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Sample records for multi-user cooperative diversity

  1. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  2. Behavioral diversity as multiagent cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balch, Tucker

    1999-08-01

    In many cases cooperation between robots is implemented using explicit, perhaps complex, coordination protocols. However, research in behavior-based multirobot systems suggest that effective cooperative teams can be composed of agents using simple individual agent behaviors with limited or no communication. In this paper we prose behavioral diversity as an alternative cooperative strategy. Behavioral diversity refers to the extent to which agents for various components of the task. It is not always the case, however, that diversity is advantageous. Results of experiments in robotics soccer and multirobot foraging tasks indicate that the utility of diversity depends on the task. This paper describes behaviorally diverse solutions to these task and provides a comparison that suggests why some tasks are suited for behavioral diversity and others are not.

  3. Managing a Safe and Successful Multi-User Spaceport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacko, Taylor; Ketterer, Kirk; Meade, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Encouraged by the creation of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation within the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1984 and the Commercial Space Act of 1998, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) now relies on an extensive network of support from commercial companies and organizations. At NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), this collaboration opens competitive opportunities for launch providers, including repurposing underutilized Shuttle Program resources, constructing new facilities, and utilizing center services and laboratories. The resulting multi-user spaceport fosters diverse activity, though it engenders risk from hazards associated with various spaceflight processing activities. The KSC Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate, in coordination with the center's Spaceport Integration and Center Planning & Development organizations, has developed a novel approach to protect NASA's workforce, critical assets, and the public from hazardous, space-related activity associated with KSC's multi-user spaceport. For NASA KSC S&MA, the transformation to a multi-user spaceport required implementing methods to foster safe and successful commercial activity while resolving challenges involving: Retirement of the Space Shuttle program; Co-location of multiple NASA programs; Relationships between the NASA programs; Complex relationships between NASA programs and commercial partner operations in exclusive-use facilities; Complex relationships between NASA programs and commercial partner operations in shared-use facilities. NASA KSC S&MA challenges were met with long-term planning and solutions involving cooperation with the Spaceport Integration and Services Directorate. This directorate is responsible for managing active commercial partnerships with customer advocacy and services management, providing a dedicated and consistent level of support to a wide array of commercial operations. This paper explores these solutions, their

  4. Do students with higher self-efficacy exhibit greater and more diverse scientific inquiry skills: An exploratory investigation in "River City", a multi-user virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    In this thesis, I conduct an exploratory study to investigate the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into authentic scientific activity and the scientific inquiry behaviors they employ while engaged in that process, over time. Scientific inquiry has been a major standard in most science education policy doctrines for the past two decades and is exemplified by activities such as making observations, formulating hypotheses, gathering and analyzing data, and forming conclusions from that data. The self-efficacy literature, however, indicates that self-efficacy levels affect perseverance and engagement. This study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. The study is conducted in a novel setting, using an innovative science curriculum delivered through an interactive computer technology that recorded each student's conversations, movements, and activities while behaving as a practicing scientist in a "virtual world" called River City. River City is a Multi-User Virtual Environment designed to engage students in a collaborative scientific inquiry-based learning experience. As a result, I was able to follow students' moment-by-moment choices of behavior while they were behaving as scientists. I collected data on students' total scientific inquiry behaviors over three visits to River City, as well as the number of sources from which they gathered their scientific data. I analyzed my longitudinal data on the 96 seventh-graders using individual growth modeling. I found that self-efficacy played a role in the number of data-gathering behaviors students engaged in initially, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. However, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender; by the end of the study, student self-efficacy did not impact data gathering. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different

  5. University multi-user facility survey-2010.

    PubMed

    Riley, Melissa B

    2011-12-01

    Multi-user facilities serve as a resource for many universities. In 2010, a survey was conducted investigating possible changes and successful characteristics of multi-user facilities, as well as identifying problems in facilities. Over 300 surveys were e-mailed to persons identified from university websites as being involved with multi-user facilities. Complete responses were received from 36 facilities with an average of 20 years of operation. Facilities were associated with specific departments (22%), colleges (22%), and university research centers (8.3%) or were not affiliated with any department or college within the university (47%). The five most important factors to succeed as a multi-user facility were: 1) maintaining an experienced, professional staff in an open atmosphere; 2) university-level support providing partial funding; 3) broad client base; 4) instrument training programs; and 5) an effective leader and engaged strategic advisory group. The most significant problems were: 1) inadequate university financial support and commitment; 2) problems recovering full service costs from university subsidies and user fees; 3) availability of funds to repair and upgrade equipment; 4) inability to retain highly qualified staff; and 5) unqualified users dirtying/damaging equipment. Further information related to these issues and to fee structure was solicited. Overall, there appeared to be a decline in university support for facilities and more emphasis on securing income by serving clients outside of the institution and by obtaining grants from entities outside of the university.

  6. Informationally Efficient Multi-User Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 v 3.3.4 Extensions to Multi-user Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.4 Concluding Remarks...the standard deviation of the mean of the 100 measurements sampled at each point. The error bars in the remaining figures are as in this figure... measure of the strength of the mutual coupling between user m and n. The intuition be- hind (C1) and (C2) is that, the weaker the coupling among

  7. Interactive diversity promotes the evolution of cooperation in structured populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Long

    2016-10-01

    Evolutionary games on networks traditionally assume that each individual adopts an identical strategy to interact with all its neighbors in each generation. Considering the prevalent diversity of individual interactions in the real society, here we propose the concept of interactive diversity, which allows individuals to adopt different strategies against different neighbors in each generation. We investigate the evolution of cooperation based on the edge dynamics rather than the traditional nodal dynamics in networked systems. The results show that, without invoking any other mechanisms, interactive diversity drives the frequency of cooperation to a high level for a wide range of parameters in both well-mixed and structured populations. Even in highly connected populations, cooperation still thrives. When interactive diversity and large topological heterogeneity are combined together, however, in the relaxed social dilemma, cooperation level is lower than that with just one of them, implying that the combination of many promotive factors may make a worse outcome. By an analytical approximation, we get the condition under which interactive diversity provides more advantages for cooperation than traditional evolutionary dynamics does. Numerical simulations validating the approximation are also presented. Our work provides a new line to explore the latent relation between the ubiquitous cooperation and individuals’ distinct responses in different interactions. The presented results suggest that interactive diversity should receive more attention in pursuing mechanisms fostering cooperation.

  8. Coevolutionary dynamics of phenotypic diversity and contingent cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Long

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity is considered beneficial to the evolution of contingent cooperation, in which cooperators channel their help preferentially towards others of similar phenotypes. However, it remains largely unclear how phenotypic variation arises in the first place and thus leads to the construction of phenotypic complexity. Here we propose a mathematical model to study the coevolutionary dynamics of phenotypic diversity and contingent cooperation. Unlike previous models, our model does not assume any prescribed level of phenotypic diversity, but rather lets it be an evolvable trait. Each individual expresses one phenotype at a time and only the phenotypes expressed are visible to others. Moreover, individuals can differ in their potential of phenotypic variation, which is characterized by the number of distinct phenotypes they can randomly switch to. Each individual incurs a cost proportional to the number of potentially expressible phenotypes so as to retain phenotypic variation and expression. Our results show that phenotypic diversity coevolves with contingent cooperation under a wide range of conditions and that there exists an optimal level of phenotypic diversity best promoting contingent cooperation. It pays for contingent cooperators to elevate their potential of phenotypic variation, thereby increasing their opportunities of establishing cooperation via novel phenotypes, as these new phenotypes serve as secret tags that are difficult for defector to discover and chase after. We also find that evolved high levels of phenotypic diversity can occasionally collapse due to the invasion of defector mutants, suggesting that cooperation and phenotypic diversity can mutually reinforce each other. Thus, our results provide new insights into better understanding the coevolution of cooperation and phenotypic diversity. PMID:28141806

  9. Coevolutionary dynamics of phenotypic diversity and contingent cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Te; Wang, Long; Fu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity is considered beneficial to the evolution of contingent cooperation, in which cooperators channel their help preferentially towards others of similar phenotypes. However, it remains largely unclear how phenotypic variation arises in the first place and thus leads to the construction of phenotypic complexity. Here we propose a mathematical model to study the coevolutionary dynamics of phenotypic diversity and contingent cooperation. Unlike previous models, our model does not assume any prescribed level of phenotypic diversity, but rather lets it be an evolvable trait. Each individual expresses one phenotype at a time and only the phenotypes expressed are visible to others. Moreover, individuals can differ in their potential of phenotypic variation, which is characterized by the number of distinct phenotypes they can randomly switch to. Each individual incurs a cost proportional to the number of potentially expressible phenotypes so as to retain phenotypic variation and expression. Our results show that phenotypic diversity coevolves with contingent cooperation under a wide range of conditions and that there exists an optimal level of phenotypic diversity best promoting contingent cooperation. It pays for contingent cooperators to elevate their potential of phenotypic variation, thereby increasing their opportunities of establishing cooperation via novel phenotypes, as these new phenotypes serve as secret tags that are difficult for defector to discover and chase after. We also find that evolved high levels of phenotypic diversity can occasionally collapse due to the invasion of defector mutants, suggesting that cooperation and phenotypic diversity can mutually reinforce each other. Thus, our results provide new insights into better understanding the coevolution of cooperation and phenotypic diversity.

  10. Multi-user data acquisition environment

    SciTech Connect

    Storch, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The typical data acquisition environment involves data collection and monitoring by a single user. However, in order to support experiments on the Mars facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have had to create a multi-user data acquisition environment where any user can control the data acquisition and several users can monitor and analyze data being collected in real time. This paper describes how we accomplished this on an HP A600 computer. It focuses on the overall system description and user communication with the tasks within the system. Our current implementation is one phase of a long-term software development project.

  11. Relational diversity promotes cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Ruipu; Li, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Relational diversity can be characterized by heterogeneous distributions of tie strengths in social networks and this diversity is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by analyzing two network datasets from Facebook. We measure the strength of a tie by calculating the extent of overlap of friends between the two individuals. Based on the previous findings in human experiments, we argue that it is very unlikely that players will allocate their investments equally to their neighbors. There is a tendency that players prefer to donate more to their intimate friends. We find that if players preferentially allocate their investments to their good friends, cooperation will be promoted in PDG. We proved that the facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the cooperative allies between best friends, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large cost to cooperate. Moreover, we discover that the effect of relational diversity cannot be analyzed by adopting classical complex networks models, because neither of the artificial networks is able to produce networks with diverse distributions of tie strengths. It is of vital importance to introduce real social networks to study the influence of diverse relations especially when it comes to humans. This research proposes a brand new perspective to understand the influence of social relations on the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games.

  12. The interplay between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, José A; Mafe, Salvador

    2014-10-06

    The interplay between cooperativity and diversity is crucial for biological ensembles because single molecule experiments show a significant degree of heterogeneity and also for artificial nanostructures because of the high individual variability characteristic of nanoscale units. We study the cross-effects between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles composed of individually different units that show a cooperative behaviour. The units are modelled as statistical distributions of parameters (the individual threshold potentials here) characterized by central and width distribution values. The simulations show that the interplay between cooperativity and diversity results in ensemble-averaged responses of interest for the understanding of electrical transduction in cell membranes, the experimental characterization of heterogeneous groups of biomolecules and the development of biologically inspired engineering designs with individually different building blocks.

  13. The interplay between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between cooperativity and diversity is crucial for biological ensembles because single molecule experiments show a significant degree of heterogeneity and also for artificial nanostructures because of the high individual variability characteristic of nanoscale units. We study the cross-effects between cooperativity and diversity in model threshold ensembles composed of individually different units that show a cooperative behaviour. The units are modelled as statistical distributions of parameters (the individual threshold potentials here) characterized by central and width distribution values. The simulations show that the interplay between cooperativity and diversity results in ensemble-averaged responses of interest for the understanding of electrical transduction in cell membranes, the experimental characterization of heterogeneous groups of biomolecules and the development of biologically inspired engineering designs with individually different building blocks. PMID:25142516

  14. Diversity in Children, Youth, and Family Programs: Cooperative Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Donna J.; Betts, Sherry C.; Richmond, Lucinda S.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 4,956 extension personnel examined the Cooperative Extension System's ability to serve diverse audiences on cultural, structural, and behavioral factors influencing organizational change. Results show that Extension is fairly active in incorporating diversity in work with children, youth, and families. (Contains 18 references.)…

  15. High Rate Multiuser Cooperative Diversity Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    C2 (t) (10)c3(t) c4(t) c o 0o c3(t) c4 (t) (3 Note here that we use t to denote the time index for a codeword. Corresponding to (9), the relationship...terminals transmit different rows of a space-time codeword Xi(u), which is constructed from si(l), where 1, denote the index of a coded data block...Assume that there are M users cooperating with each other. Without loss of generality, we only focus on the first user’s information and the user index is

  16. Evolution of cooperation driven by the diversity of emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Neng-gang; Zhen, Kai-xuan; Wang, Chao; Ye, Ye; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Biotic individuals often compare their own payoffs with those of others, which results in endogenetic emotions ranging from compassion to harshness towards a weaker player or from respect to envy feeling against a stronger fellow. Consequently, the individual reaction can be a cooperative or defect act. Our paper establishes possible interactions between emotional characteristics and behaviour modes of individuals. For this purpose, a genetic algorithm is used to study the evolutionary process within the framework of a Prisoner's Dilemma game. Our results highlight that the diversity of emotions can emerge spontaneously that is fruitful for the general cooperative act. Furthermore, it turned out that compassion is more important than respect, but both attitudes have better adaptability than harshness or envy feeling.

  17. Usability testing of a prototype multi-user telehealth kiosk.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Karen L; Matthews, Judith T; McMillan, Julie M; Person Mecca, Laurel; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to learn how community-dwelling older adults would interact with our prototype multi-user telehealth kiosk and their views about its usability. Seven subjects participated in laboratory-based usability sessions to evaluate the physical design, appearance, functionality and perceived ease of use of a multi-user telehealth kiosk prototype. During usability testing participants recommended 18 new features (29% of comments), identified 15 software errors (23% of comments) and 29 user interface errors (47% of comments).

  18. Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus - Flame Extinguishment Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Forman A.; Nayagam, Vedha; Choi, Mun Y.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus Flame Extinguishment Experiment (MDCA-FLEX) will assess the effectiveness of fire suppressants in microgravity and quantify the effect of different possible crew exploration atmospheres on fire suppression. The goal of this research is to provide definition and direction for large scale fire suppression tests and selection of the fire suppressant for next generation crew exploration vehicles.

  19. Introducing ORACLE: Library Processing in a Multi-User Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Library Board, Brisbane (Australia).

    Currently being developed by the State Library of Queensland, Australia, ORACLE (On-Line Retrieval of Acquisitions, Cataloguing, and Circulation Details for Library Enquiries) is a computerized library system designed to provide rapid processing of library materials in a multi-user environment. It is based on the Australian MARC format and fully…

  20. Teacher Practice in Multi User Virtual Environments: A Fourth Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandra, Brendan; Puvirajah, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Practicing teaching is an important aspect of teacher education, however, its implementation can be limited due to the constraints and risks related to practicing in actual schools. There is evidence in the literature of Multi User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) being used as spaces for training, especially in fields where the costs associated with…

  1. Multi-User Performance Issues in Wireless Impulse Radio Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Enabling uwb through precise timing. In UWBST02, 2002. [12] R. Fontana , A. Ameti, E. Richley, L. Beard, and D. Guy. Recent advances in ultra wideband...Gabriella Di Benedetto . Multi user interference in power-unbalanced ultra wide band systems: Analysis and verification. In UWBST 03, 2003. [31] G. D

  2. Multi-User Hardware Solutions to Combustion Science ISS Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Angel M.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the budget environment and to expand on the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), common hardware approach, the NASA Combustion Science Program shifted focus in 1999 from single investigator PI (Principal Investigator)-specific hardware to multi-user 'Minifacilities'. These mini-facilities would take the CIR common hardware philosophy to the next level. The approach that was developed re-arranged all the investigations in the program into sub-fields of research. Then common requirements within these subfields were used to develop a common system that would then be complemented by a few PI-specific components. The sub-fields of research selected were droplet combustion, solids and fire safety, and gaseous fuels. From these research areas three mini-facilities have sprung: the Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) for droplet research, Flow Enclosure for Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) for solids and fire safety, and the Multi-user Gaseous Fuels Apparatus (MGFA) for gaseous fuels. These mini-facilities will develop common Chamber Insert Assemblies (CIA) and diagnostics for the respective investigators complementing the capability provided by CIR. Presently there are four investigators for MDCA, six for FEANICS, and four for MGFA. The goal of these multi-user facilities is to drive the cost per PI down after the initial development investment is made. Each of these mini-facilities will become a fixture of future Combustion Science NASA Research Announcements (NRAs), enabling investigators to propose against an existing capability. Additionally, an investigation is provided the opportunity to enhance the existing capability to bridge the gap between the capability and their specific science requirements. This multi-user development approach will enable the Combustion Science Program to drive cost per investigation down while drastically reducing the time

  3. Molecular Cooperativity Governs Diverse and Monoallelic Olfactory Receptor Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jianhua; Tian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at organism level the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. The molecular mechanism of this Nobel-Prize winning puzzle remains unresolved after decades of extensive studies. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and proposed an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic and enhancer competition coupled to a negative feedback loop. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression. The model is validated by several experimental results, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle of multi-objective optimization in biology. The work is supported by the NIGMS/DMS Mathematical Biology program.

  4. Diversity of game strategies promotes the evolution of cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2010-06-01

    We propose a mechanism allowing strategy diversity instead of a common combination of cooperation and defection to study how cooperation evolves in public goods games. Each individual is assigned a variable valued in the unit interval as its cooperation degree. Thus, diverse cooperation degrees express the diversity of game strategies in the way of multiple contributions of players, and the investment in the common pool is positively correlated with cooperation degrees correspondingly. Moreover, we also define two particular roles named altruist and egotist defined locally since they depend on the behavior of their neighboring players. Numerical simulations show that the proposed diversity of strategies can substantially evoke the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. Notably, we also find that no player will act as a long-term exploiter (egotist) or exploitee (altruist) in the whole evolutionary process.

  5. Performance analysis of decode and forward cooperative diversity networks with threshold scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajoria, Shweta; Jain, Anjana; Vyavahare, Prakash D.

    2014-10-01

    Cooperative diversity technique is used for achieving high data rate and low BER with low transmit power. The paper proposes a new scheme for selection of first relay having SNR above a predefined threshold level in cooperative diversity network, based on geometric distribution. Closed form expression for outage probability is derived for independent and identically distributed channels with decode and forward protocol. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme not only minimizes resource requirements but also improves the overall outage probability over previously proposed schemes for cooperative diversity network.

  6. Authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution with single particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Song; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gong-De; Ye, Guo-Hua; Du, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been growing rapidly in recent years and becomes one of the hottest issues in quantum information science. During the implementation of QKD on a network, identity authentication has been one main problem. In this paper, an efficient authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution (MQKD) protocol with single particles is proposed. In this protocol, any two users on a quantum network can perform mutual authentication and share a secure session key with the assistance of a semi-honest center. Meanwhile, the particles, which are used as quantum information carriers, are not required to be stored, therefore the proposed protocol is feasible with current technology. Finally, security analysis shows that this protocol is secure in theory.

  7. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  8. Diversity of neighborhoods promotes cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yongjuan; Lu, Jun; Shi, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Explaining the evolution of cooperative behavior is one of the most important and interesting problems in a myriad of disciplines, such as evolutionary biology, mathematics, statistical physics, social science and economics Up to now, there have been a great number of works aiming to this issue with the help of evolutionary game theory. However, vast majority of existing literatures simply assume that the interaction neighborhood and replacement neighborhood are symmetric, which seems inconsistent with real-world cases. In this paper, we consider the asymmetrical neighborhood: player of type A, whose factor is controlled by a parameter τ, has four interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors, while player of type B, whose factor is controlled by a parameter 1 - τ, possess eight interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors. By means of numerous Monte Carlo simulations, we found that middle τ can make the cooperation reach the highest level While for this finding, its robustness can be further validated in more games.

  9. Social diversity promotes the emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Santos, Marta D; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2008-07-10

    Humans often cooperate in public goods games and situations ranging from family issues to global warming. However, evolutionary game theory predicts that the temptation to forgo the public good mostly wins over collective cooperative action, and this is often also seen in economic experiments. Here we show how social diversity provides an escape from this apparent paradox. Up to now, individuals have been treated as equivalent in all respects, in sharp contrast with real-life situations, where diversity is ubiquitous. We introduce social diversity by means of heterogeneous graphs and show that cooperation is promoted by the diversity associated with the number and size of the public goods game in which each individual participates and with the individual contribution to each such game. When social ties follow a scale-free distribution, cooperation is enhanced whenever all individuals are expected to contribute a fixed amount irrespective of the plethora of public goods games in which they engage. Our results may help to explain the emergence of cooperation in the absence of mechanisms based on individual reputation and punishment. Combining social diversity with reputation and punishment will provide instrumental clues on the self-organization of social communities and their economical implications.

  10. Center Planning and Development: Multi-User Spaceport Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    The Vehicle Assembly building at NASAs Kennedy Space Center has been used since 1966 to vertically assemble every launch vehicle, since the Apollo Program, launched from Launch Complex 39 (LC-39). After the cancellation of the Constellation Program in 2010 and the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program in 2011, the VAB faced an uncertain future. As the Space Launch System (SLS) gained a foothold as the future of American spaceflight to deep space, NASA was only using a portion of the VABs initial potential. With three high bays connected to the Crawler Way transportation system, the potential exists for up to three rockets to be simultaneously processed for launch. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Master plan, supported by the Center Planning and Development (CPD) Directorate, is guiding Kennedy toward a 21st century multi-user spaceport. This concept will maintain Kennedy as the United States premier gateway to space and provide multi-user operations through partnerships with the commercial aerospace industry. Commercial aerospace companies, now tasked with transporting cargo and, in the future, astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP), are a rapidly growing industry with increasing capabilities to make launch operations more economical for both private companies and the government. Commercial operations to Low Earth Orbit allow the government to focus on travel to farther destinations through the SLS Program. With LC-39B designated as a multi-use launch pad, companies seeking to use it will require an integration facility to assemble, integrate, and test their launch vehicle. An Announcement for Proposals (AFP) was released in June, beginning the process of finding a non-NASA user for High Bay 2 (HB2) and the Mobile Launcher Platforms (MLPs). An Industry Day, a business meeting and tour for interested companies and organizations, was also arranged to identify and answer any

  11. Enhancing the Performance of Medical Implant Communication Systems through Cooperative Diversity.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Barnabás; Levendovszky, János

    2010-01-01

    Battery-operated medical implants-such as pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillators-have already been widely used in practical telemedicine and telecare applications. However, no solution has yet been found to mitigate the effect of the fading that the in-body to off-body communication channel is subject to. In this paper, we reveal and assess the potential of cooperative diversity to combat fading-hence to improve system performance-in medical implant communication systems. In the particular cooperative communication scenario we consider, multiple cooperating receiver units are installed across the room accommodating the patient with a medical implant inside his/her body. Our investigations have shown that the application of cooperative diversity is a promising approach to enhance the performance of medical implant communication systems in various aspects such as implant lifetime and communication link reliability.

  12. Cooperation, but not competition, improves 4-year-old children's reasoning about others' diverse desires.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xinyi; Li, Pengchao; He, Jie; Shen, Mowei

    2017-05-01

    Three experiments examined whether cooperation or competition affects 4-year-old children's reasoning about other people's desires-which differed from their own-in a gift selection task. Experiment 1 (N=72) found that children's performance in selecting an adult-preferred gift for an adult experimenter was enhanced by a short period of preceding cooperative, but not competitive or individualistic, play with the experimenter. Experiment 2 (N=24) ruled out the alternative explanation that children resisted satisfying their opponent after competition. Experiment 3 (N=48) replicated the cooperation advantage in selecting a gift for someone else, indicating that children's understanding of diverse desires was generally improved by cooperation but not competition. These findings support the constructivist view of social development and highlight the advantage of cooperation.

  13. Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapateau, J.; Ghalbouni, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.

  14. Atmospheric lidar multi-user instrument system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, R. V. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    A spaceborne lidar system for atmospheric studies was defined. The primary input was the Science Objectives Experiment Description and Evolutionary Flow Document. The first task of the study was to perform an experiment evolutionary analysis of the SEED. The second task was the system definition effort of the instrument system. The third task was the generation of a program plan for the hardware phase. The fourth task was the supporting studies which included a Shuttle deficiency analysis, a preliminary safety hazard analysis, the identification of long lead items, and development studies required. As a result of the study an evolutionary Lidar Multi-User Instrument System (MUIS) was defined. The MUIS occupies a full Spacelab pallet and has a weight of 1300 kg. The Lidar MUIS laser provides a 2 joule frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser that can also pump a tuneable dye laser wide frequency range and bandwidth. The MUIS includes a 1.25 meter diameter aperture Cassegrain receiver, with a moveable secondary mirror to provide precise alignment with the laser. The receiver can transmit the return signal to three single and multiple photomultiple tube detectors by use of a rotating fold mirror. It is concluded that the Lidar MUIS proceed to program implementation.

  15. Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.; Ghalbouni, J.

    2015-10-14

    We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.

  16. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation.

  17. Evaluation of Cooperative Diversity Techniques Using STC for Future S-DMB Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Park, Unhee; Kim, Hee-Wook; Ahn, Do-Seob

    This paper presents an evaluation of various cooperative diversity techniques applied to future satellite digital multimedia broadcasting (S-DMB) systems. The increasing importance of hybrid and/or integrated satellite and terrestrial networks is associated with the utilization of spatial diversity techniques such as antenna diversity using space-time coding. The space-time coding schemes can be expected to result in more diversity gain as the number of transmit antennas are increased. However, we cannot design a rate-1 scheme that achieves full diversity for more than two transmit antennas. To overcome this limitation, quasi-orthogonal schemes were proposed, at the expense of the decoder complexity and diversity gain. In this paper, we introduce an efficient quasi-orthogonal space time coding scheme, and evaluate various aspects associated with the application of the proposed scheme to satellite systems. The proposed scheme in this paper provides the full rate as well as maximum-likelihood decoding via simple linear detection.

  18. Dynamic instability of cooperation due to diverse activity patterns in evolutionary social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Perc, Matjaž; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-03-01

    Individuals might abstain from participating in an instance of an evolutionary game for various reasons, ranging from lack of interest to risk aversion. In order to understand the consequences of such diverse activity patterns on the evolution of cooperation, we study a weak prisoner's dilemma where each player's participation is probabilistic rather than certain. Players that do not participate get a null payoff and are unable to replicate. We show that inactivity introduces cascading failures of cooperation, which are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs. The drops in the fraction of cooperators are sudden, while the spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters, and thus the recovery, takes time. Nevertheless, if the activity of players is directly proportional to their degree, or if the interaction network is not strongly heterogeneous, the overall evolution of cooperation is not impaired. This is because inactivity negatively affects the potency of low-degree defectors, who are hence unable to utilize on their inherent evolutionary advantage. Between cascading failures, the fraction of cooperators is therefore higher than usual, which lastly balances out the asymmetric dynamic instabilities that emerge due to intermittent blackouts of cooperative hubs.

  19. Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Toby

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-User Space (MUS) Link Extension system, a software and data system, provides Space Link Extension (SLE) users with three space data transfer services in timely, complete, and offline modes as applicable according to standards defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). MUS radically reduces the schedule, cost, and risk of implementing a new SLE user system, minimizes operating costs with a lights-out approach to SLE, and is designed to require no sustaining engineering expense during its lifetime unless changes in the CCSDS SLE standards, combined with new provider implementations, force changes. No software modification to MUS needs to be made to support a new mission. Any systems engineer with Linux experience can begin testing SLE user service instances with MUS starting from a personal computer (PC) within five days. For flight operators, MUS provides a familiar-looking Web page for entering SLE configuration data received from SLE. Operators can also use the Web page to back up a space mission's entire set of up to approximately 500 SLE service instances in less than five seconds, or to restore or transfer from another system the same amount of data from a MUS backup file in about the same amount of time. Missions operate each MUS SLE service instance independently by sending it MUS directives, which are legible, plain ASCII strings. MUS directives are usually (but not necessarily) sent through a TCP-IP (Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol) socket from a MOC (Mission Operations Center) or POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) system, under scripted control, during "lights-out" spacecraft operation. MUS permits the flight operations team to configure independently each of its data interfaces; not only commands and telemetry, but also MUS status messages to the MOC. Interfaces can use single- or multiple-client TCP/IP server sockets, TCP/IP client sockets, temporary disk files, the system log, or standard in

  20. Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "cooperation"--related to animal, personal, national, and global cooperation; rules and regulations; and team efforts. K-8 resources on the theme include World Wide Web sites, CD-ROM, software, videos, books, and others. Features include cooperative living, alliances of nations, songs of cooperation, and animals…

  1. Receive Diversity Combining Techniques for SC-FDMA-Based Cooperative Relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Yeong-Jun; Yoo, Hyun-Il; Kim, Jaekwon; Yun, Sangboh; Cho, Yong-Soo

    In this letter, two receive diversity combining techniques are proposed for cooperative relay systems based on single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) when relay station (RS) transmits the received signals from multiple mobile stations (MSs) together using one large size discrete Fourier transform (DFT). A simplified-MRC (S-MRC) technique performs diversity combining in the time-domain by using the estimated channel weights and initial estimates obtained by the SC-FDMA signal detector. An interference rejection-MRC (IR-MRC) technique performs diversity combining in the frequency-domain by adjusting the DFT spreading size at the receiver. It is shown by computer simulation that the proposed receive combining techniques achieve a significant diversity gain over the conventional techniques.

  2. Phenotypic plasticity stimulated by cooperation fosters pattern diversity of bacterial colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanico, Dranreb Earl

    2012-07-01

    Colonies of flagellated bacteria on agar plates are known to take on diverse morphologies. A diffusion-reaction model is proposed for bacterial-colony pattern formation on a surface due to time scale separation between the slow mass migration of bacteria from the point of inoculation, and the fast, but localized, dynamics of bacterial phenotypic plasticity stimulated by public-goods cooperation and phenotypic switching. By considering two switchable phenotypes in the population, the model generates pattern diversity typifying those reported by experimental studies.

  3. The Fluids And Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack And The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: Microgravity Combustion Science Using Modular Multi-User Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Myhre, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a multi-rack payload planned for the International Space Station (ISS) that will enable the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a microgravity environment. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two International Standard Payload Racks of the FCF and is being designed primarily to support combustion science experiments. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user apparatus designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments and is the first payload for CIR. The CIR will function independently until the later launch of the Fluids Integrated Rack component of the FCF. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and the development status of the CIR and MDCA.

  4. Amplify-and-Forward Cooperative Diversity for Green UWB-Based WBSNs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel green cooperative diversity technique based on suboptimal template-based ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) using amplify-and-forward (AF) relays. In addition, it analyzes the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the proposed nodes. The analysis is based on the moment-generating function (MGF) of the total signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the destination. It also provides an approximate value for the total SNR. The analysis studies the performance of equally correlated binary pulse position modulation (EC-BPPM) assuming the sinusoidal and square suboptimal template pulses. Numerical results are provided for the performance evaluation of optimal and suboptimal template-based nodes with and without relay cooperation. Results show that one relay node provides ~23 dB performance enhancement at 1e − 3 BER, which mitigates the effect of the nondesirable non-line-of-sight (NLOS) links in WBSNs. PMID:24307880

  5. Amplify-and-forward cooperative diversity for green UWB-based WBSNs.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Heba; Abou El-Nasr, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel green cooperative diversity technique based on suboptimal template-based ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) using amplify-and-forward (AF) relays. In addition, it analyzes the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the proposed nodes. The analysis is based on the moment-generating function (MGF) of the total signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the destination. It also provides an approximate value for the total SNR. The analysis studies the performance of equally correlated binary pulse position modulation (EC-BPPM) assuming the sinusoidal and square suboptimal template pulses. Numerical results are provided for the performance evaluation of optimal and suboptimal template-based nodes with and without relay cooperation. Results show that one relay node provides ~23 dB performance enhancement at 1e - 3 BER, which mitigates the effect of the nondesirable non-line-of-sight (NLOS) links in WBSNs.

  6. Collaborative Systems and Multi-user Interfaces: Computer-based Tools for Cooperative Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-31

    3.14 Semantic-actions, Display-actions, User-actions 62 3.15 U-S-D example 63 4.1 Tabula Rasa 70 4.2 Cognoter in Action: Brainstorming 73 4.3...overlapped to allow compact figures. Figure 4.1. Tabula Rasa . The tool is initialized. Example: Before starting their session, the t rio planned to...protocols; 2. working in student pairs with one taking the role of listener/checker and the other taking the role of solver; 3. devising problems

  7. Civic Participation among Seventh-Grade Social Studies Students in Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieger, Laura; Farber, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances on the Internet now enable students to develop participation skills in virtual worlds. Similar to controlling a character in a video game, multi-user virtual environments, or MUVEs, allow participants to interact with others in synchronous, online settings. The authors of this study created a link between MUVEs and…

  8. Implications of Placedness for Learning in Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers some of the unique affordances that Multi-User Virtual Environments--in particular, Second Life--present to the design of learning environments. Drawing upon some preliminary experiences of acquainting teachers in several schools in Singapore with Second Life, specific attention is paid to the inherent spatiality of the…

  9. Preservice Teachers Experience Reading Response Pedagogy in a Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Calandra, Brendan; Harmon, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes how 18 preservice teachers learned to nurture literary meaning-making via activities based on Louise Rosenblatt's Reader Response Theory within a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). Participants re-created and responded to scenes from selected works of children's literature in Second Life as a way to…

  10. Teacher Perceptions of Learning Affordances of Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, Vimani; Tretiakov, Alexei; Crump, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While the affordances of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) for teaching and learning are a subject of numerous experience reports, there is little research on educators' perceptions of various MUVE affordances claimed in the literature. We investigate the educators' perceptions of claimed MUVE affordances for learning by conducting in-depth…

  11. A Multi-User Virtual Environment for Building and Assessing Higher Order Inquiry Skills in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Nelson, Brian C.; Clarke, Jody; Dede, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated novel pedagogies for helping teachers infuse inquiry into a standards-based science curriculum. Using a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) as a pedagogical vehicle, teams of middle-school students collaboratively solved problems around disease in a virtual town called River City. The students interacted with "avatars" of…

  12. Language Learning in Multi-User Virtual Environments: Using the Enter-the-Story Teaching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yin-Mei; Tan, Seng-Chee

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose using the Enter-the-Story teaching method for language learning in Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs). A MUVE's immersive story-world imbued with rich cultural artifacts provides an appealing environment for young learners to learn a language by taking on roles in a story and describing their imaginative experience in the…

  13. Socialisation for Learning at a Distance in a 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisingha, Palitha; Nie, Ming; Pluciennik, Mark; Young, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a pilot study that examined the pedagogical potential of "Second Life" (SL), a popular three-dimensional multi-user virtual environment (3-D MUVE) developed by the Linden Lab. The study is part of a 1-year research and development project titled "Modelling of Secondlife Environments"…

  14. Evaluation of Learning Efficiency and Efficacy in a Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearrington, Doug

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) known as Second Life, integrated with Moodle and SLOODLE technologies, as an exploratory course delivery platform and for its ability to enable teachers to meet elements of NETS.T. Graduate student participants (N = 17) interacted, constructed simulated schools, and attended classes…

  15. Teacher Candidates' Views of a Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) are new to formal educational settings as teaching and learning tools but are growing in popularity. MUVEs simulate real-world problems. They have an ability to reach students in ways that are familiar as they resemble videogames where players assume roles, work in teams, and gather data. MUVEs include…

  16. Managing Cognitive Load in Educational Multi-User Virtual Environments: Reflection on Design Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Brian C.; Erlandson, Benjamin E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how the application of multimedia design principles may inform the development of educational multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs). We look at design principles that have been shown to help learners manage cognitive load within multimedia environments and conduct a conjectural analysis of the extent to which such…

  17. Multi-User Virtual Environments for Learning: Experience and Technology Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, N.; Bucciero, A.; Mainetti, L.; Paolini, P.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) are often used to support learning in formal and informal educational contexts. A technology-based educational experience consists of several elements: content, syllabus, roles, sequence of activities, assignments, assessment procedures, etc. that must be aligned with the affordances of the technologies to…

  18. Performance Analysis of Decode-and-Forward with Cooperative Diversity and Alamouti Cooperative Space-Time Coding in Clustered Multihop Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Layered Space-Time Architecture CSI Channel State Information CSIR Channel State Information at Receiver C-DIV Cooperative Diversity C-STC...is the capability for the relay terminal RMTji to decide, based on channel state information at reception ( CSIR ), whether or not it is helpful for

  19. Global cooperation among diverse organizations to reduce illegal fishing in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Osterblom, Henrik; Bodin, Orjan

    2012-08-01

    Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing is prevalent globally and has detrimental effects on commercial fish stocks and nontarget species. Effective monitoring and enforcement aimed at reducing the level of IUU fishing in extensive, remote ocean fisheries requires international collaboration. Changes in trade and vessel activities further complicate enforcement. We used a web-based survey of governmental and nongovernmental organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing in the Southern Ocean to collect information on interorganizational collaborations. We used social-network analyses to examine the nature of collaborations among the identified 117 organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing. International collaboration improved the ability to control and manage harvest of commercially important toothfish (Dissostichus spp.) stocks and reduced bycatch of albatrosses (Diomedeidae) and petrels (Procellariidae) in longlines of IUU fishing vessels. The diverse group of surveyed organizations cooperated frequently, thereby making a wide range of resources available for improved detection of suspected IUU vessels and trade flows, cooperation aimed at prosecuting suspected offenders or developing new policy measures. Our results suggest the importance of a central agency for coordination and for maintaining commonly agreed-upon protocols for communication that facilities collaboration. Despite their differences, the surveyed organizations have developed common perceptions about key problems associated with IUU fishing. This has likely contributed to a sustained willingness to invest in collaborations. Our results show that successful international environmental governance can be accomplished through interorganizational collaborations. Such cooperation requires trust, continuous funding, and incentives for actors to participate.

  20. Diverse ontogenies of reciprocal and prosocial behavior: cooperative development in Fiji and the United States.

    PubMed

    House, Bailey R

    2016-12-13

    Contingent reciprocity is an important foundation of human cooperation, but we know little about how reciprocal behavior develops across diverse societies, nor about how the development of reciprocal behavior is related to the development of prosocial behavior more broadly. Three- to 16-year-old children were presented with the opportunity to control the allocation of real food rewards in a binary-choice cooperative dilemma. Within dyads children alternated making choices across multiple trials, and reciprocal behavior emerged in three diverse populations (rural Fijian villages, and urban communities in both Fiji and the United States) by age 7-8. There was more societal variation in prosocial behavior than in reciprocal behavior, and there were more substantial differences between Fijians and Americans than between rural and urban populations. This suggests that the development of prosocial behavior is not driven entirely by the development of reciprocity, and differences in prosocial behavior across rural Fijians and urban Americans may not be due only to differences across rural and urban populations.

  1. Multi-user 3D film on a time-multiplexed side-emission backlight system.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chih-Hung; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Ho; Huang, Yi-Pai; Tsai, Han-Wen

    2016-10-01

    The desirable features for a portable 3D display include displaying 2D and 3D images without resolution degradation for multiple users, a 2D/3D switchable functionality, and, in particular, a compact volume. To produce a portable 3D display with these desirable features, we propose here a multi-user 3D film combined with a side-emission backlight system that has a directional-sequential light distribution. According to the simulation and experimental results, the multi-user 3D film successfully uses an inverted trapezoid structure to separate the rays of each light source and increases the number of observers from one to three. Additionally, the specification of the inverted trapezoid structure can be determined via equations for different designated viewing positions of the side observer and for the ratio of light intensities for the central and side observers.

  2. OpenGL in Multi-User Web-Based Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostek, K.; Piórkowski, A.

    In this article construction and potential of OpenGL multi-user web-based application are presented. The most common technologies like: .NET ASP, Java and Mono were used with specific OpenGL libraries to visualize tree-dimensional medical data. The most important conclusion of this work is that server side applications can easily take advantage of fast GPU and produce efficient results of advanced computation just like the visualization.

  3. International Microgravity Plasma Facility IMPF: A Multi-User Modular Research Facility for Complex Plasma Research on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurig, R.; Burfeindt, J.; Castegini, R.; Griethe, W.; Hofmann, P.

    2002-01-01

    On March 03, 2001, the PKE-Nefedov plasma experiment was successfully put into operation on board ISS. This complex plasma experiment is the predecessor for the semi-autonomous multi-user facility IMPF (International Microgravity Plasma Facility) to be flown in 2006 with an expected operational lifetime of 10 years. IMPF is envisioned to be an international research facility for investigators in the field of multi-component plasmas containing ions, electrons, and charged microparticles. This research filed is often referred to as "complex plasmas". The actual location of IMPF on ISS is not decided yet; potential infrastructure under consideration are EXPRESS Rack, Standard Interface Rack SIR, European Drawer Rack EDR, or a to be designed custom rack infrastructure on the Russian Segment. The actual development status of the DLR funded Pre-phase B Study for IMPF will be presented. For this phase, IMPF was assumed to be integrated in an EXPRESS Rack requiring four middeck lockers with two 4-PU ISIS drawers for accommodation. Technical and operational challenges, like a 240 Mbytes/sec continuous experimental data stream for 60 minutes, will be addressed. The project was funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and was performed in close cooperation with scientists from the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestical Physics in Munich, Germany.

  4. DEEP SPACE: High Resolution VR Platform for Multi-user Interactive Narratives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuka, Daniela; Elias, Oliver; Martins, Ronald; Lindinger, Christopher; Pramböck, Andreas; Jalsovec, Andreas; Maresch, Pascal; Hörtner, Horst; Brandl, Peter

    DEEP SPACE is a large-scale platform for interactive, stereoscopic and high resolution content. The spatial and the system design of DEEP SPACE are facing constraints of CAVETM-like systems in respect to multi-user interactive storytelling. To be used as research platform and as public exhibition space for many people, DEEP SPACE is capable to process interactive, stereoscopic applications on two projection walls with a size of 16 by 9 meters and a resolution of four times 1080p (4K) each. The processed applications are ranging from Virtual Reality (VR)-environments to 3D-movies to computationally intensive 2D-productions. In this paper, we are describing DEEP SPACE as an experimental VR platform for multi-user interactive storytelling. We are focusing on the system design relevant for the platform, including the integration of the Apple iPod Touch technology as VR control, and a special case study that is demonstrating the research efforts in the field of multi-user interactive storytelling. The described case study, entitled "Papyrate's Island", provides a prototypical scenario of how physical drawings may impact on digital narratives. In this special case, DEEP SPACE helps us to explore the hypothesis that drawing, a primordial human creative skill, gives us access to entirely new creative possibilities in the domain of interactive storytelling.

  5. The Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: Microgravity Combustion Science Using A Modular Multi-User Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, T. F.; Myhre, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a multi-rack payload planned for the International Space Station that will enable the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a microgravity environment. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two International Standard Payload Racks of the FCF and is being designed primarily to support combustion science experiments. It is currently in the Flight Unit Build phase. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user facility designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments and is the first payload for CIR. MDCA is currently in the Engineering Model build phase. Launch of the CIR and MDCA is planned for 2004. The CIR will function independently until the later launch of the Fluids Integrated Rack component of the FCF. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and the development status of the CIR and MDCA. The CIR will contain the hardware and software required to support combustion experiments in space. It will contain an optics bench, combustion chamber, fuel oxidizer and management assembly, exhaust vent system, diagnostic cameras, power, environment control system, command and data management system, and a passive rack isolation system. Additional hardware will be installed in the chamber and on the optics bench that is customized for each science investigation. The chamber insert may provide the sample holder, small ignition source, and small diagnostics such as thermocouples and radiometers. The combustion experiments that may be conducted in the FCF include, but are not limited to, the study of laminar flames, reaction kinetics, droplet and spray combustion, flame spread, fire and fire suppressants, condensed phase organic fuel combustion, turbulent combustion, soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and materials synthesis. It is expected that the facility will provide most of the hardware, with a small amount of unique hardware developed for

  6. Single and multi-user virtual patient design in the virtual world.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D; Patel, V; Cohen, D; Aggarwal, R; Kerr, K; Sevdalis, N; Batrick, N; Darzi, A

    2011-01-01

    This research addresses the need for the flexible creation of immersive clinical training simulations for multiple interacting participants and virtual patients by using scalable open source virtual world technologies. Initial development of single-user surgical virtual patients has been followed by that of multi-user multiple casualties in a field environment and an acute hospital emergency department. The authors aim to validate and extend their reproducible framework for eventual application of virtual worlds to whole hospital major incident response simulation and to multi-agency, pan-geographic mass casualty exercises.

  7. A software for managing chemical processes in a multi-user laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Camino, Fernando E.

    2016-10-26

    Here, we report a software for logging chemical processes in a multi-user laboratory, which implements a work flow designed to reduce hazardous situations associated with the disposal of chemicals in incompatible waste containers. The software allows users to perform only those processes displayed in their list of authorized chemical processes and provides the location and label code of waste containers, among other useful information. The software has been used for six years in the cleanroom of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven National Laboratory and has been an important factor for the excellent safety record of the Center.

  8. Multi-user 3D display using a head tracker and RGB laser illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surman, Phil; Sexton, Ian; Hopf, Klaus; Bates, Richard; Lee, Wing Kai; Buckley, Edward

    2007-05-01

    A glasses-free (auto-stereoscopic) 3D display that will serve several viewers who have freedom of movement over a large viewing region is described. This operates on the principle of employing head position tracking to provide regions referred to as exit pupils that follow the positions ofthe viewers' eyes in order for appropriate left and right images to be seen. A non-intrusive multi-user head tracker controls the light sources of a specially designed backlight that illuminates a direct-view LCD.

  9. Robots, multi-user virtual environments and healthcare: synergies for future directions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ajung; Grajales, Francisco J; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of technology in healthcare over the last twenty years has steadily increased, particularly as it relates to medical robotics and Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life. Both disciplines have been shown to improve the quality of care and have evolved, for the most part, in isolation from each other. In this paper, we present four synergies between medical robotics and MUVEs that have the potential to decrease resource utilization and improve the quality of healthcare delivery. We conclude with some foreseeable barriers and future research directions for researchers in these fields.

  10. Advancing MEMS Technology Usage through the MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Processes) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, D. A.; Markus, K. W.; Dhuler, V.; Mahadevan, R.; Cowen, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to help provide access to advanced micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies and lower the barriers for both industry and academia, the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina (MCNC) and ARPA have developed a program which provides users with access to both MEMS processes and advanced electronic integration techniques. The four distinct aspects of this program, the multi-user MEMS processes (MUMP's), the consolidated micro-mechanical element library, smart MEMS, and the MEMS technology network are described in this paper. MUMP's is an ARPA-supported program created to provide inexpensive access to MEMS technology in a multi-user environment. It is both a proof-of-concept and educational tool that aids in the development of MEMS in the domestic community. MUMP's technologies currently include a 3-layer poly-silicon surface micromachining process and LIGA (lithography, electroforming, and injection molding) processes that provide reasonable design flexibility within set guidelines. The consolidated micromechanical element library (CaMEL) is a library of active and passive MEMS structures that can be downloaded by the MEMS community via the internet. Smart MEMS is the development of advanced electronics integration techniques for MEMS through the application of flip chip technology. The MEMS technology network (TechNet) is a menu of standard substrates and MEMS fabrication processes that can be purchased and combined to create unique process flows. TechNet provides the MEMS community greater flexibility and enhanced technology accessibility.

  11. Distributed Compressive CSIT Estimation and Feedback for FDD Multi-User Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiongbin; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2014-06-01

    To fully utilize the spatial multiplexing gains or array gains of massive MIMO, the channel state information must be obtained at the transmitter side (CSIT). However, conventional CSIT estimation approaches are not suitable for FDD massive MIMO systems because of the overwhelming training and feedback overhead. In this paper, we consider multi-user massive MIMO systems and deploy the compressive sensing (CS) technique to reduce the training as well as the feedback overhead in the CSIT estimation. The multi-user massive MIMO systems exhibits a hidden joint sparsity structure in the user channel matrices due to the shared local scatterers in the physical propagation environment. As such, instead of naively applying the conventional CS to the CSIT estimation, we propose a distributed compressive CSIT estimation scheme so that the compressed measurements are observed at the users locally, while the CSIT recovery is performed at the base station jointly. A joint orthogonal matching pursuit recovery algorithm is proposed to perform the CSIT recovery, with the capability of exploiting the hidden joint sparsity in the user channel matrices. We analyze the obtained CSIT quality in terms of the normalized mean absolute error, and through the closed-form expressions, we obtain simple insights into how the joint channel sparsity can be exploited to improve the CSIT recovery performance.

  12. The right view from the wrong location: depth perception in stereoscopic multi-user virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Brice; Burton, Melissa; Kelly, Jonathan W; Gilbert, Stephen; Winer, Eliot

    2012-04-01

    Stereoscopic depth cues improve depth perception and increase immersion within virtual environments (VEs). However, improper display of these cues can distort perceived distances and directions. Consider a multi-user VE, where all users view identical stereoscopic images regardless of physical location. In this scenario, cues are typically customized for one "leader" equipped with a head-tracking device. This user stands at the center of projection (CoP) and all other users ("followers") view the scene from other locations and receive improper depth cues. This paper examines perceived depth distortion when viewing stereoscopic VEs from follower perspectives and the impact of these distortions on collaborative spatial judgments. Pairs of participants made collaborative depth judgments of virtual shapes viewed from the CoP or after displacement forward or backward. Forward and backward displacement caused perceived depth compression and expansion, respectively, with greater compression than expansion. Furthermore, distortion was less than predicted by a ray-intersection model of stereo geometry. Collaboration times were significantly longer when participants stood at different locations compared to the same location, and increased with greater perceived depth discrepancy between the two viewing locations. These findings advance our understanding of spatial distortions in multi-user VEs, and suggest a strategy for reducing distortion.

  13. Multi-User Identification-Based Eye-Tracking Algorithm Using Position Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-user eye-tracking algorithm using position estimation. Conventional eye-tracking algorithms are typically suitable only for a single user, and thereby cannot be used for a multi-user system. Even though they can be used to track the eyes of multiple users, their detection accuracy is low and they cannot identify multiple users individually. The proposed algorithm solves these problems and enhances the detection accuracy. Specifically, the proposed algorithm adopts a classifier to detect faces for the red, green, and blue (RGB) and depth images. Then, it calculates features based on the histogram of the oriented gradient for the detected facial region to identify multiple users, and selects the template that best matches the users from a pre-determined face database. Finally, the proposed algorithm extracts the final eye positions based on anatomical proportions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improved the average F1 score by up to 0.490, compared with benchmark algorithms. PMID:28035979

  14. Diverse roles of the reduced learning ability of players in the evolution of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Chen, Michael Z. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Individual heterogeneity in the reproductive rate is found to play an important role in the emergence and persistence of cooperation. Most of the existing literature focused mainly on the enhancement of cooperation by the introduction of inhomogeneous teaching capability of the individuals. It is far from clear how the heterogeneous learning ability of the individuals affects the evolution of cooperation. To fill this research gap, we make comparative studies of the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game with reduced learning or teaching ability of the players, under both synchronous and asynchronous strategy updating schemes. By carrying out extensive computer simulations, we show that cooperation can always be facilitated if the inhomogeneous teaching ability of the players is considered, irrespectively of the strategy updating manner. By contrast, cooperation is promoted (inhibited) in the case of synchronous (asynchronous) strategy updating, if heterogeneous learning ability is considered, which is attributed to the reduced ability of cooperators to expand their domains.

  15. Action tagging in a multi-user indoor environment for behavioural analysis purposes.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Claudio; Bianchi, Valentina; De Munari, Ilaria; Ciampolini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    EU population is getting older, so that ICT-based solutions are expected to provide support in the challenges implied by the demographic change. At the University of Parma an AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) system, named CARDEA, has been developed. In this paper a new feature of the system is introduced, in which environmental and personal (i.e., wearable) sensors coexist, providing an accurate picture of the user's activity and needs. Environmental devices may greatly help in performing activity recognition and behavioral analysis tasks. However, in a multi-user environment, this implies the need of attributing environmental sensors outcome to a specific user, i.e., identifying the user when he performs a task detected by an environmental device. We implemented such an "action tagging" feature, based on information fusion, within the CARDEA environment, as an inexpensive, alternative solution to the problematic issue of indoor locationing.

  16. Comparison of two underwater acoustic communications techniques for multi-user access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hursky, Paul; Siderius, T. Martin; Kauaiex Group

    2004-05-01

    Frequency hopped frequency shift keying (FHFSK) and code division multiple access (CDMA) are two different modulation techniques for multiple users to communicate with a single receiver simultaneously. In July 2003, these two techniques were tested alongside each other in a shallow water coastal environment off the coast of Kauai. A variety of instruments were used to measure the prevailing oceanography, enabling detailed modeling of the channel. The channel was acoustically probed using LFM waveforms and m-sequences as well. We will present the results of demodulating the FHFSK and CDMA waveforms and discuss modeling the channel for the purpose of predicting multi-user communications performance. a)Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius (SAIC), Mohsen Badiey (UD), Jerald Caruthers (USM), William S. Hodgkiss, Kaustubha Raghukumar (SIO), Dan Rouseff, Warren Fox (APL-UW), Christian de Moustier, Brian Calder, Barbara J. Kraft (UNH), Keyko McDonald (SPAWARSSC), Peter Stein, James K. Lewis, and Subramaniam Rajan (SSI).

  17. Comparison of two underwater acoustic communications techniques for multi-user access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hursky, Paul; Siderius, T. Martin; Kauaiex Group

    2001-05-01

    Frequency hopped frequency shift keying (FHFSK) and code division multiple access (CDMA) are two different modulation techniques for multiple users to communicate with a single receiver simultaneously. In July 2003, these two techniques were tested alongside each other in a shallow water coastal environment off the coast of Kauai. A variety of instruments were used to measure the prevailing oceanography, enabling detailed modeling of the channel. The channel was acoustically probed using LFM waveforms and m-sequences as well. We will present the results of demodulating the FHFSK and CDMA waveforms and discuss modeling the channel for the purpose of predicting multi-user communications performance. a)Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius (SAIC), Mohsen Badiey (UD), Jerald Caruthers (USM), William S. Hodgkiss, Kaustubha Raghukumar (SIO), Dan Rouseff, Warren Fox (APL-UW), Christian de Moustier, Brian Calder, Barbara J. Kraft (UNH), Keyko McDonald (SPAWARSSC), Peter Stein, James K. Lewis, and Subramaniam Rajan (SSI).

  18. Interaction Design and Usability of Learning Spaces in 3D Multi-user Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John

    Three-dimensional virtual worlds are multimedia, simulated environments, often managed over the Web, which users can 'inhabit' and interact via their own graphical, self-representations known as 'avatars'. 3D virtual worlds are being used in many applications: education/training, gaming, social networking, marketing and commerce. Second Life is the most widely used 3D virtual world in education. However, problems associated with usability, navigation and way finding in 3D virtual worlds may impact on student learning and engagement. Based on empirical investigations of learning spaces in Second Life, this paper presents design guidelines to improve the usability and ease of navigation in 3D spaces. Methods of data collection include semi-structured interviews with Second Life students, educators and designers. The findings have revealed that design principles from the fields of urban planning, Human- Computer Interaction, Web usability, geography and psychology can influence the design of spaces in 3D multi-user virtual environments.

  19. Multi-user quantum key distribution with collective eavesdropping detection over collective-noise channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    A multi-user quantum key distribution protocol is proposed with single particles and the collective eavesdropping detection strategy on a star network. By utilizing this protocol, any two users of the network can accomplish quantum key distribution with the help of a serving center. Due to the utilization of the collective eavesdropping detection strategy, the users of the protocol just need to have the ability of performing certain unitary operations. Furthermore, we present three fault-tolerant versions of the proposed protocol, which can combat with the errors over different collective-noise channels. The security of all the proposed protocols is guaranteed by the theorems on quantum operation discrimination. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272057, 61170270, and 61309029), Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project, China (Grant Nos. YETP0475 and YETP0477), and BUPT Excellent Ph.D. Students Foundation, China (Grant No. CX201441).

  20. Local packing modulates diversity of iron pathways and cooperative behavior in eukaryotic and prokaryotic ferritins.

    PubMed

    Ruvinsky, Anatoly M; Vakser, Ilya A; Rivera, Mario

    2014-03-21

    Ferritin-like molecules show a remarkable combination of the evolutionary conserved activity of iron uptake and release that engage different pores in the conserved ferritin shell. It was hypothesized that pore selection and iron traffic depend on dynamic allostery with no conformational changes in the backbone. In this study, we detect the allosteric networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterioferritin (BfrB), bacterial ferritin (FtnA), and bullfrog M and L ferritins (Ftns) by a network-weaving algorithm (NWA) that passes threads of an allosteric network through highly correlated residues using hierarchical clustering. The residue-residue correlations are calculated in the packing-on elastic network model that introduces atom packing into the common packing-off model. Applying NWA revealed that each of the molecules has an extended allosteric network mostly buried inside the ferritin shell. The structure of the networks is consistent with experimental observations of iron transport: The allosteric networks in BfrB and FtnA connect the ferroxidase center with the 4-fold pores and B-pores, leaving the 3-fold pores unengaged. In contrast, the allosteric network directly links the 3-fold pores with the 4-fold pores in M and L Ftns. The majority of the network residues are either on the inner surface or buried inside the subunit fold or at the subunit interfaces. We hypothesize that the ferritin structures evolved in a way to limit the influence of functionally unrelated events in the cytoplasm on the allosteric network to maintain stability of the translocation mechanisms. We showed that the residue-residue correlations and the resultant long-range cooperativity depend on the ferritin shell packing, which, in turn, depends on protein sequence composition. Switching from the packing-on to the packing-off model reduces correlations by 35%-38% so that no allosteric network can be found. The influence of the side-chain packing on the allosteric networks explains the

  1. The theory research of multi-user quantum access network with Measurement Device Independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yi-Ming; Li, Yun-Xia; Shi, Lei; Meng, Wen; Cui, Shu-Min; Xu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Quantum access network can't guarantee the absolute security of multi-user detector and eavesdropper can get access to key information through time-shift attack and other ways. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is immune from all the detection attacks, and accomplishes the safe sharing of quantum key. In this paper, that Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is used in the application of multi-user quantum access to the network is on the research. By adopting time-division multiplexing technology to achieve the sharing of multiuser detector, the system structure is simplified and the security of quantum key sharing is acquired.

  2. Diverse strategy-learning styles promote cooperation in evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Rong, Zhihai

    2015-11-01

    Observational learning and practice learning are two important learning styles and play important roles in our information acquisition. In this paper, we study a spacial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game, where players can choose the observational learning rule or the practice learning rule when updating their strategies. In the proposed model, we use a parameter p controlling the preference of players choosing the observational learning rule, and found that there exists an optimal value of p leading to the highest cooperation level, which indicates that the cooperation can be promoted by these two learning rules collaboratively and one single learning rule is not favor the promotion of cooperation. By analysing the dynamical behavior of the system, we find that the observational learning rule can make the players residing on cooperative clusters more easily realize the bad sequence of mutual defection. However, a too high observational learning probability suppresses the players to form compact cooperative clusters. Our results highlight the importance of a strategy-updating rule, more importantly, the observational learning rule in the evolutionary cooperation.

  3. Deciding to Cooperate in Northern Ghana: Trust as an Evolutionary Constraint Across Cultural Diversity.

    PubMed

    Acedo-Carmona, Cristina; Gomila, Antoni

    2015-11-27

    The upper-east and northern regions of Ghana offers a unique opportunity to study the influence of evolutionary social dynamics in making cooperation possible, despite cultural differences. These regions are occupied by several distinct ethnic groups, in interaction, such as the Kussasi, Mamprusi, Bimoba, Konkomba, and Fulani. We will report our fieldwork related to how cooperation takes places there, both within each group and among people from the different groups. Methods included personal networks of cooperation (ego networks), interviews and analysis of group contexts. The most important result is that, while each ethnic group may differ in terms of family and clan structure, a similar pattern can be found in all of them, of cooperation structured around small groups of trust-based close relationships. The study suggests that habitual decisions about cooperation are not strategic or self-interested, but instead are based on unconscious processes sustained by the emotional bonds of trust. These kind of emotional bonds are claimed to be relevant from an evolutionary point of view.

  4. Exploring the Integration of Technology into Jewish Education: Multi-User Virtual Environments and Supplementary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Johannah Eve

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive case study explores the implementation of a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) in a Jewish supplemental school setting. The research was conducted to present the recollections and reflections of three constituent populations of a new technology exploring constructivist education in the context of supplemental and online…

  5. An Architecture For Shared Multi-User Client Rendering Of Massive Geodatasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naser, A.; Brooke, J.; Rasheed, M.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a novel data-centric visualization architecture to allow interactive exploration of geophysical data. Our method allows multiple users to collaborate in a lightweight, loosely-coupled and highly scalable environment. We choose 3D seismic data for our case study. Existing visualization solutions for data exploratory tasks are mainly application-centric rather than data-centric. They typically store large datasets on users' local machines for fast access. Additionally, data objects that are the focus of study, e.g. seismic surveys and interpreted geological features, are managed as objects that are independent of the primary data. Thus multi-user collaborations where different users visually share their geological interpretations are handled inefficiently since objects from each interpretation are stored as independent discrete objects. These objects may be stored separately from the primary data, e.g. on local disks, ensuring a coherent multi-user view is difficult. Our visual analytic method places a central data structure built on a Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) relational database at the heart of the visualization architecture. This structure allows us to develop the following efficient methods for data retrieval and display: -global hashing for spatial reference on all datasets -interpretation tagging which accumulate user interpretation into the database -multi-user concurrent access allowing parallel multi-threading queries In our data structure, data elements are indexed on their geolocations by a hashing algorithm. The hashing algorithm determines the location of the required row through hashing functions without a construction or any storage complexity. This is unlike other conventional indexing algorithms such as bitmapping or tree-based methods where construction and storage (of the index table) complexity varies between O(n) and O(n log n) where n is the size of the dataset. Also, we replace the geometric objects formed as a

  6. Inspiring Equal Contribution and Opportunity in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment: Bringing Together Men Gamers and Women Non-Gamers in Second Life[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    A 3D multi-user virtual environment holds promise to support and enhance student online learning communities due to its ability to promote global synchronous interaction and collaboration, rich multisensory experience and expression, and elaborate design capabilities. Second Life[R], a multi-user virtual environment intended for adult users 18 and…

  7. Exploring the Use of Individualized, Reflective Guidance In an Educational Multi-User Virtual Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Brian C.

    2007-02-01

    This study examines the patterns of use and potential impact of individualized, reflective guidance in an educational Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE). A guidance system embedded within a MUVE-based scientific inquiry curriculum was implemented with a sample of middle school students in an exploratory study investigating (a) whether access to the guidance system was associated with improved learning, (b) whether students viewing more guidance messages saw greater improvement on content tests than those viewing less, and (c) whether there were any differences in guidance use among boys and girls. Initial experimental findings showed that basic access to individualized guidance used with a MUVE had no measurable impact on learning. However, post-hoc exploratory analyses indicated that increased use of the system among those with access to it was positively associated with content test score gains. In addition, differences were found in overall learning outcomes by gender and in patterns of guidance use by boys and girls, with girls outperforming boys across a spectrum of guidance system use. Based on these exploratory findings, the paper suggests design guidelines for the development of guidance systems embedded in MUVEs and outlines directions for further research.

  8. Multi-user quantum key distribution with entangled photons from an AlGaAs chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autebert, C.; Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Lemaître, A.; Gomez-Carbonell, C.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.; Ducci, S.

    2016-12-01

    In view of real-world applications of quantum information technologies, the combination of miniature quantum resources with existing fibre networks is a crucial issue. Among such resources, on-chip entangled photon sources play a central role for applications spanning quantum communications, computing and metrology. Here, we use a semiconductor source of entangled photons operating at room temperature in conjunction with standard telecom components to demonstrate multi-user quantum key distribution, a core protocol for securing communications in quantum networks. The source consists of an AlGaAs chip-emitting polarisation entangled photon pairs over a large bandwidth in the main telecom band around 1550 nm without the use of any off-chip compensation or interferometric scheme; the photon pairs are directly launched into a dense wavelength division multiplexer (DWDM) and secret keys are distributed between several pairs of users communicating through different channels. We achieve a visibility measured after the DWDM of 87% and show long-distance key distribution using a 50-km standard telecom fibre link between two network users. These results illustrate a promising route to practical, resource-efficient implementations adapted to quantum network infrastructures.

  9. Efficiently Multi-User Searchable Encryption Scheme with Attribute Revocation and Grant for Cloud Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shangping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    Cipher-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) focus on the problem of access control, and keyword-based searchable encryption scheme focus on the problem of finding the files that the user interested in the cloud storage quickly. To design a searchable and attribute-based encryption scheme is a new challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficiently multi-user searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation and grant for cloud storage. In the new scheme the attribute revocation and grant processes of users are delegated to proxy server. Our scheme supports multi attribute are revoked and granted simultaneously. Moreover, the keyword searchable function is achieved in our proposed scheme. The security of our proposed scheme is reduced to the bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption. Furthermore, the scheme is proven to be secure under the security model of indistinguishability against selective ciphertext-policy and chosen plaintext attack (IND-sCP-CPA). And our scheme is also of semantic security under indistinguishability against chosen keyword attack (IND-CKA) in the random oracle model. PMID:27898703

  10. Efficiently Multi-User Searchable Encryption Scheme with Attribute Revocation and Grant for Cloud Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shangping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    Cipher-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) focus on the problem of access control, and keyword-based searchable encryption scheme focus on the problem of finding the files that the user interested in the cloud storage quickly. To design a searchable and attribute-based encryption scheme is a new challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficiently multi-user searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation and grant for cloud storage. In the new scheme the attribute revocation and grant processes of users are delegated to proxy server. Our scheme supports multi attribute are revoked and granted simultaneously. Moreover, the keyword searchable function is achieved in our proposed scheme. The security of our proposed scheme is reduced to the bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption. Furthermore, the scheme is proven to be secure under the security model of indistinguishability against selective ciphertext-policy and chosen plaintext attack (IND-sCP-CPA). And our scheme is also of semantic security under indistinguishability against chosen keyword attack (IND-CKA) in the random oracle model.

  11. A power-efficient ZF precoding scheme for multi-user indoor visible light communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiong; Fan, Yangyu; Deng, Lijun; Kang, Bochao

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we propose a power-efficient ZF precoding scheme for visible light communication (VLC) downlink multi-user multiple-input-single-output (MU-MISO) systems, which incorporates the zero-forcing (ZF) and the characteristics of VLC systems. The main idea of this scheme is that the channel matrix used to perform pseudoinverse comes from the set of optical Access Points (APs) shared by more than one user, instead of the set of all involved serving APs as the existing ZF precoding schemes often used. By doing this, the waste of power, which is caused by the transmission of one user's data in the un-serving APs, can be avoided. In addition, the size of the channel matrix needs to perform pseudoinverse becomes smaller, which helps to reduce the computation complexity. Simulation results in two scenarios show that the proposed ZF precoding scheme has higher power efficiency, better bit error rate (BER) performance and lower computation complexity compared with traditional ZF precoding schemes.

  12. Multi-Objective Multi-User Scheduling for Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Giuliano, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an architecture called MUSE (Multi-User Scheduling Environment) to enable the integration of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms with existing domain planning and scheduling tools. Our approach is intended to make it possible to re-use existing software, while obtaining the advantages of multi-objective optimization algorithms. This approach enables multiple participants to actively engage in the optimization process, each representing one or more objectives in the optimization problem. As initial applications, we apply our approach to scheduling the James Webb Space Telescope, where three objectives are modeled: minimizing wasted time, minimizing the number of observations that miss their last planning opportunity in a year, and minimizing the (vector) build up of angular momentum that would necessitate the use of mission critical propellant to dump the momentum. As a second application area, we model aspects of the Cassini science planning process, including the trade-off between collecting data (subject to onboard recorder capacity) and transmitting saved data to Earth. A third mission application is that of scheduling the Cluster 4-spacecraft constellation plasma experiment. In this paper we describe our overall architecture and our adaptations for these different application domains. We also describe our plans for applying this approach to other science mission planning and scheduling problems in the future.

  13. Multi-user satellite communications system using an innovative compressive receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    There is a need for an onboard simultaneous multi-channel demodulation system for a satellite communications system. Studies indicate that Convolve Multiply Convolve (CMC) filtering with surface acoustic wave (SAW) dispersive delay lines will eliminate the necessity of onboard satellite channelized filters of complex fourier transform processors. The reason for choosing the CMC technique is its ability to perform Fourier transformations in a shorter time with less space and power consumption than digital Fourier transform processors. Each ground terminal in this multi-users communications system is remotely located and operates independently; hence, a method of synchronizing the transmission of these users is presented which utilizes the existing Global Positioning System (GPS) system. Each ground user is equipped with a low cost ground terminal that has a synchronization subsystem attached to it. The system design of an onboard Multi-channel Receiver and Demodulator utilizes Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) as the modulation technique. This technique provides the best figure of merit, i.e., the lowest transmitter power requirement per communication channel.

  14. Cooperative Learning and Strategies for Inclusion: Celebrating Diversity in the Classroom. Children, Youth & Change: Sociocultural Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, JoAnne W., Ed.

    This book is intended to assist educators to meet the needs of a diverse population of children with varying cognitive abilities; developmental and learning disabilities; sensory impairments; and different cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. It is based on the premise that children of differing abilities and backgrounds will…

  15. Simultaneous injection of stable and radioactive ions into upgraded multi-user atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Amichay

    Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) national user research facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Presently, Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) produced in the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility are charge bred in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) charge breeder prior to post acceleration in ATLAS. A new state of the art Electron Beam Ion Source charge breeder, the CARIBU-EBIS charge breeder, has been developed (not in the scope of the work presented here) at ANL to replace the existing ECR charge breeder for charge breeding RIBs generated in CARIBU. The CARIBU-EBIS charge breeder is now in the final stages of offline at the Accelerator Development Test Facility (ADTF). A significant part of the commissioning effort has been devoted to testing the source by breeding singly-charged cesium ions injected from a surface ionization source. Characterization of the CARIBU-EBIS performance has been accomplished through a comparison between the measured properties of extracted beams and simulation results. Following its offline commissioning, CARIBU-EBIS will be relocated to its permanent location in ATLAS. An electrostatic transport line has been designed to transport RIBs from CARIBU and inject them into CARIBU-EBIS. In addition, modifications to the existing ATLAS Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) were required in order to transport the charge bred RIBs from CARIBU-EBIS to ATLAS. A proposal for upgrading ATLAS to a multi-user facility has been explored as well. In this context, beam dynamics simulations show that further modifications to the ATLAS LEBT will enable the simultaneous injection and acceleration of RIBs and stable beams in ATLAS. Furthermore, a novel technique proposed by Ostroumov et al. will allow for the acceleration of multiple charge states from CARIBU-EBIS, thereby increasing the intensity of available RIBs by up to 60%.

  16. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers using commercial multi-user MUMPs process: capability and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jessica; Oakley, Clyde; Shandas, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to construct capacitive micromachined ultrasouind transducers (cMUTs) using multi-user MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) process (MUMPs) and to analyze the capability of this process relative to the customized processes commonly in use. The MUMPs process has the advantages of low cost and accessibility to general users since it is not necessary to have access to customized fabrication capability such as wafer-bonding and sacrificial release processes. While other researchers have reported fabricating cMUTs using the MUMPs process none has reported the limitations in the process that arise due to the use of standard design rules that place limitations on the material thicknesses, gap thicknesses, and materials that may be used. In this paper we explain these limitations, and analyze the capabilities using 1D modeling, Finite Element Analysis, and experimental devices. We show that one of the limitations is that collapse voltage and center frequency can not be controlled independently. However, center frequencies up to 9 MHz can be achieved with collapse voltages of less than 200 volts making such devices suitable for medical and non-destructive evaluation imaging applications. Since the membrane and base electrodes are made of polysilicon, there is a larger series resistance than that resulting from processes that use metal electrodes. We show that the series resistance is not a significant problem. The conductive polysilicon can also destroy the cMUT if the top membrane is pulled in the bottom. As a solution we propose the application of an additional dielectric layer. Finally we demonstrate a device built with a novel beam construction that produces transmitted pressure pulse into air with 6% bandwidth and agrees reasonably well with the 1D model. We conclude that cMUTS made with MUMPS process have some limitations that are not present in customized processes. However these limitations may be overcome with the proper design

  17. Trends in the salience of data collected in a multi user virtual environment: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutwiler, M. Shane

    In this study, by exploring patterns in the degree of physical salience of the data the students collected, I investigated the relationship between the level of students' tendency to frame explanations in terms of complex patterns and evidence of how they attend to and select data in support of their developing understandings of causal relationships. I accomplished this by analyzing longitudinal data collected as part of a larger study of 143 7th grade students (clustered within 36 teams, 5 teachers, and 2 schools in the same Northeastern school district) as they navigated and collected data in an ecosystems-based multi-user virtual environment curriculum known as the EcoMUVE Pond module (Metcalf, Kamarainen, Tutwiler, Grotzer, Dede, 2011) . Using individual growth modeling (Singer & Willett, 2003) I found no direct link between student pre-intervention tendency to offer explanations containing complex causal components and patterns of physical salience-driven data collection (average physical salience level, number of low physical salience data points collected, and proportion of low physical salience data points collected), though prior science content knowledge did affect the initial status and rate of change of outcomes in the average physical salience level and proportion of low physical salience data collected over time. The findings of this study suggest two issues for consideration about the use of MUVEs to study student data collection behaviors in complex spaces. Firstly, the structure of the curriculum in which the MUVE is embedded might have a direct effect on what types of data students choose to collect. This undercuts our ability to make inferences about student-driven decisions to collect specific types of data, and suggests that a more open-ended curricular model might be better suited to this type of inquiry. Secondly, differences between teachers' choices in how to facilitate the units likely contribute to the variance in student data collection

  18. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers using commercial multi-user MUMPs process: capability and limitations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jessica; Oakley, Clyde; Shandas, Robin

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this work is to construct capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (cMUTs) using multi-user microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processess (MUMPs) and to analyze the capability of this process relative to the customized processes commonly in use. The MUMPs process has the advantages of low cost and accessibility to general users since it is not necessary to have access to customized fabrication capability such as wafer-bonding and sacrificial release processes. While other researchers have reported fabricating cMUTs using the MUMPs process none has reported the limitations in the process that arise due to the use of standard design rules that place limitations on the material thicknesses, gap thicknesses, and materials that may be used. In this paper we explain these limitations, and analyze the capabilities using 1D modeling, Finite Element Analysis, and experimental devices. We show that one of the limitations is that collapse voltage and center frequency can not be controlled independently. However, center frequencies up to 9 MHz can be achieved with collapse voltages of less than 200 V making such devices suitable for medical and non-destructive evaluation imaging applications. Since the membrane and base electrodes are made of polysilicon, there is a larger series resistance than that resulting from processes that use metal electrodes. We show that the series resistance is not a significant problem. The conductive polysilicon can also destroy the cMUT if the top membrane is pulled in the bottom. As a solution we propose the application of an additional dielectric layer. Finally we demonstrate a device built with a novel beam construction that produces transmitted pressure pulse into air with 6% bandwidth and agrees reasonably well with the 1D model. We conclude that cMUTs made with MUMPs process have some limitations that are not present in customized processes. However, these limitations may be overcome with the proper design

  19. Immune Tolerance Maintained by Cooperative Interactions between T Cells and Antigen Presenting Cells Shapes a Diverse TCR Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Best, Katharine; Chain, Benny; Watkins, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The T cell population in an individual needs to avoid harmful activation by self peptides while maintaining the ability to respond to an unknown set of foreign peptides. This property is acquired by a combination of thymic and extra-thymic mechanisms. We extend current models for the development of self/non-self discrimination to consider the acquisition of self-tolerance as an emergent system level property of the overall T cell receptor repertoire. We propose that tolerance is established at the level of the antigen presenting cell/T cell cluster, which facilitates and integrates cooperative interactions between T cells of different specificities. The threshold for self-reactivity is therefore imposed at a population level, and not at the level of the individual T cell/antigen encounter. Mathematically, the model can be formulated as a linear programing optimization problem that can be implemented as a multiplicative update algorithm, which shows a rapid convergence to a stable state. The model constrains self-reactivity within a predefined threshold, but maintains repertoire diversity and cross reactivity which are key characteristics of human T cell immunity. We show further that the size of individual clones in the model repertoire becomes heterogeneous, and that new clones can establish themselves even when the repertoire has stabilized. Our study combines the salient features of the “danger” model of self/non-self discrimination with the concepts of quorum sensing, and extends repertoire generation models to encompass the establishment of tolerance. Furthermore, the dynamic and continuous repertoire reshaping, which underlies tolerance in this model, suggests opportunities for therapeutic intervention to achieve long-term tolerance following transplantation. PMID:26300880

  20. Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zixiong; Yu, Changyuan; Zhong, Wen-De; Chen, Jian; Chen, Wei

    2012-02-13

    This paper investigates the performance of our recently proposed LED lamp arrangement to reduce the SNR fluctuation from different locations in the room for multi-user visible light communications. The LED lamp arrangement consists of 4 LED lamps positioned in the corners and 12 LED lamps spread evenly on a circle. Our studies show that the SNR fluctuation under such a LED lamp arrangement is reduced from 14.5 dB to 0.9 dB, which guarantees that users can obtain almost identical communication quality, regardless of their locations. After time domain zero-forcing (ZF) equalization, the BER performances and channel capacities of 100-Mbit/s and 200-Mbit/s bipolar on-off-keying (OOK) signal with most significant inter-symbol interference (ISI) are very close to that of the channel without any ISI caused by this LED lamp arrangement.

  1. Heavy-tailed distribution of the SSH Brute-force attack duration in a multi-user environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Kook; Kim, Sung-Jun; Park, Chan Yeol; Hong, Taeyoung; Chae, Huiseung

    2016-07-01

    Quite a number of cyber-attacks to be place against supercomputers that provide highperformance computing (HPC) services to public researcher. Particularly, although the secure shell protocol (SSH) brute-force attack is one of the traditional attack methods, it is still being used. Because stealth attacks that feign regular access may occur, they are even harder to detect. In this paper, we introduce methods to detect SSH brute-force attacks by analyzing the server's unsuccessful access logs and the firewall's drop events in a multi-user environment. Then, we analyze the durations of the SSH brute-force attacks that are detected by applying these methods. The results of an analysis of about 10 thousands attack source IP addresses show that the behaviors of abnormal users using SSH brute-force attacks are based on human dynamic characteristics of a typical heavy-tailed distribution.

  2. Andragogical Characteristics and Expectations of University of Hawai'i Adult Learners in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeder, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which andragogical characteristics and expectations of adult learners manifested themselves in the three-dimensional, multi-user virtual environment known as Second Life. This digital ethnographic study focused specifically on adult students within the University of Hawai'i Second Life group and their…

  3. School Exchanges: Cultural Diversity, Conflict and Cooperation. Report of the Conference (7th, Dubrovnik, Croatia, September 11-15, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    The Council of Europe was founded in 1949 to achieve greater unity among European parliamentary democracies. The Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC) is responsible for the Council of Education's work on education, culture, and sport. This publication contains proceedings of the CDCC Conference of the Network on School Links and Exchangers.…

  4. Weighted sum-rate maximization for multi-user SIMO multiple access channels in cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Peter; Zhao, Lian; Lu, Jianhua

    2013-12-01

    In this article, an efficient distributed and parallel algorithm is proposed to maximize the sum-rate and optimize the input distribution policy for the multi-user single input multiple output multiple access channel (MU-SIMO MAC) system with concurrent access within a cognitive radio (CR) network. The single input means that every user has a single antenna and multiple output means that base station(s) has multiple antennas. The main features are: (i) the power distribution for the users is updated by using variable scale factors which effectively and efficiently maximize the objective function at each iteration; (ii) distributed and parallel computation is employed to expedite convergence of the proposed distributed algorithm; and (iii) a novel water-filling with mixed constraints is investigated, and used as a fundamental block of the proposed algorithm. Due to sufficiently exploiting the structure of the proposed model, the proposed algorithm owns fast convergence. Numerical results verify that the proposed algorithm is effective and fast convergent. Using the proposed approach, for the simulated range, the required number of iterations for convergence is two and this number is not sensitive to the increase of the number of users. This feature is quite desirable for large scale systems with dense active users. In addition, it is also worth noting that the proposed algorithm is a monotonic feasible operator to the iteration. Thus, the stop criterion for computation could be easily set up.

  5. Cellular cooperation: insights from microbes.

    PubMed

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cells is a widespread phenomenon in nature, found across diverse systems ranging from microbial populations to multicellular organisms. For cooperation to evolve and be maintained within a population of cells, costs due to competition have to be outweighed by the benefits gained through cooperative actions. Because cooperation generally confers a cost to the cooperating cells, defector cells that do not cooperate but reap the benefits of cooperation can thrive and eventually drive the cooperating phenotypes to extinction. Here we summarize recent advances made in understanding how cooperation and multicellularity can evolve in microbial populations in the face of such conflicts and discuss parallels with cell populations within multicellular organisms.

  6. A Web-based Multi-user Interactive Visualization System For Large-Scale Computing Using Google Web Toolkit Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R. M.; McLane, J. C.; Yuen, D. A.; Wang, S.

    2009-12-01

    We have created a web-based, interactive system for multi-user collaborative visualization of large data sets (on the order of terabytes) that allows users in geographically disparate locations to simultaneous and collectively visualize large data sets over the Internet. By leveraging asynchronous java and XML (AJAX) web development paradigms via the Google Web Toolkit (http://code.google.com/webtoolkit/), we are able to provide remote, web-based users a web portal to LCSE's (http://www.lcse.umn.edu) large-scale interactive visualization system already in place at the University of Minnesota that provides high resolution visualizations to the order of 15 million pixels by Megan Damon. In the current version of our software, we have implemented a new, highly extensible back-end framework built around HTTP "server push" technology to provide a rich collaborative environment and a smooth end-user experience. Furthermore, the web application is accessible via a variety of devices including netbooks, iPhones, and other web- and javascript-enabled cell phones. New features in the current version include: the ability for (1) users to launch multiple visualizations, (2) a user to invite one or more other users to view their visualization in real-time (multiple observers), (3) users to delegate control aspects of the visualization to others (multiple controllers) , and (4) engage in collaborative chat and instant messaging with other users within the user interface of the web application. We will explain choices made regarding implementation, overall system architecture and method of operation, and the benefits of an extensible, modular design. We will also discuss future goals, features, and our plans for increasing scalability of the system which includes a discussion of the benefits potentially afforded us by a migration of server-side components to the Google Application Engine (http://code.google.com/appengine/).

  7. A Theoretical Scheme for Multi-user Quantum Key Distribution with N Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Pairs on a Passive Optical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fu-Guo; Liu, Xiao-Shu; Ma, Ying-Jun; Xiao, Li; Long, Gui-Lu

    2002-07-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme for any-to-any multi-user quantum key distribution on a passive optical network with ordered N Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. This scheme is safe and more efficient than those with single photons. Its efficiency approaches 100% in the limit that the number of pairs used in the eavesdropping check becomes negligible. It also has high capacity and is convenient for users.

  8. First demonstration and field trial on multi-user UDWDM-PON full duplex PSK-PSK with single monolithic integrated dual-output-DFB-SOA based ONUs.

    PubMed

    Chu, GuangYong; Maho, Anaëlle; Cano, Iván; Polo, Victor; Brenot, Romain; Debrégeas, Hélène; Prat, Josep

    2016-10-15

    We demonstrate a monolithically integrated dual-output DFB-SOA, and conduct the field trial on a multi-user bidirectional coherent ultradense wavelength division multiplexing-passive optical network (UDWDM-PON). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first achievement of simplified single integrated laser-based neighboring coherent optical network units (ONUs) with a 12.5 GHz channel spaced ultra-dense access network, including both downstream and upstream, taking the benefits of low footprint and low-temperature dependence.

  9. The Effect of the Use of the 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment "Second Life" on Student Motivation and Language Proficiency in Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pares-Toral, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing popularity of virtual worlds, also known as 3-D multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) or simply virtual worlds provides language instructors with a new tool they can exploit in their courses. For now, "Second Life" is one of the most popular MUVEs used for teaching and learning, and although "Second Life"…

  10. The Impact of Student Self-efficacy on Scientific Inquiry Skills: An Exploratory Investigation in River City, a Multi-user Virtual Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    2007-02-01

    This exploratory study investigated data-gathering behaviors exhibited by 100 seventh-grade students as they participated in a scientific inquiry-based curriculum project delivered by a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). This research examined the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into the authentic scientific activity and the longitudinal data-gathering behaviors they employed while engaged in that process. Three waves of student behavior data were gathered from a server-side database that recorded all student activity in the MUVE; these data were analyzed using individual growth modeling. The study found that self-efficacy correlated with the number of data-gathering behaviors in which students initially engaged, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. Also, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender. However, by the end of their time in the MUVE, initial student self-efficacy no longer correlated with data gathering behaviors. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different sources from which they chose to gather data. These results suggest that embedding science inquiry curricula in novel platforms like a MUVE might act as a catalyst for change in students' self-efficacy and learning processes.

  11. Multi-user investigation organizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M. (Inventor); Panontin, Tina L. (Inventor); Carvalho, Robert E. (Inventor); Sturken, Ian (Inventor); Williams, James F. (Inventor); Wolfe, Shawn R. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system that allows a team of geographically dispersed users to collaboratively analyze a mishap event. The system includes a reconfigurable ontology, including instances that are related to and characterize the mishap, a semantic network that receives, indexes and stores, for retrieval, viewing and editing, the instances and links between the instances, a network browser interface for retrieving and viewing screens that present the instances and links to other instances and that allow editing thereof, and a rule-based inference engine, including a collection of rules associated with establishment of links between the instances. A possible conclusion arising from analysis of the mishap event may be characterized as one or more of: not a credible conclusion; an unlikely conclusion; a credible conclusion; conclusion needs analysis; conclusion needs supporting data; conclusion proposed to be closed; and an un-reviewed conclusion.

  12. Emerging and existing mechanisms co-operate in generating diverse β-lactam resistance phenotypes in geographically dispersed and genetically disparate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Elena; Pérez, Javier Escobar; Márquez, Carolina; Vilacoba, Elisabet; Centrón, Daniela; Leal, Aura L; Saavedra, Carlos; Saavedra, Sandra Y; Tovar, Catalina; Vanegas, Natasha; Stokes, H W

    2013-09-01

    β-Lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates is driven by a number of mechanisms. Whilst several are understood, how they act co-operatively in pathogenic strains is less clear. In some isolates, resistance profiles cannot always be explained by identifying the common resistance-determining pathways, suggesting that other mechanisms may be important. Pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates from four countries were characterised by PCR. Quantitative expression analysis was also assessed for the activity of several pathways that influence antibiotic resistance, and culture experiments were conducted to test how random transposition of the insertion sequence IS26 during growth may influence resistance to some antibiotics. In most strains, antibiotic resistance was being driven by changes in multiple pathways and by the presence or absence of genes acquired by lateral gene transfer. Multiple mechanisms of resistance were prevalent in strains from all of the countries examined, although regional differences in the type of interacting mechanisms were apparent. Changes in chromosomal pathways included overexpression of AmpC and two efflux pumps. Also, gain or loss of IS26 at some chromosomal locations, most notably oprD, could influence resistance to carbapenems. IS26-related resistance was found in strains from Argentina and geographically linked Uruguay, but not in strains from either Colombia or Australia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenic strains are evolving to become multidrug-resistant in more complex ways. This is being influenced by single strains acquiring changes in numerous known pathways as well as by newly emerging resistance mechanisms in this species.

  13. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  14. Cooperative Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-23

    than the traditional direct transmission and full cooperation schemes. B. OFDM-Based Cooperation Relay and Subchannel Assignment and Combining We... subchannel assignment and combining schemes. Based on the amount of CSI, resources, such as subchannels , can be allocated to relays to improve the end-to-end...relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel

  15. Religious Diversity in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.; Smith, William Gause; Vickers, Dianne Koenig; Brown, Elsie

    This document contains four papers that address constitutional issues of religious diversity in the schools. The first paper, "Religious Diversity in the Schools--The Overview" (George J. Michel), provides an overview of religious diversity in American public schools, with a focus on the long history of cooperation with Christian churches. It…

  16. Teacher Cooperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Twenty years ago, when the late Albert Shanker endorsed the notion of innovative schools operating outside conventional district bureaucracies, his aim was to put teachers at the helm. Today there are nearly 80 teacher-governed charter schools around the country. Although most are legally constituted as worker cooperatives, they better resemble…

  17. Infusing a Multicultural Perspective in Teacher Education through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didham, Cheryl K.

    This paper discusses what teacher education programs can do to prepare teachers for diverse classrooms. One approach is through cooperative learning, since children come to school with various orientations to cooperative behavior. Many teachers, however, jump into cooperative activities with little thought of the behaviors needed by students to…

  18. Character displacement promotes cooperation in bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, Michael A; Hochberg, Michael E; Bell, Thomas; Buckling, Angus

    2006-10-24

    Resource competition within a group of cooperators is expected to decrease selection for cooperative behavior but can also result in diversifying selection for the use of different resources, which in turn could retard the breakdown of cooperation. Diverse groups are likely to be less susceptible to invasion by noncooperating social cheats: First, competition repression resulting from character displacement may provide less of a selective advantage to cheating; second, cheats may trade off the ability to exploit cooperators that specialize in one type of resource against cooperators that specialize in another ; third, diverse communities of any kind may have higher invasion resistance because there are fewer resources available for an invader to use . Furthermore, diverse groups are likely to be more productive than clonal groups if a wider range of total resources are being used . We addressed these issues by using the cooperative trait of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Character displacement through resource competition evolved within biofilms; productivity increased with increasing character displacement, and diverse biofilms were less susceptible to invasion by cheats. These results demonstrate that diversification into different ecological niches can minimize selection against cooperation in the face of local resource competition.

  19. Infusing Cooperative Learning into an EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to investigate student diversities in terms of learning styles and linguistic competence, and the extent to which students change as regards participation, interaction and achievement through Cooperative Learning activities embracing their diversities. 77 first-year EFL students from from the two reading classes, one treated as…

  20. Diverse Thinking about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the concept of diversity in educational decision making. It is noted that the differences that distinguish the needs, interests and abilities are identified by educators. It lists misconceptions resulting from not attending to within-group diversity, and states that a "loss of self" for individual members of…

  1. Joint Diversity for the Block Diagonalization-Precoded Spatial Multiplexing System with Multiple Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghun; Kang, Hyunduk; Jeong, Byungjang

    In this paper, we propose a joint diversity algorithm for error-rate minimization in multi-user spatial multiplexing (SM) systems with block diagonalization (BD)-precoding. The proposed algorithm adapts or selects the user set, transmit antenna subset, and the number of streams by an exhaustive search over the available resources. The proposed algorithm makes use of the multi-user diversity (MUD) and the spatial diversity gains as well as the array gain through selecting the best set. Exhaustive search, however, imposes a heavy burden in terms of computational complexity which exponentially increases with the size of the total number of users, streams, and transmit antennas. For complexity reduction, we propose two suboptimal algorithms which reduce the search space by first selecting the best user or by both selecting the best user and fixing the number of streams. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms improve error probability over the conventional algorithm due to their diversity improvement and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains over the conventional algorithm. We also show that the suboptimal algorithms significantly reduce the computational complexity over exhaustive search with low-SNR loss.

  2. Evolutionary explanations for cooperation.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Griffin, Ashleigh S; Gardner, Andy

    2007-08-21

    Natural selection favours genes that increase an organism's ability to survive and reproduce. This would appear to lead to a world dominated by selfish behaviour. However, cooperation can be found at all levels of biological organisation: genes cooperate in genomes, organelles cooperate to form eukaryotic cells, cells cooperate to make multicellular organisms, bacterial parasites cooperate to overcome host defences, animals breed cooperatively, and humans and insects cooperate to build societies. Over the last 40 years, biologists have developed a theoretical framework that can explain cooperation at all these levels. Here, we summarise this theory, illustrate how it may be applied to real organisms and discuss future directions.

  3. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-09-25

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours.

  4. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  5. High resolution time of arrival estimation for a cooperative sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morhart, C.; Biebl, E. M.

    2010-09-01

    Distance resolution of cooperative sensors is limited by the signal bandwidth. For the transmission mainly lower frequency bands are used which are more narrowband than classical radar frequencies. To compensate this resolution problem the combination of a pseudo-noise coded pulse compression system with superresolution time of arrival estimation is proposed. Coded pulsecompression allows secure and fast distance measurement in multi-user scenarios which can easily be adapted for data transmission purposes (Morhart and Biebl, 2009). Due to the lack of available signal bandwidth the measurement accuracy degrades especially in multipath scenarios. Superresolution time of arrival algorithms can improve this behaviour by estimating the channel impulse response out of a band-limited channel view. For the given test system the implementation of a MUSIC algorithm permitted a two times better distance resolution as the standard pulse compression.

  6. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  7. The LLNL multi-user tandem laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    An FN tandem laboratory, cofunded by several Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Divisions, Sandia Livermore, and the University of California Regents, is now operational at Livermore. The accelerator, formerly the University of Washington injector, has been upgraded with SF 6, Dowlish tubes, and a NEC pelletron charging system. A conventional duoplasmatron, a tritium source, and two Cs sputtering sources will be fielded on the accelerator. Pulsed beams will be available from two source positions. The laboratory has been designed to accommodate up to 19 experimental positions with excellent optics and working vacuum. The facility is unshielded with both accelerator and radiological systems under the control of a distributed microprocessor system. Research activities at the tandem include nuclear physics and astrophysics, materials science and characterization programs, and accelerator mass spectrometry for archaeology, biomedical, environmental and geoscience investigators.

  8. Novelty-Driven Cooperative Coevolution.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jorge; Mariano, Pedro; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2015-12-14

    Cooperative coevolutionary algorithms (CCEAs) rely on multiple coevolving populations for the evolution of solutions composed of coadapted components. CCEAs enable, for instance, the evolution of cooperative multiagent systems composed of heterogeneous agents, where each agent is modelled as a component of the solution. Previous works have, however, shown that CCEAs are biased toward stability: the evolutionary process tends to converge prematurely to stable states instead of (near-)optimal solutions. In this study, we show how novelty search can be used to avoid the counterproductive attraction to stable states in coevolution. Novelty search is an evolutionary technique that drives evolution toward behavioural novelty and diversity rather than exclusively pursuing a static objective. We evaluate three novelty-based approaches that rely on, respectively (1) the novelty of the team as a whole, (2) the novelty of the agents' individual behaviour, and (3) the combination of the two. We compare the proposed approaches with traditional fitness-driven cooperative coevolution in three simulated multirobot tasks. Our results show that team-level novelty scoring is the most effective approach, significantly outperforming fitness-driven coevolution at multiple levels. Novelty-driven cooperative coevolution can substantially increase the potential of CCEAs while maintaining a computational complexity that scales well with the number of populations.

  9. Cooperative gating between ion channels.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kee-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  10. Working well in a culturally diverse team.

    PubMed

    Day-Calder, Mandy

    2016-10-05

    Cooperative working is a core part of the nursing role, and it involves respecting your colleagues' needs and values. If you are part of a diverse team, you may need to develop your cultural competence, treating everyone compassionately and respectfully.

  11. Cooperative surmounting of bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, D.; Mulhern, C.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Tsironis, G. P.; Hänggi, P.

    2015-07-01

    The physics of activated escape of objects out of a metastable state plays a key role in diverse scientific areas involving chemical kinetics, diffusion and dislocation motion in solids, nucleation, electrical transport, motion of flux lines superconductors, charge density waves, and transport processes of macromolecules and astrophysics, to name but a few. The underlying activated processes present the multidimensional extension of the Kramers problem of a single Brownian particle. In comparison to the latter case, however, the dynamics ensuing from the interactions of many coupled units can lead to intriguing novel phenomena that are not present when only a single degree of freedom is involved. In this review we report on a variety of such phenomena that are exhibited by systems consisting of chains of interacting units in the presence of potential barriers. In the first part we consider recent developments in the case of a deterministic dynamics driving cooperative escape processes of coupled nonlinear units out of metastable states. The ability of chains of coupled units to undergo spontaneous conformational transitions can lead to a self-organised escape. The mechanism at work is that the energies of the units become re-arranged, while keeping the total energy conserved, in forming localised energy modes that in turn trigger the cooperative escape. We present scenarios of significantly enhanced noise-free escape rates if compared to the noise-assisted case. The second part of the review deals with the collective directed transport of systems of interacting particles overcoming energetic barriers in periodic potential landscapes. Escape processes in both time-homogeneous and time-dependent driven systems are considered for the emergence of directed motion. It is shown that ballistic channels immersed in the associated mixed high-dimensional phase space are at the source for the directed long-range transport. Open problems and future directions are discussed in

  12. Educational Equity in Ethnically Diverse Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Trish; Clark, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Educational research in cooperative learning suggests that inequity based on perceived status may be an issue with heterogeneous cooperative learning groups. This paper explores issues of status based on race, ethnicity and cultural background in the New Zealand tertiary classroom where there is a diverse mix of domestic and international…

  13. Choosing the cooperative option

    SciTech Connect

    English, G. )

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  14. Cooperation Among State Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenbarger, James L.; Hansen, Dean M.

    1975-01-01

    Most states have separate agencies to deal with vocational education, adult education, and community colleges. Because current procedures for interagency cooperation are inadequate and often nonproductive, there is a need for a national or extra-state catalyst to encourage cooperation in a positive way. Five strategies for cooperation are…

  15. Outcomes of an International Cooperative Education Experience for Undergraduate Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Nancy; Diani, Jacqueline A; Carney, Mary F

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to identify the outcomes of international cooperative education in nursing. Seventeen alumni who completed 19 cooperative work experiences were interviewed. International cooperative experiences support learning about culture and contribute to personal and professional development. Outcomes included increased maturation, confidence, and flexibility; elevated political and global awareness; and ability to create effective relationships with culturally diverse patients and coworkers.

  16. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  17. The Civic Relevance of Interfaith Cooperation for Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Eboo; Meyer, Cassie

    2011-01-01

    As tensions around religious diversity escalate in America, there is an increased realization that interfaith cooperation has broad civic relevance. In this realization, there is an opportunity for American colleges and universities to play a leadership role in constructively engaging religious diversity. The authors of this article explore the…

  18. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  19. Culture and cooperation in a spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stivala, Alex; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kirley, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We study the coevolution of culture and cooperation by combining the Axelrod model of cultural dissemination with a spatial public goods game, incorporating both noise and social influence. Both participation and cooperation in public goods games are conditional on cultural similarity. We find that a larger "scope of cultural possibilities" in the model leads to the survival of cooperation, when noise is not present, and a higher probability of a multicultural state evolving, for low noise rates. High noise rates, however, lead to both rapid extinction of cooperation and collapse into cultural "anomie," in which stable cultural regions fail to form. These results suggest that cultural diversity can actually be beneficial for the evolution of cooperation, but that cultural information needs to be transmitted accurately in order to maintain both coherent cultural groups and cooperation.

  20. Culture and cooperation in a spatial public goods game.

    PubMed

    Stivala, Alex; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Kirley, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We study the coevolution of culture and cooperation by combining the Axelrod model of cultural dissemination with a spatial public goods game, incorporating both noise and social influence. Both participation and cooperation in public goods games are conditional on cultural similarity. We find that a larger "scope of cultural possibilities" in the model leads to the survival of cooperation, when noise is not present, and a higher probability of a multicultural state evolving, for low noise rates. High noise rates, however, lead to both rapid extinction of cooperation and collapse into cultural "anomie," in which stable cultural regions fail to form. These results suggest that cultural diversity can actually be beneficial for the evolution of cooperation, but that cultural information needs to be transmitted accurately in order to maintain both coherent cultural groups and cooperation.

  1. Rethinking Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jack

    1992-01-01

    Managing diversity is about coping with unassimilated differences, about building systems and a culture that unite different people in a common pursuit without undermining their diversity. The goal of diversity training is a high performance organization rather than a climate in which no one's feathers are ruffled. (SK)

  2. Rethinking Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on rethinking diversity in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Neal Chalofsky at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Diversity: A Double-Edged Sword" (Sally F. Angus) presents the notion of work force diversity through two differing perspectives in order to…

  3. Cooperation Among Theorem Provers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldinger, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    This is a final report, which supports NASA's PECSEE (Persistent Cognizant Software Engineering Environment) effort and complements the Kestrel Institute project "Inference System Integration via Logic Morphism". The ultimate purpose of the project is to develop a superior logical inference mechanism by combining the diverse abilities of multiple cooperating theorem provers. In many years of research, a number of powerful theorem-proving systems have arisen with differing capabilities and strengths. Resolution theorem provers (such as Kestrel's KITP or SRI's, SNARK) deal with first-order logic with equality but not the principle of mathematical induction. The Boyer-Moore theorem prover excels at proof by induction but cannot deal with full first-order logic. Both are highly automated but cannot accept user guidance easily. The PVS system (from SRI) in only automatic within decidable theories, but it has well-designed interactive capabilities: furthermore, it includes higher-order logic, not just first-order logic. The NuPRL system from Cornell University and the STeP system from Stanford University have facilities for constructive logic and temporal logic, respectively - both are interactive. It is often suggested - for example, in the anonymous "QED Manifesto"-that we should pool the resources of all these theorem provers into a single system, so that the strengths of one can compensate for the weaknesses of others, and so that effort will not be duplicated. However, there is no straightforward way of doing this, because each system relies on its own language and logic for its success. Thus. SNARK uses ordinary first-order logic with equality, PVS uses higher-order logic. and NuPRL uses constructive logic. The purpose of this project, and the companion project at Kestrel, has been to use the category-theoretic notion of logic morphism to combine systems with different logics and languages. Kestrel's SPECWARE system has been the vehicle for the implementation.

  4. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  5. Futures for energy cooperatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  6. DS-CDMA satellite diversity reception for personal satellite communication: Downlink performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGaudenzi, Riccardo; Giannetti, Filippo

    1995-01-01

    The downlink of a satellite-mobile personal communication system employing power-controlled Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) and exploiting satellite-diversity is analyzed and its performance compared with a more traditional communication system utilizing single satellite reception. The analytical model developed has been thoroughly validated by means of extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations. It is shown how the capacity gain provided by diversity reception shrinks considerably in the presence of increasing traffic or in the case of light shadowing conditions. Moreover, the quantitative results tend to indicate that to combat system capacity reduction due to intra-system interference, no more than two satellites shall be active over the same region. To achieve higher system capacity, differently from terrestrial cellular systems, Multi-User Detection (MUD) techniques are likely to be required in the mobile user terminal, thus considerably increasing its complexity.

  7. Montana Cooperative Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    This revised handbook was developed to help teachers and administrators in Montana conduct cooperative education programs. The handbook is organized in 13 sections. In narrative style, the first 11 sections cover the following topics: introduction to cooperative education, advisory committees, related instruction, coordination of activities,…

  8. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  9. Helping Children Cooperate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  10. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  11. Cooperative Learning and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Rebecca; Smith, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative learning has been used as an educational technique for some time, and recently researchers have been exploring technology as a mechanism to further this educational method. Presents several examples of the use of technology to support cooperative learning episodes and examines the underlying design concepts and principles embedded in…

  12. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  13. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  14. Culture and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  15. Adaptation to a new environment allows cooperators to purge cheaters stochastically.

    PubMed

    Waite, Adam James; Shou, Wenying

    2012-11-20

    Cooperation via production of common goods is found in diverse life forms ranging from viruses to social animals. However, natural selection predicts a "tragedy of the commons": Cheaters, benefiting from without producing costly common goods, are more fit than cooperators and should destroy cooperation. In an attempt to discover novel mechanisms of cheater control, we eliminated known ones using a yeast cooperator-cheater system engineered to supply or exploit essential nutrients. Surprisingly, although less fit than cheaters, cooperators quickly dominated a fraction of cocultures. Cooperators isolated from these cocultures were superior to the cheater isolates they had been cocultured with, even though these cheaters were superior to ancestral cooperators. Resequencing and phenotypic analyses revealed that evolved cooperators and cheaters all harbored mutations adaptive to the nutrient-limited cooperative environment, allowing growth at a much lower concentration of nutrient than their ancestors. Even after the initial round of adaptation, evolved cooperators still stochastically dominated cheaters derived from them. We propose the "adaptive race" model: If during adaptation to an environment, the fitness gain of cooperators exceeds that of cheaters by at least the fitness cost of cooperation, the tragedy of the commons can be averted. Although cooperators and cheaters sample from the same pool of adaptive mutations, this symmetry is soon broken: The best cooperators purge cheaters and continue to grow, whereas the best cheaters cause rapid self-extinction. We speculate that adaptation to changing environments may contribute to the persistence of cooperative systems before the appearance of more sophisticated mechanisms of cheater control.

  16. Globalization and human cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  17. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  18. Social Stratification and Cooperative Behavior in Spatial Prisoners' Dilemma Games.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long-lasting pursuit to promote cooperation, and this study aims to promote cooperation via the combination of social stratification and the spatial prisoners' dilemma game. It is previously assumed that agents share the identical payoff matrix, but the stratification or diversity exists and exerts influences in real societies. Thus, two additional classes, elites and scoundrels, derive from and coexist with the existing class, commons. Three classes have different payoff matrices. We construct a model where agents play the prisoners' dilemma game with neighbors. It indicates that stratification and temptation jointly influence cooperation. Temptation permanently reduces cooperation; elites play a positive role in promoting cooperation while scoundrels undermine it. As the temptation getting larger and larger, elites play a more and more positive and critical role while scoundrels' negative effect becomes weaker and weaker, and it is more obvious when temptation goes beyond its threshold.

  19. Cooperative Purchasing Reduces Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Edwin J.

    1981-01-01

    Several suburban Chicago (Illinois) school districts are members of the South Suburban School Purchasing Cooperative, which serves as a conduit for volume purchases of educational supplies. (Author/MLF)

  20. Cooperative Learning in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Carolyn M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Formal use of cooperative learning techniques proved effective in improving student performance and retention in a freshman level statistics course. Lectures interspersed with group activities proved effective in increasing conceptual understanding and overall class performance. (11 references) (Author)

  1. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  2. How Myxobacteria Cooperate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengbo; Dey, Arup; Vassallo, Christopher N; Wall, Daniel

    2015-11-20

    Prokaryotes often reside in groups where a high degree of relatedness has allowed the evolution of cooperative behaviors. However, very few bacteria or archaea have made the successful transition from unicellular to obligate multicellular life. A notable exception is the myxobacteria, in which cells cooperate to perform group functions highlighted by fruiting body development, an obligate multicellular function. Like all multicellular organisms, myxobacteria face challenges in how to organize and maintain multicellularity. These challenges include maintaining population homeostasis, carrying out tissue repair and regulating the behavior of non-cooperators. Here, we describe the major cooperative behaviors that myxobacteria use: motility, predation and development. In addition, this review emphasizes recent discoveries in the social behavior of outer membrane exchange, wherein kin share outer membrane contents. Finally, we review evidence that outer membrane exchange may be involved in regulating population homeostasis, thus serving as a social tool for myxobacteria to make the cyclic transitions from unicellular to multicellular states.

  3. Evolutionary consequences of behavioral diversity

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Todd L.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    Iterated games provide a framework to describe social interactions among groups of individuals. This body of work has focused primarily on individuals who face a simple binary choice, such as “cooperate” or “defect.” Real individuals, however, can exhibit behavioral diversity, varying their input to a social interaction both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we explore how access to a greater diversity of behavioral choices impacts the evolution of social dynamics in populations. We show that, in public goods games, some simple strategies that choose between only two possible actions can resist invasion by all multichoice invaders, even while engaging in relatively little punishment. More generally, access to a larger repertoire of behavioral choices results in a more ”rugged” fitness landscape, with populations able to stabilize cooperation at multiple levels of investment. As a result, increased behavioral choice facilitates cooperation when returns on investments are low, but it hinders cooperation when returns on investments are high. Finally, we analyze iterated rock–paper–scissors games, the nontransitive payoff structure of which means that unilateral control is difficult to achieve. Despite this, we find that a large proportion of multichoice strategies can invade and resist invasion by single-choice strategies—so that even well-mixed populations will tend to evolve and maintain behavioral diversity. PMID:27791109

  4. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  5. Supramolecular assemblies of tetrafluoroterephthalic acid and N-heterocycles via various strong hydrogen bonds and weak Csbnd H⋯F interactions: Synthons cooperation, robust motifs and structural diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanjing; Hu, Hanbin; Li, Yingying; Chen, Ruixin; Yang, Yu; Wang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    A series of organic solid states including three salts, two co-crystals, and three hydrates based on tetrafluoroterephthalic acid (H2tfBDC) and N-bearing ligands (2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidine dione (PID), 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidine (DHMPI), 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine (ADMPI), 2-amino-4,6-dimenthoxy pyrimidine (ADMOPI), 5,6-dimenthyl benzimidazole (DMBI), 2-aminobenzimidazole (ABI), 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole (DMP), and 3-cyanopyridine (3-CNpy)), namely, [(PID)2·(H2tfBDC)] (1), [(DHMPI)2·(H2tfBDC)] (2), [(H-ADMPI+)2·(tfBDC2-)·2(H2O)] (3), [(H-ADMOPI+)2·(tfBDC2-)·(H2O)] (4), [(H-DMBI+)2·(tfBDC2-)·2(H2O)] (5), [(H-ABI+)2·(tfBDC2-)] (6), [(H-DMP+)·(HtfBDC-)] (7), and [(H-3-CNpy+)·(HtfBDC-)] (8), were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. Crystal structures analyses show that the F atom of the H2tfBDC participates in multiple Csbnd H⋯F hydrogen bond formations, producing different supramolecular synthons. The weak hydrogen bonding Csbnd H⋯F and Nsbnd H⋯F play an important part in constructing the diversity structures 2-8, except in crystal 1. In complexes 1-3, they present the same synthon R22(8) with different N-heterocyclic compounds, which may show the strategy in constructing the supramolecular. Meanwhile, the complex 3 exhibits a 2D layer, and the independent molecules of water exist in the adjacent layers. In complexes 4 and 5, the water molecules connect the neighboring layers to form 3D network by strong Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding. These crystals 1-8 were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  6. Facultative cheater mutants reveal the genetic complexity of cooperation in social amoebae.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Lorenzo A; Thompson, Christopher R L; Villegas, Elizabeth; Svetz, Jessica; Dinh, Christopher; Parikh, Anup; Sucgang, Richard; Kuspa, Adam; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C; Shaulsky, Gad

    2008-02-28

    Cooperation is central to many major transitions in evolution, including the emergence of eukaryotic cells, multicellularity and eusociality. Cooperation can be destroyed by the spread of cheater mutants that do not cooperate but gain the benefits of cooperation from others. However, cooperation can be preserved if cheaters are facultative, cheating others but cooperating among themselves. Several cheater mutants have been studied before, but no study has attempted a genome-scale investigation of the genetic opportunities for cheating. Here we describe such a screen in a social amoeba and show that cheating is multifaceted by revealing cheater mutations in well over 100 genes of diverse types. Many of these mutants cheat facultatively, producing more than their fair share of spores in chimaeras, but cooperating normally when clonal. These findings indicate that phenotypically stable cooperative systems may nevertheless harbour genetic conflicts. The opportunities for evolutionary moves and countermoves in such conflicts may select for the involvement of multiple pathways and numerous genes.

  7. Cooperative Learning in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cecile Burnett

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for cooperative learning and examines the teacher's role in creating groups. Provides examples of cooperative learning experiences in an integrated unit and as applied to computer education. Lists the advantages of using cooperative learning, while noting its pitfalls. Cautions that cooperative learning should be used in…

  8. International Cooperation at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawney, Timothy; Feldstein, Karen

    International cooperation is a cornerstone principle of NASA’s activities, especially within the activities of the Science Mission Directorate. Nearly two thirds of the flight missions in which NASA leads or participates involve international cooperation. Numerous ground based activities also rely on international cooperation, whether because of unique expertise, unique geography, or the need for a global response. Going forward, in an era of tighter budgets and a more integrated global perspective, NASA and the rest of the space agencies around the world will be forced to work more closely together, in a broader array of activities than ever before, in order to be able to afford to push the boundaries of space exploration. The goal of this presentation is to provide an overview of NASA’s current international science cooperative activities. It will include a discussion of why NASA conducts international cooperation and look at the mechanisms through which international cooperation can occur at NASA, including peer-to-peer development of relationships. It will also discuss some of the limiting factors of international cooperation, such as export control, and ways in which to manage those constraints. Finally, the presentation would look at some of the present examples where NASA is working to increase international cooperation and improve coordination. Case studies will be used to demonstrate these mechanisms and concepts. For example, NASA continues to participate in international coordination groups such as the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG) and International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), but is expanding into new areas as well. NASA is one of the leaders in expanding and improving international coordination in the area of Near-Earth Object detection, characterization, and mitigation. Having participated in the first meetings of such groups as the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Missions Planning

  9. Cooper Pair Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles, James

    One of the recent advances in the field of the Superconductor to Insulator Transition (SIT) has been the discovery and characterization of the Cooper Pair Insulator phase. This bosonic insulator, which consists of localized Cooper pairs, exhibits activated transport and a giant magneto-resistance peak. These features differ markedly from the weakly localized transport that emerges as pairs break at a ``fermionic'' SIT. I will describe how our experiments on films nano-patterned with a nearly triangular array of holes have enabled us to 1) distinguish bosonic insulators from fermionic insulators, 2) show that Cooper pairs, rather than quasi-particles dominate the transport in the Cooper Pair insulator phase, 3) demonstrate that very weak, sub nano-meter thickness inhomogeneities control whether a bosonic or fermionic insulator forms at an SIT and 4) reveal that Cooper pairs disintegrate rather than becoming more tightly bound deep in the localized phase. We have also developed a method, using a magnetic field, to tune flux disorder reversibly in these films. I will present our latest results on the influence of magnetic flux disorder and random gauge fields on phenomena near bosonic SITs. This work was performed in collaboration with M. D. Stewart, Jr., Hung Q. Nguyen, Shawna M. Hollen, Jimmy Joy, Xue Zhang, Gustavo Fernandez, Jeffrey Shainline and Jimmy Xu. It was supported by NSF Grants DMR 1307290 and DMR-0907357.

  10. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    ScienceCinema

    James Valles

    2016-07-12

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  11. Synchrony and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.

  12. Link-Adaptive Distributed Coding for Multisource Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Alfonso; Wang, Tairan; Ribeiro, Alejandro; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2007-12-01

    Combining multisource cooperation and link-adaptive regenerative techniques, a novel protocol is developed capable of achieving diversity order up to the number of cooperating users and large coding gains. The approach relies on a two-phase protocol. In Phase 1, cooperating sources exchange information-bearing blocks, while in Phase 2, they transmit reencoded versions of the original blocks. Different from existing approaches, participation in the second phase does not require correct decoding of Phase 1 packets. This allows relaying of soft information to the destination, thus increasing coding gains while retaining diversity properties. For any reencoding function the diversity order is expressed as a function of the rank properties of the distributed coding strategy employed. This result is analogous to the diversity properties of colocated multi-antenna systems. Particular cases include repetition coding, distributed complex field coding (DCFC), distributed space-time coding, and distributed error-control coding. Rate, diversity, complexity and synchronization issues are elaborated. DCFC emerges as an attractive choice because it offers high-rate, full spatial diversity, and relaxed synchronization requirements. Simulations confirm analytically established assessments.

  13. Neural basis of conditional cooperation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Niki, Kazuhisa; Fujisaki, Syoken; Akiyama, Eizo

    2011-06-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental aspect of society, but it has been a longstanding puzzle in biological and social sciences. Recently, theoretical studies in biology and economics showed that conditional cooperation-cooperating only with those who have exhibited cooperative behavior-can spread over a society. Furthermore, experimental studies in psychology demonstrated that people are actually conditional cooperators. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural system underlying conditional cooperation by scanning participants during interaction with cooperative, neutral and non-cooperative opponents in prisoner's dilemma games. The results showed that: (i) participants cooperated more frequently with both cooperative and neutral opponents than with non-cooperative opponents; and (ii) a brain area related to cognitive inhibition of pre-potent responses (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) showed greater activation, especially when participants confronted non-cooperative opponents. Consequently, we suggest that cognitive inhibition of the motivation to cooperate with non-cooperators drives the conditional behavior.

  14. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  15. What Student Teachers Learn about Multicultural Education from Their Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip

    2008-01-01

    Teacher education has struggled to better prepare beginning teachers for an increasingly diverse student population. This research examines the role that cooperating teachers play in developing multicultural/equity pedagogy knowledge and skills among student teachers. Five cooperating teachers working in California, USA, each of whom had extensive…

  16. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874

  17. Discovering Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

  18. Diversity's Calling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a Harvard-educated scholar of English and poetry, Dr. M. Lee Pelton puts a prominent face on changes that are underway at Boston's Emerson College. Faced with a public controversy over its limited faculty diversity, Emerson College has responded with a spate of hirings and promotions of minorities, capped by the…

  19. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  20. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  1. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  2. Foundations of Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.

    Five cooperative learning methods are described with the theories that support them. The five methods are: (1) Group Investigation (GI), developed by S. Sharan and others; (2) Jigsaw, developed by E. Aronson and others; (3) Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD), developed by R. E. Slavin and others; (4) Learning Together, developed by D. W.…

  3. Cooperative Performance Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what is known about cooperative performance incentive (CPI) plans, which are award programs that offer teachers and other school staff pay bonuses for achievement of specific schoolwide educational objectives. The paper describes and compares existing CPI models worldwide, analyzes their impact on student learning and school practices,…

  4. Cooperative Electronics Program Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wayne

    The Cooperative Electronics Program was developed through the joint efforts of Linn-Benton Community College (LBCC), West Albany High, and Lebanon High, all of which are in the Linn-Benton Education Service District serving Albany, Oregon. The project, which was undertaken in the spring of 1988, is intended to result in a program whereby high…

  5. Combat or Cooperation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    The best intentioned efforts of adults are often sabotaged by coercive climates of bullying among peers and conflict with adults. The solution is to create cultures where youth cooperate with authority and treat one another with respect. In this article, the authors stress the task of the staff to create a condition in which students see more…

  6. The Power of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In "The Power of Cooperation," Tony Nevin tells how the townspeople of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, are attempting to replicate a successful alternative-energy project in Samso, Denmark, where thinking about ways to reduce fossil-fuel use "became a kind of sport." Nevin says that thinking and acting locally helps people to…

  7. Consortia and Interinstitutional Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Donn C., Ed.

    Opportunities for cooperation in higher education are described in this book, particularly how institutional linkages through a consortium can help colleges and universities improve the quality of instruction, deal with rising costs, meet the demands of new institutional roles, and confront such challenges as incorporating new technologies. Ways…

  8. Cooperative Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauber, Dick T.

    In order to investigate the feasibility of adding a cooperative education option to the curricular offerings of Moraine Park Technical Institute (MPTI), interviews were conducted with randomly selected representatives of 12 industries and 17 employers in the marketing and merchandising businesses located in the MPTI service area. In addition,…

  9. Communication, Coordination, Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Nancy Oft; Wiper, Kathie Tippens

    Speech communication teachers at both secondary and postsecondary school levels must cooperate to improve oral communication education. Despite the importance of oral communication skills, speech courses are rarely required in high school. Teachers must tell school boards, higher education boards, and faculties of the importance of speaking and…

  10. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  11. Educating for World Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Louise M.; Miel, Alice

    This booklet presents a variety of perspectives on educating for world cooperation. Section 1 discusses major world problems and calls for the reorientation of education as a potential solution. Section 2 deals with the design of such a reorientation and offers three approaches to teaching and curriculum development--knowing, being, and doing. In…

  12. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhno, Victor

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fröhlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fröhlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  13. Cooperative Office Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This manual, intended for inexperienced and experienced coordinators, school administrators, and guidance personnel, is designed to provide practical suggestions for initiating, developing, operating, coordinating, improving, and evaluating cooperative office education programs. Major content is presented primarily in outline form under the…

  14. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  15. A Course of Study in Cooperation and Cooperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjoraker, Walter T., Ed.

    Designed for teachers with limited experience in cooperatives, this course of study was prepared by seminar students for use in high school or adult education programs, and emphasizes the principles of cooperation, the operation and management of cooperatives, and the communication required for their effective functioning. Units requiring a total…

  16. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  17. 43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum terminal flow to Lahontan Reservoir or the Carson River except... releases from Stampede Reservoir and other reservoirs, in cooperation with the Federal Water Master,...

  18. 43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum terminal flow to Lahontan Reservoir or the Carson River except... releases from Stampede Reservoir and other reservoirs, in cooperation with the Federal Water Master,...

  19. A cooperative transponder system for improved traffic safety, localizing road users in the 5 GHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, B.; Kalverkamp, G.; Chaabane, M.; Biebl, E. M.

    2012-09-01

    We present a multi-user cooperative mobile transponder system which enables cars to localize pedestrians, bicyclists and other road users in order to improve traffic safety. The system operates at a center frequency of 5.768 GHz, offering the ability to test precision localization technology at frequencies close to the newly designated automotive safety related bands around 5.9 GHz. By carrying out a roundtrip time of flight measurement, the sensor can determine the distance from the onboard localization unit of a car to a road user who is equipped with an active transponder, employing the idea of a secondary radar and pulse compression. The onboard unit sends out a pseudo noise coded interrogation pulse, which is answered by one or more transponders after a short waiting time. Each transponder uses a different waiting time in order to allow for time division multiple access. We present the system setup as well as range measurement results, achieving an accuracy up to centimeters for the distance measurement and a range in the order of hundred meters. We also discuss the effect of clock drift and offset on distance accuracy for different waiting times and show how the system can be improved to further increase precision in a multiuser environment.

  20. Cognitive diversity and moral enhancement.

    PubMed

    Gyngell, Chris; Easteal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One debate in contemporary bioethics centers on whether the development of cognitive enhancement technologies (CETs) will hasten the need for moral enhancement. In this article we provide a new argument in favor of pursuing these enhancement technologies together. The widespread availability of CETs will likely increase population-level cognitive diversity. Different people will choose to enhance different aspects of their cognition, and some won't enhance themselves at all. Although this has the potential to be beneficial for society, it could also result in harms as people become more different from one another. Aspects of our moral psychology make it difficult for people to cooperate and coordinate actions with those who are very different from themselves. These moral failings could be targeted by moral enhancement technologies, which may improve cooperation among individuals. Moral enhancement technologies will therefore help society maximize the benefits, and reduce the costs, associated with widespread access to cognitive enhancements.

  1. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  2. An Odyssey into Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Thomas L.; Basile, Carole

    1997-01-01

    An experiment using cooperative learning in a introductory pharmacy course in medicinal chemistry revealed general acceptance of the cooperative learning approach by students, and some perceived advantages for both students and teachers. Although quantitative evidence supporting superiority of the cooperative learning approach was not found,…

  3. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  4. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  5. Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-582 Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...JLENS), and select coalition partners into a single fire control quality air track picture. Radar measurement data from individual CUs within a CEC

  6. Multilateral Cooperation on Nonproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    scenarios.7 Coordination is required in response to “dilemmas of common aversions,” which can be represented in game theory by games like chicken or battle... chicken , both sides want to avoid a mutually destructive outcome (like a car crash), but each also wants to avoid being the only one to cooperate...and hence be labeled the chicken ). In battle of the sexes, both sides want to get together (for example, on a date), but each has slightly different

  7. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  8. Cooperation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guastaferro, A.

    1992-01-01

    The topics from the Technical Interchange Meeting for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative are presented in viewgraph form. The objective is to share a perspective of a cost-effective cooperation management structure of NASA and industry as we move towards the 21st century and the national commitment to continue our exploration in space with humans. Some of the topics covered include a personal background, today's culture, new approaches, congressional oversight, programmatic impact, and recommendations.

  9. Cooperative disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Jedrey, C M; Chaurette, K A; Winn, L B

    2001-01-01

    Cooperative disease management programs sponsored by pharmaceutical companies and managed care organizations or health care providers can offer significant benefits to patients. They can be structured so as to comply with applicable OIG, FDA, and IRS regulations. Such programs must be structured for the benefit of patients, and not to require the use of or otherwise directly promote the selection of the sponsoring pharmaceutical company's products.

  10. Endogenous Cooperation Network Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, S.

    This paper employs insights from Complex Systems literature to develop a computational model of endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents (AAAs), implemented as finite state automata, play a modified two-player Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this relatively minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed, with consequent payoff symmetry and network 'purity' seen to be further contributors to robust cooperative networks. Third, the dynamics of the strategic system under network formation show that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics when interaction lengths are increased by a single step.

  11. Endogenous Cooperation Network Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, S.

    This paper employs insights from Complex Systems literature to develop a computational model of endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents (AAAs), implemented as finite state automata, play a modified two-player Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this relatively minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed, with consequent payoff symmetry and network `purity' seen to be further contributors to robust cooperative networks. Third, the dynamics of the strategic system under network formation show that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics when interaction lengths are increased by a single step.

  12. Hydrodynamics of Bacterial Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, A.; Libchaber, A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of the last several decades, the study of microbial communities has identified countless examples of cooperation between microorganisms. Generally—as in the case of quorum sensing—cooperation is coordinated by a chemical signal that diffuses through the community. Less well understood is a second class of cooperation that is mediated through physical interactions between individuals. To better understand how the bacteria use hydrodynamics to manipulate their environment and coordinate their actions, we study the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thiovulum majus. These bacteria live in the diffusive boundary layer just above the muddy bottoms of ponds. As buried organic material decays, sulfide diffuses out of the mud. Oxygen from the pond diffuses into the boundary layer from above. These bacteria form communities—called veils— which are able to transport nutrients through the boundary layer faster than diffusion, thereby increasing their metabolic rate. In these communities, bacteria attach to surfaces and swim in place. As millions of bacteria beat their flagella, the community induces a macroscopic fluid flow, which mix the boundary layer. Here we present experimental observations and mathematical models that elucidate the hydrodynamics linking the behavior of an individual bacterium to the collective dynamics of the community. We begin by characterizing the flow of water around an individual bacterium swimming in place. We then discuss the flow of water and nutrients around a small number of individuals. Finally, we present observations and models detailing the macroscopic dynamics of a Thiovulum veil.

  13. Evolution of cooperation among tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Robert; Axelrod, David E; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2006-09-05

    The evolution of cooperation has a well established theoretical framework based on game theory. This approach has made valuable contributions to a wide variety of disciplines, including political science, economics, and evolutionary biology. Existing cancer theory suggests that individual clones of cancer cells evolve independently from one another, acquiring all of the genetic traits or hallmarks necessary to form a malignant tumor. It is also now recognized that tumors are heterotypic, with cancer cells interacting with normal stromal cells within the tissue microenvironment, including endothelial, stromal, and nerve cells. This tumor cell-stromal cell interaction in itself is a form of commensalism, because it has been demonstrated that these nonmalignant cells support and even enable tumor growth. Here, we add to this theory by regarding tumor cells as game players whose interactions help to determine their Darwinian fitness. We marshal evidence that tumor cells overcome certain host defenses by means of diffusible products. Our original contribution is to raise the possibility that two nearby cells can protect each other from a set of host defenses that neither could survive alone. Cooperation can evolve as by-product mutualism among genetically diverse tumor cells. Our hypothesis supplements, but does not supplant, the traditional view of carcinogenesis in which one clonal population of cells develops all of the necessary genetic traits independently to form a tumor. Cooperation through the sharing of diffusible products raises new questions about tumorigenesis and has implications for understanding observed phenomena, designing new experiments, and developing new therapeutic approaches.

  14. Increased costs of cooperation help cooperators in the long run.

    PubMed

    Smaldino, Paul E; Schank, Jeffrey C; McElreath, Richard

    2013-04-01

    It has long been proposed that cooperation should increase in harsh environments, but this claim still lacks theoretical underpinnings. We modeled a scenario in which benefiting from altruistic behavior was essential to survival and reproduction. We used a spatial agent-based model to represent mutual cooperation enforced by environmental adversity. We studied two factors, the cost of unreciprocated cooperation and the environmental cost of living, which highlight a conflict between the short- and long-term rewards of cooperation. In the long run, cooperation is favored because only groups with a sufficient number of cooperators will survive. In the short run, however, harsh environmental costs increase the advantage of defectors in cooperator-defector interactions because the loss of resources leads to death. Our analysis sheds new light on the evolution of cooperation via interdependence and illustrates how selfish groups can incur short-term benefits at the cost of their eventual demise. We demonstrate how harsh environments select for cooperative phenotypes and suggest an explanation for the adoption of cooperative breeding strategies in human evolution. We also highlight the importance of variable population size and the role of socio-spatial organization in harsh environments.

  15. Directional interactions and cooperativity between mechanosensitive membrane proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob

    2013-03-01

    While modern structural biology has provided us with a rich and diverse picture of membrane proteins, the biological function of membrane proteins is often influenced by the mechanical properties of the surrounding lipid bilayer. Here we explore the relation between the shape of membrane proteins and the cooperative function of membrane proteins induced by membrane-mediated elastic interactions. For the experimental model system of mechanosensitive ion channels we find that the sign and strength of elastic interactions depend on the protein shape, yielding distinct cooperative gating curves for distinct protein orientations. Our approach predicts how directional elastic interactions affect the molecular structure, organization, and biological function of proteins in crowded membranes.

  16. How is human cooperation different?

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Semmann, Dirk

    2010-09-12

    Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of cooperative behaviour based on their influence on the immediate payoffs of actor and recipient. If the actor has immediate costs and only the recipient obtains immediate benefits, we term this investment. If the behaviour has immediate positive effects for both actor and recipient, we call this a self-serving mutually beneficial behaviour or mutual cooperation. We argue that humans, in contrast to all other species, employ a wider range of enforcement mechanisms, which allow higher levels of cooperation to evolve and stabilize among unrelated individuals and in large groups. We also discuss proximate mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviour and focus on our experimental work with humans and our closest primate relatives. Differences in the proximate mechanisms also seem to contribute to explaining humans' greater ability to cooperate and enforce cooperation.

  17. How is human cooperation different?

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Alicia P.; Semmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Although cooperation is a widespread phenomenon in nature, human cooperation exceeds that of all other species with regard to the scale and range of cooperative activities. Here we review and discuss differences between humans and non-humans in the strategies employed to maintain cooperation and control free-riders. We distinguish forms of cooperative behaviour based on their influence on the immediate payoffs of actor and recipient. If the actor has immediate costs and only the recipient obtains immediate benefits, we term this investment. If the behaviour has immediate positive effects for both actor and recipient, we call this a self-serving mutually beneficial behaviour or mutual cooperation. We argue that humans, in contrast to all other species, employ a wider range of enforcement mechanisms, which allow higher levels of cooperation to evolve and stabilize among unrelated individuals and in large groups. We also discuss proximate mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviour and focus on our experimental work with humans and our closest primate relatives. Differences in the proximate mechanisms also seem to contribute to explaining humans' greater ability to cooperate and enforce cooperation. PMID:20679110

  18. Extended cooperative control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

  19. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-07

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  20. [International cooperation at Public Health: proposals to a debate].

    PubMed

    Loyola, Maria Andréa; Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Guimarães, Eduardo Ribas De Biase

    2010-07-01

    In the available literature, there is no study devoted to international cooperation in public health. This paper aims to partly fill this gap, raising and examining the state of art in this area as well as how it interferes in the evaluation of post-graduate programs. The study used secondary data available at CAPES "Indicators Journals", during the years of 1998 to 2006. It also analyzes foreign scholarships and special programs of cooperation of CAPES from 2005 to 2009 through a quantitative descriptive methodology. It shows that international cooperation in the area is relatively developed in a variety of themes and diverse partnerships, focusing in the United States. It is observed a positive correlation between the number of international cooperation and a high-concept program into the evaluation of CAPES, the last triennium of evaluation. The sub-areas where there is more cooperation are, in order: epidemiology; planning, and others. There is a variety of institutions, themes and subareas involved in international cooperation that could be a positive indicator in the evaluation, but as far as was possible to infer, no significant correlation in this direction was found.

  1. Network Modularity is essential for evolution of cooperation under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianetto, David A.; Heydari, Babak

    2015-04-01

    Cooperative behavior, which pervades nature, can be significantly enhanced when agents interact in a structured rather than random way; however, the key structural factors that affect cooperation are not well understood. Moreover, the role structure plays with cooperation has largely been studied through observing overall cooperation rather than the underlying components that together shape cooperative behavior. In this paper we address these two problems by first applying evolutionary games to a wide range of networks, where agents play the Prisoner's Dilemma with a three-component stochastic strategy, and then analyzing agent-based simulation results using principal component analysis. With these methods we study the evolution of trust, reciprocity and forgiveness as a function of several structural parameters. This work demonstrates that community structure, represented by network modularity, among all the tested structural parameters, has the most significant impact on the emergence of cooperative behavior, with forgiveness showing the largest sensitivity to community structure. We also show that increased community structure reduces the dispersion of trust and forgiveness, thereby reducing the network-level uncertainties for these two components; graph transitivity and degree also significantly influence the evolutionary dynamics of the population and the diversity of strategies at equilibrium.

  2. Network Modularity is essential for evolution of cooperation under uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Gianetto, David A.; Heydari, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior, which pervades nature, can be significantly enhanced when agents interact in a structured rather than random way; however, the key structural factors that affect cooperation are not well understood. Moreover, the role structure plays with cooperation has largely been studied through observing overall cooperation rather than the underlying components that together shape cooperative behavior. In this paper we address these two problems by first applying evolutionary games to a wide range of networks, where agents play the Prisoner's Dilemma with a three-component stochastic strategy, and then analyzing agent-based simulation results using principal component analysis. With these methods we study the evolution of trust, reciprocity and forgiveness as a function of several structural parameters. This work demonstrates that community structure, represented by network modularity, among all the tested structural parameters, has the most significant impact on the emergence of cooperative behavior, with forgiveness showing the largest sensitivity to community structure. We also show that increased community structure reduces the dispersion of trust and forgiveness, thereby reducing the network-level uncertainties for these two components; graph transitivity and degree also significantly influence the evolutionary dynamics of the population and the diversity of strategies at equilibrium. PMID:25849737

  3. The evolution of cooperation within the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Foster, Kevin R; Comstock, Laurie E

    2016-05-12

    Cooperative phenotypes are considered central to the functioning of microbial communities in many contexts, including communication via quorum sensing, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis. The human intestine houses a dense and diverse microbial community critical to health, yet we know little about cooperation within this important ecosystem. Here we test experimentally for evolved cooperation within the Bacteroidales, the dominant Gram-negative bacteria of the human intestine. We show that during growth on certain dietary polysaccharides, the model member Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron exhibits only limited cooperation. Although this organism digests these polysaccharides extracellularly, mutants lacking this ability are outcompeted. In contrast, we discovered a dedicated cross-feeding enzyme system in the prominent gut symbiont Bacteroides ovatus, which digests polysaccharide at a cost to itself but at a benefit to another species. Using in vitro systems and gnotobiotic mouse colonization models, we find that extracellular digestion of inulin increases the fitness of B. ovatus owing to reciprocal benefits when it feeds other gut species such as Bacteroides vulgatus. This is a rare example of naturally-evolved cooperation between microbial species. Our study reveals both the complexity and importance of cooperative phenotypes within the mammalian intestinal microbiota.

  4. The evolution of cooperation within the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Foster, Kevin R.; Comstock, Laurie E.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative phenotypes are considered central to the functioning of microbial communities in many contexts, including communication via quorum sensing, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis1-5. The human intestine houses a dense and diverse microbial community critical to health1,2,4-9, yet we know little about cooperation within this important ecosystem. Here we experimentally test for evolved cooperation within the Bacteroidales, the dominant Gram-negative bacteria of the human intestine. We show that during growth on certain dietary polysaccharides, the model member Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron exhibits only limited cooperation. Although this organism digests these polysaccharides extracellularly, mutants lacking this ability are outcompeted. In contrast, we discovered a dedicated cross-feeding enzyme system in the prominent gut symbiont Bacteroides ovatus, which digests polysaccharide at a cost to itself but at a benefit to another species. Using in vitro systems and gnotobiotic mouse colonization models, we find that extracellular digestion of inulin increases the fitness of B.ovatus due to reciprocal benefits when it feeds other gut species such as Bacteroides vulgatus. This is a rare example of naturally-evolved cooperation between microbial species. Our study reveals both the complexity and importance of cooperative phenotypes within the mammalian intestinal microbiota. PMID:27111508

  5. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood > Blood and Diversity Printable Version Blood and Diversity People come in all different shapes, sizes and ... groups. Therefore it is essential that the donor diversity match the patient diversity. For example, U-negative ...

  6. The paradox of cooperation benefits.

    PubMed

    Németh, A; Takács, K

    2010-05-21

    It seems obvious that as the benefits of cooperation increase, the share of cooperators in the population should also increase. It is well known that positive assortment between cooperative types, for instance in spatially structured populations, provide better conditions for the evolution of cooperation than complete mixing. This study demonstrates that, assuming positive assortment, under most conditions higher cooperation benefits also increase the share of cooperators. On the other hand, under a specified range of payoff values, when at least two payoff parameters are modified, the reverse is true. The conditions for this paradox are determined for two-person social dilemmas: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Hawks and Doves game, and the Stag Hunt game, assuming global selection and positive assortment.

  7. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  8. Financial problems and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  9. Regional technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P H

    1997-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic threatens economic development in Asia because Asia offers fertile conditions for unchecked transmission and because the epidemic has the most impact on young adults who make up a large sector of the work force. Prevention is still possible, however, and should be viewed as an investment in the future. Effective prevention strategies will have regional as well as domestic components and will recognize the hierarchy of interventions and spread the burden among the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector in each country. The public sector should 1) ensure that markets function well and do not discriminate against infected individuals; 2) provide a supportive macroeconomic framework of fiscal, trade, and credit policies; and 3) provide public and quasipublic goods, such as information and training. The contribution of NGOs should are vital for reducing the suffering involved with HIV/AIDS. Private sector contributions can include care facilities, research and development, and funding. The private sector must realize that the threat to the stock of human capital posed by HIV/AIDS will reduce profits. The regional dimensions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic relate 1) to factors that contribute to transmission and 2) to approaches that can be taken to prevent transmission and curb its impact. The Greater Mekong Subregion Work Program on HIV/AIDS is a good example of a cooperative regional effort to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The epidemic requires cooperation among sectors and among countries.

  10. Optical Circuitry Cooperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H. M.; Gibson, U.; Peyghambarian, N.; Sarid, D.; Stegeman, G.

    1985-01-01

    An Optical Circuitry Cooperative (OCC) has been formed as an NSF cooperative research center in which six or more companies contribute financial support; NSF provides support which declines to zero in five years. Companies benefit from a center by early access to research results, leverage for their research dollars, participation in research selection, and improved relations with faculty and students. The university receives support for a major research program that increases its research capability, provides reasonably stable funding, and opens more opportunities for graduate students. The potential of optical circuitry has been discussed for many years, but the excitement is growing rapidly on the strength of the success of optical fibers for optical transmission, the generation of subpicosecond opitcal pulses, and the development of promising optical logic elements, such as optical bistable devices. And yet, much research remains to be done to discover the best nonlinear optical materials and fabrication techniques. OCC will perform research to provide a data base to allow the development of optical circuitry devices. The areas encompassed by OCC include all-optical logic, picosecond decision-making, guided-wave preprocessors, opti-cal interconnects within computers (both fiber and whole-array imaging), optical storage, and optical computer architecture and devices.

  11. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical... Research Institute--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in...

  12. 77 FR 31040 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and... Institute-- Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle...

  13. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  14. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

  15. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  16. Cooperation prevails when individuals adjust their social ties.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-10-20

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad-scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of "social viscosity" alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional mechanism of

  17. Cooperation Prevails When Individuals Adjust Their Social Ties

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Francisco C; Pacheco, Jorge M; Lenaerts, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Conventional evolutionary game theory predicts that natural selection favours the selfish and strong even though cooperative interactions thrive at all levels of organization in living systems. Recent investigations demonstrated that a limiting factor for the evolution of cooperative interactions is the way in which they are organized, cooperators becoming evolutionarily competitive whenever individuals are constrained to interact with few others along the edges of networks with low average connectivity. Despite this insight, the conundrum of cooperation remains since recent empirical data shows that real networks exhibit typically high average connectivity and associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. Here, a computational model is constructed in which individuals are able to self-organize both their strategy and their social ties throughout evolution, based exclusively on their self-interest. We show that the entangled evolution of individual strategy and network structure constitutes a key mechanism for the sustainability of cooperation in social networks. For a given average connectivity of the population, there is a critical value for the ratio W between the time scales associated with the evolution of strategy and of structure above which cooperators wipe out defectors. Moreover, the emerging social networks exhibit an overall heterogeneity that accounts very well for the diversity of patterns recently found in acquired data on social networks. Finally, heterogeneity is found to become maximal when W reaches its critical value. These results show that simple topological dynamics reflecting the individual capacity for self-organization of social ties can produce realistic networks of high average connectivity with associated single-to-broad–scale heterogeneity. On the other hand, they show that cooperation cannot evolve as a result of “social viscosity” alone in heterogeneous networks with high average connectivity, requiring the additional

  18. Cooperative Education: A Guide for Maine Cooperative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Curriculum Resource Center of Maine, Fairfield.

    This handbook has been compiled for coordinators of cooperative education programs at the secondary level in Maine. The handbook includes in-school classroom instruction relating to specific jobs and the world of work. Introductory material includes the Maine Association for Cooperative Education Constitution, By-Laws, and 1991 officers. The…

  19. Cooperation and Coordination Between Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents in Continuous State Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Vengerov, David

    1999-01-01

    Successful operations of future multi-agent intelligent systems require efficient cooperation schemes between agents sharing learning experiences. We consider a pseudo-realistic world in which one or more opportunities appear and disappear in random locations. Agents use fuzzy reinforcement learning to learn which opportunities are most worthy of pursuing based on their promise rewards, expected lifetimes, path lengths and expected path costs. We show that this world is partially observable because the history of an agent influences the distribution of its future states. We consider a cooperation mechanism in which agents share experience by using and-updating one joint behavior policy. We also implement a coordination mechanism for allocating opportunities to different agents in the same world. Our results demonstrate that K cooperative agents each learning in a separate world over N time steps outperform K independent agents each learning in a separate world over K*N time steps, with this result becoming more pronounced as the degree of partial observability in the environment increases. We also show that cooperation between agents learning in the same world decreases performance with respect to independent agents. Since cooperation reduces diversity between agents, we conclude that diversity is a key parameter in the trade off between maximizing utility from cooperation when diversity is low and maximizing utility from competitive coordination when diversity is high.

  20. Diverse Classrooms, Diverse Curriculum, Diverse Complications: Three Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungemah, Lori D.

    2015-01-01

    Racial, ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity continues to increase in classrooms. Many call for a more diverse curriculum, but curricular diversity brings its own challenges to both teachers and students. These three vignettes are drawn from my ethnographic data at Atlantic High School in Brooklyn, New York, where I worked for ten years as…

  1. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  2. Cooperative phenomena in swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Millonas, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    A model of the cooperative behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed. The space in which the organisms move is discretized, and is modeled by a lattice of nodes, or cells. Each cell has a specified volume, and is connected to other cells in the space in a definite way. Organisms move probabilistically between local cells in this space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. The generic properties of such systems are analyzed, and a number of results are obtained. The model has various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters.

  3. Allostery and cooperativity revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Qiang; Karplus, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Although phenomenlogical models that account for cooperativity in allosteric systems date back to the early and mid-60's (e.g., the KNF and MWC models), there is resurgent interest in the topic due to the recent experimental and computational studies that attempted to reveal, at an atomistic level, how allostery actually works. In this review, using systems for which atomistic simulations have been carried out in our groups as examples, we describe the current understanding of allostery, how the mechanisms go beyond the classical MWC/Pauling-KNF descriptions, and point out that the “new view” of allostery, emphasizing “population shifts,” is, in fact, an “old view.” The presentation offers not only an up-to-date description of allostery from a theoretical/computational perspective, but also helps to resolve several outstanding issues concerning allostery. PMID:18560010

  4. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu.; Lehtinen, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current-voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  5. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  6. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  7. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  8. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  9. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative association. 1000.18 Section 1000.18... Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing... milk products for its members. A federation of 2 or more cooperatives incorporated under the laws...

  10. Current Resources in Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Anne; And Others

    This annotated bibliography of the current resources in cooperative learning is the result of a comprehensive search of the literature in the fields of education, psychology, sociology, linguistics, and business. It contains 926 citations of books, journal articles, periodicals, and non-print material pertaining to cooperative/collaborative…

  11. Does Facial Resemblance Enhance Cooperation?

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095

  12. Teaching Cooperative Skills through Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glakas, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    Through cooperative games and play, children learn to share, empathize with others' feelings, and get along better. The article makes suggestions to physical educators on how to design games to teach students cooperative behaviors and how to incorporate them into class, noting four important game-design principles. (SM)

  13. Cooperative answers in database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  14. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  15. Implementation of Cooperative Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James W.; And Others

    This report is addressed principally to college personnel who may have direct program responsibilities or who may otherwise have an impact upon the development of cooperative education. The aim of this report is twofold: first, to describe the research undertaken by the staff of Northeastern University Cooperative Education Research Center…

  16. Effective Strategies for Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Richard M.; Brent, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes ideas gathered from classroom experiences and from colleagues encountered in cooperative learning workshops and presents them as answers to questions from workshop participants who have been exposed to the basic principles and methods of cooperative learning. Information for college instructors covers forming teams, dealing with…

  17. Peter Cooper, the Workingman's Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemanne, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    During the 19th century, America was transformed from an agrarian to an urban-industrial society. America became divided into a nation of rich and poor. Peter Cooper assumed the role of a reformer and became the spokesman for the poor. Cooper's reform efforts and his views on unions are discussed. (RM)

  18. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. Cooperative Learning and Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenman, Simon; van Benthum, Niek; Bootsma, Dolly; van Dieren, Jildau; van der Kemp, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Examined the implementation effects of a course on cooperative learning for Dutch student teachers. Data from surveys, pre- and post-course observations, and comparison of treatment of control groups indicated the course was effective in teaching participants to implement cooperative learning. The course positively affected the engagement rates of…

  20. Cooperative Teaching: Portraits of Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauwens, Jeanne; Hourcade, Jack

    This paper describes the use of cooperative teaching to teach all students in the general education classroom and the three most promising approaches to implementing cooperative teaching: team teaching, supportive learning activities, and complementary instruction. The first method, team teaching, is defined as having the initial presentation of…

  1. Cooperative Learning: Making "Groupwork" Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl A.

    1996-01-01

    Cooperative learning is the use of small student groups as teams to accomplish a common goal, emphasizing positive interdependence, individual and group accountability, face-to-face interaction, team skills, and group processing. Using formal cooperative learning groups at the college level requires planning, monitoring of students' learning,…

  2. Teacher Preparation through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaith, Ghazi M.

    Seven class activities using cooperative learning techniques are proposed as appropriate for second language teacher training. The activities draw on the pro-social aspect of cooperative learning that offers second language learners maximum opportunities for active communication, reinforcement, and development of cognitive skills. Background is…

  3. Enhancing Thinking through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Neil, Ed.; Worsham, Toni, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a theoretical foundation on current practice in cooperative thinking. The papers offer many practical methods that can be applied to a full range of classroom settings. After an introduction, "HOTSICLE: Higher Order Thinking Skills in Cooperative Learning Environments" (Neil Davidson and Toni Worsham),…

  4. Cooperative Learning in Communication Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patricia L.; And Others

    This paper presents 14 cooperative learning lesson plans and related handouts suitable for use in communication courses. The paper begins with 8 handouts that deal with objectives; criteria; differences between the old paradigm and the new paradigm based on cooperative learning; positive interdependences; group differences between cooperative…

  5. Teaching Geography Using Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Larry

    Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy that promotes the positive interaction of children in small, heterogeneous groups. Each group contain three or four students of varying achievement levels, backgrounds, socio-economic status, and sex. Cooperative learning processes promote student motivation, build group skills, foster social and…

  6. International Cooperation in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Magnus

    This paper addresses some of the general issues of international cooperation within the context of distance education. Examples of the types of international cooperation are introduced in order to explain some of the pitfalls that can occur when coordinating organizations on an international level. Extensive discussion is undertaken concerning…

  7. Cooperative Collection Management in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorst, Thomas J., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve articles focusing on the issue of cooperative collection management describe the history and current status of specific projects within the Illinois Library and Information Network. The last article summarizes the status of coordinated cooperative collection management in Illinois, clarifies terminology, and speculates on future…

  8. Cooperative Education. Instructor Coordinator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrow, Shirley

    Designed to provide an introduction to North Lake College's (NLC's) Cooperative Education Program, this manual contains information for the instructor/coordinator regarding the Dallas County Community College District's co-op policies and NLC's operational procedures and forms. First, section 1 defines cooperative education, states NLC's…

  9. Cooperative Education in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Commission on Higher Education.

    In 1988, the State Legislature created the New Mexico Cooperative Program to develop and expand cooperative education (co-op) programs. The Commission on Higher Education (CHE) was designated to help institutions establish and expand programs and collect information. For reporting purposes, CHE required that, in order to be considered co-op, work…

  10. The hard problem of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  11. Different axes of environmental variation explain the presence versus extent of cooperative nest founding associations in Polistes paper wasps

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Michael J; Botero, Carlos A; Hendry, Tory A; Sedio, Brian E; Jandt, Jennifer M.; Weiner, Susan; Toth, Amy L; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Ecological constraints on independent breeding are recognized as major drivers of cooperative breeding across diverse lineages. How the prevalence and degree of cooperative breeding relates to ecological variation remains unresolved. Using a large dataset on cooperative nesting in Polistes wasps we demonstrate that different aspects of cooperative breeding are likely to be driven by different aspects of climate. Whether or not a species forms cooperative groups is associated with greater short-term temperature fluctuations. In contrast, the number of cooperative foundresses increases in more benign environments with warmer, wetter conditions. The same dataset reveals that intraspecific responses to climate variation do not mirror genus-wide trends and instead are highly heterogeneous among species. Collectively these data suggest that the ecological drivers that lead to the origin or loss of cooperation are different from those that influence the extent of its expression within populations. PMID:26248800

  12. Different axes of environmental variation explain the presence vs. extent of cooperative nest founding associations in Polistes paper wasps.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Michael J; Botero, Carlos A; Hendry, Tory A; Sedio, Brian E; Jandt, Jennifer M; Weiner, Susan; Toth, Amy L; Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2015-10-01

    Ecological constraints on independent breeding are recognised as major drivers of cooperative breeding across diverse lineages. How the prevalence and degree of cooperative breeding relates to ecological variation remains unresolved. Using a large data set of cooperative nesting in Polistes wasps we demonstrate that different aspects of cooperative breeding are likely to be driven by different aspects of climate. Whether or not a species forms cooperative groups is associated with greater short-term temperature fluctuations. In contrast, the number of cooperative foundresses increases in more benign environments with warmer, wetter conditions. The same data set reveals that intraspecific responses to climate variation do not mirror genus-wide trends and instead are highly heterogeneous among species. Collectively these data suggest that the ecological drivers that lead to the origin or loss of cooperation are different from those that influence the extent of its expression within populations.

  13. Stochastic heterogeneous interaction promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games.

  14. 32 CFR 37.1260 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1260 Cooperative... the cooperative agreement. The term does not include “cooperative research and development...

  15. The Chief Diversity Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Damon; Wade-Golden, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Numerous institutions are moving toward the chief diversity officer model of leading and managing diversity in higher education. These officers carry formal administrative titles and ranks that range from vice president for institutional diversity to associate vice chancellor for diversity and climate and dean of diversity and academic engagement.…

  16. Competition, not cooperation, dominates interactions among culturable microbial species.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kevin R; Bell, Thomas

    2012-10-09

    Microbial cells secrete numerous enzymes, scavenging molecules, and signals that can promote the growth and survival of other cells around them [1-4]. This observation is consistent with the evolution of cooperation within species [5], and there is now an increasing emphasis on the importance of cooperation between different microbial species [4, 6]. We lack, however, a systematic test of the importance of mutually positive interactions between different species, which is vital for assessing the commonness and importance of cooperative evolution in natural communities. Here, we study the extent of mutually positive interaction among bacterial strains isolated from a common aquatic environment. Using data collected from two independent experiments evaluating community productivity across diversity gradients, we show that (1) in pairwise species combinations, the great majority of interactions are net negative and (2) there is no evidence that strong higher-order positive effects arise when more than two species are mixed together. Our data do not exclude the possibility of positive effects in one direction where one species gains at the expense of another, i.e., predator-prey-like interactions. However, these do not constitute cooperation and our analysis suggests that the typical result of adaptation to other microbial species will be competitive, rather than cooperative, phenotypes.

  17. Preferential interactions promote blind cooperation and informed defection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Friedman, Jonathan; Gore, Jeff

    2016-12-06

    It is common sense that costs and benefits should be carefully weighed before deciding on a course of action. However, we often disapprove of people who do so, even when their actual decision benefits us. For example, we prefer people who directly agree to do us a favor over those who agree only after securing enough information to ensure that the favor will not be too costly. Why should we care about how people make their decisions, rather than just focus on the decisions themselves? Current models show that punishment of information gathering can be beneficial because it forces blind decisions, which under some circumstances enhances cooperation. Here we show that aversion to information gathering can be beneficial even in the absence of punishment, due to a different mechanism: preferential interactions with reliable partners. In a diverse population where different people have different-and unknown-preferences, those who seek additional information before agreeing to cooperate reveal that their preferences are close to the point where they would choose not to cooperate. Blind cooperators are therefore more likely to keep cooperating even if conditions change, and aversion to information gathering helps to interact preferentially with them. Conversely, blind defectors are more likely to keep defecting in the future, leading to a preference for informed defectors over blind ones. Both mechanisms-punishment to force blind decisions and preferential interactions-give qualitatively different predictions, which may enable experimental tests to disentangle them in real-world situations.

  18. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  19. Multi-User Virtual Environments Fostering Collaboration in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, Nicoletta; Paolini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about how serious games based on MUVEs in formal education can foster collaboration. More specifically, it is about a large case-study with four different programs which took place from 2002 to 2009 and involved more than 9,000 students, aged between 12 and 18, from various nations (18 European countries, Israel and the USA). These…

  20. MOOsburg: Multi-User Domain Support for a Community Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Rosson, Mary Beth; Isenhour, Philip L.; Van Metre, Christina; Schafer, Wendy A.; Ganoe, Craig H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains MOOsburg, a community-oriented MOO that models the geography of the town of Blacksburg, Virginia and is designed to be used by local residents. Highlights include the software architecture; client-server communication; spatial database; user interface; interaction; map-based navigation; application development; and future plans. (LRW)

  1. The emergence of multi-user expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    There exists a set of problems for which the single user workstation is not a viable solution. In some cases, it may be necessary for the system to support numerous experts working on different aspects of a single logical activity concurrently. In others, the activity may extend over a prolonged period of time during which different experts will work on different phases of the project to produce a single integrated result. Another possibility is that the results produced by the expert system must be continuously available to some group other than that actively exercising the expert system. These are the types of applications which require multiuser expert systems. The nature of NASA tends to produce expert system domains which are inherently multiuser. It is these domains that this new class of expert systems has first been encountered. As expert systems move into the main stream of large scale engineering projects, these encounters will become more frequent. A need for expert system building tools which can accommodate the unique properties of these multiuser domains as they emerge is a problem which needs to be addressed as the current set of tools migrate to time sharing environments, and as new tools are developed.

  2. Optical disk jukebox performance in multi-user applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Roy, Gautam; Thoma, George R.

    1994-10-01

    The Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, a research and development division of the National Library of Medicine, is evaluating an optical disk jukebox as a digital image store to support prototype systems for image distribution over the Internet. This paper summarizes a study undertaken to determine the performance characteristics of the jukebox to support multiple image databases simultaneously accessed by multiple users. A motivation for this investigation is the need to provide users access to digitized images of medical documents and radiographs.

  3. Adaptive strategy for multi-user robotic rehabilitation games.

    PubMed

    Caurin, Glauco A P; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Andrade, Kleber O; Joaquim, Ricardo C; Krebs, Hermano I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a strategy for the adaptation of the "difficulty level" in games intended to include motor planning during robotic rehabilitation. We consider concurrently the motivation of the user and his/her performance in a Pong game. User motivation is classified in three levels (not motivated, well motivated and overloaded). User performance is measured as a combination of knowledge of results--achieved goals and score points in the game--and knowledge of performance--joint displacement, speed, aiming, user work, etc. Initial results of a pilot test with unimpaired healthy young volunteers are also presented showing a tendency for individualization of the parameter values.

  4. Mobile Applications and Multi-User Virtual Reality Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This is my third internship with NASA and my second one at the Johnson Space Center. I work within the engineering directorate in ER7 (Software Robotics and Simulations Division) at a graphics lab called IGOAL. We are a very well-rounded lab because we have dedicated software developers and dedicated 3D artist, and when you combine the two, what you get is the ability to create many different things such as interactive simulations, 3D models, animations, and mobile applications.

  5. A Multi-User Remote Academic Laboratory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Arquimedes; Panche, Stifen; Duque, Mauricio; Grisales, Victor H.; Prieto, Flavio; Villa, Jose L.; Chevrel, Philippe; Canu, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation and preliminary operation assessment of Multiuser Network Architecture to integrate a number of Remote Academic Laboratories for educational purposes on automatic control. Through the Internet, real processes or physical experiments conducted at the control engineering laboratories of four…

  6. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation.

  7. The Hard Problem of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the “hard problem of cooperation” as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

  8. Surgery with cooperative robots.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Amy C; Berg, Kyle A; Dumpert, Jason; Wood, Nathan A; Visty, Abigail Q; Rentschler, Mark E; Platt, Stephen R; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2008-03-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques for abdominal procedures continue to reduce the invasiveness of surgery. Gaining access to the peritoneal cavity through small incisions prompted the first significant shift in general surgery. The complete elimination of external incisions through natural orifice access is potentially the next step in reducing patient trauma. While minimally invasive techniques offer significant patient advantages, the procedures are surgically challenging. Robotic surgical systems are being developed that address the visualization and manipulation limitations, but many of these systems remain constrained by the entry incisions. Alternatively, miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice procedures. These robots can provide vision and task assistance without the constraints of the entry incision, and can reduce the number of incisions required for laparoscopic procedures. In this study, a series of minimally invasive animal-model surgeries were performed using multiple miniature in vivo robots in cooperation with existing laparoscopy and endoscopy tools as well as the da Vinci Surgical System. These procedures demonstrate that miniature in vivo robots can address the visualization constraints of minimally invasive surgery by providing video feedback and task assistance from arbitrary orientations within the peritoneal cavity.

  9. The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.

    PubMed

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D

    2017-03-01

    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation.

  10. Exploring Reputation-Based Cooperation:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilone, Daniele; Giardini, Francesca; Paolucci, Mario

    In dyadic models of indirect reciprocity, the receivers' history of giving has a significant impact on the donor's decision. When the interaction involves more than two agents things become more complicated, and in large groups cooperation can hardly emerge. In this work we use a Public Goods Game to investigate whether publicly available reputation scores may support the evolution of cooperation and whether this is affected by the kind of network structure adopted. Moreover, if agents interact on a bipartite graph with partner selection, cooperation can quickly thrive in large groups.

  11. Cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate (Saguinus oedipus)

    PubMed Central

    CRONIN, KATHERINE A.; KURIAN, AIMEE V.; SNOWDON, CHARLES T.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated cooperative problem solving in unrelated pairs of the cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, to assess the cognitive basis of cooperative behaviour in this species and to compare abilities with other apes and monkeys. A transparent apparatus was used that required extension of two handles at opposite ends of the apparatus for access to rewards. Resistance was applied to both handles so that two tamarins had to act simultaneously in order to receive rewards. In contrast to several previous studies of cooperation, both tamarins received rewards as a result of simultaneous pulling. The results from two experiments indicated that the cottontop tamarins (1) had a much higher success rate and efficiency of pulling than many of the other species previously studied, (2) adjusted pulling behaviour to the presence or absence of a partner, and (3) spontaneously developed sustained pulling techniques to solve the task. These findings suggest that cottontop tamarins understand the role of the partner in this cooperative task, a cognitive ability widely ascribed only to great apes. The cooperative social system of tamarins, the intuitive design of the apparatus, and the provision of rewards to both participants may explain the performance of the tamarins. PMID:16804561

  12. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  13. Cooperative Learning and Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, James L.

    1995-01-01

    Contends that, in many ways, college teaching has remained largely unchanged since the days of the medieval university. Discusses the role of cooperative learning in higher education and maintains that the technique can enhance critical thinking skills. (CFR)

  14. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  15. The Paradoxes of Library Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Richard M.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Besides the main article by Richard Dougherty, this mini-symposium on library cooperation contains commentaries by Ralph Blasingame, Thomas J. Galvin, Ellsworth Mason, John F. Anderson and Robert S. Ake. (18 references) (NH)

  16. Heuristics for Cooperative Problem Solving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    behaviors of cooperating humans are not necessary for simple tasks. Those of cooperating wolves or wasps might perform more reliably and could be...observed in wolves (Mech 1970), lions (Schaller 1972), and coyotes (Robinson 1952, Hamlin 1979). In coyotes this behavior seems to be directed toward...predation in Yellowstone National Park. J. Mammal. 33:470-476. value - low Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti lion: a study of predator-prey relationships

  17. Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-06

    REPORT Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi ...Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance Report Title ABSTRACT Collaborating mobile robots equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile...equipped with WiFi transceivers are configured as a mobile ad-hoc network. Algorithms are developed to take advantage of the distributed processing

  18. Human uniqueness-self-interest and social cooperation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Daijiro; Bingham, Paul M

    2008-07-21

    Humans are unique among all species of terrestrial history in both ecological dominance and individual properties. Many, or perhaps all, of the unique elements of this nonpareil status can be plausibly interpreted as evolutionary and strategic elements and consequences of the unprecedented intensity and scale of our social cooperation. Convincing explanation of this unique human social adaptation remains a central, unmet challenge to the scientific enterprise. We develop a hypothesis for the ancestral origin of expanded cooperative social behavior. Specifically, we present a game theoretic analysis demonstrating that a specific pattern of expanded social cooperation between conspecific individuals with conflicts of interest (including non-kin) can be strategically viable, but only in animals that possess a highly unusual capacity for conspecific violence (credible threat) having very specific properties that dramatically reduce the costs of coercive violence. The resulting reduced costs allow preemptive or compensated coercion to be an instantaneously self-interested behavior under diverse circumstances rather than in rare, idiosyncratic circumstances as in actors (animals) who do not have access to inexpensive coercive threat. Humans are apparently unique among terrestrial organisms in having evolved conspecific coercive capabilities that fulfill these stringent requirements. Thus, our results support the proposal that access to a novel capacity for projection of coercive threat might represent the essential initiating event for the evolution of a human-like pattern of social cooperation and the subsequent evolution of the diverse features of human uniqueness. Empirical evidence indicates that these constraints were, in fact, met only in our evolutionary lineage. The logic for the emergence of uniquely human cooperation suggested by our analysis apparently accounts simply for the human fossil record.

  19. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2016-11-16

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater.

  20. How Feeling Betrayed Affects Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective. PMID:25922933

  1. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  2. 45 CFR 1155.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1155.620 Section 1155.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  3. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  4. 22 CFR 312.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 312.620 Section 312.620...) Definitions § 312.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  5. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative... conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  6. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  7. 22 CFR 1008.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1008.620 Section 1008.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  8. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  9. 36 CFR 1212.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1212... § 1212.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  10. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  11. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  12. 36 CFR 1212.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1212... § 1212.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  13. 7 CFR 981.14 - Cooperative handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative handler. 981.14 Section 981.14 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.14 Cooperative handler. Cooperative handler means any handler as defined in § 981.13 of this subpart which qualifies for treatment as a nonprofit cooperative...

  14. 22 CFR 133.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 133.620 Section 133.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  15. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  16. 7 CFR 981.14 - Cooperative handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative handler. 981.14 Section 981.14 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.14 Cooperative handler. Cooperative handler means any handler as defined in § 981.13 of this subpart which qualifies for treatment as a nonprofit cooperative...

  17. 13 CFR 147.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 147.620... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  18. 34 CFR 84.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 84.620 Section 84.620 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C....

  19. 45 CFR 1155.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1155.620 Section 1155.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  20. 13 CFR 147.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 147.620... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  1. 34 CFR 84.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 84.620 Section 84.620 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C....

  2. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  3. 22 CFR 312.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 312.620 Section 312.620...) Definitions § 312.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  4. 22 CFR 1509.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1509.620 Section 1509.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15...

  5. 20 CFR 439.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 439.620 Section 439... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an... contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as...

  6. 2 CFR 182.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 182.620 Section 182...-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 182.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  7. 13 CFR 147.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 147.620... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  8. 7 CFR 981.14 - Cooperative handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative handler. 981.14 Section 981.14 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.14 Cooperative handler. Cooperative handler means any handler as defined in § 981.13 of this subpart which qualifies for treatment as a nonprofit cooperative...

  9. 2 CFR 200.24 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 200.24 Section 200.24... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.24 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... include: (1) A cooperative research and development agreement as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a; or (2)...

  10. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  11. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  12. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  13. 22 CFR 1008.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1008.620 Section 1008.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  14. 26 CFR 601.802 - Cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative agreements. 601.802 Section 601.802... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Tax Counseling for the Elderly § 601.802 Cooperative agreements. (a) General... cooperative agreements with the Internal Revenue Service. Use of cooperative agreements is in accordance...

  15. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  16. 22 CFR 1008.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1008.620 Section 1008.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  17. 45 CFR 1155.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1155.620 Section 1155.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  18. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  19. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  20. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  1. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative..., approved, and executed in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Chief. (b) Cooperative...

  2. 49 CFR 32.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 32.620 Section 32.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  3. 29 CFR 94.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 94.620 Section 94.620 Labor Office...) Definitions § 94.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  4. 45 CFR 1173.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1173.620 Section 1173.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1173.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15...

  5. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  6. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  7. 21 CFR 1405.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1405.620 Section 1405.620... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means... contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as...

  8. 26 CFR 601.802 - Cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative agreements. 601.802 Section 601.802... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Tax Counseling for the Elderly § 601.802 Cooperative agreements. (a) General... cooperative agreements with the Internal Revenue Service. Use of cooperative agreements is in accordance...

  9. 2 CFR 1401.220 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1401.220 Section 1401....220 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  10. 49 CFR 32.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 32.620 Section 32.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  11. 13 CFR 147.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 147.620... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  12. 22 CFR 312.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 312.620 Section 312.620...) Definitions § 312.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  13. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  14. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  15. 36 CFR 1212.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1212... § 1212.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  16. 45 CFR 1155.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1155.620 Section 1155.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  17. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  18. 7 CFR 981.14 - Cooperative handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative handler. 981.14 Section 981.14 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.14 Cooperative handler. Cooperative handler means any handler as defined in § 981.13 of this subpart which qualifies for treatment as a nonprofit cooperative...

  19. 21 CFR 1405.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1405.620 Section 1405.620... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means... contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as...

  20. 28 CFR 83.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 83.620 Section 83...-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an... by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined...

  1. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  2. 29 CFR 94.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 94.620 Section 94.620 Labor Office...) Definitions § 94.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  3. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  4. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  5. 32 CFR 37.1260 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 37.1260 Section 37.1260... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1260 Cooperative... the cooperative agreement. The term does not include “cooperative research and development...

  6. 22 CFR 133.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 133.620 Section 133.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  7. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  8. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative..., approved, and executed in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Chief. (b) Cooperative...

  9. 15 CFR 29.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 29.620 Section... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  10. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  11. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative... conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  12. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  13. 45 CFR 1155.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1155.620 Section 1155.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  14. 36 CFR 1212.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1212... § 1212.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  15. 21 CFR 1405.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1405.620 Section 1405.620... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means... contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as...

  16. 32 CFR 37.1260 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 37.1260 Section 37.1260... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1260 Cooperative... the cooperative agreement. The term does not include “cooperative research and development...

  17. 22 CFR 210.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 210.620 Section 210.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  18. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  19. 28 CFR 83.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 83.620 Section 83...-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an... by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined...

  20. 49 CFR 32.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 32.620 Section 32.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  1. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative..., approved, and executed in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Chief. (b) Cooperative...

  2. 7 CFR 1491.20 - Cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative agreements. 1491.20 Section 1491.20... Cooperative Agreements and Conservation Easement Deeds § 1491.20 Cooperative agreements. (a) NRCS, on behalf of CCC, shall enter into a cooperative agreement with those entities selected for funding. Once...

  3. 22 CFR 133.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 133.620 Section 133.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  4. 28 CFR 83.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 83.620 Section 83...-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an... by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined...

  5. 22 CFR 312.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 312.620 Section 312.620...) Definitions § 312.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  6. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  7. 22 CFR 1509.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1509.620 Section 1509.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15...

  8. 22 CFR 133.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 133.620 Section 133.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  9. 26 CFR 601.802 - Cooperative agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative agreements. 601.802 Section 601.802... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Tax Counseling for the Elderly § 601.802 Cooperative agreements. (a) General... cooperative agreements with the Internal Revenue Service. Use of cooperative agreements is in accordance...

  10. 7 CFR 3021.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 3021.620 Section 3021.620...) Definitions § 3021.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance... not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  11. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative... conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  12. 49 CFR 32.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 32.620 Section 32.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  13. 36 CFR 1212.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1212... § 1212.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  14. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  15. 29 CFR 94.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cooperative agreement. 94.620 Section 94.620 Labor Office of...) Definitions § 94.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  16. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  17. 49 CFR 32.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 32.620 Section 32.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 32.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  18. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  19. 21 CFR 1405.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1405.620 Section 1405.620... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means... contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as...

  20. 22 CFR 1509.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1509.620 Section 1509.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15...

  1. 22 CFR 312.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 312.620 Section 312.620...) Definitions § 312.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  2. 28 CFR 83.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 83.620 Section 83...-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an... by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined...

  3. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  4. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  5. 22 CFR 133.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 133.620 Section 133.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 133.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  6. 2 CFR 182.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 182.620 Section 182... § 182.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  7. 28 CFR 83.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 83.620 Section 83...-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an... by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined...

  8. 32 CFR 37.1260 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 37.1260 Section 37.1260... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1260 Cooperative... the cooperative agreement. The term does not include “cooperative research and development...

  9. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  10. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  11. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  12. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  13. 34 CFR 84.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 84.620 Section 84.620 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C....

  14. 29 CFR 94.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Cooperative agreement. 94.620 Section 94.620 Labor Office of...) Definitions § 94.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  15. 32 CFR 37.1260 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 37.1260 Section 37.1260... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1260 Cooperative... the cooperative agreement. The term does not include “cooperative research and development...

  16. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative..., approved, and executed in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Chief. (b) Cooperative...

  17. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  18. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  19. 22 CFR 210.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 210.620 Section 210.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  20. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  1. 22 CFR 1509.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1509.620 Section 1509.620... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15...

  2. 13 CFR 147.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 147.620... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  3. 29 CFR 94.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 94.620 Section 94.620 Labor Office...) Definitions § 94.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance that... cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  4. 22 CFR 1008.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cooperative agreement. 1008.620 Section 1008.620... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  5. 34 CFR 84.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 84.620 Section 84.620 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C....

  6. 34 CFR 84.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative agreement. 84.620 Section 84.620 Education... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C....

  7. 7 CFR 981.14 - Cooperative handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative handler. 981.14 Section 981.14 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.14 Cooperative handler. Cooperative handler means any handler as defined in § 981.13 of this subpart which qualifies for treatment as a nonprofit cooperative...

  8. 7 CFR 3021.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 3021.620 Section 3021.620...) Definitions § 3021.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance... not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  9. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  10. 36 CFR 212.3 - Cooperative work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative work. 212.3... MANAGEMENT Administration of the Forest Transportation System § 212.3 Cooperative work. (a) Cooperative..., approved, and executed in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Chief. (b) Cooperative...

  11. 7 CFR 3021.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative agreement. 3021.620 Section 3021.620...) Definitions § 3021.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of financial assistance... not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a....

  12. 22 CFR 1008.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1008.620 Section 1008... (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means an award of... award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as defined in 15...

  13. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative... conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  14. 22 CFR 1509.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1509.620 Section 1509... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means... contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as...

  15. 21 CFR 1405.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative agreement. 1405.620 Section 1405.620... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative agreement means... contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and development agreements as...

  16. 43 CFR 43.620 - Cooperative agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative agreement. 43.620 Section 43... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 43.620 Cooperative agreement. Cooperative... activity contemplated by the award. The term does not include cooperative research and...

  17. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  18. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  19. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  20. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare...

  1. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  2. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section 1028... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  3. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  4. 10 Diversity Champions II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Michelle J.; Pluviose, David; Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Introducing the "Champions of Diversity" in the Academic Kickoff issue proved a timely reminder of the mission of Diverse during the lead up to the 25th anniversary of Cox, Matthews and Associates, the founder of the former Black Issues in Higher Education and publisher of Diverse. In this edition, the editors at Diverse unveil its second slate of…

  5. Concepts of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacklin, Phil

    This paper attempts to establish a theory of communication essential to democratic diversity. Twelve kinds of diversity, divided into two classes, are described. One class relates to the way in which diverse things differ, the other class relates to the kinds of things which are diverse. The criteria for evaluating the importance of a certain kind…

  6. 43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Dam must be managed to maintain minimum terminal flow to Lahontan Reservoir or the Carson River except... achieve an average terminal flow of 20 cfs or less during times when diversions to Lahontan Reservoir are... releases from Stampede Reservoir and other reservoirs, in cooperation with the Federal Water Master,...

  7. Celebrating Diversity through Northeastern Asian Children's Literature and Dramatic Productions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; And Others

    At the University of South Dakota, as part of a campus-wide celebration of diversity focused on northeastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea), undergraduate and graduate Children's Literature classes participated by locating relevant literature and presenting them dramatically. Students were divided into six small cooperative groups. Each group chose a…

  8. Evolution of cooperation: combining kin selection and reciprocal altruism into matrix games with social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Ale, Som B; Brown, Joel S; Sullivan, Amy T

    2013-01-01

    Darwinian selection should preclude cooperation from evolving; yet cooperation is widespread among organisms. We show how kin selection and reciprocal altruism can promote cooperation in diverse 2×2 matrix games (prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift, and hawk-dove). We visualize kin selection as non-random interactions with like-strategies interacting more than by chance. Reciprocal altruism emerges from iterated games where players have some likelihood of knowing the identity of other players. This perspective allows us to combine kin selection and reciprocal altruism into a general matrix game model. Both mechanisms operating together should influence the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of kin selection, reciprocal altruism may be an evolutionarily stable strategy but is unable to invade a population of non-co-operators. Similarly, it may take a high degree of relatedness to permit cooperation to supplant non-cooperation. Together, a little bit of reciprocal altruism can, however, greatly reduce the threshold at which kin selection promotes cooperation, and vice-versa. To properly frame applications and tests of cooperation, empiricists should consider kin selection and reciprocal altruism together rather than as alternatives, and they should be applied to a broader class of social dilemmas than just the prisoner's dilemma.

  9. The maintenance of cooperation in multiplex networks with limited and partible resources of agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaofeng; Shen, Bi; Jiang, Yichuan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we try to explain the maintenance of cooperation in multiplex networks with limited and partible resources of agents: defection brings larger short-term benefit and cooperative agents may become defective because of the unaffordable costs of cooperative behaviors that are performed in multiple layers simultaneously. Recent studies have identified the positive effects of multiple layers on evolutionary cooperation but generally overlook the maximum costs of agents in these synchronous games. By utilizing network effects and designing evolutionary mechanisms, cooperative behaviors become prevailing in public goods games, and agents can allocate personal resources across multiple layers. First, we generalize degree diversity into multiplex networks to improve the prospect for cooperation. Second, to prevent agents allocating all the resources into one layer, a greedy-first mechanism is proposed, in which agents prefer to add additional investments in the higher-payoff layer. It is found that greedy-first agents can perform cooperative behaviors in multiplex networks when one layer is scale-free network and degree differences between conjoint nodes increase. Our work may help to explain the emergence of cooperation in the absence of individual reputation and punishment mechanisms.

  10. Cooperation for direct fitness benefits.

    PubMed

    Leimar, Olof; Hammerstein, Peter

    2010-09-12

    Studies of the evolution of helping have traditionally used the explanatory frameworks of reciprocity and altruism towards relatives, but recently there has been an increasing interest in other kinds of explanations. We review the success or otherwise of work investigating alternative processes and mechanisms, most of which fall under the heading of cooperation for direct benefits. We evaluate to what extent concepts such as by-product benefits, pseudo-reciprocity, sanctions and partner choice, markets and the build-up of cross-species spatial trait correlations have contributed to the study of the evolution of cooperation. We conclude that these alternative ideas are successful and show potential to further increase our understanding of cooperation. We also bring up the origin and role of common interest in the evolution of cooperation, including the appearance of organisms. We note that there are still unresolved questions about the main processes contributing to the evolution of common interest. Commenting on the broader significance of the recent developments, we argue that they represent a justified balancing of the importance given to different major hypotheses for the evolution of cooperation. This balancing is beneficial because it widens considerably the range of phenomena addressed and, crucially, encourages empirical testing of important theoretical alternatives.

  11. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future.

  12. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  13. Cooperation and competition in a cliff-dwelling people

    PubMed Central

    Strassmann, Beverly I.

    2011-01-01

    In animals that breed cooperatively, adult individuals will sometimes delay reproduction to act as helpers at the nest who raise young that are not their genetic offspring. It has been proposed that humans are also a cooperatively breeding species because older daughters, grandmothers, and other kin and nonkin may provide significant childcare. Through a prospective cohort study of children's (n = 1,700) growth and survival in the Dogon of Mali, I show that cooperative breeding theory is a poor fit to the family dynamics of this population. Rather than helping each other, siblings competed for resources, producing a tradeoff between the number of maternal siblings and growth and survival. It did not take a village to raise a child; children fared the same in nuclear as in extended families. Of critical importance was the degree of polygyny, which created conflicts associated with asymmetries in genetic relatedness. The risk of death was higher and the rate of growth was slower in polygynous than monogamous families. The hazard of death for Dogon children was twofold higher if the resident paternal grandmother was alive rather than dead. This finding may reflect the frailty of elderly grandmothers who become net consumers rather than net producers in this resource-poor society. Mothers were of overwhelming importance for child survival and could not be substituted by any category of kin or nonkin. The idea of cooperative breeding taken from animal studies is a poor fit to the complexity and diversity of kin interactions in humans. PMID:21690343

  14. Diversity Statements: How Faculty Applicants Address Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Karen B.; Trevino, Amira Y.; Lind, Justin R.; Blume, Arthur W.; Baker, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine application materials for assistant professor positions in 3 academic disciplines. Applicants were asked to write a diversity statement describing how they would advance diversity through their research, teaching, and service. The sample included application materials submitted by 191 candidates for…

  15. Does Staff Diversity Imply Openness to Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Post-secondary educational organizations are currently some of the most diverse settings to be found. However, few educational studies have dealt with staff diversity and hardly any has looked outside the USA. The purpose of this paper is to present a study of members of international university departments in Denmark. The authors set out…

  16. Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

  17. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2012-04-21

    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation.

  18. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother.

  19. Fashion, Cooperation, and Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people’s cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed. PMID:23382799

  20. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  1. Diversity begets diversity? The effects of board composition on the appointment and success of women CEOs.

    PubMed

    Cook, Alison; Glass, Christy

    2015-09-01

    Previous research on the effects of leadership diversity on firm outcomes has produced inconsistent and inconclusive findings. While some scholars argue that diversity increases organizational equity and enhances performance, others argue that diversity increases conflict, reduces cooperation and harms performance. This study tests the impact of a variety of compositional factors on firm outcomes. Specifically, we analyze whether and how board composition affects the advancement and mobility of women CEOs and firm performance. Our analysis relies on a unique data set of all Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and Board of Directors (BODs) in Fortune 500 companies over a ten-year period. We find a marginally significant positive relationship between board diversity and the likelihood of a woman being appointed CEO. We further find that board diversity significantly and positively influences the post-promotion success of women CEOs. Our findings suggest that board composition is critical for the appointment and success of women CEOs, and increasing board diversity should be central to any organizational diversity efforts.

  2. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  3. International cooperation in space transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    International cooperation in the field of Space Transportation has become an accepted norm as companies and countries have come to understand the necessity of lower costs for launch services. Many different approaches have been attempted, some of which are more successful than others. This paper discusses the history of McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) launch vehicle cooperation with Japan, as well as how MDA developed Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) as a supplier for the Delta III program, and how MDA became a supplier for the Japanese H-2 vehicle. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    PubMed

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  5. Bridging the Gap: Teachers Cooperating Together to Implement Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL), in spite of extensive research and documented benefits, is not widely used in England. A review of the literature shows that it requires a staged and sustained approach to implementation, which has led to a gap between its potential and actual use. The case study cited here provides one example of bridging that gap…

  6. Environmental monitoring and cooperative resource management at the WIPP site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This poster session by the Environmental Monitoring Section of the US DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is to demonstrate that the DOE is committed to sound environmental management. This WIPP poster session demonstrates radiological as well as nonradiological environmental monitoring activities conducted routinely at the WIPP. And how data collected prior to the WIPP being operational is used to establish a preoperational baseline for environmental studies in which the samples collected during the operational phase will be compared. Cooperative Resource Management is a relatively new concept for governments agencies. It allows two or more agencies the ability to jointly share in funding a program or project and yet both agencies can benefit from the outcome. These programs are usually a biological type study. The WIPP cooperative agreement between the US BLM, DOE and its contractors is to continue the ongoing documentation of the diversity of the Chihuahuan desert.

  7. Complex Cooperative Strategies in Group-Territorial African Lions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinsohn, Robert; Packer, Craig

    1995-09-01

    Female lions (Panthera leo) showed persistent individual differences in the extent to which they participated in group-territorial conflict. When intergroup encounters were simulated by playback of aggressive vocalizations, some individuals consistently led the approach to the recorded intruder, whereas others lagged behind and avoided the risks of fighting. The lead females recognized that certain companions were laggards but failed to punish them, which suggests that cooperation is not maintained by reciprocity. Modification of the "odds" in these encounters revealed that some females joined the group response when they were most needed, whereas other lagged even farther behind. The complexity of these responses emphasizes the great diversity of individual behavior in this species and the inadequacy of current theory to explain cooperation in large groups.

  8. An Efficient Radio Resource Allocation Scheme for Minimum Outage Probability Using Cooperation in OFDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Junwoo; Park, Hyungwon; Lim, Jae-Sung

    Cooperation can increase the system performance by obtaining the spatial diversity. While most of the present works concentrate on the analysis of the cooperation based on the inter-user channel response and developing a scheme for higher cooperative diversity, in this paper, we focus on practical resource allocation in OFDMA systems. Since the user who uses the same center frequency can not receive the signal when transmitting, this constraint should be considered to apply the cooperation to OFDMA systems. In this paper, we propose the pair-based OFDMA frame structure that overcomes this constraint. Also in this frame structure to achieve the minimum outage probability of system, we select the best partner among the candidate neighbors and allocate the suitable subchannels to bandwidth requested users through a cooperative subchannel allocation (CSA) algorithm. In order to evaluate the proposed resource allocation scheme, we carry out simulations based on IEEE 802.16e. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm offers smaller outage probability than one based on non-cooperative communications and we get the minimum outage probability when a threshold for selection of candidate neighbors is 10dB. We analyze that these results can be achieved by helping users located around the edge of the cell.

  9. Five rules for the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Martin A

    2006-12-08

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  10. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  11. Thoughts on the International Cooperation and Exchanges of Chinese Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jiang-bin

    2009-01-01

    More prominent in the 21st century than ever are the internationalization of the competition for talents, the globalization of their mobility, and the diversity of the demand for them. This article analyzes the major features and content of the international cooperation and exchanges, and further discusses their tactics and measures in the process…

  12. Creating and Sustaining Interfaith Cooperation on Christian Campuses: Tools and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, Katie; Hughes, Megan

    2012-01-01

    How can Christian colleges and universities promote interfaith cooperation on their campuses while remaining true to their particular theological orientations? The authors explore why Christian colleges are uniquely situated to positively engage religious diversity and offer best practices for interfaith work in a Christian college context from…

  13. High School Economics, Cooperative Learning, and the End-of-Course-Test--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this twelve-week case study was to explore the use of a cooperative learning strategy with small groups of students in a 12th-grade economics class as diverse learners prepared for tests. The complete case study was based on observations of students, student surveys, focus group interviews, and interviews with educators at…

  14. Realizing Conflict, Negotiation, and Cooperation Concepts in the Context of International Water Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinar, Ariel; McKinney, Daene

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we offer a negotiation and cooperative game theory application to international water in the classroom. A simulation game was developed for the Aral Sea water dispute as part of a textbook prepared for teaching a diverse group of students a graduate-level International Water course. A condensed version of the Aral Sea Basin water…

  15. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often…

  16. Astronaut Gordon Cooper After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  17. College/Labor Union Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 1,054 institutions by the AACJC Service Center for Community College-Labor Union Cooperation concluded that while substantial joint undertakings exist between unions and community colleges, in many cases labor and community colleges are waiting for the other party to make the first move. (JG)

  18. Australian Circuses as Cooperative Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Beverley J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied how circus personnel of all ages interact in Australian circuses to preserve traditional circus lifestyles and entertainment. Interviews with 30 personnel from 4 circuses show the importance of learning to be a member of a cooperative society through immersion. Results provide information about the education of a community of occupational…

  19. Transcultural Cooperation: The Years Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braisted, Paul J.

    1975-01-01

    "The future will bring new opportunities for transcultural cooperation through privately sponsored exchange activities." This analysis of future opportunities includes review of the heritage of educational and cultural exchange and the emerging cultural milieu of political and economic instability, examples of new activities, and characteristics…

  20. Marketing Cooperative Education. A Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosser, John W.; Rea, Peter J.

    This document is a guide for a workshop on marketing college cooperative education programs. The guide takes the reader/workshop participant through the marketing process, from defining needs and resources to planning a marketing campaign, implementing it, and evaluating its success. Samples and sources also are provided. Topics covered in the…

  1. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    the objects the robots manipulate are hazardous waste. I have not actually applied the robots to reA toxic waste spills, since they are simply small...1993] Bruce Randall Donald, James Jennings, and Daniela Rus. To- wards a theory of information invariants for cooperating autonomous mobile robots

  2. The Rhetorical Arts of Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahnestock, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution depends in part on using language persuasively to secure cooperation. Rhetoric emerged in the West over two thousand years ago as a deliberate cultural construction. Though often misunderstood today, rhetoric is fundamental in general education programs that teach students how knowledge is forged in agreement and applied.…

  3. Trends and Issues in Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Thomas J., Ed.; Patterson, Lewis D., Ed.

    The program for the semiannual Cooperative Program Seminar, held October 9-10, 1973, in Washington, D.C. is presented in this document. At this seminar plans were made to broaden the program focus from just consortium concerns to include the full range of interests in systems of interdependence in postsecondary education. These proceedings, to the…

  4. Facilitating Inter-District Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gene L.

    After an introductory section which points out that the responsibility of small and rural schools is to provide all children with a quality education, and that Boards of Education must decide what is best for all children in the community, the paper briefly describes 16 exemplary programs involving cooperation between school districts. The…

  5. Cooperative Learning. Professional Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Literacy Resource Center, Seattle, WA.

    This document contains the materials required for two 6-hour workshop sessions designed to introduce educators working with adult basic education (ABE) and/or English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students to the use of cooperative learning in adult education classrooms by modeling. Included in the document are the following: introduction (overviews…

  6. The Cooperative Satellite Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caler, Michelle

    This document describes the Cooperative Satellite Learning Project (CSLP) which is designed to educate students in the areas of space science, engineering, and technology in a business-like atmosphere. The project is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Association (NASA), Allied Signal Technical Services Corporation, and…

  7. Cognitive Conflict and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gail

    This study compared the effects of cooperative learning groups to traditional instruction in remediating students' misconceptions about temperature. Students from grades 3, 4, and 5 in two rural elementary schools participated in the study. Students completed a pretest, a cognitive conflict laboratory activity and a posttest that measured…

  8. Invitational Education at Cooper Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalec, Ann W.

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 1998, this author was appointed Principal at Cooper Elementary, one of 21 elementary schools in the Livonia Public Schools' district, the 5th largest district in the state of Michigan. Like many first-year principals, she was full of fresh ideas, lofty goals and endless enthusiasm to inspire students, staff and parents. Her…

  9. Cooperative Learning: Refining the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Teachers must give adequate attention to teaching social skills and monitoring for total team involvement if they are to introduce cooperative learning successfully. Interpersonal skills are more important than positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, or group processing skills. Includes five references. (MLH)

  10. Interagency Cooperation through Organizational Advocacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Tesolowski, Dennis G.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines the need for interagency cooperation in the vocational development of the handicapped and disadvantaged and develops a futuristic model to be implemented. Discusses advocacy and its role in professional associations, potential barriers to organizational advocacy, and the role of professional associations in organizational advocacy. (CT)

  11. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  12. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  13. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Waite, Adam James; Cannistra, Caroline; Shou, Wenying

    2015-12-01

    Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators) will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors), cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local population size

  14. Leadership and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…

  15. Insights on Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Carol, Ed.; And Others

    This state-of-the-art report presents a series of essays on the topic of diversity. Essays include: (1) "Committing to Diversity" (George L. Mehaffy); (2) "Serving the Community by Serving Our Members" (Michael P. Wolfe); (3) "How Diversity Matters" (Asa G. Hilliard, III); (4) "A Prerequisite to Teaching Multiculturally" (Mary Louise Gomez); (5)…

  16. BioDiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. O., Ed.; Peter, Frances M., Ed.

    The diversity of life forms is one of the greatest wonders of the planet earth. The biosphere is an intricate tapestry of interwoven life forms. This book offers an overall view of this biological diversity and carries an urgent warning about the rapid alteration and destruction of the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms…

  17. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only…

  18. Helping solve Georgia's water problems - the USGS Cooperative Water Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) addresses a wide variety of water issues in the State of Georgia through the Cooperative Water Program (CWP). As the primary Federal science agency for water-resource information, the USGS monitors the quantity and quality of water in the Nation's rivers and aquifers, assesses the sources and fate of contaminants in aquatic systems, collects and analyzes data on aquatic ecosystems, develops tools to improve the application of hydrologic information, and ensures that its information and tools are available to all potential users. This broad, diverse mission cannot be accomplished effectively without the contributions of the CWP.

  19. 38 CFR 200.7 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expertise may be invited to serve as cooperating agencies in the conduct of NEPA review of an AFRH proposed... cooperating agencies with subject matter jurisdiction or special expertise in the conduct of NEPA review of...

  20. Inactive sites and the evolution of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Júnior, E. J.; Wardil, L. L.; da Silva, J. K. L.

    2016-10-01

    Cooperation is often conditioned on environmental factors. Behaviors may be inactive due to external factors, and yet the trait itself may not change. We study the evolution of cooperation with active and inactive sites. In inactive sites cooperators behave as defectors, receiving but not providing benefits. This unintentional mimicry provides local advantage to cooperation, but also prevents the mutual reinforcement provided by clusters of active cooperators. In general, we found that cooperation is enhanced by inactivity. In particular, if most sites are inactive, cooperation survives even if the temptation to defect is very large. Interestingly, in the square lattice with pairwise comparison rule we found that cooperation is enforced by inactive sites only up to a certain limit.