by modulating response selection. This idea is typically framed in terms of top-down influences within a cortical control hierarchy, where prefrontal-basal ganglia loops gate multiple input-output channels, which in turn can activate or sequence motor primitives expressed in (pre-)motor cortices. Here we advance a new hypothesis, based on the notion of programmability and an interpreter-programmer computational scheme, on how the PFC can flexibly bias the selection of sensorimotor patterns depending on internal goal and task contexts. In this approach, multiple elementary behaviors representing motor primitives are expressed by a single multi-purpose neural network, which is seen as a reusable area of "recycled" neurons (interpreter). The PFC thus acts as a "programmer" that, without modifying the network connectivity, feeds the interpreter networks with specific input parameters encoding the programs (corresponding to network structures) to be interpreted by the (pre-)motor areas. Our architecture is validated in a standard test for executive function: the 1-2-AX task. Our results show that this computational framework provides a robust, scalable and flexible scheme that can be iterated at different hierarchical layers, supporting the realization of multiple goals. We discuss the plausibility of the "programmer-interpreter" scheme to explain the functioning of prefrontal-(pre)motor cortical hierarchies.

  10. TERMINAL FLOWER1 Is a Mobile Signal Controlling Arabidopsis Architecture[W

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Lucio; Bradley, Desmond

    2007-01-01

    Shoot meristems harbor stem cells that provide key growing points in plants, maintaining themselves and generating all above-ground tissues. Cell-to-cell signaling networks maintain this population, but how are meristem and organ identities controlled? TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) controls shoot meristem identity throughout the plant life cycle, affecting the number and identity of all above-ground organs generated; tfl1 mutant shoot meristems make fewer leaves, shoots, and flowers and change identity to flowers. We find that TFL1 mRNA is broadly distributed in young axillary shoot meristems but later becomes limited to central regions, yet affects cell fates at a distance. How is this achieved? We reveal that the TFL1 protein is a mobile signal that becomes evenly distributed across the meristem. TFL1 does not enter cells arising from the flanks of the meristem, thus allowing primordia to establish their identity. Surprisingly, TFL1 movement does not appear to occur in mature shoots of leafy (lfy) mutants, which eventually stop proliferating and convert to carpel/floral-like structures. We propose that signals from LFY in floral meristems may feed back to promote TFL1 protein movement in the shoot meristem. This novel feedback signaling mechanism would ensure that shoot meristem identity is maintained and the appropriate inflorescence architecture develops. PMID:17369370

  11. A network comprising short and long noncoding RNAs and RNA helicase controls mouse retina architecture

    PubMed Central

    Krol, Jacek; Krol, Ilona; Alvarez, Claudia Patricia Patino; Fiscella, Michele; Hierlemann, Andreas; Roska, Botond; Filipowicz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Brain regions, such as the cortex and retina, are composed of layers of uniform thickness. The molecular mechanism that controls this uniformity is not well understood. Here we show that during mouse postnatal development the timed expression of Rncr4, a retina-specific long noncoding RNA, regulates the similarly timed processing of pri-miR-183/96/182, which is repressed at an earlier developmental stage by RNA helicase Ddx3x. Shifting the timing of mature miR-183/96/182 accumulation or interfering with Ddx3x expression leads to the disorganization of retinal architecture, with the photoreceptor layer being most affected. We identify Crb1, a component of the adhesion belt between glial and photoreceptor cells, as a link between Rncr4-regulated miRNA metabolism and uniform retina layering. Our results suggest that the precise timing of glia–neuron interaction controlled by noncoding RNAs and Ddx3x is important for the even distribution of cells across layers. PMID:26041499

  12. Control of in vivo microvessel ingrowth by modulation of biomaterial local architecture and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Joan E.; Baker, Aaron B.; Golledge, Stephen

    2002-04-01

    We developed a method for controlling local architecture and chemistry simultaneously in biomaterial implants to control microvessel ingrowth in vivo. Porous polypropylene disks (5 mm in diameter and 40 um thick) were plasma-coated with a fluoropolymer and then laser-drilled with 50-*m-diameter holes through their thickness. We then oxidized the disks to create hydroxyl functionality on the exposed polypropylene (inside the holes). Acrylamide was grafted to the hydroxyl groups through polymerization in the presence of activating ceric ions. Staining with toluidine blue O demonstrated that grafting occurred only inside the holes. We used the Hoffman degradation reaction to convert the amide groups of acrylamide to amine groups, and then we used ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to attach biomolecules of interest inside the holes: secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) peptide Lys-Gly-His-Lys (KGHK; angiogenic), thrombospondin-2 (TSP; antiangiogenic), or albumin (rat; neutral). In vivo testing in a rat subcutaneous dorsum model for a 3-week interval demonstrated a greater vessel surface area (p = 0.032) and a greater number of vessels (p = 0.043) in tissue local to the holes with KGHKimmobilized disks than with TSP-immobilized disks. However, differences between KGHK-immobilized and albuminimmobilized disks were less significant (p = 0.120 and p = 0.289 for the vessel surface area and number of vessels, respectively). The developed methods have potential applications in biomaterial design applications for which selective neovascularization is desired.

  13. Carbon Nanotube-templated Polymer Single Crystals Serve as Controllable Spacers to Form Novel Battery Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Eric D.; Li, Christopher Y.

    2013-03-01

    One of the many challenges in battery cathode architectures lies in creating a porous structure with tunable features on the 10-100 nm length scale. Stable features of this size are desirable for engineered surface topology as well as charge storage applications. Few materials exist that can satisfy this requirement. Fewer still have high enough electron conductivity to be of use without adding an additional conducting phase. The ``nanohybrid shish kebab'' (NHSK) structure may be a solution to this obstacle. This physical functionalization technique for carbon nanotubes uses polymer single crystals grown from solution to produce a controllable spacer. In our previous work, it was shown that NHSKs can be controllably tuned to have average diameters ranging from 18 to 94 nm for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Films of these materials can easily be made free-standing and are highly flexible. Recent work in extending the functionality of these materials through the formation of ternary composites for battery applications will be presented. Pulsed electrodeposition of MnO2 onto the surfaces of these films forms an electrochemically active layer for lithium cells. High specific cathodic capacity has been observed in a rechargeable battery based on these materials. NSF DMR-0804838, NSF-IGERT DGE-0221664

  14. RoCoMAR: robots' controllable mobility aided routing and relay architecture for mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Le, Duc Van; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-07-05

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  15. Control bandwidth improvements in GRAVITY fringe tracker by switching to a synchronous real time computer architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuter, Roberto; Dembet, Roderick; Lacour, Sylvestre; di Lieto, Nicola; Woillez, Julien; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fedou, Pierre; Phan Duc, Than

    2016-08-01

    The new VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) 1 instrument GRAVITY5, 22, 23 is equipped with a fringe tracker16 able to stabilize the K-band fringes on six baselines at the same time. It has been designed to achieve a performance for average seeing conditions of a residual OPD (Optical Path Difference) lower than 300 nm with objects brighter than K = 10. The control loop implementing the tracking is composed of a four stage real time computer system compromising: a sensor where the detector pixels are read in and the OPD and GD (Group Delay) are calculated; a controller receiving the computed sensor quantities and producing commands for the piezo actuators; a concentrator which combines both the OPD commands with the real time tip/tilt corrections offloading them to the piezo actuator; and finally a Kalman15 parameter estimator. This last stage is used to monitor current measurements over a window of few seconds and estimate new values for the main Kalman15 control loop parameters. The hardware and software implementation of this design runs asynchronously and communicates the four computers for data transfer via the Reflective Memory Network3. With the purpose of improving the performance of the GRAVITY5, 23 fringe tracking16, 22 control loop, a deviation from the standard asynchronous communication mechanism has been proposed and implemented. This new scheme operates the four independent real time computers involved in the tracking loop synchronously using the Reflective Memory Interrupts2 as the coordination signal. This synchronous mechanism had the effect of reducing the total pure delay of the loop from 3.5 [ms] to 2.0 [ms] which then translates on a better stabilization of the fringes as the bandwidth of the system is substantially improved. This paper will explain in detail the real time architecture of the fringe tracker in both is synchronous and synchronous implementation. The achieved improvements on reducing the delay via this mechanism will be

  16. On Event-Triggered Adaptive Architectures for Decentralized and Distributed Control of Large-Scale Modular Systems.

    PubMed

    Albattat, Ali; Gruenwald, Benjamin C; Yucelen, Tansel

    2016-08-16

    The last decade has witnessed an increased interest in physical systems controlled over wireless networks (networked control systems). These systems allow the computation of control signals via processors that are not attached to the physical systems, and the feedback loops are closed over wireless networks. The contribution of this paper is to design and analyze event-triggered decentralized and distributed adaptive control architectures for uncertain networked large-scale modular systems; that is, systems consist of physically-interconnected modules controlled over wireless networks. Specifically, the proposed adaptive architectures guarantee overall system stability while reducing wireless network utilization and achieving a given system performance in the presence of system uncertainties that can result from modeling and degraded modes of operation of the modules and their interconnections between each other. In addition to the theoretical findings including rigorous system stability and the boundedness analysis of the closed-loop dynamical system, as well as the characterization of the effect of user-defined event-triggering thresholds and the design parameters of the proposed adaptive architectures on the overall system performance, an illustrative numerical example is further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed decentralized and distributed control approaches.

  17. On Event-Triggered Adaptive Architectures for Decentralized and Distributed Control of Large-Scale Modular Systems

    PubMed Central

    Albattat, Ali; Gruenwald, Benjamin C.; Yucelen, Tansel

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an increased interest in physical systems controlled over wireless networks (networked control systems). These systems allow the computation of control signals via processors that are not attached to the physical systems, and the feedback loops are closed over wireless networks. The contribution of this paper is to design and analyze event-triggered decentralized and distributed adaptive control architectures for uncertain networked large-scale modular systems; that is, systems consist of physically-interconnected modules controlled over wireless networks. Specifically, the proposed adaptive architectures guarantee overall system stability while reducing wireless network utilization and achieving a given system performance in the presence of system uncertainties that can result from modeling and degraded modes of operation of the modules and their interconnections between each other. In addition to the theoretical findings including rigorous system stability and the boundedness analysis of the closed-loop dynamical system, as well as the characterization of the effect of user-defined event-triggering thresholds and the design parameters of the proposed adaptive architectures on the overall system performance, an illustrative numerical example is further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed decentralized and distributed control approaches. PMID:27537894

  18. Effect of the macromolecular architecture of biodegradable polyurethanes on the controlled delivery of ocular drugs.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gisele Rodrigues; da Silva Cunha, Armando; Ayres, Eliane; Oréfice, Rodrigo L

    2009-02-01

    Controlled delivery of drugs is a major issue in the treatment of ocular diseases, such as in the treatment of uveitis. In this study, dexamethasone acetate, an important type of corticoid used in the treatment of some uveitis, was incorporated into biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) having different macromolecular architectures. The biodegradable polyurethanes were obtained by preparing PU aqueous dispersions having poly(caprolactone) and/or poly(ethylene glycol) as soft segments. The drug was incorporated into the polymer by dissolving it in the PU aqueous dispersion. FTIR results showed the presence of the drug in the polymer with its original chemical structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results were explored to show that the incorporation of dexamethasone acetate led to the modification of the nanostructure of the polyurethane having only poly(caprolactone) as the soft segment, while the drug did not change significantly the microphase separated structure of PU having both poly(caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) as soft segments. The evaluation of the release of the drug in vitro demonstrated that the obtained biodegradable polyurethanes were well succeeded in delivering dexamethasone acetate at an almost constant rate for 53 weeks. The presence of poly(ethylene glycol) together with poly(caprolactone) as soft segment in biodegradable PU was able to increase the rate of dexamethasone acetate release when compared to the rate of drug release from PU having only poly(caprolactone).

  19. Hillslope permeability architecture controls on subsurface transit time distribution and flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, A. A.; Amvrosiadi, N.; Grabs, T.; Laudon, H.; Creed, I. F.; McDonnell, J. J.; Bishop, K.

    2016-12-01

    Defining the catchment transit time distribution remains a challenge. Here, we used a new semi-analytical physically-based integrated subsurface flow and advective-dispersive particle movement model to assess the subsurface controls on subsurface water flow paths and transit time distributions. First, we tested the efficacy of the new model for simulation of the observed groundwater dynamics at the well-studied S-transect hillslope (Västrabäcken sub-catchment, Sweden). This system, like many others, is characterized by exponential decline in saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity with soil depth. The model performed well relative to a tracer-based estimate of transit time distribution as well as observed groundwater depth-discharge relationship within 30 m of the stream. Second, we used the model to assess the effect of changes in the subsurface permeability architecture on flow pathlines and transit time distribution in a set of virtual experiments. Vertical patterns of saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity with soil depth significantly influenced hillslope transit time distribution. Increasing infiltration rates significantly decreased mean groundwater age, but not the distribution of transit times relative to mean groundwater age. The location of hillslope hydrologic boundaries, including the groundwater divide and no-flow boundary underlying the hillslope, changed the transit time distribution less markedly. These results can guide future decisions on the degree of complexity that is warranted in a physically-based rainfall-runoff model to efficiently and explicitly estimate time invariant subsurface pathlines and transit time distribution.

  20. Performance analysis and receiver architectures of DCF77 radio-controlled clocks.

    PubMed

    Engeler, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    DCF77 is a longwave radio transmitter located in Germany. Atomic clocks generate a 77.5-kHz carrier which is amplitude- and phase-modulated to broadcast the official time. The signal is used by industrial and consumer radio-controlled clocks. DCF77 faces competition from the Global Positioning System (GPS) which provides higher accuracy time. Still, DCF77 and other longwave time services worldwide remain popular because they allow indoor reception at lower cost, lower power, and sufficient accuracy. Indoor longwave reception is challenged by signal attenuation and electromagnetic interference from an increasing number of devices, particularly switched-mode power supplies. This paper introduces new receiver architectures and compares them with existing detectors and time decoders. Simulations and analytical calculations characterize the performance in terms of bit error rate and decoding probability, depending on input noise and narrowband interference. The most promising detector with maximum-likelihood time decoder displays the time in less than 60 s after powerup and at a noise level of E(b)/N(0) = 2.7 dB, an improvement of 20 dB over previous receivers. A field-programmable gate array-based demonstration receiver built for the purposes of this paper confirms the capabilities of these new algorithms. The findings of this paper enable future high-performance DCF77 receivers and further study of indoor longwave reception.

  1. Using Opposing Slope Aspects to Understand Water and Energy Flow Controls on Critical Zone Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Barnhart, K. R.; Kelly, P. K.; Foster, M. A.; Langston, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    A long-standing problem is to understand how climate controls the structure of the critical zone, including the depth of weathering, thickness and character of soils, and morphology of hillslopes. We exploit microclimates on opposing aspects in a watershed in the Boulder Creek CZO to investigate the role of water and energy fluxes on development of critical zone architectures. The 2.6 km2 Gordon Gulch, located at ~2500 m a.s.l. at 40°N latitude, is elongated east-west, and consequently is predominantly composed of north and south-facing soil-mantled slopes, dotted with tors, developed on Precambrian gneiss. The depth to fresh rock ranges from about 8 to 12 m, and is up to 2 m deeper on north-facing slopes. In addition to greater thickness, weathered rock is measurably lower in tensile strength on north-facing slopes. While characteristics of weathered rock vary with aspect, the overlying mobile regolith is relatively uniform in thickness at ~0.5 m across the catchment, and its mineralogy shows only minor chemical alteration from parent rock. These features of the critical zone architecture arise in the face of systematic differences in energy and water delivery by aspect. About 40-50% of the ~500 mm annual precipitation is delivered as snow. During spring, the south-facing slopes receive up to 50% greater direct solar radiation than the north-facing slopes. Consequently, snow cover is ephemeral in the open Ponderosa forests on south-facing slopes, and soil wetting and drying events are frequent. Frost penetration is shallow, and short lived. On north-facing slopes, less direct radiation and a dense Lodgepole pine forest cover leads to snowpack retention. Soils are colder and soil moisture stays elevated for long periods in spring on these slopes. We postulate that deeper and more sustained frost penetration on north-facing slopes enhances the damage rate by frost cracking. Deeper water delivery further aids this process, and supports chemical alteration processes

  2. The instrument control unit of the EChO space mission: electrical architecture and processing requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Farina, M.; Pancrazzi, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Lim, T. L.; Ottensamer, R.; Pezzuto, S.; Pace, E.; Micela, G.

    2014-08-01

    The Exoplanet Characterization Observatory (EChO) is conceived for the spectrophotometric study from space of the atmospheres of a selected target sample of transiting extra-solar planets. It has been designed to run as a candidate for the M3 launch opportunity of the ESA Cosmic Vision program and can be considered as the next step towards the fully characterization of a representative sample of the already discovered transiting exoplanets. The EChO payload is based on a single highly thermo-mechanical stabilized remote-sensing instrument hosting a dispersive spectrograph. It is able to perform time-resolved spectroscopy exploiting the temporal and spectral variations of the measured signal due to the primary and secondary occultations occurring between the exoplanet and its parent star. The adopted technique allows the extraction of the planet spectral signature and to probe the physical and chemical properties of its atmosphere. EChO is composed by four scientific modules, all suited on a common Instrument Optical Bench (IOB). Each module is operated by a unique control and processing electronics, the Instrument Control Unit (ICU), acting as interface between the payload and the spacecraft (S/C) Data Management Subsystem (DMS) and Power Control and Distribution Unit (PCDU). The main ICU tasks concern the instrument commanding, based on the received and interpreted TC and TM; instrument monitoring and control by means of the housekeeping (HK) data acquired from the focal plane units; synchronization of all the scientific payload activities; detectors readout and data acquisition, pre-processing, lossless compression and formatting before downloading the TM science data and HK to the spacecraft mass memory. As far as the software is concerned, these activities can be basically grouped and managed by the Instrument Control software and Data Processing software; both will constitute the On Board Software of the overall payload designed to address all the processing

  3. Synthesis and characterization of functional polymers with controlled architecture and their application as anticorrosion primers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincy, Anne S.

    There are over 2900 ballast tanks in the U.S. Navy inventory and their annual maintenance cost amounted to 415 million dollars in 2006, half of which was directly correlated to corrosion. Ballast tanks which form the basic skeleton of a vessel, are subjected to very corrosive conditions. Epoxy based protective coatings are used by the Navy for minimizing corrosion and they currently offer five to seven years of protection. The work described in this thesis is in line with a major program instigated by the U.S. Navy to improve the reliability of tank coatings. This thesis investigates the synthesis and use of carefully designed functional poly(methacrylate) copolymers as a primer coating addressing one of the major failure mechanisms responsible for corrosion: delamination of the coating at the steel-coating interface. Novel polymers were designed and synthesized to improve corrosion protection and adhesion of epoxy coatings to steel. They possess two types of functional groups which are incorporated in the polymer and distributed in blocks or other related structures. One block is designed to bind strongly to the metal substrate and therefore protect that surfaces from corrosion, the other block possesses the ability to interact with the bulk coating. The epoxy coating and the metal surface are therefore linked through a series of strong durable polymeric bonds. Several monomers possessing either a metal chelating group or a group allowing blending with the coating were thus prepared. Block copolymers and other polymer structures were synthesized by nitroxide mediated polymerization, a polymerization technique that allows control of the molecular weight and architecture. An AEMA-GMA block copolymer was synthesized in a two-step process and gradient copolymers were synthesized in a one-pot synthesis. Copolymer anti-corrosion properties were then evaluated through a series of tests (salt spray, hot water immersion, cathodic disbondment, electrochemical impedance

  4. Influence of diffusive porosity architecture on kinetically-controlled reactions in mobile-immobile models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babey, T.; Ginn, T. R.; De Dreuzy, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Solute transport in porous media may be structured at various scales by geological features, from connectivity patterns of pores to fracture networks. This structure impacts solute repartition and consequently reactivity. Here we study numerically the influence of the organization of porous volumes within diffusive porosity zones on different reactions. We couple a mobile-immobile transport model where an advective zone exchanges with diffusive zones of variable structure to the geochemical modeling software PHREEQC. We focus on two kinetically-controlled reactions, a linear sorption and a nonlinear dissolution of a mineral. We show that in both cases the structure of the immobile zones has an important impact on the overall reaction rates. Through the Multi-Rate Mass Transfer (MRMT) framework, we show that this impact is very well captured by residence times-based models for the kinetic linear sorption, as it is mathematically equivalent to a modification of the initial diffusive structure; Consequently, the overall reaction rate could be easily extrapolated from a conservative tracer experiment. The MRMT models however struggle to reproduce the non-linearity and the threshold effects associated with the kinetic dissolution. A slower reaction, by allowing more time for diffusion to smooth out the concentration gradients, tends to increase their relevance. Figure: Left: Representation of a mobile-immobile model with a complex immobile architecture. The mobile zone is indicated by an arrow. Right: Total remaining mass of mineral in mobile-immobile models and in their equivalent MRMT models during a flush by a highly under-saturated solution. The models only differ by the organization of their immobile porous volumes.

  5. System Architectural Considerations on Reliable Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN and C) for Constellation Program (CxP) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2010-01-01

    This final report summarizes the results of a comparative assessment of the fault tolerance and reliability of different Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) architectural approaches. This study was proactively performed by a combined Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Draper Laboratory team as a GN&C "Discipline-Advancing" activity sponsored by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This systematic comparative assessment of GN&C system architectural approaches was undertaken as a fundamental step towards understanding the opportunities for, and limitations of, architecting highly reliable and fault tolerant GN&C systems composed of common avionic components. The primary goal of this study was to obtain architectural 'rules of thumb' that could positively influence future designs in the direction of an optimized (i.e., most reliable and cost-efficient) GN&C system. A secondary goal was to demonstrate the application and the utility of a systematic modeling approach that maps the entire possible architecture solution space.

  6. CAPTAN: A hardware architecture for integrated data acquisition, control, and analysis for detector development

    SciTech Connect

    Turqueti, Marcos; Rivera, Ryan A.; Prosser, Alan; Andresen, Jeffry; Chramowicz, John; /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a data acquisition system flexible and powerful enough to meet the needs of a variety of high energy physics applications. The system described in this paper is called CAPTAN (Compact And Programmable daTa Acquisition Node) and its architecture and capabilities are presented in detail here. The three most important characteristics of this system are flexibility, versatility and scalability. These three main features are supported by key architectural features; a vertical bus that permits the user to stack multiple boards, a gigabit Ethernet link that permits high speed communications to the system and the core group of boards that provide specific capabilities for the system. In this paper, we describe the system architecture, give an overview of its capabilities and point out possible applications.

  7. "Fly-by-Wireless" : A Revolution in Aerospace Architectures for Instrumentation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George F.

    2007-01-01

    The conference presentation provides background information on Fly-by-Wireless technologies as well as reasons for implementation, CANEUS project goals, cost of change for instrumentation, reliability, focus areas, conceptual Hybrid SHMS architecture for future space habitats, real world problems that the technology can solve, evolution of Micro-WIS systems, and a WLEIDS system overview and end-to-end system design.

  8. Residential Solar Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural Controls and Solar Energy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan

    Presented are architectural design issues associated with solar energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential solar installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of solar system being used and the ways in which the system…

  9. Genes and QTLs controlling inflorescence and culm branch architecture in Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) wildrye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass inflorescence and stem branches show recognizable architectural differences among species. The inflorescence branches of Triticeae cereals and grasses including wheat, barley, and 400-500 wild species are usually contracted into a spike formation with the number of flowering branches (spikele...

  10. Biophysical controls on cluster dynamics and architectural differentiation of microbial biofilms in contrasting flow environments.

    PubMed

    Hödl, Iris; Mari, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Suweis, Samir; Besemer, Katharina; Rinaldo, Andrea; Battin, Tom J

    2014-03-01

    Ecology, with a traditional focus on plants and animals, seeks to understand the mechanisms underlying structure and dynamics of communities. In microbial ecology, the focus is changing from planktonic communities to attached biofilms that dominate microbial life in numerous systems. Therefore, interest in the structure and function of biofilms is on the rise. Biofilms can form reproducible physical structures (i.e. architecture) at the millimetre-scale, which are central to their functioning. However, the spatial dynamics of the clusters conferring physical structure to biofilms remains often elusive. By experimenting with complex microbial communities forming biofilms in contrasting hydrodynamic microenvironments in stream mesocosms, we show that morphogenesis results in 'ripple-like' and 'star-like' architectures--as they have also been reported from monospecies bacterial biofilms, for instance. To explore the potential contribution of demographic processes to these architectures, we propose a size-structured population model to simulate the dynamics of biofilm growth and cluster size distribution. Our findings establish that basic physical and demographic processes are key forces that shape apparently universal biofilm architectures as they occur in diverse microbial but also in single-species bacterial biofilms.

  11. Biophysical controls on cluster dynamics and architectural differentiation of microbial biofilms in contrasting flow environments

    PubMed Central

    Hödl, Iris; Mari, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Suweis, Samir; Besemer, Katharina; Rinaldo, Andrea; Battin, Tom J

    2014-01-01

    Ecology, with a traditional focus on plants and animals, seeks to understand the mechanisms underlying structure and dynamics of communities. In microbial ecology, the focus is changing from planktonic communities to attached biofilms that dominate microbial life in numerous systems. Therefore, interest in the structure and function of biofilms is on the rise. Biofilms can form reproducible physical structures (i.e. architecture) at the millimetre-scale, which are central to their functioning. However, the spatial dynamics of the clusters conferring physical structure to biofilms remains often elusive. By experimenting with complex microbial communities forming biofilms in contrasting hydrodynamic microenvironments in stream mesocosms, we show that morphogenesis results in ‘ripple-like’ and ‘star-like’ architectures – as they have also been reported from monospecies bacterial biofilms, for instance. To explore the potential contribution of demographic processes to these architectures, we propose a size-structured population model to simulate the dynamics of biofilm growth and cluster size distribution. Our findings establish that basic physical and demographic processes are key forces that shape apparently universal biofilm architectures as they occur in diverse microbial but also in single-species bacterial biofilms. PMID:23879839

  12. Control of cell fate by the formation of an architecturally complex bacterial community

    PubMed Central

    Vlamakis, Hera; Aguilar, Claudio; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria form architecturally complex communities known as biofilms in which cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. Biofilms harbor multiple cell types, and it has been proposed that within biofilms individual cells follow different developmental pathways, resulting in heterogeneous populations. Here we demonstrate cellular differentiation within biofilms of the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, and present evidence that formation of the biofilm governs differentiation. We show that motile, matrix-producing, and sporulating cells localize to distinct regions within the biofilm, and that the localization and percentage of each cell type is dynamic throughout development of the community. Importantly, mutants that do not produce extracellular matrix form unstructured biofilms that are deficient in sporulation. We propose that sporulation is a culminating feature of biofilm formation, and that spore formation is coupled to the formation of an architecturally complex community of cells. PMID:18381896

  13. A Web of Things-Based Emerging Sensor Network Architecture for Smart Control Systems.

    PubMed

    Khan, Murad; Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Han, Kijun

    2017-02-09

    The Web of Things (WoT) plays an important role in the representation of the objects connected to the Internet of Things in a more transparent and effective way. Thus, it enables seamless and ubiquitous web communication between users and the smart things. Considering the importance of WoT, we propose a WoT-based emerging sensor network (WoT-ESN), which collects data from sensors, routes sensor data to the web, and integrate smart things into the web employing a representational state transfer (REST) architecture. A smart home scenario is introduced to evaluate the proposed WoT-ESN architecture. The smart home scenario is tested through computer simulation of the energy consumption of various household appliances, device discovery, and response time performance. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly optimizes the energy consumption of the household appliances and the response time of the appliances.

  14. A Web of Things-Based Emerging Sensor Network Architecture for Smart Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Murad; Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Han, Kijun

    2017-01-01

    The Web of Things (WoT) plays an important role in the representation of the objects connected to the Internet of Things in a more transparent and effective way. Thus, it enables seamless and ubiquitous web communication between users and the smart things. Considering the importance of WoT, we propose a WoT-based emerging sensor network (WoT-ESN), which collects data from sensors, routes sensor data to the web, and integrate smart things into the web employing a representational state transfer (REST) architecture. A smart home scenario is introduced to evaluate the proposed WoT-ESN architecture. The smart home scenario is tested through computer simulation of the energy consumption of various household appliances, device discovery, and response time performance. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly optimizes the energy consumption of the household appliances and the response time of the appliances.  PMID:28208787

  15. Conceptual Design and Analysis of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) for Command and Control of Space Assets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    test, maintenance, and tech refresh costs. Through the abstraction of platform-specific applications into generic services, the combination and...in this thesis is intended to provide an analysis of the current state of Service Oriented Architectures and their potential application to...software applications (termed objects under the object-oriented model) by establishing common interface schemas (2). DCOM was introduced in 1996

  16. 3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture.

    PubMed

    Topp, Christopher N; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Anderson, Jill T; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Zurek, Paul R; Symonova, Olga; Zheng, Ying; Bucksch, Alexander; Mileyko, Yuriy; Galkovskyi, Taras; Moore, Brad T; Harer, John; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Weitz, Joshua S; Benfey, Philip N

    2013-04-30

    Identification of genes that control root system architecture in crop plants requires innovations that enable high-throughput and accurate measurements of root system architecture through time. We demonstrate the ability of a semiautomated 3D in vivo imaging and digital phenotyping pipeline to interrogate the quantitative genetic basis of root system growth in a rice biparental mapping population, Bala × Azucena. We phenotyped >1,400 3D root models and >57,000 2D images for a suite of 25 traits that quantified the distribution, shape, extent of exploration, and the intrinsic size of root networks at days 12, 14, and 16 of growth in a gellan gum medium. From these data we identified 89 quantitative trait loci, some of which correspond to those found previously in soil-grown plants, and provide evidence for genetic tradeoffs in root growth allocations, such as between the extent and thoroughness of exploration. We also developed a multivariate method for generating and mapping central root architecture phenotypes and used it to identify five major quantitative trait loci (r(2) = 24-37%), two of which were not identified by our univariate analysis. Our imaging and analytical platform provides a means to identify genes with high potential for improving root traits and agronomic qualities of crops.

  17. Evolution of a Common Controller

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Transportable Robotic System (MTRS) program provided a solution to an immediate need in the explosive ordnance disposal ( EOD ) community. Variations of...support of a Joint Urgent Operational Needs Statement (JUONS). In addition, the Advanced EOD Robotic System (AEODRS) aims to solve these issues by...Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi- robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address

  18. Design and evaluation of a Stochastic Optimal Feed-forward and Feedback Technology (SOFFT) flight control architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a stochastic optimal feed-forward and feedback technology (SOFFT) control architecture with emphasis on the feed-forward controller design. The SOFFT approach allows the designer to independently design the feed-forward and feedback controllers to meet separate objectives and then integrate the two controllers. The feed-forward controller has been integrated with an existing high-angle-of-attack (high-alpha) feedback controller. The feed-forward controller includes a variable command model with parameters selected to satisfy level 1 flying qualities with a high-alpha adjustment to achieve desired agility guidelines, a nonlinear interpolation approach that scales entire matrices for approximation of the plant model, and equations for calculating feed-forward gains developed for perfect plant-model tracking. The SOFFT design was applied to a nonlinear batch simulation model of an F/A-18 aircraft modified for thrust vectoring. Simulation results show that agility guidelines are met and that the SOFFT controller filters undesired pilot-induced frequencies more effectively during a tracking task than a flight controller that has the same feedback control law but does not have the SOFFT feed-forward control.

  19. Sequence stratigraphic controls on reservoir characterization and architecture: case study of the Messinian Abu Madi incised-valley fill, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed; Slatt, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Understanding sequence stratigraphy architecture in the incised-valley is a crucial step to understanding the effect of relative sea level changes on reservoir characterization and architecture. This paper presents a sequence stratigraphic framework of the incised-valley strata within the late Messinian Abu Madi Formation based on seismic and borehole data. Analysis of sand-body distribution reveals that fluvial channel sandstones in the Abu Madi Formation in the Baltim Fields, offshore Nile Delta, Egypt, are not randomly distributed but are predictable in their spatial and stratigraphic position. Elucidation of the distribution of sandstones in the Abu Madi incised-valley fill within a sequence stratigraphic framework allows a better understanding of their characterization and architecture during burial. Strata of the Abu Madi Formation are interpreted to comprise two sequences, which are the most complex stratigraphically; their deposits comprise a complex incised valley fill. The lower sequence (SQ1) consists of a thick incised valley-fill of a Lowstand Systems Tract (LST1)) overlain by a Transgressive Systems Tract (TST1) and Highstand Systems Tract (HST1). The upper sequence (SQ2) contains channel-fill and is interpreted as a LST2 which has a thin sandstone channel deposits. Above this, channel-fill sandstone and related strata with tidal influence delineates the base of TST2, which is overlain by a HST2. Gas reservoirs of the Abu Madi Formation (present-day depth ˜3552 m), the Baltim Fields, Egypt, consist of fluvial lowstand systems tract (LST) sandstones deposited in an incised valley. LST sandstones have a wide range of porosity (15 to 28%) and permeability (1 to 5080mD), which reflect both depositional facies and diagenetic controls. This work demonstrates the value of constraining and evaluating the impact of sequence stratigraphic distribution on reservoir characterization and architecture in incised-valley deposits, and thus has an important impact on

  20. SIZ1 regulation of phosphate starvation-induced root architecture remodeling involves the control of auxin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Lee, Jiyoung; Gong, Qingqiu; Ma, Shisong; Jin, Jing Bo; Yoo, Chan Yul; Miura, Tomoko; Sato, Aiko; Bohnert, Hans J; Hasegawa, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation causes plants to modulate the architecture of their root systems to facilitate the acquisition of Pi. Previously, we reported that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 regulates root architecture remodeling in response to Pi limitation; namely, the siz1 mutations cause the inhibition of primary root (PR) elongation and the promotion of lateral root (LR) formation. Here, we present evidence that SIZ1 is involved in the negative regulation of auxin patterning to modulate root system architecture in response to Pi starvation. The siz1 mutations caused greater PR growth inhibition and LR development of seedlings in response to Pi limitation. Similar root phenotypes occurred if Pi-deficient wild-type seedlings were supplemented with auxin. N-1-Naphthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux activity, reduced the Pi starvation-induced LR root formation of siz1 seedlings to a level equivalent to that seen in the wild type. Monitoring of the auxin-responsive reporter DR5::uidA indicated that auxin accumulates in PR tips at early stages of the Pi starvation response. Subsequently, DR5::uidA expression was observed in the LR primordia, which was associated with LR elongation. The time-sequential patterning of DR5::uidA expression occurred earlier in the roots of siz1 as compared with the wild type. In addition, microarray analysis revealed that several other auxin-responsive genes, including genes involved in cell wall loosening and biosynthesis, were up-regulated in siz1 relative to wild-type seedlings in response to Pi starvation. Together, these results suggest that SIZ1 negatively regulates Pi starvation-induced root architecture remodeling through the control of auxin patterning.

  1. Aβ peptide fibrillar architectures controlled by conformational constraints of the monomer.

    PubMed

    Brännström, Kristoffer; Ohman, Anders; Olofsson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Anomalous self-assembly of the Aβ peptide into fibrillar amyloid deposits is strongly correlated with the development of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ fibril extension follows a template guided "dock and lock" mechanism where polymerisation is catalysed by the fibrillar ends. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and quenched hydrogen-deuterium exchange NMR (H/D-exchange NMR), we have analysed the fibrillar structure and polymerisation properties of both the highly aggregation prone Aβ1-40 Glu22Gly (Aβ(40Arc)) and wild type Aβ1-40 (Aβ(40WT)). The solvent protection patterns from H/D exchange experiments suggest very similar structures of the fibrillar forms. However, through cross-seeding experiments monitored by SPR, we found that the monomeric form of Aβ(40WT) is significantly impaired to acquire the fibrillar architecture of Aβ(40Arc). A detailed characterisation demonstrated that Aβ(40WT) has a restricted ability to dock and isomerise with high binding affinity onto Aβ(40Arc) fibrils. These results have general implications for the process of fibril assembly, where the rate of polymerisation, and consequently the architecture of the formed fibrils, is restricted by conformational constraints of the monomers. Interestingly, we also found that the kinetic rate of fibril formation rather than the thermodynamically lowest energy state determines the overall fibrillar structure.

  2. "Fly-by-Wireless": A Revolution in Aerospace Vehicle Architecture for Instrumentation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace vehicle programs have always counted on the cables and connectors to provide power, grounding, data and time synchronization throughout a vehicle's life-cycle. Even with numerous improvements, wiring and connector problems and sensors continue to be key failure points, causing many hours of troubleshooting and replacement. Costly flight delays have been precipitated by the need to troubleshoot cables/connections, and/or repair a sensor. Wiring continues to be too expensive to remove once it is installed, even with the weight penalties. Miles of test instrumentation and low flight sensor wires still plague the aerospace industry. New technology options for data connectivity, processing and micro/nano manufacturing are making it possible to retrofit existing vehicles, like the Space Shuttle. New vehicles can now develop architectures that provide for and take advantage of alternatives to wired connectivity. This project motivates the aerospace industry and technology providers to establish: (1) A new emphasis for system engineering approaches to reduce cables and connectors. (2) Provisions for modularity and accessibility in the vehicle architecture. (3) A set of technologies that support alternatives to wired connectivity.

  3. Functional and biodegradable dendritic macromolecules with controlled architectures as nontoxic and efficient nanoscale gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kui; He, Bin; Wu, Yao; Shen, Youqing; Gu, Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy has provided great potential to revolutionize the treatment of many diseases. This therapy is strongly relied on whether a delivery vector efficiently and safely directs the therapeutic genes into the target tissue/cells. Nonviral gene delivery vectors have been emerging as a realistic alternative to the use of viral analogs with the potential of a clinically relevant output. Dendritic polymers were employed as nonviral vectors due to their branched and layered architectures, globular shape and multivalent groups on their surface, showing promise in gene delivery. In the present review, we try to bring out the recent trend of studies on functional and biodegradable dendritic polymers as nontoxic and efficient gene delivery vectors. By regulating dendritic polymer design and preparation, together with recent progress in the design of biodegradable polymers, it is possible to precisely manipulate their architectures, molecular weight and chemical composition, resulting in predictable tuning of their biocompatibility as well as gene transfection activities. The multifunctional and biodegradable dendritic polymers possessing the desirable characteristics are expected to overcome extra- and intracellular obstacles, and as efficient and nontoxic gene delivery vectors to move into the clinical arena.

  4. NASA/NBS (National Aeronautics and Space Administration/National Bureau of Standards) standard reference model for telerobot control system architecture (NASREM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.; Mccain, Harry G.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The document describes the NASA Standard Reference Model (NASREM) Architecture for the Space Station Telerobot Control System. It defines the functional requirements and high level specifications of the control system for the NASA space Station document for the functional specification, and a guideline for the development of the control system architecture, of the 10C Flight Telerobot Servicer. The NASREM telerobot control system architecture defines a set of standard modules and interfaces which facilitates software design, development, validation, and test, and make possible the integration of telerobotics software from a wide variety of sources. Standard interfaces also provide the software hooks necessary to incrementally upgrade future Flight Telerobot Systems as new capabilities develop in computer science, robotics, and autonomous system control.

  5. A high-speed multiplexer-based fine-grain pipelined architecture for digital fuzzy logic controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Bahram; Masoud Sayedi, Sayed

    2015-12-01

    Design and implementation of a high-speed multiplexer-based fine-grain pipelined architecture for a general digital fuzzy logic controller has been presented. All the operators have been designed at gate level. For the multiplication, a multiplexer-based modified Wallace tree multiplier has been designed, and for the division and addition multiplexer-based non-restoring parallel divider and multiplexer-based Manchester adder have been used, respectively. To further increase the processing speed, fine-grain pipelining technique has been employed. By using this technique, the critical path of the circuit is broken into finer pieces. Based on the proposed architecture, and by using Quartus II 9.1, a sample two-input, one-output digital fuzzy logic controller with eight rules has been successfully synthesised and implemented on Stratix II field programmable gate array. Simulations were carried out using DSP Builder in the MATLAB/Simulink tool at a maximum clock rate of 301.84 MHz.

  6. Architecture Governance: The Importance of Architecture Governance for Achieving Operationally Responsive Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolar, Mike; Estefan, Jeff; Giovannoni, Brian; Barkley, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered (1) Why Governance and Why Now? (2) Characteristics of Architecture Governance (3) Strategic Elements (3a) Architectural Principles (3b) Architecture Board (3c) Architecture Compliance (4) Architecture Governance Infusion Process. Governance is concerned with decision making (i.e., setting directions, establishing standards and principles, and prioritizing investments). Architecture governance is the practice and orientation by which enterprise architectures and other architectures are managed and controlled at an enterprise-wide level

  7. Control of root architecture and nodulation by the LATD/NIP transporter.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeanne M; Dickstein, Rebecca

    2010-11-01

    The Medicago truncatula LATD/NIP gene is essential for the development of lateral and primary root and nitrogen-fixing nodule meristems as well as for rhizobial invasion of nodules. LATD/NIP encodes a member of the NRT1(PTR1) nitrate and di-and tri-peptide transporter family, suggesting that its function is to transport one of these or another compound(s). Because latd/nip mutants can have their lateral and primary root defects rescued by ABA, ABA is a potential substrate for transport. LATD/NIP expression in the root meristem was demonstrated to be regulated by auxin, cytokinin and abscisic acid, but not by nitrate. LATD/NIP's potential function and its role in coordinating root architecture and nodule formation are discussed.

  8. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Oxstrand, Johanna H.; Le Blanc, Katya L.

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  9. Challenges with Deploying and Integrating Environmental Control and Life Support Functions in a Lunar Architecture with High Degrees of Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Visions of lunar outposts often depict a collection of fixed elements such as pressurized habitats, in and around which human inhabitants spend the large majority of their surface stay time. In such an outpost, an efficient deployment of environmental control and life support equipment can be achieved by centralizing certain functions within one or a minimum number of habitable elements and relying on the exchange of gases and liquids between elements via atmosphere ventilation and plumbed interfaces. However, a rigidly fixed outpost can constrain the degree to which the total lunar landscape can be explored. The capability to enable widespread access across the landscape makes a lunar architecture with a high degree of surface mobility attractive. Such mobility presents unique challenges to the efficient deployment of environmental control and life support functions in multiple elements that may for long periods of time be operated independently. This paper describes some of those anticipated challenges.

  10. Status, Vision, and Challenges of an Intelligent Distributed Engine Control Architecture (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-18

    same regardless of application; a DCS ( networked control system ) is significantly more powerful, flexible, and scaleable than a non- networked ... control system (centralized control), and businesses can save and make more money building distributed control over the long term than they can with

  11. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Lossie, Amy C; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C; Muir, William M

    2016-08-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits.

  12. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C.; Muir, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits. PMID:27490364

  13. Cognitively inspired reinforcement learning architecture and its application to giant-swing motion control.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tatsuji; Matsuo, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Many algorithms and methods in artificial intelligence or machine learning were inspired by human cognition. As a mechanism to handle the exploration-exploitation dilemma in reinforcement learning, the loosely symmetric (LS) value function that models causal intuition of humans was proposed (Shinohara et al., 2007). While LS shows the highest correlation with causal induction by humans, it has been reported that it effectively works in multi-armed bandit problems that form the simplest class of tasks representing the dilemma. However, the scope of application of LS was limited to the reinforcement learning problems that have K actions with only one state (K-armed bandit problems). This study proposes LS-Q learning architecture that can deal with general reinforcement learning tasks with multiple states and delayed reward. We tested the learning performance of the new architecture in giant-swing robot motion learning, where uncertainty and unknown-ness of the environment is huge. In the test, the help of ready-made internal models or functional approximation of the state space were not given. The simulations showed that while the ordinary Q-learning agent does not reach giant-swing motion because of stagnant loops (local optima with low rewards), LS-Q escapes such loops and acquires giant-swing. It is confirmed that the smaller number of states is, in other words, the more coarse-grained the division of states and the more incomplete the state observation is, the better LS-Q performs in comparison with Q-learning. We also showed that the high performance of LS-Q depends comparatively little on parameter tuning and learning time. This suggests that the proposed method inspired by human cognition works adaptively in real environments.

  14. FIRRE joint battlespace command and control system for manned and unmanned assets (JBC2S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, T. A.; Laird, R. T.; Dinh, M.; Barngrover, C. M.; Cruickshanks, J. R.; Gilbreath, G. A.

    2006-05-01

    The Family of Integrated Rapid Response Equipment (FIRRE) is an advanced technology demonstration program intended to develop a family of affordable, scalable, modular, and logistically supportable unmanned systems to meet urgent operational force-protection needs and requirements worldwide. The near-term goal is to provide the best available unmanned ground systems to the warfighter in Iraq and Afghanistan. The overarching long-term goal is to develop a fully-integrated, layered force-protection system of systems for our forward deployed forces that is networked with the future force C4ISR systems architecture. The intent of the FIRRE program is to reduce manpower requirements, enhance force-protection capabilities, and reduce casualties through the use of unmanned systems. FIRRE is sponsored by the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense, Acquisitions, Technology and Logistics (OUSD AT&L), and is managed by the Product Manager, Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS), Fort Belvior, VA. The command-and-control element of FIRRE is the Joint Battlespace Command and Control System (JBC2S) for manned and unmanned assets, which is based upon the Mobile Detection Assessment Response System (MDARS) Multiple Resource Host Architecture (MRHA), modified to operate as a single application program using standard DoD mapping and data distribution services. JBC2S is an evolution of the MRHA that leverages over 10 years of development in unmanned systems command-and-control. It implements the functionality of the MRHA under the dynamically configurable and highly modular architecture of the Multi-Robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU). JBC2S is a network-centric, geospatial command and control system that allows the field commander and above to plan and execute missions utilizing multiple and disparate manned and unmanned assets. It utilizes standard map formats (GeoTIFF, DNC, CADRG) for displaying map data and for tracking asset placement and movement.

  15. Controls on stratigraphic architecture in contemporaneous delta systems from the Eocene Roda Sandstone, Tremp-Graus Basin, northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leren, Beate L. S.; Howell, John; Enge, Håvard; Martinius, Allard W.

    2010-07-01

    The Eocene Roda Sandstone of the Spanish Pyrenees is comprised of two coeval coarse-grained delta systems which share correlatable surfaces but show a markedly different internal facies architecture. The two deltas developed contemporaneously with the differences in internal architecture attributed to basin morphology and the role of two, distinct sediment sources, while the correlatability of the larger-scale packages indicates an external, allocyclic control. As such the Roda Sandstone provides the possibility to address the relative roles of different parameters known to interact and control stratal architecture. The Roda Sandstone crops out at the NE-margin of the Tremp-Graus Basin, a "piggyback" basin initiated in Palaeogene times in the foreland of the Southern Pyrenees. The study area (˜ 30 km 2) is composed of the well-understood and well-exposed parts of the Roda Sandstone cropping out along the Isabena Valley, and the less-worked and less-exposed outcrops to the north along Barranco de Ricans and Barranco de Codoñeras. Data for this study include a combination of conventional sedimentology data coupled with analyses of 3D Virtual Outcrop Models. Based on these methods 8 different facies associations have been distinguished. Their distribution suggests that the Roda Sandstone is composed of two different but coeval delta systems and their linked subenvironments; a Gilbert-type delta outcropping along Isabena Valley, and a shoal-water fan delta along Barranco de Ricans and Barranco de Codoñeras. Along the Isabena Valley the outcrops of the Gilbert-type deltaic system are composed of at least 6 distinct packages (Roda U-Z) characterized by texturally mature, delta-front sandstones separated by offshore mudstones. The stacked basinward-stepping architecture of the Roda U-Y units here represents a minimum of 3 major phases of SW-directed progradation, capped by hardground horizons formed during the subsequent flooding phases. Tidally-modified delta

  16. Development of three-dimensional collagen scaffolds with controlled architecture for cell migration studies using breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jonathan J; Husmann, Anke; Hume, Robert D; Watson, Christine J; Cameron, Ruth E

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is characterized by cell heterogeneity and the development of 3D in vitro assays that can distinguish more invasive or migratory phenotypes could enhance diagnosis or drug discovery. 3D collagen scaffolds have been used to develop analogues of complex tissues in vitro and are suited to routine biochemical and immunological assays. We sought to increase 3D model tractability and modulate the migration rate of seeded cells using an ice-templating technique to create either directional/anisotropic or non-directional/isotropic porous architectures within cross-linked collagen scaffolds. Anisotropic scaffolds supported the enhanced migration of an invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with an altered spatial distribution of proliferative cells in contrast to invasive MDA-MB-468 and non-invasive MCF-7 cells lines. In addition, MDA-MB-468 showed increased migration upon epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in anisotropic scaffolds. The provision of controlled architecture in this system may act both to increase assay robustness and as a tuneable parameter to capture detection of a migrated population within a set time, with consequences for primary tumour migration analysis. The separation of invasive clones from a cancer biomass with in vitro platforms could enhance drug development and diagnosis testing by contributing assay metrics including migration rate, as well as modelling cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction in a system compatible with routine histopathological testing.

  17. Systems-level quantification of division timing reveals a common genetic architecture controlling asynchrony and fate asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; Wong, Ming-Kin; An, Xiaomeng; Guan, Daogang; Shao, Jiaofang; Ng, Hon Chun Kaoru; Ren, Xiaoliang; He, Kan; Liao, Jinyue; Ang, Yingjin; Chen, Long; Huang, Xiaotai; Yan, Bin; Xia, Yiji; Chan, Leanne Lai Hang; Chow, King Lau; Yan, Hong; Zhao, Zhongying

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of cell division timing is crucial for proper cell fate specification and tissue growth. However, the differential regulation of cell division timing across or within cell types during metazoan development remains poorly understood. To elucidate the systems-level genetic architecture coordinating division timing, we performed a high-content screening for genes whose depletion produced a significant reduction in the asynchrony of division between sister cells (ADS) compared to that of wild-type during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. We quantified division timing using 3D time-lapse imaging followed by computer-aided lineage analysis. A total of 822 genes were selected for perturbation based on their conservation and known roles in development. Surprisingly, we find that cell fate determinants are not only essential for establishing fate asymmetry, but also are imperative for setting the ADS regardless of cellular context, indicating a common genetic architecture used by both cellular processes. The fate determinants demonstrate either coupled or separate regulation between the two processes. The temporal coordination appears to facilitate cell migration during fate specification or tissue growth. Our quantitative dataset with cellular resolution provides a resource for future analyses of the genetic control of spatial and temporal coordination during metazoan development. PMID:26063786

  18. Automation Architecture for Single Operator-Multiple UAV Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    operator control of multiple vehicles. As a result, a hierarchical control model for single operator control of multiple unmanned vehicles ( UV ) is...proposed that demonstrates those requirements that will need to be met for operator cognitive support of multiple UV control, with an emphasis on the...introduction of higher levels of autonomy. The challenge in achieving effective management of multiple UV systems in the future is not only to

  19. Tectonic controls on the stratigraphic architecture and hydrocarbons systems of the Arabian Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowski, G.J. Jr.; Norton, I.O.

    1995-12-31

    Arabian Platform sediments consist of major sequences separated by tectonically controlled unconformities. These tectonic events, at the plate margins, controlled the orientation and distribution of sedimentary facies on the stable platform. Eustacy and subsidence were the principle controls on the actual facies that formed.

  20. Control of inflorescence architecture in tomato by BTB/POZ transcriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cao; Park, Soon Ju; Van Eck, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Plant productivity depends on inflorescences, flower-bearing shoots that originate from the stem cell populations of shoot meristems. Inflorescence architecture determines flower production, which can vary dramatically both between and within species. In tomato plants, formation of multiflowered inflorescences depends on a precisely timed process of meristem maturation mediated by the transcription factor gene TERMINATING FLOWER (TMF), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. We show that TMF protein acts together with homologs of the Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE (BOP) transcriptional cofactors, defined by the conserved BTB (Broad complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-brac)/POZ (POX virus and zinc finger) domain. TMF and three tomato BOPs (SlBOPs) interact with themselves and each other, and TMF recruits SlBOPs to the nucleus, suggesting formation of a transcriptional complex. Like TMF, SlBOP gene expression is highest during vegetative and transitional stages of meristem maturation, and CRISPR/Cas9 elimination of SlBOP function causes pleiotropic defects, most notably simplification of inflorescences into single flowers, resembling tmf mutants. Flowering defects are enhanced in higher-order slbop tmf mutants, suggesting that SlBOPs function with additional factors. In support of this, SlBOPs interact with TMF homologs, mutations in which cause phenotypes like slbop mutants. Our findings reveal a new flowering module defined by SlBOP–TMF family interactions that ensures a progressive meristem maturation to promote inflorescence complexity. PMID:27798848

  1. Control of the pore architecture in three-dimensional hydroxyapatite-reinforced hydrogel scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Román, Jesús; Cabañas, María Victoria; Peña, Juan; Vallet-Regí, María

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogels (gellan or agarose) reinforced with nanocrystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite (nCHA) were prepared by the GELPOR3D technique. This simple method is characterized by compositional flexibility; it does not require expensive equipment, thermal treatment, or aggressive or toxic solvents, and yields a three-dimensional (3D) network of interconnected pores 300–900 μm in size. In addition, an interconnected porosity is generated, yielding a hierarchical porous architecture from the macro to the molecular scale. This porosity depends on both the drying/preservation technology (freeze drying or oven drying at 37 ○C) and on the content and microstructure of the reinforcing ceramic. For freeze-dried samples, the porosities were approximately 30, 66 and below 3% for pore sizes of 600–900 μm, 100–200 μm and 50–100 nm, respectively. The pore structure depends much on the ceramic content, so that higher contents lead to the disappearance of the characteristic honeycomb structure observed in low-ceramic scaffolds and to a lower fraction of the 100–200-μm-sized pores. The nature of the hydrogel did not affect the pore size distribution but was crucial for the behavior of the scaffolds in a hydrated medium: gellan-containing scaffolds showed a higher swelling degree owing to the presence of more hydrophilic groups. PMID:27877422

  2. Control of the pore architecture in three-dimensional hydroxyapatite-reinforced hydrogel scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Román, Jesús; Cabañas, María Victoria; Peña, Juan; Vallet-Regí, María

    2011-08-01

    Hydrogels (gellan or agarose) reinforced with nanocrystalline carbonated hydroxyapatite (nCHA) were prepared by the GELPOR3D technique. This simple method is characterized by compositional flexibility; it does not require expensive equipment, thermal treatment, or aggressive or toxic solvents, and yields a three-dimensional (3D) network of interconnected pores 300-900 μm in size. In addition, an interconnected porosity is generated, yielding a hierarchical porous architecture from the macro to the molecular scale. This porosity depends on both the drying/preservation technology (freeze drying or oven drying at 37 (○)C) and on the content and microstructure of the reinforcing ceramic. For freeze-dried samples, the porosities were approximately 30, 66 and below 3% for pore sizes of 600-900 μm, 100-200 μm and 50-100 nm, respectively. The pore structure depends much on the ceramic content, so that higher contents lead to the disappearance of the characteristic honeycomb structure observed in low-ceramic scaffolds and to a lower fraction of the 100-200-μm-sized pores. The nature of the hydrogel did not affect the pore size distribution but was crucial for the behavior of the scaffolds in a hydrated medium: gellan-containing scaffolds showed a higher swelling degree owing to the presence of more hydrophilic groups.

  3. Controllable synthesis of ZnO hierarchical architectures and their photocatalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Linxia; Zhang, Baoliang; Li, Wei; Li, Xiangjie; Xin, Tinjun; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2014-11-01

    A facile solution route to synthesize ZnO hierarchical architectures was carried out employing trisodium citrate as structure-directing agent. Three different morphologies and crystal phase samples, including double-layer hexagonal prism ascribed to wurtzite ZnO (JCPDS No. 36-1451), porous microspheres ascribed to an unusual ZnO phase (JCPDS No. 21-1486) and smooth solid amorphous zinc citrate microsphere, were obtained. FESEM, TEM, XRD and FT-IR spectroscope were used to investigate the structure character of the products. The influence of the citrate concentration on ZnO microstructure was studied. It was found that the citrate concentration played a key role in evolution of the morphology and crystal phase. On the basis of experimental results, a possible formation mechanism of the ZnO hierarchical nanostructures was proposed. Photocatalytic property of the samples was evaluated by photodegradation reaction of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. Among these products, double-layer hexagonal prism samples exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity.

  4. Naval Open Architecture Machinery Control Systems for Next Generation Integrated Power Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Machinery Control Systems have been slowly moving away from proprietary hardware, 8 networks , software and protocols toward a more open systems...generation systems will require networked Compact Power conversion modules with agile embedded controls, which will participate in a multitude of...improved machinery control system software on naval ships is more important than ever given the diverse range of advanced sensors and weapon systems

  5. Nitrate-responsive miR393/AFB3 regulatory module controls root system architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Elena A; Araus, Viviana; Lu, Cheng; Parry, Geraint; Green, Pamela J; Coruzzi, Gloria M; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A

    2010-03-02

    One of the most striking examples of plant developmental plasticity to changing environmental conditions is the modulation of root system architecture (RSA) in response to nitrate supply. Despite the fundamental and applied significance of understanding this process, the molecular mechanisms behind nitrate-regulated changes in developmental programs are still largely unknown. Small RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as master regulators of gene expression in plants and other organisms. To evaluate the role of sRNAs in the nitrate response, we sequenced sRNAs from control and nitrate-treated Arabidopsis seedlings using the 454 sequencing technology. miR393 was induced by nitrate in these experiments. miR393 targets transcripts that code for a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor and for the auxin receptors TIR1, AFB1, AFB2, and AFB3. However, only AFB3 was regulated by nitrate in roots under our experimental conditions. Analysis of the expression of this miR393/AFB3 module, revealed an incoherent feed-forward mechanism that is induced by nitrate and repressed by N metabolites generated by nitrate reduction and assimilation. To understand the functional role of this N-regulatory module for plant development, we analyzed the RSA response to nitrate in AFB3 insertional mutant plants and in miR393 overexpressors. RSA analysis in these plants revealed that both primary and lateral root growth responses to nitrate were altered. Interestingly, regulation of RSA by nitrate was specifically mediated by AFB3, indicating that miR393/AFB3 is a unique N-responsive module that controls root system architecture in response to external and internal N availability in Arabidopsis.

  6. Fluvial and oceanographic controls on clinoform architecture in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, E. A. Y.; Driscoll, N. W.; Milliman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Receiving sediment input from the large-floodplain Fly River and small mountainous rivers, the Gulf of Papua (GOP) is an ideal environment to study how clinoforms record the response of dispersal systems to sea level rise. Contributions from the Fly River and small mountainous rivers to the clinoform have varied due to differing responses to rising sea levels since the last glacial maximum. Near-bed currents that advect sediment to the northeast further complicate this signal. Pairing geophysical and geochemical data from the 2004 NSF MARGINS Source-to-Sink program, we imaged clinoform architecture with CHIRP seismic profiles, identified clinoform sediment provenance, and constrained depositional timing with radiocarbon dates. Sediment provenance can be identified from higher illite:smectite and quartz:feldspar ratios in Fly River sediment than that from small mountainous rivers draining volcanoclastics. Increasing illite:smectite ratios in surficial sediment imply that the Fly River is presently building out clinoforms; however, for most of the late Holocene, the northeastern rivers contributed the bulk of the sediment. The time-lag for Fly River sediment flux to the clinoform suggests sediment storage within its wide floodplain during the rapid transgressions, compared to shorter time-lags in the small mountainous rivers during transgressions. CHIRP profiles reveal consistent patterns of oblique stacking on top of preexisting topography, creating topographic highs and intervening lows. Aggradation on topographic highs occurs during the lower-energy Monsoon season; however, this sediment is winnowed away by energetic currents during the Trade Wind season and advected to the northeast. Northeast progradation is supported by greater sediment thicknesses and accumulation rates along the northeast sides of GOP promontories. Teasing out influences of oceanographic currents can illuminate contributions of large and small-floodplain rivers in the same basin.

  7. A New HLA-Based Distributed Control Architecture for Agricultural Teams of Robots in Hybrid Applications with Real and Simulated Devices or Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, Patricio; Torres-Sospedra, Joaquín; Martínez, Rafael J.

    2011-01-01

    The control architecture is one of the most important part of agricultural robotics and other robotic systems. Furthermore its importance increases when the system involves a group of heterogeneous robots that should cooperate to achieve a global goal. A new control architecture is introduced in this paper for groups of robots in charge of doing maintenance tasks in agricultural environments. Some important features such as scalability, code reuse, hardware abstraction and data distribution have been considered in the design of the new architecture. Furthermore, coordination and cooperation among the different elements in the system is allowed in the proposed control system. By integrating a network oriented device server Player, Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) and High Level Architecture (HLA), the previous concepts have been considered in the new architecture presented in this paper. HLA can be considered the most important part because it not only allows the data distribution and implicit communication among the parts of the system but also allows to simultaneously operate with simulated and real entities, thus allowing the use of hybrid systems in the development of applications. PMID:22163853

  8. A new HLA-based distributed control architecture for agricultural teams of robots in hybrid applications with real and simulated devices or environments.

    PubMed

    Nebot, Patricio; Torres-Sospedra, Joaquín; Martínez, Rafael J

    2011-01-01

    The control architecture is one of the most important part of agricultural robotics and other robotic systems. Furthermore its importance increases when the system involves a group of heterogeneous robots that should cooperate to achieve a global goal. A new control architecture is introduced in this paper for groups of robots in charge of doing maintenance tasks in agricultural environments. Some important features such as scalability, code reuse, hardware abstraction and data distribution have been considered in the design of the new architecture. Furthermore, coordination and cooperation among the different elements in the system is allowed in the proposed control system. By integrating a network oriented device server Player, Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) and High Level Architecture (HLA), the previous concepts have been considered in the new architecture presented in this paper. HLA can be considered the most important part because it not only allows the data distribution and implicit communication among the parts of the system but also allows to simultaneously operate with simulated and real entities, thus allowing the use of hybrid systems in the development of applications.

  9. A Plan for Revolutionary Change in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of Distributed Engine Control technology on the gas turbine engine has been a vexing challenge for the controls community. A successful implementation requires the resolution of multiple technical issues in areas such as network communications, power distribution, and system integration, but especially in the area of high temperature electronics. Impeding the achievement has been the lack of a clearly articulated message about the importance of the distributed control technology to future turbine engine system goals and objectives. To resolve these issues and bring the technology to fruition has, and will continue to require, a broad coalition of resources from government, industry, and academia. This presentation will describe the broad challenges facing the next generation of advanced control systems and the plan which is being put into action to successfully implement the technology on the next generation of gas turbine engine systems.

  10. MIMO Sliding Mode Control for a Tailless Fighter Aircraft, An Alternative to Reconfigurable Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, S. R.; Hess, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-domain procedure for the design of sliding mode controllers for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems is presented. The methodology accommodates the effects of parasitic dynamics such as those introduced by unmodeled actuators through the introduction of multiple asymptotic observers and model reference hedging. The design procedure includes a frequency domain approach to specify the sliding manifold, the observer eigenvalues, and the hedge model. The procedure is applied to the development of a flight control system for a linear model of the Innovative Control Effector (ICE) fighter aircraft. The stability and performance robustness of the resulting design is demonstrated through the introduction of significant degradation in the control effector actuators and variation in vehicle dynamics.

  11. Brain-Emulating Cognition and Control Architecture (BECCA) v. 0.2 beta

    SciTech Connect

    ROHRER, BRANDON; & MORROW, JAMES

    2009-06-16

    BECCA is a learning and control method based on the function of the human brain. The goal behind its creation is to learn to control robots in unfamiliar environments in a way that is very robust, similar to the way that an infant learns to interact with her environment by trial and error. As of this release, this software contains an application for controlling robot hardware through a socket. The code was created so as to make it extensible to new applications. It is modular, object-oriented code in which the portions of the code that are specific to one robot are easily separable from those portions that are the constant between implementations. BECCA makes very few assumptions about the robot and environment it is learning, and so is applicable to a wide range of learning and control problems.

  12. A comparison of two software architectural styles for space-based control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the hardware/software design of control systems it is almost an article of faith to decompose a system into loosely coupled subsystems, with state variables encapsulated inside device and subsystem objects.

  13. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    the objects the robots manipulate are hazardous waste. I have not actually applied the robots to reA toxic waste spills, since they are simply small...1993] Bruce Randall Donald, James Jennings, and Daniela Rus. To- wards a theory of information invariants for cooperating autonomous mobile robots

  14. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  15. An architecture for object-oriented intelligent control of power systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, Sven G.; Jayaram, Prakash; Jansen, Ben H.

    1993-01-01

    A control system for autonomous distribution and control of electrical power during space missions is being developed. This system should free the astronauts from localizing faults and reconfiguring loads if problems with the power distribution and generation components occur. The control system uses an object-oriented simulation model of the power system and first principle knowledge to detect, identify, and isolate faults. Each power system component is represented as a separate object with knowledge of its normal behavior. The reasoning process takes place at three different levels of abstraction: the Physical Component Model (PCM) level, the Electrical Equivalent Model (EEM) level, and the Functional System Model (FSM) level, with the PCM the lowest level of abstraction and the FSM the highest. At the EEM level the power system components are reasoned about as their electrical equivalents, e.g, a resistive load is thought of as a resistor. However, at the PCM level detailed knowledge about the component's specific characteristics is taken into account. The FSM level models the system at the subsystem level, a level appropriate for reconfiguration and scheduling. The control system operates in two modes, a reactive and a proactive mode, simultaneously. In the reactive mode the control system receives measurement data from the power system and compares these values with values determined through simulation to detect the existence of a fault. The nature of the fault is then identified through a model-based reasoning process using mainly the EEM. Compound component models are constructed at the EEM level and used in the fault identification process. In the proactive mode the reasoning takes place at the PCM level. Individual components determine their future health status using a physical model and measured historical data. In case changes in the health status seem imminent the component warns the control system about its impending failure. The fault isolation

  16. SIFT - Multiprocessor architecture for Software Implemented Fault Tolerance flight control and avionics computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, P.; Moses, K.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of a SIFT (Software Implemented Fault Tolerance) Flight Control Computer with emphasis on implementation is presented. A multiprocessor system that relies on software-implemented fault detection and reconfiguration algorithms is described. A high level reliability and fault tolerance is achieved by the replication of computing tasks among processing units.

  17. Exploiting Redundancy for Flexible Behavior: Unsupervised Learning in a Modular Sensorimotor Control Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Martin V.; Herbort, Oliver; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Autonomously developing organisms face several challenges when learning reaching movements. First, motor control is learned unsupervised or self-supervised. Second, knowledge of sensorimotor contingencies is acquired in contexts in which action consequences unfold in time. Third, motor redundancies must be resolved. To solve all 3 of these…

  18. Detector control system for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker: architecture and development techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaś, ElŻbieta; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta

    2012-05-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. With ~300000 drift tube proportional counters (straws) filled with stable gas mixture and high voltage biased it provides precise quasi-continuous tracking and particles identification. Safe, coherent and efficient operation of the TRT is fulfilled with the help of the Detector Control System (DCS) running on 11 computers as PVSS (industrial SCADA) projects. Standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading hardware parameters. Higher level control system layers based on the CERN JCOP framework allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different data bases are used to store the detector online parameters, the configuration parameters and replicate a subset of them used to flag data quality for physics reconstruction. The TRT DCS is fully integrated with the ATLAS Detector Control System.

  19. The Flatworld Simulation Control Architecture (FSCA): A Framework for Scalable Immersive Visualization Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    handling using the X10 home automation protocol. Each 3D graphics client renders its scene according to an assigned virtual camera position. By having...control protocol. DMX is a versatile and robust framework which overcomes limitations of the X10 home automation protocol which we are currently using

  20. Package architecture and component design for an implanted neural stimulator with closed loop control.

    PubMed

    Bjune, Caroline K; Marinis, Thomas F; Brady, Jeanne M; Moran, James; Wheeler, Jesse; Sriram, Tirunelveli S; Parks, Philip D; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N

    2015-08-01

    An implanted neural stimulator with closed loop control requires electrodes for stimulation pulses and recording neuron activity. Our system features arrays of 64 electrodes. Each electrode can be addressed through a cross bar switch, to enable it to be used for stimulation or recording. This electrode switch, a bank of low noise amplifiers with an integrated analog to digital converter, power conditioning electronics, and a communications and control gate array are co-located with the electrode array in a 14 millimeter diameter satellite package that is designed to be flush mounted in a skull burr hole. Our system features five satellite packages connected to a central hub processor-controller via ten conductor cables that terminate in a custom designed, miniaturized connector. The connector incorporates features of high reliability, military grade devices and utilizes three distinct seals to isolate the contacts from fluid permeation. The hub system is comprised of a connector header, hermetic electronics package, and rechargeable battery pack, which are mounted on and electrically interconnected by a flexible circuit board. The assembly is over molded with a compliant silicone rubber. The electronics package contains two antennas, a large coil, used for recharging the battery and a high bandwidth antenna that is used to download data and update software. The package is assembled from two machined alumina pieces, a flat base with brazed in, electrical feed through pins and a rectangular cover with rounded corners. Titanium seal rings are brazed onto these two pieces so that they can be sealed by laser welding. A third system antenna is incorporated in the flexible circuit board. It is used to communicate with an externally worn control package, which monitors the health of the system and allows both the user and clinician to control or modify various system function parameters.

  1. The architecture of the active surface control system of the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souccar, Kamal; Wallace, Gary; Grosslein, Ron; Schloerb, F. Peter

    2014-07-01

    One of the fundamental design principles of the LMT is that its segmented primary surface must be active: the position and orientation of each of the segments must be moved in order to maintain the precise parabolic surface that is required by the specifications. Consequently, a system of actuators, one at the corner of each segment, is used to move the segments to counteract surface deformations attributed to gravity or thermal effects. A new control system was designed and built within the project to implement an active surface at the LMT. The technical concept for the active surface control system is to provide a set of bus boxes with built-in control and I/O capabilities to run four actuators each. Bus boxes read the LVDT sensor position and limit switch status for each actuator and use this information to drive the actuator's DC motor, closing the position loop. Each bus box contains a DC power supply for the electronics, a second DC power supply for the motors, an embedded controller with I/O to close the position loop, and a custom printed circuit board to condition the LVDT signals and drive the motors. An interface printed circuit board resides in each actuator providing a single connector access to the LVDT, the motor, and the limit switches. During the fall of 2013, 84 bus boxes were commissioned to control the 336 actuators of the inner three rings of the telescope. The surface correction model was determined using holography measurements and the active surface system has been in regular use during the scientific observation at the LMT.

  2. Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

  3. Comparison of Communication Architectures and Network Topologies for Distributed Propulsion Controls (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    SPIDER [25], and TTCAN [26] [12]. In general, TTPs require a significant amount of initial design to create the message schedule model and do not allow...Gabriel Leen and Donald Heffernan. Ttcan : a new time-triggered controller area network. Microprocessors and Microsystems, 26(2):77–94, 2002. [27] Sinem...TTP, TTP/C • SPIDER • TTCAN • CANbus • Ethernet • AFDX • FlexRay 8 Event Triggered Time Triggered 28 Approved for public release; distribution

  4. Choreographing the Double Strand Break Response: Ubiquitin and SUMO Control of Nuclear Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Shane M.; Greenberg, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    The cellular response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is a multifaceted signaling program that centers on post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and SUMOylation. In this review we discuss how ubiquitin and SUMO orchestrate the recognition of DSBs and explore how this influences chromatin organization. We discuss functional outcomes of this response including transcriptional silencing and how pre-existing chromatin states may control the DSB response and the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:27375678

  5. Cognitive Impairment after Chemotherapy Related to Atypical Network Architecture for Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Piccirillo, Jay F.; Hardin, Frances Mei; Nicklaus, Joyce; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Wilson, Michael; Ma, Cynthia X.; Coalson, Rebecca S.; Shimony, Joshua; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A common complaint of cancer patients is the experience of cognitive difficulty during and after chemotherapy. We hypothesized that cognitive impairment may result from dysfunction in large-scale brain networks, particularly those involved in attentional control. Methods Using a case-control design, this study includes women with a history of invasive ductal or lobular, triple-negative breast cancer who completed standard adjuvant chemotherapy within two years of study entry. Women who reported cognitive impairment by the Global Rating of Cognition question were considered to be cases (n= 15). Women who reported no cognitive impairment were considered to be controls (n= 13). All enrolled participants were eligible for MRI investigation and underwent resting state-functional connectivity MRI. Results Women who self-reported cognitive impairment were found to have disrupted resting-state functional connectivity, as measured by MRI, when compared to women who did not self-report cognitive impairment. These findings suggest that some women may be more sensitive to the standard treatments for breast cancer and that this increased sensitivity may result in functional connectivity alterations in the brain networks supporting attention and executive function. Conclusions Neuroimaging analyses confirmed self-reported cognitive deficits in women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy. PMID:25678046

  6. Nanoscale architectural tuning of parylene patch devices to control therapeutic release rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierstorff, Erik; Lam, Robert; Ho, Dean

    2008-11-01

    The advent of therapeutic functionalized implant coatings has significantly impacted the medical device field by enabling prolonged device functionality for enhanced patient treatment. Incorporation of drug release from a stable, biocompatible surface is instrumental in decreasing systemic application of toxic therapeutics and increasing the lifespan of implants by the incorporation of antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. In this study, we have developed a parylene C-based device for controlled release of Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer chemotherapy and definitive read-out for preserved drug functionality, and further characterized the parylene deposition condition-dependent tunability of drug release. Drug release is controlled by the deposition of a layer of 20-200 nm thick parylene over the drug layer. This places a porous layer above the Doxorubicin, limiting drug elution based on drug accessibility to solvent and the solvent used. An increase in the thickness of the porous top layer prolongs the elution of active drug from the device from, in the conditions tested, the order of 10 min to the order of 2 d in water and from the order of 10 min to no elution in PBS. Thus, the controlled release of an anti-cancer therapeutic has been achieved via scalably fabricated, parylene C-encapsulated drug delivery devices.

  7. The coupling of fluids, dynamics, and controls on advanced architecture computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    This grant provided for the demonstration of coupled controls, body dynamics, and fluids computations in a workstation cluster environment; and an investigation of the impact of peer-peer communication on flow solver performance and robustness. The findings of these investigations were documented in the conference articles.The attached publication, 'Towards Distributed Fluids/Controls Simulations', documents the solution and scaling of the coupled Navier-Stokes, Euler rigid-body dynamics, and state feedback control equations for a two-dimensional canard-wing. The poor scaling shown was due to serialized grid connectivity computation and Ethernet bandwidth limits. The scaling of a peer-to-peer communication flow code on an IBM SP-2 was also shown. The scaling of the code on the switched fabric-linked nodes was good, with a 2.4 percent loss due to communication of intergrid boundary point information. The code performance on 30 worker nodes was 1.7 (mu)s/point/iteration, or a factor of three over a Cray C-90 head. The attached paper, 'Nonlinear Fluid Computations in a Distributed Environment', documents the effect of several computational rate enhancing methods on convergence. For the cases shown, the highest throughput was achieved using boundary updates at each step, with the manager process performing communication tasks only. Constrained domain decomposition of the implicit fluid equations did not degrade the convergence rate or final solution. The scaling of a coupled body/fluid dynamics problem on an Ethernet-linked cluster was also shown.

  8. Temperature control at DBS electrodes using a heat sink: experimentally validated FEM model of DBS lead architecture.

    PubMed

    Elwassif, Maged M; Datta, Abhishek; Rahman, Asif; Bikson, Marom

    2012-08-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders and other neurological and psychiatric conditions. The extent of temperature increases around DBS electrodes during normal operation (joule heating and increased metabolic activity) or coupling with an external source (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging) remains poorly understood and methods to mitigate temperature increases are being actively investigated. We developed a heat transfer finite element method (FEM) simulation of DBS incorporating the realistic architecture of Medtronic 3389 leads. The temperature changes were analyzed considering different electrode configurations, stimulation protocols and tissue properties. The heat-transfer model results were then validated using micro-thermocouple measurements during DBS lead stimulation in a saline bath. FEM results indicate that lead design (materials and geometry) may have a central role in controlling temperature rise by conducting heat. We show how modifying lead design can effectively control temperature increases. The robustness of this heat-sink approach over complimentary heat-mitigation technologies follows from several features: (1) it is insensitive to the mechanisms of heating (e.g. nature of magnetic coupling); (2) it does not interfere with device efficacy; and (3) can be practically implemented in a broad range of implanted devices without modifying the normal device operations or the implant procedure.

  9. Temperature control at DBS electrodes using a heat sink: experimentally validated FEM model of DBS lead architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwassif, Maged M.; Datta, Abhishek; Rahman, Asif; Bikson, Marom

    2012-08-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of medically refractory movement disorders and other neurological and psychiatric conditions. The extent of temperature increases around DBS electrodes during normal operation (joule heating and increased metabolic activity) or coupling with an external source (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging) remains poorly understood and methods to mitigate temperature increases are being actively investigated. We developed a heat transfer finite element method (FEM) simulation of DBS incorporating the realistic architecture of Medtronic 3389 leads. The temperature changes were analyzed considering different electrode configurations, stimulation protocols and tissue properties. The heat-transfer model results were then validated using micro-thermocouple measurements during DBS lead stimulation in a saline bath. FEM results indicate that lead design (materials and geometry) may have a central role in controlling temperature rise by conducting heat. We show how modifying lead design can effectively control temperature increases. The robustness of this heat-sink approach over complimentary heat-mitigation technologies follows from several features: (1) it is insensitive to the mechanisms of heating (e.g. nature of magnetic coupling); (2) it does not interfere with device efficacy; and (3) can be practically implemented in a broad range of implanted devices without modifying the normal device operations or the implant procedure.

  10. The telescope control of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov telescope Array: hardware and software design architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolini, Elisa; Cascone, Enrico; Schwarz, Joseph; Stringhetti, Luca; Tanci, Claudio; Tosti, Gino; Aisa, Damiano; Aisa, Simone; Bagaglia, Marco; Busatta, Andrea; Campeggi, Carlo; Cefala, Marco; Farnesini, Lucio; Giacomel, Stefano; Marchiori, Gianpiero; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Nucciarelli, Giuliano; Piluso, Antonfranco

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF). One of its aims is to develop, within the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) framework, an end-to-end small-sized telescope prototype in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) in order to investigate the energy range E ~ 1-100 TeV. A long-term goal of the ASTRI program is the production of an ASTRI/CTA mini-array composed of seven SST-2M telescopes. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is seen as a standalone system that needs only network and power connections to work. The software system that is being developed to control the prototype is the base for the Mini-Array Software System (MASS), which has the task to make possible the operation of both the ASTRI SST-2M prototype and the ASTRI/CTA mini-array. The scope of this contribution is to give an overview of the hardware and software architecture adopted for the ASTRI SST- 2M prototype, showing how to apply state of the art industrial technologies to telescope control and monitoring systems.

  11. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  12. Controlling cell-material interactions using coatings with advanced polymer architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koegler, Peter; Pasic, Paul; Johnson, Graham; Bean, Penny; Lorenz, Guenter; Meagher, Laurence; Thissen, Helmut

    2011-12-01

    Polymeric coatings which allow the effective control of biointerfacial interactions and cellular responses are of increasing interest in a range of biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo such as cell culture tools, biosensors and implantable medical devices. A variety of coating strategies have been developed to gain control over cell-surface interactions but many of them are limited with respect to their function and transferability between different substrate materials. Here, our aim was to establish an easily transferable coating that reduces non-specific cell-surface interactions to a minimum while at the same time presenting functional groups which allow for the subsequent immobilisation of bioactive signals. To achieve this, we have applied an allylamine plasma polymer coating followed by the covalent immobilisation of a macro-initiator providing iniferter functional groups. Subsequent controlled free radical graft polymerisation using the monomers acrylamide and acrylic acid in different molar ratios resulted in highly uniform polymer coatings. Non-specific cell attachment was significantly reduced on coatings representing molar ratios of less than 10% acylic acid. At the same time, we have demonstrated the suitability of these coatings for the subsequent covalent binding of bioactive compounds carrying amine functional groups using the label 2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine. Successful surface modifications were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and profilometry. The cellular response was evaluated using HeLa cell attachment experiments for up to 24 hours. We expect that the coating platform established in this study will be translated into a number of biomedical applications, including applications in implantable devices and regenerative medicine.

  13. Feasibility Study of Two Candidate Reaction Wheel/thruster Hybrid Control Architecture Designs for the Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macala, Glenn A.; Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.

    2012-01-01

    using an all-thruster controller design. Strength and weaknesses of the hybrid control architecture are assessed quantitatively.

  14. A Generic and Target Architecture For Command and Control Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    class should be used if available. The X.25 packet level protocol (ISO 8208 ) will be used. C.6.3 LAN Link Control ISO 8802/2 defines logical link...Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detect), an ISO 8802/4 network is based on token bus concepts, and an ISO 8802/5 network uses a token ring. These...efficiently at a 30% network load. If loading goes beyond 70%, it degrades rapidly as collisions increase. The token based pro- tocols perform better

  15. Technical Standards for the ATCCIS (Army Tactical Command and Control Information System) Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    CLNP) apply to each of the four LAN options. The X.25 PLP in ISO 8208 or 8878 in Layer 3 and the High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) in Layer 2 are...3309 ISO 8208 ISO 8073 V.35 ISO 4335 ISO 8878 V.36 IS07478 DIS 2110 IS07776 ISO 2593 ISO 7809 DIS 4902 IS08471 O 8885 Permanent Access to PSDN: End...System X.21 ISO 3309 ISO 8208 ISO 8073 DIS 490 IS0 4335 ISO 8878 ISO 7478 X.25 ISO 7776 ISO 7809 ISO 8471 IS0 8885 X.25 PSDN X.25 X.25 X.25 Permanent

  16. Construction of High-Performance, Low-Cost Photoelectrodes with Controlled Polycrystalline Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoung-Shin Choi

    2013-06-30

    The major goal of our research was to gain the ability in electrochemical synthesis to precisely control compositions and morphologies of various oxide-based polycrystalline photoelectrodes in order to establish the composition-morphology-photoelectrochemical property relationships while discovering highly efficient photoelectrode systems for use in solar energy conversion. Major achievements include: development of porous n-type BiVO{sub 4} photoanode for efficient and stable solar water oxidation; development of p-type CuFeO{sub 2} photocathode for solar hydrogen production; and junction studies on electrochemically fabricated p-n Cu{sub 2}O homojunction solar cells for efficiency enhancement.

  17. Transition in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture: Modular, Distributed, Embedded

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Controls Issues ENGINE MANUFACTURES FACE DEMANDS TO• MEET THE INCREASING REQUIREMENTS FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS , REDUCED FUEL BURN, AND INCREASED...capable of prolonged operation Supreme Challenge 1600 °C Key compressor and exhaust regions beyond realm of silicon Measure combustor exit...temperatures, pressure, & emissions 800°Ce r a t u r e , C 300 °C Combustora s P a t h T e m p e 600 °C Silicon (SOI) WBG (SiC) Inlet Compressor

  18. Acidity-Controlled Conducting Polymer Films for Organic Thermoelectric Devices with Horizontal and Vertical Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woongki; Song, Myeonghun; Park, Soohyung; Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-01-01

    Organic thermoelectric devices (OTEDs) are recognized one of the next generation energy conversion platforms because of their huge potentials for securing electricity continuously from even tiny heat sources in our daily life. The advantage of OTEDs can be attributable to the design freedom in device shapes and the low-cost fabrication by employing solution coating processes at low temperatures. As one of the major OTE materials to date, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been used, but no study has been yet carried out on its acidity control even though the acidic components in OTEDs can seriously affect the device performance upon operation. Here we demonstrate that the addition of aniline (a weak base) can control the acidity of PEDOT:PSS and enhance the performance of OTEDs. In particular, the vertical OTEDs with aniline-doped PEDOT:PSS films (active area = 1.0 cm2) could continuously generate electricity (0.06 nW) even at low temperatures (<38 °C) when they were mounted on a desk lamp (power = 24 W). PMID:27667013

  19. Acidity-Controlled Conducting Polymer Films for Organic Thermoelectric Devices with Horizontal and Vertical Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woongki; Song, Myeonghun; Park, Soohyung; Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-09-01

    Organic thermoelectric devices (OTEDs) are recognized one of the next generation energy conversion platforms because of their huge potentials for securing electricity continuously from even tiny heat sources in our daily life. The advantage of OTEDs can be attributable to the design freedom in device shapes and the low-cost fabrication by employing solution coating processes at low temperatures. As one of the major OTE materials to date, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been used, but no study has been yet carried out on its acidity control even though the acidic components in OTEDs can seriously affect the device performance upon operation. Here we demonstrate that the addition of aniline (a weak base) can control the acidity of PEDOT:PSS and enhance the performance of OTEDs. In particular, the vertical OTEDs with aniline-doped PEDOT:PSS films (active area = 1.0 cm2) could continuously generate electricity (0.06 nW) even at low temperatures (<38 °C) when they were mounted on a desk lamp (power = 24 W).

  20. Open-systems Architecture of a Standardized Command Interface Chip-set for Switching and Control of a Spacecraft Power Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, B. Ian; Burke, Gary R.; Lung, Gerald; Whitaker, William D.; Nowicki, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the architecture of the The CIA-AlA chip-set is a set of mixed-signal ASICs that provide a flexible high level interface between the spacecraft's command and data handling (C&DH) electronics and lower level functions in other spacecraft subsystems. Due to the open-systems architecture of the chip-set including an embedded micro-controller a variety of applications are possible. The chip-set was developed for the missions to the outer planets. The chips were developed to provide a single solution for both the switching and regulation of a spacecraft power bus. The Open-Systems Architecture allows for other powerful applications.

  1. Spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control requirements for an intelligent plug-n-play avionics (PAPA) architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh; Krishnakumar, Kalmaje

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design an intelligent plug-n-play avionics system that provides a reconfigurable platform for supporting the guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) requirements for different elements of the space exploration mission. The focus of this study is to look at the specific requirements for a spacecraft that needs to go from earth to moon and back. In this regard we will identify the different GN&C problems in various phases of flight that need to be addressed for designing such a plug-n-play avionics system. The Apollo and the Space Shuttle programs provide rich literature in terms of understanding some of the general GN&C requirements for a space vehicle. The relevant literature is reviewed which helps in narrowing down the different GN&C algorithms that need to be supported along with their individual requirements.

  2. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.

    2016-07-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism.

  3. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture

    PubMed Central

    Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.

    2016-01-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism. PMID:27440452

  4. Presynaptic spinophilin tunes neurexin signalling to control active zone architecture and function

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Karzan; Reddy-Alla, Suneel; Driller, Jan H; Schreiner, Dietmar; Rey, Ulises; Böhme, Mathias A.; Hollmann, Christina; Ramesh, Niraja; Depner, Harald; Lützkendorf, Janine; Matkovic, Tanja; Götz, Torsten; Bergeron, Dominique D.; Schmoranzer, Jan; Goettfert, Fabian; Holt, Mathew; Wahl, Markus C.; Hell, Stefan W.; Scheiffele, Peter; Walter, Alexander M.; Loll, Bernhard; Sigrist, Stephan J.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly and maturation of synapses at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) depend on trans-synaptic neurexin/neuroligin signalling, which is promoted by the scaffolding protein Syd-1 binding to neurexin. Here we report that the scaffold protein spinophilin binds to the C-terminal portion of neurexin and is needed to limit neurexin/neuroligin signalling by acting antagonistic to Syd-1. Loss of presynaptic spinophilin results in the formation of excess, but atypically small active zones. Neuroligin-1/neurexin-1/Syd-1 levels are increased at spinophilin mutant NMJs, and removal of single copies of the neurexin-1, Syd-1 or neuroligin-1 genes suppresses the spinophilin-active zone phenotype. Evoked transmission is strongly reduced at spinophilin terminals, owing to a severely reduced release probability at individual active zones. We conclude that presynaptic spinophilin fine-tunes neurexin/neuroligin signalling to control active zone number and functionality, thereby optimizing them for action potential-induced exocytosis. PMID:26471740

  5. Posttranslational marks control architectural and functional plasticity of the nuclear pore complex basket

    PubMed Central

    Niño, Carlos A.; Guet, David; Gay, Alexandre; Brutus, Sergine; Jourquin, Frédéric; Mendiratta, Shweta; Salamero, Jean; Géli, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) serves as both the unique gate between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and a major platform that coordinates nucleocytoplasmic exchanges, gene expression, and genome integrity. To understand how the NPC integrates these functional constraints, we dissected here the posttranslational modifications of the nuclear basket protein Nup60 and analyzed how they intervene to control the plasticity of the NPC. Combined approaches highlight the role of monoubiquitylation in regulating the association dynamics of Nup60 and its partner, Nup2, with the NPC through an interaction with Nup84, a component of the Y complex. Although major nuclear transport routes are not regulated by Nup60 modifications, monoubiquitylation of Nup60 is stimulated upon genotoxic stress and regulates the DNA-damage response and telomere repair. Together, these data reveal an original mechanism contributing to the plasticity of the NPC at a molecular-organization and functional level. PMID:26783300

  6. Candidate Mission from Planet Earth control and data delivery system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Phillip; Weinstein, Frank C.; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Todd, Jacqueline

    1992-01-01

    Using a structured, experienced-based approach, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has assessed the generic functional requirements for a lunar mission control and data delivery (CDD) system. This analysis was based on lunar mission requirements outlined in GSFC-developed user traffic models. The CDD system will facilitate data transportation among user elements, element operations, and user teams by providing functions such as data management, fault isolation, fault correction, and link acquisition. The CDD system for the lunar missions must not only satisfy lunar requirements but also facilitate and provide early development of data system technologies for Mars. Reuse and evolution of existing data systems can help to maximize system reliability and minimize cost. This paper presents a set of existing and currently planned NASA data systems that provide the basic functionality. Reuse of such systems can have an impact on mission design and significantly reduce CDD and other system development costs.

  7. Development of an extendable arm and software architecture for autonomous and tele-operated control for mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yung-Sen; Hunt, Shawn; Popovici, Cosmin; Walter, Steven; Witus, Gary; Ellis, R. Darin; Auner, Gregory; Cao, Alex; Pandya, Abhilash

    2008-04-01

    There is a strong demand for efficient explosive detecting devices and deployment methods in the field. In this study we present a prototype mast that uses a telescoping pulley system for optimal performance on top of an unmanned ground vehicle to be able to be controlled wirelessly. The mast and payload reaches up eight feet from the platform with a gripper that can pick up objects. The current mobile platform operators using a remote-control devices to move the arm and the robot itself from a safe distance away. It is equipped with a pulley system that can also be used to extend a camera or explosive detection sensor under a vehicle. The mast is outfitted with sensors. The simple master-slave strategy will not be sufficient as the navigation and sensory inputs will become complex. In this paper we provide a tested software/hardware framework that allows a mobile platform and the expanded arm to offload operator tasks to autonomous behaviors while maintaining tele-operations. This will implement semi-autonomous behaviors. This architecture involves a server which communicates commands and receives sensor inputs via a wireless modem to the mobile platform. This server can take requests from multiple client processes which have prioritized access to on-board sensor readings and can command the steering. The clients would include the tele-operation soldier unit, and any number of other autonomous behaviors linked to particular sensor information or triggered by the operator. For instance, the behavior of certain tasks can be controlled by low-latency clients with sensory information to prevent collisions, place sensor pods precisely, return to preplanned positions, home the units location or even perform image enhancements or object recognition on streamed video.

  8. Genetic and hormonal control of bone volume, architecture, and remodeling in XXY mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter Y; Kalak, Robert; Lue, Yanhe; Jia, Yue; Erkkila, Krista; Zhou, Hong; Seibel, Markus J; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Dunstan, Colin R

    2010-10-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is the most common chromosomal aneuploidy in men (XXY karyotype, 1 in 600 live births) and results in testicular (infertility and androgen deficiency) and nontesticular (cognitive impairment and osteoporosis) deficits. The extent to which skeletal changes are due to testosterone deficiency or arise directly from gene overdosage cannot be determined easily in humans. To answer this, we generated XXY mice through a four-generation breeding scheme. Eight intact XXY and 9 XY littermate controls and 8 castrated XXY mice and 8 castrated XY littermate controls were euthanized at 1 year of age. Castration occurred 6 months prior to killing. A third group of 9 XXY and 11 XY littermates were castrated and simultaneously implanted with a 1-cm Silastic testosterone capsule 8 weeks prior to sacrifice. Tibias were harvested from all three groups and examined by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Blood testosterone concentration was assayed by radioimmunoassay. Compared with intact XY controls, intact androgen-deficient XXY mice had lower bone volume (6.8% +/- 1.2% versus 8.8% +/- 1.7%, mean +/- SD, p = .01) and thinner trabeculae (50 +/- 4 µm versus 57 +/- 5 µm, p = .007). Trabecular separation (270 +/- 20 µm versus 270 +/- 20 µm) or osteoclast number relative to bone surface (2.4 +/- 1.0/mm2 versus 2.7 +/- 1.5/mm2) did not differ significantly. Testosterone-replaced XXY mice continued to show lower bone volume (5.5% +/- 2.4% versus 8.1% +/- 3.5%, p = .026). They also exhibited greater trabecular separation (380 +/- 69 µm versus 324 +/- 62 µm, p = .040) but equivalent blood testosterone concentrations (6.3 +/- 1.8 ng/mL versus 8.2 +/- 4.2 ng/mL, p = .28) compared with testosterone-replaced XY littermates. In contrast, castration alone drastically decreased bone volume (p < .001), trabecular thickness (p = .05), and trabecular separation (p

  9. A controllable asymmetrical/symmetrical coating strategy for architectural mesoporous organosilica nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; He, Yapeng; Liu, Chong; Liu, Yunling; Qiao, Zhen-An; Huo, Qisheng

    2016-07-01

    We describe a facile and controllable asymmetrical/symmetrical coating strategy for the preparation of various novel periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanostructures, including Au&PMO Janus, Au@PMO yolk-shell and Au@PMO/mSiO2 yolk-double shell nanoparticles, by using Au@SiO2 nanoparticles as seeds. During this process, ammonia first functions as a basic catalyst facilitating the hydrolyzation and condensation of the organosilica precursor, and additionally as an etching agent selectively in situ dissolving the SiO2 shells of Au@SiO2 nanoparticles to form these unique nanostructures. All these three types of nanoparticles have high surface areas, large pore volumes and tailorable cavity structures. Both the Au&PMO and Au@PMO nanoparticles exhibit excellent catalytic activity for the decomposition of H2O2 and the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Based on these unique structural merits and organic-inorganic hybrid components, the fabricated Janus and hollow PMO nanoparticles show much improved hemocompatibility, which could be further applied in nano-biomedicines without the need for surface modification.We describe a facile and controllable asymmetrical/symmetrical coating strategy for the preparation of various novel periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanostructures, including Au&PMO Janus, Au@PMO yolk-shell and Au@PMO/mSiO2 yolk-double shell nanoparticles, by using Au@SiO2 nanoparticles as seeds. During this process, ammonia first functions as a basic catalyst facilitating the hydrolyzation and condensation of the organosilica precursor, and additionally as an etching agent selectively in situ dissolving the SiO2 shells of Au@SiO2 nanoparticles to form these unique nanostructures. All these three types of nanoparticles have high surface areas, large pore volumes and tailorable cavity structures. Both the Au&PMO and Au@PMO nanoparticles exhibit excellent catalytic activity for the decomposition of H2O2 and the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Based on these unique

  10. Directed assembly of bio-inspired hierarchical materials with controlled nanofibrillar architectures.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Peter; Napier, Bradley; Zhao, Siwei; Mitropoulos, Alexander N; Applegate, Matthew B; Marelli, Benedetto; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2017-02-27

    In natural systems, directed self-assembly of structural proteins produces complex, hierarchical materials that exhibit a unique combination of mechanical, chemical and transport properties. This controlled process covers dimensions ranging from the nano- to the macroscale. Such materials are desirable to synthesize integrated and adaptive materials and systems. We describe a bio-inspired process to generate hierarchically defined structures with multiscale morphology by using regenerated silk fibroin. The combination of protein self-assembly and microscale mechanical constraints is used to form oriented, porous nanofibrillar networks within predesigned macroscopic structures. This approach allows us to predefine the mechanical and physical properties of these materials, achieved by the definition of gradients in nano- to macroscale order. We fabricate centimetre-scale material geometries including anchors, cables, lattices and webs, as well as functional materials with structure-dependent strength and anisotropic thermal transport. Finally, multiple three-dimensional geometries and doped nanofibrillar constructs are presented to illustrate the facile integration of synthetic and natural additives to form functional, interactive, hierarchical networks.

  11. Computational Architecture of the Parieto-Frontal Network Underlying Cognitive-Motor Control in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Borra, Elena; Visco-Comandini, Federica; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2017-01-01

    The statistical structure of intrinsic parietal and parieto-frontal connectivity in monkeys was studied through hierarchical cluster analysis. Based on their inputs, parietal and frontal areas were grouped into different clusters, including a variable number of areas that in most instances occupied contiguous architectonic fields. Connectivity tended to be stronger locally: that is, within areas of the same cluster. Distant frontal and parietal areas were targeted through connections that in most instances were reciprocal and often of different strength. These connections linked parietal and frontal clusters formed by areas sharing basic functional properties. This led to five different medio-laterally oriented pillar domains spanning the entire extent of the parieto-frontal system, in the posterior parietal, anterior parietal, cingulate, frontal, and prefrontal cortex. Different information processing streams could be identified thanks to inter-domain connectivity. These streams encode fast hand reaching and its control, complex visuomotor action spaces, hand grasping, action/intention recognition, oculomotor intention and visual attention, behavioral goals and strategies, and reward and decision value outcome. Most of these streams converge on the cingulate domain, the main hub of the system. All of them are embedded within a larger eye–hand coordination network, from which they can be selectively set in motion by task demands. PMID:28275714

  12. A controllable asymmetrical/symmetrical coating strategy for architectural mesoporous organosilica nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; He, Yapeng; Liu, Chong; Liu, Yunling; Qiao, Zhen-An; Huo, Qisheng

    2016-07-14

    We describe a facile and controllable asymmetrical/symmetrical coating strategy for the preparation of various novel periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanostructures, including Au&PMO Janus, Au@PMO yolk-shell and Au@PMO/mSiO2 yolk-double shell nanoparticles, by using Au@SiO2 nanoparticles as seeds. During this process, ammonia first functions as a basic catalyst facilitating the hydrolyzation and condensation of the organosilica precursor, and additionally as an etching agent selectively in situ dissolving the SiO2 shells of Au@SiO2 nanoparticles to form these unique nanostructures. All these three types of nanoparticles have high surface areas, large pore volumes and tailorable cavity structures. Both the Au&PMO and Au@PMO nanoparticles exhibit excellent catalytic activity for the decomposition of H2O2 and the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Based on these unique structural merits and organic-inorganic hybrid components, the fabricated Janus and hollow PMO nanoparticles show much improved hemocompatibility, which could be further applied in nano-biomedicines without the need for surface modification.

  13. Arginine-phosphate salt bridges between histones and DNA: Intermolecular actuators that control nucleosome architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.; Li, Yun; Singh, Gautam; Olson, Wilma K.

    2014-10-01

    Structural bioinformatics and van der Waals density functional theory are combined to investigate the mechanochemical impact of a major class of histone-DNA interactions, namely, the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. Principal component analysis reveals that the configurational fluctuations of the sugar-phosphate backbone display sequence-specific directionality and variability, and clustering of nucleosome crystal structures identifies two major salt-bridge configurations: a monodentate form in which the arginine end-group guanidinium only forms one hydrogen bond with the phosphate, and a bidentate form in which it forms two. Density functional theory calculations highlight that the combination of sequence, denticity, and salt-bridge positioning enables the histones to apply a tunable mechanochemical stress to the DNA via precise and specific activation of backbone deformations. The results suggest that selection for specific placements of van der Waals contacts, with high-precision control of the spatial distribution of intermolecular forces, may serve as an underlying evolutionary design principle for the structure and function of nucleosomes, a conjecture that is corroborated by previous experimental studies.

  14. The MADS-domain protein MPF1 of Physalis floridana controls plant architecture, seed development and flowering time.

    PubMed

    He, Chaoying; Tian, Ying; Saedler, Rainer; Efremova, Nadia; Riss, Simone; Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Yephremov, Alexander; Saedler, Heinz

    2010-02-01

    Floral and vegetative development of plants is dependent on the combinatorial action of MADS-domain transcription factors. Members of the STMADS11 subclade, such as MPF1 of Physalis, are abundantly expressed in leaves as well as in floral organs, but their function is not yet clear. Our studies with transgenic Arabidopsis that over-express MPF1 suggest that MPF1 interacts with SOC1 to determine flowering time. However, MPF1 RNAi-mediated knockdown Physalis plants revealed a complex phenotype with changes in flowering time, plant architecture and seed size. Flowering of these plants was delayed by about 20% as compared to wild type. Expression of PFLFY is upregulated in the MPF1 RNAi lines, while PFFT and MPF3 genes are strongly repressed. MPF1 interacts with a subset of MADS-domain factors, namely with PFSOC1 in planta, and with PFSEP3 and PFFUL in yeast, supporting a regulatory role for this protein in flowering. The average size of seeds produced by the transgenic MPF1 RNAi plants is increased almost twofold. The height of these plants is also increased about twofold, but most axillary buds are stunted when compared to controls. Taken together, this suggests that members of the STMADS11 subclade act as positive regulators of flowering but have diverse functions in plant growth.

  15. Large-scale production of nanographene sheets with a controlled mesoporous architecture as high-performance electrochemical electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiong; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Dacheng; Lin, He; Wang, Changhui; Wang, Hongjin; Ma, Yanwei

    2013-06-01

    Graphene is considered as a rising-star material because of its unique properties and it is a promising material for applications in many fields. In recent years, experiments on graphene fabricated by using versatile methods have shed light on the crucial problem of aggregation and restacking, which is induced by strong π-π stacking and van der Waals forces, but preparation methods for real-world applications are still a great challenge. Here we report a facile, rapid, and environmentally friendly process, the burn-quench method, that allows large-scale and controlled synthesis of ordered mesoporous nanographene with 1-5 layers, which has a high surface area and electric conductivity. Electrodes composed of nanographene with a mesoporous architecture used both in electrochemical capacitors and lithium-ion batteries have a high specific capacitance, rate capability, energy density, and cyclic stability. Our results represent an important step toward large-scale graphene synthesis based on this new burn-quench method for applications in high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices.

  16. An integrated Rotorcraft Avionics/Controls Architecture to support advanced controls and low-altitude guidance flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Robert A.; Doane, Douglas H.; Eshow, Michelle M.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Hindson, William S.

    1992-01-01

    Salient design features of a new NASA/Army research rotorcraft--the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these programs together with other critical constraints on the design of the research system. Research program schedules demand a phased development approach, wherein specific research capability milestones are met and flight research projects are flown throughout the complete development cycle of the RASCAL. This development approach is summarized, and selected features of the research system are described. The research system includes a real-time obstacle detection and avoidance system which will generate low-altitude guidance commands to the pilot on a wide field-of-view, color helmet-mounted display and a full-authority, programmable, fault-tolerant/fail-safe, fly-by-wire flight control system.

  17. Sleep architecture and cognitive changes in olanzapine-treated patients with depression: A double blind randomized placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Disturbance in sleep quality is a symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) and thus improving quality of sleep is an important aspect of successful treatment. Here, a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study examined the effect of olanzapine (an atypical antipsychotic) augmentation therapy on sleep architecture, specifically slow wave sleep (SWS), in the treatment of depression. The effect of olanzapine augmentation therapy on other features of sleep (e.g., sleep continuity) and depression (e.g., illness severity and cognitive function) were also determined. Methods Patients currently experiencing a major depressive episode and who were on a stable medication were included. Sleep architecture was measured by overnight ambulatory polysomnography. Illness severity was determined using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive function was examined using Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Spatial Span (SSP), and Reaction Time (RTI) tasks. Polysomnographs, clinical measures and cognitive tests were administered at baseline, after 2–4 days of treatment and after 28–31 days of treatment. Twenty-five patients participated in the study (N = 10, N = 15 for placebo and olanzapine treated groups respectively). Results The primary objective of the study was to assess the objective (polysomnographic) changes in sleep quality, defined as changes in SWS, following olanzapine treatment for depression. Latency to but not duration of SWS was found to significantly differ between olanzapine- and placebo-treated participants (Hedge’s g: 0.97, 0.13 respectively). A significant improvement in olanzapine-treated participants over placebo-treated participants was observed in secondary outcome measures, including sleep efficiency, total sleep time, and sleep latency. Secondary objectives assessed the subjective changes in sleep quality

  18. Model-based system-of-systems engineering for space-based command, control, communication, and information architecture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindiy, Oleg V.

    executing multi-purpose analysis studies is presented. These efforts are coupled to the generation of aggregate and time-dependent solution performance metrics via the hierarchical decomposition of objectives and the analytical recomposition of multi-attribute qualitative program drivers from quantifiable measures. This methodology was also applied to generate problem-specific solution structure evaluation metrics that facilitate the comparison of alternate solutions at a high level of aggregation, at lower levels of abstraction, and to relate options for design variables with associated performance values. For proof-of-capability demonstration, the selected application problem concerns the design of command, control, communication, and information (C3I) architecture services for a notional campaign of crewed and robotic lunar surface missions. The impetus for the work was the demonstration of using model-based SoSE for design of sustainable interoperability capabilities between all data and communication assets in extended lunar campaigns. A comprehensive Lunar C3I simulation tool was developed by a team of researchers at Purdue University in support of NASA's Constellation Program; the author of this dissertation was a key contributor to the creation of this tool and made modifications and extensions to key components relevant to the methodological concepts presented in this dissertation. The dissertation concludes with a presentation of example results based on the interrogation of the constructed Lunar C3I computational model. The results are based on a family of studies, structured around a trade-tree of architecture options, which were conducted to test the hypothesis that the SoSE approach is efficacious in the information-exchange architecture design in space exploration domain. Included in the family of proof-of-capability studies is a simulation of the Apollo 17 mission, which allows not only for partial verification and validation of the model, but also provides

  19. Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) real-time controller preliminary architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerley, Dan; Smith, Malcolm; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-08-01

    The Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) is the first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A critical component of NFIRAOS is the Real-Time Controller (RTC) subsystem which provides real-time wavefront correction by processing wavefront information to compute Deformable Mirror (DM) and Tip/Tilt Stage (TTS) commands. The National Research Council of Canada - Herzberg (NRC-H), in conjunction with TMT, has developed a preliminary design for the NFIRAOS RTC. The preliminary architecture for the RTC is comprised of several Linux-based servers. These servers are assigned various roles including: the High-Order Processing (HOP) servers, the Wavefront Corrector Controller (WCC) server, the Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server, the Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server, and additional testing and spare servers. There are up to six HOP servers that accept high-order wavefront pixels, and perform parallelized pixel processing and wavefront reconstruction to produce wavefront corrector error vectors. The WCC server performs low-order mode processing, and synchronizes and aggregates the high-order wavefront corrector error vectors from the HOP servers to generate wavefront corrector commands. The Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server is the RTC interface to TMT and other subsystems. The TED server receives all external commands and dispatches them to the rest of the RTC servers and is responsible for aggregating several offloading and telemetry values that are reported to other subsystems within NFIRAOS and TMT. The TED server also provides the engineering GUIs and real-time displays. The Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server contains fault tolerant data storage that receives and stores telemetry data, including data for Point-Spread Function Reconstruction (PSFR).

  20. Neural network and fuzzy logic based secondary cells charging algorithm development and the controller architecture for implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Muhammed Zafar

    Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic are the two key technologies that have recently received growing attention in solving real world, nonlinear, time variant problems. Because of their learning and/or reasoning capabilities, these techniques do not need a mathematical model of the system, which may be difficult, if not impossible, to obtain for complex systems. One of the major problems in portable or electric vehicle world is secondary cell charging, which shows non-linear characteristics. Portable-electronic equipment, such as notebook computers, cordless and cellular telephones and cordless-electric lawn tools use batteries in increasing numbers. These consumers demand fast charging times, increased battery lifetime and fuel gauge capabilities. All of these demands require that the state-of-charge within a battery be known. Charging secondary cells Fast is a problem, which is difficult to solve using conventional techniques. Charge control is important in fast charging, preventing overcharging and improving battery life. This research work provides a quick and reliable approach to charger design using Neural-Fuzzy technology, which learns the exact battery charging characteristics. Neural-Fuzzy technology is an intelligent combination of neural net with fuzzy logic that learns system behavior by using system input-output data rather than mathematical modeling. The primary objective of this research is to improve the secondary cell charging algorithm and to have faster charging time based on neural network and fuzzy logic technique. Also a new architecture of a controller will be developed for implementing the charging algorithm for the secondary battery.

  1. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  2. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  3. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: Upper miocene, cabo de gata region, SE Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of

  4. Quantitative controls on location and architecture of carbonate depositional sequences: upper miocene, cabo de gata region, se Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franseen, E.K.; Goldstein, R.H.; Farr, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy, pinning-point relative sea-level curves, and magnetostratigraphy provide the quantitative data necessary to understand how rates of sea-level change and different substrate paleoslopes are dominant controls on accumulation rate, carbonate depositional sequence location, and internal architecture. Five third-order (1-10 my) and fourth-order (0.1-1.0 my) upper Miocene carbonate depositional sequences (DS1A, DS1B, DS2, DS3, TCC) formed with superimposed higher-frequency sea-level cycles in an archipelago setting in SE Spain. Overall, our study indicates when areas of high substrate slope (> 15??) are in shallow water, independent of climate, the location and internal architecture of carbonate deposits are not directly linked to sea-level position but, instead, are controlled by location of gently sloping substrates and processes of bypass. In contrast, if carbonate sediments are generated where substrates of low slope ( 15.6 cm/ky to ??? 2 cm/ky and overall relative sea level rose at rates of 17-21.4 cm/ky. Higher frequency sea-level rates were about 111 to more than 260 cm/ky, producing onlapping, fining- (deepening-) upward cycles. Decreasing accumulation rates resulted from decreasing surface area for shallow-water sediment production, drowning of shallow-water substrates, and complex sediment dispersal related to the archipelago setting. Typical systems tract and parasequence development should not be expected in "bypass ramp" settings; facies of onlapping strata do not track base level and are likely to be significantly different compared to onlapping strata associated with coastal onlap. Basal and upper DS2 reef megabreccias (indicating the transition from cool to warmer climatic conditions) were eroded from steep upslope positions and redeposited downslope onto areas of gentle substrate during rapid sea-level falls (> 22.7 cm/ky) of short duration. Such rapid sea-level falls and presence of steep slopes are not conducive to formation of

  5. Factors Controlling the Spectroscopic Properties and Supramolecular Chemistry of an Electron Deficient 5,5- Dimethylphlorin Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Pistner, Allen; Lutterman, Daniel A; Ghidiu, Michael J.; Walker, Eric; Yapp, Glenn P. A.; Rosenthal, Joel

    2014-01-01

    A new 5,5-dimethylphlorin derivative (3H-(PhlCF3)) was prepared and studied through a combination of redox, photophysical, and computational experiments. The phlorin macrocycle is significantly distorted from planarity compared to more traditional tetrapyrrole architectures and displays solvatochroism in the soret region of the UV vis spectrum ( 370 420 nm). DFT calculations indicate that this solvatochromic behavior stems from the polarized nature of the frontier orbital (LUMO+1) that is most heavily involved in these transitions. Compound 3H(PhlCF3) also displays an intriguing supramolecular chemistry with certain anions; this phlorin can cooperatively hydrogen-bond two equivalents of fluoride to form 3H(PhlCF3) 2F but does not bind larger halides such as Cl or Br . Analogous studies revealed that the phlorin can hydrogen-bond with carboxylate anions such as acetate to form 1:1 complexes such as 3H(PhlCF3) OAc . These supramolecular assemblies are robust and form even in relatively polar solvents such as MeCN. Hydrogen-bonding of fluoride and acetate anions to the phlorin N H residues significantly attenuates the redox and photophysical properties of the phlorin. Moreover, The ability to independently vary the size and pKa of a series of carboxylate hydrogen-bond acceptors has allowed us to probe how phlorin anion association is controlled by the anion s size and/or basicity. These studies elucidate the physical properties and the electronic effects that shape the supramolecular chemistry displayed by the phlorin platform.

  6. Burdock root extracts limit quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes and biofilm architecture in major urinary tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan, Satish Kumar; Ramesh, Samiraj; Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Elangomathavan, Ramaraj; Kamalanathan, Chakkaravarthi

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial biofilms are serious concern in patients infected with urinary tract infections, complicated urinary tract infections and other device-associated infections. Microbes within the biofilms are effectively shielded from antibiotics and host immune cells, hence can be treated only with agents which has the potential to disassemble the biofilms. The study is focused on the root extracts of Arctium lappa Linn. as a source for complementary medicine against three major biofilm forming clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens. Methanol extracts of burdock roots (BR) showed no bactericidal activity (p > 0.05) against the uropathogens, whereas restrained the biofilms (p < 0.05) on polystyrene and glass surfaces at a biofilm inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. The 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze the biofilm architecture which showed significant reduction in the surface area. Z-stack analysis has also revealed substantial reduction in the biofilm thickness (E. coli-50.79%, P. mirabilis-69.49%, and S. marcescens-75.84%). Further, BR extracts also inhibited quorum-sensing (QS)-controlled cellular phenotypes such as violacein, prodigiosin, swarming motility, and cell surface hydrophobicity. LC-MS/MS analysis of BR extracts identified the presence of two major quercetin derivatives (miquelianin and peltatoside) along with few other constituent components. Exploring such phytocompounds will provide potential agents to treat infections caused by biofilm forming uropathogens. The antibiofilm and anti-QS agents will ultimately serve as armor, facilitating the host immune system to fight infections.

  7. Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

  8. NERI Project 99-119. A New Paradigm for Automatic Development of Highly Reliable Control Architectures for Nuclear Power Plants. Phase-2 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, JA

    2002-01-15

    This report describes the tasks performed and the progress made during Phase 2 of the DOE-NERI project number 99-119 entitled Automatic Development of Highly Reliable Control Architecture for Future Nuclear Power Plants. This project is a collaboration effort between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) and the North Carolina State University (NCSU). ORNL is the lead organization and is responsible for the coordination and integration of all work.

  9. Enhancement of MHC-I antigen presentation via architectural control of pH-responsive, endosomolytic polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John T; Postma, Almar; Keller, Salka; Convertine, Anthony J; Moad, Graeme; Rizzardo, Ezio; Meagher, Laurence; Chiefari, John; Stayton, Patrick S

    2015-03-01

    Protein-based vaccines offer a number of important advantages over organism-based vaccines but generally elicit poor CD8(+) T cell responses. We have previously demonstrated that pH-responsive, endosomolytic polymers can enhance protein antigen delivery to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) antigen presentation pathways thereby augmenting CD8(+) T cell responses following immunization. Here, we describe a new family of nanocarriers for protein antigen delivery assembled using architecturally distinct pH-responsive polymers. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used to synthesize linear, hyperbranched, and core-crosslinked copolymers of 2-(N,N-diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) that were subsequently chain extended with a hydrophilic N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) segment copolymerized with thiol-reactive pyridyl disulfide (PDS) groups. In aqueous solution, polymer chains assembled into 25 nm micellar nanoparticles and enabled efficient and reducible conjugation of a thiolated protein antigen, ovalbumin. Polymers demonstrated pH-dependent membrane-destabilizing activity in an erythrocyte lysis assay, with the hyperbranched and cross-linked polymer architectures exhibiting significantly higher hemolysis at pH ≤ 7.0 than the linear diblock. Antigen delivery with the hyperbranched and cross-linked polymer architecture enhanced in vitro MHC-I antigen presentation relative to free antigen, whereas the linear construct did not have a discernible effect. The hyperbranched system elicited a four- to fivefold increase in MHC-I presentation relative to the cross-linked architecture, demonstrating the superior capacity of the hyperbranched architecture in enhancing MHC-I presentation. This work demonstrates that the architecture of pH-responsive, endosomolytic polymers can have dramatic effects on intracellular antigen delivery, and offers a promising strategy for enhancing CD8(+) T cell

  10. Experimental Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology at the University of Manitoba, including the educational context and design goals. Includes building plans and photographs. (EV)

  11. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options study. Volume 2: Program options, architecture, and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Mission scenarios and space station architectures are discussed. Electrical power subsystems (EPS), environmental control and life support, subsystems (ECLSS), and reaction control subsystem (RCS) architectures are addressed. Thermal control subsystems, (TCS), guidance/navigation and control (GN and C), information management systems IMS), communications and tracking (C and T), and propellant transfer and storage systems architectures are discussed.

  12. Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options study. Volume 2: Program options, architecture, and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-04-01

    Mission scenarios and space station architectures are discussed. Electrical power subsystems (EPS), environmental control and life support, subsystems (ECLSS), and reaction control subsystem (RCS) architectures are addressed. Thermal control subsystems, (TCS), guidance/navigation and control (GN and C), information management systems IMS), communications and tracking (C and T), and propellant transfer and storage systems architectures are discussed.

  13. A novel mitochondrial genome architecture in thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera): extreme size asymmetry among chromosomes and possible recent control region duplication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-partite mitochondrial genomes are very rare in animals but have been found previously in two insect orders with highly rearranged genomes, the Phthiraptera (parasitic lice), and the Psocoptera (booklice/barklice). We provide the first report of a multi-partite mitochondrial genome architecture...

  14. Open-systems architecture of a standardized command interface chip-set for switching and control of a spacecraft power bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Ian B.; Burke, Gary R.; Lung, Gerald; Whitaker, William D.; Nowicki, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed a command interface chip-set that primarily consists of two mixed-signal ASICs'; the Command Interface ASIC (CIA) and Analog Interface ASIC (AIA). The Open-systems architecture employed during the design of this chip-set enables its use as both an intelligent gateway between the system's flight computer and the control, actuation, and activation of the spacecraft's loads, valves, and pyrotechnics respectfully as well as the regulator of the spacecraft power bus. Furthermore, the architecture is highly adaptable and employed fault-tolerant design methods enabling a host of other mission uses including reliable remote data collection. The objective of this design is to both provide a needed flight component that meets the stringent environmental requirements of current deep space missions and to add a new element to a growing library that can be used as a standard building block for future missions to the outer planets.

  15. Arabidopsis BREVIPEDICELLUS interacts with the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA to regulate KNAT2 and KNAT6 expression in control of inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minglei; Yang, Songguang; Chen, Chia-Yang; Li, Chenlong; Shan, Wei; Lu, Wangjin; Cui, Yuhai; Liu, Xuncheng; Wu, Keqiang

    2015-03-01

    BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP or KNAT1), a class-I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana, contributes to shaping the normal inflorescence architecture through negatively regulating other two class-I KNOX genes, KNAT2 and KNAT6. However, the molecular mechanism of BP-mediated transcription regulation remains unclear. In this study, we showed that BP directly interacts with the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) both in vitro and in vivo. Loss-of-function BRM mutants displayed inflorescence architecture defects, with clustered inflorescences, horizontally orientated pedicels, and short pedicels and internodes, a phenotype similar to the bp mutants. Furthermore, the transcript levels of KNAT2 and KNAT6 were elevated in brm-3, bp-9 and brm-3 bp-9 double mutants. Increased histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) levels were detected in brm-3, bp-9 and brm-3 bp-9 double mutants. Moreover, BRM and BP co-target to KNAT2 and KNAT6 genes, and BP is required for the binding of BRM to KNAT2 and KNAT6. Taken together, our results indicate that BP interacts with the chromatin remodeling factor BRM to regulate the expression of KNAT2 and KNAT6 in control of inflorescence architecture.

  16. NERI PROJECT 99-119."A NEW PARADIGM FOR AUTOMATIC DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHLY RELIABLE CONTROL ARCHITECTURES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS."PHASE-1 PROGRESS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    March-Leuba, J.A.

    2000-08-29

    This report describes the tasks performed and the progress made during Phase 1 of the DOE-NERI project number 99-119 entitled ''Automatic Development of Highly Reliable Control Architecture for Future Nuclear Power Plants''. This project is a collaboration effort between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL,) The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) and the North Carolina State University (NCSU). ORNL is the lead organization and is responsible for the coordination and integration of all work. This research focuses on the development of methods for automated generation of control systems that can be traced directly to the design requirements for the life of the plant. Our final goal is to ''capture'' the design requirements inside a ''control engine'' during the design phase. This control engine is, then, not only capable of designing automatically the initial implementation of the control system, but it also can confirm that the original design requirements are still met during the life of the plant as conditions change. This control engine captures the high-level requirements and stress factors that the control system must survive (e.g. a list of transients, or a requirement to withstand a single failure). The control engine, then, is able to generate automatically the control-system algorithms and parameters that optimize a design goal and satisfy all requirements. As conditions change during the life of the plant (e.g. component degradation, or subsystem failures) the control engine automatically ''flags'' that a requirement is not satisfied, and it can even suggest a modified configuration that would satisfy it. This control engine concept is shown schematically in Fig. 1. The implementation of this ''control-engine'' design methodology requires the following steps, which are described in detail in the attachments to this report: (1) Selection of Design Requirements Related to Control System Performance; (2) Implementation of Requirements in

  17. Incentive and Architecture of Multi-Band Enabled Small Cell and UE for Up-/Down-Link and Control-/User-Plane Splitting for 5G Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Rony Kumer; Aswakul, Chaodit

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-band enabled femtocell base station (FCBS) and user equipment (UE) architecture is proposed in a multi-tier network that consists of small cells, including femtocells and picocells deployed over the coverage of a macrocell for splitting uplink and downlink (UL/DL) as well as control-plane and user-plane (C-/U-plane) for 5G mobile networks. Since splitting is performed at the same FCBS, we define this architecture as the same base station based split architecture (SBSA). For multiple bands, we consider co-channel (CC) microwave and different frequency (DF) 60 GHz millimeter wave (mmWave) bands for FCBSs and UEs with respect to the microwave band used by their over-laid macrocell base station. All femtocells are assumed to be deployed in a 3-dimensional multi-storage building. For CC microwave band, cross-tier CC interference of femtocells with macrocell is avoided using almost blank subframe based enhanced inter-cell interference coordination techniques. The co-existence of CC microwave and DF mmWave bands for SBSA on the same FCBS and UE is first studied to show their performance disparities in terms of system capacity and spectral efficiency in order to provide incentives for employing multiple bands at the same FCBS and UE and identify a suitable band for routing decoupled UL/DL or C-/U-plane traffic. We then present a number of disruptive architectural design alternatives of multi-band enabled SBSA for 5G mobile networks for UL/DL and C-/U-plane splitting, including a disruptive and complete splitting of UL/DL and C-/U-plane as well as a combined UL/DL and C-/U-plane splitting, by exploiting dual connectivity on CC microwave and DF mmWave bands. The outperformances of SBSA in terms of system level capacity, average spectral efficiency, energy efficiency, and control-plane overhead traffic capacity in comparison with different base stations based split architecture (DBSA) are shown. Finally, a number of technical and business perspectives

  18. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  19. A Mission Control Architecture for robotic lunar sample return as field tested in an analogue deployment to the sudbury impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Francis, Raymond; Mader, Marianne; Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Barry, N.; Basic, G.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Blain, S.; Bondy, M.; Capitan, R.-D.; Chanou, A.; Clayton, J.; Cloutis, E.; Daly, M.; Dickinson, C.; Dong, H.; Flemming, R.; Furgale, P.; Gammel, J.; Gharfoor, N.; Hussein, M.; Grieve, R.; Henrys, H.; Jaziobedski, P.; Lambert, A.; Leung, K.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; McManus, C.; Neish, C. D.; Ng, H. K.; Ozaruk, A.; Pickersgill, A.; Preston, L. J.; Redman, D.; Sapers, H.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Souders, K.; Stenning, B.; Stooke, P.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L.

    2012-12-01

    A Mission Control Architecture is presented for a Robotic Lunar Sample Return Mission which builds upon the experience of the landed missions of the NASA Mars Exploration Program. This architecture consists of four separate processes working in parallel at Mission Control and achieving buy-in for plans sequentially instead of simultaneously from all members of the team. These four processes were: science processing, science interpretation, planning and mission evaluation. science processing was responsible for creating products from data downlinked from the field and is organized by instrument. Science Interpretation was responsible for determining whether or not science goals are being met and what measurements need to be taken to satisfy these goals. The Planning process, responsible for scheduling and sequencing observations, and the Evaluation process that fostered inter-process communications, reporting and documentation assisted these processes. This organization is advantageous for its flexibility as shown by the ability of the structure to produce plans for the rover every two hours, for the rapidity with which Mission Control team members may be trained and for the relatively small size of each individual team. This architecture was tested in an analogue mission to the Sudbury impact structure from June 6-17, 2011. A rover was used which was capable of developing a network of locations that could be revisited using a teach and repeat method. This allowed the science team to process several different outcrops in parallel, downselecting at each stage to ensure that the samples selected for caching were the most representative of the site. Over the course of 10 days, 18 rock samples were collected from 5 different outcrops, 182 individual field activities - such as roving or acquiring an image mosaic or other data product - were completed within 43 command cycles, and the rover travelled over 2200 m. Data transfer from communications passes were filled to 74

  20. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  1. Architectural Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; Yancey, Bruce

    Designed to be used as a supplement to a two-book course in basic drafting, these instructional materials consisting of 14 units cover the process of drawing all working drawings necessary for residential buildings. The following topics are covered in the individual units: introduction to architectural drafting, lettering and tools, site…

  2. Box Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Project offers grades 3-8 students hands-on design practice creating built environments to solve a society-based architectural problem. Students plan buildings, draw floor plans, and make scale models of the structures that are then used in related interdisciplinary activities. (Author)

  3. Architectural Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornek, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan developed around the work of architectural muralist Richard Haas. Discusses the significance of mural painting and gives key concepts for the lesson. Lists class activities for the elementary and secondary grades. Provides a photograph of the Haas mural on the Fountainbleau Hilton Hotel, 1986. (GG)

  4. Architecture? Absolutely!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1973

    1973-01-01

    By designing processes to translate social needs into physical terms, the Urban Center at the University of Louisville is turning out its own unique brand of architecture -- one that produces no buildings but that has a real effect on the future of the physical environment. (Author)

  5. Selection of a Data Acquisition and Controls System Communications and Software Architecture for Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory Thermal and Vacuum Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Upgrade of data acquisition and controls systems software at Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) involved the definition, evaluation and selection of a system communication architecture and software components. A brief discussion of the background of the SESL and its data acquisition and controls systems provides a context for discussion of the requirements for each selection. Further framework is provided as upgrades to these systems accomplished in the 1990s and in 2003 are compared to demonstrate the role that technological advances have had in their improvement. Both of the selections were similar in their three phases; 1) definition of requirements, 2) identification of candidate products and their evaluation and testing and 3) selection by comparison of requirement fulfillment. The candidates for the communication architecture selection embraced several different methodologies which are explained and contrasted. Requirements for this selection are presented and the selection process is described. Several candidates for the software component of the data acquisition and controls system are identified, requirements for evaluation and selection are presented, and the evaluation process is described.

  6. Advanced ground station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

  7. Enhanced Androgen Signaling With Androgen Receptor Overexpression in the Osteoblast Lineage Controls Skeletal Turnover, Matrix Quality and Bone Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    knockout (ARKO) mice: an in vivomodel for the study of androgen functions in selective tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99:13498–503. [63] Zagar Y...The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department...Skeletal Turnover, Matrix Quality and Bone Architecture 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0086 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT

  8. Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA): Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A space generic open avionics architecture created for NASA is described. It will serve as the basis for entities in spacecraft core avionics, capable of being tailored by NASA for future space program avionics ranging from small vehicles such as Moon ascent/descent vehicles to large ones such as Mars transfer vehicles or orbiting stations. The standard consists of: (1) a system architecture; (2) a generic processing hardware architecture; (3) a six class architecture interface model; (4) a system services functional subsystem architectural model; and (5) an operations control functional subsystem architectural model.

  9. On the performance of a scalable optical switching architecture for flat intercluster data center network with centralized control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qian; Huang, Shanguo; Zhou, Yu; Guo, Bingli; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Jie; Gu, Wanyi

    2014-07-01

    Data centers have to sustain the rapid growth of data traffic due to the increasing demand of bandwidth-hungry Internet services. The current fat tree topology causes communication bottlenecks in the server interaction process, resulting in power-hungry O-E-O conversions that limit the minimum latency and the power efficiency of these systems. As a result, recent efforts have advocated that all optical data center networks (DCNs) have the capability to adapt to traffic requirements on demand. We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of a cascaded microelectromechanical systems switches-based DCN architecture which dynamically changes its topology and link capacities, thereby achieving unprecedented flexibility to adapt to dynamic traffic patterns. We analyze it under a data center traffic model to determine its suitability for this type of environment. The proposed architecture can be scaled to 3300 input/output ports by available experimental components with low blocking probability and latency. The blocking probability and latency are about 0.03 and 72 ms at a moderate traffic load for 32 input/output ports based on our numerical results, which are much smaller than the results for 4 input/output ports which are 0.13 and 235 ms, respectively.

  10. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Mejías, Andrés; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC) and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS) package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL) server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented. PMID:27809229

  11. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition.

    PubMed

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Mejías, Andrés; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-10-31

    In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC) and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS) package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL) server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented.

  12. A new technique for dynamic load distribution when two manipulators mutually lift a rigid object. Part 2, Derivation of entire system model and control architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Unseren, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    A rigid body model for the entire system which accounts for the load distribution scheme proposed in Part 1 as well as for the dynamics of the manipulators and the kinematic constraints is derived in the joint space. A technique is presented for expressing the object dynamics in terms of the joint variables of both manipulators which leads to a positive definite and symmetric inertia matrix. The model is then transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations which govern the behavior of the internal contact forces. The control architecture is applied to the model which results in the explicit decoupling of the position and internal contact force-controlled degrees of freedom (DOF).

  13. Balance in machine architecture: Bandwidth on board and offboard, integer/control speed and flops versus memory

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.

    1992-04-01

    The issues to be addressed here are those of balance'' in machine architecture. By this, we mean how much emphasis must be placed on various aspects of the system to maximize its usefulness for physics. There are three components that contribute to the utility of a system: How the machine can be used, how big a problem can be attacked, and what the effective capabilities (power) of the hardware are like. The effective power issue is a matter of evaluating the impact of design decisions trading off architectural features such as memory bandwidth and interprocessor communication capabilities. What is studied is the effect these machine parameters have on how quickly the system can solve desired problems. There is a reasonable method for studying this: One selects a few representative algorithms and computes the impact of changing memory bandwidths, and so forth. The only room for controversy here is in the selection of representative problems. The issue of how big a problem can be attacked boils down to a balance of memory size versus power. Although this is a balance issue it is very different than the effective power situation, because no firm answer can be given at this time. The power to memory ratio is highly problem dependent, and optimizing it requires several pieces of physics input, including: how big a lattice is needed for interesting results; what sort of algorithms are best to use; and how many sweeps are needed to get valid results. We seem to be at the threshold of learning things about these issues, but for now, the memory size issue will necessarily be addressed in terms of best guesses, rules of thumb, and researchers' opinions.

  14. Balance in machine architecture: Bandwidth on board and offboard, integer/control speed and flops versus memory

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.

    1992-04-01

    The issues to be addressed here are those of ``balance`` in machine architecture. By this, we mean how much emphasis must be placed on various aspects of the system to maximize its usefulness for physics. There are three components that contribute to the utility of a system: How the machine can be used, how big a problem can be attacked, and what the effective capabilities (power) of the hardware are like. The effective power issue is a matter of evaluating the impact of design decisions trading off architectural features such as memory bandwidth and interprocessor communication capabilities. What is studied is the effect these machine parameters have on how quickly the system can solve desired problems. There is a reasonable method for studying this: One selects a few representative algorithms and computes the impact of changing memory bandwidths, and so forth. The only room for controversy here is in the selection of representative problems. The issue of how big a problem can be attacked boils down to a balance of memory size versus power. Although this is a balance issue it is very different than the effective power situation, because no firm answer can be given at this time. The power to memory ratio is highly problem dependent, and optimizing it requires several pieces of physics input, including: how big a lattice is needed for interesting results; what sort of algorithms are best to use; and how many sweeps are needed to get valid results. We seem to be at the threshold of learning things about these issues, but for now, the memory size issue will necessarily be addressed in terms of best guesses, rules of thumb, and researchers` opinions.

  15. Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG's SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  16. Controlling the molecular architecture of lactase immobilized in Langmuir-Blodgett films of phospholipids to modulate the enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Fábio de Paula; Caseli, Luciano

    2017-02-01

    In this present work, the adsorption of the enzyme lactase onto Langmuir monolayers of the phospholipid dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) was investigated and characterized with surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms and polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). The adsorption of the enzyme at the air-water interface expanded the lipid monolayer and increased the film compressibility at high surface pressures. Amide bands in the PM-IRRAS spectra were identified, with the CN and CO dipole moments lying parallel to the monolayer plane, revealing that the structuring of the enzyme into β-sheets was kept in the mixed monolayer. The enzyme-lipid films were transferred from the floating monolayer to solid supports as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films and characterized with fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The catalytic activity of the films was measured and compared to the homogenous medium. The enzyme accommodated in the LB films preserved more than 80% of the enzyme activity after 20days, in contrast for the homogeneous medium, which preserved less than 60% of the enzyme activity. The method presented in this present work not only allows for an enhanced catalytic activity toward lactose, but also can help explain why certain film architectures exhibit better performance.

  17. Major controls on architecture, sequence stratigraphy and paleosols of middle Pleistocene continental sediments ("Qc Unit"), eastern central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Celma, Claudio; Pieruccini, Pierluigi; Farabollini, Piero

    2015-05-01

    Middle Pleistocene continental sediments in central Italy ("Qc Unit") record the oldest fluvial accumulation along the uplifting margin of the Peri-Adriatic basin. The architecture of the sediment body can be divided into two unconformity-bounded, fining-upward cycles interpreted as genetically related depositional sequences. These sequences highlight the systematic adjustment of the fluvial system to changes in the ratio between accommodation space and sediment supply (A/S ratio) and, from base to top, comprise the following surfaces and stratal components: (i) a regionally correlative sequence boundary resulting from an A/S ratio ≤ 0; (ii) a low-accommodation systems tract characterized by conglomerate-rich, amalgamated channel fills and recording an A/S ratio < 1; (iii) an expansion surface marking the turnaround point from low-accommodation systems tract to high-accommodation systems tract deposits; (iv) a high-accommodation systems tract dominated by floodplain fines encasing lens-like, fluvial channel deposits and denoting an A/S ratio > 1; and (v) a mature red argillic paleosol. To constrain the climatic signal for paleosols formation, the two sequence-capping mature paleosols have been investigated. The results of these studies suggest that they were developed under humid and warm climatic conditions associated with interglacial phases, which have been correlatively attributed to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 11 and 9.

  18. Irregular Applications: Architectures & Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, John T.; Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone

    2012-02-06

    Irregular applications are characterized by irregular data structures, control and communication patterns. Novel irregular high performance applications which deal with large data sets and require have recently appeared. Unfortunately, current high performance systems and software infrastructures executes irregular algorithms poorly. Only coordinated efforts by end user, area specialists and computer scientists that consider both the architecture and the software stack may be able to provide solutions to the challenges of modern irregular applications.

  19. Consensus seeking, formation keeping, and trajectory tracking in multiple vehicle cooperative control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei

    stringent inter-vehicle communication limitations. A constructive approach based on the satisficing control paradigm is also applied to multi-robot coordination in hardware. For trajectory tracking, we investigate nonlinear tracking controllers for fixed wing unmanned air vehicles and nonholonomic mobile robots with velocity and heading rate constraints. The main contribution of this dissertation in this area is that our proposed tracking controllers are shown to be robust to input uncertainties and measurement noise, and are computationally simple and can be implemented with low-cost, low-power microcontrollers. In addition, our approach allows piecewise continuous reference velocity and heading rate and can be extended to derive a variety of other trajectory tracking strategies.

  20. Composable communication constraint-based control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Mong-ying A.; Srivastava, Pranav; Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Camillo J.

    2004-12-01

    We describe a framework for multi-vehicle control which explicitly incorporates the state of the communication network and the constraints imposed by specifications on the quality of the communications links available to each robot. In a multi-robot adhoc setting, the need for guaranteed communications is essential for cooperative behavior. We propose a control methodology that ensures local connectivity in multi-robot navigation. Specifically, given an initial and final configuration of robots in which the quality of each communication link is above some specified threshold, we synthesize controllers that guarantee each robot goes to its goal destination while maintaining the quality of the communication links above the given threshold. For the sake of simplicity, we assume each robot has a pre-assigned "base unit" with which the robot tries to maintain connectivity while performing the assigned task. The proposed control methodology allows the robot's velocity to align with the tangent of a critical communication surface such that it might be possible for the robot to move on the surface. No assumptions are made regarding the critical surface, which might be arbitrarily complex for cluttered urban environments. The stability of such technique is shown and three-dimensional simulations with a small team of robots are presented. The paper demonstrates the performance of the control scheme in various three-dimensional settings with proofs of guarantees in simple scenarios.

  1. Distributed Planning and Control for Teams of Cooperating Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    2004-06-15

    This CRADA project involved the cooperative research of investigators in ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) with researchers at Caterpillar, Inc. The subject of the research was the development of cooperative control strategies for autonomous vehicles performing applications of interest to Caterpillar customers. The project involved three Phases of research, conducted over the time period of November 1998 through December 2001. This project led to the successful development of several technologies and demonstrations in realistic simulation that illustrated the effectiveness of the control approaches for distributed planning and cooperation in multi-robot teams.

  2. Thermoresponsive Nanofabricated Substratum for the Engineering of Three-Dimensional Tissues with Layer-by-Layer Architectural Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Current tissue engineering methods lack the ability to properly recreate scaffold-free, cell-dense tissues with physiological structures. Recent studies have shown that the use of nanoscale cues allows for precise control over large-area 2D tissue structures without restricting cell growth or cell density. In this study, we developed a simple and versatile platform combining a thermoresponsive nanofabricated substratum (TNFS) incorporating nanotopographical cues and the gel casting method for the fabrication of scaffold-free 3D tissues. Our TNFS allows for the structural control of aligned cell monolayers which can be spontaneously detached via a change in culture temperature. Utilizing our gel casting method, viable, aligned cell sheets can be transferred without loss of anisotropy or stacked with control over individual layer orientations. Transferred cell sheets and individual cell layers within multilayered tissues robustly retain structural anisotropy, allowing for the fabrication of scaffold-free, 3D tissues with hierarchical control of overall tissue structure. PMID:24628277

  3. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  4. Aerobot Autonomy Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, Alberto; Hall, Jeffery L.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Montgomery, James F.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Machuzak, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An architecture for autonomous operation of an aerobot (i.e., a robotic blimp) to be used in scientific exploration of planets and moons in the Solar system with an atmosphere (such as Titan and Venus) is undergoing development. This architecture is also applicable to autonomous airships that could be flown in the terrestrial atmosphere for scientific exploration, military reconnaissance and surveillance, and as radio-communication relay stations in disaster areas. The architecture was conceived to satisfy requirements to perform the following functions: a) Vehicle safing, that is, ensuring the integrity of the aerobot during its entire mission, including during extended communication blackouts. b) Accurate and robust autonomous flight control during operation in diverse modes, including launch, deployment of scientific instruments, long traverses, hovering or station-keeping, and maneuvers for touch-and-go surface sampling. c) Mapping and self-localization in the absence of a global positioning system. d) Advanced recognition of hazards and targets in conjunction with tracking of, and visual servoing toward, targets, all to enable the aerobot to detect and avoid atmospheric and topographic hazards and to identify, home in on, and hover over predefined terrain features or other targets of scientific interest. The architecture is an integrated combination of systems for accurate and robust vehicle and flight trajectory control; estimation of the state of the aerobot; perception-based detection and avoidance of hazards; monitoring of the integrity and functionality ("health") of the aerobot; reflexive safing actions; multi-modal localization and mapping; autonomous planning and execution of scientific observations; and long-range planning and monitoring of the mission of the aerobot. The prototype JPL aerobot (see figure) has been tested extensively in various areas in the California Mojave desert.

  5. Stage-specific control of stem cell niche architecture in the Drosophila testis by the posterior Hox gene Abd-B

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannouli, Fani; Lohmann, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in biology is how complex structures are maintained after their initial specification. We address this question by reviewing the role of the Hox gene Abd-B in Drosophila testis organogenesis, which proceeds through embryonic, larval and pupal stages to reach maturation in adult stages. The data presented in this review highlight a cell- and stage-specific function of Abd-B, since the mechanisms regulating stem cell niche positioning and architecture at different stages seem to be different despite the employment of similar factors. In addition to its described role in the male embryonic gonads, sustained activity of Abd-B in the pre-meiotic germline spermatocytes during larval stages is required to maintain the architecture of the stem cell niche by regulating βPS-integrin localization in the neighboring somatic cyst cells. Loss of Abd-B is associated with cell non-autonomous effects within the niche, leading to a dramatic reduction of pre-meiotic cell populations in adult testes. Identification of Abd-B target genes revealed that Abd-B mediates its effects by controlling the activity of the sevenless ligand Boss via its direct targets Src42A and Sec63. During adult stages, when testis morphogenesis is completed with the addition of the acto-myosin sheath originating from the genital disc, stem cell niche positioning and integrity are regulated by Abd-B activity in the acto-myosin sheath whereas integrin acts in an Abd-B independent way. It seems that the occurrence of new cell types and cell interactions in the course of testis organogenesis made it necessary to adapt the system to the new cellular conditions by reusing the same players for testis stem cell niche positioning in an alternative manner. PMID:25750700

  6. The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study.

    PubMed

    Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend; Wobrock, Thomas; Gruber, Oliver; Schmitt, Andrea; Honer, William G; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald; Sun, Frank; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2013-09-01

    Via influencing brain plasticity, aerobic exercise could contribute to the treatment of schizophrenia patients. As previously shown, physical exercise increases hippocampus volume and improves short-term memory. We now investigated gray matter density and brain surface expansion in this sample using MRI-based cortical pattern matching methods. Comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls before and after 3 months of aerobic exercise training (cycling) plus patients playing table football yielded gray matter density increases in the right frontal and occipital cortex merely in healthy controls. However, respective exercise effects might be attenuated in chronic schizophrenia, which should be verified in a larger sample.

  7. Parallel Architecture For Robotics Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1990-01-01

    Universal Real-Time Robotic Controller and Simulator (URRCS) is highly parallel computing architecture for control and simulation of robot motion. Result of extensive algorithmic study of different kinematic and dynamic computational problems arising in control and simulation of robot motion. Study led to development of class of efficient parallel algorithms for these problems. Represents algorithmically specialized architecture, in sense capable of exploiting common properties of this class of parallel algorithms. System with both MIMD and SIMD capabilities. Regarded as processor attached to bus of external host processor, as part of bus memory.

  8. Layered Architecture for Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, N. Cody; Van Meter, Rodney; Fowler, Austin G.; McMahon, Peter L.; Kim, Jungsang; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2012-07-01

    We develop a layered quantum-computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface-code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum-computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dots. The time scales of physical-hardware operations and logical, error-corrected quantum gates differ by several orders of magnitude. By dividing functionality into layers, we can design and analyze subsystems independently, demonstrating the value of our layered architectural approach. Using this concrete hardware platform, we provide resource analysis for executing fault-tolerant quantum algorithms for integer factoring and quantum simulation, finding that the quantum-dot architecture we study could solve such problems on the time scale of days.

  9. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  10. Sensor-model prediction, monitoring and in-situ control of liquid RTM advanced fiber architecture composite processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Kingsley, P.; Hart, S.; Loos, A.; Hasko, G.; Dexter, B.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors (FDEMS) and the Loos resin transfer model have been used to select and control the processing properties of an epoxy resin during liquid pressure RTM impregnation and cure. Once correlated with viscosity and degree of cure the FDEMS sensor monitors and the RTM processing model predicts the reaction advancement of the resin, viscosity and the impregnation of the fabric. This provides a direct means for predicting, monitoring, and controlling the liquid RTM process in-situ in the mold throughout the fabrication process and the effects of time, temperature, vacuum and pressure. Most importantly, the FDEMS-sensor model system has been developed to make intelligent decisions, thereby automating the liquid RTM process and removing the need for operator direction.

  11. A Connectionist/Control Architecture for Working Memory and Workload: Why Working Memory Is Not 7+ /-2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-29

    major should be called into question. Klapp . Marshburu. and i experimental effects are often cited as supporting buffer Lester (1983) have clearly...effect found In digit and word Sternberg scanning task (experiment #7). Klapp and span. Buffers are reflected in the connectlonist/control Philipoff...ofcaulto.Cgion1.9510 Klapp , S.T.. Marshburn. E.A.. & P.T. Lester (193). Short-term memory does not Involve the 8working memory* of Information processlng

  12. How bilingualism shapes the functional architecture of the brain: A study on executive control in early bilinguals and monolinguals.

    PubMed

    Costumero, Víctor; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a behavioral advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals during executive tasks is controversial. A new approach to this issue is to investigate the effect of bilingualism on neural control when performing these tasks as a window to understand when behavioral differences are produced. Here, we tested if early bilinguals use more language-related networks than monolinguals while performing a go/no-go task that includes infrequent no-go and go trials. The RTs and accuracy in both groups did not differ. An independent component analyses (ICA) revealed, however, that bilinguals used the left fronto-parietal network and the salience network more than monolinguals while processing go infrequent cues and no-go cues, respectively. It was noteworthy that the modulation of these networks had opposite correlates with performance in bilinguals and monolinguals, which suggests that between-group differences were more qualitative than quantitative. Our results suggest that bilinguals may differently develop the involvement of the executive control networks that comprise the left inferior frontal gyrus during cognitive control tasks than monolinguals.

  13. L1CAM/Neuroglian controls the axon–axon interactions establishing layered and lobular mushroom body architecture

    PubMed Central

    Siegenthaler, Dominique; Enneking, Eva-Maria; Moreno, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of neuronal circuits depends on the guidance of axons both along and in between axonal populations of different identity; however, the molecular principles controlling axon–axon interactions in vivo remain largely elusive. We demonstrate that the Drosophila melanogaster L1CAM homologue Neuroglian mediates adhesion between functionally distinct mushroom body axon populations to enforce and control appropriate projections into distinct axonal layers and lobes essential for olfactory learning and memory. We addressed the regulatory mechanisms controlling homophilic Neuroglian-mediated cell adhesion by analyzing targeted mutations of extra- and intracellular Neuroglian domains in combination with cell type–specific rescue assays in vivo. We demonstrate independent and cooperative domain requirements: intercalating growth depends on homophilic adhesion mediated by extracellular Ig domains. For functional cluster formation, intracellular Ankyrin2 association is sufficient on one side of the trans-axonal complex whereas Moesin association is likely required simultaneously in both interacting axonal populations. Together, our results provide novel mechanistic insights into cell adhesion molecule–mediated axon–axon interactions that enable precise assembly of complex neuronal circuits. PMID:25825519

  14. Controllable two-scale network architecture and enhanced mechanical properties of (Ti5Si3+TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Y.; Huang, L. J.; Duan, T. B.; Wei, S. L.; Kaveendran, B.; Geng, L.

    2016-01-01

    Novel Ti6Al4V alloy matrix composites with a controllable two-scale network architecture were successfully fabricated by reaction hot pressing (RHP). TiB whiskers (TiBw) were in-situ synthesized around the Ti6Al4V matrix particles, and formed the first-scale network structure (FSNS). Ti5Si3 needles (Ti5Si3) precipitated in the β phase around the equiaxed α phase, and formed the secondary-scale network structure (SSNS). This resulted in increased deformation compatibility accompanied with enhanced mechanical properties. Apart from the reinforcement distribution and the volume fraction, the ratio between Ti5Si3 and TiBw fraction were controlled. The prepared (Ti5Si3 + TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites showed higher tensile strength and ductility than the composites with a one-scale microstructure, and superior wear resistance over the Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding wear conditions at room temperature. PMID:27622992

  15. N-Heterocyclic carbene-mediated zwitterionic polymerization of N-substituted N-carboxyanhydrides toward poly(α-peptoid)s: kinetic, mechanism, and architectural control.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Lahasky, Samuel H; Ghale, Kushal; Zhang, Donghui

    2012-06-06

    N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-mediated polymerizations of N-butyl N-carboxyanhydride (Bu-NCA) to produce cyclic poly(N-butyl glycine)s (c-NHC-PNBGs) have been investigated in various solvents with NHCs having differing steric and electronic properties. Control over the polymer molecular weight (MW) and polymerization rate is strongly dependent on the solvent and the NHC structure. Kinetic studies reveal that the propagating intermediates for the polymerization in low dielectric solvents (e.g., THF or toluene) maintain cyclic architectures with two chain ends in close contact through Coulombic interaction. The NHCs not only initiate the polymerization, but also mediate the chain propagation as intramolecular counterions. Side reactions are significantly suppressed in low dielectric solvents due to the reduced basicity and nucleophilicity of the negatively charged chain ends of the zwitterions, resulting in quasi-living polymerization behavior. By contrast, the two charged chain ends of the zwitterionic species are fully dissociated in high dielectric solvents. The chain propagation proceeds as in conventional anionic polymerizations, wherein side reactions (e.g., transamidation) compete with chain propagation, resulting in significantly diminished control over polymer MW. The cyclic zwitterionic propagating species can be converted into their linear polymeric analogues (l-NHC-PNBGs) by end-capping with electrophiles (e.g., acetyl chloride) or the NHC-free cyclic analogues (c-PNBGs) by treatment with NaN(TMS)(2), as evidenced by MALDI-TOF MS, NMR, and SEC analysis.

  16. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  17. Enhanced Androgen Signaling with Androgen Receptor Overexpression in the Osteoblast Lineage Controls Skeletal Turnover, Matrix Quality and Bone Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Kristine M. - 4 - Introduction Androgen deficiency (as a result of aging, hypogonadism, glucocorticoid therapy, or alcoholism), and other...way ANOVA revealed significant differences in BMD (p < 0.01), BMC (p < 0.001), and bone area (p < 0.05) following ORX. Tukey’s multiple comparison...reduced BMC and bone area (p < 0.001) following OVX. Tukey’s multiple comparison test ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, vs. Sham controls (n = 12-15

  18. Architectural Methodology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The establishment of conventions between two communicating entities in the end systems is essential for communications. Examples of the kind of decisions that need to be made in establishing a protocol convention include the nature of the data representation, the for-mat and the speed of the date representation over the communications path, and the sequence of control messages (if any) which are sent. One of the main functions of a protocol is to establish a standard path between the communicating entities. This is necessary to create a virtual communications medium with certain desirable characteristics. In essence, it is the function of the protocol to transform the characteristics of the physical communications environment into a more useful virtual communications model. The final function of a protocol is to establish standard data elements for communications over the path; that is, the protocol serves to create a virtual data element for exchange. Other systems may be constructed in which the transferred element is a program or a job. Finally, there are special purpose applications in which the element to be transferred may be a complex structure such as all or part of a graphic display. NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to describe the methodologies used in developing a protocol architecture for an in-space Internet node. The node would support NASA:s four mission areas: Earth Science; Space Science; Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS); Aerospace Technology. This report presents the methodology for developing the protocol architecture. The methodology addresses the architecture for a computer communications environment. It does not address an analog voice architecture.

  19. Differential compaction as a control on depositional architectures across the Maiella carbonate platform margin (central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusciadelli, Giovanni; Di Simone, Salvatore

    2007-03-01

    The role of differential compaction as a control in the creation of accommodation and on compaction-modified depositional features and stratal geometries across the Maiella platform margin, has been investigated through a combined analysis of seismic scale outcrops, porosity evaluation and modeling. Geologic evolution and large exposures make the platform margin of the Maiella an ideal place to investigate the effects of differential compaction. A high-relief cemented carbonate platform, a deep basin filled with highly compactable deposits, and a prograding grain-rich succession sealing morphologic differences across the platform margin, represent suitable features for promoting differential compaction. Stratal relationships across the platform margin exhibit evidence of differential compaction-induced effects, such as basinward divergence and thickening of strata, updip pinch-out of wedge-shaped stratal packages, and an anticline hinge. Porosity analysis and modeling indicate that, through progressive loading, mechanical and chemical processes act in concert to destroy most of the depositional porosity. Mechanical compaction appears to have played the greatest part in the total budget of compaction. However, chemical compaction seems to have played a prominent role in the formation of geometrically consistent depositional profiles during progradation. Due to differential compaction across the platform margin a compaction hinge formed concomitantly with the beginning of progradation, producing a basin-facing monocline characterized by the progressive steepening of basinward stratal dips. The resulting compaction-induced stratal deformation, together with sea level changes, controls the distribution, and depositional timing of wedge-shaped stratal packages during late Cretaceous and Paleocene and the distribution of coral-algal reef buildups, during the late Eocene-early Oligocene. The development of the compaction hinge usually follows the progressive increase of

  20. Architecture as Design Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  1. Architecture and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne; Campbell, Leslie

    1988-01-01

    Describes "Architecture and Children," a traveling exhibition which visually involves children in architectural principles and historic styles. States that it teaches children about architecture, and through architecture it instills the basis for aesthetic judgment. Argues that "children learn best by concrete examples of ideas, not…

  2. Parallel Control over Surface Charge and Wettability Using Polyelectrolyte Architecture: Effect on Protein Adsorption and Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanshan; Zhu, Xiaoying; Li, Min; Shi, Liya; Ong, June Lay Ting; Jańczewski, Dominik; Neoh, Koon Gee

    2016-11-09

    Surface charge and wettability, the two prominent physical factors governing protein adsorption and cell adhesion, have been extensively investigated in the literature. However, a comparison between these driving forces in terms of their independent and cooperative effects in affecting adhesion is rarely explored on a systematic and quantitative level. Herein, we formulate a protocol that features two-dimensional control over both surface charge and wettability with limited cross-parameter influence. This strategy is implemented by controlling both the polyion charge density in the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process and the polyion side-chain chemical structures. The 2D property matrix spans surface isoelectric points ranging from 5 to 9 and water contact angles from 35 to 70°, with other interferential factors (e.g., roughness) eliminated. The interplay between these two surface variables influences protein (bovine serum albumin, lysozyme) adsorption and 3T3 fibroblast cell adhesion. For proteins, we observe the presence of thresholds for surface wettability and electrostatic driving forces necessary to affect adhesion. Beyond these thresholds, the individual effects of electrostatic forces and wettability are observed. For fibroblast, both surface charge and wettability have an effect on its adhesion. The combined effects of positive charge and hydrophilicity lead to the highest cell adhesion, whereas negative charge and hydrophobicity lead to the lowest cell adhesion. Our design strategy can potentially form the basis for studying the distinct behaviors of electrostatic force or wettability driven interfacial phenomena and serve as a reference in future studies assessing protein adsorption and cell adhesion to surfaces with known charge and wettability within the property range studied here.

  3. Dip TIPS as a Facile and Versatile Method for Fabrication of Polymer Foams with Controlled Shape, Size and Pore Architecture for Bioengineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kasoju, Naresh; Kubies, Dana; Kumorek, Marta M.; Kříž, Jan; Fábryová, Eva; Machová, Lud'ka; Kovářová, Jana; Rypáček, František

    2014-01-01

    The porous polymer foams act as a template for neotissuegenesis in tissue engineering, and, as a reservoir for cell transplants such as pancreatic islets while simultaneously providing a functional interface with the host body. The fabrication of foams with the controlled shape, size and pore structure is of prime importance in various bioengineering applications. To this end, here we demonstrate a thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) based facile process for the fabrication of polymer foams with a controlled architecture. The setup comprises of a metallic template bar (T), a metallic conducting block (C) and a non-metallic reservoir tube (R), connected in sequence T-C-R. The process hereinafter termed as Dip TIPS, involves the dipping of the T-bar into a polymer solution, followed by filling of the R-tube with a freezing mixture to induce the phase separation of a polymer solution in the immediate vicinity of T-bar; Subsequent free-drying or freeze-extraction steps produced the polymer foams. An easy exchange of the T-bar of a spherical or rectangular shape allowed the fabrication of tubular, open- capsular and flat-sheet shaped foams. A mere change in the quenching time produced the foams with a thickness ranging from hundreds of microns to several millimeters. And, the pore size was conveniently controlled by varying either the polymer concentration or the quenching temperature. Subsequent in vivo studies in brown Norway rats for 4-weeks demonstrated the guided cell infiltration and homogenous cell distribution through the polymer matrix, without any fibrous capsule and necrotic core. In conclusion, the results show the “Dip TIPS” as a facile and adaptable process for the fabrication of anisotropic channeled porous polymer foams of various shapes and sizes for potential applications in tissue engineering, cell transplantation and other related fields. PMID:25275373

  4. Mind and language architecture.

    PubMed

    Logan, Robert K

    2010-07-08

    A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described.

  5. Mind and Language Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Robert K

    2010-01-01

    A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described. PMID:20922045

  6. Architecture, constraints, and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, John C.; Csete, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to bridge progress in neuroscience involving sophisticated quantitative analysis of behavior, including the use of robust control, with other relevant conceptual and theoretical frameworks from systems engineering, systems biology, and mathematics. Familiar and accessible case studies are used to illustrate concepts of robustness, organization, and architecture (modularity and protocols) that are central to understanding complex networks. These essential organizational features are hidden during normal function of a system but are fundamental for understanding the nature, design, and function of complex biologic and technologic systems. PMID:21788505

  7. PLDAPS: A Hardware Architecture and Software Toolbox for Neurophysiology Requiring Complex Visual Stimuli and Online Behavioral Control

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Kyler M.; Huk, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving primates (both human and non-human) have focused with increasing scrutiny on the temporal relationship between neural signals and behaviors. Consequently, laboratories are often faced with the problem of developing experimental equipment that can support data recording with high temporal precision and also be flexible enough to accommodate a wide variety of experimental paradigms. To this end, we have developed a MATLAB toolbox that integrates several modern pieces of equipment, but still grants experimenters the flexibility of a high-level programming language. Our toolbox takes advantage of three popular and powerful technologies: the Plexon apparatus for neurophysiological recordings (Plexon, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA), a Datapixx peripheral (Vpixx Technologies, Saint-Bruno, QC, Canada) for control of analog, digital, and video input–output signals, and the Psychtoolbox MATLAB toolbox for stimulus generation (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997; Kleiner et al., 2007). The PLDAPS (“Platypus”) system is designed to support the study of the visual systems of awake, behaving primates during multi-electrode neurophysiological recordings, but can be easily applied to other related domains. Despite its wide range of capabilities and support for cutting-edge video displays and neural recording systems, the PLDAPS system is simple enough for someone with basic MATLAB programming skills to design their own experiments. PMID:22319490

  8. Controlled synthesis of different multilayer architectures of GdBO3:Eu3+ phosphors and shape-dependent luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Zhihua; Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Yali; Li, Linlin; Gan, Shucai

    2015-03-01

    Monodisperse pancake-like/flower-like/leaf-like GdBO3 samples have been successfully synthesized via a designed hydrothermal conversion method using H3BO3, Na2B4O7·10H2O, or NaBO2·4H2O as boron sources, respectively. It was found that different boron sources have crucial influences on the formation and morphology of the products. The Gd(OH)3 nanorods precursors were prepared through a simple hydrothermal process, which then served as sacrificial templates for the fabrication of GdBO3 micropancakes/microflowers/microleaves via a hydrothermal conversion process. FT-IR spectra confirm that vaterite-type GdBO3 can be synthesized by this method. The possible formation mechanisms for different microstructures were put forward on the basis of a series of time-dependent control experiments. The products have similar stacked arrangements driven by the minimization of the interfacial and surface energy of the hydrothermal system. An investigation on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of GdBO3:Eu3+ samples with different morphologies indicates that the PL properties of as-obtained GdBO3:Eu3+ phosphors are strongly dependent on their morphology and crystallinity. The flower-like structure exhibits the strongest red emission.

  9. PLDAPS: A Hardware Architecture and Software Toolbox for Neurophysiology Requiring Complex Visual Stimuli and Online Behavioral Control.

    PubMed

    Eastman, Kyler M; Huk, Alexander C

    2012-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving primates (both human and non-human) have focused with increasing scrutiny on the temporal relationship between neural signals and behaviors. Consequently, laboratories are often faced with the problem of developing experimental equipment that can support data recording with high temporal precision and also be flexible enough to accommodate a wide variety of experimental paradigms. To this end, we have developed a MATLAB toolbox that integrates several modern pieces of equipment, but still grants experimenters the flexibility of a high-level programming language. Our toolbox takes advantage of three popular and powerful technologies: the Plexon apparatus for neurophysiological recordings (Plexon, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA), a Datapixx peripheral (Vpixx Technologies, Saint-Bruno, QC, Canada) for control of analog, digital, and video input-output signals, and the Psychtoolbox MATLAB toolbox for stimulus generation (Brainard, 1997; Pelli, 1997; Kleiner et al., 2007). The PLDAPS ("Platypus") system is designed to support the study of the visual systems of awake, behaving primates during multi-electrode neurophysiological recordings, but can be easily applied to other related domains. Despite its wide range of capabilities and support for cutting-edge video displays and neural recording systems, the PLDAPS system is simple enough for someone with basic MATLAB programming skills to design their own experiments.

  10. Generating a fault-tolerant global clock using high-speed control signals for the MetaNet architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Ofek, Y. )

    1994-05-01

    This work describes a new technique, based on exchanging control signals between neighboring nodes, for constructing a stable and fault-tolerant global clock in a distributed system with an arbitrary topology. It is shown that it is possible to construct a global clock reference with time step that is much smaller than the propagation delay over the network's links. The synchronization algorithm ensures that the global clock tick' has a stable periodicity, and therefore, it is possible to tolerate failures of links and clocks that operate faster and/or slower than nominally specified, as well as hard failures. The approach taken in this work is to generate a global clock from the ensemble of the local transmission clocks and not to directly synchronize these high-speed clocks. The steady-state algorithm, which generates the global clock, is executed in hardware by the network interface of each node. At the network interface, it is possible to measure accurately the propagation delay between neighboring nodes with a small error or uncertainty and thereby to achieve global synchronization that is proportional to these error measurements. It is shown that the local clock drift (or rate uncertainty) has only a secondary effect on the maximum global clock rate. The synchronization algorithm can tolerate any physical failure. 18 refs.

  11. Market-Driven Multi-Robot Exploration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    For many real-world applications, autonomous robots must execute complex tasks in unknown or partially known unstructured environments. This work...to communication interruptions and failures. Results showing the capabilities of our system on a team of exploring autonomous robots are also given.

  12. Commanding Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Alexander Tiderko Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE Point of Contact Thomas...ADDRESS(ES) Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing & Ergonomics FKIE,Fraunhofer Str. 20,53343 Wachtberg Germany, 8. PERFORMING

  13. ROBODEXS; Multi-robot Deployment & Extraction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-03

    Deployment & Extraction System (ROBODEXS) is a result of our development research to improve marsupial robotic deployment at safe standoff distances. The...Keywords: ROBODEXS, Marsupial , Deployment, Extraction, Multiple UGV, Modular, Scalable, Robot, Unmanned 1. INTRODUCTION Until recently, small...down to the ground level for deployment.. Research has shown commercial robotics developers have also experimented with marsupial capabilities, allowing

  14. Redox control of GPx catalytic activity through mediating self-assembly of Fmoc-phenylalanine selenide into switchable supramolecular architectures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zupeng; Luo, Quan; Guan, Shuwen; Gao, Jianxiong; Wang, Yongguo; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Liang; Xu, Jiayun; Dong, Zeyuan; Liu, Junqiu

    2014-12-28

    Artificial enzymes capable of achieving tunable catalytic activity through stimuli control of enzymatic structure transition are of significance in biosensor and biomedicine research. Herein we report a novel smart glutathione peroxidise (GPx) mimic with modulatory catalytic activity based on redox-induced supramolecular self-assembly. First, an amphiphilic Fmoc-phenylalanine-based selenide was designed and synthesized, which can self-assemble into nanospheres (NSs) in aqueous solution. The NSs demonstrate extremely low GPx activity. Upon the oxidation of hydroperoxides (ROOH), the selenide can be quickly transformed into the selenoxide form. The change of the molecular structure induces complete morphology transition of the self-assemblies from NSs to nanotubes (NTs), resulting in great enhancement in the GPx catalytic activity. Under the reduction of GSH, the selenoxide can be further reversibly reduced back into the selenide; therefore the reversible switch between the NSs and NTs can be successfully accomplished. The relationship between the catalytic activity and enzymatic structure was also investigated. The dual response nature makes this mimic play roles of both a sensor and a GPx enzyme at the same time, which can auto-detect the signal of ROOH and then auto-change its activity to achieve quick or slow/no scavenging of ROOH. The dynamic balance of ROOH is vital in organisms, in which an appropriate amount of ROOH does benefit to the metabolism, whereas surplus ROOH can cause oxidative damage of the cell instead and this smart mimic is of remarkable significance. We expect that such a mimic can be developed into an effective antioxidant drug and provide a new platform for the construction of intelligent artificial enzymes with multiple desirable properties.

  15. High-performance flat data center network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabretta, Nicola; Miao, Wang; Dorren, Harm

    2016-03-01

    Traffic in data centers networks (DCNs) is steadily growing to support various applications and virtualization technologies. Multi-tenancy enabling efficient resource utilization is considered as a key requirement for the next generation DCs resulting from the growing demands for services and applications. Virtualization mechanisms and technologies can leverage statistical multiplexing and fast switch reconfiguration to further extend the DC efficiency and agility. We present a novel high performance flat DCN employing bufferless and distributed fast (sub-microsecond) optical switches with wavelength, space, and time switching operation. The fast optical switches can enhance the performance of the DCNs by providing large-capacity switching capability and efficiently sharing the data plane resources by exploiting statistical multiplexing. Benefiting from the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) control of the optical switches, virtual DCNs can be flexibly created and reconfigured by the DCN provider. Numerical and experimental investigations of the DCN based on the fast optical switches show the successful setup of virtual network slices for intra-data center interconnections. Experimental results to assess the DCN performance in terms of latency and packet loss show less than 10^-5 packet loss and 640ns end-to-end latency with 0.4 load and 16- packet size buffer. Numerical investigation on the performance of the systems when the port number of the optical switch is scaled to 32x32 system indicate that more than 1000 ToRs each with Terabit/s interface can be interconnected providing a Petabit/s capacity. The roadmap to photonic integration of large port optical switches will be also presented.

  16. The effect of pore size on tissue ingrowth and neovascularization in porous bioceramics of controlled architecture in vivo.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bai; Jinkang, Zhang; Zhen, Wang; Jianxi, Lu; Jiang, Chang; Jian, Liu; Guolin, Meng; Xin, Dong

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of pore size on tissue ingrowth and neovascularization in porous bioceramics under the accurate control of the pore parameters. For that purpose, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) cylinders with four different macropore sizes (300-400, 400-500, 500-600 and 600-700 µm) but the same interconnection size (120 µm) and unchangeable porosity were implanted into fascia lumbodorsalis in rabbits. The fibrous tissues and blood vessels formed in scaffolds were observed histologically and histomorphometrically. The vascularization of the porous bioceramics was analyzed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). It is found that pore size as an important parameter of a porous structure plays an important role in tissue infiltration into porous biomaterial scaffolds. The amount of fibrous tissue ingrowth increases with the decrease of the pore size. In four kinds of scaffolds with different macropore sizes (300-400, 400-500, 500-600 and 600-700 µm) and a constant interconnection size of 120 µm, the areas of fibrous tissue (%) were 60.5%, 52.2%, 41.3% and 37.3%, respectively, representing a significant decrease at 4 weeks (P < 0.01). The pore size of a scaffold is closely related to neovascularization of macroporous biomaterials implanted in vivo. A large pore size is beneficial for the growth of blood vessels, and the diameter of a pore smaller than 400 µm limits the growth of blood vessels and results in a smaller blood vessel diameter.

  17. Quantitative subsidence-uplift analysis of the Bajo Segura Basin (eastern Betic Cordillera, Spain): tectonic control on the stratigraphic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, J. M.; Alfaro, P.; Fernández, J.; Viseras, C.

    2001-04-01

    The Bajo Segura Basin is located in the eastern Betic Cordillera, at present connected with the Mediterranean Sea to the east. It has a complete stratigraphic record from the Tortonian to the Quaternary, which has been separated into six units bounded by unconformities. This paper is concerned with the northern edge of the basin, controlled by a major strike-slip fault (the Crevillente Fault Zone, CFZ), where the most complete stratigraphic successions are found. The results obtained (summarised below) are based on an integrated analysis of the sedimentary evolution and the subsidence-uplift movements. Unit I (Early Tortonian) is transgressive on the basin basement and is represented by ramp-type platform facies, organised in a shallowing-upward sequence related to tectonic uplift during the first stages of movement along the CFZ. Unit II (lower Late Tortonian) consists of shallow platform facies at bottom and pelagic basin facies at top, forming a deepening-upward sequence associated with tectonic subsidence due to sinistral motion along the CFZ. Unit III (middle Late Tortonian) is made up of exotic turbiditic facies related to a stage of uplift and erosion of the southern edge of the basin. Unit IV (upper Late Tortonian) consists of pelagic basin facies at bottom and shallow platform facies at top, defining a shallowing-upward sequence related to tectonic uplift during continued sinistral movement on the basin-bounding fault. Units V (latest Tortonian-Messinian) and VI (Pliocene-Pleistocene p.p.) consist of shallowing-upward sequences deposited during folding and uplift of the northern margin of the basin. No definitive evidence of any major eustatic sea-level fall, associated with the 'Messinian salinity crisis', has been recorded in the stratigraphic sections studied.

  18. DSP algorithms in FPGA: proposition of a new architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolasinski, Piotr; Zabolotny, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new reconfigurable architecture created in FPGA which is optimized for DSP algorithms like digital filters or digital transforms. The architecture tries to combine advantages of typical architectures like DSP processors and datapath architecture, while avoiding their drawbacks. The architecture is built from blocks called Operational Units (OU). Each Operational Unit contains the Control Unit (CU), which controls its operation. The Operational Units may operate in parallel, which shortens the processing time. This structure is also highly flexible, because all OUs may operate independently, executing their own programs. User may customize connections between units and modify architecture by adding new modules.

  19. Fault tolerant architectures for integrated aircraft electronics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, K. N.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Schwartz, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Work into possible architectures for future flight control computer systems is described. Ada for Fault-Tolerant Systems, the NETS Network Error-Tolerant System architecture, and voting in asynchronous systems are covered.

  20. The architecture and effect of participation: a systematic review of community participation for communicable disease control and elimination. Implications for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    resources are common and important elements of the success of the interventions in these studies. In addition, qualitative synthesis of all 60 papers elucidates the complex architecture of community participation for communicable disease control and elimination which is presented herein. Conclusions The current global malaria elimination campaign calls for a health systems strengthening approach to provide an enabling environment for programmes in developing countries. In order to realize the benefits of this approach it is vital to provide adequate investment in the 'people' component of health systems and understand the multi-level factors that influence their participation. The challenges of strengthening this component of health systems are discussed, as is the importance of ensuring that current global malaria elimination efforts do not derail renewed momentum towards the comprehensive primary health care approach. It is recommended that the application of the results of this systematic review be considered for other diseases of poverty in order to harmonize efforts at building 'competent communities' for communicable disease control and optimising health system effectiveness. PMID:21816085

  1. Architectural Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Alliance Wall Corporation's Whyteboard, a porcelain enamel on steel panels wall board, owes its color stability to a KIAC engineering background study to identify potential technologies and manufacturers of equipment which could be used to detect surface flaws. One result of the data base search was the purchase of a spectrocolorimeter which enables the company to control some 250 standard colors, and match special colors.

  2. Depositional architecture of a mixed travertine-terrigenous system in a fault-controlled continental extensional basin (Messinian, Southern Tuscany, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci, Andrea; Della Porta, Giovanna; Capezzuoli, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    The extensional Neogene Albegna Basin (Southern Tuscany, Italy) includes several thermogene travertine units dating from the Miocene to Holocene time. During the late Miocene (Messinian), a continental fault-controlled basin (of nearly 500-km2 width) was filled by precipitated travertine and detrital terrigenous strata, characterized by a wedge-shaped geometry that thinned northward, with a maximum thickness of nearly 70 m. This mixed travertine-terrigenous succession was investigated in terms of lithofacies types, depositional environment and architecture and the variety of precipitated travertine fabrics. Deposited as beds with thickness ranging from centimetres to a few decimetres, carbonates include nine travertine facies types: F1) clotted peloidal micrite and microsparite boundstone, F2) raft rudstone/floatstone, F3) sub-rounded radial coated grain grainstone, F4) coated gas bubble boundstone, F5) crystalline dendrite cementstone, F6) laminated boundstone, F7) coated reed boundstone and rudstone, F8) peloidal skeletal grainstone and F9) calci-mudstone and microsparstone. Beds of terrigenous deposits with thickness varying from a decimetre to > 10 m include five lithofacies: F10) breccia, F11) conglomerate, F12) massive sandstone, F13) laminated sandstone and F14) claystone. The succession recorded the following three phases of evolution of the depositional setting: 1) At the base, a northward-thinning thermogene travertine terraced slope (Phase I, travertine slope lithofacies association, F1-F6) developed close to the extensional fault system, placed southward with respect to the travertine deposition. 2) In Phase II, the accumulation of travertines was interrupted by the deposition of colluvial fan deposits with a thickness of several metres (colluvial fan lithofacies association, F10 and F12), which consisted of massive breccias, adjacent to the alluvial plain lithofacies association (F11-F14) including massive claystone and sandstone and channelized

  3. Circadian clock- and PIF4-controlled plant growth: a coincidence mechanism directly integrates a hormone signaling network into the photoperiodic control of plant architectures in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Yuji; Nomoto, Yuichi; Kubozono, Saori; Yamashino, Takafumi; Nakamichi, Norihito; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    The plant circadian clock generates rhythms with a period close to 24 h, and it controls a wide variety of physiological and developmental events, enabling plants to adapt to ever-changing environmental light conditions. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the clock regulates the diurnal and photoperiodic plant growth including the elongation of hypocotyls and petioles in a time-of-day-specific and short-day (SD)-specific manner. In this mechanism, the clock-regulated PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 gene encoding a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, together with phytochromes (mainly phyB), plays crucial roles. This diurnal and photoperiodic control of plant growth is best explained by the accumulation of the PIF4 protein at the end of the night-time specifically under SDs, due to coincidence between the internal (circadian rhythm) and external (photoperiod) cues. In this model, however, the PIF4-controlled downstream factors are not fully identified, although it has been generally proposed that the auxin-mediated signal transduction is crucially implicated. Here, we identified a set of hormone-associated genes as the specific PIF4 targets implicated in the photoperiodic control of plant growth. They include not only auxin-associated genes (GH3.5, IAA19 and IAA29), but also genes associated with other growth-regulating hormones such as brassinosteroids (BR6ox2), gibberellic acids (GAI), ethylene (ACS8) and cytokinin (CKX5). The dawn- and SD-specific expression profiles of these genes are modified in a set of phyB and clock mutants, both of which compromise the coincidence mechanism. The results of this study suggest that the circadian clock orchestrates a variety of hormone signaling pathways to regulate the photoperiod-dependent morphogenesis in A. thaliana.

  4. Distributing Planning and Control for Teams of Cooperating Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    2004-07-19

    This CRADA project involved the cooperative research of investigators in ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) with researchers at Caterpillar, Inc. The subject of the research was the development of cooperative control strategies for autonomous vehicles performing applications of interest to Caterpillar customers. The project involved three Phases of research, conducted over the time period of November 1998 through December 2001. This project led to the successful development of several technologies and demonstrations in realistic simulation that illustrated the effectiveness of our control approaches for distributed planning and cooperation in multi-robot teams. The primary objectives of this research project were to: (1) Develop autonomous control technologies to enable multiple vehicles to work together cooperatively, (2) Provide the foundational capabilities for a human operator to exercise oversight and guidance during the multi-vehicle task execution, and (3) Integrate these capabilities to the ALLIANCE-based autonomous control approach for multi-robot teams. These objectives have been successfully met with the results implemented and demonstrated in a near real-time multi-vehicle simulation of up to four vehicles performing mission-relevant tasks.

  5. Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

  6. The Planning Execution Monitoring Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Ly, Bebe; Crocker, Alan; Schreckenghost, Debra; Mueller, Stephen; Phillips, Robert; Wadsworth, David; Sorensen, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Planning Execution Monitoring (PEM) architecture is a design concept for developing autonomous cockpit command and control software. The PEM architecture is designed to reduce the operations costs in the space transportation system through the use of automation while improving safety and operability of the system. Specifically, the PEM autonomous framework enables automatic performance of many vehicle operations that would typically be performed by a human. Also, this framework supports varying levels of autonomous control, ranging from fully automatic to fully manual control. The PEM autonomous framework interfaces with the core flight software to perform flight procedures. It can either assist human operators in performing procedures or autonomously execute routine cockpit procedures based on the operational context. Most importantly, the PEM autonomous framework promotes and simplifies the capture, verification, and validation of the flight operations knowledge. Through a hierarchical decomposition of the domain knowledge, the vehicle command and control capabilities are divided into manageable functional "chunks" that can be captured and verified separately. These functional units, each of which has the responsibility to manage part of the vehicle command and control, are modular, re-usable, and extensible. Also, the functional units are self-contained and have the ability to plan and execute the necessary steps for accomplishing a task based upon the current mission state and available resources. The PEM architecture has potential for application outside the realm of spaceflight, including management of complex industrial processes, nuclear control, and control of complex vehicles such as submarines or unmanned air vehicles.

  7. High performance parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E. )

    1989-09-01

    In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Ground support system methodology and architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    A synergistic approach to systems test and support is explored. A building block architecture provides transportability of data, procedures, and knowledge. The synergistic approach also lowers cost and risk for life cycle of a program. The determination of design errors at the earliest phase reduces cost of vehicle ownership. Distributed scaleable architecture is based on industry standards maximizing transparency and maintainability. Autonomous control structure provides for distributed and segmented systems. Control of interfaces maximizes compatibility and reuse, reducing long term program cost. Intelligent data management architecture also reduces analysis time and cost (automation).

  9. Planning in subsumption architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalfant, Eugene C.

    1994-01-01

    A subsumption planner using a parallel distributed computational paradigm based on the subsumption architecture for control of real-world capable robots is described. Virtual sensor state space is used as a planning tool to visualize the robot's anticipated effect on its environment. Decision sequences are generated based on the environmental situation expected at the time the robot must commit to a decision. Between decision points, the robot performs in a preprogrammed manner. A rudimentary, domain-specific partial world model contains enough information to extrapolate the end results of the rote behavior between decision points. A collective network of predictors operates in parallel with the reactive network forming a recurrrent network which generates plans as a hierarchy. Details of a plan segment are generated only when its execution is imminent. The use of the subsumption planner is demonstrated by a simple maze navigation problem.

  10. Adaptive reconfigurable distributed sensor architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akey, Mark L.

    1997-07-01

    The infancy of unattended ground based sensors is quickly coming to an end with the arrival of on-board GPS, networking, and multiple sensing capabilities. Unfortunately, their use is only first-order at best: GPS assists with sensor report registration; networks push sensor reports back to the warfighter and forwards control information to the sensors; multispectral sensing is a preset, pre-deployment consideration; and the scalability of large sensor networks is questionable. Current architectures provide little synergy among or within the sensors either before or after deployment, and do not map well to the tactical user's organizational structures and constraints. A new distributed sensor architecture is defined which moves well beyond single sensor, single task architectures. Advantages include: (1) automatic mapping of tactical direction to multiple sensors' tasks; (2) decentralized, distributed management of sensor resources and tasks; (3) software reconfiguration of deployed sensors; (4) network scalability and flexibility to meet the constraints of tactical deployments, and traditional combat organizations and hierarchies; and (5) adaptability to new battlefield communication paradigms such as BADD (Battlefield Analysis and Data Dissemination). The architecture is supported in two areas: a recursive, structural definition of resource configuration and management via loose associations; and a hybridization of intelligent software agents with tele- programming capabilities. The distributed sensor architecture is examined within the context of air-deployed ground sensors with acoustic, communication direction finding, and infra-red capabilities. Advantages and disadvantages of the architecture are examined. Consideration is given to extended sensor life (up to 6 months), post-deployment sensor reconfiguration, limited on- board sensor resources (processor and memory), and bandwidth. It is shown that technical tasking of the sensor suite can be automatically

  11. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  12. Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS): Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA's current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  13. Chip architecture - A revolution brewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterl, F.

    1983-07-01

    Techniques being explored by microchip designers and manufacturers to both speed up memory access and instruction execution while protecting memory are discussed. Attention is given to hardwiring control logic, pipelining for parallel processing, devising orthogonal instruction sets for interchangeable instruction fields, and the development of hardware for implementation of virtual memory and multiuser systems to provide memory management and protection. The inclusion of microcode in mainframes eliminated logic circuits that control timing and gating of the CPU. However, improvements in memory architecture have reduced access time to below that needed for instruction execution. Hardwiring the functions as a virtual memory enhances memory protection. Parallelism involves a redundant architecture, which allows identical operations to be performed simultaneously, and can be directed with microcode to avoid abortion of intermediate instructions once on set of instructions has been completed.

  14. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  15. Software architecture design domain

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Software architectures can provide a basis for the capture and subsequent reuse of design knowledge. The goal of software architecture is to allow the design of a system to take place at a higher level of abstraction; a level concerned with components, connections, constraints, rationale. This architectural view of software adds a new layer of abstraction to the traditional design phase of software development. It has resulted in a flurry of activity towards techniques, tools, and architectural design languages developed specifically to assist with this activity. An analysis of architectural descriptions, even though they differ in notation, shows a common set of key constructs that are present across widely varying domains. These common aspects form a core set of constructs that should belong to any ADL in order to for the language to offer the ability to specify software systems at the architectural level. This analysis also revealed a second set of constructs which served to expand the first set thereby improving the syntax and semantics. These constructs are classified according to whether they provide representation and analysis support for architectures belonging to many varying application domains (domain-independent construct class) or to a particular application domain (domain-dependent constructs). This paper presents the constructs of these two classes, their placement in the architecture design domain and shows how they may be used to classify, select, and analyze proclaimed architectural design languages (ADLs).

  16. Evaluation of Computer-Aided System Design Tools for SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Battle Management/C3 (Command, Control and Communications) Architecture Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Ft. Meade, MD 20755-6000 Lee Cooper 1 copy Advanced Technology 2121 Crystal Drive, Suite 200 Arlington, VA 22202 Larry Cox I copy TRW 1950 Sunwest...Richmond Street Providence, RI 02903 " - Mr. Larry Christina, Jr. 1 copy Technology Branch, CSSD-H-SBY Battle Management Division U.S. Army Strategic...copy ’_ Advanced System Architectures Johnson House 73-79 Park Street GU 15 3PE, United Kingdom s. - .%° N. % S CSED Review Panel Dr. Dan Alpert

  17. A reference architecture for telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    The Telecare Interactive Continuous Monitoring System exploits GPRS to provide an ambulatory device that monitors selected vital signs on a continuous basis. Alarms are sent when parameters fall outside preset limits, and accompanying physiological data may also be transmitted. The always-connected property of GPRS allows continuous interactive control of the device and its sensors, permitting changes to monitoring parameters or even enabling continuous monitoring of a sensor in emergency. A new personal area network (PAN) has been developed to support short-range wireless connection to sensors worn on the body including ECG and finger worn SpO2. Most notable is use of ultra low radio frequency to reduce power to minimum. The system has been designed to use a hierarchical architecture for sensors and "derived" signals, such as HR from ECG, so that each can be independently controlled and managed. Sensors are treated as objects, and functions are defined to control aspects of behaviour. These are refined in order to define a generic set of abstract functions to handle the majority of functions, leaving a minimum of sensor specific commands. The intention is to define a reference architecture in order to research the functionality and system architecture of a telemonitoring system. The Telecare project is funded through a grant from the European Commission (IST programme).

  18. High volume data storage architecture analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A High Volume Data Storage Architecture Analysis was conducted. The results, presented in this report, will be applied to problems of high volume data requirements such as those anticipated for the Space Station Control Center. High volume data storage systems at several different sites were analyzed for archive capacity, storage hierarchy and migration philosophy, and retrieval capabilities. Proposed architectures were solicited from the sites selected for in-depth analysis. Model architectures for a hypothetical data archiving system, for a high speed file server, and for high volume data storage are attached.

  19. A computer architecture for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, D. R.; Saridis, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    The Theory of Intelligent Machines proposes a hierarchical organization for the functions of an autonomous robot based on the Principle of Increasing Precision With Decreasing Intelligence. An analytic formulation of this theory using information-theoretic measures of uncertainty for each level of the intelligent machine has been developed in recent years. A computer architecture that implements the lower two levels of the intelligent machine is presented. The architecture supports an event-driven programming paradigm that is independent of the underlying computer architecture and operating system. Details of Execution Level controllers for motion and vision systems are addressed, as well as the Petri net transducer software used to implement Coordination Level functions. Extensions to UNIX and VxWorks operating systems which enable the development of a heterogeneous, distributed application are described. A case study illustrates how this computer architecture integrates real-time and higher-level control of manipulator and vision systems.

  20. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.