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Sample records for multi-span rc railway

  1. Mode localization in multi-span beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, S. D.; Friedmann, P. P.; Bendiksen, O. O.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of numerous effects on mode localization in multi-span beams is investigated. Finite-element methods are used to study localization as a function of: Timoshenko beam effects; beam end conditions; span length, mass, and stiffness imperfection; viscous damping; axial force; transverse support and rotational coupling stiffness; and modeling resolution. Three configurations are studied, commencing with two different two-span models, and culminating in a ten-span configuration resembling lattice-type large space structures. Results indicate that, in addition to the ratio of imperfection to coupling stiffness being an important localization parameter, transverse support stiffness and Timoshenko beam effects greatly affect the tendency of a structure to exhibit localized modes.

  2. Structure-borne low-frequency noise from multi-span bridges: A prediction method and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X. D.; Wu, D. J.; Li, Q.; Botteldooren, D.

    2016-04-01

    Structure-borne noise from railway bridges at far-field points is an important indicator in environmental noise assessment. However, studies that predict structure-borne noise tend to model only single-span bridges, thus ignoring the sound pressure radiating from adjacent spans. To simulate the noise radiating from multi-span bridges induced by moving vehicles, the vibrations of a multi-span bridge are first obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) vehicle-track-bridge dynamic interaction simulation using the mode superposition method. A procedure based on the 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) boundary element method (BEM) is then presented to promote the efficiency of acoustical computation compared with the 3D BEM. The simulated results obtained from both the single-span and multi-span bridge models are compared with the measured results. The sound predictions calculated from the single-span model are accurate only for a minority of near-field points. In contrast, the sound pressures calculated from the multi-span bridge model match the measured results in both the time and frequency domains for all of the near-field and far-field points. The number of bridge spans required in the noise simulation is then recommended related to the distance between the track center and the field points of interest. The spatial distribution of multi-span structure-borne noise is also studied. The variation in sound pressure levels is insignificant along the length of the bridge, which validates the finding that the sound test section can be selected at an arbitrary plane perpendicular to the multi-span bridge.

  3. Damage detection in multi-span beams based on the analysis of frequency changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillich, G. R.; Ntakpe, J. L.; Abdel Wahab, M.; Praisach, Z. I.; Mimis, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    Crack identification in multi-span beams is performed to determine whether the structure is healthy or not. Among all crack identification methods, these based on measured natural frequency changes present the advantage of simplicity and easy to use in practical engineering. To accurately identify the cracks characteristics for multi-span beam structure, a mathematical model is established, which can predict frequency changes for any boundary conditions, the intermediate supports being hinges. This relation is based on the modal strain energy concept. Since frequency changes are relative small, to obtain natural frequencies with high resolution, a signal processing algorithm based on superposing of numerous spectra is also proposed, which overcomes the disadvantage of Fast Fourier Transform in the aspect of frequency resolution. Based on above-mentioned mathematical model and signal processing algorithm, the method of identifying cracks on multi-span beams is presented. To verify the accuracy of this identification method, experimental examples are conducted on a two-span structure. The results demonstrate that the method proposed in this paper can accurately identify the crack position and depth.

  4. Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides are localized to single extracytosolic segments in multi-span membrane glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Landolt-Marticorena, C; Reithmeier, R A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of mammalian multi-span (polytopic) membrane proteins showed that asparagine(N)-linked oligosaccharides are localized to single extracytosolic segments. In most membrane proteins this is because potential consensus sites for N-glycosylation (Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr, X not equal to Pro) are not found in multiple extracytosolic segments. In functional proteins where consensus N-glycosylation sites are contained within more than one extracytosolic segment, only the first segment contains N-linked carbohydrate. An exception is the alpha-subunit of the Na+ channel, which consists of a duplicated structure containing two glycosylated segments. The average size of established N-glycosylated loops connecting two transmembrane segments is 62 residues, with the smallest glycosylated loop being 33 residues in size. N-glycosylated sites are more highly conserved than non-glycosylated (primarily cytosolic) sites and are more common toward the N-terminus of the membrane domain of multi-span membrane proteins. The optimal conditions for glycosylation of consensus sites within an extracytosolic domain of a multi-span membrane protein are (i) the acceptor site is well-spaced (greater than 10 residues) from the transmembrane domain, (ii) the loop is greater than 30 residues in size and (iii) the segment is the first in the protein to contain a suitable extracytosolic consensus site. The localization of N-linked oligosaccharide chains to a single protein segment suggests either glycosylation of multiple loops may compromise protein folding or function, or only a single polypeptide domain can be optimally glycosylated during biosynthesis in vivo. PMID:8068013

  5. Seismic performance evaluation of multi-span existing masonry arch bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laterza, Michelangelo; D'Amato, Michele; Casamassima, Vito Michele

    2017-07-01

    Existing old masonry arch bridges represent an architectural and cultural heritage of inestimable value, assuming nowadays an important strategic role since most of them are still in service and link roads of primary importance for vehicular traffic. They were mostly built in the last century without considering any horizontal action, and nowadays are serving roads characterized by a transit loads certainly heavier and more frequent than the ones of past. Moreover, very often due to absence of maintenance and to weathering conditions, the elements deteriorate more and more with a consequent loss of integrity and reduction of their carrying capacity. In this paper the seismic assessment of an old multi span masonry arch bridge still in service is illustrated. Pushover analyses are performed with the aim to investigate the numerical model sensitivity and the influence on the global nonlinear response of the bridge components.

  6. Accurate Prediction of Contact Numbers for Multi-Spanning Helical Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bian; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Elizabeth Dong; Weiner, Brian E.; Fischer, Axel W.; Meiler, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of the three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins by computational methods is acknowledged as an unsolved problem. Accurate prediction of important structural characteristics such as contact number is expected to accelerate the otherwise slow progress being made in the prediction of 3D structure of proteins. Here, we present a dropout neural network-based method, TMH-Expo, for predicting the contact number of transmembrane helix (TMH) residues from sequence. Neuronal dropout is a strategy where certain neurons of the network are excluded from back-propagation to prevent co-adaptation of hidden-layer neurons. By using neuronal dropout, overfitting was significantly reduced and performance was noticeably improved. For multi-spanning helical membrane proteins, TMH-Expo achieved a remarkable Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.69 between predicted and experimental values and a mean absolute error of only 1.68. In addition, among those membrane protein–membrane protein interface residues, 76.8% were correctly predicted. Mapping of predicted contact numbers onto structures indicates that contact numbers predicted by TMH-Expo reflect the exposure patterns of TMHs and reveal membrane protein–membrane protein interfaces, reinforcing the potential of predicted contact numbers to be used as restraints for 3D structure prediction and protein–protein docking. TMH-Expo can be accessed via a Web server at www.meilerlab.org. PMID:26804342

  7. Phased-array cancellation of nonlinear FWM in coherent OFDM dispersive multi-span links.

    PubMed

    Nazarathy, Moshe; Khurgin, Jacob; Weidenfeld, Rakefet; Meiman, Yehuda; Cho, Pak; Noe, Reinhold; Shpantzer, Isaac; Karagodsky, Vadim

    2008-09-29

    We develop an analytic model of Coherent Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) propagation and detection over multi-span long-haul fiber links, comprehensively and rigorously analyzing the impairments due the combined effects of FWM, Dispersion and ASE noise. Consistent with prior work of Innoe and Schadt in the WDM context, our new closed-form expressions for the total FWM received power fluctuations in the wake of dispersive phase mismatch in OFDM transmission, indicate that the FWM contributions of the multitude of spans build-up on a phased-array basis. For particular ultra-long haul link designs, the effectiveness of dispersion in reducing FWM is far greater than previously assumed in OFDM system analysis. The key is having the dominant FWM intermodulation products due to the multiple spans, destructively interfere, mutually cancelling their FWM intermodulation products, analogous to operating at the null of a phased-array antenna system. By applying the new analysis tools, this mode of effectively mitigating the FWM impairment, is shown under specific dispersion and spectral management conditions, to substantially suppress the FWM power fluctuations. Accounting for the phased-array concept and applying the compact OFDM design formulas developed here, we analyzed system performance of a 40 Gbps coherent OFDM system, over standard G.652 fiber, with cyclic prefix based electronic dispersion compensation but no optical compensation along the link. The transmission range for 10-3 target BER is almost tripled from 2560 km to 6960 km, relative to a reference system performing optical dispersion compensation in every span (ideally accounting for FWM and ASE noise and the cyclic prefix overhead, but excluding additional impairments).

  8. Buckling mode localization in a multi-span periodic structure with a disorder in a single span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. W.; Elishakoff, Isaac; Starnes, J. H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the buckling mode localization in the periodic multi-span beam with disorder occurring in an arbitrary single span. The analytical finite difference calculus is used in conjunction with the conventional displacement method to derive the transcendental equations from which buckling load is calculated. The underlying treatment is general and the solution thus obtained is exact. Numerical results show that the buckling mode is highly localized in the vicinity of the disordered span of the beam.

  9. Buckling mode localization in a multi-span periodic structure with a disorder in a single span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. W.; Elishakoff, Isaac; Starnes, J. H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the buckling mode localization in the periodic multi-span beam with disorder occurring in an arbitrary single span. The analytical finite difference calculus is used in conjunction with the conventional displacement method to derive the transcendental equations from which buckling load is calculated. The underlying treatment is general and the solution thus obtained is exact. Numerical results show that the buckling mode is highly localized in the vicinity of the disordered span of the beam.

  10. Application of Numerical Simulation and Vibration Measurements for Seismic Damage Assessment of Railway Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehan, Fumiaki; Meguro, Kimiro

    In this study, the authors discuss methods to assess the future/actual damage to RC structures by using numerical simulations and vibration measurements. First, the applicability of the Applied Element Method (AEM) is examined as an assessment tool for the seismic performance of RC structures with/without retrofit. Cyclic loading tests and seismic response of RC structures are simulated. Next, a method to improve the accuracy of vibration diagnoses of earthquake damaged RC structures is discussed by using damage assessment criteria calculated with the AEM. The AEM could simulate the damage behavior of RC columns, jacketed RC columns and an actual railway viaduct. The change of natural frequencies due to damage to RC columns and an actual railway viaduct with steel jacket were also correctly estimated. Seismic performance check of structures and development of assessment criteria for damage inspection can be effectively done by the AEM.

  11. Maximum Stress Estimation Model for Multi-Span Waler Beams with Deflections at the Supports Using Average Strains

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Byung Kwan; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-01-01

    The safety of a multi-span waler beam subjected simultaneously to a distributed load and deflections at its supports can be secured by limiting the maximum stress of the beam to a specific value to prevent the beam from reaching a limit state for failure or collapse. Despite the fact that the vast majority of accidents on construction sites occur at waler beams in retaining wall systems, no safety monitoring model that can consider deflections at the supports of the beam is available. In this paper, a maximum stress estimation model for a waler beam based on average strains measured from vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), the most frequently used sensors in construction field, is presented. The model is derived by defining the relationship between the maximum stress and the average strains measured from VWSGs. In addition to the maximum stress, support reactions, deflections at supports, and the magnitudes of distributed loads for the beam structure can be identified by the estimation model using the average strains. Using simulation tests on two multi-span beams, the performance of the model is evaluated by estimating maximum stress, deflections at supports, support reactions, and the magnitudes of distributed loads. PMID:25831087

  12. Correlation of nonlinear noises from different spans in 100 Gb/s multi-span fiber optic lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyshev, V. A.; Leonov, A. V.; Nanii, O. E.; Novikov, A. G.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    The accumulation of nonlinear noise in multi-span communication lines was investigated by numerical modeling and experimentally for different values of accumulated dispersion at input of each span. One coherent 100G channel was investigated (wavelength 1549.32 nm, DWDM channel C35). It has been established that interaction of nonlinear noises from two different spans can be described by a correlation function that depends only on values of input dispersion for these spans. It confirms the idea that the nonlinear noise in a fiber optic line is formed mainly due to signal to signal interaction, and the influence of the signal to noise interaction can be neglected. The shape of correlation function was investigated by numerical modeling and experimentally, and its simple approximation was offered. The nonlinear noise in any multi-span line with arbitrary dispersion plan can be calculated based on the investigated correlation function for two spans. It was shown that in a compensated line the offered theoretical model based on correlation function corresponds well to simpler theoretical model based on superlinear dependence of total noise on number of spans.

  13. A coherent RC circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabelli, J.; Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2012-12-01

    We review the first experiment on dynamic transport in a phase-coherent quantum conductor. In our discussion, we highlight the use of time-dependent transport as a means of gaining insight into charge relaxation on a mesoscopic scale. For this purpose, we studied the ac conductance of a model quantum conductor, i.e. the quantum RC circuit. Prior to our experimental work, Büttiker et al (1993 Phys. Lett. A 180 364-9) first worked on dynamic mesoscopic transport in the 1990s. They predicted that the mesoscopic RC circuit can be described by a quantum capacitance related to the density of states in the capacitor and a constant charge-relaxation resistance equal to half of the resistance quantum h/2e2, when a single mode is transmitted between the capacitance and a reservoir. By applying a microwave excitation to a gate located on top of a coherent submicronic quantum dot that is coupled to a reservoir, we validate this theoretical prediction on the ac conductance of the quantum RC circuit. Our study demonstrates that the ac conductance is directly related to the dwell time of electrons in the capacitor. Thereby, we observed a counterintuitive behavior of a quantum origin: as the transmission of the single conducting mode decreases, the resistance of the quantum RC circuit remains constant while the capacitance oscillates.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and RC Circuit Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cock, Mieke De; Janssen, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Most introductory physics courses include a chapter on RC circuits in which the differential equations for the charging and discharging of a capacitor are derived. A number of papers in this journal describe lab experiments dealing with the measurement of different parameters in such RC circuits. In this contribution, we report on a lab experiment we developed for students majoring in pharmacy, using RC circuits to simulate a pharmacokinetic process.

  15. 18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Marine Railway #1, location in foreground; Marine Railway #2 (broken cradle) center; cradle for Marine Railway #3 on right. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  16. 53. Exterior view of marine railway complex with railway #3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Exterior view of marine railway complex with railway #3 in foreground, #2 middle, #1 back. Note rail/roller type (steel railway/steel wheels) - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  17. Pharmacokinetics and "RC" Circuit Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cock, Mieke; Janssen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses include a chapter on "RC" circuits in which the differential equations for the charging and discharging of a capacitor are derived. A number of papers in this journal describe lab experiments dealing with the measurement of different parameters in such "RC" circuits. In this contribution, we…

  18. Pharmacokinetics and "RC" Circuit Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cock, Mieke; Janssen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses include a chapter on "RC" circuits in which the differential equations for the charging and discharging of a capacitor are derived. A number of papers in this journal describe lab experiments dealing with the measurement of different parameters in such "RC" circuits. In this contribution, we…

  19. NEP facilities (LeRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetrone, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Electric Propulsion Research Building (no. 16) the Electric Power Laboratory (BLDG. 301); the Tank 6 Vacuum Facility; and test facilities for electric propulsion and LeRC.

  20. Modified LaRC(TM)-IA Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.; Hou, Tan H.; Working, Dennis C.

    1994-01-01

    Modified versions of thermoplastic polyimide LaRC(TM)-IA incorporate various amounts of additional, rigid moieties into backbones of LaRC(TM)-IA molecules. Modified versions more resistant to solvents and exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures, yet retain melt-flow processability of unmodified LaRC(TM)-IA.

  1. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  2. Marine railway system

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, W.N.

    1993-08-10

    A marine railway carriage is described, comprising: a lower frame having substantially parallel spaced sides and provided with railway wheels; an upper frame pivotally connected to the lower frame at spaced points adjacent the sides, respectively, on a transverse horizontal axis adjacent the normally forward end of the lower frame; spring means connected at the opposite ends thereof to the lower and upper frame, respectively, adjacent the normally rear end of the lower frame, and biasing the frames toward separation; and support means on the upper frame adapted to engage a boat.

  3. DC Cable for Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  4. Strategies for Railway Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovey, E. C.

    1996-05-01

    Strategies are much talked about, but frequently lack any substance. The general concepts of strategic planning are discussed and the need for it to have a focus, i.e., a clear objective, are emphasized. A structural approach to strategic plan development is advocated, with a definition of the relevant issues being a prerequisite for success. Strategies, however, must be flexible and constantly reviewed even though the measures of success are often blurred. Railway noise is clearly amenable to strategic planning, but the issues will vary depending on the objectives of the organization. It is evident that railway noise technology, application and development, while important, needs to be substantially supplemented by other factors such as logistics and management issues to form an effective strategy in this domain.

  5. [Problems of radiation hygiene in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Freĭman, E S

    1995-01-01

    Railway radiation hygiene is a modern trend of research. The main problems in this sphere are as follows: hygienic assessment of utilization of railway sources in railway objects; safe transportation of radioactive agents; prevention of accidents in railway transport; radiobiological examinations of workers, etc.

  6. Railway diesel crankcase lubricant

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Zoleski, B.H.; O'Rourke, R.L.

    1987-06-30

    A railway diesel crankcase lubricant composition is described comprising a diesel lubricating oil and from about 0.25 to 2.0 weight percent of minor amount of oxidation and corrosion inhibiting agent. The reaction product is of a polyoxyisopropylene diamine, diabasic acid anhydride and polyalkylene polyamine wherein: (i) reacting a dibasic acid anhydride with a polyoxyisopropylenediamine where x is a numeral of about 2 to about 50, forming a maleamic acid; (ii) reacting the maleamic acid with a polyalkylene polyamine, forming a condensate product and; (iii) recovering the condensate product.

  7. Railway switch transport model.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Martin; Prosen, Tomaž; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We propose a simple model of coupled heat and particle transport based on zero-dimensional classical deterministic dynamics, which is reminiscent of a railway switch whose action is a function only of the particle's energy. It is shown that already in the minimal three-terminal model, where the second terminal is considered as a probe with zero net particle and heat currents, one can find extremely asymmetric Onsager matrices as a consequence of time-reversal symmetry breaking of the model. This minimalistic transport model provides a better understanding of thermoelectric heat engines in the presence of time-reversal symmetry breaking.

  8. Computer-Based Experiments to Measure RC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Francis X.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that few electricity and magnetism experiments make use of computers for data acquisition. Reports on the use of a Vernier system for the measurement of the RC time constant for the charging and discharging of a capacitor. (CCM)

  9. Computer-Based Experiments to Measure RC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Francis X.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that few electricity and magnetism experiments make use of computers for data acquisition. Reports on the use of a Vernier system for the measurement of the RC time constant for the charging and discharging of a capacitor. (CCM)

  10. Static inelastic analysis of RC shear walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qin; Qian, Jiaru

    2002-06-01

    A macro-model of a reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall is developed for static inelastic analysis. The model is composed of RC column elements and RC membrane elements. The column elements are used to model the boundary zone and the membrane elements are used to model the wall panel. Various types of constitutive relationships of concrete could be adopted for the two kinds of elements. To perform analysis, the wall is divided into layers along its height. Two adjacent layers are connected with a rigid beam. There are only three unknown displacement components for each layer. A method called single degree of freedom compensation is adopted to solve the peak value of the capacity curve. The post-peak stage analysis is performed using a forced iteration approach. The macro-model developed in the study and the complete process analysis methodology are verified by the experimental and static inelastic analytical results of four RC shear wall specimens.

  11. LaRC(TM)-IA Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.

    1995-01-01

    Copolyimides modified versions of LaRC(TM)-IA thermoplastic polyimide formulated by incorporating moieties of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and, alternatively, isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride (IDPA) into LaRC(TM)-IA polymer backbones. Exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures and retain greater fractions of lower-temperature shear moduli at higher temperatures. Copolyimides spun into fibers or used as adhesives, molding powders, or matrix resins in many applications, especially in fabrication of strong, lightweight structural components of aircraft.

  12. 47 CFR 95.216 - (R/C Rule 16) Do I identify my R/C communications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 16) Do I identify my R/C communications? 95.216 Section 95.216 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service How to Operate An R/c...

  13. 78 FR 40268 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--BNSF Railway Company... June 26, 2013, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed a petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502 and 49 CFR Part 1121 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(2) to lease from BNSF Railway...

  14. 78 FR 2719 - BNSF Railway Company-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: Under 49 U.S.C.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company approximately...

  15. 77 FR 47922 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Northern Lines Railway, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Northern Lines Railway, Inc. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Northern Lines Railway, Inc. (NLR), has agreed to grant restricted local trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the rail lines owned by BNSF and...

  16. Computation of signal delays in RC networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Narendran, Paliath; Chaiken, Seth

    1993-01-01

    A model for signal delay computation in RC networks is presented. The strength of the paradigm is its generality and simplicity. The definition of delay is applicable to RC meshes with potential resistive attenuating paths to ground. The algorithms can also be applied to undriven circuits (static charge sharing) and circuits with initial charge. To compute the delays, each node in the network is explored locally to derive a system of sparse linear equations. The solutions of the system are delay values based on the Elmore time constant at each point in the circuit.

  17. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining whether...

  18. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining whether...

  19. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  20. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  1. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13... THE ACT § 202.13 Electric railways. (a) The Deputy General Counsel will require the submission of information pertaining to the history and operations of an electric railway with a view to determining...

  2. RC Circuits: Some Computer-Interfaced Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Pratibha; Verma, Mallika

    1994-01-01

    Describes a simple computer-interface experiment for recording the response of an RC network to an arbitrary input excitation. The setup is used to pose a variety of open-ended investigations in network modeling by varying the initial conditions, input signal waveform, and the circuit topology. (DDR)

  3. Analysis of cracked RC beams under vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozucca, R.; Magagnini, E.

    2017-05-01

    Among the methods of monitoring of integrity, vibration analysis is more convenient as non-destructive testing (NDT) method. Many aspects regarding the vibration monitoring of the structural integrity of damaged RC elements have not been completely analysed in literature. The correlation between the development of the crack pattern on concrete surface under bending loadings, as well as the width and depth of cracks, and the variation of dynamic parameters on a structural element is an important aspects that has to be more investigated. This paper deals with cracked RC beams controlled by NDT based on natural vibration, which may be correlated to damage degree due to cracking of concrete under severe state of loading. An experimental investigation on the assessment of RC beams in different scale under loading has been done through dynamic tests in different constraint conditions of edges measuring frequency values and frequency variation. Envelope of Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) are shown and the changes of natural frequency values are related to the damage degree of RC beams subjected to static tests. Finally, a comparison between data obtained by finite element analysis and experimental results is shown.

  4. Acoustic energy propagation around railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizkova, Petra

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of acoustic energy propagation around railways. The research subject was noise emission spreading into the surroundings during the passage of trains over a directly travelled steel bridge construction. Noise emissions were measured using direct measurements in the field. The measurements were performed in two measurement profiles. The noise exposures A LAE measured near the steel bridge construction were compared against the noise exposures A LAE captured on an open track. From the difference of these data, the noise level of the steel bridge structure was determined. Part of the research was to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction of the railway track superstructure on the acoustic situation in the given section of the railway track. The article describes the methodology of measurements, including the processing and evaluation of measured data. The article points out the noise levels of the steel bridge construction and assesses changes in the acoustic situation after the reconstruction.

  5. Analysis of coupling between high-speed railway and common speed railway system in transportation corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongchang; Li, Haijun; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhu, Changfeng

    2017-04-01

    The high-speed railway and common speed railway subsystems as important components of the railway transportation system, can make railway traffic organization more orderly, when there are a rational division and balance development between them. In order to quantitatively evaluate the coordinate relations between high-speed railway subsystem and common speed railway subsystem, this paper takes the railway transportation corridor from Baoji to Lanzhou as an example. Firstly, using Logit model and grey forecasting model predict the passenger volume, passenger turnover and time value of high-speed railway and common speed railway in the Baoji-Lanzhou corridor. And then, the coupling forecast model of these two subsystems is established. Lastly, the coupling and coupling coordination of these two subsystems using are predicted and analyzed at theatrically level.

  6. Seismic retroftting of RC columns with RC jackets and wing walls with different structural details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shuenn-Yih; Chen, Ting-Wei; Tran, Ngoc-Cuong; Liao, Wen-I.

    2014-06-01

    An original reinforced concrete (RC) column and four strengthened specimens, two with RC jackets and two with wing walls, were tested in this study. The original column specimen was designed to comply with older (pre-1999) design standards so that the usual detailing deficiencies in existing school buildings in Taiwan could be simulated. Two different structural details were chosen to fabricate the full-scale specimens for each retrofitting technique. The study confirmed that either RC jacketing or the installation of wing walls with two different structural details can effectively improve the stiffness and strength of an existing column. RC jacketing shows a better improvement in energy dissipation and ductility when compared to the columns with wing walls installed. This is because the two RC jacketed columns experienced a flexural failure, while a shear failure was found in the two columns with the wing walls installed, and thus led to a drastic decrease of the maximum lateral strengths and ductility. Since many factors may affect the installation of a post-installed anchor, it is better to use standard hooks to replace post-installed anchors in some specific points when using RC jacketing or installing wing walls.

  7. [Current state and prospects of development of railway hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Suvorov, S V

    1999-01-01

    Current planning in railway hygiene is conducted according to the special requirements of railway industry. Specific medical and prophylactic programs specified are on safety arrangements of railway workers, environmental protection in connection with intensive functioning of railways. The authors represent major prospective trends of research in occupational medicine and industrial ecology for railway transport.

  8. Instructor Training on British Railways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)

  9. Instructor Training on British Railways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    The value of instructor training was recognized by British Railways as early as 1950 with the setting up of a training center at Darlington. This article shows the results of this continuous training experience in the benefits to be obtained from re-appraisal techniques and practical work. (Author/EB)

  10. Measuring the RC time constant with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, N. S. A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we use the Arduino UNO R3 open source hardware platform to assemble an experimental apparatus for the measurement of the time constant of an RC circuit. With adequate programming, the Arduino is used as a signal generator, a data acquisition system and a basic signal visualisation tool. Theoretical calculations are compared with direct observations from an analogue oscilloscope. Data processing and curve fitting is performed on a spreadsheet. The results obtained for the six RC test circuits are within the expected interval of values defined by the tolerance of the components. The hardware and software prove to be adequate to the proposed measurements and therefore adaptable to a laboratorial teaching and learning context.

  11. Roads, railways, and childhood cancers

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100 m, tapering to neutral after 3.0 km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3‐butadiene. PMID:16415262

  12. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? 95.201 Section 95.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General...

  13. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? 95.201 Section 95.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General...

  14. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? 95.201 Section 95.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General...

  15. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? 95.201 Section 95.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General...

  16. 47 CFR 95.201 - (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false (R/C Rule 1) What is the Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service? 95.201 Section 95.201 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General...

  17. 47 CFR 95.221 - (R/C Rule 21) How do I have my R/C transmitter serviced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 21) How do I have my R/C transmitter serviced? 95.221 Section 95.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need...

  18. 47 CFR 95.221 - (R/C Rule 21) How do I have my R/C transmitter serviced?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false (R/C Rule 21) How do I have my R/C transmitter serviced? 95.221 Section 95.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need...

  19. 47 CFR 95.203 - (R/C Rule 3) Am I eligible to operate an R/C station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 3) Am I eligible to operate an R/C station? 95.203 Section 95.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General Provisions § 95...

  20. 47 CFR 95.214 - (R/C Rule 14) Who is responsible for R/C communications I make?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 14) Who is responsible for R/C communications I make? 95.214 Section 95.214 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service How to...

  1. Asymmetrical Integration: Lessons from a Railway Empire.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This article reexamines railway imperialism in Manchuria from the perspective of global network building. Through a case study of the Japanese-owned South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR), I trace how one railway empire used through traffic agreements to integrate Northeast Asian railways into a global network while at the same time installing itself as the necessary intermediary between European and Asian overland traffic. I argue that the SMR's pursuit of global reach and local dominance compels us to reconsider the traditional division of border-crossing railways into international and imperialist types, and instead to examine how border-crossing railways contributed to the uneven or "asymmetrical" integration of the global transportation infrastructure.

  2. 77 FR 64185 - BNSF Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), a Class I rail carrier, to acquire and operate a 120.4- mile...

  3. 3. Claremont Railway Bridge and Clement and Rossiter Store in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Claremont Railway Bridge and Clement and Rossiter Store in context, looking southeast - Claremont Railway Bridge, Spanning Sugar River at Claremont Railroad Company Line, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  4. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Hillsboro Extension, Between 185th Avenue & Hillsboro, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  5. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE, FACING NORTHWEST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Hillsboro Extension, Between 185th Avenue & Hillsboro, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  6. [Achievements and prospects in railway transport hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A

    1997-01-01

    A unique Institute of Railway Hygiene was created 70 years ago in Russia, one of the major railway countries in the world. Since then the Institute's staffers have carried out huge work on improvement of railway workers' health, prevention of their exposure to noise, unfavorable microclimate, vibration and other occupational hazards. Significant contribution into the world occupational hygiene was made by such Institute's professionals as S.F. Kazansky, P.I. Nikitin, A.M. Volkov and others.

  7. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  8. LaRC-ITPI/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Working, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop high performance structural resins for aerospace applications, work has continued on block copolymers containing imide and arylene ether segments. The arylene ether block used in this study contains a bulky fluorene group in the polymer backbone while the imide block contains an arylene ketone segment similar to that in the arylene ether block and has been named LaRC-ITPI. A series of imide/arylene ether block and segmented copolymers were prepared and characterized. Films were prepared from these copolymers and mechanical properties were measured.

  9. NASA/LaRC jet plume research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, John M.; Ponton, Michael K.; Manning, James C.

    1992-01-01

    The following provides a summary for research being conducted by NASA/LaRC and its contractors and grantees to develop jet engine noise suppression technology under the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The objective of this effort is to explore new innovative concepts for reducing noise to Federally mandated guidelines with minimum compromise on engine performance both in take-off and cruise. The research program is divided into four major technical areas: (1) jet noise research on advanced nozzles; (2) plume prediction and validation; (3) passive and active control; and (4) methodology for noise prediction.

  10. An Arduino Investigation of the RC Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeriu, Calin; Letson, Cheryl; Esper, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    The experimental investigation of the charging or discharging of a capacitor through a resistor is of fundamental importance to the study of electricity. Students taking the Physics SAT or the AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism test have to prove their knowledge of time-varying behavior in RC circuits. While the classical experiment is done using a voltmeter and a stopwatch, this procedure is tedious and prone to human errors. We have developed an alternative procedure in which the voltage, the current, and the time are all measured electronically with the help of an Arduino Uno microcontroller board.

  11. [Occupational morbidity of railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Karetskaia, T D; Pfaf, V F; Chernov, O E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present results of medical social monitoring of occupationalhazards that are the most prevalent in railway occupations workers, statistic data on occupational morbidity of railway transport workers over last 10 years. The article covers major causes of unfavorable effects resulting from occupational hazards in various workers categories. Dynamics of occupational morbidity parameters and its structure concerning separate nosologic entities are analyzed.

  12. 47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, and drive equipment for Railways #l and #2, Marine Railway Headhouse, ground floor, north end, drive gears in foreground, pulling gears for Railway # 1 in background. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  13. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  14. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  15. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  16. [Social and medical problems of occupational health of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, O N

    2000-01-01

    The article "Social and medical problems of healthcare in railway transport" presents principal factors influencing railway workers' health. The factors are those of social importance and influencing occupational suitability, general morbidity and morbidity with transitory disablement, disability in railway transport and its causes. The article shows therapeutic, sanitary and epidemiologic, social measures of prophylaxis for better work conditions and preservation of railway workers' health.

  17. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  18. 27 CFR 28.251 - Railway express receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway express receipts... § 28.251 Railway express receipts. Where the exportation is to a contiguous foreign country and the shipment is by railway express, a receipt issued by the railway express agency may be accepted in lieu...

  19. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  20. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Adams--Warnock Railway, Inc. (AWRY), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under ] 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate,...

  1. 76 FR 32265 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  2. 76 FR 32266 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  3. LaRC TPI 1500 series polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Bai, Jia-Mo

    1990-01-01

    The crystallization behavior and the melt flow properties of two batches of 1500 series LaRC-TPI polymers from Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals (MTC) were investigated. The characterization methods include Differential Scanning Calorimetry, the x ray diffractography and the melt rheology. The as-received materials possess initial crystalline melting peak temperatures of 295 and 305 C, respectively. These materials are less readily recrystallizable at elevated temperatures when compared to other semicrystalline thermoplastics. For the samples annealed at temperatures below 330 C, a semicrystalline polymer can be obtained. On the other hand, a purely amorphous structure is realized in the samples annealed at temperatures above 330 C. Isothermal crystallization kinetics were studied by means of the simple Avrami equation. The viscoelastic properties at elevated temperatures below and above glass transition temperature of the polymers were measured. Information with regard to the molecule sizes and distributions in these polymers were also extracted from melt rheology.

  4. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration.

    PubMed

    Ögren, Mikael; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Smith, Michael; Gustavsson, Sara; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.

  5. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Gustavsson, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s. PMID:28753921

  6. Sound radiation from railway sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianying; Thompson, David J.; Squicciarini, Giacomo

    2016-05-01

    The sleepers supporting the rails of a railway track are an important source of noise at low frequencies. The sound radiation from the sleepers has been calculated using a three-dimensional boundary element model including the effect of both reflective and partially absorptive ground. When the sleeper flexibility and support stiffness are taken into account, it is found that the radiation ratio of the sleeper can be approximated by that of a rigid half-sleeper. When multiple sleepers are excited through the rail, their sound radiation is increased. This effect has been calculated for cases where the sleeper is embedded in a rigid or partially absorptive ground. It is shown that it is sufficient to consider only three sleepers in determining their radiation ratio when installed in track. At low frequencies the vibration of the track is localised to the three sleepers nearest the excitation point whereas at higher frequencies the distance between the sleepers is large enough for them to be treated independently. Consequently the sound radiation increases by up to 5 dB below 100 Hz compared with the result for a single sleeper whereas above 300 Hz the result can be approximated by that for a single sleeper. Measurements on a 1/5 scale model railway track are used to verify the numerical predictions with good agreement being found for all configurations.

  7. A Mathematical Model for Railway Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. N.

    1996-01-01

    We present a general method for modeling safety aspects of railway control systems. Using our modeling method, one can progressively refine an abstract railway safety model, sucessively adding layers of detail about how a real system actually operates, while maintaining a safety property that refines the original abstract safety property. This method supports a top-down approach to specification of railway control systems and to proof of a variety of safety-related properties. We demonstrate our method by proving safety of the classical block control system.

  8. 47 CFR 95.209 - (R/C Rule 9) What equipment may I use at my R/C station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 9) What equipment may I use at my R/C station? 95.209 Section 95.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service How to Operate An R/c...

  9. 47 CFR 95.213 - (R/C Rule 13) May I be paid to use my R/C station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 13) May I be paid to use my R/C station? 95.213 Section 95.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service How to Operate An R/c...

  10. Vapreotide: BMY 41606, RC 160, Sanvar.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    Vapreotide [Octastatin, Sanvar, RC 160, BMY 41606] is a somatostatin analogue developed at Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA, which holds patent rights for vapreotide. Vapreotide provides a much higher metabolic stability than its parent compound. Vapreotide was licensed to Debiopharm for development in Europe. Vapreotide is usually administered SC although a slow-release IM formulation is also available. Other sustained-release formulations are under development. H3 Pharma plans to sign agreements for all indications in the core markets of North America, Europe and in non-core geographic regions during 2003. H3 Pharma will also seek to obtain registration and early market entry in non-core countries with help from partners. Sanvar Immediate Release (IR) has been submitted for approval within the European Union for the treatment of acute oesophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). Sanvar IR has been awarded orphan drug status in the US for EVB. In July 2003, H3 Pharma received written confirmation from the US FDA that the dossier for Sanvar is fileable for registration in the United States for the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). The Sanvar IR (immediate-release) formulation is expected to enter the US market by late 2004. H3 Pharma expects to file for Latin American registration for this indication in the second half of 2003, with registrations in other regions to follow. Sanvar SR has been submitted for Orphan Drug designation.

  11. Steel - Structural, reinforcing; Pressure vessel, railway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains specifications for structural steel used in various constructions; concrete reinforcement; plate and forgings for boilers and pressure vesseles; rails, axles, wheels and other accessories for railway service.

  12. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  13. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  14. The Second ICASE/LaRC Industry Roundtable: Session Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girimaji, Sharath

    1997-01-01

    The second ICASE/LaRC Industry Roundtable was held October 7-9, 1996 at the Williamsburg Hospitality House, Williamsburg, Virginia. Like the first roundtable in 1994, this meeting had two objectives: (1) to expose ICASE and LaRC scientists to industrial research agendas; and (2) to acquaint industry with the capabilities and technology available at ICASE, LaRC and academic partners of ICASE. Nineteen sessions were held in three parallel tracks. Of the 170 participants, over one third were affiliated with various industries. Proceedings from the different sessions are summarized in this report.

  15. Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at south end of east façade - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  16. Detail perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking east at south end of building - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  17. Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at north end of east façade - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  18. Perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at south end of building - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  19. Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial elevation view of the Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, view looking west at center of east façade - Oregon Trunk Railway Freight Depot, Southwest First Street & Cascade Avenue, Redmond, Deschutes County, OR

  20. The Marine Railway No. 2 looking toward 1461 Wharf, Facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Marine Railway No. 2 looking toward 1461 Wharf, Facility 233 is on the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. View westsouthwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west-southwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's edge to Facility 233 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 13. Steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, center; chain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, center; chain is in front of electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  4. 1. Claremont Railway Bridge, Main Street Bridge, and Clement and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Claremont Railway Bridge, Main Street Bridge, and Clement and Rossiter Store in context, looking west - Claremont Railway Bridge, Spanning Sugar River at Claremont Railroad Company Line, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  5. 2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTHWEST, GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RAILWAY CANAL TRUSS IN CENTER, RAILWAY RIVER TRUSS ON LEFT, HIGHWAY TRUSSES IN BACKGROUND - White Rock Bridge, Spanning Pawcatuck River & White Rock Canal, Westerly, Washington County, RI

  6. 57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tun Sam on the ways seen from Starboard Bow. Note rail/roller type (steel railway/steel wheels). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  7. 55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Exterior view of marine railway #4. BBW work Tug Sam on the ways seen from Port Bow. This was first railway built by BBW on site (Ca.1936). - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  8. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS IN RAISED POSITION. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. 37. Detail of pulling gear, electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Detail of pulling gear, electric powered Marine Railway Headhouse (1919), originally in Headhouse for Railway #2. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  10. 40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Exterior view of dockage, marine railway #4, and assembly building. Note BBW Tug Sam on railway and BBW-Built Stardust (#1) at end of dock. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 9. Detail, chains connecting to railway, leading into Building 24 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail, chains connecting to railway, leading into Building 24 and mechanical hauling equipment. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 12. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  14. 22. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  15. 18. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  16. 8. VIEW OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE FROM WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE FROM WEST SIDE OF 216TH AVENUE, FACING WEST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Hillsboro Extension, Between 185th Avenue & Hillsboro, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  17. 13. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  18. 15. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  19. 8. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  20. 24. July 1971 AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. July 1971 AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  1. 20. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  2. 9. VIEW OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE FROM WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE FROM WEST SIDE OF 216TH AVENUE, FACING NORTHWEST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Hillsboro Extension, Between 185th Avenue & Hillsboro, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  3. 11. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  4. 9. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  5. 27. Photocopied 1982 from Erie Railway Company files. ORIGINAL KINZUA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopied 1982 from Erie Railway Company files. ORIGINAL KINZUA VIADUCT, BEFORE 1900 RECONSTRUCTION - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  6. 16. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  7. 7. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  8. 7. VIEW OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE FROM EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF ROCK CREEK RAILWAY BRIDGE FROM EAST SIDE OF 216TH AVENUE, FACING WEST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Hillsboro Extension, Between 185th Avenue & Hillsboro, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  9. 17. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  10. 19. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  11. 14. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  12. 10. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  13. 23. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  14. 21. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. July 1971. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE II, ERIE RAILWAY SURVEY. - Erie Railway, Bradford Division, Bridge 27.66, Spanning Kinzua Creek Valley, 1.5 miles northeast of Kushequa, Mount Jewett, McKean County, PA

  15. 1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST DOWN MARKET STREET. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 4. END OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE, WHERE IT CROSSES NORTH OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. END OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE, WHERE IT CROSSES NORTH OVER MARKET STREET AND DESCENDS TO MEET SUBWAY AT 44TH STREET. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Analysis and optimization of RC delay in vertical nanoplate FET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Changbeom; Ko, Kyul; Kim, Jongsu; Kim, Minsoo; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed short channel effects (SCEs) and RC delay with Vertical nanoplate FET (VNFET) using 3-D Technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. The device is based on International Technology Road-map for Semiconductor (ITRS) 2013 recommendations, and it has initially gate length (LG) of 12.2 nm, channel thickness (Tch) of 4 nm, and spacer length (LSD) of 6 nm. To obtain improved performance by reducing RC delay, each dimension is adjusted (LG = 12.2 nm, Tch = 6 nm, LSD = 11.9 nm). It has each characteristic in this dimension (Ion/Ioff = 1.64 × 105, Subthreshold swing (S.S.) = 73 mV/dec, Drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) = 60 mV/V, and RC delay = 0.214 ps). Furthermore, with long shallow trench isolation (STI) length and thick insulator thickness (Ti), we can reduce RC delay from 0.214 ps to 0.163 ps. It is about a 23.8% reduction. Without decreasing drain current, there is a reduction of RC delay as reducing outer fringing capacitance (Cof). Finally, when source/drain spacer length is set to be different, we have verified RC delay to be optimum.

  18. 56. Detail of gear for Marine Railway #2, steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Detail of gear for Marine Railway #2, steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse, south end: hole in foreground is where gear now installed in Headhouse for Marine Railway #3 was removed. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  19. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  20. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  1. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  2. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  3. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section 202.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in...

  4. [Regional and local clusters of railway suicides].

    PubMed

    Erazo, N; Baumert, J; Ladwig, K-H

    2004-11-01

    Suicide research has identified regional and local clusters of increased suicide prevalence. As part of a comprehensive prevention strategy to fight railway suicides, we sought to identify such particular clusters on the German Railway net (total length 37,080 km) during a 6-year observation period (1997-2002). Data stem from the central registry of all person accidents on the German Railway net. During the observation period, a total of 5,731 suicides (in average 18 cases per week) were registered. Against expectation derived from distribution patterns in the general suicide research, we found a preponderance in the southern part compared to the northern part of Germany and a significant downward trend from west to east ( p=0.004). Most suicides occurred on open track (66%) compared to suicides at railway platforms (34%). We identified 16 places of high risk with 6 to 29 suicides per railway km. Of these high risk places, 75% were in the proximity of psychiatric hospitals. Increased awareness for regional and local suicide clusters, initiatives to reduce the accessibility and warning infra-red beams are among recommendations for suicide prevention derived from these data.

  5. [Whole-body vibration risk among operators in railway engines shunting ].

    PubMed

    Abbate, A; Saffioti, G; Malara, G; Licordari, P; Carrello, S; De Pasquale, D; Giorgianni, C

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the present note is to assess the risk from Whole-body vibration (WBV) in operators employed in the shunting of engines within the railway stations. The study has been conducted in the cockpits of the shunting engines used within the railway station of Villa S. Giovanni (RC). The measures have been taken through accelerometer IHVM 100 Larson-Davis, placed on the seat of each locomotives for a recording time of around 15 minutes. A standard measure has been effected besides, positioning the sensor on the floor of the same locomotives. The measurements indicate that the risk to these workers is negligible because in any case the value is exceeded action daily 0.5 m/s2, having recorded values range from 0.1 to 0.2 m / s2. In conclusion it holds him necessary, to the preventive goals, in respect to how much anticipated from the D.L.gs 187/05 the necessary technical, organizational and formative measures to the containment of the risk.

  6. An improved network model for railway traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Keping; Ma, Xin; Shao, Fubo

    In railway traffic, safety analysis is a key issue for controlling train operation. Here, the identification and order of key factors are very important. In this paper, a new network model is constructed for analyzing the railway safety, in which nodes are regarded as causation factors and links represent possible relationships among those factors. Our aim is to give all these nodes an importance order, and to find the in-depth relationship among these nodes including how failures spread among them. Based on the constructed network model, we propose a control method to ensure the safe state by setting each node a threshold. As the results, by protecting the Hub node of the constructed network, the spreading of railway accident can be controlled well. The efficiency of such a method is further tested with the help of numerical example.

  7. 47 CFR 95.220 - (R/C Rules 20) What must I do if the FCC tells me that my R/C station is causing interference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to Know § 95.220 (R/C Rules 20) What must I do if the...

  8. 47 CFR 95.220 - (R/C Rules 20) What must I do if the FCC tells me that my R/C station is causing interference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to Know § 95.220 (R/C Rules 20) What must I do if the...

  9. Overexpression of IL-17RC associated with ocular sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a systemic granulomatous disorder affecting multiple organs including the eye. Both CD4+ T cell and macrophage have been linked to the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods The expression of IL-17RC was measured using FACS,immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Serum level of IL-17 was detected using ELISA. Results An elevated expression of IL-17RC on CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood was found in patients with ocular sarcoidosis as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in the serum level of IL-17 in patients with ocular sarcoidosis as compared to healthy controls, which may be responsible for the induction of IL-17RC on CD8+ cells. In addition, IL-17RC appeared only in the retinal tissue of the patient with clinically active sarcoidosis. Conclusions Our results suggested a potential involvement of IL-17RC+CD8+ T cells in pathogenesis of ocular sarcoidosis. PMID:24885153

  10. 47 CFR 95.222 - (R/C Rule 22) May I make any changes to my R/C station transmitter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false (R/C Rule 22) May I make any changes to my R/C station transmitter? 95.222 Section 95.222 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... You Need to Know § 95.222 (R/C Rule 22) May I make any changes to my R/C station transmitter? (a)...

  11. 47 CFR 95.222 - (R/C Rule 22) May I make any changes to my R/C station transmitter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false (R/C Rule 22) May I make any changes to my R/C station transmitter? 95.222 Section 95.222 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... You Need to Know § 95.222 (R/C Rule 22) May I make any changes to my R/C station transmitter? (a)...

  12. 47 CFR 95.222 - (R/C Rule 22) May I make any changes to my R/C station transmitter?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 22) May I make any changes to my R/C station transmitter? 95.222 Section 95.222 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... You Need to Know § 95.222 (R/C Rule 22) May I make any changes to my R/C station transmitter? (a)...

  13. Railway safety climate: a study on organizational development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-09-07

    The safety climate of an organization is considered a leading indicator of potential risk for railway organizations. This study adopts the perceptual measurement-individual attribute approach to investigate the safety climate of a railway organization. The railway safety climate attributes are evaluated from the perspective of railway system staff. We identify four safety climate dimensions from exploratory factor analysis, namely safety communication, safety training, safety management and subjectively evaluated safety performance. Analytical results indicate that the safety climate differs at vertical and horizontal organizational levels. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence of the multilevel safety climate in a railway organization, presents possible causes of the differences under various cultural contexts and differentiates between safety climate scales for diverse workgroups within the railway organization. This information can be used to improve the safety sustainability of railway organizations and to conduct safety supervisions for the government.

  14. 47 CFR 95.223 - (R/C Rule 23) Do I have to make my R/C station available for inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to Know § 95.223 (R/C Rule 23) Do I have to make my R/C station available for...

  15. 47 CFR 95.223 - (R/C Rule 23) Do I have to make my R/C station available for inspection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... available for inspection? 95.223 Section 95.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to Know § 95.223 (R/C Rule 23) Do I have to make my R/C station available for...

  16. 47 CFR 95.217 - (R/C Rule 17) May I operate my R/C station transmitter by remote control?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitter by remote control? 95.217 Section 95.217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... control? (a) You may not operate an R/C transmitter by radio remote control. (See R/C Rule 12, § 95.212.) (b) You may operate an R/C transmitter by wireline remote control if you obtain specific approval in...

  17. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  18. Deformation Analysis of RC Ties Externally Strengthened with FRP Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribniak, V.; Arnautov, A. K.; Kaklauskas, G.; Jakstaite, R.; Tamulenas, V.; Gudonis, E.

    2014-11-01

    The current study has two objectives: to validate the ability of the Atena finite-element software to estimate the deformations of reinforced concrete (RC) elements strengthened with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and to assess the effect of FRP-to-concrete bond strength on the results of numerical simulation. It is shown that the bond strength has to be selected according to the overall stiffness of the composite element. The numerical results found are corroborated experimentally by tensile tests of RC elements strengthened with basalt FRP sheets.

  19. All Aboard the Information Super...Railway!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Frank, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    New information technology is viewed as analogous to a railway network that serves many, in diverse areas, and leads users to new frontiers. It is suggested that higher education can contribute to this system by developing useful new applications, providing guidelines for appropriate "passenger" behavior, and enhancing quality. (MSE)

  20. Perceived Stress among Malaysian Railway Workers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Elkalmi, Ramadan; Alshakka, Mohammed; Ghanem, Nizar

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress is a common work-related problem worldwide. Railway workers are predominantly stressed due to their rigid protocols and limited rest opportunities. This study aimed to determine the level of, and factors associated with, stress among railway workers in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 729 railway workers employed at Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) in eight states in Malaysia via a postal survey. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic characteristics and the validated Malay version of Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10). Response rate was 70.4% (513/729). Results Mean (SD) age of workers was 41.4 (10.7), with the majority aged 30 years or older (79.3%). Mean (SD) perceived stress was 18.8 (4.3). In multiple linear regression analysis, the significant predictors of high stress were high school versus tertiary education (β = 0.10, 95% CI 0.11, 1.73, P = 0.027) and being a white collar worker versus blue collar (β = 0.113, 95% CI 0.10, 1.74, P = 0.010). Conclusions Education level and type of work were significantly associated with perceived stress among railway workers in this study. PMID:27904423

  1. All Aboard the Information Super...Railway!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Frank, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    New information technology is viewed as analogous to a railway network that serves many, in diverse areas, and leads users to new frontiers. It is suggested that higher education can contribute to this system by developing useful new applications, providing guidelines for appropriate "passenger" behavior, and enhancing quality. (MSE)

  2. Reactions to railway noise in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T. V.; Kühl, K.; Relster, E.

    1983-03-01

    People's reactions to railway noise were studied along seven Danish railway lines with traffic intensities from 30 to about 300 trains per 24 hours. The calculated sound levels varied between 43 and 71 dB(A) for LAeq,24h and between 78 and 102 sB(A) for LAmax . 615 persons were interviewed. One third of these felt strongly or somewhat annoyed by the railway noise. The relations between the noise level and the extent of annoyance or various kinds of behaviour (telephone conversation, TV-listening, opening of windows, sleep, etc.) were found. The relations were found for both LAeq,24h and LAmax , but the correlation for LAmax is generally bad. Noise in the evenings was found to be more annoying than noise in other daytime periods. More than half of the interviewees answered that goods trains especially were a problem. People exposed to noise at their place of work seem to feel more annoyed by railway noise than other people.

  3. Perceived Stress among Malaysian Railway Workers.

    PubMed

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Elkalmi, Ramadan; Alshakka, Mohammed; Ghanem, Nizar

    2016-09-01

    Stress is a common work-related problem worldwide. Railway workers are predominantly stressed due to their rigid protocols and limited rest opportunities. This study aimed to determine the level of, and factors associated with, stress among railway workers in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among all 729 railway workers employed at Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) in eight states in Malaysia via a postal survey. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic characteristics and the validated Malay version of Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10). Response rate was 70.4% (513/729). Mean (SD) age of workers was 41.4 (10.7), with the majority aged 30 years or older (79.3%). Mean (SD) perceived stress was 18.8 (4.3). In multiple linear regression analysis, the significant predictors of high stress were high school versus tertiary education (β = 0.10, 95% CI 0.11, 1.73, P = 0.027) and being a white collar worker versus blue collar (β = 0.113, 95% CI 0.10, 1.74, P = 0.010). Education level and type of work were significantly associated with perceived stress among railway workers in this study.

  4. Involvement of Two Plasmids in the Degradation of Carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. Strain RC100

    PubMed Central

    Hayatsu, Masahito; Hirano, Motoko; Nagata, Tadahiro

    1999-01-01

    A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah−) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat−) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah− mutants or Nat− mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes. PMID:10049857

  5. The establishment of the safety factors system of railway operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Xiao, Xuemei; Xie, Wei

    2011-12-01

    In order to prevent accidents and improve the safety level of the railway operations, based on the statistical analysis of railway operation accidents at home and abroad over the years, the safety factors set of railway operation was built in the paper by researching the evolution laws of human, equipment, environment and management in railway transport system. And then, through analyzing the interaction relationships of safety factors from the systematic view, a network which reflected the complex interaction relationships between the safety factors was established, and based on ISM (Interpretative Structural Modeling) method, a hierarchical structure model of safety factors of railway operation in which the complex interaction relationships were divided hierarchically as to explain the deep causes of the railway accidents, then a comprehensive safety factors system of railway operations was established, in order to control and prevent the railway operation accident, to lay the foundation for quantitative analysis and prediction of railway operation accident, and to guide the scientific safety management of railway operation.

  6. The establishment of the safety factors system of railway operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Xiao, Xuemei; Xie, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents and improve the safety level of the railway operations, based on the statistical analysis of railway operation accidents at home and abroad over the years, the safety factors set of railway operation was built in the paper by researching the evolution laws of human, equipment, environment and management in railway transport system. And then, through analyzing the interaction relationships of safety factors from the systematic view, a network which reflected the complex interaction relationships between the safety factors was established, and based on ISM (Interpretative Structural Modeling) method, a hierarchical structure model of safety factors of railway operation in which the complex interaction relationships were divided hierarchically as to explain the deep causes of the railway accidents, then a comprehensive safety factors system of railway operations was established, in order to control and prevent the railway operation accident, to lay the foundation for quantitative analysis and prediction of railway operation accident, and to guide the scientific safety management of railway operation.

  7. The development of railway safety in Finland.

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Kallberg, Veli-Pekka

    2012-03-01

    This study reviews the development of railway safety in Finland from 1959 to 2008. The results show that the level of safety has greatly improved over the past five decades. The total number of railway fatalities did not show any obvious decreasing or increasing trend during the first decade, but since the early 1970s the annual number of fatalities has decreased from about 100 to 20. The estimated overall annual reduction per year from 1970 to 2008 was 5.4% (with a 95% confidence interval from -8.2% to -2.6%). The reduction in subcategories per million train-kilometres from 1959 to 2008 was 4.4% per year for passengers, 8.3% for employees, 5.0% for road users at level crossings and 3.6% for others (mainly trespassers). The safety improvement for passengers and staff was probably influenced by the introduction of central locking of doors in passenger cars and improved procedures to protect railway employees working on the tracks. The number of road users killed at level crossings has fallen due to the installation of barriers and the construction of overpasses and underpasses at crossings with dense traffic, removal of level crossings, and an improvement of conditions such as visibility at crossings. The number of trespasser fatalities has seen the least decline. Key plans for the future include further reduction of the number of level crossings on the state railway network from the current roughly 3500-2200 by 2025, and involving communities in safety work related to railway trespassers.

  8. Langley Research Center - Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, David

    1995-01-01

    This report is about experimenting and developing uses for the new thermal plastic developed by Dr. Robert Bryant called the 'Langley Research Center - Soluble Imide' (LaRC-SI). The three developments are: the use of the LaRC-SI as a dielectric for thin film sensors, as an adhesive to place diamonds on surfaces to increase thermal conductivity, and as an intermediate layer to allow the placement of metal on aluminum nitride. The LaRC-SI was developed by Dr. Robert G. Bryant, a chemical engineer at NASA Langley Research Center. The unique properties of this material is that it is an amorphous thermoplastic. This means that it can be reformed at elevated temperature and pressures. It can be applied in the form of a spray, spin, dip coating, paint, or spread with a doctors blade. The LaRC-SI has excellent adhesive and dielectric properties. It can also be recycled. Potential applications for this material are resin for mechanical parts such as gears, bearings and valves, advanced composites like carbon fiber, high strength adhesives, thin film circuits, and as a dielectric film for placing electrical components on conductive materials.

  9. LaRC local area networks to support distributed computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, E. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Local Area Network (LAN) effort is discussed. LaRC initiated the development of a LAN to support a growing distributed computing environment at the Center. The purpose of the network is to provide an improved capability (over inteactive and RJE terminal access) for sharing multivendor computer resources. Specifically, the network will provide a data highway for the transfer of files between mainframe computers, minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers. An important influence on the overall network design was the vital need of LaRC researchers to efficiently utilize the large CDC mainframe computers in the central scientific computing facility. Although there was a steady migration from a centralized to a distributed computing environment at LaRC in recent years, the work load on the central resources increased. Major emphasis in the network design was on communication with the central resources within the distributed environment. The network to be implemented will allow researchers to utilize the central resources, distributed minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers to obtain the proper level of computing power to efficiently perform their jobs.

  10. The RC Circuit--A Multipurpose Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Herbert T.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an experiment that demonstrates the use of Kirchoff's rules in the analysis of electrical circuits. The experiment also involves the solution of a linear nonhomogeneous differential equation that is slightly different from the standard one for the simple RC circuit. (ZWH)

  11. Troika partnership model for licensing NASA-LaRC technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclin, Arlene P.

    1995-01-01

    The Technology Applications (TAG) Group at NASA Langley Research Center has currently more than 100 technologies that are ripe for commercialization. These technologies are categorized by various sectors including: Energy and the Environment; Materials and Structures; Manufacturing; Information and Communications; Transportation, and Medical/Sensor/ Instrumentation. A requirement that TAG has placed on all technologies ready for licensing is that there will be some university involvement in the technology transfer or knowledge transfer process. This model involves the troika of government (LaRC), industry and university. A number of variations on the Troika Partnership Model (TPM) were developed as a part of this ASEE Fellowship. Furthermore, five technologies were identified - three of which industrial interests have been matched: LaRC-SI, a thermoplastic that can be used as a coating; Variable Geometry Truss Manipulator Arm that can be used for nuclear waste clean -up and as scaffolding; and ADAPT (Approach to Data Management, Archive Protection, and Transmission) is a technology that could be used for a variety of multi-tasking operations over the Internet. The aim of this work was to initiate a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for at least one of these technologies using one of the options of the TPM. A preliminary partnership agreement using the SAA is currently being negotiated with NASA-LaRC, VPI and Virginia Power for the LaRC-SI thermoplastic that will be used as a coating.

  12. Bayesian Model Comparison for the Order Restricted RC Association Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliopoulos, G.; Kateri, M.; Ntzoufras, I.

    2009-01-01

    Association models constitute an attractive alternative to the usual log-linear models for modeling the dependence between classification variables. They impose special structure on the underlying association by assigning scores on the levels of each classification variable, which can be fixed or parametric. Under the general row-column (RC)…

  13. Troika partnership model for licensing NASA-LaRC technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclin, Arlene P.

    1995-01-01

    The Technology Applications (TAG) Group at NASA Langley Research Center has currently more than 100 technologies that are ripe for commercialization. These technologies are categorized by various sectors including: Energy and the Environment; Materials and Structures; Manufacturing; Information and Communications; Transportation, and Medical/Sensor/ Instrumentation. A requirement that TAG has placed on all technologies ready for licensing is that there will be some university involvement in the technology transfer or knowledge transfer process. This model involves the troika of government (LaRC), industry and university. A number of variations on the Troika Partnership Model (TPM) were developed as a part of this ASEE Fellowship. Furthermore, five technologies were identified - three of which industrial interests have been matched: LaRC-SI, a thermoplastic that can be used as a coating; Variable Geometry Truss Manipulator Arm that can be used for nuclear waste clean -up and as scaffolding; and ADAPT (Approach to Data Management, Archive Protection, and Transmission) is a technology that could be used for a variety of multi-tasking operations over the Internet. The aim of this work was to initiate a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for at least one of these technologies using one of the options of the TPM. A preliminary partnership agreement using the SAA is currently being negotiated with NASA-LaRC, VPI and Virginia Power for the LaRC-SI thermoplastic that will be used as a coating.

  14. Bayesian Model Comparison for the Order Restricted RC Association Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliopoulos, G.; Kateri, M.; Ntzoufras, I.

    2009-01-01

    Association models constitute an attractive alternative to the usual log-linear models for modeling the dependence between classification variables. They impose special structure on the underlying association by assigning scores on the levels of each classification variable, which can be fixed or parametric. Under the general row-column (RC)…

  15. Mechanics Model for Simulating RC Hinges under Reversed Cyclic Loading

    PubMed Central

    Shukri, Ahmad Azim; Visintin, Phillip; Oehlers, Deric J.; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2016-01-01

    Describing the moment rotation (M/θ) behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) hinges is essential in predicting the behavior of RC structures under severe loadings, such as under cyclic earthquake motions and blast loading. The behavior of RC hinges is defined by localized slip or partial interaction (PI) behaviors in both the tension and compression region. In the tension region, slip between the reinforcement and the concrete defines crack spacing, crack opening and closing, and tension stiffening. While in the compression region, slip along concrete to concrete interfaces defines the formation and failure of concrete softening wedges. Being strain-based, commonly-applied analysis techniques, such as the moment curvature approach, cannot directly simulate these PI behaviors because they are localized and displacement based. Therefore, strain-based approaches must resort to empirical factors to define behaviors, such as tension stiffening and concrete softening hinge lengths. In this paper, a displacement-based segmental moment rotation approach, which directly simulates the partial interaction behaviors in both compression and tension, is developed for predicting the M/θ response of an RC beam hinge under cyclic loading. Significantly, in order to develop the segmental approach, a partial interaction model to predict the tension stiffening load slip relationship between the reinforcement and the concrete is developed. PMID:28773430

  16. LeRC in-house experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: LeRC in-house experimental research; combustion concepts; schedule for in-house experiments; lean premixed prevaporized combustion; comparisons of low NO(x) lean premixed/prevaporized data; rich burn/quick quench/lean burn (RQL); RQL combustion; fuel rich catalytic combustion; advanced diagnostics; and ceramic matrix liner test rig.

  17. Color Vision and the Railways: Part 1. The Railway LED Lantern Test.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; Casolin, Armand; Long, Jennifer; Hilmi, Mohd Radzi

    2015-02-01

    Lantern tests and practical tests are often used in the assessment of prospective railway employees. The lantern tests rarely embody the actual colors used in signaling on the railways. Practical tests have a number of problems, most notably consistency of application and practicability. This work was carried out to provide the Railway LED Lantern Test (RLLT) as a validated method of assessing the color vision of railway workers. The RLLT, a simulated practical test using the same LEDs (light-emitting diodes) as are used in modern railway signals, was developed. It was tested on 46 color vision-normal (CVN) and 37 color vision-deficient (CVD) subjects. A modified prototype was then tested on 106 CVN subjects. All 106 CVN subjects and most mildly affected CVD subjects passed the modified lantern at 3 m. At 6 m, 1 of the 106 normal color vision subjects failed by missing a single red light. All the CVD subjects failed. The RLLT carried out at 3 m allowed mildly affected CVD subjects to pass and demonstrate adequate color vision for the less demanding railway tasks. Carried out at 6 m, it essentially reinforced normal color vision as the standard. The RLLT is a simply administered test that has a direct link to the actual visual task of the rail worker. The RLLT lantern has been adopted as an approved test in the Australian National Standard for Health Assessment of Rail Safety Workers in place of a practical test. It has the potential to be a valid part of any railway color vision standard.

  18. Cost-analysis comparison of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy (RC) vs open RC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard; Chughtai, Bilal; Herman, Michael; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Scherr, Douglas S

    2011-09-01

    • To systematically review and compare the economic burden of open radical cystectomy (ORC) vs robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy (RALRC) with pelvic lymph node dissection and urinary diversion. • A Medline search was conducted to identify English language articles regarding RC with urinary diversion. The resulting articles were then further restricted by the terms 'laparoscopic', 'robotic', or 'robotic-assisted'.In all, three articles were identified. • Data from each of these articles were then collected on cost performance in addition to relevant clinical variables, such as length of stay (LOS), operative duration, and complication rates. • When possible, data were subdivided by ileal conduit (IC), continent cutaneous diversion (CCD), and orthotopic neobladder (ON) subgroups. • Direct costs resulting from ORC or RALRC with accompanying hospitalization were identified. The indirect costs of complications were considered. • Despite an increased materials cost, RALRC was less expensive than ORC when the cost of complications was considered. • RALRC was less expensive than ORC for IC and CCD, but the cost advantage deteriorated for ON. • The largest cost drivers cited in the published data were LOS, operative durations, and daily hospitalizations costs. • RALRC demonstrated shorter LOS compared with ORC, although this effect was insufficient to offset the increased cost of robotic surgery. • Complications materially affected cost performance. • Despite an increased materials cost, RALRC can be more cost efficient than ORC as a treatment for bladder cancer when the impact of complications are considered. • This effect is most pronounced for patients undergoing IC. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  19. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    PubMed

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  20. 6. VIEW OF RAILWAY BRIDGE ABUTMENT OVER 216TH AVENUE, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF RAILWAY BRIDGE ABUTMENT OVER 216TH AVENUE, FACING NORTHEAST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Hillsboro Extension, Between 185th Avenue & Hillsboro, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  1. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  2. Railway vehicle performance optimisation using virtual homologation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, H.; Madeira, J. F. A.; Ambrósio, J.; Pombo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Unlike regular automotive vehicles, which are designed to travel in different types of roads, railway vehicles travel mostly in the same route during their life cycle. To accept the operation of a railway vehicle in a particular network, a homologation process is required according to local standard regulations. In Europe, the standards EN 14363 and UIC 518, which are used for railway vehicle acceptance, require on-track tests and/or numerical simulations. An important advantage of using virtual homologation is the reduction of the high costs associated with on-track tests by studying the railway vehicle performance in different operation conditions. This work proposes a methodology for the improvement of railway vehicle design with the objective of its operation in selected railway tracks by using optimisation. The analyses required for the vehicle improvement are performed under control of the optimisation method global and local optimisation using direct search. To quantify the performance of the vehicle, a new objective function is proposed, which includes: a Dynamic Performance Index, defined as a weighted sum of the indices obtained from the virtual homologation process; the non-compensated acceleration, which is related to the operational velocity; and a penalty associated with cases where the vehicle presents an unacceptable dynamic behaviour according to the standards. Thus, the optimisation process intends not only to improve the quality of the vehicle in terms of running safety and ride quality, but also to increase the vehicle availability via the reduction of the time for a journey while ensuring its operational acceptance under the standards. The design variables include the suspension characteristics and the operational velocity of the vehicle, which are allowed to vary in an acceptable range of variation. The results of the optimisation lead to a global minimum of the objective function in which the suspensions characteristics of the vehicle are

  3. Buy or Lease Cost Model - Selected Railway Equipment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    applications; specifically, there is no adequate buy or lease cost model applicable to railway car acquisition for the Defense Freight Railway Interchange...it would be less costly to lease cars rather than buy them. Lease/ buy calculations are labor intensive, and do not easily permit the sensitivity...corpora- tion using railway tank cars observes that their calculations always favor buy over lease options. To compensate for non-quantitative costs and

  4. Sensory Evaluation of Ride on Railway Vehicle Using Motion Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Takehara, Shoichiro; Sasaki, Koichi; Suda, Yoshihiro; Koga, Takaaki

    Sensory evaluation of ride on a railway vehicle is performed based on international standards such as ISO2631. However, it is expected that this evaluation would be insufficient because of the development of technologies of a railway vehicle. The evaluation for view and sound from the viewpoint of ergonomic and psychological perspectives might be needed as well as traditional evaluations in the future. Authors focused on the relation between view and motion of the railway vehicle. The experiment in sensory evaluation of ride on a railway vehicle using a motion simulator was performed. In this paper, the way and results of the experiment and the environmental psychological analysis are described.

  5. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Combination Smokestack, Water Tank & Privies, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  6. Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Brick Storage Vaults under Jones Street, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  7. [Current problems of occupational morbidity on the railway transport].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Kameneva, E A; Artemenkov, Iu M; Glebova, G M

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the present working conditions on railway transport, by using the results of employee rating, characterizes railway services showing the greatest magnitude of adverse and dangerous factors of working conditions. It also characterizes occupational morbidity in railway transport workers over 5 years (1999-2003) and by hazards problems of occupational morbidity and by basic services: locomotive, wagon, and track ones. The paper also presents the rates of disability due to occupational diseases, characterizes the priorities of prevention of occupational diseases on the railway transport.

  8. Railway-controller-perceived competence in incidents and accidents.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Railway controllers play a pivotal role in service recovery of normal rail system operations when incidents and accidents occur. Those in this position must have sufficient competence to overcome task difficulties caused by accident uncertainties. This study adopts Taiwan's railway system as a case study to diagnose railway-controller-perceived competence when facing diverse tasks during incidents and accidents that are derived from a proposed conceptual model. Railway-controller-perceived competence is measured using the Rasch model. Analytical results indicate that working with an external rescue agency handling a rescue operation, explanations to the public, and communication with an external rescue agency are considered the most troublesome tasks. Additionally, railway-controller-perceived competence differs based on the work experience. This information will prove useful for rail system operators and government regulators when designing and regulating railway controller competence management systems. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study presents a systematic approach for examining the gap between railway-controller-perceived competence and task difficulties associated with incidents and accidents. The relevance of findings encompasses the effects of transportation ergonomics and railway issues on the problem-solving competence and decision-making skills of railway controllers, and the competence management system.

  9. The noise factor in railway locomotives.

    PubMed

    Rotter, T

    1982-09-01

    This article concerns the problem of acoustic work conditions on railway locomotives. The objective results of sonometric surveys in locomotive cabins are compared with subject data received from locomotive crews obtained by means of a specific questionnaire 'The Subjective Estimation of Noise'. The analysis touched 9 type of locomotives; steam, diesel and electric engines. We asked drivers of different age groups and with varying lengths of professional service for their opinions The aim of the investigation was to determine the following points: 1. to analyse the drivers' subjective estimation of the noise in the locomotive cabins; 2. to define length of time for which the driver remains under the influence of the noise after finishing work; 3. to investigate the question of perception and understanding of sounds and vocal signals used in the locomotive. These problems are a small part of the general plan to improve work conditions on the Polish National Railways.

  10. 47 CFR 95.204 - (R/C Rule 4) Do I need a license?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false (R/C Rule 4) Do I need a license? 95.204... SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General Provisions § 95.204 (R/C Rule 4) Do I need a license? You do not need an individual license to operate an R/C station. You...

  11. 47 CFR 95.204 - (R/C Rule 4) Do I need a license?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 4) Do I need a license? 95.204... SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General Provisions § 95.204 (R/C Rule 4) Do I need a license? You do not need an individual license to operate an R/C station. You...

  12. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  13. Power storage system for electric railway

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to a power storage system for electric railway which comprises a motor-generator connected to a power system for feeding an electric vehicle with electric power, and a flywheel coupled to the motor-generator, and in which the motor-generator is allowed to store the electric power and thereafter discharge it in correspondence with approach of the electric vehicle to a predetermined running section and running thereof in the section.

  14. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  15. 47 CFR 95.211 - (R/C Rule 11) What communications may be transmitted?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 11) What communications may be transmitted? 95.211 Section 95.211 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service How to Operate An R/c...

  16. 47 CFR 95.202 - (R/C Rule 2) How do I use these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 2) How do I use these rules? 95.202 Section 95.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service General Provisions § 95.202 (R/C Rule 2...

  17. 47 CFR 95.210 - (R/C Rule 10) How much power may I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 10) How much power may I use? 95.210 Section 95.210 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service How to Operate An R/c Station § 95.210...

  18. 47 CFR 95.212 - (R/C Rule 12) What communications are prohibited?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than for operation of devices at remote locations (no voice, telegraphy, etc.); (c) To intentionally interfere with another station's transmissions; (d) To operate another R/C transmitter by remote control... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service How to Operate An R/c...

  19. Rotational equations usable for railway wheelsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Jean-Pierre; Marquis, Brian

    2014-03-01

    The Euler equation is a correct way for writing rotational moments of solids. But it is simple only if written in rotating frames. Applying it to railway wheelsets is difficult because it necessitates using the Euler angles, or Euler parameters, combined to rotation matrices or, numerically more stable, quaternions. Euler angles can be avoided in railway specific codes, by writing dynamical equations in track frames. However, academic literature [Landau LD, Lifshitz EM. Mechanics (Institute of Physical Problems, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow), Vol. 1, Course of theoretical physics. 21st English ed. Oxford (UK): Elsevier; 1960; Shabana AA, Zaazaa KE, Sugiyama H. Railroad vehicle dynamics. CRC Press; 2008.] does not provide simple solutions as to how properly writing equations of gyroscopic moments in no rotating frames. This paper describes how it is possible, owing to an approximation validated for railway applications, to avoid Euler angles and rotation matrices, while correctly taking into account gyroscopic effects. Using a most severe example, emphasising gyroscopic effects, it is demonstrated that a fast specific code using the approximation provides results equivalent to those of an multi body system generalised code with no approximation.

  20. Active electrorheological damper for railway vehicle couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, F.; Tanaka, M.; Nagao, N.; Hayase, T.; Chonan, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the development of an active damper for the couplers of railway vehicles using electrorheological (ER) fluid as a functional material. The purpose of design of the presented damper is to absorb the longitudinal impact from the coupler to the railway vehicle body, which is a very important design factor for the structure of the super express bullet train Sinkansen. A prototype damper is fabricated, which consists of a hydraulic cylinder, an ER bypass slit valve and a PID controller. The buffer force is developed in the ER fluid both through the bypass slit and at the piston-cylinder gap, and is controlled by adjusting the applied electric field to the ER fluid. Active control tests were carried out on the problem where the shaft reaction force is retained at a constant prescribed strength while the shaft is translating at a sinusoidally-varying velocity. A bang-bang and PID switching controller is introduced to prevent the reset-wind-up phenomenon. Results show that the coupler force of the railway vehicle can be controlled effectively by using the proposed electrorehological bypass damper.

  1. GR712RC- Dual-Core Processor- Product Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturesson, Fredrik; Habinc, Sandi; Gaisler, Jiri

    2012-08-01

    The GR712RC System-on-Chip (SoC) is a dual core LEON3FT system suitable for advanced high reliability space avionics. Fault tolerance features from Aeroflex Gaisler’s GRLIB IP library and an implementation using Ramon Chips RadSafe cell library enables superior radiation hardness.The GR712RC device has been designed to provide high processing power by including two LEON3FT 32- bit SPARC V8 processors, each with its own high- performance IEEE754 compliant floating-point-unit and SPARC reference memory management unit.This high processing power is combined with a large number of serial interfaces, ranging from high-speed links for data transfers to low-speed control buses for commanding and status acquisition.

  2. LaRC 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangum, Cathy H.; Harris, Charles E.; Allen, Cheryl L.; Craft, Stephen J.; Hope, Drew J.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Mastaler, Michael D; Weiser, Erik S.

    2012-01-01

    LaRC has developed a 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan. The objective of this plan is to assure that the center infrastructure is sustainable for the long-term and that the center will have the essential facilities and laboratories to execute the future NASA mission. The plan was developed by a centerwide team, VITAL, and was approved by the Center Leadership Council (CLC) in March 2012. The revitalization plan will be implemented through the Center Master Planning process.

  3. An experimental investigation for external RC shear wall applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltakci, M. Y.; Ozturk, M.; Arslan, M. H.

    2010-09-01

    The strength and rigidity of most reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Turkey, which are frequently hit by destructive earthquakes, is not at a sufficient level. Therefore, the result of earthquakes is a significant loss of life and property. The strengthening method most commonly preferred for these type of RC buildings is the application of RC infilled walls (shear walls) in the frame openings of the building. However, since the whole building has to be emptied and additional heavy costs arise during this type of strengthening, users prefer not to strengthen their buildings despite the heavy risk they are exposed to. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easier-to-apply and more effective methods for the rapid strengthening of housing and the heavily-used public buildings which cannot be emptied during the strengthening process (such as hospitals and schools). This study empirically analyses the different methods of a new system which can meet this need. In this new system, named "external shear wall application", RC shear walls are applied on the external surface of the building, along the frame plane rather than in the building. To this end, 7 test samples in 1/2 and 1/3 geometrical scale were designed to analyse the efficiency of the strengthening technique where the shear wall leans on the frame from outside of the building (external shear wall application) and of the strengthening technique where a specific space is left between the frame and the external shear wall by using a coupling beam to connect elements (application of external shear wall with coupling beam). Test results showed that the maximum lateral load capacity, initial rigidity and energy dissipation behaviours of the samples strengthened with external shear wall were much better than those of the bare frames.

  4. Centrifuge modeling of rocking-isolated inelastic RC bridge piers

    PubMed Central

    Loli, Marianna; Knappett, Jonathan A; Brown, Michael J; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; Gazetas, George

    2014-01-01

    Experimental proof is provided of an unconventional seismic design concept, which is based on deliberately underdesigning shallow foundations to promote intense rocking oscillations and thereby to dramatically improve the seismic resilience of structures. Termed rocking isolation, this new seismic design philosophy is investigated through a series of dynamic centrifuge experiments on properly scaled models of a modern reinforced concrete (RC) bridge pier. The experimental method reproduces the nonlinear and inelastic response of both the soil-footing interface and the structure. To this end, a novel scale model RC (1:50 scale) that simulates reasonably well the elastic response and the failure of prototype RC elements is utilized, along with realistic representation of the soil behavior in a geotechnical centrifuge. A variety of seismic ground motions are considered as excitations. They result in consistent demonstrably beneficial performance of the rocking-isolated pier in comparison with the one designed conventionally. Seismic demand is reduced in terms of both inertial load and deck drift. Furthermore, foundation uplifting has a self-centering potential, whereas soil yielding is shown to provide a particularly effective energy dissipation mechanism, exhibiting significant resistance to cumulative damage. Thanks to such mechanisms, the rocking pier survived, with no signs of structural distress, a deleterious sequence of seismic motions that caused collapse of the conventionally designed pier. © 2014 The Authors Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26300573

  5. Centrifuge modeling of rocking-isolated inelastic RC bridge piers.

    PubMed

    Loli, Marianna; Knappett, Jonathan A; Brown, Michael J; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; Gazetas, George

    2014-12-01

    Experimental proof is provided of an unconventional seismic design concept, which is based on deliberately underdesigning shallow foundations to promote intense rocking oscillations and thereby to dramatically improve the seismic resilience of structures. Termed rocking isolation, this new seismic design philosophy is investigated through a series of dynamic centrifuge experiments on properly scaled models of a modern reinforced concrete (RC) bridge pier. The experimental method reproduces the nonlinear and inelastic response of both the soil-footing interface and the structure. To this end, a novel scale model RC (1:50 scale) that simulates reasonably well the elastic response and the failure of prototype RC elements is utilized, along with realistic representation of the soil behavior in a geotechnical centrifuge. A variety of seismic ground motions are considered as excitations. They result in consistent demonstrably beneficial performance of the rocking-isolated pier in comparison with the one designed conventionally. Seismic demand is reduced in terms of both inertial load and deck drift. Furthermore, foundation uplifting has a self-centering potential, whereas soil yielding is shown to provide a particularly effective energy dissipation mechanism, exhibiting significant resistance to cumulative damage. Thanks to such mechanisms, the rocking pier survived, with no signs of structural distress, a deleterious sequence of seismic motions that caused collapse of the conventionally designed pier.

  6. 24. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Wrought Iron Details, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Wrought Iron Details, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-8A - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-16 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 22. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Track Plan, 1917. Photographic copy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Track Plan, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-5 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, September 8, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4229, 9/6/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Details of Hauling Machinery, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-7 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 20. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Design of Cradle, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Design of Cradle, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-2 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Equalizing Gear Layout, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-4 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, July 5, 1918. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #3988, 7/5/18 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 25. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Proposed Road Over Chains, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Proposed Road Over Chains, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-9 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 5, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4930, 5/5/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Layout of Hauling Machinery, Building 24, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yark. BOSTS 13439, #551-15 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, March 9, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #4801, 3/9/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 18. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USS Grebe and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USS Grebe and USS Acushnet. View to soutwest, June 10, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5080, 6/10/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 28. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Section showing bilge and keel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Section showing bilge and keel blocks, 1919. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-20 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 19. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Cradle and Track Plan, 1917. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Cradle and Track Plan, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-1 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. 16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 29, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5049, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic view, Marine Railway construction. View to southeast, May 28, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5046, 5/29/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic view, Test of Marine Railway, USCC Ossippee. View to southeast, June 2, 1919. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8962, USN #5054, 6/7/19 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. View of interior of first floor, Railway Express Building Mail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior of first floor, Railway Express Building Mail Room, from elevated west dock toward east. Office is on right (south) and mezzanine on left (north). West wall of American Railway Express Room is between - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. RUINS OF NORTH ABUTMENT OF OR & L RAILWAY TRESTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RUINS OF NORTH ABUTMENT OF OR & L RAILWAY TRESTLE ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BRIDGE NO. 3A, VIEW FROM THE EAST - Oahu Railway & Land Company Trestle Ruins, Spanning Makaha Stream between Makaha Beach & Farrington Highway, near Kili Drive, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Interior view of first floor of American Railway Express Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of first floor of American Railway Express Room from mezzanine (east section of two story portion of Railway Express Building), looking south - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Exterior view of yard at marine railway #2. Not rail/roller type (wood beam with steel plate rail on sled/roller railway). Steel fabrication building and traveling crane in background. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  8. Structural vulnerability and intervention of high speed railway networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Hu, Funian; Wang, Shuliang; Dai, Yang; Wang, Yixing

    2016-11-01

    This paper employs complex network theory to assess the structural vulnerability of high speed railway networks subjected to two different malicious attacks. Chinese, US and Japanese high speed railway networks are used to discuss the vulnerable characteristics of systems. We find that high speed railway networks are very fragile when suffering serious disturbances and two attack rules can cause analogous damages to one high speed railway network, which illustrates that the station with large degree possesses high betweenness, vice versa. Meanwhile, we discover that Japanese high speed railway network has the best global connectivity, but Chinese high speed railway network has the best local connectivity and possesses the largest transport capacity. Moreover, we find that there exist several redundant paths in Chinese high speed railway network and discover the critical stations of three HSRNs. Furthermore, the nearest-link method is adopted to implement topological interventions and to improve the connectivity and reliability of high speed railway networks. In addition, the feasibility and effectiveness of topological interventions are shown by simulations.

  9. Closing the Circle: Travelling with "The Railway Man."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Eric Lomax's autobiographical book "The Railway Man." Notes how it chronicles his boyhood obsession with train-spotting and the subsequent ways in which his life has been freaked by railway co-incidences. Describes how the author invited Eric Lomax to come and discuss this work with his students. (SG)

  10. Closing the Circle: Travelling with "The Railway Man."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Eric Lomax's autobiographical book "The Railway Man." Notes how it chronicles his boyhood obsession with train-spotting and the subsequent ways in which his life has been freaked by railway co-incidences. Describes how the author invited Eric Lomax to come and discuss this work with his students. (SG)

  11. The Ginghai-Tibet railway and Tibet tourism: travelers' perspectives

    Treesearch

    Ming Ming Su; Geoffrey Wall

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet railway opened in July 2006 and boosted Tibetan tourism markedly by increasing the accessibility and affordability of travel from China to Tibet. This study evaluates the railway's impacts on tourists' travel decisions and experiences in Tibet. The relative importance of the train journey in comparison with the destination experience in...

  12. A visual-analytics system for railway safety management.

    PubMed

    Lira, Wallace P; Alves, Ronnie; Costa, Jean M R; Pessin, Gustavo; Galvao, Lilyan; Cardoso, Ana C; de Souza, Cleidson R B

    2014-01-01

    The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations. These operations affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. To reduce the employees' and public's exposure to risk, railway companies adopt strategies involving trained safety personnel, advanced forms of technology, and special work processes. Nevertheless, unfortunate incidents still occur. To assist railway safety management, researchers developed a visual-analytics system. Using a data analytics workflow, it compiles an incident risk index that processes information about railway incidents. It displays the index on a geographical map, together with socioeconomic information about the associated towns and cities. Feedback on this system suggests that safety engineers and experts can use it to make and communicate decisions.

  13. Research on Continuous Operation of the Railway by Considering the Value of the Local Railway in Nagano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, Tatsuo; Wakui, Katsuaki; Koyama, Ken

    After revision of the Railway Business Act in 2000, the abolition of the local railway has increased in Japan. However, continuing activities by people living along local line has been focussed in recent years. Moreover, a lot of local railway's business are obtaining the subsidy from the municipality where railway route is located. When the government puts out the grant to the company, it is necessary to have the accountability for the peoples. This research is focused on the value of the local railways for residents are measured, and an economical value of that is estimate by using the Contingent Valuation Method. As for the route for analysis in Nagano, Bessho-line(Ueda), Yashiro-line(Nagano) and Kamikohchi-line(Matsumoto) were chosen. Moreover, policies of each municipality to these routes are evaluated by using these values.

  14. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, L. M. Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  15. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  16. The gammaTuRC Nanomachine Mechanism and Future Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehlman, Timothy D.

    The complexity and precision of the eukaryotic cell's cytoskeletal network is unrivaled by any man-made systems, perfected by billions of years of evolution, mastering elegant processes of self-assembly, error correction, and self-repair. Understanding the capabilities of these networks will have important and far reaching applications in human medicine by aiding our understanding of developmental processes, cellular division, and disease mechanisms, and through biomimicry will provide insights for biosynthetic manufacturing at the nanoscale and across scales. My research utilizes cross species techniques from Human to the model organism of Fission Yeast to investigate the structure and mechanisms of the g-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC). The gTuRC is a highly conserved eukaryotic multiprotein complex serving as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) responsible for microtubule nucleation through templating, regulation of dynamics, and establishment of microtubule polarity. Microtubules are 25 nm diameter dynamic flexible polymers of a/b-tubulin heterodimers that function as scaffolds, force generators, distributors, and intracellular highways. The microtubule cytoskeleton is essential for numerous fundamental cellular processes such as mitotic division of chromosomes and cell division, organelle distribution within the cell, cell signaling, and cell shape. This incredible diversity in functions is made possible in part due to molecular motor Kinesin-like proteins (Klps), which allow expansion into more specialized neural, immune, and ciliated cell functions. Combined, the MTOC, microtubules, and Klps represent ideal microtubule cytoskeleton protein (MCP) modular components for in vitro biomimicry towards generation of adaptable patterned networks for human designed applications. My research investigates the hypothesis that a mechanistic understanding of conserved MTOC gTuRC mechanisms will help us understand dynamic cellular nanomachines and their ability to self

  17. Connecting Time and Frequency in the RC Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    Charging and discharging processes of a capacitor through a resistor, as well as the concept of impedance in alternating current circuits, are topics covered in introductory physics courses. The experimental study of the charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor is a well-established lab exercise that is used to introduce concepts such as exponential increase or decrease and time constant. Determining the time constant of the RC circuit has important practical applications because, for example, it can be used to measure unknown values of resistance or capacitance. The transient experiment can be done by using a voltmeter and stopwatch, signal generator and oscilloscope, or even low-cost data acquisition systems such as Arduino. An equivalent topic when studying alternating current circuits arises from the characterization of the impedance of the series or parallel combination of the capacitor and the resistor as a function of frequency. Determining the time constant of the RC circuit by means of impedance measurements for different frequencies is a known experimental technique that can be done using not only LCR meters but also basic instrumentation in the physics lab such as a signal generator, frequency counter, and multimeter. However, lab exercises dealing with RC circuits in alternating current usually focus on their use as filters, and the potential applications in the field of the electrical characterization of material systems are ignored. In this work, we describe a simple exercise showing how the time constant of the RC circuit can easily be determined in the introductory physics lab by means of impedance measurements as a function of frequency. This exercise allows students to learn experimental techniques that find application to characterize the time constants of the charge transport processes in material systems. Moreover, comparison of the time constants obtained from transient and frequency analysis allows us to relate the time and

  18. Study on safety level of RC beam bridges under earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Lin, Junqi; Liu, Jinlong; Li, Jia

    2017-08-01

    This study considers uncertainties in material strengths and the modeling which have important effects on structural resistance force based on reliability theory. After analyzing the destruction mechanism of a RC bridge, structural functions and the reliability were given, then the safety level of the piers of a reinforced concrete continuous girder bridge with stochastic structural parameters against earthquake was analyzed. Using response surface method to calculate the failure probabilities of bridge piers under high-level earthquake, their seismic reliability for different damage states within the design reference period were calculated applying two-stage design, which describes seismic safety level of the built bridges to some extent.

  19. Quasi-Static Analysis of LaRC THUNDER Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.

    2007-01-01

    An analytic approach is developed to predict the shape and displacement with voltage in the quasi-static limit of LaRC Thunder Actuators. The problem is treated with classical lamination theory and Von Karman non-linear analysis. In the case of classical lamination theory exact analytic solutions are found. It is shown that classical lamination theory is insufficient to describe the physical situation for large actuators but is sufficient for very small actuators. Numerical results are presented for the non-linear analysis and compared with experimental measurements. Snap-through behavior, bifurcation, and stability are presented and discussed.

  20. Kalman Filter Based Railway Tracking from Mobile LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jwa, Y.; Sonh, G.

    2015-08-01

    This study introduces a new method to reconstruct 3D model of railway tracks from a railway corridor scene captured by mobile LiDAR data. The proposed approach starts to approximate the orientation of railway track trajectory from LiDAR point clouds and extract a strip, which direction is orthogonal to the trajectory of railway track. Within the strip, a track region and its track points are detected based on the Bayesian decision process. Once the main track region is localized, rail head points are segmented based on the region growing approach from the detected track points and then initial track models are reconstructed using a third-degree polynomial function. Based on the initial modelling result, a potential track region with varying lengths is dynamically predicted and the model parameters are updated in the Kalman Filter framework. The key aspect is that the proposed approach is able to enhance the efficiency of the railway tracking process by reducing the complexity for detecting track points and reconstructing track models based on the use of the track model previously reconstructed. An evaluation of the proposed method is performed over an urban railway corridor area containing multiple railway track pairs.

  1. Railway suicide in Belgium 1998-2009: incidence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Belgium is a country with a high suicide rate (19.1/100,000 in 2004), and railway suicide poses a substantial safety and public health problem. This problem was addressed by the Suicide Prevention Unit of Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure), which collects relevant data and implements a prevention program. To present data on fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior on the Belgian railway network, including monthly and regional distribution and identification of hotspots; and to present the Infrabel suicide prevention program. Analysis of Infrabel data on railway suicide (1998-2009) and comparison with data on suicide in Belgium. A total of 1,092 railway suicides (1998-2009) and 557 suicide attempts (2003-2009) in Belgium (fatality rate of 54%) were studied. Monthly fluctuations were observed, with the majority of suicides occurring in Flanders, followed by Wallonia and Brussels. We identified 34 hotspots accounting for 35% of cases, mostly in Flanders. In 2004 railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium (railway suicide rate of 1.03/100,000). Such a major human and economic loss warrants implementation of prevention measures. Infrabel has initiated a comprehensive suicide prevention program which focuses mainly on safeguarding the suicide hotspots.

  2. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  3. Response reduction factor of irregular RC buildings in Kathmandu valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaulagain, Hemchandra; Rodrigues, Hugo; Spacone, Enrico; Guragain, Ramesh; Mallik, Radhakrishna; Varum, Humberto

    2014-09-01

    Most current seismic design includes the nonlinear response of a structure through a response reduction factor ( R). This allows the designer to use a linear elastic force-based approach while accounting for nonlinear behavior and deformation limits. In fact, the response reduction factor is used in modern seismic codes to scale down the elastic response of a structure. This study focuses on estimating the actual ` R' value for engineered design/construction of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Kathmandu valley. The ductility and overstrength of representative RC buildings in Kathmandu are investigated. Nonlinear pushover analysis was performed on structural models in order to evaluate the seismic performance of buildings. Twelve representative engineered irregular buildings with a variety of characteristics located in the Kathmandu valley were selected and studied. Furthermore, the effects of overstrength on the ductility factor, beam column capacity ratio on the building ductility, and load path on the response reduction factor, are examined. Finally, the results are further analyzed and compared with different structural parameters of the buildings.

  4. Current and future flood risk to railway infrastructure in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubeck, Philip; Kellermann, Patric; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Dillenardt, Lisa; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-04-01

    Railway infrastructure plays an important role in the transportation of freight and passengers across the European Union. According to Eurostat, more than four billion passenger-kilometres were travelled on national and international railway lines of the EU28 in 2014. To further strengthen transport infrastructure in Europe, the European Commission will invest another € 24.05 billion in the transnational transport network until 2020 as part of its new transport infrastructure policy (TEN-T), including railway infrastructure. Floods pose a significant risk to infrastructure elements. Damage data of recent flood events in Europe show that infrastructure losses can make up a considerable share of overall losses. For example, damage to state and municipal infrastructure in the federal state of Saxony (Germany) accounted for nearly 60% of overall losses during the large-scale event in June 2013. Especially in mountainous areas with little usable space available, roads and railway lines often follow floodplains or are located along steep and unsteady slopes. In Austria, for instance, the flood of 2013 caused € 75 million of direct damage to railway infrastructure. Despite the importance of railway infrastructure and its exposure to flooding, assessments of potential damage and risk (i.e. probability * damage) are still in its infancy compared with other sectors, such as the residential or industrial sector. Infrastructure-specific assessments at the regional scale are largely lacking. Regional assessment of potential damage to railway infrastructure has been hampered by a lack of infrastructure-specific damage models and data availability. The few available regional approaches have used damage models that assess damage to various infrastructure elements (e.g. roads, railway, airports and harbours) using one aggregated damage function and cost estimate. Moreover, infrastructure elements are often considerably underrepresented in regional land cover data, such as

  5. Railways and energy. World Bank staff working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper addresses questions which arise in discussions about the effects which increases in oil prices have on railway development. Part I of the paper reviews the relative energy efficiencies of rail and of road transport, and measures for decreasing railway energy consumption. Only energy used for traction is considered. Part II is a review of the factors which determine the economic viability of railway electrification, and includes a methodology which can readily be used for prefeasibility analyses to determine whether a more detailed study is warranted. (Copyright (c) 1984 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  6. Increasing railway suicide acts after media coverage of a fatal railway accident? An ecological study of 747 suicidal acts.

    PubMed

    Kunrath, Sabine; Baumert, Jens; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2011-09-01

    While coverage of a celebrity suicide in the mass media may trigger copycat suicides, evidence for the effect of media reports of non-prominent suicides is moderate. Diversification of current media may raise further doubts as to whether their influence on suicidal acts is still present. We examined whether widespread media coverage of a railway accident, in which several people were killed while investigating a presumed railway suicide, subsequently increased the number of railway suicides. The daily incidence of railway suicides was derived from the national accident registry on the German railway net. We estimated incidence ratios by Poisson regression, adjusting for relevant confounders (eg, outdoor temperature, unemployment rate), for the 2 months following the accident (predefined index period) and predefined control periods (preceding 2 years of the same period and 1 month before/after the index period). The mean number of railway suicides per day in the index period increased significantly to 2.66 (95% CI 2.19 to 3.13) compared to 1.94 (95% CI 1.78 to 2.10) during both control periods. Fully adjusted Poisson regression showed a 44% daily increase in railway suicides in the index period compared to the control periods (incidence ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.03). A maximum of eight suicides per day was reached about 1 week after the accident. Non-fictional media coverage of a fatal accident appears to affect subsequent railway suicide numbers. Supposedly, media reports drew attention to railways as a means of suicide.

  7. 1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north at Hedges Creek trestle. - Oregon Electric Railroad, Hedges Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 38.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  8. 10. GENERAL VIEW OF 'BIG RAILWAY' SHOWING CRADLE AND WINCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GENERAL VIEW OF 'BIG RAILWAY' SHOWING CRADLE AND WINCH MANUFACTURED BY MEAD-MORRISON MANUFACTURING COMPANY, HAVING A 450 TON CAPACITY - Anderson-Christofani Shipyard, Innes Avenue & Griffith Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. View of American Railway Express Building, facing east. Metal Canopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of American Railway Express Building, facing east. Metal Canopy projects above roll-up doors and elevated dock - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. View of loading dock of American Railway Express Building, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of loading dock of American Railway Express Building, facing west. Projecting metal canopy and roll-up doors are principal elements - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on west elevation of Railway Express Building, facing east - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 22. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST; RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY (REA) LOADING DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST; RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY (REA) LOADING DOCK STRUCTURE ATOP PARKING STRUCTURE (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J

    2001-07-01

    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  14. 6. Sawtooth skylights on roof. Central of Georgia Railway, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Sawtooth skylights on roof. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Paint & Coach Barn, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  15. 39. TUNNEL BORE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. VIEW SHOWS LIGHT CONSTRUCTION RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. TUNNEL BORE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. VIEW SHOWS LIGHT CONSTRUCTION RAILWAY FOR HAULING MUCK AND SPOIL - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Tunnel, Two miles east of Zion Canyon Scenic Drive, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  16. [Work condition of electricians servicing railway shunting and maneuvering yards].

    PubMed

    Talivanova, R V; Elizarov, B B; Kudrin, V A; Ovechkina, Zh V

    1995-01-01

    The article represents main occupational hazards and work conditions of such railway occupation as electromechanic and electromounter of shunting yards of railway stations. Complete hygienic evaluation of the occupational activities is given for individuals working at Moskovskaya, Oktjabrskaya and Sevemaya railroads. Health state of the workers was studied according to transitory disablement materials, the morbidity and its structure were analyzed. The authors outline some suggestions to improve the work conditions and decrease the morbidity.

  17. 65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY - WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of February 1955 photograph showing the winding machinery of the California Street Cable Railroad. The two suspended sheaves on the right of the photograph bore down on the cable as it left the winders, supplying tension to the cable and eliminating the need for a long tension run. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Study on high reliability safety valve for railway vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ruikun; Zhang, Shixi; Xu, BuDu

    2017-09-01

    Now, the realization of most of the functions of the railway vehicles rely on compressed air, so the demand for compressed air is growing higher and higher. This safety valve is a protection device for pressure limitation and pressure relief in an air supply system of railway vehicles. I am going to introduce the structure, operating principle, research and development process of the safety valve designed by our company in this document.

  19. Community response to railway noise: A review of social surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, U.

    1988-01-01

    The many studies on the effects of railway noise on the neighbourhood differ greatly in their design, acoustic and sociological measurement and in their evaluation methods. As the influence of these factors on the sometimes differing results is not quantifiable, only qualitative results can be summarized and commented on. There are only a few studies with special emphasis on the effects of shunting yards, high-speed trains and urban train systems, and therefore only the results concerning free-flow railway traffic are summarized. The LAeq measured outside was shown in almost all the studies to be the most suitable for predicting general annoyance and most of the disturbance reactions compared with other acoustic data, e.g., peak level, pass-by frequency, etc. It is not possible to deduce from the studies in question a limiting value beyond which railway noise is no longer tolerable. Compared to other areas of interference, it is generally agreed that railway noise is at its most annoying in the area of communication. Sleep interference, on the other hand, was only seldomly mentioned and was not considered to be so serious. In addition to the noise level, non-acoustic factors such as attitude towards the railway, neighbourhood environment, etc., obviously considerably affect the annoyance reaction to railway noise too. The question of habituation to railway noise cannot be conclusively answered from the studies analyzed. At the same LAeq, railway noise gives rise to less annoyance than does road-traffic noise. These differences vary according to whether the reference time is day or night, the noise level range is high or low, and according to which annoyance and disturbance reaction is considered.

  20. Energy efficiency of electrified passenger railway in the Canadian context

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements of electrified passenger trains have not been adequately addressed in the technical literature. This paper examines in the Canadian context: (1) the energy implications of passenger railway electrification in terms of propulsion energy requirements (from primary energy source to final consumption) as well as the indirect energy needed for rolling stock and infrastructure, and (2) the relative energy efficiencies of electric and diesel-electric railway traction systems.

  1. [Cases of toxocara infection on the Sverdlovsk railway].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, V D; Azeva, L N; Renov, S G; Agafonova, G V

    2002-01-01

    The results of serological testing for Toxocara infection in patients who had referred for a railway hospital of the Sverdlovsk railway were summarized. Positive serological tests were in the titer ranges 1:200 to 1:1600 in 12.8% of the examinees, including the titer range 1:800 or more in 8.5%. Brief extracts from some case histories are given.

  2. Small-world properties of the Indian railway network.

    PubMed

    Sen, Parongama; Dasgupta, Subinay; Chatterjee, Arnab; Sreeram, P A; Mukherjee, G; Manna, S S

    2003-03-01

    Structural properties of the Indian railway network is studied in the light of recent investigations of the scaling properties of different complex networks. Stations are considered as "nodes" and an arbitrary pair of stations is said to be connected by a "link" when at least one train stops at both stations. Rigorous analysis of the existing data shows that the Indian railway network displays small-world properties. We define and estimate several other quantities associated with this network.

  3. [The emergence of China's Railway Health Services and its motivation in the late Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2014-03-01

    In the late Qing Dynasty, the railway authority of China commenced establishing their self-run medical institutions, setting up the hygienic standards of railway system, and opening a new prospects of railway health services and epidemic prevention, reflecting the emergence of China's Railway Health Services. The motivations of all these approaches were related to three factors, that is,"the eastward dissemination of western medicine","the medical requirement of railway employees", and"the emergent situation of railway health and epidemic prevention".

  4. An Overview-NASA LeRC Structures Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1997-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center has its genesis dating back to 1943. It has been an independent Division at Lewis since 1979. Its two primary capabilities are performance and life analysis of static and dynamic systems such as those found in aircraft and spacecraft propulsion systems and experimental verification of these analyses. Research is conducted in-house, through university grants and contracts, and through cooperative programs with industry. Our work directly supports NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST), Smart Green Engine, Fast Quiet Engine, High-Temperature Materials and Processing (HiTEMP), Hybrid Hyperspeed Propulsion, Rotorcraft, High-Speed Research (HSR), and Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). A general overview is given discussing these programs and other technologies that are being developed at NASA LeRC.

  5. NASA LaRC Strain Gage Balance Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been designing strain-gage balances for more than fifty years. These balances have been utilized in Langley's wind tunnels, which span over a wide variety of aerodynamic test regimes, as well as other ground based test facilities and in space flight applications. As a result, the designs encompass a large array of sizes, loads, and environmental effects. Currently Langley has more than 300 balances available for its researchers. This paper will focus on the design concepts for internal sting mounted strain-gage balances. However, these techniques can be applied to all force measurement design applications. Strain-gage balance concepts that have been developed over the years including material selection, sting, model interfaces, measuring, sections, fabrication, strain-gaging and calibration will be discussed.

  6. The NASA-LeRC wind turbine sound prediction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Since regular operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine began in October 1979 about 10 nearby households have complained of noise from the machine. Development of the NASA-LeRC with turbine sound prediction code began in May 1980 as part of an effort to understand and reduce the noise generated by MOD-1. Tone sound levels predicted with this code are in generally good agreement with measured data taken in the vicinity MOD-1 wind turbine (less than 2 rotor diameters). Comparison in the far field indicates that propagation effects due to terrain and atmospheric conditions may be amplifying the actual sound levels by about 6 dB. Parametric analysis using the code has shown that the predominant contributions to MOD-1 rotor noise are: (1) the velocity deficit in the wake of the support tower; (2) the high rotor speed; and (3) off column operation.

  7. An Overview-NASA LeRC Structures Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1997-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center has its genesis dating back to 1943. It has been an independent Division at Lewis since 1979. Its two primary capabilities are performance and life analysis of static and dynamic systems such as those found in aircraft and spacecraft propulsion systems and experimental verification of these analyses. Research is conducted in-house, through university grants and contracts, and through cooperative programs with industry. Our work directly supports NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST), Smart Green Engine, Fast Quiet Engine, High-Temperature Materials and Processing (HiTEMP), Hybrid Hyperspeed Propulsion, Rotorcraft, High-Speed Research (HSR), and Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). A general overview is given discussing these programs and other technologies that are being developed at NASA LeRC.

  8. Aerospace Test Facilities at NASA LeRC Plumbrook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the facilities and research being conducted at LeRC's Plumbrook field station is given. The video highlights four main structures and explains their uses. The Space Power Facility is the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, where spacebound hardware is tested in simulations of the vacuum and extreme heat and cold of the space plasma environment. This facility was used to prepare Atlas 1 rockets to ferry CRRES into orbit; it will also be used to test space nuclear electric power generation systems. The Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility allows rocket vehicles to be hot fired in a simulated space environment. In the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility, researchers are developing technology for storing and transferring liquid hydrogen in space. There is also a Hypersonic Wind Tunnel which can perform flow tests with winds up to Mach 7.

  9. R.C. Carrington and the 1859 Space Weather Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2004-05-01

    R.C. Carrington (1826-1875) is remembered in this session as the co-discoverer of the first solar flare ever reported - on 1 September 1859. The ensuing space weather event remains a "worst case scenario" for solar-terrestrial interaction. Carrington was one of the most accomplished solar astronomers of the 19th century and is credited with the discovery of differential rotation and the variation of sunspot latitude over the solar cycle. I will review Carrington's life, which ended soon and sadly after a brief but brilliant career, and the scientific times in which he worked. I will assess the contemporary impact of Carrington's flare observation and will briefly recount how the meaning of the tantalizing clue presented by this event gradually came to light.

  10. Modelling and experiment of railway ballast vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, W. M.; Wang, K. Y.; Lin, J. H.

    2004-03-01

    The vibration of railway ballast is a key factor to cause track geometry change and increase of track maintenance costs. So far the methods for analyzing and testing the vibration of the granular ballast have not been well formed. In this paper, a five-parameter model for analysis of the ballast vibration is established based upon the hypothesis that the load-transmission from a sleeper to the ballast approximately coincides with the cone distribution. The concepts of shear stiffness and shear damping of the ballast are introduced in the model in order to consider the continuity of the interlocking ballast granules. A full-scale field experiment is carried out to measure the ballast acceleration excited by moving trains. Theoretical simulation results agree well with the measured results. Hence the proposed ballast vibration model has been validated.

  11. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devesh; Singh, Jai Vir; Kharwar, Poonam S

    2011-01-01

    Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI) test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening.

  12. Study of occupational stress among railway engine pilots

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Devesh; Singh, Jai Vir; Kharwar, Poonam S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traffic volume and speed is going to be increased in Indian Railways successively, leading to higher stress in staff connected with train operations. The jobs of railway engine pilots come under the category of high-strain jobs, necessitating a need to conduct multicentric study to unfold the factors associated with occupational stress and organizational strategies. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 185 railway engine pilots and office clerks working in various railway zones by incidental method. Occupational Stress Index (OSI) test developed by Srivastva and Singh, questionnaire of specific stressors constructed by authors and laboratory test battery for psychological screening of high-speed train pilots were used as tools. Results: Means of OSI and all the 12 occupational stressors of railway engine pilots were found significantly higher to that of office clerks. Means of OSI and occupational stressors of goods train pilots were significantly higher in comparison to high-speed train pilots and passenger train pilots. Study revealed positive correlation of speed perception and complex reaction time tests and negative correlation of other constituent tests of laboratory test battery to OSI test. Highest subgroup of stressor observedwas role overload followed by role conflict. Conclusions: These findings provide a prima facie evidence of higher occupational stress among railway engine pilots because of identified specific stressors prevalent in their job and explore the possible intervention strategies for its reduction. Significant correlation is noticed between OSI and laboratory test results, indicating its relevant utility in preliminary psychological screening. PMID:21808497

  13. Developing noise control strategies for entire railway networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertli, Jakob

    2006-06-01

    The EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49) requires member states to deliver noise maps to the commission by 2007 and action plans by 2008 both for agglomerations as well as for major roads, railways and airports. Noise mitigation projects resulting from action plans are usually very expensive and therefore may threaten the economic viability of the railways in the current harsh competitive transport market, thus hindering sustainable transport policies. It is therefore of vital interest that the action plans and the resulting projects are designed in the most cost-effective way possible. The EU and Union of Railways (UIC) sponsored project Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) recognized this need and developed a tool, with which such optimal solutions can be obtained for entire railway networks. Since data collection is the most expensive part of the analysis, noise mapping data is ideally collected in such a way that it can be used for the calculation of the different scenarios, from which the most cost-effective action plans are chosen. The paper shows how the STAIRRS tool is used for this purpose and how cost-effectiveness considerations have led to optimal railway noise mitigation strategies in Switzerland and have given a basis for noise related decision making in Luxembourg.

  14. 77 FR 40147 - Pan Am Southern, LLC.-Abandonment Exemption-in Worcester County, MA; Springfield Terminal Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...; Springfield Terminal Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Worcester County, MA Pan Am Southern, LLC (PAS) and Springfield Terminal Railway Company (ST) (collectively, applicants) jointly...

  15. The effects of railway transportation on the enrichment of heavy metals in the artificial soil on railway cut slopes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoqiong; Wang, KeXiu; Ai, Ying Wei; Li, Wei; Gao, Hongying; Fang, Chen

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metal contamination in the artificial soils on the railway cut slopes may have great influence on the revegetation of the cut slopes. The purpose of this study was to assess the variation of heavy metal contamination levels with railway operation time and analyze their possible resources. A total of 100 soil samples from four cut slopes, which were affected by railway transportation for different years, were analyzed for metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe). The concentrations of Cd, Pb showed increasing trend with increasing operation time of railways, while such trend was not found in Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe. According to the soil quality standard of China, Cd was considered to have considerable contamination, while Pb has less, but Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe have none. Moreover, cadmium exhibited remarkably higher levels rather than those reported in other studies. Enrichment factors and ecological index showed that Cd and Pb showed a moderate enrichment and a considerable ecological risk in most of the soil samples. The results of descriptive statistic, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and correlation analysis were totally consistent with each other. Their results revealed that Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe had common origins, and they may come from natural resources. While Cd and Pb were significantly influenced by railway transportation, leaked cargos, fuel combustion, the use of lubricate oils and sleeper impregnation oils during railway transportation may be their main resources.

  16. 47 CFR 95.224 - (R/C Rule 24) What are my station records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 24) What are my station records? 95.224 Section 95.224 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to...

  17. 47 CFR 95.225 - (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC? 95.225 Section 95.225 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to Know §...

  18. 47 CFR 95.225 - (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC? 95.225 Section 95.225 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to Know §...

  19. 47 CFR 95.224 - (R/C Rule 24) What are my station records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false (R/C Rule 24) What are my station records? 95.224 Section 95.224 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to...

  20. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as...

  1. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as...

  2. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as...

  3. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as...

  4. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as...

  5. 47 CFR 95.623 - R/C transmitter channel frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false R/C transmitter channel frequencies. 95.623 Section 95.623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.623 R/C transmitter channel...

  6. 47 CFR 95.623 - R/C transmitter channel frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false R/C transmitter channel frequencies. 95.623 Section 95.623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.623 R/C transmitter channel...

  7. 47 CFR 95.225 - (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC? (a) FCC National Call Center at 1-888-225-5322. (b) FCC World Wide Web homepage: http://www.fcc.gov. (c) In writing, to FCC, Attention: R/C, 1270 Fairfield Road...

  8. 47 CFR 95.225 - (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC? (a) FCC National Call Center at 1-888-225-5322. (b) FCC World Wide Web homepage: http://www.fcc.gov. (c) In writing, to FCC, Attention: R/C, 1270 Fairfield Road...

  9. 47 CFR 95.225 - (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (R/C Rule 25) How do I contact the FCC? (a) FCC National Call Center at 1-888-225-5322. (b) FCC World Wide Web homepage: http://www.fcc.gov. (c) In writing, to FCC, Attention: R/C, 1270 Fairfield Road...

  10. One hundred years of railway disasters and recent trends.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Rebecca; Björnstig, Ulf

    2011-10-01

    Globally, railway transport is increasing steadily. Despite the adoption of diverse safety systems, major railway incidents continue to occur. Higher speeds and increased passenger traffic are factors that influence the risk of mass-casualty incidents and make railway crashes a reality that merits extensive planning and training. Data on railway disasters were obtained from the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), which maintains the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT). This descriptive study consists of 529 railway disasters (≥10 killed and/or ≥100 non- fatally injured) from 1910 through 2009. The number of railway disasters, people killed, and non-fatally injured, has increased throughout the last hundred years-particularly during the last four decades (1970-2009), when 88% of all disasters occurred. In the mid-20th century, a shift occurred, resulting in more people being non-fatally injured than fatally injured. During 1970-2009, 74% of all railway disasters occurred in Asia, Africa, and South and Central America, combined. The remaining 26% occurred in Europe, North America, and Oceania, combined. Since 1980, railway disasters have increased, especially in Asia and Africa, while Europe has had a decrease in railway disasters. The number killed per disaster (1970-2009) was highest in Africa (n = 55), followed by South and Central America (n = 47), and Asia (n = 44). The rate was lowest in North America (n = 10) and Europe (n = 29). On average, the number of non-fatal injuries per disaster was two to three times the number of fatalities, however, in the African countries (except South Africa) the relation was closer to 1:1, which correlates to the relation found in more developed countries during the mid-20th century. The total losses (non-fatally and fatally injured) per disaster has shown a slight decreasing trend. Despite extensive crash avoidance and injury reduction safety systems, railway crashes occur on all continents

  11. Development of an Improved Crack Propagation Model for Corrosion-Induced Cover Cracking in RC Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilyati, S.; Nizam, Z. M.; Zurisman, M. A. A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2017-06-01

    During the last two decades, reinforced concrete (RC) has been extensively used in most of the world as one of the common construction material due to its advantages and durability. However, RC structures exposed to marine environments are subjected to chloride attack. Chlorides from seawater penetrate into RC structures are not only causing severe corrosion problems but also affect the durability and serviceability of such structures. This paper investigates the influence of transverse reinforcement and spacing of reinforcing bars on concrete cover cracking of two-way RC slab specimens using accelerated corrosion tests. The experimental program involved the testing of four RC slab specimens and was generally designed to observe the crack width and the time of crack to propagate. An improved model for predicting the timing of crack propagation based on the experimental data was then developed.

  12. 48. Exterior detail of Marine Railway #1. Note rail/roller type ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Exterior detail of Marine Railway #1. Note rail/roller type (wood beam with steel plate for railway/rollers on sled) and removable catwalk on bed. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  13. [Information digital technologies and medical psychologic prevention of stress state in railway transport workers].

    PubMed

    Kostin, A V; Kostina, S A

    2015-01-01

    The authors determined criteria of medical and psychologic training of railway transport workers, with applied information digital technologies. The results obtained prove that application of software "Railway worker" ("Zheleznodorozhnik") reduces frequency and duration of "emotional stress states".

  14. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  15. 76 FR 60599 - Boston & Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemptions-in Rockingham, NH; Springfield Terminal Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...; Springfield Terminal Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemptions--in Rockingham, NH Boston & Maine Corporation (B&M) and Springfield Terminal Railway Company (ST) (collectively, applicants) have jointly...

  16. Multidimensional evaluation of soil pollution from railway tracks.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Gworek, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Railway transport is a source of pollution to soils and living organisms by e.g. PAHs, PCBs, oil-derived products, pesticides and heavy metals. Soil toxicity evaluation requires chemical analyses, indicating the type and content of particular pollutants, as well as biological analyses, which allow assessing the reaction of organisms to these pollutants. This paper is focused on a multi-aspect evaluation of the degree of toxicity and pollution of soil in selected railway areas from north-eastern Poland by application of numerous biotests and chemical analyses. The soils were sampled on railway tracks from the following railway stations: Białystok Fabryczny, Siemianówka, Hajnówka, Iława Główna and Waliły. The most toxic soils occur on the railway tracks at Białystok Fabryczny and Siemianówka. They had a significant toxic effect on test organisms from various trophic levels. The contents of PAHs, PCBs, heavy metals, oil-derived hydrocarbons and pesticide residues were determined in the examined soils. In all cases the detected pollutants did not exceed the admissible levels. The highest content of oil-derived substances was noted in soils from Białystok Fabryczny and concentrations were moderate in soils from Siemianówka. Although the pollutants determined in soils from railway tracks did not exceed the admissible values, they had a toxic effect on numerous test organisms from different trophic levels. This suggests a synergistic effect of low concentrations (within the admissible levels) of several pollutants together, which resulted in a toxic effect on the organisms. Thus, there is a strong need of not only chemical, but also ecotoxicological analyses during the evaluation of environmental conditions. Based on data obtained from biological and chemical analyses, we concluded that railway transport may pose a hazard to the natural environment to a larger extent that hitherto expected.

  17. 77 FR 12909 - Eastern Maine Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Eastern Maine Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Eastern Maine Railway Company (EMR), a Class III rail carrier, has filed..., N.B.\\1\\ \\1\\ EMR recognizes that the Board's jurisdiction only covers the acquisition of the line to...

  18. 75 FR 82426 - Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company-Acquisition Exemption-Oklahoma Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company--Acquisition Exemption--Oklahoma Department of Transportation Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company (WTJR), a Class III rail carrier, has..., 1991). In Wichita, Tillman & Jackson Railway Company--Lease Renewal Exemption--Oklahoma Department of...

  19. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Central Illinois...) has agreed to grant non-exclusive local trackage rights to Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY) over... Kellar Branch. See STB Docket No. AB-1056X, Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Discontinuance of Service...

  20. Some engineering and mathematical aspects in the design of heavy goods railway lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukkassen, Dag; Meidell, Annette

    2014-12-01

    Although railway is one of the best environmentally transportation for goods and passengers, large parts of the railway sector is striving to increase the capacity and punctuality, see [1]. In this paper we discuss some practical and theoretical aspects of a research connected to design of heavy goods railway lines.

  1. 29 CFR 1915.75 - Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways... railways. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a... applicable requirements of § 1915.72. (g) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.75 - Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways... railways. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a... applicable requirements of § 1915.72. (g) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.75 - Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to and guarding of dry docks and marine railways... railways. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking. (a... applicable requirements of § 1915.72. (g) Catwalks on stiles of marine railways shall be no less than...

  4. The School Car: Bringing the Three R's to Newfoundland's Remote Railway Settlements (1936-1942).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noseworthy, Randy P.

    During the mid-1930s, the main line of the Newfoundland (Canada) Railway stretched 547 miles from St. John's to Port aux Basques, and railway workers and their families lived along the line in small isolated settlements. The provincial department of education, the Newfoundland Railway, and the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company devised an…

  5. The School Car: Bringing the Three R's to Newfoundland's Remote Railway Settlements (1936-1942).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noseworthy, Randy P.

    During the mid-1930s, the main line of the Newfoundland (Canada) Railway stretched 547 miles from St. John's to Port aux Basques, and railway workers and their families lived along the line in small isolated settlements. The provincial department of education, the Newfoundland Railway, and the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company devised an…

  6. 47 CFR 95.218 - (R/C Rule 18) What are the penalties for violating these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to Know § 95.218 (R/C Rule 18) What are the penalties for violating these rules? (a) If...

  7. 47 CFR 95.218 - (R/C Rule 18) What are the penalties for violating these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service Other Things You Need to Know § 95.218 (R/C Rule 18) What are the penalties for violating these rules? (a) If...

  8. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, p<0.0001) with no apparent substitution effect to the other platforms observed. To be cost-effective, the cost of gaining a healthy life year (ICER) should not exceed three times the per capita GDP (US$74,700). The PSD installation would only be cost-effective if the loss of fare revenue and passengers' waiting time, in addition to DALY, were included (ICER: US$65,400), while the ICER based on DALY only would be US$77,900. The challenges of complexity for economic evaluation appear in many community-based health interventions. A more extensive perspective for exploring other outcome measurements and evaluation methods to reflect a fair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  9. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  10. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-07-08

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame.To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme.

  11. Experiment study on RC frame retrofitted by the external structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Junji; Hiroshi, Kuramoto; Taguchi, Takashi; Kamiya, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    A new retrofitting method is proposed herein for reinforced concrete (RC) structures through attachment of an external structure. The external structure consists of a fiber concrete encased steel frame, connection slab and transverse beams. The external structure is connected to the existing structure through a connection slab and transverse beams. Pseudostatic experiments were carried out on one unretrofitted specimen and three retrofitted frame specimens. The characteristics, including failure mode, crack pattern, hysteresis loops behavior, relationship of strain and displacement of the concrete slab, are demonstrated. The results show that the load carrying capacity is obviously increased, and the extension length of the slab and the number of columns within the external frame are important influence factors on the working performance of the existing structure. In addition, the displacement difference between the existing structure and the outer structure was caused mainly by three factors: shear deformation of the slab, extraction of transverse beams, and drift of the conjunction part between the slab and the existing frame. Furthermore, the total deformation determined by the first two factors accounted for approximately 80% of the damage, therefore these factors should be carefully considered in engineering practice to enhance the effects of this new retrofitting method.

  12. Alignment method of off-axis RC reflective optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-min, Zhang; Xing, Song; Zhi-jun, Zhang; Hou, Xiao-hua

    2016-10-01

    Off-axis optical system has a wide application in space optics and remote detective area. The high surface shape accuracy can be ensured with the development of advanced manufacture technique. So the only condition which limits the wide application of off-axis optical system is how to realize the precise alignment of it. Based on a RC reflective optical system whose diameter is 400mm, the alignment method which combines the high resolution initial placement and computer-aided alignment is introduced. By designing a system which can measure the off-axis fabrication and off-axis angle precisely, the high resolution initial placement of off-axis mirror can be ensured with a measurement accuracy of +/-0.05mm and +/-10". The good initial placement can give a good initial state, so the computer-aided model can be converged well. The experiment shows that a system which has a good initial placement could have a good wave aberration of 0.04λ after three times iteration adjustment.

  13. Seismic Rehabilitation of RC Frames by Using Steel Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowrtage, Waiel

    2008-07-01

    Every major earthquake in Turkey causes a large number of building suffer moderate damage due to poor construction. If a proper and fast retrofit is not applied, the aftershocks, which may sometimes come days or weeks after the main shock, can push a moderately damaged building into a major damage or even total collapse. This paper presents a practical retrofit method for moderately damaged buildings, which increases the seismic performance of the structural system by reducing the displacement demand. Fabricated steel panels are used for the retrofit. They are light-weight, easy to handle, and can be constructed very quickly. Moreover, they are cheap, and do not need formwork or skilled workers. They can be designed to compensate for the stiffness and strength degradation, and to fit easily inside a moderately damaged reinforced concrete frame. To test the concept, a half-scale, single-story 3D reinforced concrete frame specimen was constructed at the shake-table laboratories of the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University, and subjected to recorded real earthquake base accelerations. The amplitudes of base accelerations were increased until a moderate damage level is reached. Then, the damaged RC frames was retrofitted by means of steel panels and tested under the same earthquake. The seismic performance of the specimen before and after the retrofit was evaluated using FEMA356 standards, and the results were compared in terms of stiffness, strength, and deformability. The results have confirmed effectiveness of the proposed retrofit scheme.

  14. Torsional Strengthening of RC Beams Using GFRP Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Paresh V.; Jariwala, Vishnu H.; Purohit, Sharadkumar P.

    2016-09-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer as an external reinforcement is used extensively for axial, flexural and shear strengthening in structural systems. The strengthening of members subjected to torsion is recently being explored. The loading mechanism of beams located at the perimeter of buildings which carry loads from slabs, joists and beams from one side of the member generates torsion that are transferred from the beams to the columns. In this work an experimental investigation on the improvement of the torsional resistance of reinforced concrete beams using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) is presented. Total 24 RC beams have been cast in this work. Ten beams of dimension 150 mm × 150 mm × 1300 mm are subjected to pure torsion while fourteen beams of 150 mm × 150 mm × 1700 mm are subjected to combined torsion and bending. Two beams in each category are designated as control specimen and remaining beams are strengthened by GFRP wrapping of different configurations. Pure torsion on specimens is applied using specially fabricated support mechanism and universal testing machine. For applying combined torsion and bending a loading frame and test set up are fabricated. Measurements of angle of twist at regular interval of torque, torsion at first crack, and ultimate torque, are obtained for all specimens. Results of different wrapping configurations are compared for control and strengthened beams to suggest effective GFRP wrapping configuration.

  15. LaRC-developed catalysts for CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Kielin, Erik J.; Miller, Irvin M.

    1990-01-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have many remote sensing applications from space, airborne, and ground platforms. The NASA Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) system will be designed to measure wind velocities from polar earth orbit for a period of up to three years. Accordingly, this and other applications require a closed-cycle pulsed CO2 laser which necessitates the use of an efficient CO-O2 recombination catalyst for these dissociation products which otherwise would degrade the laser operation. The required catalyst must not only operate at low temperatures but also must operate efficiently for long time periods. The research effort at NASA LaRC has centered around development and testing of CO oxidation catalysts for closed-cycle, pulsed, common and rare-isotope CO2 lasers. Researchers examined available commercial catalysts both in a laser and under simulated closed-cycle laser conditions with efforts aimed toward a thorough understanding of the fundamental catalytic reaction. These data were used to design and synthesize new catalyst compositions to better meet the catalyst requirements for closed-cycle pulsed CO2 lasers. Syntheses and test results for catalysts developed at Langley Research Center which have significantly better long-term decay characteristics than previously available catalysts and at the same time operate quite well under lower temperature conditions are discussed.

  16. Expected damages of retrofitted bridges with RC jacketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, O.; Jara, J. M.; Jara, M.; Olmos, B. A.

    2015-07-01

    The bridge infrastructure in many countries of the world consists of medium span length structures built several decades ago and designed for very low seismic forces. Many of them are reinforced concrete structures that according to the current code regulations have to be rehabilitated to increase their seismic capacity. One way to reduce the vulnerability of the bridges is by using retrofitting techniques that increase the strength of the structure or by incorporating devices to reduce the seismic demand. One of the most common retrofit techniques of the bridges substructures is the use of RC jacketing; this research assesses the expected damages of seismically deficient medium length highway bridges retrofitted with reinforced concrete jacketing, by conducting a parametric study. We select a suite of twenty accelerograms of subduction earthquakes recorded close to the Pacific Coast in Mexico. The original structures consist of five 30 m span simple supported bridges with five pier heights of 5 m, 10 m, 15 m 20 and 25 m and the analyses include three different jacket thickness and three steel ratios. The bridges were subjected to the seismic records and non-linear time history analyses were carried out by using the OpenSEEs Plataform. Results allow selecting the reinforced concrete jacketing that better improves the expected seismic behavior of the bridge models.

  17. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  18. Crack detection of railway turnouts using PZT sensors (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yiqing; Li, Z. G.; Wu, F.

    2014-05-01

    Railway turnouts (railroad switches) are the weakest components of a rail track system. Cracks may occur in the railway turnouts due to cyclic loadings and impact loadings imposed by passing trains. It is of great significance to continuously monitor the health condition of the railway turnouts and promptly detect crack once it initiates. It is well-known that acoustic emission (AE) signals are generated when a crack initiates and propagates. Detecting the high-frequency AE signals by piezoelectric sensors can help identify the crack and its location. This paper reports the design and implementation of a PZT-based system for crack monitoring of railway turnouts. This online monitoring system is activated for signal collection by a trigger system when a train is arriving to pass through the instrumented railway turnout. It mainly detects the AE signals generated when a crack initiates during the train passage or when the initiated crack expands during the passage of a heavy haul wagon. This system has been installed on a railroad line for over one year and has successfully detected the damage occurring at a railroad switch during its service period. This paper also briefs a guided-wave-based system for monitoring of micro-cracks in rail tracks by integrating FBG and PZT sensors.

  19. Railway bridge monitoring during construction and sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1997-05-01

    The Moesa railway bridge is a composite steel concrete bridge on three spans of 30 m each. The 50 cm thick concrete deck is supported on the lower flanges of two continuous, 2.7 m high I-beams. The bridge has been constructed alongside an old metallic bridge. After demolishing this one, the new bridge has been slid for 5 m by 4 hydraulic jacks and positioned on the refurbished piles of the old bridge. About 30 fiber optic, low-coherence sensors were imbedded in the concrete deck to monitor its deformations during concrete setting and shrinkage, as well as during the bridge sliding phase. In the days following concrete pour it was possible to follow its thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and the following thermal and during shrinkage. The deformations induced by the additional load produced by the successive concreting phases were also observed. During the bridge push, which extended over six hours, the embedded and surface mounted sensors allowed the monitoring of the curvature variations in the horizontal plane due to the slightly uneven progression of the jacks. Excessive curvature and the resulting cracking of concrete could be ruled out by these measurements. It was also possible to observe the bridge elongation under the heating action of the sun.

  20. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machelski, Czesław

    2015-12-01

    The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness) become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces), as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell's span, geometry (static scheme) and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure's characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  1. About morphological findings in fatal railway collisions.

    PubMed

    Driever, Frank; Schmidt, Peter; Madea, Burkhard

    2002-04-18

    The autopsy findings in fatal cases of railway collisions of the Bonn Institute of Legal Medicine in 1992-1999 were investigated and compared to the statements in the investigation files of the public prosecutor with regard to classification as accident or suicide as well as with regard to type and speed of collision. Of the 38 deaths, 10 were hit in an upright position, 11 fatal collisions affected persons lying outside the track and 13 were hit and overrun lying inside the track. According to the investigation classification 21 persons committed suicide (56%), while 10 died in an accident (26%). Our survey confirmed the leading role of being over-rolled in a lying position as an indication for suicides, while in accidents the upright hit was most important. With exception of the persons primarily affected between the rails in upright position and over-rolled consecutively an unequivocal assignment of injury patterns to the hit categories was possible. In cases of persons being primarily over-rolled in a lying position especially the criteria (i) opening of body cavities, (ii) organ injuries and (iii) loss of parts of the body allowed for careful conclusion on hit, respectively, overrunning speed.

  2. Simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.

    2014-05-01

    A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.

  3. Formulation Development of Retrocyclin 1 Analog RC-101 as an Anti-HIV Vaginal Microbicide Product▿

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, A. B.; Cost, M. R.; Cole, A. L.; Cole, A. M.; Patton, D. L.; Gupta, P.; Rohan, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    RC-101 is a synthetic microbicide analog of retrocyclin, which has shown in vitro activity against X4 and R5 HIV-1. In an effort to develop a safe and effective RC-101 vaginal microbicide product, we assessed safety in ex vivo macaque and human models and efficacy using in vitro and ex vivo models. A polyvinyl-alcohol vaginal film containing RC-101 (100 μg/film) was developed. Formulation assessment was conducted by evaluating disintegration, drug content, mechanical properties, and stability. Efficacy was evaluated by in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) assay and ex vivo human ectocervical tissue explant model. Ex vivo safety studies were conducted by exposing RC-101 to an excised monkey reproductive tract and excised human ectocervical tissue. RC-101 100 μg films were shown to be safe to human and monkey tissue and effective against HIV-1 in vitro and ex vivo in human ectocervical tissue. The 90% inhibitory concentration (IC90) for RC-101 films at 2,000 μg (IC90 = 57.5 μM) using an ex vivo model was 10-fold higher than the IC90 observed using an in vitro model (IC90 = 5.0 μM). RC-101 films were stable for 1 month at 25°C, with in vitro bioactivity maintained for up to 6 months. RC-101 was developed in a quick-dissolve film formulation that was shown to be safe in an ex vivo model and effective in in vitro and ex vivo models. RC-101 film formulations were shown to maintain bioactivity for a period of 6 months. Findings from the present study contribute to the development of a safe and effective topical microbicide product. PMID:21321138

  4. The Formulated Microbicide RC-101 Was Safe and Antivirally Active Following Intravaginal Application in Pigtailed Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Amy L.; Cosgrove-Sweeney, Yvonne; Rogers, Nicole A.; Ratner, Deena; Sassi, Alexandra B.; Lackman-Smith, Carol; Tarwater, Patrick; Ramratnam, Bharat; Ruchala, Piotr; Lehrer, Robert I.; Waring, Alan J.; Gupta, Phalguni

    2010-01-01

    Background RC-101 is a congener of the antiretroviral peptide retrocyclin, which we and others have reported is active against clinical HIV-1 isolates from all major clades, does not hemagglutinate, and is non-toxic and non-inflammatory in cervicovaginal cell culture. Herein, film-formulated RC-101 was assessed for its antiviral activity in vitro, safety in vivo, retention in the cervix and vagina, and ability to remain active against HIV-1 and SHIV after intravaginal application in macaques. Methodology/Principal Findings RC-101 was formulated as a quick-dissolving film (2000 µg/film), retained complete activity in vitro as compared to unformulated peptide, and was applied intravaginally in six pigtailed macaques daily for four days. At one and four days following the final application, the presence of RC-101 was assessed in peripheral blood, cervicovaginal lavage, cytobrushed cervicovaginal cells, and biopsied cervical and vaginal tissues by quantitative western blots. One day following the last film application, cervical biopsies from RC-101-exposed and placebo-controlled macaques were collected and were subjected to challenge with RT-SHIV in an ex vivo organ culture model. RC-101 peptide was detected primarily in the cytobrush and biopsied cervical and vaginal tissues, with little to no peptide detected in lavage samples, suggesting that the peptide was associated with the cervicovaginal epithelia. RC-101 remained in the tissues and cytobrush samples up to four days post-application, yet was not detected in any sera or plasma samples. RC-101, extracted from cytobrushes obtained one day post-application, remained active against HIV-1 BaL. Importantly, cervical biopsies from RC-101-treated animals reduced RT-SHIV replication in ex vivo organ culture as compared to placebo-treated animals. Conclusions/Significance Formulated RC-101 was stable in vivo and was retained in the mucosa. The presence of antivirally active RC-101 after five days in vivo suggests that RC

  5. Support system for generating statistics of existing railway rolling stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rail transport is a very important element of the transport system in European countries. Assumptions of rail transport has become more and more attractive in both passenger and freight transport. An example of this may be just noisy action "lorries on track", the promotion of intermodal transport. The principal factors affecting the condition of railway traffic safety are: the technical condition of the railway infrastructure, the technical condition of the rolling stock, the operation of crossings. The main purpose of this article is to present a tool to assist generate statistics operation railway wagons. As part of the project telemetric module allows the location of the freight wagon and the state of its load. Computer program supports GPS module will enable the location of a wagon with an accuracy of 1 meter, generate graphs of speed, road grade and load freight wagon.sheet".

  6. Compaction of Railway Ballast During Tamping Process: a Parametric Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saussine, G.; Azéma, E.; Perales, R.; Radjaï, F.

    2009-06-01

    We characterize an industrial process currently used on railway track: tamping operation. This process is employed in order to restore the geometry of railway track distorted by train traffics. The main goal is to compact the granular material under the sleepers supporting the railroad squeezing and vibrations. We focus on different phases of the tamping process, namely the penetration of tamping tines into the ballast and squeezing of ballast between tines. Our numerical simulations of three-dimensional discrete polyhedral grains allow us to investigate the influence of vibration frequency on the compaction level at the end of the process, the role of velocity of tamping tines during penetration phase and the mechanism of compaction of a confined granular layer under horizontal vibrations. For each tamping phase, an optimal frequency is proposed, and an analysis of the full process on the samples representing a portion of the railway track enables us to access the influence of various parameters required to optimize the process.

  7. Determinants of sleepiness at work among railway control workers.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, Teresa; Carvalhais, José; Neto, Catarina; Teles, Júlia; Noriega, Paulo; Rebelo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades the control of the Portuguese railway network has become much more centralized in three centres, there integrating the functions of route flow management, electrical control and signalling. This study aimed to investigate the influence of work and individual determinants in sleepiness among railway control workers, namely socio-demographic factors, work ability, psychosocial factors, shiftwork characteristics, fatigue perception, and sleep. Sleepiness by shift was associated with quality of sleep, job satisfaction, fatigue perception, quantitative demands, and age. The results indicate a high prevalence of sleepiness during the night shift and show the relevance of the quality of sleep as a predictor in the three models of sleepiness for morning, afternoon and night shifts. This study, done at the major Portuguese railway control centre, alerted managers to the importance of schedule planning as well as sleepiness prevention plans and makes these results a reference for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fuzzy Temporal Logic Based Railway Passenger Flow Forecast Model

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  9. Seismic impact of the railway on the geotechnical constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus on more ecological means of material and persons transport is still higher. Big loads can be transported on railways more effectively and with lower environment impact than on roads. The geotechnical structures are inherent parts of railway infrastructure, such as embankments, sides of notches and, of course, tunnels, foundation constructions of buildings or pillars of bridges and the others geotechnical constructions (e.g. retaining walls, culverts, transition area of bridges). By train pass, vibrations are caused and these vibrations are relayed to the soil. These vibrations can make adverse impact to surrounding objects and to technologies placed in. This so far uncared-for influence gets into the foreground by current trend of everyday life technical equipment increasing. The article introduces different kinds of geotechnical structures and the influence of by-passing railway transport on their constructions and surroundings. The data are evaluated in the amplitude and frequency domain.

  10. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    PubMed

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  11. An under-designed RC frame: Seismic assessment through displacement based approach and possible refurbishment with FRP strips and RC jacketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, Marco; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Many existing reinforced concrete buildings in Southern Europe were built (and hence designed) before the introduction of displacement based design in national seismic codes. They are obviously highly vulnerable to seismic actions. In such a situation, simplified methodologies for the seismic assessment and retrofitting of existing structures are required. In this study, a displacement based procedure using non-linear static analyses is applied to a four-story existing RC frame. The aim is to obtain an estimation of its overall structural inadequacy as well as the effectiveness of a specific retrofitting intervention by means of GFRP laminates and RC jacketing. Accurate numerical models are developed within a displacement based approach to reproduce the seismic response of the RC frame in the original configuration and after strengthening.

  12. High Temperature VARTM with LaRC Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Jensen, Brian J.; Kellen, Charles B.

    2004-01-01

    Recent work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has concentrated on developing new polyimide resin systems for advanced aerospace applications that can be processed without the use of an autoclave. Polyimide composites are very attractive for applications that require a high strength to weight ratio and thermal stability. Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) has shown potential to reduce the manufacturing cost of composite structures. In VARTM, the fibrous preform is infiltrated on a rigid tool surface contained beneath a flexible vacuum bag. Both resin injection and fiber compaction are achieved under pressures of 101.3 KPa or less. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of the VARTM process for fabrication of void free structures utilizing epoxy resin systems with fiber volume fractions approaching 60%. In this work, the VARTM process has been extended to the fabrication of composite panels from polyimide systems developed at the Langley Research Center. This work has focused on processing LARC(trademark) PETI-8 (Langley Research Center Phenylethynyl Terminated Imide- 8), an aromatic polyimide based on 3,3',4,4' -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, a 50:50 molar ratio of 3,4'-oxydianiline and 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene, with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride as the endcapping agent. Various molecular weight versions were investigated to determine their feasibility of being processed by VARTM at elevated temperatures. An injection temperature of approximately 280 C was required to achieve the necessary viscosity (<5 Poise) for flow at VARTM pressures. Laminate quality and initial mechanical properties are presented for LARC(trademark) PETI-8 and 6k IM7 uniweave fabric.

  13. [The diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport].

    PubMed

    Molodtsov, R N; Shemetova, G N

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the epidemiologic and medical social aspects of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport in 2000-2010 exemplified by Privolzhskiy railroad. The established tendencies in prevalence of pathology of cardio-vascular system in railroad workers makes the issues of practical implementation of priority of prevention in the organization of medical care to this group of patients to come to foreground. The main directions for complex prevention of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport are presented.

  14. [Biosafety at the railway transport objects of the Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Kas'kov, Iu N; Podkorytov, Iu I; Kas'kova, O Iu

    2010-01-01

    The results of a microbiological investigation of drinking water quality were analyzed. Water samples taken from the centralized and noncentralized water supply sources failed to meet hygienic standards in 14-18% of cases and those from water tubes did in 4-6%. Water samples from the household and community water use reservoirs showed the excess of the allowable levels of lactose-positive colibacilli and coliphages, which were 46.5 +/- 16.8 and 10.6 +/- 6.8% per dm3, respectively. L. pneumophila strains were isolated from the drinking water of railway carriages. Proposals are given to improve railway sociohygienic monitoring.

  15. The socio-environmental determinants of railway suicide: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Railway suicide has significant adverse impacts for the victims, their family and friends, witnesses to the incident, general public and train network. There is no previous review on the socio-environmental factors and railway suicide. The research question asked in this review was: ‘What socio-environmental risk and protective predictors are significantly associated with railway suicide?’ Methods The review searched Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Scopus for English-language studies that assessed the associations between socio-environmental (i.e. geographical, physical, economic and social) factors and railway suicide from their inception to June 2013. It was reported based on the PRISMA Statement. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. They were categorised into railway environments (availability of railways and trains, accessibility to railways and familiarity with trains), population characteristics and impact of media reporting. Findings from ecological studies using population level railway suicide data suggested weak and inconsistent evidence for the first two categories. The evidence on the impact of media reporting was moderately strong, with irresponsible media reporting being associated with an increased risk of railway suicide. Conclusions There is a need for further research activity to strengthen evidence about socio-environmental risk factors for railway suicide. The focus of this research should be on the factors that determine individuals’ decisions of using the railway as a method of suicide, with the consideration of a range of geographical, physical, social, and economic factors. PMID:24405530

  16. The socio-environmental determinants of railway suicide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Too, Lay San; Milner, Allison; Bugeja, Lyndal; McClure, Roderick

    2014-01-10

    Railway suicide has significant adverse impacts for the victims, their family and friends, witnesses to the incident, general public and train network. There is no previous review on the socio-environmental factors and railway suicide. The research question asked in this review was: 'What socio-environmental risk and protective predictors are significantly associated with railway suicide?' The review searched Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Scopus for English-language studies that assessed the associations between socio-environmental (i.e. geographical, physical, economic and social) factors and railway suicide from their inception to June 2013. It was reported based on the PRISMA Statement. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. They were categorised into railway environments (availability of railways and trains, accessibility to railways and familiarity with trains), population characteristics and impact of media reporting. Findings from ecological studies using population level railway suicide data suggested weak and inconsistent evidence for the first two categories. The evidence on the impact of media reporting was moderately strong, with irresponsible media reporting being associated with an increased risk of railway suicide. There is a need for further research activity to strengthen evidence about socio-environmental risk factors for railway suicide. The focus of this research should be on the factors that determine individuals' decisions of using the railway as a method of suicide, with the consideration of a range of geographical, physical, social, and economic factors.

  17. Novel railway-subgrade vibration monitoring technology using phase-sensitive OTDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaoyong; Lu, Bin; Zheng, Hanrong; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zhengqing; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui; Fang, Zujie; Zhao, Howell

    2017-04-01

    High-speed railway is being developed rapidly; its safety, including infrastructure and train operation, is vital. This paper presents a railway-subgrade vibration monitoring scheme based on phase-sensitive OTDR for railway safety. The subgrade vibration is detected and rebuilt. Multi-dimension comprehensive analysis (MDCA) is proposed to identify the running train signals and illegal constructions along railway. To our best knowledge, it is the first time that a railway-subgrade vibration monitoring scheme is proposed. This scheme is proved effective by field tests for real-time train tracking and activities monitoring along railway. It provides a new passive distributed way for all-weather railway-subgrade vibration monitoring.

  18. Out of the Autoclave Fabrication of LaRC[TradeMark] PETI-9 Polyimide Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Robert J.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center developed polyimide system, LaRC PETI-9, has successfully been processed into composites by high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (HT-VARTM). To extend the application of this high use temperature material to other out-of-autoclave (OOA) processing techniques, the fabrication of PETI- 9 laminates was evaluated using only a vacuum bag and oven cure. A LaRC PETI-9 polyimide solution in NMP was prepared and successfully utilized to fabricate unidirectional IM7 carbon fiber prepreg that was subsequently processed into composites with a vacuum bag and oven cure OOA process. Composite panels of good quality were successfully fabricated and mechanically tested. Processing characteristics, composite panel quality and mechanical properties are presented in this work. The resultant properties are compared to previously developed LaRC material systems processed by both autoclave and OOA techniques including the well characterized, autoclave processed LaRC PETI-5.

  19. Digital Image Encryption Based on the RC5 Block Cipher Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faragallah, Osama S.

    2011-12-01

    Implementation of the RC5 block cipher algorithm for digital images in different modes of operation and its detailed encryption efficiency analysis are dealt with in this paper. The encryption efficiency analysis of the RC5 block cipher algorithm for digital images is investigated using several metrics including visual testing, maximum deviation, irregular deviation, information entropy, correlation coefficients, avalanche effect, histogram uniformity and key space analysis. The evaluation consists of theoretical derivations and practical experimentation. Experimental results have proved that the RC5 block cipher algorithm can be implemented efficiently for encryption of real-time digital images and demonstrated that the RC5 block cipher algorithm is highly secure from the strong cryptographic viewpoint.

  20. Current and future graphics requirements for LaRC and proposed future graphics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, N. L.; Bowen, J. T.; Randall, D. P.; Gates, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The findings of an investigation to assess the current and future graphics requirements of the LaRC researchers with respect to both hardware and software are presented. A graphics system designed to meet these requirements is proposed.

  1. Psychological reactions of drivers to railway suicide.

    PubMed

    Tranah, T; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    Around 90 London Underground train drivers experience a person jumping or falling in front of their train each year. The majority of these incidents are suicides or attempted suicides. 76 drivers were interviewed in order to assess the range of responses to these incidents. The following psychometric instruments were used: Present State Examination (PSE9); Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Interview; General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28); Impact of Events Scale (IES); Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale; Recent Difficulties/Events scale; Perceived Stress Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). When interviewed 1 month after the incident 13 (17.11%) drivers presented with PTSD. Diagnoses other than PTSD e.g. neurotic depression and phobic state were present in 24 (31.58%) drivers (including 12 of the 13 PTSD cases who had one additional diagnosis). On the basis of diagnoses three groups were identified: Group 1 drivers had PTSD and in most cases an additional PSE9 diagnosis; Group 2 drivers had a PSE9 diagnosis only; Group 3 drivers were not cases. 56 drivers were again interviewed 6 months after the incident to assess duration of caseness and/or symptoms and to identify any cases of delayed onset. Two drivers were still cases at 6 months (neurotic depression and phobic state), no driver presented with PTSD at 6 months. At 6 months there was a significant drop in symptom scores compared with measures taken at 1 month. These results suggest that although approximately one-third of drivers suffered a severe psychological reaction following a railway suicide, when interviewed again 6 months after the incident most drivers reported a marked reduction in symptoms.

  2. The evaluation of the interfacial behavior of LaRC-TPI/Graphite Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogden, A. L.; Wilkes, G. L.; Hyer, M. W.; Loos, A. C.; Muellerleile, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed are the results of several approaches recently considered for improving the interfacial adhesion of LaRC-TPI/graphite composites. Two approaches were investigated, namely altering the matrix and altering the fiber. As a result, three types of LaRC-TPI laminates were produced: amorphous/AS-4, amorphous/XAS, and semicrystalline/AS-4. The laminates were characterized using the transverse tensile test, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and thermal analysis.

  3. The evaluation of the interfacial behavior of LaRC-TPI/Graphite Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogden, A. L.; Wilkes, G. L.; Hyer, M. W.; Loos, A. C.; Muellerleile, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed are the results of several approaches recently considered for improving the interfacial adhesion of LaRC-TPI/graphite composites. Two approaches were investigated, namely altering the matrix and altering the fiber. As a result, three types of LaRC-TPI laminates were produced: amorphous/AS-4, amorphous/XAS, and semicrystalline/AS-4. The laminates were characterized using the transverse tensile test, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and thermal analysis.

  4. 47 CFR 95.623 - R/C transmitter channel frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each R/C transmitter that transmits in the 26-27 MHz frequency band with a mean TP of 2.5 W or less and... other R/C transmitters that transmit in the 26-27 MHz frequency band must be maintained within a... operation in the 72-76 MHz band must be maintained within a frequency tolerance of 0.005%. (c) All...

  5. 47 CFR 95.623 - R/C transmitter channel frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Each R/C transmitter that transmits in the 26-27 MHz frequency band with a mean TP of 2.5 W or less and... other R/C transmitters that transmit in the 26-27 MHz frequency band must be maintained within a... operation in the 72-76 MHz band must be maintained within a frequency tolerance of 0.005%. (c) All...

  6. The evaluation of the individual impact factor of researchers and research centers using the RC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Villafáfila, Amelia; Ramos-Brieva, Jesus A

    2015-01-01

    The RC algorithm quantitatively evaluates the personal impact factor of the scientific production of isolated researchers. The authors propose an adaptation of RC to evaluate the personal impact factor of research centers, hospitals and other research groups. Thus, these could be classified according to the accredited impact of the results of their scientific work between researchers of the same scientific area. This could be useful for channelling budgets and grants for research.

  7. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Methods Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. Results The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Conclusions Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However

  8. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Lin, Qi-Li; Li, Zheng-Guang; Kang, Jian

    2014-03-07

    High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However, it should be pointed out that this study provides

  9. 47 CFR 95.206 - (R/C Rule 6) Are there any special restrictions on the location of my R/C station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... installation. (b) If your R/C station will be constructed on an environmental sensitive site, or will be operated in such a manner as to raise environmental problems, under § 1.1307 of this chapter, you must provide an environmental assessment, as set forth in § 1.1311 of this chapter, and undergo environmental...

  10. 47 CFR 95.206 - (R/C Rule 6) Are there any special restrictions on the location of my R/C station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... installation. (b) If your R/C station will be constructed on an environmental sensitive site, or will be operated in such a manner as to raise environmental problems, under § 1.1307 of this chapter, you must provide an environmental assessment, as set forth in § 1.1311 of this chapter, and undergo environmental...

  11. 47 CFR 95.206 - (R/C Rule 6) Are there any special restrictions on the location of my R/C station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... installation. (b) If your R/C station will be constructed on an environmental sensitive site, or will be operated in such a manner as to raise environmental problems, under § 1.1307 of this chapter, you must provide an environmental assessment, as set forth in § 1.1311 of this chapter, and undergo environmental...

  12. 47 CFR 95.206 - (R/C Rule 6) Are there any special restrictions on the location of my R/C station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... installation. (b) If your R/C station will be constructed on an environmental sensitive site, or will be operated in such a manner as to raise environmental problems, under § 1.1307 of this chapter, you must provide an environmental assessment, as set forth in § 1.1311 of this chapter, and undergo environmental...

  13. 47 CFR 95.206 - (R/C Rule 6) Are there any special restrictions on the location of my R/C station?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... installation. (b) If your R/C station will be constructed on an environmental sensitive site, or will be operated in such a manner as to raise environmental problems, under § 1.1307 of this chapter, you must provide an environmental assessment, as set forth in § 1.1311 of this chapter, and undergo environmental...

  14. 42. January 5, 1934 Manpowered railway on the crest of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. January 5, 1934 Man-powered railway on the crest of Scotts Bluff, C.W.A. labor. All equipmentwas carried by these men, more than a mile from the base to the crest of the bluff, before it was set up for operation. - Scotts Bluff Summit Road, Gering, Scotts Bluff County, NE

  15. [Sanitary epidemiologic safety and technical regulations on railway transport].

    PubMed

    Leksin, A G

    2009-01-01

    The author necessitated that requirements on sanitary and epidemiologic safety of life support systems for engine driver cabin (microclimate maintainance system, protection from vibration and noise, illumination, workplace ergonomics, etc) should be included into technical regulations for railway vehicles, both newly constructed and modernized.

  16. 14. From left to right: steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. From left to right: steam powered Marine Railway Headhouse and Offices, Boiler Room, and Compressor Room, east side; Pier #4 can be seen extending from center of building. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  17. Interaction of railway vehicles with track in cross-winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. L.; Ding, Q. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a framework for simulating railway vehicle and track interaction in cross-wind. Each 4-axle vehicle in a train is modeled by a 27-degree-of-freedom dynamic system. Two parallel rails of a track are modeled as two continuous beams supported by a discrete-elastic foundation of three layers with sleepers and ballasts included. The vehicle subsystem and the track subsystem are coupled through contacts between wheels and rails based on contact theory. Vertical and lateral rail irregularities simulated using an inverse Fourier transform are also taken into consideration. The simulation of steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces on a moving railway vehicle in cross-wind is then discussed in the time domain. The Hilber Hughes Taylor α-method is employed to solve the nonlinear equations of motion of coupled vehicle and track systems in cross-wind. The proposed framework is finally applied to a railway vehicle running on a straight track substructure in cross-wind. The safety and comfort performance of the moving vehicle in cross-wind are discussed. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework and the associated computer program can be used to investigate interaction problems of railway vehicles with track in cross-wind.

  18. An Application of Wedelin's Method to Railway Crew Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Rei; Imaizumi, Jun; Fukumura, Naoto; Morito, Susumu

    So many scheduling problems arise in railway industries. One of the typical scheduling problems is Crew Scheduling Problem. Much attention has been paid to this problem by a lot of researchers, but many studies have not been done to the problems in railway industries in Japan. In this paper, we consider a railway crew scheduling problem in Japan. The problem can be formulated into Set Covering Problem (SCP). In SCP, a row corresponds to a trip representing a minimal task and a column corresponds to a pairing representing a sequence of trips performed by a certain crew. Many algorithms have been developed and proposed for it. On the other hand, in practical use, it is important to investigate how these algorithms behave and work on a certain problem. Therefore, we focus on Wedelin's algorithm, which is based on Lagrange relaxation and is known as one of the high performance algorithms for SCP, and mainly examine the basic idea of this algorithm. Furthermore, we show effectiveness of this procedure through computational experiments on instances from Japanese railway.

  19. Technological Support of Critical Parts for Railway Transport Working Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabets, A. V.; Gabets, D. A.; Markov, A. M.; Radchenko, M. V.; Leonov, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    The materials of complex research of operational properties of a new brand cast iron CHMN-35M. Optimal chemical composition was determined. The obtained results allow to conclude about possibility of its use for the manufacture of critical parts of rolling stock of railway transport, in particular of a side bearing cap

  20. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  1. [The health promotion of the employees of the railway transport].

    PubMed

    Kudel'kina, N A; Shchetinin, A N

    2008-01-01

    The newly developed methodological and technical approaches to the further enhancement of the actual railway transport health care system which is poorly effective in the nowadays social and economic conditions are exposed. The development of the organizational and functional pattern of the primary prevention of non-communicable diseases to promote professional health among railway employees. The priority targets are such key profession of the the railway transport as locomotive crew workers. The overall approach is declared on the basis of the preventive, regular and permanent application of the suite of "health promoting technologies" considering the professional and working conditions, the structure of morbidity, the characteristics of the individual health and life-style of the employees. The outcomes of the carried out preventive activities in the framework of the new functional and structural organization of the ambulatory polyclinical unit of the sectorial health care system demonstrated the trustworthy positive amelioration of health and quality of life among the employees of the railway transport.

  2. [Epidemiological features and causes of railway traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Zhou, D S

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on epidemiological features of railway traffic accidents and factors influencing traffic safety. An analysis of various kinds of railway traffic accidents over 30 years in Nanjing Railway Branch, Showed that railway traffic accidents have become a sort of modern social disease, and had particular epidemiological features. The peak of the epidemic curve appeared cyclically and had a close relation to social disturbances, Frequency of accident occurrence was the highest in the first season (period of spring transport) and the third season (period of high temperature) of the year thus most accidents happen in February and August. Most accidents occurred on Fridays and least on Mondays. Distribution of accidents had obvious "antenna" phenomenon in round graph which had a 24-hour cycle. Analysing the multiple factors influencing traffic safety, the results showed that the upper-limit-age of a train driver should not be more than 50 years old; The phenomenon "bathtub" between personage accident rate and age must be taken seriously. More attention should be paid to the psychological aspects when recruiting train drivers. In our country, it is urgent to set up standard of psychomovement function for choosing train locomotive drivers. Fatigue was one of the direct causes resulting in accident occurrences. No statistical correlation was found between biorhythm and accident occurrence.

  3. Increasing the Operational Stability of Railway Core by Modifying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedoseev, S. N.; Mukhtar, Z. M.

    2015-09-01

    At the present time in conditions of high intensity use of the railways of great importance paid to longer service life the railroad tracks, elements turnout in particular crosspieces. The main element of the railway track turnouts are carrying out a change of direction of movement of trains. Many translations have exhausted their time and are obsolete. From is technical condition turnout's largely dependent reliability of rail transport. Turnouts are the most complicated structure in the railway. Individual elements of the railway line - the spider who perceives high impact loads. Crossings should have sufficient strength and wear resistance because undergo complex dynamic loads. High dynamic impact and wear areas are also experiencing the antennae, which are located near the cores. The basic technological aspects to improve the characteristics steel by modifying. The technology of producing high-manganese steel modified special modifier to improve the structural strength of receiving the item. As a result of a series of experimental heats received the samples that were subjected to mechanical testing. Structural studies have shown improvements steel microstructure as well as its mechanical properties.

  4. 40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, dated July 1937. (Microfiched drawings located at the Denver Service Center, #113/41906-set of 2) IMPROVEMENTS IN SEWAGE TREATMENT AND FILTER CHAMBER. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  5. Physiological effects of railway vibration and noise on sleep.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Ögren, Mikael; Hammar, Oscar; Lindberg, Eva; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-05-01

    This paper evaluates the relative contribution of vibration and noise from railway on physiological sleep outcomes. Vibration from railway freight often accompanies airborne noise, yet is almost totally absent in the existing literature. In an experimental investigation, 23 participants, each sleeping for six nights in the laboratory, were exposed to 36 simulated railway freight pass-bys per night with vibration alone (aWd,max = 0.0204 ms(-2)), noise alone (LAF,max = 49.8 dB), or both vibration and noise simultaneously. A fourth exposure night involved 52 pass-bys with concurrent vibration and noise. Sleep was measured with polysomnography. Cardiac activity was measured with electrocardiography. The probability of cortical arousals or awakenings was greater following all exposures, including vibration alone, than spontaneous reaction probability (p < 0.05). The effects of vibration exposure and noise exposure on changes of sleep stage and arousals were directly additive. Vibration and noise exposure both induced heart rate acceleration above spontaneously expected fluctuations at baseline. The results indicate that vibration and noise are processed in the brain separately yet in parallel, with both contributing towards the likelihood of sleep disruption. The findings show that vibration is of importance when considering the impact of railway freight on sleep.

  6. Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, Penna." This device turned seaplanes ninety degrees in their movement between storage in the hangars (to the left, out of view) and the Delaware River used for take-offs and landings. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Marine Aviation Hangars, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  7. Interaction between a railway track and uniformly moving tandem wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotserkovskiy, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    Interaction among loaded wheels via railway track is studied. The vertical parametric oscillations of an infinite row of identical equally spaced wheels, bearing constant load and uniformly moving over a railway track, are calculated by means of Fourier series technique. If the distance between two consecutive wheels is big enough, then one can disregard their interaction via the railway track and consider every wheel as a single one. In this case, however, the Fourier series technique represents an appropriate computation time-saving approximation to a Fourier integral transformation technique that describes the oscillations of a single moving wheel. Two schemes are considered. In the first scheme, every wheel bears the same load. In the second one, consecutive wheels bear contrarily directed loads of the same magnitude. The second scheme leads to simpler calculations and so is recommended to model the wheel-track interaction. The railway track periodicity due to sleeper spacing is taken into account. Each period is the track segment between two adjacent sleepers. A partial differential equation with constant coefficients governs the vertical oscillations of each segment. Boundary conditions bind the oscillations of two neighbour segments and provide periodicity to the track. The shear deformation in the rail cross-section strongly influences the parametric oscillations. It also causes discontinuity of the rail centre-line slope at any point, where a concentrated transverse force is applied. Therefore, Timoshenko beam properties with respect to the topic of this paper are discussed. Interaction between a railway track and a bogie moving at moderate speed is studied. The study points to influence of the bogie frame oscillations on variation in the wheel-rail contact force over the sleeper span. The simplified bogie model considered includes only the primary suspension. A static load applied to the bogie frame centre presents the vehicle body.

  8. Railway noise annoyance and the importance of number of trains, ground vibration, and building situational factors.

    PubMed

    Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Ögren, Mikael; Jerson, Tomas; Öhrström, Evy

    2012-01-01

    Internationally accepted exposure-response relationships show that railway noise causes less annoyance than road traffic and aircraft noise. Railway transport, both passenger and freight transport, is increasing, and new railway lines are planned for environmental reasons. The combination of more frequent railway traffic and faster and heavier trains will, most probably, lead to more disturbances from railway traffic in the near future. To effectively plan for mitigations against noise and vibration from railway traffic, new studies are needed to obtain a better basis of knowledge. The main objectives of the present study was to investigate how the relationship between noise levels from railway traffic and general annoyance is influenced by (i) number of trains, (ii) the presence of ground borne vibrations, and (iii) building situational factors, such as orientation of balcony/patio and bedroom window. Socio-acoustic field studies were executed in residential areas; (1) with relatively intense railway traffic; (2) with strong vibrations, and; (3) with the most intense railway traffic in the country. Data was obtained for 1695 respondents exposed to sound levels ranging from L(Aeq,24h) 45 to 65 dB. Both number of trains and presence of ground-borne vibrations, and not just the noise level per se, are of relevance for how annoying railway noise is perceived. The results imply that, for the proportion annoyed to be equal, a 5 - 7 dB lower noise level is needed in areas where the railway traffic causes strong ground-borne vibrations and in areas with a very large number of trains. General noise annoyance was twice as high among residents in dwellings with balcony / patio oriented towards the railway and about 1.5 times higher among residents with bedroom windows facing the railway.

  9. 76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lake State Railway Company--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Saginaw... CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for an intra- corporate family transaction. Applicants state that both rail carriers... carrier corporations. This is a transaction within a corporate family of the type specifically...

  10. 77 FR 68886 - Aiken Railway Company, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Lines of Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Aiken Railway Company, LLC--Lease and Operation Exemption--Lines of... pleadings, referring to Docket No. FD 35665 must be filed with the Surface Transportation Board, 395...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Coordinates Leukocidin Expression and Pathogenesis by Sensing Metabolic Fluxes via RpiRc

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Divya; Ohneck, Elizabeth A.; Chapman, Jessica; Weiss, Andy; Kim, Min Kyung; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Zhong, Judy; Shaw, Lindsey N.; Lun, Desmond S.; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Shopsin, Bo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a formidable human pathogen that uses secreted cytolytic factors to injure immune cells and promote infection of its host. Of these proteins, the bicomponent family of pore-forming leukocidins play critical roles in S. aureus pathogenesis. The regulatory mechanisms governing the expression of these toxins are incompletely defined. In this work, we performed a screen to identify transcriptional regulators involved in leukocidin expression in S. aureus strain USA300. We discovered that a metabolic sensor-regulator, RpiRc, is a potent and selective repressor of two leukocidins, LukED and LukSF-PV. Whole-genome transcriptomics, S. aureus exoprotein proteomics, and metabolomic analyses revealed that RpiRc influences the expression and production of disparate virulence factors. Additionally, RpiRc altered metabolic fluxes in the trichloroacetic acid cycle, glycolysis, and amino acid metabolism. Using mutational analyses, we confirmed and extended the observation that RpiRc signals through the accessory gene regulatory (Agr) quorum-sensing system in USA300. Specifically, RpiRc represses the rnaIII promoter, resulting in increased repressor of toxins (Rot) levels, which in turn negatively affect leukocidin expression. Inactivation of rpiRc phenocopied rot deletion and increased S. aureus killing of primary human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the pathogenesis of bloodstream infection in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that S. aureus senses metabolic shifts by RpiRc to differentially regulate the expression of leukocidins and to promote invasive disease. PMID:27329753

  12. Soil and plant contamination with heavy metals in the area of the old railway junction Tarnowskie Góry and near two main railway routes.

    PubMed

    Malawska, M; Wiłkomirski, B

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mo, Zn, Co, Cu) content was determined in soil and plant samples collected in the different areas of the railway junction Tarnowskie Góry, as well as, near two main railway routes, i.e. Warsaw-Gdańsk and Katowice-Gdynia. In Tarnowskie Góry soil and plant samples were collected in four functional parts of the junction, i.e. the rolling stock cleaning bay, platform area, railway siding and loading ramp. It was found that the contamination of soil and plants by heavy metal was the highest in loading ramp. A particularly high pollution level of copper was observed. The contamination level near the railway routes decreased accordingly to the distance from routes which suggests pollutant role of railway transport.

  13. Self-consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, RC and EMIC Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important magnetospheric emission, which is excited near the magnetic equator with frequencies below the proton gyro-frequency. The source of bee energy for wave growth is provided by temperature anisotropy of ring current (RC) ions, which develops naturally during inward convection from the plasma sheet These waves strongly affect the dynamic s of resonant RC ions, thermal electrons and ions, and the outer radiation belt relativistic electrons, leading to non-adiabatic particle heating and/or pitch-angle scattering and loss to the atmosphere. The rate of ion and electron scattering/heating is strongly controlled by the Wave power spectral and spatial distributions, but unfortunately, the currently available observational information regarding EMIC wave power spectral density is poor. So combinations of reliable data and theoretical models should be utilized in order to obtain the power spectral density of EMIC waves over the entire magnetosphere throughout the different storm phases. In this study, we present the simulation results, which are based on two coupled RC models that our group has developed. The first model deals with the large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamic coupling, and provides a self-consistent description of RC ions/electrons and the magnetospheric electric field. The second model is based on a coupled system of two kinetic equations, one equation describes the RC ion dynamics and another equation describes the power spectral density evolution of EMIC waves, and self-consistently treats a micro-scale electrodynamic coupling of RC and EMIC waves. So far, these two models have been applied independently. However, the large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamics controls the convective patterns of both the RC ions and plasmasphere altering conditions for EMIC wave-particle interaction. In turn, the wave induced RC precipitation Changes the local field-aligned current

  14. Self-consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, RC and EMIC Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important magnetospheric emission, which is excited near the magnetic equator with frequencies below the proton gyro-frequency. The source of bee energy for wave growth is provided by temperature anisotropy of ring current (RC) ions, which develops naturally during inward convection from the plasma sheet These waves strongly affect the dynamic s of resonant RC ions, thermal electrons and ions, and the outer radiation belt relativistic electrons, leading to non-adiabatic particle heating and/or pitch-angle scattering and loss to the atmosphere. The rate of ion and electron scattering/heating is strongly controlled by the Wave power spectral and spatial distributions, but unfortunately, the currently available observational information regarding EMIC wave power spectral density is poor. So combinations of reliable data and theoretical models should be utilized in order to obtain the power spectral density of EMIC waves over the entire magnetosphere throughout the different storm phases. In this study, we present the simulation results, which are based on two coupled RC models that our group has developed. The first model deals with the large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamic coupling, and provides a self-consistent description of RC ions/electrons and the magnetospheric electric field. The second model is based on a coupled system of two kinetic equations, one equation describes the RC ion dynamics and another equation describes the power spectral density evolution of EMIC waves, and self-consistently treats a micro-scale electrodynamic coupling of RC and EMIC waves. So far, these two models have been applied independently. However, the large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamics controls the convective patterns of both the RC ions and plasmasphere altering conditions for EMIC wave-particle interaction. In turn, the wave induced RC precipitation Changes the local field-aligned current

  15. Railway crossing risk area detection using linear regression and terrain drop compensation techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Mei; Fu, Zhou-Xing

    2014-06-16

    Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1) we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC) technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2) we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3) we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP) to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas.

  16. Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Railway axles are subjected to cyclic loading which can lead to fatigue failure. For safe operation of railway axles a damage tolerance approach taking into account a possible defect on railway axle surface is often required. The contribution deals with an estimation of residual fatigue lifetime of railway axle with initial inclined surface crack. 3D numerical model of inclined semi-elliptical surface crack in railway axle was developed and its curved propagation through the axle was simulated by finite element method. Presence of press-fitted wheel in the vicinity of initial crack was taken into account. A typical loading spectrum of railway axle was considered and residual fatigue lifetime was estimated by NASGRO approach. Material properties of typical axle steel EA4T were considered in numerical calculations and lifetime estimation.

  17. Development of Automatic Testing Tool for `Design & Coding Standard' for Railway Signaling Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jong-gyu; Jo, Hyun-jeong

    2009-08-01

    In accordance with the development of recent computer technology, the dependency of railway signaling system on the computer software is being increased further, and accordingly, the testing for the safety and reliability of railway signaling system software became more important. This thesis suggested an automated testing tool for coding rules on this railway signaling system software, and presented its result of implementation. The testing items in the implemented tool had referred to the international standards in relation to the software for railway system and MISRA-C standards. This automated testing tool for railway signaling system can be utilized at the assessment stage for railway signaling system software also, and it is anticipated that it can be utilized usefully at the software development stage also.

  18. Railway Crossing Risk Area Detection Using Linear Regression and Terrain Drop Compensation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Mei; Fu, Zhou-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1) we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC) technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2) we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3) we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP) to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas. PMID:24936948

  19. Floating-Point Modules Targeted for Use with RC Compilation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahin, Ibrahin; Gloster, Clay S.

    2000-01-01

    Reconfigurable Computing (RC) has emerged as a viable computing solution for computationally intensive applications. Several applications have been mapped to RC system and in most cases, they provided the smallest published execution time. Although RC systems offer significant performance advantages over general-purpose processors, they require more application development time than general-purpose processors. This increased development time of RC systems provides the motivation to develop an optimized module library with an assembly language instruction format interface for use with future RC system that will reduce development time significantly. In this paper, we present area/performance metrics for several different types of floating point (FP) modules that can be utilized to develop complex FP applications. These modules are highly pipelined and optimized for both speed and area. Using these modules, and example application, FP matrix multiplication, is also presented. Our results and experiences show, that with these modules, 8-10X speedup over general-purpose processors can be achieved.

  20. Floating-Point Modules Targeted for Use with RC Compilation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahin, Ibrahin; Gloster, Clay S.

    2000-01-01

    Reconfigurable Computing (RC) has emerged as a viable computing solution for computationally intensive applications. Several applications have been mapped to RC system and in most cases, they provided the smallest published execution time. Although RC systems offer significant performance advantages over general-purpose processors, they require more application development time than general-purpose processors. This increased development time of RC systems provides the motivation to develop an optimized module library with an assembly language instruction format interface for use with future RC system that will reduce development time significantly. In this paper, we present area/performance metrics for several different types of floating point (FP) modules that can be utilized to develop complex FP applications. These modules are highly pipelined and optimized for both speed and area. Using these modules, and example application, FP matrix multiplication, is also presented. Our results and experiences show, that with these modules, 8-10X speedup over general-purpose processors can be achieved.

  1. Ring closure activates yeast γTuRC for species-specific microtubule nucleation

    PubMed Central

    Kollman, Justin M.; Greenberg, Charles H.; Li, Sam; Moritz, Michelle; Zelter, Alex; Fong, Kimberly K.; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus; Sali, Andrej; Kilmartin, John; Davis, Trisha N.; Agard, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) is the primary microtubule nucleator in cells. γTuRC is assembled from repeating γ-tubulin small complex (γTuSC) subunits and is thought to function as a template by presenting a γ-tubulin ring that mimics microtubule geometry. However, a previous yeast γTuRC structure showed γTuSC in an open conformation that prevents matching to microtubule symmetry. By contrast, we show here that γ-tubulin complexes are in a closed conformation when attached to microtubules. To confirm its functional importance we trapped the closed state and determined its structure, showing that the γ-tubulin ring precisely matches microtubule symmetry and providing detailed insight into γTuRC architecture. Importantly, the closed state is a stronger nucleator, suggesting this conformational switch may allosterically control γTuRC activity. Finally, we demonstrate that γTuRCs have a profound preference for tubulin from the same species. PMID:25599398

  2. RC-QOL score for rotator cuff pathology: adaptation to Italian.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; Osti, Leonardo; Leonardi, Francesco; Denaro, Vincenzo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    We translated and adapted the English RC-QOL (rotator cuff quality of life) questionnaire into Italian and performed reliability and validity evaluations of the Italian RC-QOL version in patients with rotator cuff tears. The RC-QOL English version was translated into Italian by a bilingual orthopaedic surgeon. The back translation of the Italian version into English was performed by another bilingual orthopaedic surgeon. The original version was compared with the back translation. The RC-QOL questionnaire was then administered to 22 subjects (range 45-74 years) with a diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. For test-retest evaluation, the 22 patients were asked to complete the questionnaire at first examination, and 30 min following the end of this examination. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the 22 patients was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.85-0.98), indicating a high reliability. There were no significant differences between the scores immediately after the consultation and 30 min later. The Italian and the English versions of the RC-QOL questionnaire evaluate the same aspects of clinical severity in patients with rotator cuff tears.

  3. SMC proteins constitute two subunits of the mammalian recombination complex RC-1.

    PubMed Central

    Jessberger, R; Riwar, B; Baechtold, H; Akhmedov, A T

    1996-01-01

    Recombination protein complex RC-1, purified from calf thymus nuclear extracts, catalyzes cell-free DNA strand transfer and repair of gaps and deletions through DNA recombination. DNA polymerase E, DNA ligase III and a DNA structure-specific endonuclease co-purify with the five polypeptide complex. Here we describe the identification of two hitherto unknown subunits of RC-1. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the 160 and 130 kDa polypeptides display up to 100% identity to proteins of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subfamilies 1 and 2. SMC proteins are involved in mitotic chromosome segregation and condensation, as well as in certain DNA repair pathways in fission (rad18 gene) and budding (RHC18 gene) yeast. The assignment was substantiated by immuno-cross-reactivity of the RC-1 subunits with polyclonal antibodies specific for Xenopus laevis SMC proteins. These antibodies, and polyclonal antibodies directed against the bovine 160 and 130 kDa polypeptides, named BSMC1 and BSMC2 (bovine SMC), inhibited RC-1-mediated DNA transfer, indicating that the SMC proteins are necessary components of the reaction. Two independent assays revealed DNA reannealing activity of RC-1, which resides in its BSMC subunits, thereby demonstrating a novel function of these proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the association of mammalian SMC proteins with a multiprotein complex harboring, among others, DNA recombination, DNA ligase and DNA polymerase activities. Images PMID:8670910

  4. Development of easy-to-use reverse-phase liquid chromatographic methods for determining PRE-084, RC-33 and RC-34 in biological matrices. The first step for in vivo analysis of sigma1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Marra, Annamaria; Rossi, Daniela; Maggi, Lauretta; Corana, Federica; Mannucci, Barbara; Peviani, Marco; Curti, Daniela; Collina, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Over the years there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic potential for central nervous system pathologies of sigma receptor modulators. The widely studied PRE-084 and our compounds RC-33 and RC-34 are very potent and selective sigma 1 receptor agonists that could represent promising drug candidates for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Herein, we develop and validate robust and easy-to-use reverse-phase chromatographic methods suitable for detecting and quantifying PRE-084, RC-33 and RC-34 in mouse blood, brain and spinal cord. An HPLC/UV/ESI-MS system was employed for analyzing PRE-084 and an HPLC/UV-PDA system for determining RC-33 and RC-34. Chromatographic separations were achieved on Waters Symmetry RP18 column (150 × 3.9 mm, 5 µm), eluting with water and acetonitrile (both containing 0.1% formic acid) in gradient conditions. The recovery of PRE-084, RC-33 and RC-34 was >95% in all the considered matrices. Their limits of quantitation and detection were also determined. Validation proved the methods be suitable for separating tested compounds from endogenous interferences, being characterized by good sensitivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. A preliminary central nervous system distribution study showed a high distribution of RC-33 in brain and spinal cord, with concentration values well above the determined limit of quantitation. The proposed methods will be used in future preclinical investigations.

  5. The Safety Related Software for Railway Control with Respect to Automatic Level Crossing Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Trzaska-Rycaj, Katarzyna

    The paper deals with design problems of correct and high reliable software for railway traffic control systems. The correct software (corresponding to formal or semi-formal criteria) has an important part in safety related (SIL4) railway control systems. The paper treats about actual state of art in design of safety related software for railway application. The proposed methods, recommended by CENELEC and UIC are introduced to example of automatic level crossing signaling system.

  6. [Effects of the nature of work on the health status of traffic controllers of railway transport].

    PubMed

    Elizarov, B B; Kudrin, V A; Ovechkina, Zh V

    1995-01-01

    The work of railway traffic controllers involves emotional strain and, hence, is associated with a rather high morbidity. Circulatory disorders occurred in this population 1.9 times more frequently and gastrointestinal disturbances 2.2 times more often than in other workers of railway transport. These data necessitated development of sanitary and hygienic recommendations aimed at improvement of the working conditions for railway traffic controllers.

  7. [Occupational hygiene of railway transport workers as a specific branch of occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, Iu N; Suvorov, S V

    1992-01-01

    Occupational hygiene of the railway transport is a well defined sphere of knowledge. It is closely connected with the general occupational medicine and yet occupies a significant place in the railway medicine. Occupational medicine of the railway transport is based on results of sciences connected with each other and at the same time it serves for the favourable research is included sciences, such as occupational physiology and hygiene pathology, sanitary technics, chemistry, acoustics et al.

  8. Individual and community factors for railway suicide: a matched case-control study in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Too, Lay San; Spittal, Matthew J; Bugeja, Lyndal; McClure, Roderick; Milner, Allison

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to simultaneously examine individual- and community-level factors associated with railway suicide. We performed a case-control study in Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2012. Data on cases of railway suicide were obtained from the National Coronial Information System (a database of coronial investigations). Controls were living individuals randomly selected from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia study, matching to cases on age groups, sex and year of exposures. A conditional logistic regression model was used to assess the individual-level and community-level influences on individual odds of railway suicide, controlling for socioeconomic status. Individual-level diagnosed mental illness increased railway suicide odds by six times [95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 9.2]. Community-level factors such as living in an area with a presence of railway tracks [odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95 % CI 1.2, 2.8], within a city (OR 3.2, 95 % CI 1.9, 5.4), and with a higher overall suicide rate (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) were independently associated with greater individual odds of railway suicide compared to living in an area without a presence of railway tracks, outside a city, and with a relatively lower overall suicide rate. The effects of mental illness and high incidence of overall suicides are prominent, but not specific on railway suicide. The effects of presence of railway tracks and city residence suggest the importance of accessibility to the railways for individual risk of railway suicide. Prevention efforts should focus on vulnerable people live in areas with easy access to the railways.

  9. Railway suicide attempts are associated with amount of sunlight in recent days.

    PubMed

    Kadotani, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yumiko; Sozu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relationship between hours of sunlight and railway suicide attempts, 3-7 days before these attempts. All railway suicide attempts causing railway suspensions or delays of 30 min or more between 2002 and 2006. We used a linear probability model to assess this relationship. This study was conducted at Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Osaka prefectures in Japan. Data were collected from the railway delay incident database of the Japanese Railway Technical Research Institute and public weather database of the Japan Meteorological Agency. About 971 railway suicides attempts occurred between 2002 and 2006 in Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Osaka. Less sunlight in the 7 days leading up to the railway suicide attempts was associated with a higher proportion of attempts (p=0.0243). Sunlight over the 3 days before an attempt had a similar trend (p=0.0888). No difference was found in sunlight hours between the days with (median: 5.6 [IQR: 1.1-8.8]) and without (median: 5.7 [IQR: 1.0-8.9]) railway suicide attempts in the evening. Finally, there was no apparent correlation between the railway suicide attempts and the monthly average sunlight hours of the attempted month or those of a month before. Railway suicides were not the main suicidal methods in Japan, We observed an increased proportion of railway suicide attempts after several days without sunlight. Light exposure (blue light or bright white light) in trains may be useful in reducing railway suicides, especially when consecutive days without sunshine are forecasted. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in relation to proximity to railways.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, H O; Hammal, D M; Dummer, T J B; Parker, L; Bithell, J F

    2003-03-10

    We investigated whether living close to railway lines is a risk factor for childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in electoral wards in England and Wales, 1966-1987. The national rail network, 1966-1987, was digitised and the numbers of cases in each ward were related to two measures of environmental exposure to railways: a proximity and a density function, contributions to these functions being weighted by the frequency of use and time in use of each stretch of railway. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios in relation to these measures of exposure to railways, both unadjusted and adjusted for population mixing. We found no association between risk of leukaemia and railway proximity (unadjusted rate ratio for trend from the lowest to the median value=1.006, 95% CI: 0.998 - 1.013, P=0.14) and a very small association with railway density, of marginal statistical significance (rate ratio for trend=1.001, 95% CI: 1.000 - 1.003, P=0.05). This effect depended on two deprived, urban wards with high railway density and high population mixing and became nonsignificant (P=0.09) after allowing for population mixing. The very weak association between railway density and risk of childhood leukaemia is likely to be a consequence of the association between population mixing and proximity to railways in very deprived, urban wards.

  11. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2016-04-20

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  12. [On the epidemic of cholera and its prevention and control by the railway authorities in 1932].

    PubMed

    Huang, H P; Song, M H

    2016-01-28

    In 1932, the epidemic of cholera in China was serious, spreading to all provinces nationwide, causing heavy casualties. In order to prevent cholera epidemics spread along the railway line, the National Government Ministry of Railways and the local railway administration had taken all countermeasures, including the promulgation of epidemic prevention laws and regulations, quarantine, isolated check-up, disinfection, vaccination and even interruption of traffic. The measures of railway authorities had achieved a certain success. In August 1932, cholera epidemic began to subside gradually.

  13. LaRC-TPI 1500 composites fabricated using an aqueous slurry process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Hirt, Douglas E.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1990-01-01

    Unidirectional composites from unsized carbon fiber and LaRC-TPI matrix material were fabricated using 'high flow' and'medium flow' grades of the LaRC-TPI 1500 series of polyimides. Prepreg was drum-wound from a slurry composed of the polyimide powder dispersed in an aqueous solution of LaRC-TPI poly(amide acid). The poly(amide acid) was found to be an effective binding agent in the prepregging process. Composite short beam shear and flexure properties were measured at room and elevated temperatures (to 177 C) with both dry and moisture-saturated specimens. The mechanical properties observed for composites fabricated from the high and medium flow materials were virtually identical. Additionally, double cantilever beam measurements showed nearly equivalent fracture toughness for the two composite materials.

  14. Modeling of R/C Servo Motor and Application to Underactuated Mechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Masato; Kitayoshi, Ryohei; Wada, Takashi; Maruta, Ichiro; Sugie, Toshiharu

    An R/C servo motor is a compact package of a DC geard-motor associated with a position servo controller. They are widely used in small-sized robotics and mechatronics by virtue of their compactness, easiness-to-use and high/weight ratio. However, it is crucial to clarify their internal model (including the embedded position servo) in order to improve control performance of mechatronic systems using R/C servo motors, such as biped robots or underactuted sysyems. In this paper, we propose a simple and realistic internal model of the R/C servo motors including the embedded servo controller, and estimate their physical parameters using continuous-time system identification method. We also provide a model of reference-to-torque transfer function so that we can estimate the internal torque acting on the load.

  15. Predictive validity of the MMPI-2 clinical, PSY-5, and RC scales for therapy disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Wubbo; Tiemens, Bea G; Verheul, Roel; Meerman, Anke; Egger, Jos; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    2012-11-01

    Impulsive acts, parasuicidal behavior, and other therapy disruptive incidents occur frequently in the treatment of patients with personality disorders and increase the risk that patients will drop out of treatment. This study examined the predictive validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) and Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales for therapy disruptive behavior and compared them with the original clinical scales. Using an inventory, the treatment staff recorded the therapy disruptive behavior of 104 patients with personality disorders who were receiving inpatient psychotherapy. Both the RC and the PSY-5 scales predicted several categories of therapy disruptive behavior, and both scales predicted more categories of therapy disruptive behavior than the original clinical scales. Anger outbursts were predicted especially well by a combination of two of the RC scales. The information about the MMPI-2 obtained in this study may be helpful in case formulation when initiating inpatient treatment for patients with personality disorders.

  16. Prediction of the Fundamental Period of Infilled RC Frame Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Asteris, Panagiotis G; Tsaris, Athanasios K; Cavaleri, Liborio; Repapis, Constantinos C; Papalou, Angeliki; Di Trapani, Fabio; Karypidis, Dimitrios F

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value.

  17. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  18. Users guide: The LaRC human-operator-simulator-based pilot model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, E. H.; Waller, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    A Human Operator Simulator (HOS) based pilot model has been developed for use at NASA LaRC for analysis of flight management problems. The model is currently configured to simulate piloted flight of an advanced transport airplane. The generic HOS operator and machine model was originally developed under U.S. Navy sponsorship by Analytics, Inc. and through a contract with LaRC was configured to represent a pilot flying a transport airplane. A version of the HOS program runs in batch mode on LaRC's (60-bit-word) central computer system. This document provides a guide for using the program and describes in some detail the assortment of files used during its operation.

  19. RC64, a Rad-Hard Many-Core High-Performance DSP for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginosar, Ran; Aviely, Peleg; Liran, Tuvia; Alon, Dov; Mandler, Alberto; Lange, Fredy; Dobkin, Reuven; Goldberg, Miki

    2014-08-01

    RC64, a novel rad-hard 64-core signal processing chip targets DSP performance of 75 GMACs (16bit), 150 GOPS and 20 single precision GFLOPS while dissipating less than 10 Watts. RC64 integrates advanced DSP cores with a multi-bank shared memory and a hardware scheduler, also supporting DDR2/3 memory and twelve 2.5 Gbps full duplex high speed serial links using SpaceFibre and other protocols. The programming model employs sequential fine-grain tasks and a separate task map to define task dependencies. RC64 is implemented as a 300 MHz integrated circuit on a 65nm CMOS technology, assembled in hermetically sealed ceramic CCGA624 package and qualified to the highest space standards.

  20. RC64, a Rad-Hard Many-Core High- Performance DSP for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginosar, Ran; Aviely, Peleg; Gellis, Hagay; Liran, Tuvia; Israeli, Tsvika; Nesher, Roy; Lange, Fredy; Dobkin, Reuven; Meirov, Henri; Reznik, Dror

    2015-09-01

    RC64, a novel rad-hard 64-core signal processing chip targets DSP performance of 75 GMACs (16bit), 150 GOPS and 38 single precision GFLOPS while dissipating less than 10 Watts. RC64 integrates advanced DSP cores with a multi-bank shared memory and a hardware scheduler, also supporting DDR2/3 memory and twelve 3.125 Gbps full duplex high speed serial links using SpaceFibre and other protocols. The programming model employs sequential fine-grain tasks and a separate task map to define task dependencies. RC64 is implemented as a 300 MHz integrated circuit on a 65nm CMOS technology, assembled in hermetically sealed ceramic CCGA624 package and qualified to the highest space standards.

  1. RC64: A Many-Core High-Performance Digital Signal Processor for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginosar, Ran; Aviely, Peleg; Liran, Tuvia; Alon, Dov; Dobkin, Reuven; Goldberg, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The space industry suffers from a lack of space- qualified high-performance processor that can execute “next-generation” DSP and other applications. RC64, a novel 64-core many-core processing chip is developed to answer that need and deliver 10,000 MIPS and 2,500 MFLOS while dissipating only 3 Watts. RC64 employs a multi-bank shared memory and a hardware scheduler. The programming model employs sequential fine-grain tasks and a separate task map to define task dependencies. RC64 is implemented as a 200 MHz 130nm CMOS ASIC, assembled in hermetically sealed ceramic QFP package and qualified to the highest space standards.

  2. Hypomethylation of IL17RC Promoter Associates with Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lai; Liu, Baoying; Tuo, Jingsheng; Shen, Defen; Chen, Ping; Li, Zhiyu; Liu, Xunxian; Ni, Jia; Dagur, Pradeep; Sen, H. Nida; Jawad, Shayma; Ling, Diamond; Park, Stanley; Chakrabarty, Sagarika; Meyerle, Catherine; Agron, Elvira; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.; McCoy, J. Philip; Blum, Emily; Francis, Peter J.; Klein, Michael L.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Baird, Paul N.; Chan, Chi-Chao; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population worldwide. While recent studies have demonstrated strong genetic associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms within a number of genes and AMD, other modes of regulation are also likely to play a role in its etiology. We identified a significantly decreased level of methylation on the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients. Further, we showed that hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter in AMD patients led to an elevated expression of its protein and mRNA in peripheral blood as well as in the affected retina and choroid, suggesting that the DNA methylation pattern and expression of IL17RC may potentially serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of AMD and likely plays a role in disease pathogenesis. PMID:23177625

  3. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  4. Energy transfer dynamics in an RC-LH1-PufX tubular photosynthetic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, J.; Strümpfer, J.; Şener, M.; Qian, P.; Hunter, C. N.; Schulten, K.

    2010-08-01

    Light absorption and the subsequent transfer of excitation energy are the first two steps in the photosynthetic process, carried out by protein-bound pigments, mainly bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), in photosynthetic bacteria. BChls are anchored in light-harvesting (LH) complexes, such as light-harvesting complex I (LH1), which directly associates with the reaction center (RC), forming the RC-LH1 core complex. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, RC-LH1 core complexes contain an additional protein, PufX, and assemble into dimeric RC-LH1-PufX core complexes. In the absence of LH complex II (LH2), the former complexes can aggregate into a helically ordered tubular photosynthetic membrane. We have examined the excitation transfer dynamics in a single RC-LH1-PufX core complex dimer using the hierarchical equations of motion for dissipative quantum dynamics that accurately, yet in a computationally costly manner, treat the coupling between BChls and their protein environment. A widely employed description, the generalized Förster (GF) theory, was also used to calculate the transfer rates of the same excitonic system in order to verify the accuracy of this computationally cheap method. Additionally, in light of the structural uncertainties in the Rba. sphaeroides RC-LH1-PufX core complex, geometrical alterations were introduced into the BChl organization. It is shown that the energy transfer dynamics are not affected by the considered changes in the BChl organization and that the GF theory provides accurate transfer rates. An all-atom model for a tubular photosynthetic membrane is then constructed on the basis of electron microscopy data, and the overall energy transfer properties of this membrane are computed.

  5. Railway monitoring and train tracking by fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennella, F.; Laudati, A.; Esposito, M.; Cusano, A.; Cutolo, A.; Giordano, M.; Campopiano, S.; Breglio, G.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate the efficiency of fiber Bragg grating sensors to be used for in situ railway monitoring and train tracking applications. In the specific case, FBGs (Fiber Bragg Gratings) sensors have been bonded to rails in order to perform two different kinds of measurements: dynamic strain to analyze the characteristic frequency response of the rail and train tracking (speed and rail deformation when loaded by running trains). The efficiency of the sensing system has been verified in terms of significance of the information retrieved by the sensing data resolution and the high speed response. The obtained results confirm the real possibility to adopt fiber optic sensors based on FBG technology as excellent devices to ensure multipoint monitoring of railway structures taking advantages of the typical peculiarities of FBG such as long distance interrogation, easy multiplexing, electromagnetic interferences immunity.

  6. General topologic environment of the Russian railway network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A.; Rossodivita, A.; Kinash, N.; Trufanov, A.; Berestneva, O.

    2017-01-01

    Basic structural properties of Russian railways are explored through the complex network scope. We imply ontology where railway stations portray nodes, while links are represented by trains plying among stations. The information L- network model founded on route is built and its topology is compared with Indian and Pakistan analogues. The network model demonstrates small world properties and its assortative nature. Structural vulnerability is assessed for random attacks, and those on degree and strength targets. Taking into account series of the node centralities, the most important sites are identified as those that could help in clarifying the sensitive points in the network. These sites should be in the focus of pre-protection and post hazard recovery. Also, a P-model is touched and an S- and H- model idea is proposed for further analysis of transportation networks.

  7. Railway network design with multiple project stages and time sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuby, Michael; Xu, Zhongyi; Xie, Xiaodong

    This paper presents a spatial decision support system for network design problems in which different kinds of projects can be built in stages over time. It was developed by the World Bank and China's Ministry of Railways to plan investment strategies for China's overburdened railway system. We first present a mixed-integer program for the single-period network design problem with project choices such as single or multiple tracks and/or electrification with economies of scale. Then, because such projects can be built all at once or in stages, we developed a heuristic backwards time sequencing procedure with a cost adjustment factor to solve the ``project staging'' problem. Other innovations include a preloading routine; coordinated modeling of arcs, paths, and corridors; and a custom-built GIS.

  8. Modern techniques for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngigi, R. W.; Pislaru, C.; Ball, A.; Gu, F.

    2012-05-01

    A modern railway system relies on sophisticated monitoring systems for maintenance and renewal activities. Some of the existing conditions monitoring techniques perform fault detection using advanced filtering, system identification and signal analysis methods. These theoretical approaches do not require complex mathematical models of the system and can overcome potential difficulties associated with nonlinearities and parameter variations in the system. Practical applications of condition monitoring tools use sensors which are mounted either on the track or rolling stock. For instance, monitoring wheelset dynamics could be done through the use of track-mounted sensors, while vehicle-based sensors are preferred for monitoring the train infrastructure. This paper attempts to collate and critically appraise the modern techniques used for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics by analysing the advantages and shortcomings of these methods.

  9. Development of Hydraulic Friction Brake for Railway Rolling Stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenvisuwat, Thum; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kitagawa, Ato

    A novel hydraulic brake pressure control (BPC) valve for the railway rolling stock was proposed in the part I of this study. As a second report, this paper is concerned with the dynamic analysis and the performance evaluation of the hydraulic brake system using the BPC valve. In order to analyze the behavior of the BPC valve, a simplified transfer function and a nonlinear model of the valve are derived respectively. By use of simple linear model, it is achieved to determine the initial values of essential parameter simply. In addition, it is also achieved to investigate overall dynamic performance of brake system and to evaluate the effect of design parameters through the numerical analysis using detailed nonlinear model. The validity of mathematical models is confirmed by experiments. Finally, the performance of the hydraulic brake system using newly manufactured BPC valve is confirmed with an actual braking device of the E2 series Shinkansen railway.

  10. Use of imazapyr against Equisetum arvense on Swedish railway tracks.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet

    2004-06-01

    Since glyphosate has been used extensively for weed control in Swedish railway tracks, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L), previously relatively rare, has become very common. Glyphosate, although effective against most other weeds found on railway tracks, gives poor control of E. arvense, so that heavy infestation with this weed is now common. Imazapyr (applied as a 250g AE litre(-1) SL, Arsenal) has controlled E. arvense, but is known to be very mobile. Adequate control of the weed requires application of > or = 4 litres ha(-1) of imazapyr SL but environmental factors preclude the use of > 2 litres ha(-1). A suitable strategy was found to be one application of imazapyr SL at 2 litres ha(-1) in each of two successive years but best weed control was obtained by supplementing imazapyr in the first year with glyphosate 360 g AE litre(-1) SL (RoundUp Bio) at 3 litres ha(-1).

  11. The snap-back effect of an RC-IGBT and its simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenliang, Zhang; Xiaoli, Tian; Jingfei, Tan; Yangjun, Zhu

    2013-07-01

    The RC-IGBT (reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistor) is a new kind of power semiconductor device which has many advantages such as smaller chip size, higher power density, lower manufacturing cost, softer turn off behavior, and better reliability. However, its performance has a number of drawbacks, such as the snap-back effect. In this paper, an introduction about the snap-back effect of the RC-IGBT is given firstly. Then the physical explanations are presented with two simplified models. After that, some numerical simulations are carried out to verify the correctness of the models.

  12. Dynamic Characteristics of a Model and Prototype for 3D-RC Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniuddin, Md. Khaja; Vasanthalakshmi, G.; Chethan, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh

    2016-06-01

    Infill walls provide durable and economical partitions that have relatively excellent thermal and sound insulation with high fire resistance. Monolithic infilled walls are provided within RC structures without being analyzed as a combination of concrete and brick elements, although in reality they act as a single unit during earthquakes. The performance of such structures during earthquakes has proved to be superior in comparison to bare frames in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation. To know the dynamic characteristics of monolithic infill wall panels and masonry infill, modal, response spectrum and time history analyses have been carried out on a model and prototype of a 3D RC structure for a comparative study.

  13. The effect of using RC prep during root canal preparation on the incidence of dentinal defects.

    PubMed

    Adl, Alireza; Sedigh-Shams, Mahdi; Majd, Marjan

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of using RC Prep (Well-Prep, Vericom Co, Anyang, Korea) during root canal preparation on the incidence of defects in root canal walls. One hundred extracted mandibular incisors with single canals were randomly divided into 1 control group and 4 experimental groups (n = 20). The teeth in group 1 (control) were coronally flared with Gates Glidden drills (Mani, Japan), but no further preparation was made. All teeth in the experimental groups were first coronally flared with Gates Glidden drills and then prepared similarly by means of ProTaper instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The difference between the experimental groups was the following: in group 2, saline was used as an irrigation solution without the application of RC Prep; in group 3, teeth were irrigated with saline, and RC Prep was also applied to canals before the insertion of each file; in group 4, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was used for irrigation without the application of RC Prep; and in group 5, both NaOCl and RC Prep were used. The apical root surface and horizontal sections 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex were observed under a microscope. The presence of cracks was noted. The chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis of differences between and among the groups. A significant difference was found between and among the 5 groups (P < .05). Group 4 (NaOCl), which had the highest number of cracked teeth, was significantly different from group 1 (control) (P < .05). RC Prep, with both saline and NaOCl, had no significant effect on the incidence of microcrack formation (P > .05). When data were pooled, regardless of whether RC Prep was used, there was a significant difference between saline (groups 2 + 3) and NaOCl (groups 4 + 5) (P < .05). RC Prep was unable to reduce the risk of dentinal defects. NaOCl caused more defects compared with saline. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. An optimization approach for design of RC beams subjected to flexural and shear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Bekdaş, Gebrail

    2013-10-01

    A random search technique (RST) is proposed for the optimum design of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with minimum material cost. Cross-sectional dimensions and reinforcement bars are optimized for different flexural moments and shear forces. The optimization of reinforcement bars includes number and diameter of longitudinal bars for flexural moments. Also, stirrup reinforcements are designed for shear forces. The optimization is performed according to design procedure given in ACI-318 (Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete). The approach is effective for the detailed design of RC beams ensuring safety and application conditions.

  15. Combining LaRC-TPI powder with carbon fiber by electrostatic fluidized bed coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varughese, Babu; Muzzy, John; Baucom, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Thermoplastic polyimide prepreg tow is produced rapidly and efficiently by applying the LaRC-TPI matrix as an electrostatically charged and fluidized powder to electrically grounded and spread carbon fiber tow. The powder is melted after coating to insure adhesion to the fibers and to reduce tow friction. Excellent wetout in towpreg samples is obtained resulting in very flexible prepregs. Processing conditions of this towpreg produced with LaRC-TPI powders from Rogers Corp. and Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals are described. Mechanical properties of the towpreg and unidirectional laminates are presented in detail.

  16. Progress in rare diseases research 2010-2016: an IRDiRC perspective.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Hugh Js; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Lasko, Paul; Lau, Lilian Pl; Jonker, Anneliene H; Cutillo, Christine M; Rath, Ana; Boycott, Kym M; Baynam, Gareth; Lochmüller, Hanns; Kaufmann, Petra; Cam, Yann Le; Hivert, Virginie; Austin, Christopher P

    2017-08-10

    In 2011, the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) was formed to unite public and private sector funders of research, patient advocacy groups, and scientific researchers to advance rare diseases research worldwide. Six years after its official launch, IRDiRC is now reflecting on its progress and achievements toward its ambitious goals for the rare diseases research collective - to develop 200 new therapies and the means to diagnose most rare genetic diseases by the year 2020. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Future of Rare Diseases Research 2017-2027: an IRDiRC Perspective.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher P; Cutillo, Christine M; Lau, Lilian Pl; Jonker, Anneliene H; Rath, Ana; Julkowska, Daria; Thomson, David; Terry, Sharon; de Montleau, Beatrice; Ardigò, Diego; Hivert, Virginie; Boycott, Kym M; Baynam, Gareth; Kaufmann, Petra; Taruscio, Domenica; Lochmüller, Hanns; Suematsu, Makoto; Incerti, Carlo; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Norstedt, Irene; Wang, Lu; Dawkins, Hugh Js

    2017-08-10

    Due to the remarkable global surge in activity in rare diseases research over the last six years, including contributions by the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC), the Consortium's 2020 goals have been largely achieved by 2017. Though these developments are gratifying, enormous challenges remain. With this paradox in mind, IRDiRC set new global rare disease goals for the coming decade with the ultimate aim of improved health for people living with rare diseases worldwide. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for structural and railway applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, H. Y.; Liu, S. Y.; Guan, B. O.; Chung, W. H.; Chan, T. H.; Cheng, L. K.

    2005-02-01

    Historically, due to the high cost of optical devices, fiber-optics sensor systems were only employed in niche areas where conventional electrical sensors are not suitable. This scenario changed dramatically in the last few years following the explosion of the Internet which caused the rapid expansion of the optical fiber telecommunication industry and substantially driven down the cost of optical components. In recent years, fiber-optic sensors and particularly fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have attracted a lot of interests and are being used in numerous applications. We have conducted several field trials of FBG sensors for railway applications and structural monitoring. About 30 FBG sensors were installed on the rail tracks of Kowloon-Canton Railway Corp. for train identification and speed measurements and the results obtained show that FBG sensors exhibit very good performance and could play a major role in the realization of "Smart Railway". FBG sensors were also installed on Hong Kong's landmark TsingMa Bridge, which is the world longest suspension bridge (2.2 km) that carries both trains and regular road traffic. The trials were carried out with a high-speed (up to 20 kHz) interrogation system based on CCD and also with a interrogation unit that based on scanning optical filter (up to 70 Hz). Forty FBGs sensors were divided into 3 arrays and installed on different parts of the bridge (suspension cable, rocker bearing and truss girders). The objectives of the field trial on the TsingMa Bridge are to monitor the strain of different parts of the bridge under railway load and highway load, and to compare the FBG sensors' performance with conventional resistive strain gauges already installed on the bridge. The measured results show that excellent agreement was obtained between the 2 types of sensors.

  19. 9. "SANTA FE RAILWAY SPUR TO OPERATIONAL AREA, DIRECTORATE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. "SANTA FE RAILWAY SPUR TO OPERATIONAL AREA, DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE CAPTIVE TEST, EDWARDS AFB"; Photo no. "11,381 57; G-AFFTC 18 SEPT 57". Test Area 1-115. Photo shows engine no. 712 pulling one car. The superstructure of Test Stand 1-4 is prominent in the background. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Predicting surface vibration from underground railways through inhomogeneous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Simon; Hunt, Hugh

    2012-04-01

    Noise and vibration from underground railways is a major source of disturbance to inhabitants near subways. To help designers meet noise and vibration limits, numerical models are used to understand vibration propagation from these underground railways. However, the models commonly assume the ground is homogeneous and neglect to include local variability in the soil properties. Such simplifying assumptions add a level of uncertainty to the predictions which is not well understood. The goal of the current paper is to quantify the effect of soil inhomogeneity on surface vibration. The thin-layer method (TLM) is suggested as an efficient and accurate means of simulating vibration from underground railways in arbitrarily layered half-spaces. Stochastic variability of the soil's elastic modulus is introduced using a K-L expansion; the modulus is assumed to have a log-normal distribution and a modified exponential covariance kernel. The effect of horizontal soil variability is investigated by comparing the stochastic results for soils varied only in the vertical direction to soils with 2D variability. Results suggest that local soil inhomogeneity can significantly affect surface velocity predictions; 90 percent confidence intervals showing 8 dB averages and peak values up to 12 dB are computed. This is a significant source of uncertainty and should be considered when using predictions from models assuming homogeneous soil properties. Furthermore, the effect of horizontal variability of the elastic modulus on the confidence interval appears to be negligible. This suggests that only vertical variation needs to be taken into account when modelling ground vibration from underground railways.

  1. [Emergency response management near the tracks of the public railway network: special aspects of missions connected with the German national railway system].

    PubMed

    Krämer, P; Aul, A; Vock, B; Frank, C

    2010-11-01

    Emergency response management and rescue operations concerning the railway network in Germany need special attention and implementation in several ways. The emergency response concerning the German national railway network managed by Deutsche Bahn AG is subject to various rules and regulations which have to be followed precisely. Only by following these rules and procedures is the safety of all emergency staff at the scene ensured. The German national railway network (Deutsche Bahn AG) provides its own emergency response control center, which specializes in managing its response to emergencies and dispatches an emergency response manager to the scene. This person serves as the primary Deutsche Bahn AG representative at the scene and is the only person who is allowed to earth the railway electrical power lines. This article will discuss different emergency situations concerning railway accidents and the emergency medical response to them based on a near collision with a high speed train during a rescue mission close to the railway track. Injury to personnel could only be avoided by chance and luck. The dangers and risks for rescue staff are specified. Furthermore, the article details practical guidelines for rescue operations around the German national railway track system.

  2. [Railway use of asbestos-containing rubble: environmental hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Kashanskiĭ, S V; Domnin, S G; Tikhova, T S; Trofimova, E V; Novoselova, T A; Bogdanov, G B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of the gravimetric and counting concentrations of respirable asbestos fibers while working with sand-and-crushed stone mixtures, obtained from the concentration of chrysotile asbestos, at distances of 25, 50, and 100 m from the working place, as well as in a car saloon when the electric train passes along the area of these operations following an hour, a day, and a year after the completion of work, in warm and colds seasons of a year. It is concluded that the use of asbestos-containing sand-and-crushed stone mixtures on the railway leads to a higher anthropogenic asbestos load on the population living in the railway right-of-way, on railway workers and passengers. In this connection, it is necessary to evaluate risk factors of asbestos-induced diseases among the above contingents. The authors consider that due to the fact that asbestos-containing sand-and-crushed stone mixtures are well wetted with water, followed by the formation of a firm surface crust that prevents dust formation, as well as the short duration and rare frequency of operations relating their change, it is necessary to irrigate the repair areas with water or surfactant liquids after work termination.

  3. Railway ground vibrations induced by wheel and rail singular defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Connolly, David P.; Alexandrou, Georgios; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Railway local irregularities are a growing source of ground-borne vibration and can cause negative environmental impacts, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this paper analyses the effect of railway track singular defects (discontinuities) on ground vibration generation and propagation. A vehicle/track/soil numerical railway model is presented, capable of accurately predicting vibration levels. The prediction model is composed of a multibody vehicle model, a flexible track model and a finite/infinite element soil model. Firstly, analysis is undertaken to assess the ability of wheel/rail contact models to accurately simulate the force generation at the wheel/rail contact, in the presence of a singular defect. It is found that, although linear contact models are sufficient for modelling ground vibration on smooth tracks, when singular defects are present higher accuracy wheel/rail models are required. Furthermore, it is found that the variation in wheel/rail force during the singular defect contact depends on the track flexibility, and thus requires a fully coupled vehicle/track/foundation model. Next, a parametric study of ground vibrations generated by singular rail and wheel defects is undertaken. Six shapes of discontinuity are modelled, representing various defect types such as transition zones, switches, crossings, rail joints and wheel flats. The vehicle is modelled as an AM96 train set and it is found that ground vibration levels are highly sensitive to defect height, length and shape.

  4. Efficacy and fate of glyphosate on Swedish railway embankments.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet; Stenström, John

    2005-09-01

    The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, as Spectra (240 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto Europe AB), RoundUp (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto) and RoundUp Bio (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto), have been used for weed control on Swedish railway embankments since 1986. This article summarizes results from studies of the weed effect and behaviour of glyphosate for the period 1984-2003. Studies on a railway embankment with a range of application rates showed excellent weed control at 5 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio. The appearance of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA [(aminomethyl)phosphonic acid] in the embankment, eg mobility and persistence, was also studied. Mobility was low in most cases, the main proportion of both glyphosate and AMPA being found in the upper 30-cm layer although minor amounts penetrated to lower depths. The 50% disappearance time of glyphosate was generally <5 months in railway embankments but cases with longer persistence were found. Transport to the groundwater was observed for glyphosate and AMPA in groundwater pipes along tracks. Downward transport appears to be dependent on the application rate, which should not exceed 3 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio to avoid groundwater contamination. A lower rate of glyphosate mixed with a low rate of another herbicide may achieve acceptable weed control and be environmentally safer. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry

  5. Implementation of a piezoelectric energy harvester in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    With development of wireless sensor technology, wireless sensor network has shown a great potential for railway health monitoring. However, how to supply continuous power to the wireless sensor nodes is one of the critical issues in long-term full-scale deployment of the wireless smart sensors. Some energy harvesting methodologies have been available including solar, vibration, wind, etc; among them, vibration-based energy harvester using piezoelectric material showed the potential for converting ambient vibration energy to electric energy in railway health monitoring even for underground subway systems. However, the piezoelectric energy harvester has two major problems including that it could only generate small amount of energy, and that it should match the exact narrow band natural frequency with the excitation frequency. To overcome these problems, a wide band piezoelectric energy harvester, which could generate more power on various frequencies regions, has been designed and validated with experimental test. Then it was applied to a full-scale field test using actual railway train. The power generation of the wide band piezoelectric array has been compared to a narrow-band, resonant-based, piezoelectric energy harvester.

  6. Bottom to Top Approach for Railway KPI Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarejo, Roberto; Johansson, Carl-Anders; Leturiondo, Urko; Simon, Victor; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    Railway maintenance especially on infrastructure produces a vast amount of data. However, having data is not synonymous with having information; rather, data must be processed to extract information. In railway maintenance, the development of key performance indicators (KPIs) linked to punctuality or capacity can help planned and scheduled maintenance, thus aligning the maintenance department with corporate objectives. There is a need for an improved method to analyse railway data to find the relevant KPIs. The system should support maintainers, answering such questions as what maintenance should be done, where and when. The system should equip the user with the knowledge of the infrastructure's condition and configuration, and the traffic situation so maintenance resources can be targeted to only those areas needing work. The amount of information is vast, so it must be hierarchized and aggregated; users must filter out the useless indicators. Data are fused by compiling several individual indicators into a single index; the resulting composite indicators measure multidimensional concepts which cannot be captured by a single index. The paper describes a method of monitoring a complex entity. In this scenario, a plurality of use indices and weighting values are used to create a composite and aggregated use index from a combination of lower level use indices and weighting values. The resulting composite and aggregated indicators can be a decision-making tool for asset managers at different hierarchical levels.

  7. Red-light traffic enforcement at railway crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidla, Oliver; Loibner, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    The observation and monitoring of traffic witih smart vision systems for the purpose of improving traffic safety has a big potential. Embedded loop sensors can detect and count passing vehicles, radar can measure speed and presence of vehicles, and embedded vision systems or stationary camera systems can count vehicles and estimate the state of traffic along the road. This work presents a vision system which is targeted at detecting and reporting incidents at unsecured railways crossings. These crossings, even when guarded by automated barriers, pose a threat to drivers day and night. Our system is designed to detect and record vehicles which pass over the railway crossing by means of real-time motion analysis after the red light has been activated. We implement sparse optical flow in conjunction with motion clustering in order to detect critical events. We describe some modifications of the original Lucas Kanade optical flow method which makes our implementation faster and more robust compared to the original concept. In addition, the results of our optical flow method are compared with a HOG based vehicle detector which has been implemented and tested as an alternative methodology. The embedded system which is used for detection consists of a smart camera which observes one street lane as* well as the red light at the crossing. The camera is triggered by an electrical signal from the railway as soon ss a vehicle moves over th this line, image sequences are recorded and stored onboard the device.

  8. Railway Track Circuit Fault Diagnosis Using Recurrent Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Tim; Verbert, Kim; Babuska, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Timely detection and identification of faults in railway track circuits are crucial for the safety and availability of railway networks. In this paper, the use of the long-short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network is proposed to accomplish these tasks based on the commonly available measurement signals. By considering the signals from multiple track circuits in a geographic area, faults are diagnosed from their spatial and temporal dependences. A generative model is used to show that the LSTM network can learn these dependences directly from the data. The network correctly classifies 99.7% of the test input sequences, with no false positive fault detections. In addition, the t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) method is used to examine the resulting network, further showing that it has learned the relevant dependences in the data. Finally, we compare our LSTM network with a convolutional network trained on the same task. From this comparison, we conclude that the LSTM network architecture is better suited for the railway track circuit fault detection and identification tasks than the convolutional network.

  9. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    PubMed

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and

  10. Systematic review of research on railway and urban transit system suicides.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Brian L; Bardon, Cécile

    2016-03-15

    We critically review research on railway suicides to inform suicide prevention initiatives and future studies, including who is at risk and why, and behaviours at track locations. Literature was identified from Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and our documentation centre, and contacting 71 railway companies, resulting in 716 articles and eight unpublished reports, with 94 having empirical data on 55 unique studies. Research quality was critically assessed. The quality of studies varies greatly with frequent shortcomings: no justification of sample size, lacking information on the reliability and validity of measures, no explanation nor theoretical understanding of findings. Railway suicides resemble closely people who use other methods, although they tend to be younger. As with other suicide methods, mental health problems are likely to be present. Railway suicide attempters usually die, but most urban transportation systems attempters survive. Railway suicides are rarely impulsive; people usually go to the railway for the purpose of killing themselves. Hotspots have been the focus of some prevention measures. We know little about why people choose railway suicide, but studies of survivors suggest they often thought they would have an immediate, certain and painless death. Media reports on railway suicides can increase their incidence. Most research focuses on the incidence and characteristics of events and attempters. Research has not shown that railway suicides are different from suicides by other means. Better quality research is needed, particularly studies that investigate why people use railways to kill themselves and how railway suicides can be effectively prevented, as well as more evaluations of prevention programmes. Because of significant variations by country and region in characteristics of railway suicides, prevention programmes should conduct a local assessment of the characteristics of attempters and incidents. We need more research on

  11. Railway suicide in England and Wales 2000-2013: a time-trends analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna K; Knipe, Duleeka W; Thomas, Kyla H

    2016-03-15

    In 2010, the "Tackling Suicide on the Railways" programme was launched as a joint initiative among Network Rail, the Samaritans and other key organisations such as the British Transport Police and train operators to achieve a 20% reduction in railway suicides from 2010 to 2015 in Great Britain. We report the most recent age and sex specific trends in railway suicide in England and Wales from 2000 to 2013 and examine whether the initiative's target reduction in railway suicides is likely to be achieved. Population data and suicide mortality data (all methods combined and railway) for England and Wales were obtained from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and used to calculate age and gender specific rates for deaths registered from 2000 to 2013. Data on railway suicides were also obtained from the Rail Safety and Standards Board (RSSB) and compared with ONS data. We used joinpoint regression to identify changes in suicide trends across the study period. The railway was used in 4.1% of all suicides in England and Wales (RSSB data were similar to ONS data for most years). Suicides in all persons from all causes decreased from 2000 to 2007, with small increases from 2008 until 2013; this rise was entirely due to an increase in male suicides. Railway suicide rates increased over the entire study period; the proportion of railway suicides in all persons increased from 3.5 to 4.9% during the study period. This trend was also mainly driven by increases in male suicides as female railway suicide rates remained steady over time. The highest age specific railway suicide rates were observed in middle aged men and women. Although there was no conclusive evidence of an increase in ONS railway suicides, RSSB data showed a statistically significant increase in railway suicides in males from 2009 onwards. The continued rise in male railway suicide in England and Wales is concerning, particularly due to the high economic costs and psychological trauma associated with these

  12. Color Vision and the Railways: Part 3. Comparison of FaLant, OPTEC 900, and Railway LED Lantern Tests.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; Casolin, Armand; Long, Jennifer

    2015-02-01

    The Farnsworth Lantern (FaLant) and the OPTEC 900 are nominated in the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) Color Vision Standard 2. Neither test uses the railway signal color code of red, yellow, and green, and only the OPTEC 900 is commercially available. The Railway LED Lantern Test (RLLT) is based on railway signaling practices in New South Wales, Australia, and is nominated in the Australian railway medical standard. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of the three lantern tests. The RLLT, FaLant, and OPTEC 900 were administered to 46 color vision-normal and 37 color vision-deficient (CVD) subjects. The pattern of errors on the RLLT was different from that of the FaLant and OPTEC 900. This may be accounted for, at least in part, by the different colors and the use of blank presentations in the RLLT. The three lanterns showed agreement in failing 21 and passing 6 of the CVD subjects (72.9%). The lanterns gave different results for 10 CVD subjects (27.9%): n = 5 passed only the RLLT and n = 3 passed only the FaLant; n = 1 failed only the FaLant and n = 1 failed only the RLLT. The overall failure rate by CVD for each lantern was 67.6% (RLLT), 73.0% (FaLant), and 78.4% (OPTEC 900). Despite the different construction principles, the pass/fail levels of the RLLT, FaLant, and OPTEC 900 are comparable and consistent with the performance of other lanterns listed by the CIE for Color Vision Standard 2. The RLLT may be a little easier to pass and is based on the signal color code used and actual signaling practice. We propose that the RLLT is also an appropriate lantern for CIE Color Vision Standard 2.

  13. Perspectives on railway track geometry condition monitoring from in-service railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, P.; Roberts, C.; Yeo, G.; Stewart, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a view of the current state of monitoring track geometry condition from in-service vehicles. It considers technology used to provide condition monitoring; some issues of processing and the determination of location; how things have evolved over the past decade; and what is being, or could/should be done in future research. Monitoring railway track geometry from an in-service vehicle is an attractive proposition that has become a reality in the past decade. However, this is only the beginning. Seeing the same track over and over again provides an opportunity for observing track geometry degradation that can potentially be used to inform maintenance decisions. Furthermore, it is possible to extend the use of track condition information to identify if maintenance is effective, and to monitor the degradation of individual faults such as dipped joints. There are full unattended track geometry measurement systems running on in-service vehicles in the UK and elsewhere around the world, feeding their geometry measurements into large databases. These data can be retrieved, but little is currently done with the data other than the generation of reports of track geometry that exceeds predefined thresholds. There are examples of simpler systems that measure some track geometry parameters more or less directly and accurately, but forego parameters such as gauge. Additionally, there are experimental systems that use mathematics and models to infer track geometry using data from sensors placed on an in-service vehicle. Finally, there are systems that do not claim to measure track geometry, but monitor some other quantity such as ride quality or bogie acceleration to infer poor track geometry without explicitly measuring it.

  14. 77 FR 56910 - Iowa Traction Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Iowa Traction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Traction Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rail Line of Iowa Traction Railroad Company Iowa Traction Railway Company (Iowa Railway), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Iowa Traction Railroad Company...

  15. 77 FR 49862 - Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company-Assignment of Lease Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company--Assignment of Lease Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company and Sierra Northern Railway Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company...) owned by Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP). The Line, known as the Santa Cruz Branch, extends...

  16. 77 FR 69929 - Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins-Continuance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins--Continuance in Control Exemption--Aiken Railway Company, LLC Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation (WCRS) and Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins (the Hawkins) (collectively, Applicants) have...

  17. 77 FR 61049 - Iowa Traction Railway Company-Change in Operators Exemption-Rail Line of Backtrack, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Traction Railway Company--Change in Operators Exemption-- Rail Line of Backtrack, Inc. Iowa Traction Railway Company (Iowa Railway) \\1\\ has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to change operators from Iowa Traction Railroad Company (Iowa Railroad) to...

  18. 76 FR 41559 - Minnesota Commercial Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Washington County, MN 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Minnesota Commercial Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in... 0.51-mile line. Minnesota Commercial Railway Company (MNNR) filed a verified notice of exemption... 55038.\\2\\ \\2\\ MNNR was authorized to lease and operate the line in Minnesota Commercial Railway Company...

  19. [Sociomedical aspects of reduction of risk in the development of occupational diseases and industrial trauma in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Ivanov, V K; Kutovoĭ, V S

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines the main constituents of occupational risk in railway workers, which are based on the sanitary and biomedical criteria of injury safety. Sociomedical aspects of the incidence of railway occupational diseases and injuries are discussed. A list of major occupational factors and causes that determine a high occupational risk in railway workers is given.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…

  1. Study on RC beams using BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianping; Zhou, Zhi; Huang, Ying; Ou, Jinping

    2008-03-01

    Brillouin based fiber optic sensing turns to be a promising technology for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). However, the bare optical fiber is too fragile to act as a practical sensor, so high durability and large range (large strain) Brillouin distributed sensors are in great needs in field applications. For this reason, high durable and large range optical fiber Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis sensors packaged by Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (FRP), named BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF, have been studied and developed. Besides, in order to study the large strain, crack and slip between the rebar and concrete in reinforced concrete (RC) beams using BOTDR(A) technique, two RC Beams installed with BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensors have been set up. And the damage characteristics of the RC beams were investigated by comparing the strain measured by the BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensors and the strain from traditional electric strain gauges. The test results show that the BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensor can effectively detect the damage (including crack and slip) characteristic of RC beam, and it is suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring on concrete structures such as bridge, big dam and so on.

  2. Experimental investigation of RC beams using BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; He, Jianping; Huang, Ying; Ou, Jinping

    2008-04-01

    Brillouin based fiber optic sensing turns to be a promising technology for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). However, the bare optical fiber is too fragile to act as a practical sensor, so high durability and large range (large strain) Brillouin distributed sensors are in great needs in field applications. For this reason, high durable and large range optical fiber Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (Reflectometer) sensors packaged by Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (FRP), named BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF, have been studied and developed. Besides, in order to study the large strain, crack and slip between the rebar and concrete in reinforced concrete (RC) beams using BOTDR(A) technique, five RC Beams installed with BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensors have been set up. And the damage characteristics of the RC beams were investigated by comparing the strain measured by the BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensors and the strain from traditional electric strain gauges and Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors, respectively. The test results show that the BOTDA(R)-FRP-OF sensor can effectively detect the damage (including crack and slip) characteristic of RC beam, and it is suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring on concrete structures such as bridge, big dam and so on.

  3. The values of the parameters of some multilayer distributed RC null networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huelsman, L. P.; Raghunath, S.

    1974-01-01

    In this correspondence, the values of the parameters of some multilayer distributed RC notch networks are determined, and the usually accepted values are shown to be in error. The magnitude of the error is illustrated by graphs of the frequency response of the networks.

  4. 47 CFR 95.207 - (R/C Rule 7) On what channels may I operate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... object or apparatus, except an R/C transmitter), including a model aircraft device (any small imitation of an aircraft) or a model surface craft device (any small imitation of a boat, car or vehicle for...) The following channels may only be used to operate a model aircraft device: MHz 72.01 72.03 72.05 72...

  5. 47 CFR 95.207 - (R/C Rule 7) On what channels may I operate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... object or apparatus, except an R/C transmitter), including a model aircraft device (any small imitation of an aircraft) or a model surface craft device (any small imitation of a boat, car or vehicle for...) The following channels may only be used to operate a model aircraft device: MHz 72.01 72.03 72.05 72...

  6. 47 CFR 95.207 - (R/C Rule 7) On what channels may I operate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... object or apparatus, except an R/C transmitter), including a model aircraft device (any small imitation of an aircraft) or a model surface craft device (any small imitation of a boat, car or vehicle for...) The following channels may only be used to operate a model aircraft device: MHz 72.01 72.03 72.05 72...

  7. Thermodynamically leveraged Tandem catalysis for ester RC(O)O-R' bond hydrogenolysis. scope and mechanism.

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, Tracy L.; Li, Zhi; Assary, Rajeev S.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2015-06-01

    Rapid and selective formal hydrogenolysis of aliphatic ester RC(O)O-R' linkages is achieved by a tandem homogeneous metal triflate + supported palladium catalytic system. The triflate catalyzes the mildly exothermic, turnover-limiting O-R' cleavage process, whereas the exothermic hydrogenation of the intermediate alkene further drives the overall reaction to completion.

  8. The negative differential resistance characteristics of an RC-IGBT and its equivalent circuit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenliang, Zhang; Yangjun, Zhu; Shuojin, Lu; Xiaoli, Tian

    2014-02-01

    A simple equivalent circuit model is proposed according to the device structure of reverse conducting insulated gate bipolar transistors (RC-IGBT). Mathematical derivation and circuit simulations indicate that this model can explain the snap-back effect (including primary snap-back effect, secondary snap-back effect, and reverse snap-back effect) and hysteresis effect perfectly.

  9. Pilot Comments for High Speed Research Cycle 3 Simulations Study (LaRC.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Melvin L. (Editor); Jackson, E. Bruce (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of pilot comments from the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3 Simulation Study (LaRC.1) conducted from January to March 1997 at NASA Langley Research Center. This simulation study was conducted using the Visual Motion Simulator. The comments are direct tape transcriptions and have been edited for spelling only.

  10. Inherited IL-17RC deficiency in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Cypowyj, Sophie; Aytekin, Caner; Galicchio, Miguel; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Nepesov, Serdar; Ikinciogullari, Aydan; Dogu, Figen; Belkadi, Aziz; Levy, Romain; Migaud, Mélanie; Boisson, Bertrand; Bolze, Alexandre; Itan, Yuval; Goudin, Nicolas; Cottineau, Julien; Picard, Capucine; Abel, Laurent; Bustamante, Jacinta; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-05-04

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nail, oral, and genital mucosae with Candida species, mainly C. albicans. Autosomal-recessive (AR) IL-17RA and ACT1 deficiencies and autosomal-dominant IL-17F deficiency, each reported in a single kindred, underlie CMC in otherwise healthy patients. We report three patients from unrelated kindreds, aged 8, 12, and 37 yr with isolated CMC, who display AR IL-17RC deficiency. The patients are homozygous for different nonsense alleles that prevent the expression of IL-17RC on the cell surface. The defect is complete, abolishing cellular responses to IL-17A and IL-17F homo- and heterodimers. However, in contrast to what is observed for the IL-17RA- and ACT1-deficient patients tested, the response to IL-17E (IL-25) is maintained in these IL-17RC-deficient patients. These experiments of nature indicate that human IL-17RC is essential for mucocutaneous immunity to C. albicans but is otherwise largely redundant. © 2015 Ling et al.

  11. Study on shear strengthening of RC continuous T-beams using different layers of CFRP strips

    SciTech Connect

    Alferjani, M. B. S.; Samad, A. A. Abdul; Mohamad, Noridah; Elrawaff, Blkasem S.; Elzaroug, Omer

    2015-05-15

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are externally bonded to reinforced concrete (RC) members to provide additional strength such as flexural, shear, etc. However, this paper presents the results of an experimental investigation for enhancing the shear capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) continuous T- beams using different layers of CFRP wrapping schemes. A total of three concrete beams were tested and various sheet configurations and layouts were studied to determine their effects on ultimate shear strength and shear capacity of the beams. One beam was kept as control beams, while other beams were strengthened with externally bonded CFRP strips with three side bonding and one or two layers of CFRP strips. From the test results, it was found that all schemes were found to be effective in enhancing the shear strength of RC beams. It was observed that the strength increases with the number of sheet layers provided the most effective strengthening for RC continuous T- beam. Beam strengthened using this scheme showed 23.21% increase in shear capacity as compared to the control beam. Two prediction models available in literature were used for computing the contribution of CFRP strips and compared with the experimental results.

  12. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams.

    PubMed

    Shukri, Ahmad Azim; Darain, Kh Mahfuz Ud; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2015-07-08

    Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM) technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels.

  13. The Tension-Stiffening Contribution of NSM CFRP to the Behavior of Strengthened RC Beams

    PubMed Central

    Shukri, Ahmad Azim; Darain, Kh Mahfuz ud; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2015-01-01

    Tension stiffening is a characteristic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams which is directly affected by the bond-slip property of steel bar and concrete interfaces. A beam strengthened with a near-surface mounted (NSM) technique would be even more affected by tension stiffening, as the NSM reinforcement also possess a bond-slip property. Yet assessing how much the tension stiffening of NSM contributes to the behavior of RC beams is difficult due to the fact that bond-slip effects cannot be directly incorporated into a strain-based moment-curvature analysis. As such, the tension stiffening is typically incorporated through various empirical formulations, which can require a great deal of testing and calibrations to be done. In this paper a relatively new method, which can be called the mechanics-based segmental approach, is used to directly simulate the tension stiffening effect of NSM reinforcements on RC beams, without the need for empirical formulations to indirectly simulate the tension stiffening. Analysis shows that the tension stiffening of NSM fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) contributes a significant portion to the stiffness and strength of the strengthened RC beam not only during serviceability, but at all load levels. PMID:28793429

  14. Prediction Model for the Carbonation of Post-Repair Materials in Carbonated RC Structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Lee, Han-Seung; Singh, Jitendra Kumar

    2017-05-03

    Concrete carbonation damages the passive film that surrounds reinforcement bars, resulting in their exposure to corrosion. Studies on the prediction of concrete carbonation are thus of great significance. The repair of pre-built reinforced concrete (RC) structures by methods such as remodeling was recently introduced. While many studies have been conducted on the progress of carbonation in newly constructed buildings and RC structures fitted with new repair materials, the prediction of post-repair carbonation has not been considered. In the present study, accelerated carbonation was carried out to investigate RC structures following surface layer repair, in order to determine the carbonation depth. To validate the obtained results, a second experiment was performed under the same conditions to determine the carbonation depth by the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and Finite Element Method (FEM). For the accelerated carbonation experiment, FDM and FEM analyses, produced very similar results, thus confirming that the carbonation depth in an RC structure after surface layer repair can be predicted with accuracy. The specimen repaired using inhibiting surface coating (ISC) had the highest carbonation penetration of 19.81, while this value was the lowest for the corrosion inhibiting mortar (IM) with 13.39 mm. In addition, the carbonation depth predicted by using the carbonation prediction formula after repair indicated that that the analytical and experimental values are almost identical if the initial concentration of Ca(OH)₂ is assumed to be 52%.

  15. Prediction Model for the Carbonation of Post-Repair Materials in Carbonated RC Structures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Lee, Han-Seung; Singh, Jitendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Concrete carbonation damages the passive film that surrounds reinforcement bars, resulting in their exposure to corrosion. Studies on the prediction of concrete carbonation are thus of great significance. The repair of pre-built reinforced concrete (RC) structures by methods such as remodeling was recently introduced. While many studies have been conducted on the progress of carbonation in newly constructed buildings and RC structures fitted with new repair materials, the prediction of post-repair carbonation has not been considered. In the present study, accelerated carbonation was carried out to investigate RC structures following surface layer repair, in order to determine the carbonation depth. To validate the obtained results, a second experiment was performed under the same conditions to determine the carbonation depth by the Finite Difference Method (FDM) and Finite Element Method (FEM). For the accelerated carbonation experiment, FDM and FEM analyses, produced very similar results, thus confirming that the carbonation depth in an RC structure after surface layer repair can be predicted with accuracy. The specimen repaired using inhibiting surface coating (ISC) had the highest carbonation penetration of 19.81, while this value was the lowest for the corrosion inhibiting mortar (IM) with 13.39 mm. In addition, the carbonation depth predicted by using the carbonation prediction formula after repair indicated that that the analytical and experimental values are almost identical if the initial concentration of Ca(OH)2 is assumed to be 52%. PMID:28772852

  16. Elevation Differences between MMPI-2 Clinical and Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Frequency, Origins, and Interpretative Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L.; Arbisi, Paul A.; Graham, John R.

    2006-01-01

    The frequency, origin, and interpretative implications of elevation differences on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) clinical and restructured clinical (RC) scales were examined. Two large clinical samples consisting of 1,770 outpatients and 2,438 inpatients were used for this study. Three potential factors…

  17. Susceptibility of the MMPI-2 Clinical, Restructured Clinical (RC), and Content Scales to Overreporting and Underreporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Graham, John R.; Arbisi, Paul A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined and compared the susceptibility of three Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scale sets (Clinical, Restructured Clinical [RC], and Content) to over- and underreporting using five analog samples. Two samples of 85 and 191 undergraduate students, respectively, took the MMPI-2 under underreporting versus…

  18. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…

  19. Elevation Differences between MMPI-2 Clinical and Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: Frequency, Origins, and Interpretative Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; McNulty, John L.; Arbisi, Paul A.; Graham, John R.

    2006-01-01

    The frequency, origin, and interpretative implications of elevation differences on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) clinical and restructured clinical (RC) scales were examined. Two large clinical samples consisting of 1,770 outpatients and 2,438 inpatients were used for this study. Three potential factors…

  20. Development of LaRC (TM): IA thermoplastic polyimide coated aerospace wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, Jack

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley has invented LaRC(exp TM) IA and IAX which are thermoplastic polyimides with good melting, thermal and chemical resistance properties. It was the objective of this contract to prepare and extrude LaRC (exp TM) polyimide onto aircraft wire and evaluate the polymers performance in this critical application. Based on rheology and chemical resistance studies at Imitec, LaRC (exp TM) IAX melts readily in an extruder, facilitating the manufacture of thin wall coatings. The polyimide does not corode the extruder, develop gel particles nor advance in viscosity. The insulated wire was tested according to MiL-W-22759E test specifications. The resulting wire coated with LaRC (exp TM) IAX displayed exceptional properties: surface resistance, non blocking, non burning, hot fluid resistance, impulse dielectric, insulation resistance, low temperature flexibility, thermal aging, wire weight, dimensions, negligible high temperature shrinkage and stripability. The light weight and other properties merit its application in satellites, missiles and aircraft applications. The extruded IAX results in a polyimide aircraft insulation without seams, outstanding moisture resistance, continuous lengths and abrasion resistance.

  1. Study on shear strengthening of RC continuous T-beams using different layers of CFRP strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alferjani, M. B. S.; Samad, A. A. Abdul; Elrawaff, Blkasem S.; Elzaroug, Omer; Mohamad, Noridah

    2015-05-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are externally bonded to reinforced concrete (RC) members to provide additional strength such as flexural, shear, etc. However, this paper presents the results of an experimental investigation for enhancing the shear capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) continuous T- beams using different layers of CFRP wrapping schemes. A total of three concrete beams were tested and various sheet configurations and layouts were studied to determine their effects on ultimate shear strength and shear capacity of the beams. One beam was kept as control beams, while other beams were strengthened with externally bonded CFRP strips with three side bonding and one or two layers of CFRP strips. From the test results, it was found that all schemes were found to be effective in enhancing the shear strength of RC beams. It was observed that the strength increases with the number of sheet layers provided the most effective strengthening for RC continuous T- beam. Beam strengthened using this scheme showed 23.21% increase in shear capacity as compared to the control beam. Two prediction models available in literature were used for computing the contribution of CFRP strips and compared with the experimental results.

  2. 47 CFR 95.208 - (R/C Rule 8) How high may I put my antenna?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 8) How high may I put my antenna? 95.208 Section 95.208 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... § 95.208 (R/C Rule 8) How high may I put my antenna? (a) Antenna means the radiating system...

  3. 47 CFR 95.219 - (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? 95.219 Section 95.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... You Need to Know § 95.219 (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? (a) If it...

  4. 47 CFR 95.219 - (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? 95.219 Section 95.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... You Need to Know § 95.219 (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? (a) If it...

  5. 47 CFR 95.219 - (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? 95.219 Section 95.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... You Need to Know § 95.219 (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? (a) If it...

  6. 47 CFR 95.219 - (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? 95.219 Section 95.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... You Need to Know § 95.219 (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? (a) If it...

  7. 47 CFR 95.219 - (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? 95.219 Section 95.219 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... You Need to Know § 95.219 (R/C Rule 19) How do I answer correspondence from the FCC? (a) If it...

  8. 47 CFR 95.215 - (R/C Rule 15) Do I have to limit the length of my communications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (R/C Rule 15) Do I have to limit the length of my communications? 95.215 Section 95.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Radio Control (R/C) Radio Service How...

  9. 75 FR 77044 - Temple & Central Texas Railway, Inc.-Operation Exemption-City of Temple, TX.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Temple & Central Texas Railway, Inc.--Operation Exemption--City of Temple, TX. Temple & Central Texas Railway, Inc. (TCTR),\\1\\ a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of... City of Temple, Tex. (Temple), an approximately 6.277-mile line of railroad, between milepost 0.0, near...

  10. 75 FR 11993 - Grainbelt Corporation-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company and Stillwater Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Grainbelt Corporation--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway... it pertains to supplemental trackage rights granted to Grainbelt Corporation (GNBC) by BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) and Stillwater Central Railroad Company (SLWC) to permit the trackage rights to expire...

  11. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  12. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  13. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  14. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  15. 75 FR 10341 - Montoff Transportation Company, LLC-Acquisition Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...] Montoff Transportation Company, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Montoff Transportation Company, LLC (Montoff), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) its right to reactivate rail service on a 42.80-mile rail-banked...

  16. 78 FR 16569 - Grainbelt Corporation-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Grainbelt Corporation--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Grainbelt Corporation (GNBC), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire from BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), the real property underlying a 178.7...

  17. 76 FR 9634 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Stearns County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Stearns County, MN On January 31, 2011, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) filed with the Surface Transportation Board (Board) a petition...

  18. 76 FR 47645 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has agreed...\\ between the point of switch at Track Station 55 + 65 and the point of switch at Track Station 30 + 70,...

  19. 78 FR 14622 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, Ill.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, Ill. BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt...) approximately 0.60 miles of track (Lumber Street Line) from West Cermak Road at the Colonial Brick...

  20. Suicides on the Austrian railway network: hotspot analysis and effect of proximity to psychiatric institutions

    PubMed Central

    Klimek, Peter; Sonneck, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    Railway suicide is a significant public health problem. In addition to the loss of lives, these suicides occur in public space, causing traumatization among train drivers and passengers, and significant public transport delays. Prevention efforts depend upon accurate knowledge of clustering phenomena across the railway network, and spatial risk factors. Factors such as proximity to psychiatric institutions have been discussed to impact on railway suicides, but analytic evaluations are scarce and limited. We identify 15 hotspots on the Austrian railway system while taking case location uncertainties into account. These hotspots represent 0.9% of the total track length (5916 km/3676 miles) that account for up to 17% of all railway suicides (N=1130). We model suicide locations on the network using a smoothed inhomogeneous Poisson process and validate it using randomization tests. We find that the density of psychiatric beds is a significant predictor of railway suicide. Further predictors are population density, multitrack structure and—less consistently—spatial socio-economic factors including total suicide rates. We evaluate the model for the identified hotspots and show that the actual influence of these variables differs across individual hotspots. This analysis provides important information for suicide prevention research and practice. We recommend structural separation of railway tracks from nearby psychiatric institutions to prevent railway suicide. PMID:28405359

  1. 76 FR 73776 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Coffee County, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Coffee County, AL On November 9, 2011, Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR) filed with the Surface Transportation Board (Board) a petition under 49 U.S.C. 10502...

  2. [Reasons for privileges for hard and hazardous work conditions in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Boiarchuk, I F; Elizarov, B B; Dorfman, A A

    1995-01-01

    Many railway occupations have special work conditions which considerably depend on peculiarities of work and therefore could not undergo hygienic regulation. The article gives examples of such occupations connected mostly with personal risk in railway traffic, marked work hardness, etc. Reasonable privileges and compensations are established for those occupations.

  3. [Application of AAS to detecting the influence of railway on the soil of navel orange garden].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Li-Ping; Ai, Ying-Wei; Pei, Juan; L I, Wei; Zhou, Nan-Hua; Guo, Cong

    2010-06-01

    Railway transportation has boosted the economy of railway road area, meanwhile it brings some undesirable impacts on the environment of the railway road area. The quality of the fruits is directly related with the elements of the soil, so understanding the element contents of soil in navel oranges garden in the vicinity of railway is meaningful to the security of agriculture products and ecological conditions in the areas surrounding the railways. As a favorite fruit, navel orange is widely planted around the railway in the south China, especially in Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, Jiangxi and Guizhou. The present paper studied the contents of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Zn etc in the soil planting navel orange in the vicinity of Chengdu-Dazhou railway by AAS. The railway was built in 1997 and the research area was sited in Jintang county, Sichuan. The results showed that the contents of Pb and Mn in soil planting navel orange were significantly higher than those in the control soil, but the contents of Cd, Cu and Zn showed no significant difference.

  4. Mobility Experience of Persons with Visual Impairments in Indian Railway Station Environments.

    PubMed

    Raheja, Gaurav; Tyagi, Megha

    2016-01-01

    Mobility for persons with visual impairments in Indian railway stations poses multidimensional challenges for access to an inclusive travel experience. India is a home to about twenty million persons with diverse disabilities out of which about five million are persons with visual impairments. Diversity of passenger movements on a railway station including persons with visual impairments requires a Universal Design approach to respond to the accessibility issues in these contexts. This research study is based on a series of live on-site experiences conducted along with persons with visual impairments at New Delhi Railway Station. It also includes the generic studies carried out with other diversities of railway passengers including aging, gender and diverse physical abilities. It employs research methods like ethnography, focus group interactions and trace study to develop a deeper understanding of human and spatial parameters of mobility in railway station environments. A Universal Design perspective with a holistic understanding remains critical to the foundation of this research study. While it deals in specific requirements of persons with visual impairments, it also brings an illustration of handling diversity on a railway station from a unique Indian perspective. It concludes by highlighting and reinterpreting the Universal Design India Principles integrating the needs of persons with visual impairments in railway station environments. Brief recommendation for an inclusive mobility experience on railway station forms a vital part of this grounded research study.

  5. 77 FR 74914 - Decatur Junction Railway Co.; Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Line of Illinois Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Decatur Junction Railway Co.; Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Line of Illinois Central Railroad Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Correction to notice of exemption. On October 11, 2012, Decatur Junction Railway Co. (DJR), a Class III ] rail carrier, filed...

  6. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ restricted local and overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company...

  7. 75 FR 3523 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 22, 2009, BNSF Railway... Railroad Company (UP) over BNSF lines extending between BNSF milepost 10.2 at Tukwila, WA, and...

  8. 75 FR 12329 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial revocation of exemption... Railway Company (BNSF) to extend to December 18, 2010, the expiration date of the local trackage...

  9. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  10. 75 FR 56161 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway... Railway Company (BNSF) granted approximately 5.5 miles of incidental overhead trackage rights to Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc. (SLWC), extending between: (1) Milepost 384.6 and milepost 390.0, on...

  11. 78 FR 30395 - Grainbelt Corporation-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company and Stillwater Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Grainbelt Corporation--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company and Stillwater Central Railroad Company By petition filed on February 28, 2013, Grainbelt Corporation (GNBC... arrangements between grantee GNBC and grantors BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) and Stillwater Central...

  12. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... of exemption should be issued, and does so here. Notice Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. (AARR), a Class III... Southern Railway Company (NSR) two rail lines totaling 3.69 miles: (1) A line of railroad between...

  13. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  14. 75 FR 75545 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Atlanta, Knoxville & Northern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., Knoxville & Northern Railway Company, Cincinnati Inter- Terminal Railroad Company, and Tylerdale Connecting... & Northern Railway Company (AKNR), Cincinnati Inter-Terminal Railroad Company (CIT), and Tylerdale Connecting... Eastern Terminal, 360 I.C.C. 60 (1979). If the notice contains false or misleading information,...

  15. 78 FR 2483 - Ohio Terminal Railway Company-Operation Exemption-Hannibal Real Estate, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ohio Terminal Railway Company--Operation Exemption--Hannibal Real Estate, LLC Ohio Terminal Railway Company (OTRC),\\1\\ a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under... verified notice of exemption in Carload Express, Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Ohio...

  16. 78 FR 2482 - Carload Express, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-Ohio Terminal Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carload Express, Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Ohio Terminal... 1180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Ohio Terminal Railway Company (OTRC), upon OTRC's becoming a... to a concurrently filed verified notice of exemption in Ohio Terminal Railway...

  17. A graph model for preventing railway accidents based on the maximal information coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fubo; Li, Keping

    2017-01-01

    A number of factors influences railway safety. It is an important work to identify important influencing factors and to build the relationship between railway accident and its influencing factors. The maximal information coefficient (MIC) is a good measure of dependence for two-variable relationships which can capture a wide range of associations. Employing MIC, a graph model is proposed for preventing railway accidents which avoids complex mathematical computation. In the graph, nodes denote influencing factors of railway accidents and edges represent dependence of the two linked factors. With the increasing of dependence level, the graph changes from a globally coupled graph to isolated points. Moreover, the important influencing factors are identified from many factors which are the monitor key. Then the relationship between railway accident and important influencing factors is obtained by employing the artificial neural networks. With the relationship, a warning mechanism is built by giving the dangerous zone. If the related factors fall into the dangerous zone in railway operations, the warning level should be raised. The built warning mechanism can prevent railway accidents and can promote railway safety.

  18. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  19. Suicides on the Austrian railway network: hotspot analysis and effect of proximity to psychiatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Markus J; Klimek, Peter; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Railway suicide is a significant public health problem. In addition to the loss of lives, these suicides occur in public space, causing traumatization among train drivers and passengers, and significant public transport delays. Prevention efforts depend upon accurate knowledge of clustering phenomena across the railway network, and spatial risk factors. Factors such as proximity to psychiatric institutions have been discussed to impact on railway suicides, but analytic evaluations are scarce and limited. We identify 15 hotspots on the Austrian railway system while taking case location uncertainties into account. These hotspots represent 0.9% of the total track length (5916 km/3676 miles) that account for up to 17% of all railway suicides (N=1130). We model suicide locations on the network using a smoothed inhomogeneous Poisson process and validate it using randomization tests. We find that the density of psychiatric beds is a significant predictor of railway suicide. Further predictors are population density, multitrack structure and-less consistently-spatial socio-economic factors including total suicide rates. We evaluate the model for the identified hotspots and show that the actual influence of these variables differs across individual hotspots. This analysis provides important information for suicide prevention research and practice. We recommend structural separation of railway tracks from nearby psychiatric institutions to prevent railway suicide.

  20. Performance analysis of a semi-active railway vehicle suspension featuring MR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Gyu-Seop; An, Chae-Hun; You, Won-Hee

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents performance analysis of semi-active railway vehicle suspension system using MR damper. In order to achieve this goal, a mathematical dynamic model of railway vehicle is derived by integrating car body, bogie frame and wheel-set which can be able to represent lateral, yaw and roll motion. Based on this model, the dynamic range of MR damper at the railway secondary suspension system and design parameters of MR damper are calculated. Subsequently, control performances of railway vehicle including car body lateral motion and acceleration of MR damper are evaluated through computer simulations. Then, the MR damper is manufactured to be retrofitted with the real railway vehicle and its characteristics are experimentally measured. Experimental performance of MR damper is assessed using test rig which is composed of a car body and two bogies.