Science.gov

Sample records for multi-user recognition engine

  1. Multi-user investigation organizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M. (Inventor); Panontin, Tina L. (Inventor); Carvalho, Robert E. (Inventor); Sturken, Ian (Inventor); Williams, James F. (Inventor); Wolfe, Shawn R. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system that allows a team of geographically dispersed users to collaboratively analyze a mishap event. The system includes a reconfigurable ontology, including instances that are related to and characterize the mishap, a semantic network that receives, indexes and stores, for retrieval, viewing and editing, the instances and links between the instances, a network browser interface for retrieving and viewing screens that present the instances and links to other instances and that allow editing thereof, and a rule-based inference engine, including a collection of rules associated with establishment of links between the instances. A possible conclusion arising from analysis of the mishap event may be characterized as one or more of: not a credible conclusion; an unlikely conclusion; a credible conclusion; conclusion needs analysis; conclusion needs supporting data; conclusion proposed to be closed; and an un-reviewed conclusion.

  2. University multi-user facility survey-2010.

    PubMed

    Riley, Melissa B

    2011-12-01

    Multi-user facilities serve as a resource for many universities. In 2010, a survey was conducted investigating possible changes and successful characteristics of multi-user facilities, as well as identifying problems in facilities. Over 300 surveys were e-mailed to persons identified from university websites as being involved with multi-user facilities. Complete responses were received from 36 facilities with an average of 20 years of operation. Facilities were associated with specific departments (22%), colleges (22%), and university research centers (8.3%) or were not affiliated with any department or college within the university (47%). The five most important factors to succeed as a multi-user facility were: 1) maintaining an experienced, professional staff in an open atmosphere; 2) university-level support providing partial funding; 3) broad client base; 4) instrument training programs; and 5) an effective leader and engaged strategic advisory group. The most significant problems were: 1) inadequate university financial support and commitment; 2) problems recovering full service costs from university subsidies and user fees; 3) availability of funds to repair and upgrade equipment; 4) inability to retain highly qualified staff; and 5) unqualified users dirtying/damaging equipment. Further information related to these issues and to fee structure was solicited. Overall, there appeared to be a decline in university support for facilities and more emphasis on securing income by serving clients outside of the institution and by obtaining grants from entities outside of the university.

  3. Informationally Efficient Multi-User Communication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 v 3.3.4 Extensions to Multi-user Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.4 Concluding Remarks...the standard deviation of the mean of the 100 measurements sampled at each point. The error bars in the remaining figures are as in this figure... measure of the strength of the mutual coupling between user m and n. The intuition be- hind (C1) and (C2) is that, the weaker the coupling among

  4. Multi-user data acquisition environment

    SciTech Connect

    Storch, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The typical data acquisition environment involves data collection and monitoring by a single user. However, in order to support experiments on the Mars facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have had to create a multi-user data acquisition environment where any user can control the data acquisition and several users can monitor and analyze data being collected in real time. This paper describes how we accomplished this on an HP A600 computer. It focuses on the overall system description and user communication with the tasks within the system. Our current implementation is one phase of a long-term software development project.

  5. Protein hydrogels with engineered biomolecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Lixin

    Extracellular matrices (ECMs) are the hydrated macromolecular gels in which cells migrate and proliferate and organize into tissues in vivo . The development of artificial ECM with the required mechanical, physico-chemical, and biological properties has long been a challenge in the biomaterial research field. In this dissertation, a novel set of bioactive protein hydrogels has been synthesized and characterized at both molecular and materials levels. The self-recognized and self-assembled protein copolymers have the ability to provide engineered biofunctionality through the controlled arrangement of bioactive domains on the nanoscale. Genetic engineering methods have been employed to synthesize these protein copolymers. Plasmid DNA carrying genes to express both di- and tri-block proteins have been constructed using molecular cloning techniques. These genes were expressed in bacterial E. coli to ensure homogeneous protein length and anticipated structure. Three diblock protein sequences having a leucine zipper construct on one end and polyelectrolyte (AGAGAGPEG)10 on the other, have been studied by circular dichroism, size-exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, and static light scattering to characterize their secondary structure, structural stability, and oligomeric state. The results show that ABC diblock mixtures form very stable heterotrimer aggregates via self-recognition and self-assembly of the coiled coil end domains. Tri-block proteins with two leucine zipper motif ends flanking the polyelectrolyte random coil in the middle have been investigated by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, and the hydrogels formed by self-assembly of these tri-blocks have been studied using transmission electronic microscopy and diffusing wave spectroscopy. The reversible gelation behavior is the result of heterotrimeric aggregation of helices to form the physical crosslinks in the gel, with the polyelectrolyte region center block retaining

  6. Recognition vs Reverse Engineering in Boolean Concepts Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafat, Gabriel; Levin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with two types of logical problems--recognition problems and reverse engineering problems, and with the interrelations between these types of problems. The recognition problems are modeled in the form of a visual representation of various objects in a common pattern, with a composition of represented objects in the pattern.…

  7. Usability testing of a prototype multi-user telehealth kiosk.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Karen L; Matthews, Judith T; McMillan, Julie M; Person Mecca, Laurel; Smailagic, Asim; Siewiorek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to learn how community-dwelling older adults would interact with our prototype multi-user telehealth kiosk and their views about its usability. Seven subjects participated in laboratory-based usability sessions to evaluate the physical design, appearance, functionality and perceived ease of use of a multi-user telehealth kiosk prototype. During usability testing participants recommended 18 new features (29% of comments), identified 15 software errors (23% of comments) and 29 user interface errors (47% of comments).

  8. Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus - Flame Extinguishment Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Forman A.; Nayagam, Vedha; Choi, Mun Y.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus Flame Extinguishment Experiment (MDCA-FLEX) will assess the effectiveness of fire suppressants in microgravity and quantify the effect of different possible crew exploration atmospheres on fire suppression. The goal of this research is to provide definition and direction for large scale fire suppression tests and selection of the fire suppressant for next generation crew exploration vehicles.

  9. Introducing ORACLE: Library Processing in a Multi-User Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Library Board, Brisbane (Australia).

    Currently being developed by the State Library of Queensland, Australia, ORACLE (On-Line Retrieval of Acquisitions, Cataloguing, and Circulation Details for Library Enquiries) is a computerized library system designed to provide rapid processing of library materials in a multi-user environment. It is based on the Australian MARC format and fully…

  10. Teacher Practice in Multi User Virtual Environments: A Fourth Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandra, Brendan; Puvirajah, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Practicing teaching is an important aspect of teacher education, however, its implementation can be limited due to the constraints and risks related to practicing in actual schools. There is evidence in the literature of Multi User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) being used as spaces for training, especially in fields where the costs associated with…

  11. Multi-User Performance Issues in Wireless Impulse Radio Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Enabling uwb through precise timing. In UWBST02, 2002. [12] R. Fontana , A. Ameti, E. Richley, L. Beard, and D. Guy. Recent advances in ultra wideband...Gabriella Di Benedetto . Multi user interference in power-unbalanced ultra wide band systems: Analysis and verification. In UWBST 03, 2003. [31] G. D

  12. Multi-User Hardware Solutions to Combustion Science ISS Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otero, Angel M.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the budget environment and to expand on the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), common hardware approach, the NASA Combustion Science Program shifted focus in 1999 from single investigator PI (Principal Investigator)-specific hardware to multi-user 'Minifacilities'. These mini-facilities would take the CIR common hardware philosophy to the next level. The approach that was developed re-arranged all the investigations in the program into sub-fields of research. Then common requirements within these subfields were used to develop a common system that would then be complemented by a few PI-specific components. The sub-fields of research selected were droplet combustion, solids and fire safety, and gaseous fuels. From these research areas three mini-facilities have sprung: the Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) for droplet research, Flow Enclosure for Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) for solids and fire safety, and the Multi-user Gaseous Fuels Apparatus (MGFA) for gaseous fuels. These mini-facilities will develop common Chamber Insert Assemblies (CIA) and diagnostics for the respective investigators complementing the capability provided by CIR. Presently there are four investigators for MDCA, six for FEANICS, and four for MGFA. The goal of these multi-user facilities is to drive the cost per PI down after the initial development investment is made. Each of these mini-facilities will become a fixture of future Combustion Science NASA Research Announcements (NRAs), enabling investigators to propose against an existing capability. Additionally, an investigation is provided the opportunity to enhance the existing capability to bridge the gap between the capability and their specific science requirements. This multi-user development approach will enable the Combustion Science Program to drive cost per investigation down while drastically reducing the time

  13. Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Toby

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-User Space (MUS) Link Extension system, a software and data system, provides Space Link Extension (SLE) users with three space data transfer services in timely, complete, and offline modes as applicable according to standards defined by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). MUS radically reduces the schedule, cost, and risk of implementing a new SLE user system, minimizes operating costs with a lights-out approach to SLE, and is designed to require no sustaining engineering expense during its lifetime unless changes in the CCSDS SLE standards, combined with new provider implementations, force changes. No software modification to MUS needs to be made to support a new mission. Any systems engineer with Linux experience can begin testing SLE user service instances with MUS starting from a personal computer (PC) within five days. For flight operators, MUS provides a familiar-looking Web page for entering SLE configuration data received from SLE. Operators can also use the Web page to back up a space mission's entire set of up to approximately 500 SLE service instances in less than five seconds, or to restore or transfer from another system the same amount of data from a MUS backup file in about the same amount of time. Missions operate each MUS SLE service instance independently by sending it MUS directives, which are legible, plain ASCII strings. MUS directives are usually (but not necessarily) sent through a TCP-IP (Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol) socket from a MOC (Mission Operations Center) or POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) system, under scripted control, during "lights-out" spacecraft operation. MUS permits the flight operations team to configure independently each of its data interfaces; not only commands and telemetry, but also MUS status messages to the MOC. Interfaces can use single- or multiple-client TCP/IP server sockets, TCP/IP client sockets, temporary disk files, the system log, or standard in

  14. Recognition of thick closed polygons in engineering drawing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablameyko, Sergey V.; Bereishik, Vladimir V.; Frantskevich, O.; Homenko, M.; Paramonova, Nadeshda

    1999-12-01

    The paper considers the problem of automatic input and vectorization of engineering drawings. One of the most difficult tasks in this problem is recognition of ED entities. We propose the algorithm to recognize one of the ED entities namely blocks or closed 'thick' polygons in engineering drawings. The algorithm is based on ED image vectorization and takes into account parameters of vectorized segments, tests several alternative extensions for a path, and chooses the best one among several alternatives. It has been verified experimentally on real ED images and has shown good results. In conclusion of the paper, some technical parameters of experiments are given.

  15. Action tagging in a multi-user indoor environment for behavioural analysis purposes.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Claudio; Bianchi, Valentina; De Munari, Ilaria; Ciampolini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    EU population is getting older, so that ICT-based solutions are expected to provide support in the challenges implied by the demographic change. At the University of Parma an AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) system, named CARDEA, has been developed. In this paper a new feature of the system is introduced, in which environmental and personal (i.e., wearable) sensors coexist, providing an accurate picture of the user's activity and needs. Environmental devices may greatly help in performing activity recognition and behavioral analysis tasks. However, in a multi-user environment, this implies the need of attributing environmental sensors outcome to a specific user, i.e., identifying the user when he performs a task detected by an environmental device. We implemented such an "action tagging" feature, based on information fusion, within the CARDEA environment, as an inexpensive, alternative solution to the problematic issue of indoor locationing.

  16. Managing a Safe and Successful Multi-User Spaceport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacko, Taylor; Ketterer, Kirk; Meade, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Encouraged by the creation of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation within the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1984 and the Commercial Space Act of 1998, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) now relies on an extensive network of support from commercial companies and organizations. At NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), this collaboration opens competitive opportunities for launch providers, including repurposing underutilized Shuttle Program resources, constructing new facilities, and utilizing center services and laboratories. The resulting multi-user spaceport fosters diverse activity, though it engenders risk from hazards associated with various spaceflight processing activities. The KSC Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate, in coordination with the center's Spaceport Integration and Center Planning & Development organizations, has developed a novel approach to protect NASA's workforce, critical assets, and the public from hazardous, space-related activity associated with KSC's multi-user spaceport. For NASA KSC S&MA, the transformation to a multi-user spaceport required implementing methods to foster safe and successful commercial activity while resolving challenges involving: Retirement of the Space Shuttle program; Co-location of multiple NASA programs; Relationships between the NASA programs; Complex relationships between NASA programs and commercial partner operations in exclusive-use facilities; Complex relationships between NASA programs and commercial partner operations in shared-use facilities. NASA KSC S&MA challenges were met with long-term planning and solutions involving cooperation with the Spaceport Integration and Services Directorate. This directorate is responsible for managing active commercial partnerships with customer advocacy and services management, providing a dedicated and consistent level of support to a wide array of commercial operations. This paper explores these solutions, their

  17. Speech recognition systems on the Cell Broadband Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y; Jones, H; Vaidya, S; Perrone, M; Tydlitat, B; Nanda, A

    2007-04-20

    In this paper we describe our design, implementation, and first results of a prototype connected-phoneme-based speech recognition system on the Cell Broadband Engine{trademark} (Cell/B.E.). Automatic speech recognition decodes speech samples into plain text (other representations are possible) and must process samples at real-time rates. Fortunately, the computational tasks involved in this pipeline are highly data-parallel and can receive significant hardware acceleration from vector-streaming architectures such as the Cell/B.E. Identifying and exploiting these parallelism opportunities is challenging, but also critical to improving system performance. We observed, from our initial performance timings, that a single Cell/B.E. processor can recognize speech from thousands of simultaneous voice channels in real time--a channel density that is orders-of-magnitude greater than the capacity of existing software speech recognizers based on CPUs (central processing units). This result emphasizes the potential for Cell/B.E.-based speech recognition and will likely lead to the future development of production speech systems using Cell/B.E. clusters.

  18. Point spread function engineering for iris recognition system design.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Amit; Neifeld, Mark A

    2010-04-01

    Undersampling in the detector array degrades the performance of iris-recognition imaging systems. We find that an undersampling of 8 x 8 reduces the iris-recognition performance by nearly a factor of 4 (on CASIA iris database), as measured by the false rejection ratio (FRR) metric. We employ optical point spread function (PSF) engineering via a Zernike phase mask in conjunction with multiple subpixel shifted image measurements (frames) to mitigate the effect of undersampling. A task-specific optimization framework is used to engineer the optical PSF and optimize the postprocessing parameters to minimize the FRR. The optimized Zernike phase enhanced lens (ZPEL) imager design with one frame yields an improvement of nearly 33% relative to a thin observation module by bounded optics (TOMBO) imager with one frame. With four frames the optimized ZPEL imager achieves a FRR equal to that of the conventional imager without undersampling. Further, the ZPEL imager design using 16 frames yields a FRR that is actually 15% lower than that obtained with the conventional imager without undersampling.

  19. Authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution with single particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Song; Wang, Hui; Guo, Gong-De; Ye, Guo-Hua; Du, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Fen

    2016-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has been growing rapidly in recent years and becomes one of the hottest issues in quantum information science. During the implementation of QKD on a network, identity authentication has been one main problem. In this paper, an efficient authenticated multi-user quantum key distribution (MQKD) protocol with single particles is proposed. In this protocol, any two users on a quantum network can perform mutual authentication and share a secure session key with the assistance of a semi-honest center. Meanwhile, the particles, which are used as quantum information carriers, are not required to be stored, therefore the proposed protocol is feasible with current technology. Finally, security analysis shows that this protocol is secure in theory.

  20. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  1. The Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: Microgravity Combustion Science Using A Modular Multi-User Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, T. F.; Myhre, C. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a multi-rack payload planned for the International Space Station that will enable the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a microgravity environment. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two International Standard Payload Racks of the FCF and is being designed primarily to support combustion science experiments. It is currently in the Flight Unit Build phase. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user facility designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments and is the first payload for CIR. MDCA is currently in the Engineering Model build phase. Launch of the CIR and MDCA is planned for 2004. The CIR will function independently until the later launch of the Fluids Integrated Rack component of the FCF. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and the development status of the CIR and MDCA. The CIR will contain the hardware and software required to support combustion experiments in space. It will contain an optics bench, combustion chamber, fuel oxidizer and management assembly, exhaust vent system, diagnostic cameras, power, environment control system, command and data management system, and a passive rack isolation system. Additional hardware will be installed in the chamber and on the optics bench that is customized for each science investigation. The chamber insert may provide the sample holder, small ignition source, and small diagnostics such as thermocouples and radiometers. The combustion experiments that may be conducted in the FCF include, but are not limited to, the study of laminar flames, reaction kinetics, droplet and spray combustion, flame spread, fire and fire suppressants, condensed phase organic fuel combustion, turbulent combustion, soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and materials synthesis. It is expected that the facility will provide most of the hardware, with a small amount of unique hardware developed for

  2. Center Planning and Development: Multi-User Spaceport Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    The Vehicle Assembly building at NASAs Kennedy Space Center has been used since 1966 to vertically assemble every launch vehicle, since the Apollo Program, launched from Launch Complex 39 (LC-39). After the cancellation of the Constellation Program in 2010 and the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program in 2011, the VAB faced an uncertain future. As the Space Launch System (SLS) gained a foothold as the future of American spaceflight to deep space, NASA was only using a portion of the VABs initial potential. With three high bays connected to the Crawler Way transportation system, the potential exists for up to three rockets to be simultaneously processed for launch. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Master plan, supported by the Center Planning and Development (CPD) Directorate, is guiding Kennedy toward a 21st century multi-user spaceport. This concept will maintain Kennedy as the United States premier gateway to space and provide multi-user operations through partnerships with the commercial aerospace industry. Commercial aerospace companies, now tasked with transporting cargo and, in the future, astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP), are a rapidly growing industry with increasing capabilities to make launch operations more economical for both private companies and the government. Commercial operations to Low Earth Orbit allow the government to focus on travel to farther destinations through the SLS Program. With LC-39B designated as a multi-use launch pad, companies seeking to use it will require an integration facility to assemble, integrate, and test their launch vehicle. An Announcement for Proposals (AFP) was released in June, beginning the process of finding a non-NASA user for High Bay 2 (HB2) and the Mobile Launcher Platforms (MLPs). An Industry Day, a business meeting and tour for interested companies and organizations, was also arranged to identify and answer any

  3. Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapateau, J.; Ghalbouni, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.

  4. Atmospheric lidar multi-user instrument system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, R. V. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    A spaceborne lidar system for atmospheric studies was defined. The primary input was the Science Objectives Experiment Description and Evolutionary Flow Document. The first task of the study was to perform an experiment evolutionary analysis of the SEED. The second task was the system definition effort of the instrument system. The third task was the generation of a program plan for the hardware phase. The fourth task was the supporting studies which included a Shuttle deficiency analysis, a preliminary safety hazard analysis, the identification of long lead items, and development studies required. As a result of the study an evolutionary Lidar Multi-User Instrument System (MUIS) was defined. The MUIS occupies a full Spacelab pallet and has a weight of 1300 kg. The Lidar MUIS laser provides a 2 joule frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser that can also pump a tuneable dye laser wide frequency range and bandwidth. The MUIS includes a 1.25 meter diameter aperture Cassegrain receiver, with a moveable secondary mirror to provide precise alignment with the laser. The receiver can transmit the return signal to three single and multiple photomultiple tube detectors by use of a rotating fold mirror. It is concluded that the Lidar MUIS proceed to program implementation.

  5. Multi-user distribution of polarization entangled photon pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.; Ghalbouni, J.

    2015-10-14

    We experimentally demonstrate multi-user distribution of polarization entanglement using commercial telecom wavelength division demultiplexers. The entangled photon pairs are generated from a broadband source based on spontaneous parametric down conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal using a double path setup employing a Michelson interferometer and active phase stabilisation. We test and compare demultiplexers based on various technologies and analyze the effect of their characteristics, such as losses and polarization dependence, on the quality of the distributed entanglement for three channel pairs of each demultiplexer. In all cases, we obtain a Bell inequality violation, whose value depends on the demultiplexer features. This demonstrates that entanglement can be distributed to at least three user pairs of a network from a single source. Additionally, we verify for the best demultiplexer that the violation is maintained when the pairs are distributed over a total channel attenuation corresponding to 20 km of optical fiber. These techniques are therefore suitable for resource-efficient practical implementations of entanglement-based quantum key distribution and other quantum communication network applications.

  6. Mirror self-recognition: a review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R; Gallup, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    We review research on reactions to mirrors and self-recognition in nonhuman primates, focusing on methodological issues. Starting with the initial demonstration in chimpanzees in 1970 and subsequent attempts to extend this to other species, self-recognition in great apes is discussed with emphasis on spontaneous manifestations of mirror-guided self-exploration as well as spontaneous use of the mirror to investigate foreign marks on otherwise nonvisible body parts-the mark test. Attempts to show self-recognition in other primates are examined with particular reference to the lack of convincing examples of spontaneous mirror-guided self-exploration, and efforts to engineer positive mark test responses by modifying the test or using conditioning techniques. Despite intensive efforts to demonstrate self-recognition in other primates, we conclude that to date there is no compelling evidence that prosimians, monkeys, or lesser apes-gibbons and siamangs-are capable of mirror self-recognition.

  7. The Recognition of Biomedical Engineering Within the International Council for Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Forty years separate the emergence of Biomedical Engineering in a meeting in Paris at UNESCO in 1959 from its recognition together with Medical...Physics in 1999 by the International Council for Science. The main problems of definition and of identity of Biomedical Engineering as a scientific

  8. The Fluids And Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack And The Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus: Microgravity Combustion Science Using Modular Multi-User Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Myhre, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is a multi-rack payload planned for the International Space Station (ISS) that will enable the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a microgravity environment. The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of two International Standard Payload Racks of the FCF and is being designed primarily to support combustion science experiments. The Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) is a multi-user apparatus designed to accommodate four different droplet combustion science experiments and is the first payload for CIR. The CIR will function independently until the later launch of the Fluids Integrated Rack component of the FCF. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities and the development status of the CIR and MDCA.

  9. A Multi-User Remote Academic Laboratory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Arquimedes; Panche, Stifen; Duque, Mauricio; Grisales, Victor H.; Prieto, Flavio; Villa, Jose L.; Chevrel, Philippe; Canu, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation and preliminary operation assessment of Multiuser Network Architecture to integrate a number of Remote Academic Laboratories for educational purposes on automatic control. Through the Internet, real processes or physical experiments conducted at the control engineering laboratories of four…

  10. Mobile Applications and Multi-User Virtual Reality Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordillo, Orlando Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This is my third internship with NASA and my second one at the Johnson Space Center. I work within the engineering directorate in ER7 (Software Robotics and Simulations Division) at a graphics lab called IGOAL. We are a very well-rounded lab because we have dedicated software developers and dedicated 3D artist, and when you combine the two, what you get is the ability to create many different things such as interactive simulations, 3D models, animations, and mobile applications.

  11. Civic Participation among Seventh-Grade Social Studies Students in Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieger, Laura; Farber, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances on the Internet now enable students to develop participation skills in virtual worlds. Similar to controlling a character in a video game, multi-user virtual environments, or MUVEs, allow participants to interact with others in synchronous, online settings. The authors of this study created a link between MUVEs and…

  12. Implications of Placedness for Learning in Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kenneth Y. T.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers some of the unique affordances that Multi-User Virtual Environments--in particular, Second Life--present to the design of learning environments. Drawing upon some preliminary experiences of acquainting teachers in several schools in Singapore with Second Life, specific attention is paid to the inherent spatiality of the…

  13. Preservice Teachers Experience Reading Response Pedagogy in a Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Calandra, Brendan; Harmon, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes how 18 preservice teachers learned to nurture literary meaning-making via activities based on Louise Rosenblatt's Reader Response Theory within a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). Participants re-created and responded to scenes from selected works of children's literature in Second Life as a way to…

  14. Teacher Perceptions of Learning Affordances of Multi-User Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, Vimani; Tretiakov, Alexei; Crump, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While the affordances of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) for teaching and learning are a subject of numerous experience reports, there is little research on educators' perceptions of various MUVE affordances claimed in the literature. We investigate the educators' perceptions of claimed MUVE affordances for learning by conducting in-depth…

  15. A Multi-User Virtual Environment for Building and Assessing Higher Order Inquiry Skills in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass; Nelson, Brian C.; Clarke, Jody; Dede, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated novel pedagogies for helping teachers infuse inquiry into a standards-based science curriculum. Using a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) as a pedagogical vehicle, teams of middle-school students collaboratively solved problems around disease in a virtual town called River City. The students interacted with "avatars" of…

  16. Language Learning in Multi-User Virtual Environments: Using the Enter-the-Story Teaching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yin-Mei; Tan, Seng-Chee

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose using the Enter-the-Story teaching method for language learning in Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs). A MUVE's immersive story-world imbued with rich cultural artifacts provides an appealing environment for young learners to learn a language by taking on roles in a story and describing their imaginative experience in the…

  17. Socialisation for Learning at a Distance in a 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisingha, Palitha; Nie, Ming; Pluciennik, Mark; Young, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a pilot study that examined the pedagogical potential of "Second Life" (SL), a popular three-dimensional multi-user virtual environment (3-D MUVE) developed by the Linden Lab. The study is part of a 1-year research and development project titled "Modelling of Secondlife Environments"…

  18. Evaluation of Learning Efficiency and Efficacy in a Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearrington, Doug

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) known as Second Life, integrated with Moodle and SLOODLE technologies, as an exploratory course delivery platform and for its ability to enable teachers to meet elements of NETS.T. Graduate student participants (N = 17) interacted, constructed simulated schools, and attended classes…

  19. Teacher Candidates' Views of a Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) are new to formal educational settings as teaching and learning tools but are growing in popularity. MUVEs simulate real-world problems. They have an ability to reach students in ways that are familiar as they resemble videogames where players assume roles, work in teams, and gather data. MUVEs include…

  20. Managing Cognitive Load in Educational Multi-User Virtual Environments: Reflection on Design Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Brian C.; Erlandson, Benjamin E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how the application of multimedia design principles may inform the development of educational multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs). We look at design principles that have been shown to help learners manage cognitive load within multimedia environments and conduct a conjectural analysis of the extent to which such…

  1. Multi-User Virtual Environments for Learning: Experience and Technology Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, N.; Bucciero, A.; Mainetti, L.; Paolini, P.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) are often used to support learning in formal and informal educational contexts. A technology-based educational experience consists of several elements: content, syllabus, roles, sequence of activities, assignments, assessment procedures, etc. that must be aligned with the affordances of the technologies to…

  2. The emergence of multi-user expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    There exists a set of problems for which the single user workstation is not a viable solution. In some cases, it may be necessary for the system to support numerous experts working on different aspects of a single logical activity concurrently. In others, the activity may extend over a prolonged period of time during which different experts will work on different phases of the project to produce a single integrated result. Another possibility is that the results produced by the expert system must be continuously available to some group other than that actively exercising the expert system. These are the types of applications which require multiuser expert systems. The nature of NASA tends to produce expert system domains which are inherently multiuser. It is these domains that this new class of expert systems has first been encountered. As expert systems move into the main stream of large scale engineering projects, these encounters will become more frequent. A need for expert system building tools which can accommodate the unique properties of these multiuser domains as they emerge is a problem which needs to be addressed as the current set of tools migrate to time sharing environments, and as new tools are developed.

  3. Multi-user 3D film on a time-multiplexed side-emission backlight system.

    PubMed

    Ting, Chih-Hung; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Ho; Huang, Yi-Pai; Tsai, Han-Wen

    2016-10-01

    The desirable features for a portable 3D display include displaying 2D and 3D images without resolution degradation for multiple users, a 2D/3D switchable functionality, and, in particular, a compact volume. To produce a portable 3D display with these desirable features, we propose here a multi-user 3D film combined with a side-emission backlight system that has a directional-sequential light distribution. According to the simulation and experimental results, the multi-user 3D film successfully uses an inverted trapezoid structure to separate the rays of each light source and increases the number of observers from one to three. Additionally, the specification of the inverted trapezoid structure can be determined via equations for different designated viewing positions of the side observer and for the ratio of light intensities for the central and side observers.

  4. OpenGL in Multi-User Web-Based Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostek, K.; Piórkowski, A.

    In this article construction and potential of OpenGL multi-user web-based application are presented. The most common technologies like: .NET ASP, Java and Mono were used with specific OpenGL libraries to visualize tree-dimensional medical data. The most important conclusion of this work is that server side applications can easily take advantage of fast GPU and produce efficient results of advanced computation just like the visualization.

  5. DEEP SPACE: High Resolution VR Platform for Multi-user Interactive Narratives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuka, Daniela; Elias, Oliver; Martins, Ronald; Lindinger, Christopher; Pramböck, Andreas; Jalsovec, Andreas; Maresch, Pascal; Hörtner, Horst; Brandl, Peter

    DEEP SPACE is a large-scale platform for interactive, stereoscopic and high resolution content. The spatial and the system design of DEEP SPACE are facing constraints of CAVETM-like systems in respect to multi-user interactive storytelling. To be used as research platform and as public exhibition space for many people, DEEP SPACE is capable to process interactive, stereoscopic applications on two projection walls with a size of 16 by 9 meters and a resolution of four times 1080p (4K) each. The processed applications are ranging from Virtual Reality (VR)-environments to 3D-movies to computationally intensive 2D-productions. In this paper, we are describing DEEP SPACE as an experimental VR platform for multi-user interactive storytelling. We are focusing on the system design relevant for the platform, including the integration of the Apple iPod Touch technology as VR control, and a special case study that is demonstrating the research efforts in the field of multi-user interactive storytelling. The described case study, entitled "Papyrate's Island", provides a prototypical scenario of how physical drawings may impact on digital narratives. In this special case, DEEP SPACE helps us to explore the hypothesis that drawing, a primordial human creative skill, gives us access to entirely new creative possibilities in the domain of interactive storytelling.

  6. Diesel engine air tightness feature recognition based on multi-scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaojie; Liu, Wei; Tan, Boxue

    2013-03-01

    Cylinder air tightness is an important indicator to the comprehensive performance of internal combustion engine. It can be got the low-frequency and high-frequency signals of the starting voltage waveform using multi-scale analysis method and by binary discrete wavelet transform with the Mallat algorithm. The experiment results show that the working conditions of diesel engine starting process can be shown from the low-frequency signals, and the main frequency distribution can be recognised from the high frequency partial. This algorithm can effectively identify signal characteristics, and provide a reliable basis for signal feature recognition.

  7. Single and multi-user virtual patient design in the virtual world.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D; Patel, V; Cohen, D; Aggarwal, R; Kerr, K; Sevdalis, N; Batrick, N; Darzi, A

    2011-01-01

    This research addresses the need for the flexible creation of immersive clinical training simulations for multiple interacting participants and virtual patients by using scalable open source virtual world technologies. Initial development of single-user surgical virtual patients has been followed by that of multi-user multiple casualties in a field environment and an acute hospital emergency department. The authors aim to validate and extend their reproducible framework for eventual application of virtual worlds to whole hospital major incident response simulation and to multi-agency, pan-geographic mass casualty exercises.

  8. A software for managing chemical processes in a multi-user laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Camino, Fernando E.

    2016-10-26

    Here, we report a software for logging chemical processes in a multi-user laboratory, which implements a work flow designed to reduce hazardous situations associated with the disposal of chemicals in incompatible waste containers. The software allows users to perform only those processes displayed in their list of authorized chemical processes and provides the location and label code of waste containers, among other useful information. The software has been used for six years in the cleanroom of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven National Laboratory and has been an important factor for the excellent safety record of the Center.

  9. Multi-user 3D display using a head tracker and RGB laser illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surman, Phil; Sexton, Ian; Hopf, Klaus; Bates, Richard; Lee, Wing Kai; Buckley, Edward

    2007-05-01

    A glasses-free (auto-stereoscopic) 3D display that will serve several viewers who have freedom of movement over a large viewing region is described. This operates on the principle of employing head position tracking to provide regions referred to as exit pupils that follow the positions ofthe viewers' eyes in order for appropriate left and right images to be seen. A non-intrusive multi-user head tracker controls the light sources of a specially designed backlight that illuminates a direct-view LCD.

  10. Robots, multi-user virtual environments and healthcare: synergies for future directions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ajung; Grajales, Francisco J; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of technology in healthcare over the last twenty years has steadily increased, particularly as it relates to medical robotics and Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life. Both disciplines have been shown to improve the quality of care and have evolved, for the most part, in isolation from each other. In this paper, we present four synergies between medical robotics and MUVEs that have the potential to decrease resource utilization and improve the quality of healthcare delivery. We conclude with some foreseeable barriers and future research directions for researchers in these fields.

  11. Self-recognition in corals facilitates deep-sea habitat engineering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hennige, Sebastian J; Morrison, Cheryl; Form, Armin U.; Buscher, Janina; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-01-01

    The ability of coral reefs to engineer complex three-dimensional habitats is central to their success and the rich biodiversity they support. In tropical reefs, encrusting coralline algae bind together substrates and dead coral framework to make continuous reef structures, but beyond the photic zone, the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa also forms large biogenic reefs, facilitated by skeletal fusion. Skeletal fusion in tropical corals can occur in closely related or juvenile individuals as a result of non-aggressive skeletal overgrowth or allogeneic tissue fusion, but contact reactions in many species result in mortality if there is no ‘self-recognition’ on a broad species level. This study reveals areas of ‘flawless’ skeletal fusion in Lophelia pertusa, potentially facilitated by allogeneic tissue fusion, are identified as having small aragonitic crystals or low levels of crystal organisation, and strong molecular bonding. Regardless of the mechanism, the recognition of ‘self’ between adjacent L. pertusa colonies leads to no observable mortality, facilitates ecosystem engineering and reduces aggression-related energetic expenditure in an environment where energy conservation is crucial. The potential for self-recognition at a species level, and subsequent skeletal fusion in framework-forming cold-water corals is an important first step in understanding their significance as ecological engineers in deep-seas worldwide.

  12. Self-recognition in corals facilitates deep-sea habitat engineering

    PubMed Central

    Hennige, S. J.; Morrison, C. L.; Form, A. U.; Büscher, J.; Kamenos, N. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of coral reefs to engineer complex three-dimensional habitats is central to their success and the rich biodiversity they support. In tropical reefs, encrusting coralline algae bind together substrates and dead coral framework to make continuous reef structures, but beyond the photic zone, the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa also forms large biogenic reefs, facilitated by skeletal fusion. Skeletal fusion in tropical corals can occur in closely related or juvenile individuals as a result of non-aggressive skeletal overgrowth or allogeneic tissue fusion, but contact reactions in many species result in mortality if there is no ‘self-recognition’ on a broad species level. This study reveals areas of ‘flawless’ skeletal fusion in Lophelia pertusa, potentially facilitated by allogeneic tissue fusion, are identified as having small aragonitic crystals or low levels of crystal organisation, and strong molecular bonding. Regardless of the mechanism, the recognition of ‘self’ between adjacent L. pertusa colonies leads to no observable mortality, facilitates ecosystem engineering and reduces aggression-related energetic expenditure in an environment where energy conservation is crucial. The potential for self-recognition at a species level, and subsequent skeletal fusion in framework-forming cold-water corals is an important first step in understanding their significance as ecological engineers in deep-seas worldwide. PMID:25345760

  13. Advancing MEMS Technology Usage through the MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Processes) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, D. A.; Markus, K. W.; Dhuler, V.; Mahadevan, R.; Cowen, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to help provide access to advanced micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies and lower the barriers for both industry and academia, the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina (MCNC) and ARPA have developed a program which provides users with access to both MEMS processes and advanced electronic integration techniques. The four distinct aspects of this program, the multi-user MEMS processes (MUMP's), the consolidated micro-mechanical element library, smart MEMS, and the MEMS technology network are described in this paper. MUMP's is an ARPA-supported program created to provide inexpensive access to MEMS technology in a multi-user environment. It is both a proof-of-concept and educational tool that aids in the development of MEMS in the domestic community. MUMP's technologies currently include a 3-layer poly-silicon surface micromachining process and LIGA (lithography, electroforming, and injection molding) processes that provide reasonable design flexibility within set guidelines. The consolidated micromechanical element library (CaMEL) is a library of active and passive MEMS structures that can be downloaded by the MEMS community via the internet. Smart MEMS is the development of advanced electronics integration techniques for MEMS through the application of flip chip technology. The MEMS technology network (TechNet) is a menu of standard substrates and MEMS fabrication processes that can be purchased and combined to create unique process flows. TechNet provides the MEMS community greater flexibility and enhanced technology accessibility.

  14. Distributed Compressive CSIT Estimation and Feedback for FDD Multi-User Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiongbin; Lau, Vincent K. N.

    2014-06-01

    To fully utilize the spatial multiplexing gains or array gains of massive MIMO, the channel state information must be obtained at the transmitter side (CSIT). However, conventional CSIT estimation approaches are not suitable for FDD massive MIMO systems because of the overwhelming training and feedback overhead. In this paper, we consider multi-user massive MIMO systems and deploy the compressive sensing (CS) technique to reduce the training as well as the feedback overhead in the CSIT estimation. The multi-user massive MIMO systems exhibits a hidden joint sparsity structure in the user channel matrices due to the shared local scatterers in the physical propagation environment. As such, instead of naively applying the conventional CS to the CSIT estimation, we propose a distributed compressive CSIT estimation scheme so that the compressed measurements are observed at the users locally, while the CSIT recovery is performed at the base station jointly. A joint orthogonal matching pursuit recovery algorithm is proposed to perform the CSIT recovery, with the capability of exploiting the hidden joint sparsity in the user channel matrices. We analyze the obtained CSIT quality in terms of the normalized mean absolute error, and through the closed-form expressions, we obtain simple insights into how the joint channel sparsity can be exploited to improve the CSIT recovery performance.

  15. The right view from the wrong location: depth perception in stereoscopic multi-user virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Brice; Burton, Melissa; Kelly, Jonathan W; Gilbert, Stephen; Winer, Eliot

    2012-04-01

    Stereoscopic depth cues improve depth perception and increase immersion within virtual environments (VEs). However, improper display of these cues can distort perceived distances and directions. Consider a multi-user VE, where all users view identical stereoscopic images regardless of physical location. In this scenario, cues are typically customized for one "leader" equipped with a head-tracking device. This user stands at the center of projection (CoP) and all other users ("followers") view the scene from other locations and receive improper depth cues. This paper examines perceived depth distortion when viewing stereoscopic VEs from follower perspectives and the impact of these distortions on collaborative spatial judgments. Pairs of participants made collaborative depth judgments of virtual shapes viewed from the CoP or after displacement forward or backward. Forward and backward displacement caused perceived depth compression and expansion, respectively, with greater compression than expansion. Furthermore, distortion was less than predicted by a ray-intersection model of stereo geometry. Collaboration times were significantly longer when participants stood at different locations compared to the same location, and increased with greater perceived depth discrepancy between the two viewing locations. These findings advance our understanding of spatial distortions in multi-user VEs, and suggest a strategy for reducing distortion.

  16. Multi-User Identification-Based Eye-Tracking Algorithm Using Position Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-user eye-tracking algorithm using position estimation. Conventional eye-tracking algorithms are typically suitable only for a single user, and thereby cannot be used for a multi-user system. Even though they can be used to track the eyes of multiple users, their detection accuracy is low and they cannot identify multiple users individually. The proposed algorithm solves these problems and enhances the detection accuracy. Specifically, the proposed algorithm adopts a classifier to detect faces for the red, green, and blue (RGB) and depth images. Then, it calculates features based on the histogram of the oriented gradient for the detected facial region to identify multiple users, and selects the template that best matches the users from a pre-determined face database. Finally, the proposed algorithm extracts the final eye positions based on anatomical proportions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm improved the average F1 score by up to 0.490, compared with benchmark algorithms. PMID:28035979

  17. Comparison of two underwater acoustic communications techniques for multi-user access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hursky, Paul; Siderius, T. Martin; Kauaiex Group

    2004-05-01

    Frequency hopped frequency shift keying (FHFSK) and code division multiple access (CDMA) are two different modulation techniques for multiple users to communicate with a single receiver simultaneously. In July 2003, these two techniques were tested alongside each other in a shallow water coastal environment off the coast of Kauai. A variety of instruments were used to measure the prevailing oceanography, enabling detailed modeling of the channel. The channel was acoustically probed using LFM waveforms and m-sequences as well. We will present the results of demodulating the FHFSK and CDMA waveforms and discuss modeling the channel for the purpose of predicting multi-user communications performance. a)Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius (SAIC), Mohsen Badiey (UD), Jerald Caruthers (USM), William S. Hodgkiss, Kaustubha Raghukumar (SIO), Dan Rouseff, Warren Fox (APL-UW), Christian de Moustier, Brian Calder, Barbara J. Kraft (UNH), Keyko McDonald (SPAWARSSC), Peter Stein, James K. Lewis, and Subramaniam Rajan (SSI).

  18. Comparison of two underwater acoustic communications techniques for multi-user access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hursky, Paul; Siderius, T. Martin; Kauaiex Group

    2001-05-01

    Frequency hopped frequency shift keying (FHFSK) and code division multiple access (CDMA) are two different modulation techniques for multiple users to communicate with a single receiver simultaneously. In July 2003, these two techniques were tested alongside each other in a shallow water coastal environment off the coast of Kauai. A variety of instruments were used to measure the prevailing oceanography, enabling detailed modeling of the channel. The channel was acoustically probed using LFM waveforms and m-sequences as well. We will present the results of demodulating the FHFSK and CDMA waveforms and discuss modeling the channel for the purpose of predicting multi-user communications performance. a)Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius (SAIC), Mohsen Badiey (UD), Jerald Caruthers (USM), William S. Hodgkiss, Kaustubha Raghukumar (SIO), Dan Rouseff, Warren Fox (APL-UW), Christian de Moustier, Brian Calder, Barbara J. Kraft (UNH), Keyko McDonald (SPAWARSSC), Peter Stein, James K. Lewis, and Subramaniam Rajan (SSI).

  19. Interaction Design and Usability of Learning Spaces in 3D Multi-user Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John

    Three-dimensional virtual worlds are multimedia, simulated environments, often managed over the Web, which users can 'inhabit' and interact via their own graphical, self-representations known as 'avatars'. 3D virtual worlds are being used in many applications: education/training, gaming, social networking, marketing and commerce. Second Life is the most widely used 3D virtual world in education. However, problems associated with usability, navigation and way finding in 3D virtual worlds may impact on student learning and engagement. Based on empirical investigations of learning spaces in Second Life, this paper presents design guidelines to improve the usability and ease of navigation in 3D spaces. Methods of data collection include semi-structured interviews with Second Life students, educators and designers. The findings have revealed that design principles from the fields of urban planning, Human- Computer Interaction, Web usability, geography and psychology can influence the design of spaces in 3D multi-user virtual environments.

  20. Multi-user quantum key distribution with collective eavesdropping detection over collective-noise channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    A multi-user quantum key distribution protocol is proposed with single particles and the collective eavesdropping detection strategy on a star network. By utilizing this protocol, any two users of the network can accomplish quantum key distribution with the help of a serving center. Due to the utilization of the collective eavesdropping detection strategy, the users of the protocol just need to have the ability of performing certain unitary operations. Furthermore, we present three fault-tolerant versions of the proposed protocol, which can combat with the errors over different collective-noise channels. The security of all the proposed protocols is guaranteed by the theorems on quantum operation discrimination. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272057, 61170270, and 61309029), Beijing Higher Education Young Elite Teacher Project, China (Grant Nos. YETP0475 and YETP0477), and BUPT Excellent Ph.D. Students Foundation, China (Grant No. CX201441).

  1. The theory research of multi-user quantum access network with Measurement Device Independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yi-Ming; Li, Yun-Xia; Shi, Lei; Meng, Wen; Cui, Shu-Min; Xu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Quantum access network can't guarantee the absolute security of multi-user detector and eavesdropper can get access to key information through time-shift attack and other ways. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is immune from all the detection attacks, and accomplishes the safe sharing of quantum key. In this paper, that Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is used in the application of multi-user quantum access to the network is on the research. By adopting time-division multiplexing technology to achieve the sharing of multiuser detector, the system structure is simplified and the security of quantum key sharing is acquired.

  2. A Web-based Multi-user Interactive Visualization System For Large-Scale Computing Using Google Web Toolkit Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R. M.; McLane, J. C.; Yuen, D. A.; Wang, S.

    2009-12-01

    We have created a web-based, interactive system for multi-user collaborative visualization of large data sets (on the order of terabytes) that allows users in geographically disparate locations to simultaneous and collectively visualize large data sets over the Internet. By leveraging asynchronous java and XML (AJAX) web development paradigms via the Google Web Toolkit (http://code.google.com/webtoolkit/), we are able to provide remote, web-based users a web portal to LCSE's (http://www.lcse.umn.edu) large-scale interactive visualization system already in place at the University of Minnesota that provides high resolution visualizations to the order of 15 million pixels by Megan Damon. In the current version of our software, we have implemented a new, highly extensible back-end framework built around HTTP "server push" technology to provide a rich collaborative environment and a smooth end-user experience. Furthermore, the web application is accessible via a variety of devices including netbooks, iPhones, and other web- and javascript-enabled cell phones. New features in the current version include: the ability for (1) users to launch multiple visualizations, (2) a user to invite one or more other users to view their visualization in real-time (multiple observers), (3) users to delegate control aspects of the visualization to others (multiple controllers) , and (4) engage in collaborative chat and instant messaging with other users within the user interface of the web application. We will explain choices made regarding implementation, overall system architecture and method of operation, and the benefits of an extensible, modular design. We will also discuss future goals, features, and our plans for increasing scalability of the system which includes a discussion of the benefits potentially afforded us by a migration of server-side components to the Google Application Engine (http://code.google.com/appengine/).

  3. Molecular basis of xeroderma pigmentosum group C DNA recognition by engineered meganucleases.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Pilar; Prieto, Jesús; Muñoz, Inés G; Alibés, Andreu; Stricher, Francois; Serrano, Luis; Cabaniols, Jean-Pierre; Daboussi, Fayza; Arnould, Sylvain; Perez, Christophe; Duchateau, Philippe; Pâques, Frédéric; Blanco, Francisco J; Montoya, Guillermo

    2008-11-06

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a monogenic disease characterized by hypersensitivity to ultraviolet light. The cells of xeroderma pigmentosum patients are defective in nucleotide excision repair, limiting their capacity to eliminate ultraviolet-induced DNA damage, and resulting in a strong predisposition to develop skin cancers. The use of rare cutting DNA endonucleases-such as homing endonucleases, also known as meganucleases-constitutes one possible strategy for repairing DNA lesions. Homing endonucleases have emerged as highly specific molecular scalpels that recognize and cleave DNA sites, promoting efficient homologous gene targeting through double-strand-break-induced homologous recombination. Here we describe two engineered heterodimeric derivatives of the homing endonuclease I-CreI, produced by a semi-rational approach. These two molecules-Amel3-Amel4 and Ini3-Ini4-cleave DNA from the human XPC gene (xeroderma pigmentosum group C), in vitro and in vivo. Crystal structures of the I-CreI variants complexed with intact and cleaved XPC target DNA suggest that the mechanism of DNA recognition and cleavage by the engineered homing endonucleases is similar to that of the wild-type I-CreI. Furthermore, these derivatives induced high levels of specific gene targeting in mammalian cells while displaying no obvious genotoxicity. Thus, homing endonucleases can be designed to recognize and cleave the DNA sequences of specific genes, opening up new possibilities for genome engineering and gene therapy in xeroderma pigmentosum patients whose illness can be treated ex vivo.

  4. Exploring the Integration of Technology into Jewish Education: Multi-User Virtual Environments and Supplementary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Johannah Eve

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive case study explores the implementation of a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) in a Jewish supplemental school setting. The research was conducted to present the recollections and reflections of three constituent populations of a new technology exploring constructivist education in the context of supplemental and online…

  5. An Architecture For Shared Multi-User Client Rendering Of Massive Geodatasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naser, A.; Brooke, J.; Rasheed, M.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a novel data-centric visualization architecture to allow interactive exploration of geophysical data. Our method allows multiple users to collaborate in a lightweight, loosely-coupled and highly scalable environment. We choose 3D seismic data for our case study. Existing visualization solutions for data exploratory tasks are mainly application-centric rather than data-centric. They typically store large datasets on users' local machines for fast access. Additionally, data objects that are the focus of study, e.g. seismic surveys and interpreted geological features, are managed as objects that are independent of the primary data. Thus multi-user collaborations where different users visually share their geological interpretations are handled inefficiently since objects from each interpretation are stored as independent discrete objects. These objects may be stored separately from the primary data, e.g. on local disks, ensuring a coherent multi-user view is difficult. Our visual analytic method places a central data structure built on a Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) relational database at the heart of the visualization architecture. This structure allows us to develop the following efficient methods for data retrieval and display: -global hashing for spatial reference on all datasets -interpretation tagging which accumulate user interpretation into the database -multi-user concurrent access allowing parallel multi-threading queries In our data structure, data elements are indexed on their geolocations by a hashing algorithm. The hashing algorithm determines the location of the required row through hashing functions without a construction or any storage complexity. This is unlike other conventional indexing algorithms such as bitmapping or tree-based methods where construction and storage (of the index table) complexity varies between O(n) and O(n log n) where n is the size of the dataset. Also, we replace the geometric objects formed as a

  6. Inspiring Equal Contribution and Opportunity in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment: Bringing Together Men Gamers and Women Non-Gamers in Second Life[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    A 3D multi-user virtual environment holds promise to support and enhance student online learning communities due to its ability to promote global synchronous interaction and collaboration, rich multisensory experience and expression, and elaborate design capabilities. Second Life[R], a multi-user virtual environment intended for adult users 18 and…

  7. An acousto-ultrasonics pattern recognition approach for the characterization of the mechanical response of engineering materials

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Y.M.; Molina, G.

    1996-10-01

    Acousto-Ultrasonic technique, in conjunction with pattern recognition methodology, is demonstrated to be a successful non-destructive tool for the characterization of the mechanical response of engineering materials. In this context, the value of the internal stress, under different mechanical inputs, is correlated with the so-called Acousto-ultrasonic Parameter (AUP). The latter is an identification property of the wave propagation characteristics of the material. In this paper, the principles and instrumentations involved in the acousto-ultrasonic technique are described. Statistical pattern recognition methodology, used for the analysis of acousto-ultrasonic waveforms and in the design of the required discriminating classifiers, is presented. Illustrative examples are given concerning the evaluation of the level of stress in a class of engineering materials; namely, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), due to controlled low-energy impact loading. The presented approach is seen to be useful in estimating the stress-state in on-site members of engineering structures.

  8. Exploring the Use of Individualized, Reflective Guidance In an Educational Multi-User Virtual Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Brian C.

    2007-02-01

    This study examines the patterns of use and potential impact of individualized, reflective guidance in an educational Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE). A guidance system embedded within a MUVE-based scientific inquiry curriculum was implemented with a sample of middle school students in an exploratory study investigating (a) whether access to the guidance system was associated with improved learning, (b) whether students viewing more guidance messages saw greater improvement on content tests than those viewing less, and (c) whether there were any differences in guidance use among boys and girls. Initial experimental findings showed that basic access to individualized guidance used with a MUVE had no measurable impact on learning. However, post-hoc exploratory analyses indicated that increased use of the system among those with access to it was positively associated with content test score gains. In addition, differences were found in overall learning outcomes by gender and in patterns of guidance use by boys and girls, with girls outperforming boys across a spectrum of guidance system use. Based on these exploratory findings, the paper suggests design guidelines for the development of guidance systems embedded in MUVEs and outlines directions for further research.

  9. Multi-user quantum key distribution with entangled photons from an AlGaAs chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autebert, C.; Trapateau, J.; Orieux, A.; Lemaître, A.; Gomez-Carbonell, C.; Diamanti, E.; Zaquine, I.; Ducci, S.

    2016-12-01

    In view of real-world applications of quantum information technologies, the combination of miniature quantum resources with existing fibre networks is a crucial issue. Among such resources, on-chip entangled photon sources play a central role for applications spanning quantum communications, computing and metrology. Here, we use a semiconductor source of entangled photons operating at room temperature in conjunction with standard telecom components to demonstrate multi-user quantum key distribution, a core protocol for securing communications in quantum networks. The source consists of an AlGaAs chip-emitting polarisation entangled photon pairs over a large bandwidth in the main telecom band around 1550 nm without the use of any off-chip compensation or interferometric scheme; the photon pairs are directly launched into a dense wavelength division multiplexer (DWDM) and secret keys are distributed between several pairs of users communicating through different channels. We achieve a visibility measured after the DWDM of 87% and show long-distance key distribution using a 50-km standard telecom fibre link between two network users. These results illustrate a promising route to practical, resource-efficient implementations adapted to quantum network infrastructures.

  10. Efficiently Multi-User Searchable Encryption Scheme with Attribute Revocation and Grant for Cloud Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shangping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    Cipher-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) focus on the problem of access control, and keyword-based searchable encryption scheme focus on the problem of finding the files that the user interested in the cloud storage quickly. To design a searchable and attribute-based encryption scheme is a new challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficiently multi-user searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation and grant for cloud storage. In the new scheme the attribute revocation and grant processes of users are delegated to proxy server. Our scheme supports multi attribute are revoked and granted simultaneously. Moreover, the keyword searchable function is achieved in our proposed scheme. The security of our proposed scheme is reduced to the bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption. Furthermore, the scheme is proven to be secure under the security model of indistinguishability against selective ciphertext-policy and chosen plaintext attack (IND-sCP-CPA). And our scheme is also of semantic security under indistinguishability against chosen keyword attack (IND-CKA) in the random oracle model. PMID:27898703

  11. Efficiently Multi-User Searchable Encryption Scheme with Attribute Revocation and Grant for Cloud Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shangping; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    Cipher-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) focus on the problem of access control, and keyword-based searchable encryption scheme focus on the problem of finding the files that the user interested in the cloud storage quickly. To design a searchable and attribute-based encryption scheme is a new challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficiently multi-user searchable attribute-based encryption scheme with attribute revocation and grant for cloud storage. In the new scheme the attribute revocation and grant processes of users are delegated to proxy server. Our scheme supports multi attribute are revoked and granted simultaneously. Moreover, the keyword searchable function is achieved in our proposed scheme. The security of our proposed scheme is reduced to the bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption. Furthermore, the scheme is proven to be secure under the security model of indistinguishability against selective ciphertext-policy and chosen plaintext attack (IND-sCP-CPA). And our scheme is also of semantic security under indistinguishability against chosen keyword attack (IND-CKA) in the random oracle model.

  12. A power-efficient ZF precoding scheme for multi-user indoor visible light communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiong; Fan, Yangyu; Deng, Lijun; Kang, Bochao

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we propose a power-efficient ZF precoding scheme for visible light communication (VLC) downlink multi-user multiple-input-single-output (MU-MISO) systems, which incorporates the zero-forcing (ZF) and the characteristics of VLC systems. The main idea of this scheme is that the channel matrix used to perform pseudoinverse comes from the set of optical Access Points (APs) shared by more than one user, instead of the set of all involved serving APs as the existing ZF precoding schemes often used. By doing this, the waste of power, which is caused by the transmission of one user's data in the un-serving APs, can be avoided. In addition, the size of the channel matrix needs to perform pseudoinverse becomes smaller, which helps to reduce the computation complexity. Simulation results in two scenarios show that the proposed ZF precoding scheme has higher power efficiency, better bit error rate (BER) performance and lower computation complexity compared with traditional ZF precoding schemes.

  13. Multi-Objective Multi-User Scheduling for Space Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Giuliano, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an architecture called MUSE (Multi-User Scheduling Environment) to enable the integration of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms with existing domain planning and scheduling tools. Our approach is intended to make it possible to re-use existing software, while obtaining the advantages of multi-objective optimization algorithms. This approach enables multiple participants to actively engage in the optimization process, each representing one or more objectives in the optimization problem. As initial applications, we apply our approach to scheduling the James Webb Space Telescope, where three objectives are modeled: minimizing wasted time, minimizing the number of observations that miss their last planning opportunity in a year, and minimizing the (vector) build up of angular momentum that would necessitate the use of mission critical propellant to dump the momentum. As a second application area, we model aspects of the Cassini science planning process, including the trade-off between collecting data (subject to onboard recorder capacity) and transmitting saved data to Earth. A third mission application is that of scheduling the Cluster 4-spacecraft constellation plasma experiment. In this paper we describe our overall architecture and our adaptations for these different application domains. We also describe our plans for applying this approach to other science mission planning and scheduling problems in the future.

  14. Multi-user satellite communications system using an innovative compressive receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    There is a need for an onboard simultaneous multi-channel demodulation system for a satellite communications system. Studies indicate that Convolve Multiply Convolve (CMC) filtering with surface acoustic wave (SAW) dispersive delay lines will eliminate the necessity of onboard satellite channelized filters of complex fourier transform processors. The reason for choosing the CMC technique is its ability to perform Fourier transformations in a shorter time with less space and power consumption than digital Fourier transform processors. Each ground terminal in this multi-users communications system is remotely located and operates independently; hence, a method of synchronizing the transmission of these users is presented which utilizes the existing Global Positioning System (GPS) system. Each ground user is equipped with a low cost ground terminal that has a synchronization subsystem attached to it. The system design of an onboard Multi-channel Receiver and Demodulator utilizes Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) as the modulation technique. This technique provides the best figure of merit, i.e., the lowest transmitter power requirement per communication channel.

  15. Engineering responsive polymer building blocks with host-guest molecular recognition for functional applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinming; Liu, Shiyong

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: All living organisms and soft matter are intrinsically responsive and adaptive to external stimuli. Inspired by this fact, tremendous effort aiming to emulate subtle responsive features exhibited by nature has spurred the invention of a diverse range of responsive polymeric materials. Conventional stimuli-responsive polymers are constructed via covalent bonds and can undergo reversible or irreversible changes in chemical structures, physicochemical properties, or both in response to a variety of external stimuli. They have been imparted with a variety of emerging applications including drug and gene delivery, optical sensing and imaging, diagnostics and therapies, smart coatings and textiles, and tissue engineering. On the other hand, in comparison with molecular chemistry held by covalent bonds, supramolecular chemistry built on weak and reversible noncovalent interactions has emerged as a powerful and versatile strategy for materials fabrication due to its facile accessibility, extraordinary reversibility and adaptivity, and potent applications in diverse fields. Typically involving more than one type of noncovalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic association, electrostatic interactions, van der Waals forces, and π-π stacking), host-guest recognition refers to the formation of supramolecular inclusion complexes between two or more entities connected together in a highly controlled and cooperative manner. The inherently reversible and adaptive nature of host-guest molecular recognition chemistry, stemming from multiple noncovalent interactions, has opened up a new platform to construct novel types of stimuli-responsive materials. The introduction of host-guest chemistry not only enriches the realm of responsive materials but also confers them with promising new applications. Most intriguingly, the integration of responsive polymer building blocks with host-guest recognition motifs will endow the former with

  16. Simultaneous injection of stable and radioactive ions into upgraded multi-user atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Amichay

    Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) national user research facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Presently, Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) produced in the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility are charge bred in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) charge breeder prior to post acceleration in ATLAS. A new state of the art Electron Beam Ion Source charge breeder, the CARIBU-EBIS charge breeder, has been developed (not in the scope of the work presented here) at ANL to replace the existing ECR charge breeder for charge breeding RIBs generated in CARIBU. The CARIBU-EBIS charge breeder is now in the final stages of offline at the Accelerator Development Test Facility (ADTF). A significant part of the commissioning effort has been devoted to testing the source by breeding singly-charged cesium ions injected from a surface ionization source. Characterization of the CARIBU-EBIS performance has been accomplished through a comparison between the measured properties of extracted beams and simulation results. Following its offline commissioning, CARIBU-EBIS will be relocated to its permanent location in ATLAS. An electrostatic transport line has been designed to transport RIBs from CARIBU and inject them into CARIBU-EBIS. In addition, modifications to the existing ATLAS Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) were required in order to transport the charge bred RIBs from CARIBU-EBIS to ATLAS. A proposal for upgrading ATLAS to a multi-user facility has been explored as well. In this context, beam dynamics simulations show that further modifications to the ATLAS LEBT will enable the simultaneous injection and acceleration of RIBs and stable beams in ATLAS. Furthermore, a novel technique proposed by Ostroumov et al. will allow for the acceleration of multiple charge states from CARIBU-EBIS, thereby increasing the intensity of available RIBs by up to 60%.

  17. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers using commercial multi-user MUMPs process: capability and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jessica; Oakley, Clyde; Shandas, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to construct capacitive micromachined ultrasouind transducers (cMUTs) using multi-user MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) process (MUMPs) and to analyze the capability of this process relative to the customized processes commonly in use. The MUMPs process has the advantages of low cost and accessibility to general users since it is not necessary to have access to customized fabrication capability such as wafer-bonding and sacrificial release processes. While other researchers have reported fabricating cMUTs using the MUMPs process none has reported the limitations in the process that arise due to the use of standard design rules that place limitations on the material thicknesses, gap thicknesses, and materials that may be used. In this paper we explain these limitations, and analyze the capabilities using 1D modeling, Finite Element Analysis, and experimental devices. We show that one of the limitations is that collapse voltage and center frequency can not be controlled independently. However, center frequencies up to 9 MHz can be achieved with collapse voltages of less than 200 volts making such devices suitable for medical and non-destructive evaluation imaging applications. Since the membrane and base electrodes are made of polysilicon, there is a larger series resistance than that resulting from processes that use metal electrodes. We show that the series resistance is not a significant problem. The conductive polysilicon can also destroy the cMUT if the top membrane is pulled in the bottom. As a solution we propose the application of an additional dielectric layer. Finally we demonstrate a device built with a novel beam construction that produces transmitted pressure pulse into air with 6% bandwidth and agrees reasonably well with the 1D model. We conclude that cMUTS made with MUMPS process have some limitations that are not present in customized processes. However these limitations may be overcome with the proper design

  18. Trends in the salience of data collected in a multi user virtual environment: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutwiler, M. Shane

    In this study, by exploring patterns in the degree of physical salience of the data the students collected, I investigated the relationship between the level of students' tendency to frame explanations in terms of complex patterns and evidence of how they attend to and select data in support of their developing understandings of causal relationships. I accomplished this by analyzing longitudinal data collected as part of a larger study of 143 7th grade students (clustered within 36 teams, 5 teachers, and 2 schools in the same Northeastern school district) as they navigated and collected data in an ecosystems-based multi-user virtual environment curriculum known as the EcoMUVE Pond module (Metcalf, Kamarainen, Tutwiler, Grotzer, Dede, 2011) . Using individual growth modeling (Singer & Willett, 2003) I found no direct link between student pre-intervention tendency to offer explanations containing complex causal components and patterns of physical salience-driven data collection (average physical salience level, number of low physical salience data points collected, and proportion of low physical salience data points collected), though prior science content knowledge did affect the initial status and rate of change of outcomes in the average physical salience level and proportion of low physical salience data collected over time. The findings of this study suggest two issues for consideration about the use of MUVEs to study student data collection behaviors in complex spaces. Firstly, the structure of the curriculum in which the MUVE is embedded might have a direct effect on what types of data students choose to collect. This undercuts our ability to make inferences about student-driven decisions to collect specific types of data, and suggests that a more open-ended curricular model might be better suited to this type of inquiry. Secondly, differences between teachers' choices in how to facilitate the units likely contribute to the variance in student data collection

  19. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers using commercial multi-user MUMPs process: capability and limitations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jessica; Oakley, Clyde; Shandas, Robin

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this work is to construct capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (cMUTs) using multi-user microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processess (MUMPs) and to analyze the capability of this process relative to the customized processes commonly in use. The MUMPs process has the advantages of low cost and accessibility to general users since it is not necessary to have access to customized fabrication capability such as wafer-bonding and sacrificial release processes. While other researchers have reported fabricating cMUTs using the MUMPs process none has reported the limitations in the process that arise due to the use of standard design rules that place limitations on the material thicknesses, gap thicknesses, and materials that may be used. In this paper we explain these limitations, and analyze the capabilities using 1D modeling, Finite Element Analysis, and experimental devices. We show that one of the limitations is that collapse voltage and center frequency can not be controlled independently. However, center frequencies up to 9 MHz can be achieved with collapse voltages of less than 200 V making such devices suitable for medical and non-destructive evaluation imaging applications. Since the membrane and base electrodes are made of polysilicon, there is a larger series resistance than that resulting from processes that use metal electrodes. We show that the series resistance is not a significant problem. The conductive polysilicon can also destroy the cMUT if the top membrane is pulled in the bottom. As a solution we propose the application of an additional dielectric layer. Finally we demonstrate a device built with a novel beam construction that produces transmitted pressure pulse into air with 6% bandwidth and agrees reasonably well with the 1D model. We conclude that cMUTs made with MUMPs process have some limitations that are not present in customized processes. However, these limitations may be overcome with the proper design

  20. The Spatial Vision Tree: A Generic Pattern Recognition Engine- Scientific Foundations, Design Principles, and Preliminary Tree Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Zia-ur; Jobson, Daniel J.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    New foundational ideas are used to define a novel approach to generic visual pattern recognition. These ideas proceed from the starting point of the intrinsic equivalence of noise reduction and pattern recognition when noise reduction is taken to its theoretical limit of explicit matched filtering. This led us to think of the logical extension of sparse coding using basis function transforms for both de-noising and pattern recognition to the full pattern specificity of a lexicon of matched filter pattern templates. A key hypothesis is that such a lexicon can be constructed and is, in fact, a generic visual alphabet of spatial vision. Hence it provides a tractable solution for the design of a generic pattern recognition engine. Here we present the key scientific ideas, the basic design principles which emerge from these ideas, and a preliminary design of the Spatial Vision Tree (SVT). The latter is based upon a cryptographic approach whereby we measure a large aggregate estimate of the frequency of occurrence (FOO) for each pattern. These distributions are employed together with Hamming distance criteria to design a two-tier tree. Then using information theory, these same FOO distributions are used to define a precise method for pattern representation. Finally the experimental performance of the preliminary SVT on computer generated test images and complex natural images is assessed.

  1. Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zixiong; Yu, Changyuan; Zhong, Wen-De; Chen, Jian; Chen, Wei

    2012-02-13

    This paper investigates the performance of our recently proposed LED lamp arrangement to reduce the SNR fluctuation from different locations in the room for multi-user visible light communications. The LED lamp arrangement consists of 4 LED lamps positioned in the corners and 12 LED lamps spread evenly on a circle. Our studies show that the SNR fluctuation under such a LED lamp arrangement is reduced from 14.5 dB to 0.9 dB, which guarantees that users can obtain almost identical communication quality, regardless of their locations. After time domain zero-forcing (ZF) equalization, the BER performances and channel capacities of 100-Mbit/s and 200-Mbit/s bipolar on-off-keying (OOK) signal with most significant inter-symbol interference (ISI) are very close to that of the channel without any ISI caused by this LED lamp arrangement.

  2. Heavy-tailed distribution of the SSH Brute-force attack duration in a multi-user environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Kook; Kim, Sung-Jun; Park, Chan Yeol; Hong, Taeyoung; Chae, Huiseung

    2016-07-01

    Quite a number of cyber-attacks to be place against supercomputers that provide highperformance computing (HPC) services to public researcher. Particularly, although the secure shell protocol (SSH) brute-force attack is one of the traditional attack methods, it is still being used. Because stealth attacks that feign regular access may occur, they are even harder to detect. In this paper, we introduce methods to detect SSH brute-force attacks by analyzing the server's unsuccessful access logs and the firewall's drop events in a multi-user environment. Then, we analyze the durations of the SSH brute-force attacks that are detected by applying these methods. The results of an analysis of about 10 thousands attack source IP addresses show that the behaviors of abnormal users using SSH brute-force attacks are based on human dynamic characteristics of a typical heavy-tailed distribution.

  3. Andragogical Characteristics and Expectations of University of Hawai'i Adult Learners in a 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeder, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover which andragogical characteristics and expectations of adult learners manifested themselves in the three-dimensional, multi-user virtual environment known as Second Life. This digital ethnographic study focused specifically on adult students within the University of Hawai'i Second Life group and their…

  4. Transnational Recognition and Accreditation of Engineering Educational Programmes in Europe: Perspectives in a Global Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augusti, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    In a previous paper the author described the present situation and recent advances regarding accreditation of engineering programmes in Europe. This paper contains an attempt at examining perspectives from a global viewpoint. While the variety of educational approaches within European higher education is to be considered a great asset of the…

  5. A Historical Chronology of the Plight of African Americans Gaining Recognition in Engineering and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Keith V.; Watson, Elwood D.

    2005-01-01

    The Black scientist in America is historically an anomaly and currently a statistical rarity. In 1984 Blacks accounted for only 2.3%, or 90,500, of the 3,995,000 employed scientists and engineers (Kusmer, 1991) Even now, in the 21st century, Blacks were 11.3% of the labor force, but only 4.2% of natural scientists, 7.6% of math and computer…

  6. Feature Engineering for Drug Name Recognition in Biomedical Texts: Feature Conjunction and Feature Selection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shengyu; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Drug name recognition (DNR) is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge. PMID:25861377

  7. Feature engineering for drug name recognition in biomedical texts: feature conjunction and feature selection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengyu; Tang, Buzhou; Chen, Qingcai; Wang, Xiaolong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Drug name recognition (DNR) is a critical step for drug information extraction. Machine learning-based methods have been widely used for DNR with various types of features such as part-of-speech, word shape, and dictionary feature. Features used in current machine learning-based methods are usually singleton features which may be due to explosive features and a large number of noisy features when singleton features are combined into conjunction features. However, singleton features that can only capture one linguistic characteristic of a word are not sufficient to describe the information for DNR when multiple characteristics should be considered. In this study, we explore feature conjunction and feature selection for DNR, which have never been reported. We intuitively select 8 types of singleton features and combine them into conjunction features in two ways. Then, Chi-square, mutual information, and information gain are used to mine effective features. Experimental results show that feature conjunction and feature selection can improve the performance of the DNR system with a moderate number of features and our DNR system significantly outperforms the best system in the DDIExtraction 2013 challenge.

  8. Structural plasticity of PAM recognition by engineered variants of the RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Carolin; Bargsten, Katja; Jinek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) forms the core of a powerful genome editing technology. DNA cleavage by SpCas9 is dependent on the presence of a 5’-NGG-3’ protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA, restricting the choice of targetable sequences. To address this limitation, artificial SpCas9 variants with altered PAM specificities have recently been developed. Here we report crystal structures of the VQR, EQR, and VRER SpCas9 variants bound to target DNAs containing their preferred PAM sequences. The structures reveal that the non-canonical PAMs are recognized by an induced fit mechanism. Besides mediating sequence-specific base recognition, the amino acid substitutions introduced in the SpCas9 variants facilitate conformational remodeling of the PAM region of the bound DNA. Guided by the structural data, we developed a SpCas9 variant that specifically recognizes NAAG PAMs. Taken together, these studies inform further development of Cas9-based genome editing tools. PMID:26990992

  9. International Microgravity Plasma Facility IMPF: A Multi-User Modular Research Facility for Complex Plasma Research on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurig, R.; Burfeindt, J.; Castegini, R.; Griethe, W.; Hofmann, P.

    2002-01-01

    On March 03, 2001, the PKE-Nefedov plasma experiment was successfully put into operation on board ISS. This complex plasma experiment is the predecessor for the semi-autonomous multi-user facility IMPF (International Microgravity Plasma Facility) to be flown in 2006 with an expected operational lifetime of 10 years. IMPF is envisioned to be an international research facility for investigators in the field of multi-component plasmas containing ions, electrons, and charged microparticles. This research filed is often referred to as "complex plasmas". The actual location of IMPF on ISS is not decided yet; potential infrastructure under consideration are EXPRESS Rack, Standard Interface Rack SIR, European Drawer Rack EDR, or a to be designed custom rack infrastructure on the Russian Segment. The actual development status of the DLR funded Pre-phase B Study for IMPF will be presented. For this phase, IMPF was assumed to be integrated in an EXPRESS Rack requiring four middeck lockers with two 4-PU ISIS drawers for accommodation. Technical and operational challenges, like a 240 Mbytes/sec continuous experimental data stream for 60 minutes, will be addressed. The project was funded by the German Space Agency (DLR) and was performed in close cooperation with scientists from the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestical Physics in Munich, Germany.

  10. Weighted sum-rate maximization for multi-user SIMO multiple access channels in cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Peter; Zhao, Lian; Lu, Jianhua

    2013-12-01

    In this article, an efficient distributed and parallel algorithm is proposed to maximize the sum-rate and optimize the input distribution policy for the multi-user single input multiple output multiple access channel (MU-SIMO MAC) system with concurrent access within a cognitive radio (CR) network. The single input means that every user has a single antenna and multiple output means that base station(s) has multiple antennas. The main features are: (i) the power distribution for the users is updated by using variable scale factors which effectively and efficiently maximize the objective function at each iteration; (ii) distributed and parallel computation is employed to expedite convergence of the proposed distributed algorithm; and (iii) a novel water-filling with mixed constraints is investigated, and used as a fundamental block of the proposed algorithm. Due to sufficiently exploiting the structure of the proposed model, the proposed algorithm owns fast convergence. Numerical results verify that the proposed algorithm is effective and fast convergent. Using the proposed approach, for the simulated range, the required number of iterations for convergence is two and this number is not sensitive to the increase of the number of users. This feature is quite desirable for large scale systems with dense active users. In addition, it is also worth noting that the proposed algorithm is a monotonic feasible operator to the iteration. Thus, the stop criterion for computation could be easily set up.

  11. Engineering Molecular Recognition with Bio-mimetic Polymers on Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Del Bonis-O'Donnell, Jackson T; Beyene, Abraham; Chio, Linda; Demirer, Gözde; Yang, Darwin; Landry, Markita P

    2017-01-10

    Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are a class of optically active nanomaterial that fluoresce in the near infrared, coinciding with the optical window where biological samples are most transparent. Here, we outline techniques to adsorb amphiphilic polymers and polynucleic acids onto the surface of SWNTs to engineer their corona phases and create novel molecular sensors for small molecules and proteins. These functionalized SWNT sensors are both biocompatible and stable. Polymers are adsorbed onto the nanotube surface either by direct sonication of SWNTs and polymer or by suspending SWNTs using a surfactant followed by dialysis with polymer. The fluorescence emission, stability, and response of these sensors to target analytes are confirmed using absorbance and near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrate surface immobilization of the sensors onto glass slides to enable single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to characterize polymer adsorption and analyte binding kinetics.

  12. Engineering self-contained DNA circuit for proximity recognition and localized signal amplification of target biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ang, Yan Shan; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry

    2014-08-01

    Biomolecular interactions have important cellular implications, however, a simple method for the sensing of such proximal events is lacking in the current molecular toolbox. We designed a dynamic DNA circuit capable of recognizing targets in close proximity to initiate a pre-programmed signal transduction process resulting in localized signal amplification. The entire circuit was engineered to be self-contained, i.e. it can self-assemble onto individual target molecules autonomously and form localized signal with minimal cross-talk. α-thrombin was used as a model protein to evaluate the performance of the individual modules and the overall circuit for proximity interaction under physiologically relevant buffer condition. The circuit achieved good selectivity in presence of non-specific protein and interfering serum matrix and successfully detected for physiologically relevant α-thrombin concentration (50 nM-5 μM) in a single mixing step without any further washing. The formation of localized signal at the interaction site can be enhanced kinetically through the control of temperature and probe concentration. This work provides a basic general framework from which other circuit modules can be adapted for the sensing of other biomolecular or cellular interaction of interest.

  13. A Theoretical Scheme for Multi-user Quantum Key Distribution with N Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Pairs on a Passive Optical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fu-Guo; Liu, Xiao-Shu; Ma, Ying-Jun; Xiao, Li; Long, Gui-Lu

    2002-07-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme for any-to-any multi-user quantum key distribution on a passive optical network with ordered N Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. This scheme is safe and more efficient than those with single photons. Its efficiency approaches 100% in the limit that the number of pairs used in the eavesdropping check becomes negligible. It also has high capacity and is convenient for users.

  14. Engineering of an Extremely Thermostable Alpha/Beta Barrel Scaffold to Serve as a High Affinity Molecular Recognition Element for Use in Sensor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-23

    aldehydes, ketones and carbohydrates. Directed evolution techniques were used to convert the enzyme into a simple binder of the small molecule RDX...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 protein engineering, directed evolution, biomolecular recognition, RDX...dependent oxidation or reduction of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carbohydrates. Directed evolution techniques were used to convert the enzyme into a

  15. Engineering Duplex RNAs for Challenging Targets: Recognition of GGGGCC/CCCCGG Repeats at the ALS/FTD C9orf72 Locus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiaxin; Liu, Jing; Li, Liande; Gagnon, Keith T; Corey, David R

    2015-11-19

    A GGGGCC expansion within an intronic region of the C9orf72 gene forms RNA foci that are associated with one-third of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and one-quarter of frontotemporal dementia. The C9orf72 locus also expresses an antisense transcript with a CCCCGG expansion that forms foci and may contribute to disease. Synthetic agents that bind these hexanucleotide repeats and block foci would be leads for therapeutic discovery. We have engineered duplex RNAs to enable them to recognize difficult C/G targets. Recognition inhibits foci formed by both GGGGCC and CCCCGG RNA. Our findings show that a single duplex RNA can be used to recognize both disease-related C9orf72 transcripts. More broadly, we extend RNAi to previously inaccessible C/G sequences and provide another example of target recognition in human cells by nuclear RNAi.

  16. First demonstration and field trial on multi-user UDWDM-PON full duplex PSK-PSK with single monolithic integrated dual-output-DFB-SOA based ONUs.

    PubMed

    Chu, GuangYong; Maho, Anaëlle; Cano, Iván; Polo, Victor; Brenot, Romain; Debrégeas, Hélène; Prat, Josep

    2016-10-15

    We demonstrate a monolithically integrated dual-output DFB-SOA, and conduct the field trial on a multi-user bidirectional coherent ultradense wavelength division multiplexing-passive optical network (UDWDM-PON). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first achievement of simplified single integrated laser-based neighboring coherent optical network units (ONUs) with a 12.5 GHz channel spaced ultra-dense access network, including both downstream and upstream, taking the benefits of low footprint and low-temperature dependence.

  17. The AstroVR Collaboratory, an On-line Multi-User Environment for Research in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Buren, D.; Curtis, P.; Nichols, D. A.; Brundage, M.

    We describe our experiment with an on-line collaborative environment where users share the execution of programs and communicate via audio, video, and typed text. Collaborative environments represent the next step in computer-mediated conferencing, combining powerful compute engines, data persistence, shared applications, and teleconferencing tools. As proof of concept, we have implemented a shared image analysis tool, allowing geographically distinct users to analyze FITS images together. We anticipate that \\htmllink{AstroVR}{http://astrovr.ipac.caltech.edu:8888} and similar systems will become an important part of collaborative work in the next decade, including with applications in remote observing, spacecraft operations, on-line meetings, as well as and day-to-day research activities. The technology is generic and promises to find uses in business, medicine, government, and education.

  18. The Effect of the Use of the 3-D Multi-User Virtual Environment "Second Life" on Student Motivation and Language Proficiency in Courses of Spanish as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pares-Toral, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    The ever increasing popularity of virtual worlds, also known as 3-D multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) or simply virtual worlds provides language instructors with a new tool they can exploit in their courses. For now, "Second Life" is one of the most popular MUVEs used for teaching and learning, and although "Second Life"…

  19. Rational engineering of the Neurospora VS ribozyme to allow substrate recognition via different kissing-loop interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix-Labonté, Julie; Girard, Nicolas; Dagenais, Pierre; Legault, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The Neurospora VS ribozyme is a catalytic RNA that has the unique ability to specifically recognize and cleave a stem-loop substrate through formation of a highly stable kissing-loop interaction (KLI). In order to explore the engineering potential of the VS ribozyme to cleave alternate substrates, we substituted the wild-type KLI by other known KLIs using an innovative engineering method that combines rational and combinatorial approaches. A bioinformatic search of the protein data bank was initially performed to identify KLIs that are structurally similar to the one found in the VS ribozyme. Next, substrate/ribozyme (S/R) pairs that incorporate these alternative KLIs were kinetically and structurally characterized. Interestingly, several of the resulting S/R pairs allowed substrate cleavage with substantial catalytic efficiency, although with reduced activity compared to the reference S/R pair. Overall, this study describes an innovative approach for RNA engineering and establishes that the KLI of the trans VS ribozyme can be adapted to cleave other folded RNA substrates. PMID:27166370

  20. Do students with higher self-efficacy exhibit greater and more diverse scientific inquiry skills: An exploratory investigation in "River City", a multi-user virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    In this thesis, I conduct an exploratory study to investigate the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into authentic scientific activity and the scientific inquiry behaviors they employ while engaged in that process, over time. Scientific inquiry has been a major standard in most science education policy doctrines for the past two decades and is exemplified by activities such as making observations, formulating hypotheses, gathering and analyzing data, and forming conclusions from that data. The self-efficacy literature, however, indicates that self-efficacy levels affect perseverance and engagement. This study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. The study is conducted in a novel setting, using an innovative science curriculum delivered through an interactive computer technology that recorded each student's conversations, movements, and activities while behaving as a practicing scientist in a "virtual world" called River City. River City is a Multi-User Virtual Environment designed to engage students in a collaborative scientific inquiry-based learning experience. As a result, I was able to follow students' moment-by-moment choices of behavior while they were behaving as scientists. I collected data on students' total scientific inquiry behaviors over three visits to River City, as well as the number of sources from which they gathered their scientific data. I analyzed my longitudinal data on the 96 seventh-graders using individual growth modeling. I found that self-efficacy played a role in the number of data-gathering behaviors students engaged in initially, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. However, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender; by the end of the study, student self-efficacy did not impact data gathering. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different

  1. Effects of diesel engine exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols on novel object recognition ability and maternal behavior in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujitani, Yuji; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Furuyama, Akiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2014-10-30

    Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs) produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control), DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week) and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively.

  2. Effects of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Secondary Organic Aerosols on Novel Object Recognition Ability and Maternal Behavior in BALB/C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujitani, Yuji; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Furuyama, Akiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirano, Seishiro

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated with increasing exposure to air pollution. Ambient particulate matter consists of primary particles emitted directly from diesel engine vehicles and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed by oxidative reaction of the ultrafine particle components of diesel exhaust (DE) in the atmosphere. However, little is known about the relationship between exposure to SOA and central nervous system functions. Recently, we have reported that an acute single intranasal instillation of SOA may induce inflammatory response in lung, but not in brain of adult mice. To clarify the whole body exposure effects of SOA on central nervous system functions, we first created inhalation chambers for diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosols (DE-SOAs) produced by oxidation of diesel exhaust particles caused by adding ozone. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air (control), DE and DE-SOA in inhalation chambers for one or three months (5 h/day, 5 days/week) and were examined for memory function using a novel object recognition test and for memory function-related gene expressions in the hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, female mice exposed to DE-SOA for one month were mated and maternal behaviors and the related gene expressions in the hypothalamus examined. Novel object recognition ability and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression in the hippocampus were affected in male mice exposed to DE-SOA. Furthermore, a tendency to decrease maternal performance and significantly decreased expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and oxytocin receptor were found in DE-SOA exposed dams compared with the control. This is the first study of this type and our results suggest that the constituents of DE-SOA may be associated with memory function and maternal performance based on the impaired gene expressions in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, respectively

  3. MissMarble, a multi-user interdisciplinary data base of marble for archaeometric, art historian and restoration use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöldföldi, J.; Székely, B.; Hegedüs, P.

    2009-04-01

    assured via co-ordinated activity of the data producers. The aim of the MissMarble project was to develop an interdisciplinary data base management system for analytical results of marble occurrences (geological samples) and marble artefacts (archaeological and architectural objects). The system is characterised by user friendly interfaces for data entry, storage, continuous dissemination, and exchange. Furthermore the system provides practical hints to understand the techniques applied on various samples and relate them to other literature data. The goal of the developed system is to provide help for data comparison, provenance analyses and to reveal missing analytical results. The various user groups have different access rights. Beside of the Editors, Contributors are a special user group who are allowed to enter their own analytical results. Conceptually we intend to manage the results of analyses of both type of material (archaeological and geological samples) together to handle the data in the same manner. It enhances the overlaps and the gaps in the analytical results defining the further analyses to be done. The data entries are organized in the following scheme: sample identification; methods applied on the sample; colour and fabric; mineralogical composition; textural properties; chemical and isotope geochemical composition; engineering physical properties. Dependencies on the sample type: (in case of geological sample) geological classification (age, facies); (in case of archaeological samples) archaeological description of the objects; probable provenance (if determined); conservational and restoration experience. The system is designed so that further amendments and extensions are possible without data loss. It is updated and tailored according to the experience gathered during its use. To this end a pinboard is used for user feedback. The system functionalities, data structure and data content are regularly revised according to the requirements of the users

  4. The Impact of Student Self-efficacy on Scientific Inquiry Skills: An Exploratory Investigation in River City, a Multi-user Virtual Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    2007-02-01

    This exploratory study investigated data-gathering behaviors exhibited by 100 seventh-grade students as they participated in a scientific inquiry-based curriculum project delivered by a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). This research examined the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into the authentic scientific activity and the longitudinal data-gathering behaviors they employed while engaged in that process. Three waves of student behavior data were gathered from a server-side database that recorded all student activity in the MUVE; these data were analyzed using individual growth modeling. The study found that self-efficacy correlated with the number of data-gathering behaviors in which students initially engaged, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. Also, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender. However, by the end of their time in the MUVE, initial student self-efficacy no longer correlated with data gathering behaviors. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different sources from which they chose to gather data. These results suggest that embedding science inquiry curricula in novel platforms like a MUVE might act as a catalyst for change in students' self-efficacy and learning processes.

  5. Conjoint Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Mojardin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews some limiting properties of the process-dissociation model as it applies to the study of dual-process conceptions of memory. A second-generation model (conjoint recognition) is proposed to address these limitations and supply additional capabilities. Worked applications to data are provided. (Author/GCP)

  6. Finding a new continent versus mapping all the rivers: Recognition, ownership, and the scientific epistemological development of practicing scientists and engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdan, Andrea Marie

    Maintaining our nation's standing as a leader of innovative and premier science and engineering research requires that those on the trajectory of these careers receive both rigorous and exceptional training. In addition to educating students in the content knowledge of these disciplines, it is also necessary to train them in the professional skills associated with being competent and conscientious scientists and engineers. In the attempts to understand the best strategies to teach these skills, research during the past few decades has shown a steadily increasing interest in improving the scientific literacy of students in science and engineering disciplines. Researchers agree that fostering this literacy---particularly with respect to understanding the nature of science, i.e., scientific epistemology---is an important component in developing students' abilities to become successful practitioners of science and engineering. This research was motivated by the need to further elucidate the formative experiences that contribute to science and engineering faculty members' personal epistemologies of science. To examine the development of these epistemologies, a phenomenographical study was designed to elucidate academic scientists' and engineers' understandings of contributions, collaborations, and credit assignment. The results and inductive, grounded-theory analysis of interviews with faculty members in the College of Engineering and Science at a large, southeastern institution revealed a model of scientific epistemological development and its possible ties to professional identity development. This model can help inform changes in mentorship and training practices to better prepare students to manage the challenges posed by being scientists and engineers in the 21st-century.

  7. Conjoint recognition.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Mojardin, A H

    1999-01-01

    The process-dissociation model has stimulated important advances in the study of dual-process conceptions of memory. The authors review some limiting properties of that model and consider the degree of support for its parent theory (the recollection-familiarity distinction). A 2nd-generation model (conjoint recognition) is proposed that addresses these limitations and supplies additional capabilities, such as goodness-of-fit tests, the ability to measure dual processes for false-memory responses, and statistical procedures for testing within- and between-conditions hypotheses about its parameters. The conjoint-recognition model also implements an alternative theoretical interpretation (the identity-similarity distinction of fuzzy-trace theory). Worked applications to data are provided.

  8. Finding a New Continent versus Mapping All the Rivers: Recognition, Ownership, and the Scientific Epistemological Development of Practicing Scientists and Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdan, Andrea Marie

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining our nation's standing as a leader of innovative and premier science and engineering research requires that those on the trajectory of these careers receive both rigorous and exceptional training. In addition to educating students in the content knowledge of these disciplines, it is also necessary to train them in the professional…

  9. Recognition Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Stuart; He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Zhang, Peiming; Chang, Shuai; Huang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode (“tethered molecule-pair” configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the “free analyte” configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. PMID:20522930

  10. Engineering of a Histone-Recognition Domain in Dnmt3a Alters the Epigenetic Landscape and Phenotypic Features of Mouse ESCs.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kyung-Min; Wang, Haibo; Kim, Hyunjae R; Wenderski, Wendy; Fang, Fang; Li, Charles H; Dewell, Scott; Hughes, Stephen H; Melnick, Ari M; Patel, Dinshaw J; Li, Haitao; Allis, C David

    2015-07-02

    Histone modification and DNA methylation are associated with varying epigenetic "landscapes," but detailed mechanistic and functional links between the two remain unclear. Using the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain of the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a as a paradigm, we apply protein engineering to dissect the molecular interactions underlying the recruitment of this enzyme to specific regions of chromatin in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). By rendering the ADD domain insensitive to histone modification, specifically H3K4 methylation or H3T3 phosphorylation, we demonstrate the consequence of dysregulated Dnmt3a binding and activity. Targeting of a Dnmt3a mutant to H3K4me3 promoters decreases gene expression in a subset of developmental genes and alters ESC differentiation, whereas aberrant binding of another mutant to H3T3ph during mitosis promotes chromosome instability. Our studies support the general view that histone modification "reading" and DNA methylation are closely coupled in mammalian cells, and suggest an avenue for the functional assessment of chromatin-associated proteins.

  11. Evidential significance of automotive paint trace evidence using a pattern recognition based infrared library search engine for the Paint Data Query Forensic Database.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Barry K; White, Collin G; Allen, Matthew D; Fasasi, Ayuba; Weakley, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    A prototype library search engine has been further developed to search the infrared spectral libraries of the paint data query database to identify the line and model of a vehicle from the clear coat, surfacer-primer, and e-coat layers of an intact paint chip. For this study, search prefilters were developed from 1181 automotive paint systems spanning 3 manufacturers: General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford. The best match between each unknown and the spectra in the hit list generated by the search prefilters was identified using a cross-correlation library search algorithm that performed both a forward and backward search. In the forward search, spectra were divided into intervals and further subdivided into windows (which corresponds to the time lag for the comparison) within those intervals. The top five hits identified in each search window were compiled; a histogram was computed that summarized the frequency of occurrence for each library sample, with the IR spectra most similar to the unknown flagged. The backward search computed the frequency and occurrence of each line and model without regard to the identity of the individual spectra. Only those lines and models with a frequency of occurrence greater than or equal to 20% were included in the final hit list. If there was agreement between the forward and backward search results, the specific line and model common to both hit lists was always the correct assignment. Samples assigned to the same line and model by both searches are always well represented in the library and correlate well on an individual basis to specific library samples. For these samples, one can have confidence in the accuracy of the match. This was not the case for the results obtained using commercial library search algorithms, as the hit quality index scores for the top twenty hits were always greater than 99%.

  12. The LLNL multi-user tandem laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    An FN tandem laboratory, cofunded by several Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Divisions, Sandia Livermore, and the University of California Regents, is now operational at Livermore. The accelerator, formerly the University of Washington injector, has been upgraded with SF 6, Dowlish tubes, and a NEC pelletron charging system. A conventional duoplasmatron, a tritium source, and two Cs sputtering sources will be fielded on the accelerator. Pulsed beams will be available from two source positions. The laboratory has been designed to accommodate up to 19 experimental positions with excellent optics and working vacuum. The facility is unshielded with both accelerator and radiological systems under the control of a distributed microprocessor system. Research activities at the tandem include nuclear physics and astrophysics, materials science and characterization programs, and accelerator mass spectrometry for archaeology, biomedical, environmental and geoscience investigators.

  13. Finding the missing code of RNA recognition by PUF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Pumilio and FBF homology (PUF) proteins represent highly promising candidates for engineering sequence-specific RNA recognition, but were only known to recognize G, A and U, significantly limiting applications. Two groups (Filipovska et al., 2011; Dong et al., 2011) have now reported the discovery of the cytosine-recognition code for PUF proteins. PMID:21802002

  14. Image Recognition Based on Biometric Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuliang; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Chenglian; Guo, Yongning; Lin, Xueyun

    2011-09-01

    A new method, biomimetric pattern recognition, is mentioned to recognize images. At first, the image is pretreatment and feature extraction, then a high vector is got. A biomimetric pattern recognition model is designed. The judgment function is used to discriminate the classification of the samples. It is showed that the method is effective for little samples by experiment. It would be useful in many fields in future.

  15. Optical Pattern Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  16. Design and Implementation of a Distributed Version of the NASA Engine Performance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cours, Jeffrey T.

    1994-01-01

    Distributed NEPP is a new version of the NASA Engine Performance Program that runs in parallel on a collection of Unix workstations connected through a network. The program is fault-tolerant, efficient, and shows significant speed-up in a multi-user, heterogeneous environment. This report describes the issues involved in designing distributed NEPP, the algorithms the program uses, and the performance distributed NEPP achieves. It develops an analytical model to predict and measure the performance of the simple distribution, multiple distribution, and fault-tolerant distribution algorithms that distributed NEPP incorporates. Finally, the appendices explain how to use distributed NEPP and document the organization of the program's source code.

  17. Engineering of Secondary Metabolism.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Secondary (specialized) metabolites, produced by bacteria, fungi, plants, and other organisms, exhibit enormous structural variation, and consequently display a wide range of biological activities. Secondary metabolism improves and modulates the phenotype of the host producer. Furthermore, these biological activities have resulted in the use of secondary metabolites in a variety of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Metabolic engineering presents a powerful strategy to improve access to these valuable molecules. A critical overview of engineering approaches in secondary metabolism is presented, both in heterologous and native hosts. The recognition of the increasing role of compartmentalization in metabolic engineering is highlighted. Engineering approaches to modify the structure of key secondary metabolite classes are also critically evaluated.

  18. Kin Recognition in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wall, Daniel

    2016-09-08

    The ability of bacteria to recognize kin provides a means to form social groups. In turn these groups can lead to cooperative behaviors that surpass the ability of the individual. Kin recognition involves specific biochemical interactions between a receptor(s) and an identification molecule(s). Recognition specificity, ensuring that nonkin are excluded and kin are included, is critical and depends on the number of loci and polymorphisms involved. After recognition and biochemical perception, the common ensuing cooperative behaviors include biofilm formation, quorum responses, development, and swarming motility. Although kin recognition is a fundamental mechanism through which cells might interact, microbiologists are only beginning to explore the topic. This review considers both molecular and theoretical aspects of bacterial kin recognition. Consideration is also given to bacterial diversity, genetic relatedness, kin selection theory, and mechanisms of recognition.

  19. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  20. Face Recognition in Humans and Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, Alice; Tistarelli, Massimo

    The study of human face recognition by psychologists and neuroscientists has run parallel to the development of automatic face recognition technologies by computer scientists and engineers. In both cases, there are analogous steps of data acquisition, image processing, and the formation of representations that can support the complex and diverse tasks we accomplish with faces. These processes can be understood and compared in the context of their neural and computational implementations. In this chapter, we present the essential elements of face recognition by humans and machines, taking a perspective that spans psychological, neural, and computational approaches. From the human side, we overview the methods and techniques used in the neurobiology of face recognition, the underlying neural architecture of the system, the role of visual attention, and the nature of the representations that emerges. From the computational side, we discuss face recognition technologies and the strategies they use to overcome challenges to robust operation over viewing parameters. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a look at some recent studies that compare human and machine performances at face recognition.

  1. Moreland Recognition Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland Elementary School District, San Jose, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Recognition for special effort and achievement has been noted as a component of effective schools. Schools in the Moreland School District have effectively improved standards of discipline and achievement by providing forty-six different ways for children to receive positive recognition. Good…

  2. Event identification by acoustic signature recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.; Kercel, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Many events of interest to the security commnnity produce acoustic emissions that are, in principle, identifiable as to cause. Some obvious examples are gunshots, breaking glass, takeoffs and landings of small aircraft, vehicular engine noises, footsteps (high frequencies when on gravel, very low frequencies. when on soil), and voices (whispers to shouts). We are investigating wavelet-based methods to extract unique features of such events for classification and identification. We also discuss methods of classification and pattern recognition specifically tailored for acoustic signatures obtained by wavelet analysis. The paper is divided into three parts: completed work, work in progress, and future applications. The completed phase has led to the successful recognition of aircraft types on landing and takeoff. Both small aircraft (twin-engine turboprop) and large (commercial airliners) were included in the study. The project considered the design of a small, field-deployable, inexpensive device. The techniques developed during the aircraft identification phase were then adapted to a multispectral electromagnetic interference monitoring device now deployed in a nuclear power plant. This is a general-purpose wavelet analysis engine, spanning 14 octaves, and can be adapted for other specific tasks. Work in progress is focused on applying the methods previously developed to speaker identification. Some of the problems to be overcome include recognition of sounds as voice patterns and as distinct from possible background noises (e.g., music), as well as identification of the speaker from a short-duration voice sample. A generalization of the completed work and the work in progress is a device capable of classifying any number of acoustic events-particularly quasi-stationary events such as engine noises and voices and singular events such as gunshots and breaking glass. We will show examples of both kinds of events and discuss their recognition likelihood.

  3. Automatic TLI recognition system, general description

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report is a general description of an automatic target recognition system developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Department of Energy. A user`s manual is a separate volume, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide, and a programmer`s manual is Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide. This system was designed as an automatic target recognition system for fast screening of large amounts of multi-sensor image data, based on low-cost parallel processors. This system naturally incorporates image data fusion, and it gives uncertainty estimates. It is relatively low cost, compact, and transportable. The software is easily enhanced to expand the system`s capabilities, and the hardware is easily expandable to increase the system`s speed. In addition to its primary function as a trainable target recognition system, this is also a versatile, general-purpose tool for image manipulation and analysis, which can be either keyboard-driven or script-driven. This report includes descriptions of three variants of the computer hardware, a description of the mathematical basis if the training process, and a description with examples of the system capabilities.

  4. Segmental Rescoring in Text Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-04

    ttm № tes/m, m* tmvr mowm* a Smyrna Of l δrtA£ACf02S’ A w m - y i p m AmiKSiS € f № ) C № № m .. sg6#?«rA fiθN ; Atφ h Sft№’·’Spxn mm m fim f№b t&m&mm...applying a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) recognition approach. Generating the plurality text hypotheses for the image forming includes generating a first...image. Applying segmental analysis to a segmentation determined by a first OCR engine, such as a segmentation determined by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM

  5. Pattern recognition technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Technique operates regardless of pattern rotation, translation or magnification and successfully detects out-of-register patterns. It improves accuracy and reduces cost of various optical character recognition devices and page readers and provides data input to computer.

  6. The recognition of biomaterials: pattern recognition of medical polymers and their adsorbed biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Love, Ryan J; Jones, Kim S

    2013-09-01

    All biomedical materials are recognized as foreign entities by the host immune system despite the substantial range of different materials that have been developed by material scientists and engineers. Hydrophobic biomaterials, hydrogels, biomaterials with low protein binding surfaces, and those that readily adsorb a protein layer all seem to incite similar host responses in vivo that may differ in magnitude, but ultimately result in encapsulation by fibrotic tissue. The recognition of medical materials by the host is explained by the very intricate pattern recognition system made up of integrins, toll-like receptors, scavenger receptors, and other surface proteins that enable leukocytes to perceive almost any foreign body. In this review, we describe the various pattern recognition receptors and processes that occur on biomedical material surfaces that permit detection of a range of materials within the host.

  7. Exploring the DNA-recognition potential of homeodomains.

    PubMed

    Chu, Stephanie W; Noyes, Marcus B; Christensen, Ryan G; Pierce, Brian G; Zhu, Lihua J; Weng, Zhiping; Stormo, Gary D; Wolfe, Scot A

    2012-10-01

    The recognition potential of most families of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) remains relatively unexplored. Homeodomains (HDs), like many other families of DBDs, display limited diversity in their preferred recognition sequences. To explore the recognition potential of HDs, we utilized a bacterial selection system to isolate HD variants, from a randomized library, that are compatible with each of the 64 possible 3' triplet sites (i.e., TAANNN). The majority of these selections yielded sets of HDs with overrepresented residues at specific recognition positions, implying the selection of specific binders. The DNA-binding specificity of 151 representative HD variants was subsequently characterized, identifying HDs that preferentially recognize 44 of these target sites. Many of these variants contain novel combinations of specificity determinants that are uncommon or absent in extant HDs. These novel determinants, when grafted into different HD backbones, produce a corresponding alteration in specificity. This information was used to create more explicit HD recognition models, which can inform the prediction of transcriptional regulatory networks for extant HDs or the engineering of HDs with novel DNA-recognition potential. The diversity of recovered HD recognition sequences raises important questions about the fitness barrier that restricts the evolution of alternate recognition modalities in natural systems.

  8. The Renaissance Engineer: Educating Engineers in a Post-9/11 World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akay, Adnan

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of engineers and their responsibilities in society, especially after the events of September 11, 2001. Suggests the need for a renaissance in engineering education and recommends cultivating a new generation of renaissance engineers based on the recognition of individual talent and customizing education accordingly. (Author/YDS)

  9. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  10. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  11. Gate-Level Commercial Microelectronics Verification with Standard Cell Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    STANDARD CELL RECOGNITION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management ...Tools . . . . . . 24 3.2 Phase 2 Methodology - Software Tool Application to Elementary Gates . . 25 3.3 Phase 3 Methodology - Software Tool...Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.1.2 Phase 2 Results - Software Tool Application to Elementary Gates . 38 4.1.2.1 NAND2 Gate

  12. Speech Recognition Using Neural Nets and Dynamic Time Warping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    AFIT/GEO/ENG/88D-1 SPEECH RECOGNITION USING NEURAL NETS AND DYNAMIC TIME WARPING THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering ... Engineering Gary Dean Barmore, B.S., B.S.E.E Capt, USAF December, 1988 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Preface The purpose of this...input vector (. is smaller than the distance between any other node’s weight vector and the input vector. Hence, a sequence of input vectors

  13. Automatic object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  14. Units of Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Carol M.; And Others

    Both psychologists and reading specialists have been interested in whether words are processed letter by letter or in larger units. A reaction time paradigm was used to evaluate these options with interest focused on potential units of word recognition which might be functional within single syllable words. The basic paradigm involved presenting…

  15. Optical Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  16. Automated Optical Target Recognition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    A multi-resolution signal processing approach to object recognition is presented using an optical correlator for generating a wavelet transform . The...This report presents an overview of continuous and discrete wavelet transforms. Both digital and optical implementations of the discrete wavelet ... transform are discussed. Examples of typical wavelet basis functions are compared and the constraints imposed by optical implementations are discussed

  17. Teaching Word Recognition Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Mildred A., Comp.

    A series of articles with the chief emphasis on phonics as a means of analyzing words is presented. Various articles pertain to elementary, secondary, and college level instruction. The first of the five parts into which the volume is divided is comprised of a single article which gives an excellent overview of the field of word recognition. Part…

  18. View Invariant Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Richard D.; Goffredo, Michela; Carter, John N.; Nixon, Mark S.

    Recognition by gait is of particular interest since it is the biometric that is available at the lowest resolution, or when other biometrics are (intentionally) obscured. Gait as a biometric has now shown increasing recognition capability. There are many approaches and these show that recognition can achieve excellent performance on current large databases. The majority of these approaches are planar 2D, largely since the early large databases featured subjects walking in a plane normal to the camera view. To extend deployment capability, we need viewpoint invariant gait biometrics. We describe approaches where viewpoint invariance is achieved by 3D approaches or in 2D. In the first group, the identification relies on parameters extracted from the 3D body deformation during walking. These methods use several video cameras and the 3D reconstruction is achieved after a camera calibration process. On the other hand, the 2D gait biometric approaches use a single camera, usually positioned perpendicular to the subject’s walking direction. Because in real surveillance scenarios a system that operates in an unconstrained environment is necessary, many of the recent gait analysis approaches are orientated toward view-invariant gait recognition.

  19. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  20. Hydrogels Constructed from Engineered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbin; Kong, Na; Laver, Bryce; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-02-24

    Due to their various potential biomedical applications, hydrogels based on engineered proteins have attracted considerable interest. Benefitting from significant progress in recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering/design techniques, the field of protein hydrogels has made amazing progress. The latest progress of hydrogels constructed from engineered recombinant proteins are presented, mainly focused on biorecognition-driven physical hydrogels as well as chemically crosslinked hydrogels. The various bio-recognition based physical crosslinking strategies are discussed, as well as chemical crosslinking chemistries used to engineer protein hydrogels, and protein hydrogels' various biomedical applications. The future perspectives of this fast evolving field of biomaterials are also discussed.

  1. School IPM Recognition and Certification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  2. Texture recognition of medical images with the ICM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinser, Jason M.; Wang, Guisong

    2004-06-01

    The Integrated Cortical Model (ICM) is based upon several models of the mammalian visual cortex and produces pulse images over several iterations. These pulse images tend to isolate segments, edges, and textures that are inherent in the input image. To create a texture recognition engine the pulse spectrum of individual pixels are collected and used to develop a recognition library. Recognition is performed by comparing pulse spectra of unclassified regions of images with the known regions. Because signatures are smaller than images, signature-based computation is quite efficient and parasites can be recognized quickly. The precision of this method depends on the representative of signatures and classification. Our experiment results support the theoretical findings and show perspectives of practical applications of ICM-based method. The advantage of ICM method is using signatures to represent objects. ICM can extract the internal features of objects and represent them with signatures. Signature classification is critical for the precision of recognition.

  3. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  4. International Recognition of Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Bradford W.

    Certain issues are relevant to the international recognition of vocational qualifications: (1) the assumption that each country does or should value vocational education and training; (2) the quality of the national system and the implications for international recognition of qualifications, including recognition of the accrediting and awarding…

  5. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  6. Speech Recognition: A General Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sopena, Luis

    Speech recognition is one of five main areas in the field of speech processing. Difficulties in speech recognition include variability in sound within and across speakers, in channel, in background noise, and of speech production. Speech recognition can be used in a variety of situations: to perform query operations and phone call transfers; for…

  7. Professional Issues in System Safety Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, John; Thomas, Martyn; Redmill, Felix

    For many years the profession of system safety engineering has been emerging. This paper argues that the time has now come when it requires recognition, a voice, proper governance and leadership. System safety engineering is an amalgam of many disciplines, in particular, software engineering, safety engineering and management, and systems engineering, and this paper shows that system safety engineering must address the most difficult aspects of all of these. But professional matters extend beyond merely technical considerations, and the paper concludes by showing why there is the need for a new professional body.

  8. Audio-visual gender recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  9. Recognition of teaching excellence.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Dana; Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven

    2010-11-10

    The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, alumni, peer, and self-assessment. The task force identifies important considerations that colleges and schools must address when establishing teaching recognition programs including the purpose, criteria, number and mix of awards, frequency, type of award, and method of nominating and determining awardees. The report concludes with recommendations for the academy to consider when establishing and revising teaching award programs.

  10. Homology recognition funnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dominic; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2009-10-01

    The recognition of homologous sequences of DNA before strand exchange is considered to be the most puzzling stage of homologous recombination. A mechanism for two homologous dsDNAs to recognize each other from a distance in electrolytic solution without unzipping had been proposed in an earlier paper [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 366 (2001)]. In that work, the difference in the electrostatic interaction energy between homologous duplexes and between nonhomologous duplexes, termed the recognition energy, has been calculated. That calculation was later extended in a series of papers to account for torsional elasticity of the molecules. A recent paper [A. A. Kornyshev and A. Wynveen, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 4683 (2009)] investigated the form of the potential well that homologous DNA molecules may feel when sliding along each other. A simple formula for the shape of the well was obtained. However, this latter study was performed under the approximation that the sliding molecules are torsionally rigid. Following on from this work, in the present article we investigate the effect of torsional flexibility of the molecules on the shape of the well. A variational approach to this problem results in a transcendental equation that is easily solved numerically. Its solutions show that at large interaxial separations the recognition well becomes wider and shallower, whereas at closer distances further unexpected features arise related to an abrupt change in the mean azimuthal alignment of the molecules. The energy surface as a function of interaxial separation and the axial shift defines what we call the recognition funnel. We show that it depends dramatically on the patterns of adsorption of counterions on DNA.

  11. Using GOMS and Bayesian plan recognition to develop recognition models of operator behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaientz, Jack D.; DeKoven, Elyon; Piegdon, Nicholas; Wood, Scott D.; Huber, Marcus J.

    2006-05-01

    Trends in combat technology research point to an increasing role for uninhabited vehicles in modern warfare tactics. To support increased span of control over these vehicles human responsibilities need to be transformed from tedious, error-prone and cognition intensive operations into tasks that are more supervisory and manageable, even under intensely stressful conditions. The goal is to move away from only supporting human command of low-level system functions to intention-level human-system dialogue about the operator's tasks and situation. A critical element of this process is developing the means to identify when human operators need automated assistance and to identify what assistance they need. Toward this goal, we are developing an unmanned vehicle operator task recognition system that combines work in human behavior modeling and Bayesian plan recognition. Traditionally, human behavior models have been considered generative, meaning they describe all possible valid behaviors. Basing behavior recognition on models designed for behavior generation can offers advantages in improved model fidelity and reuse. It is not clear, however, how to reconcile the structural differences between behavior recognition and behavior modeling approaches. Our current work demonstrates that by pairing a cognitive psychology derived human behavior modeling approach, GOMS, with a Bayesian plan recognition engine, ASPRN, we can translate a behavior generation model into a recognition model. We will discuss the implications for using human performance models in this manner as well as suggest how this kind of modeling may be used to support the real-time control of multiple, uninhabited battlefield vehicles and other semi-autonomous systems.

  12. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition.

    PubMed

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C; Bex, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia--a perceived distortion of visual space--is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment.

  13. Metamorphopsia and letter recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Acuity is the most commonly used measure of visual function, and reductions in acuity are associated with most eye diseases. Metamorphopsia—a perceived distortion of visual space—is another common symptom of visual impairment and is currently assessed qualitatively using Amsler (1953) charts. In order to quantify the impact of metamorphopsia on acuity, we measured the effect of physical spatial distortion on letter recognition. Following earlier work showing that letter recognition is tuned to specific spatial frequency (SF) channels, we hypothesized that the effect of distortion might depend on the spatial scale of visual distortion just as it depends on the spatial scale of masking noise. Six normally sighted observers completed a 26 alternate forced choice (AFC) Sloan letter identification task at five different viewing distances, and the letters underwent different levels of spatial distortion. Distortion was controlled using spatially band-pass filtered noise that spatially remapped pixel locations. Noise was varied over five spatial frequencies and five magnitudes. Performance was modeled with logistic regression and worsened linearly with increasing distortion magnitude and decreasing letter size. We found that retinal SF affects distortion at midrange frequencies and can be explained with the tuning of a basic contrast sensitivity function, while object-centered distortion SF follows a similar pattern of letter object recognition sensitivity and is tuned to approximately three cycles per letter (CPL). The interaction between letter size and distortion makes acuity an unreliable outcome for metamorphopsia assessment. PMID:25453116

  14. A neural network for visual pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, K.

    1988-03-01

    A modeling approach, which is a synthetic approach using neural network models, continues to gain importance. In the modeling approach, the authors study how to interconnect neurons to synthesize a brain model, which is a network with the same functions and abilities as the brain. The relationship between modeling neutral networks and neurophysiology resembles that between theoretical physics and experimental physics. Modeling takes synthetic approach, while neurophysiology or psychology takes an analytical approach. Modeling neural networks is useful in explaining the brain and also in engineering applications. It brings the results of neurophysiological and psychological research to engineering applications in the most direct way possible. This article discusses a neural network model thus obtained, a model with selective attention in visual pattern recognition.

  15. De-coding and re-coding RNA recognition by PUF and PPR repeat proteins.

    PubMed

    Hall, Traci M Tanaka

    2016-02-01

    PUF and PPR proteins are two families of α-helical repeat proteins that recognize single-stranded RNA sequences. Both protein families hold promise as scaffolds for designed RNA-binding domains. A modular protein RNA recognition code was apparent from the first crystal structures of a PUF protein in complex with RNA, and recent studies continue to advance our understanding of natural PUF protein recognition (de-coding) and our ability to engineer specificity (re-coding). Degenerate recognition motifs make de-coding specificity of individual PPR proteins challenging. Nevertheless, re-coding PPR protein specificity using a consensus recognition code has been successful.

  16. Statistical pattern recognition for rock joint images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weixing; Bin, Cui

    2005-10-01

    As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, we sampled a number of rock specimens for analyze rock fracture network by optical image technique. The samples are resin injected, in which way; opened fractures can be seen clearly by means of UV (Ultraviolet) light illumination. In the study period, Recognition of rock fractures is crucial in many rock engineering applications. In order to successfully applying automatic image processing techniques for the problem of automatic (or semi-automatic) rock fracture detection and description, the key (and hardest task) is the automatic detection of fractures robustly in images. When statistical pattern recognition is used to segment a rock joint color image, features of different samples can be learned first, then, each pixel of the image is classified by these features. As the testing result showing, an attribute rock fracture image is segmented satisfactorily by using this way. The method can be widely used for other complicated images too. In this paper, Kernel Fisher discrimination (KFD) is employed to construct a statistical pattern recognition classifier. KFD can transform nonlinear discrimination in an attribute space with high dimension, into linear discrimination in a feature space with low dimension. While one needs not know the detailed mapping form from attribute space to feature space in the process of transformation. It is proved that this method performs well by segmenting complicated rock joint color images.

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers for biomolecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Molinelli, Alexandra; Janotta, Markus; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imprinting of polymers is a concept for the synthetic formation of structurally organized materials providing binding sites with molecular selectivity. Compared to biological receptors, these polymeric recognition systems have the advantage of superior chemical and mechanical stability with potential applications in areas such as biomimetic catalysis and engineering, biomedical analysis, sensor technology, or the food industry. In particular, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) providing selectivity for biorelated molecules are gaining substantial importance. In this context, a self-assembly approach for the synthesis of imprinted polymers against the flavonol quercetin is presented, which is exemplary for the biologically relevant group of flavonoid compounds. The creation of synthetic selective recognition sites for this biomolecule is demonstrated by comparing the separation capabilities of imprinted and nonimprinted polymer particles for several structurally related molecules via high-performance liquid chromatography experiments. The developed quercetin-MIP enables selective extraction of quercetin even from complex mixtures, demonstrating the potential for designing biomimetic recognition materials with improved selectivity for biomolecules with tunable functionality at a nanoscale.

  18. Should engineering ethics be taught?

    PubMed

    Abaté, Charles J

    2011-09-01

    Should engineering ethics be taught? Despite the obvious truism that we all want our students to be moral engineers who practice virtuous professional behavior, I argue, in this article that the question itself obscures several ambiguities that prompt preliminary resolution. Upon clarification of these ambiguities, and an attempt to delineate key issues that make the question a philosophically interesting one, I conclude that engineering ethics not only should not, but cannot, be taught if we understand "teaching engineering ethics" to mean training engineers to be moral individuals (as some advocates seem to have proposed). However, I also conclude that there is a justification to teaching engineering ethics, insofar as we are able to clearly identify the most desirable and efficacious pedagogical approach to the subject area, which I propose to be a case study-based format that utilizes the principle of human cognitive pattern recognition.

  19. Automatic Speech Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potamianos, Gerasimos; Lamel, Lori; Wölfel, Matthias; Huang, Jing; Marcheret, Etienne; Barras, Claude; Zhu, Xuan; McDonough, John; Hernando, Javier; Macho, Dusan; Nadeu, Climent

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a critical component for CHIL services. For example, it provides the input to higher-level technologies, such as summarization and question answering, as discussed in Chapter 8. In the spirit of ubiquitous computing, the goal of ASR in CHIL is to achieve a high performance using far-field sensors (networks of microphone arrays and distributed far-field microphones). However, close-talking microphones are also of interest, as they are used to benchmark ASR system development by providing a best-case acoustic channel scenario to compare against.

  20. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  1. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  2. 3D face database for human pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, LiMei; Lu, Lu

    2008-10-01

    Face recognition is an essential work to ensure human safety. It is also an important task in biomedical engineering. 2D image is not enough for precision face recognition. 3D face data includes more exact information, such as the precision size of eyes, mouth, etc. 3D face database is an important part in human pattern recognition. There is a lot of method to get 3D data, such as 3D laser scan system, 3D phase measurement, shape from shading, shape from motion, etc. This paper will introduce a non-orbit, non-contact, non-laser 3D measurement system. The main idea is from shape from stereo technique. Two cameras are used in different angle. A sequence of light will project on the face. Human face, human head, human tooth, human body can all be measured by the system. The visualization data of each person can form to a large 3D face database, which can be used in human recognition. The 3D data can provide a vivid copy of a face, so the recognition exactness can be reached to 100%. Although the 3D data is larger than 2D image, it can be used in the occasion where only few people include, such as the recognition of a family, a small company, etc.

  3. Sparsity Motivated Automated Target Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-29

    been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of such methods for automatic target...Sparsity-based methods have recently been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of...have recently been suggested for tasks such as face and iris recognition . In this project, we evaluated the effectiveness of such methods for

  4. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf

    2013-01-01

    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  5. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabolsi, Ali; Khashab, Niveen; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Friedman, Douglas C.; Colvin, Michael T.; Cotí, Karla K.; Benítez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Olsen, John-Carl; Belowich, Matthew E.; Carmielli, Raanan; Khatib, Hussam A.; Goddard, William A.; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2010-01-01

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication.

  6. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  7. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  8. A Neural Model of Face Recognition: a Comprehensive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stara, Vera; Montesanto, Anna; Puliti, Paolo; Tascini, Guido; Sechi, Cristina

    Visual recognition of faces is an essential behavior of humans: we have optimal performance in everyday life and just such a performance makes us able to establish the continuity of actors in our social life and to quickly identify and categorize people. This remarkable ability justifies the general interest in face recognition of researchers belonging to different fields and specially of designers of biometrical identification systems able to recognize the features of person's faces in a background. Due to interdisciplinary nature of this topic in this contribute we deal with face recognition through a comprehensive approach with the purpose to reproduce some features of human performance, as evidenced by studies in psychophysics and neuroscience, relevant to face recognition. This approach views face recognition as an emergent phenomenon resulting from the nonlinear interaction of a number of different features. For this reason our model of face recognition has been based on a computational system implemented through an artificial neural network. This synergy between neuroscience and engineering efforts allowed us to implement a model that had a biological plausibility, performed the same tasks as human subjects, and gave a possible account of human face perception and recognition. In this regard the paper reports on an experimental study of performance of a SOM-based neural network in a face recognition task, with reference both to the ability to learn to discriminate different faces, and to the ability to recognize a face already encountered in training phase, when presented in a pose or with an expression differing from the one present in the training context.

  9. Prototyping an in-field collaborative environment for landscape decision support by linking GIS with a game engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Stock, Christian; Bishop, Ian D.; O'Connor, Alice N.

    2006-10-01

    With public environmental awareness increasing, there are growing prospects for access to real-time data anytime and everywhere for decision support involving multiple users not only office-based but also remotely. This paper describes the development of a prototype system implementing an in-field collaborative visualisation environment in order to facilitate decision support in landscape planning and environmental management. Our initial development is based on live linking GIS with a fully immersive collaborative virtual decision environment which uses the commercial low-cost Torque Game Engine (TGE, www.garagegames.com). Game engines provide efficient image rendering, a built-in editor for interactive processing of terrain surface features and, in particular, sophisticated and robust client/server networked functionality for multi-user access. Anticipated research activities include the development of an interfacing Augmented Reality (AR) extension to the system, terrain feature library establishment and the deployment of a pilot project including in field mobile observation.

  10. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  11. Automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  12. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  13. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  14. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply.

  15. Early recognition of speech

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E; Thomas, Emily F

    2013-01-01

    Classic research on the perception of speech sought to identify minimal acoustic correlates of each consonant and vowel. In explaining perception, this view designated momentary components of an acoustic spectrum as cues to the recognition of elementary phonemes. This conceptualization of speech perception is untenable given the findings of phonetic sensitivity to modulation independent of the acoustic and auditory form of the carrier. The empirical key is provided by studies of the perceptual organization of speech, a low-level integrative function that finds and follows the sensory effects of speech amid concurrent events. These projects have shown that the perceptual organization of speech is keyed to modulation; fast; unlearned; nonsymbolic; indifferent to short-term auditory properties; and organization requires attention. The ineluctably multisensory nature of speech perception also imposes conditions that distinguish language among cognitive systems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:213–223. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1213 PMID:23926454

  16. Coordinate Transformations in Object Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Markus

    2006-01-01

    A basic problem of visual perception is how human beings recognize objects after spatial transformations. Three central classes of findings have to be accounted for: (a) Recognition performance varies systematically with orientation, size, and position; (b) recognition latencies are sequentially additive, suggesting analogue transformation…

  17. Automatic Recognition of Deaf Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhamied, Kadry; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a speech perception system for automatic recognition of deaf speech. Using a 2-step segmentation approach for 468 utterances by 2 hearing-impaired men and 2 normal-hearing men, rates as high as 93.01 percent and 81.81 percent recognition were obtained in recognizing from deaf speech isolated words and connected speech,…

  18. Computer image processing and recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic introduction to the concepts and techniques of computer image processing and recognition is presented. Consideration is given to such topics as image formation and perception; computer representation of images; image enhancement and restoration; reconstruction from projections; digital television, encoding, and data compression; scene understanding; scene matching and recognition; and processing techniques for linear systems.

  19. The role of dynamic conformational ensembles in biomolecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Boehr, David D; Nussinov, Ruth; Wright, Peter E

    2009-11-01

    Molecular recognition is central to all biological processes. For the past 50 years, Koshland's 'induced fit' hypothesis has been the textbook explanation for molecular recognition events. However, recent experimental evidence supports an alternative mechanism. 'Conformational selection' postulates that all protein conformations pre-exist, and the ligand selects the most favored conformation. Following binding the ensemble undergoes a population shift, redistributing the conformational states. Both conformational selection and induced fit appear to play roles. Following binding by a primary conformational selection event, optimization of side chain and backbone interactions is likely to proceed by an induced fit mechanism. Conformational selection has been observed for protein-ligand, protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA and RNA-ligand interactions. These data support a new molecular recognition paradigm for processes as diverse as signaling, catalysis, gene regulation and protein aggregation in disease, which has the potential to significantly impact our views and strategies in drug design, biomolecular engineering and molecular evolution.

  20. Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J; Wright, R; Reyna, V F; Mojardin, A H

    2001-03-01

    A new methodology for measuring illusory conscious experience of the "presentation" of unstudied material (phantom recollection) is evaluated that extracts measurements directly from recognition responses, rather than indirectly from introspective reports. Application of this methodology in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Experiments 1 and 2) and in a more conventional paradigm (Experiment 3) showed that 2 processes (phantom recollection and familiarity) contribute to false recognition of semantically related distractors. Phantom recollection was the larger contributor to false recognition of critical distractors in the DRM paradigm, but surprisingly, it was also the larger contributor to false recognition of other types of distractors. Variability in false recognition was tied to variability in phantom recollection. Experimental control of phantom recollection was achieved with manipulations that were motivated by fuzzy-trace theory's hypothesis that the phenomenon is gist-based.

  1. Recognition memory impairments caused by false recognition of novel objects.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Lok-Kin; Ryan, Jennifer D; Cowell, Rosemary A; Barense, Morgan D

    2013-11-01

    A fundamental assumption underlying most current theories of amnesia is that memory impairments arise because previously studied information either is lost rapidly or is made inaccessible (i.e., the old information appears to be new). Recent studies in rodents have challenged this view, suggesting instead that under conditions of high interference, recognition memory impairments following medial temporal lobe damage arise because novel information appears as though it has been previously seen. Here, we developed a new object recognition memory paradigm that distinguished whether object recognition memory impairments were driven by previously viewed objects being treated as if they were novel or by novel objects falsely recognized as though they were previously seen. In this indirect, eyetracking-based passive viewing task, older adults at risk for mild cognitive impairment showed false recognition to high-interference novel items (with a significant degree of feature overlap with previously studied items) but normal novelty responses to low-interference novel items (with a lower degree of feature overlap). The indirect nature of the task minimized the effects of response bias and other memory-based decision processes, suggesting that these factors cannot solely account for false recognition. These findings support the counterintuitive notion that recognition memory impairments in this memory-impaired population are not characterized by forgetting but rather are driven by the failure to differentiate perceptually similar objects, leading to the false recognition of novel objects as having been seen before.

  2. Engineering education in 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Firoz; Sarkar, Rashid; La Brooy, Roger; Chowdhury, Harun

    2016-07-01

    The internationalization of engineering curricula and engineering practices has begun in Europe, Anglosphere (English speaking) nations and Asian emerging economies through the Bologna Process and International Engineering Alliance (Washington Accord). Both the Bologna Process and the Washington Accord have introduced standardized outcome based engineering competencies and frameworks for the attainment of these competencies by restructuring existing and undertaking some new measures for an intelligent adaptation of the engineering curriculum and pedagogy. Thus graduates with such standardized outcome based curriculum can move freely as professional engineers with mutual recognition within member nations. Despite having similar or near similar curriculum, Bangladeshi engineering graduates currently cannot get mutual recognition in nations of Washington Accord and the Bologna Process due to the non-compliance of outcome based curriculum and pedagogy. This paper emphasizes the steps that are required to undertake by the engineering educational institutions and the professional body in Bangladesh to make the engineering competencies, curriculum and pedagogy compliant to the global engineering alliance. Achieving such compliance will usher in a new era for the global mobility and global engagement by Bangladesh trained engineering graduates.

  3. Multi-User Virtual Environments Fostering Collaboration in Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, Nicoletta; Paolini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about how serious games based on MUVEs in formal education can foster collaboration. More specifically, it is about a large case-study with four different programs which took place from 2002 to 2009 and involved more than 9,000 students, aged between 12 and 18, from various nations (18 European countries, Israel and the USA). These…

  4. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  5. MOOsburg: Multi-User Domain Support for a Community Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Rosson, Mary Beth; Isenhour, Philip L.; Van Metre, Christina; Schafer, Wendy A.; Ganoe, Craig H.

    2001-01-01

    Explains MOOsburg, a community-oriented MOO that models the geography of the town of Blacksburg, Virginia and is designed to be used by local residents. Highlights include the software architecture; client-server communication; spatial database; user interface; interaction; map-based navigation; application development; and future plans. (LRW)

  6. Optical disk jukebox performance in multi-user applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Roy, Gautam; Thoma, George R.

    1994-10-01

    The Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, a research and development division of the National Library of Medicine, is evaluating an optical disk jukebox as a digital image store to support prototype systems for image distribution over the Internet. This paper summarizes a study undertaken to determine the performance characteristics of the jukebox to support multiple image databases simultaneously accessed by multiple users. A motivation for this investigation is the need to provide users access to digitized images of medical documents and radiographs.

  7. Adaptive strategy for multi-user robotic rehabilitation games.

    PubMed

    Caurin, Glauco A P; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Andrade, Kleber O; Joaquim, Ricardo C; Krebs, Hermano I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a strategy for the adaptation of the "difficulty level" in games intended to include motor planning during robotic rehabilitation. We consider concurrently the motivation of the user and his/her performance in a Pong game. User motivation is classified in three levels (not motivated, well motivated and overloaded). User performance is measured as a combination of knowledge of results--achieved goals and score points in the game--and knowledge of performance--joint displacement, speed, aiming, user work, etc. Initial results of a pilot test with unimpaired healthy young volunteers are also presented showing a tendency for individualization of the parameter values.

  8. Engineering Practice and Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, William T.; Kline, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Offers ways of applying science and technology studies to the teaching of engineering ethics. Suggests modifications of both detailed case studies on engineering disasters and hypothetical, ethical dilemmas employed in engineering ethics classes. (Author/CCM)

  9. Vocabulary and Environment Adaptation in Vocabulary-Independent Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    normalization (ISDCN) proposed by Acero et al. [2] for microphone adaptation are incorporated into the our VI system to achieve environmental...reverberation from surface reflec- tions, etc. Acero at al. [1,2] proposed a series of environment normal- ization algorithms based on joint...support. References [1] Acero , A. Acoustical and Environmental Robustness in Auto- matic Speech Recognition. Department of Electrical Engineer- ing

  10. Automatic speech recognition using a predictive echo state network classifier.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Mark D; Harris, John G

    2007-04-01

    We have combined an echo state network (ESN) with a competitive state machine framework to create a classification engine called the predictive ESN classifier. We derive the expressions for training the predictive ESN classifier and show that the model was significantly more noise robust compared to a hidden Markov model in noisy speech classification experiments by 8+/-1 dB signal-to-noise ratio. The simple training algorithm and noise robustness of the predictive ESN classifier make it an attractive classification engine for automatic speech recognition.

  11. Recognition of voice commands using adaptation of foreign language speech recognizer via selection of phonetic transcriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Rudzionis, Vytautas

    2011-06-01

    In recent years various commercial speech recognizers have become available. These recognizers provide the possibility to develop applications incorporating various speech recognition techniques easily and quickly. All of these commercial recognizers are typically targeted to widely spoken languages having large market potential; however, it may be possible to adapt available commercial recognizers for use in environments where less widely spoken languages are used. Since most commercial recognition engines are closed systems the single avenue for the adaptation is to try set ways for the selection of proper phonetic transcription methods between the two languages. This paper deals with the methods to find the phonetic transcriptions for Lithuanian voice commands to be recognized using English speech engines. The experimental evaluation showed that it is possible to find phonetic transcriptions that will enable the recognition of Lithuanian voice commands with recognition accuracy of over 90%.

  12. Macromolecular recognition: Recognition of polymer side chains by cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Harada, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of cyclodextrins (CD) with water soluble polymers possessing guest residues has been investigated as model systems in biological molecular recognition. The selectivity of interaction of CD with polymer-carrying guest residues is controlled by polymer chains, i.e., the steric effect of polymer main chain, the conformational effect of polymer main chain, and multi-site interaction. Macroscopic assemblies have been also realized based on molecular recognition using polyacrylamide-based gels possessing CD and guest residues.

  13. Protospacer recognition motifs

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shiraz A.; Erdmann, Susanne; Mojica, Francisco J.M.; Garrett, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) were originally characterized for CRISPR-Cas systems that were classified on the basis of their CRISPR repeat sequences. A few short 2–5 bp sequences were identified adjacent to one end of the protospacers. Experimental and bioinformatical results linked the motif to the excision of protospacers and their insertion into CRISPR loci. Subsequently, evidence accumulated from different virus- and plasmid-targeting assays, suggesting that these motifs were also recognized during DNA interference, at least for the recently classified type I and type II CRISPR-based systems. The two processes, spacer acquisition and protospacer interference, employ different molecular mechanisms, and there is increasing evidence to suggest that the sequence motifs that are recognized, while overlapping, are unlikely to be identical. In this article, we consider the properties of PAM sequences and summarize the evidence for their dual functional roles. It is proposed to use the terms protospacer associated motif (PAM) for the conserved DNA sequence and to employ spacer acqusition motif (SAM) and target interference motif (TIM), respectively, for acquisition and interference recognition sites. PMID:23403393

  14. Recognition of speech spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Greene, B G; Pisoni, D B; Carrell, T D

    1984-07-01

    The performance of eight naive observers in learning to identify speech spectrograms was studied over a 2-month period. Single tokens from a 50-word phonetically balanced (PB) list were recorded by several talkers and displayed on a Spectraphonics Speech Spectrographic Display system. Identification testing occurred immediately after daily training sessions. After approximately 20 h of training, naive subjects correctly identified the 50 PB words from a single talker over 95% of the time. Generalization tests with the same words were then carried out with different tokens from the original talker, new tokens from another male talker, a female talker, and finally, a synthetic talker. The generalization results for these talkers showed recognition performance at 91%, 76%, 76%, and 48%, respectively. Finally, generalization tests with a novel set of PB words produced by the original talker were also carried out to examine in detail the perceptual strategies and visual features that subjects abstracted from the training set. Our results demonstrate that even without formal training in phonetics or acoustics naive observers can learn to identify visual displays of speech at very high levels of accuracy. Analysis of subjects' performance in a verbal protocol task demonstrated that they rely on salient visual correlates of many phonetic features in speech.

  15. Recognition of error symptoms in large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, Ravishankar K.; Sridhar, V.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology for automatically detecting symptoms of frequently occurring errors in large computer systems is developed. The proposed symptom recognition methodology and its validation are based on probabilistic techniques. The technique is shown to work on real failure data from two CYBER systems at the University of Illinois. The methodology allows for the resolution between independent and dependent causes and, also quantifies a measure of the strength of relationship among errors. Comparison made with failure/repair information obtained from field maintenance engineers shows that in 85% of the cases, the error symptoms recognized by our approach correspond to real system problems. Further, the remaining 15% although not directly supported by field data, were confirmed as valid problems. Some of these were shown to be persistent problems which otherwise would have been considered as minor transients and hence ignored.

  16. Reverse control for humanoid robot task recognition.

    PubMed

    Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes.

  17. A Molecular Mechanics Analysis of Molecular Recognition by Cyclodextrin Mimics of Alpha-Chymotrypsin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-26

    Recognition By Cyclodextrin Mimics of Alpha-Chymotrypsin i by C.A. Venanzi. P.M. Canzius, Z. Zhang, and J.D. Bunce LT IC To Be Published in CLECTE JUN 0 51...Clasification) A Molecular Mechanics Analysis of Molecular Recognition By Cyclodextrin Mimics of Alpha-Chymotrypsin. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) C.A. Venanzil... CYCLODEXTRIN MIMICS OF 0( -CHYMOTRYPSIN Carol A. Venanzi1 , Preston M. Canzius, Zhifeng Zhang, and Jeffrey D. Bunce Department of Chemical Engineering

  18. Emotion recognition from physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Gouizi, K; Bereksi Reguig, F; Maaoui, C

    2011-01-01

    Emotion recognition is one of the great challenges in human-human and human-computer interaction. Accurate emotion recognition would allow computers to recognize human emotions and therefore react accordingly. In this paper, an approach for emotion recognition based on physiological signals is proposed. Six basic emotions: joy, sadness, fear, disgust, neutrality and amusement are analysed using physiological signals. These emotions are induced through the presentation of International Affecting Picture System (IAPS) pictures to the subjects. The physiological signals of interest in this analysis are: electromyogram signal (EMG), respiratory volume (RV), skin temperature (SKT), skin conductance (SKC), blood volume pulse (BVP) and heart rate (HR). These are selected to extract characteristic parameters, which will be used for classifying the emotions. The SVM (support vector machine) technique is used for classifying these parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed methodology provides in general a recognition rate of 85% for different emotional states.

  19. Gesture recognition on smart cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziri, Aziz; Chevobbe, Stephane; Darouich, Mehdi

    2013-02-01

    Gesture recognition is a feature in human-machine interaction that allows more natural interaction without the use of complex devices. For this reason, several methods of gesture recognition have been developed in recent years. However, most real time methods are designed to operate on a Personal Computer with high computing resources and memory. In this paper, we analyze relevant methods found in the literature in order to investigate the ability of smart camera to execute gesture recognition algorithms. We elaborate two hand gesture recognition pipelines. The first method is based on invariant moments extraction and the second on finger tips detection. The hand detection method used for both pipeline is based on skin color segmentation. The results obtained show that the un-optimized versions of invariant moments method and finger tips detection method can reach 10 fps on embedded processor and use about 200 kB of memory.

  20. Effective indexing for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochenkov, I.; Sochenkova, A.; Vokhmintsev, A.; Makovetskii, A.; Melnikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Face recognition is one of the most important tasks in computer vision and pattern recognition. Face recognition is useful for security systems to provide safety. In some situations it is necessary to identify the person among many others. In this case this work presents new approach in data indexing, which provides fast retrieval in big image collections. Data indexing in this research consists of five steps. First, we detect the area containing face, second we align face, and then we detect areas containing eyes and eyebrows, nose, mouth. After that we find key points of each area using different descriptors and finally index these descriptors with help of quantization procedure. The experimental analysis of this method is performed. This paper shows that performing method has results at the level of state-of-the-art face recognition methods, but it is also gives results fast that is important for the systems that provide safety.

  1. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Hooper

    1983-01-01

    The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

  2. Neural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  3. Thermal to Visible Face Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    recognition has been an active area of research for the past two decades due its wide range of applications in law enforcement and verification...an ideal modality for nighttime tasks, but the large disparateness between the thermal IR and visible spectrums results in a wide modality gap that...CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK In this study, we investigated the thermal-to-visible face recognition problem, which has a wide modality gap. We showed

  4. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  5. Computer Recognition of Facial Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    effective in identifying those feature vectors which are of most importance in the recognition process . Thus the training procedure generally produces...ga Ente#lodI- i COMPUTER RECOGNITTON OF FACIAL PROFILES iU A Thesis i Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of... thesis , the suggestion that the state of the art in pattern recognition was sufficient to enable a machine capable of recognizing human faces to be built

  6. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  7. Indirect DNA Sequence Recognition and Its Impact on Nuclease Cleavage Activity.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Abigail R; Hallinan, Jazmine P; Shen, Betty W; Chik, Jennifer K; Bolduc, Jill M; Kulshina, Nadia; Robins, Lori I; Kaiser, Brett K; Jarjour, Jordan; Havens, Kyle; Scharenberg, Andrew M; Stoddard, Barry L

    2016-06-07

    LAGLIDADG meganucleases are DNA cleaving enzymes used for genome engineering. While their cleavage specificity can be altered using several protein engineering and selection strategies, their overall targetability is limited by highly specific indirect recognition of the central four base pairs within their recognition sites. In order to examine the physical basis of indirect sequence recognition and to expand the number of such nucleases available for genome engineering, we have determined the target sites, DNA-bound structures, and central four cleavage fidelities of nine related enzymes. Subsequent crystallographic analyses of a meganuclease bound to two noncleavable target sites, each containing a single inactivating base pair substitution at its center, indicates that a localized slip of the mutated base pair causes a small change in the DNA backbone conformation that results in a loss of metal occupancy at one binding site, eliminating cleavage activity.

  8. Recognition Failure: Another Case of Retrieval Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Jan; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of recognition failure and a presentation of seven experiments investigating performance. Recognition failure is reduced when a more stringent recognition criterion is used, essentially eliminated when the proper access test is used and significantly reduced when variability in recognition performance is…

  9. Document Form and Character Recognition using SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Sung; Shin, Young-Geun; Jung, Won-Kyo; Ahn, Dong-Kyu; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Because of development of computer and information communication, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) has been developing. There is OCR (Optical Character Recognition) of Pattern recognition technology for EDI. OCR contributed to changing many manual in the past into automation. But for the more perfect database of document, much manual is needed for excluding unnecessary recognition. To resolve this problem, we propose document form based character recognition method in this study. Proposed method is divided into document form recognition part and character recognition part. Especially, in character recognition, change character into binarization by using SVM algorithm and extract more correct feature value.

  10. Optical engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T T

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Engineering thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was created in the summer of 1996 with the following main objectives: (1) to foster and stimulate leading edge optical engineering research and efforts key to carrying out LLNL's mission and enabling major new programs; (2) to bring together LLNL's broad spectrum of high level optical engineering expertise to support its programs. Optical engineering has become a pervasive and key discipline, with applications across an extremely wide range of technologies, spanning the initial conception through the engineering refinements to enhance revolutionary application. It overlaps other technologies and LLNL engineering thrust areas.

  11. Engineering chemically modified viruses for prostate cancer cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K; Weiss, G A

    2015-12-01

    Specific detection of circulating tumor cells and characterization of their aggressiveness could improve cancer diagnostics and treatment. Metastasis results from such tumor cells, and causes the majority of cancer deaths. Chemically modified viruses could provide an inexpensive and efficient approach to detect tumor cells and quantitate their cell surface biomarkers. However, non-specific adhesion between the cell surface receptors and the virus surface presents a challenge. This report describes wrapping the virus surface with different PEG architectures, including as fusions to oligolysine, linkers, spacers and scaffolded ligands. The reported PEG wrappers can reduce by >75% the non-specific adhesion of phage to cell surfaces. Dynamic light scattering verified the non-covalent attachment by the reported wrappers as increased sizes of the virus particles. Further modifications resulted in specific detection of prostate cancer cells expressing PSMA, a key prostate cancer biomarker. The approach allowed quantification of PSMA levels on the cell surface, and could distinguish more aggressive forms of the disease.

  12. Bidirectional Modulation of Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jonathan W; Poeta, Devon L; Jacobson, Tara K; Zolnik, Timothy A; Neske, Garrett T; Connors, Barry W; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2015-09-30

    Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects. For example, animals and humans with perirhinal damage are unable to distinguish familiar from novel objects in recognition memory tasks. In the normal brain, perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by increasing or decreasing firing rates. Recent work also implicates oscillatory activity in the low-beta and low-gamma frequency bands in sensory detection, perception, and recognition. Using optogenetic methods in a spontaneous object exploration (SOR) task, we altered recognition memory performance in rats. In the SOR task, normal rats preferentially explore novel images over familiar ones. We modulated exploratory behavior in this task by optically stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing perirhinal neurons at various frequencies while rats looked at novel or familiar 2D images. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz during looking caused rats to treat a familiar image as if it were novel by increasing time looking at the image. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz was not effective in increasing exploration of novel images. Stimulation at 10-15 Hz caused animals to treat a novel image as familiar by decreasing time looking at the image, but did not affect looking times for images that were already familiar. We conclude that optical stimulation of PER at different frequencies can alter visual recognition memory bidirectionally. Significance statement: Recognition of novelty and familiarity are important for learning, memory, and decision making. Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects, but how novelty and familiarity are encoded and transmitted in the brain is not known. Perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by changing firing rates, but recent work suggests that brain oscillations may also be important for recognition. In this study, we showed that stimulation of

  13. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  14. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  15. An audiovisual emotion recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

    2007-12-01

    Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

  16. [Creating language model of the forensic medicine domain for developing a autopsy recording system by automatic speech recognition].

    PubMed

    Niijima, H; Ito, N; Ogino, S; Takatori, T; Iwase, H; Kobayashi, M

    2000-11-01

    For the purpose of practical use of speech recognition technology for recording of forensic autopsy, a language model of the speech recording system, specialized for the forensic autopsy, was developed. The language model for the forensic autopsy by applying 3-gram model was created, and an acoustic model for Japanese speech recognition by Hidden Markov Model in addition to the above were utilized to customize the speech recognition engine for forensic autopsy. A forensic vocabulary set of over 10,000 words was compiled and some 300,000 sentence patterns were made to create the forensic language model, then properly mixing with a general language model to attain high exactitude. When tried by dictating autopsy findings, this speech recognition system was proved to be about 95% of recognition rate that seems to have reached to the practical usability in view of speech recognition software, though there remains rooms for improving its hardware and application-layer software.

  17. Space Industry Commercialization: A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinally, Jihan

    The Constellation Program cancellation reversed the government and commercial space industry's roles and relationships by dedicating the majority of the federal funding and opportunities to the commercial space industry and left the government space industry in search of an approach to collaborate with the dominant organization, the commercial space industry service providers. The space industry government agencies, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had realized that to gain resources in the new commercially oriented economic environment, they had to work together and possess the capabilities aligned with the National Space Policy's documented goals. Multi-organizational collaboration in space industry programs is challenging, as NASA, AFSPC, and commercial providers, follow different [1] enterprise architecture guidance such as the NASA systems engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-499 and "A Guide to the systems engineering Body of Knowledge" by the International Council on systems engineering [2] [3]. A solution to streamline their enterprise architecture documentation and meet National Space Policy goals is the Multi-User Architecture Maturity Model Methodology (MAM3), which offers a tailored systems engineering technique the government agencies and private companies can implement for the program's maturity level. In order to demonstrate the MAM3, a CubeSat motivated study was conducted partnering a commercial provider with a government agency. A survey of the commercial space industry service providers' capabilities was performed to select the private companies for the study. Using the survey results, the commercial space industry service providers were ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [4]. The AHP is a structured technique for making complex decisions for representing and quantifying its weights, relating those weights to overall goals, and evaluating alternative solutions [5] - [8]. The weights

  18. Engineering Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  19. Mandarin recognition over the telephone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Yuhung

    1996-06-01

    Mandarin Chinese is the official language in China and Taiwan, it is the native language of a quarter of the world population. As the services enabled by speech recognition technology (e.g. telephone voice dialing, information query) become more popular in English, we would like to extend this capability to other languages. Mandarin is one of the major languages under research in our laboratory. This paper describes how we extend our work in English speech recognition into Mandarin. We will described the corpus: Voice Across Taiwan, the training of a complete set of Mandarin syllable models, preliminary performance results and error analysis. A fast prototyping system was built, where a user can write any context free grammar with no restriction of vocabulary, then the grammar can be compiled into recognition models. It enables user to quickly test the performance of a new vocabulary.

  20. Early development of visual recognition.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio; Domenella, Rosaria Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The most important ability of the human vision is object recognition, yet it is exactly the less understood aspect of the vision system. Computational models have been helpful in progressing towards an explanation of this obscure cognitive ability, and today it is possible to conceive more refined models, thanks to the new availability of neuroscientific data about the human visual cortex. This work proposes a model of the development of the object recognition capability, under a different perspective with respect to the most common approaches, with a precise theoretical epistemology. It is assumed that the main processing functions involved in recognition are not genetically determined and hardwired in the neural circuits, but are the result of interactions between epigenetic influences and the basic neural plasticity mechanisms. The model is organized in modules related with the main visual biological areas, and is implemented mainly using the LISSOM architecture, a recent self-organizing algorithm closely reflecting the essential behavior of cortical circuits.

  1. Effect of retroflex sounds on the recognition of Hindi stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Amita; Agrawal, S. S.; Choudhary, D. Roy

    2001-05-01

    As development of the speech recognition system entirely depends upon the spoken language used for its development and the very fact that speech technology is highly language dependent and reverse engineering is not possible, there is an utmost need to develop such systems for Indian languages. In this paper we present the implementation of a time-delay neural network system (TDNN) in a modular fashion by exploiting the hidden structure of previously phonetic subcategory network for the recognition of Hindi consonants. For the present study we have selected all the Hindi phonemes for the recognition. A vocabulary of 207 Hindi words was designed for the task-specific environment and used as a database. For the recognition of phonemes a three-layered network was constructed and the network was trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm. Experiments were conducted to categorize the Hindi voiced and unvoiced stops, semivowels, vowels, nasals, and fricatives. A close observation of the confusion matrix of Hindi stops revealed maximum confusion of retroflex stops with their nonretroflex counterparts.

  2. Probing binding hot spots at protein–RNA recognition sites

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-01

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein–RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein–RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein–protein and protein–RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein–RNA recognition sites with desired affinity. PMID:26365245

  3. Probing binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites.

    PubMed

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-29

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein-RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein-RNA recognition sites with desired affinity.

  4. Effect of retroflex sounds on the recognition of Hindi stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Amita; Agrawal, S. S.; Choudhary, D. Roy

    2004-05-01

    As development of the speech recognition system entirely depends upon the spoken language used for its development and the very fact that speech technology is highly language dependent and reverse engineering is not possible, there is an utmost need to develop such systems for Indian languages. In this paper we present the implementation of a time-delay neural network system (TDNN) in a modular fashion by exploiting the hidden structure of previously phonetic subcategory network for the recognition of Hindi consonants. For the present study we have selected all the Hindi phonemes for the recognition. A vocabulary of 207 Hindi words was designed for the task-specific environment and used as a database. For the recognition of phonemes a three-layered network was constructed and the network was trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm. Experiments were conducted to categorize the Hindi voiced and unvoiced stops, semivowels, vowels, nasals, and fricatives. A close observation of the confusion matrix of Hindi stops revealed maximum confusion of retroflex stops with their nonretroflex counterparts.

  5. An Engineering Mentor's Take on "FIRST" Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a program that he says has "made being smart cool." "FIRST" (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics has made a significant contribution toward progress in advancing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses and STEM careers with young people. "FIRST" Robotics…

  6. Crystal Engineering: from Structure to Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Mark D.

    2002-03-01

    Modern crystal engineering has emerged as a rich discipline whose success requires an iterative process of synthesis, crystallography, crystal structure analysis, and computational methods. By focusing on the molecular recognition events during nucleation and growth, chemists have uncovered new ways of controlling the internal structure and symmetry of crystals and of producing materials with useful chemical and physical properties.

  7. Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

  8. Iris Recognition for Human Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alandkar, Lajari; Gengaje, Sachin

    2010-11-01

    Iris recognition system is the biometric identification system. Iris has an intricate structure, uniqueness, stability, and natural protection. Due to these features of the iris it can be used for biometric identification. This system gives better performance than other biometric identification systems. A novel eyelash removal method for preprocessing of human iris images in a human iris recognition system is presented.. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) method is used for feature extraction. For matching of two-iris code Hamming distance calculation is used. EER value must be less for the optimum performance of the system.

  9. Engine Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

  10. Ultra-efficient Engine Diameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Brown, Stephen T.; Kawai, Ron T.

    2003-01-01

    Engine fan diameter and Bypass Ratio (BPR) optimization studies have been conducted since the beginning of the turbofan age with the recognition that reducing the engine core jet velocity and increasing fan mass flow rate generally increases propulsive efficiency. However, performance tradeoffs limit the amount of fan flow achievable without reducing airplane efficiency. This study identifies the optimum engine fan diameter and BPR, given the advanced Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) powerplant efficiencies, for use on an advanced subsonic airframe. Engine diameter studies have historically focused on specific engine size options, and were limited by existing technology and transportation infrastructure (e.g., ability to fit bare engines through aircraft doors and into cargo holds). This study is unique in defining the optimum fan diameter and drivers for future 2015 (UEET) powerplants while not limiting engine fan diameter by external constraints. This report follows on to a study identifying the system integration issues of UEET engines. This Engine Diameter study was managed by Boeing Phantom Works, Seattle, Washington through the NASA Glenn Revolutionary Aero Space Engine Research (RASER) contract under task order 10. Boeing Phantom Works, Huntington Beach, completed the engine/airplane sizing optimization, while the Boeing Commercial Airplane group (BCA) provided design oversight. A separate subcontract to support the overall project was issued to Tuskegee University.

  11. Optical character recognition: an illustrated guide to the frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, George; Nartker, Thomas A.; Rice, Stephen V.

    1999-12-01

    We offer a perspective on the performance of current OCR systems by illustrating and explaining actual OCR errors made by three commercial devices. After discussing briefly the character recognition abilities of humans and computers, we present illustrated examples of recognition errors. The top level of our taxonomy of the causes of errors consists of Imaging Defects, Similar Symbols, Punctuation, and Typography. The analysis of a series of 'snippets' from this perspective provides insight into the strengths and weaknesses of current systems, and perhaps a road map to future progress. The examples were drawn from the large-scale tests conducted by the authors at the Information Science Research Institute of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. By way of conclusion, we point to possible approaches for improving the accuracy of today's systems. The talk is based on our eponymous monograph, recently published in The Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999.

  12. Programmable molecular recognition based on the geometry of DNA nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sungwook; Rothemund, Paul W. K.

    2011-08-01

    From ligand-receptor binding to DNA hybridization, molecular recognition plays a central role in biology. Over the past several decades, chemists have successfully reproduced the exquisite specificity of biomolecular interactions. However, engineering multiple specific interactions in synthetic systems remains difficult. DNA retains its position as the best medium with which to create orthogonal, isoenergetic interactions, based on the complementarity of Watson-Crick binding. Here we show that DNA can be used to create diverse bonds using an entirely different principle: the geometric arrangement of blunt-end stacking interactions. We show that both binary codes and shape complementarity can serve as a basis for such stacking bonds, and explore their specificity, thermodynamics and binding rules. Orthogonal stacking bonds were used to connect five distinct DNA origami. This work, which demonstrates how a single attractive interaction can be developed to create diverse bonds, may guide strategies for molecular recognition in systems beyond DNA nanostructures.

  13. Unique Substrate Recognition Mechanism of the Botulinum Neurotoxin D Light Chain*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiubiao; Chen, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins are the most potent protein toxins in nature. Despite the potential to block neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction and cause human botulism, they are widely used in protein therapies. Among the seven botulinum neurotoxin serotypes, mechanisms of substrate recognition and specificity are known to a certain extent in the A, B, E, and F light chains, but not in the D light chain (LC/D). In this study, we addressed the unique substrate recognition mechanism of LC/D and showed that this serotype underwent hydrophobic interactions with VAMP-2 at its V1 motif. The LC/D B3, B4, and B5 binding sites specifically recognize the hydrophobic residues in the V1 motif of VAMP-2. Interestingly, we identified a novel dual recognition mechanism employed by LC/D in recognition of VAMP-2 sites at both the active site and distal binding sites, in which one site of VAMP-2 was recognized by two independent, but functionally similar LC/D sites that were complementary to each other. The dual recognition strategy increases the tolerance of LC/D to mutations and renders it a good candidate for engineering to improve its therapeutic properties. In conclusion, in this study, we identified a unique multistep substrate recognition mechanism by LC/D and provide insights for LC/D engineering and antitoxin development. PMID:23963459

  14. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen MG; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos’ responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species. PMID:26911199

  15. Interval Recognition in Minimal Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzkin, Merton

    1984-01-01

    Music majors were asked to identify interval when it was either preceded or followed by a tone moving in the same direction. Difficulties in interval recognition in context appear to be an effect not just of placement within the context or of tonality, but of particular combinations of these aspects. (RM)

  16. Response Reversals in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Trisha; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a dynamic sequential sampling model and a recently proposed model for confidence judgments in recognition memory (T. Van Zandt, 2000b), the authors examine the tendency for rememberers to reverse their responses after a primary decision. In 4 experiments, speeded "old"-"new" decisions were made under bias followed by a 2nd response', either…

  17. Letter Recognition and Sound Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jennifer

    This lesson, which is most appropriate for kindergartners, reviews letter names and their sounds through a group letter recognition activity, a picture book activity, and alphabet practice with several online activities. During three 30-minute sessions, students will: identify the letters of the alphabet; identify the sounds of letters; identify…

  18. Intelligent Scene Analysis and Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-30

    in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2005, pp. 688–695. [15] J. Vogel and B. Schiele , “A semantic typicality measure for...Computer Vision, vol. 60, pp. 63–86, 2004. [54] M. Stark, M. Goesele, and B. Schiele , “A shape-based object class model for knowledge trans- fer,” in In

  19. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  20. Enduring voice recognition in bonobos.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Sumir; Mathevon, Nicolas; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Guéry, Jean Pascal; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Levréro, Florence

    2016-02-25

    Long-term social recognition is vital for species with complex social networks, where familiar individuals can encounter one another after long periods of separation. For non-human primates who live in dense forest environments, visual access to one another is often limited, and recognition of social partners over distances largely depends on vocal communication. Vocal recognition after years of separation has never been reported in any great ape species, despite their complex societies and advanced social intelligence. Here we show that bonobos, Pan paniscus, demonstrate reliable vocal recognition of social partners, even if they have been separated for five years. We experimentally tested bonobos' responses to the calls of previous group members that had been transferred between captive groups. Despite long separations, subjects responded more intensely to familiar voices than to calls from unknown individuals - the first experimental evidence that bonobos can identify individuals utilising vocalisations even years after their last encounter. Our study also suggests that bonobos may cease to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals after a period of eight years, indicating that voice representations or interest could be limited in time in this species.

  1. Specific and modular binding code for cytosine recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R; Li, Chunhua; Hall, Traci M Tanaka; Wang, Zefeng

    2011-07-29

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  2. Specific and Modular Binding Code for Cytosine Recognition in Pumilio/FBF (PUF) RNA-binding Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shuyun; Wang, Yang; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Lu, Gang; Bigler, Rebecca; Jezyk, Mark R.; Li, Chunhua; Tanaka Hall, Traci M.; Wang, Zefeng

    2011-10-28

    Pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) proteins possess a recognition code for bases A, U, and G, allowing designed RNA sequence specificity of their modular Pumilio (PUM) repeats. However, recognition side chains in a PUM repeat for cytosine are unknown. Here we report identification of a cytosine-recognition code by screening random amino acid combinations at conserved RNA recognition positions using a yeast three-hybrid system. This C-recognition code is specific and modular as specificity can be transferred to different positions in the RNA recognition sequence. A crystal structure of a modified PUF domain reveals specific contacts between an arginine side chain and the cytosine base. We applied the C-recognition code to design PUF domains that recognize targets with multiple cytosines and to generate engineered splicing factors that modulate alternative splicing. Finally, we identified a divergent yeast PUF protein, Nop9p, that may recognize natural target RNAs with cytosine. This work deepens our understanding of natural PUF protein target recognition and expands the ability to engineer PUF domains to recognize any RNA sequence.

  3. Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-14

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engine’s pistons to pump and powers the car. MSU’s engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engine’s rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSU’s redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving parts—reducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

  4. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour.

  5. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Neural Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    inherent in the model. The high gesture recognition rates and quick network retraining times found in the present study suggest that a neural network approach to gesture recognition be further evaluated.

  6. Method and System for Object Recognition Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor); Stubberud, Allen R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for object recognition using shape and color features of the object to be recognized. An adaptive architecture is used to recognize and adapt the shape and color features for moving objects to enable object recognition.

  7. Voice Recognition in Face-Blind Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran R; Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-04-01

    Right or bilateral anterior temporal damage can impair face recognition, but whether this is an associative variant of prosopagnosia or part of a multimodal disorder of person recognition is an unsettled question, with implications for cognitive and neuroanatomic models of person recognition. We assessed voice perception and short-term recognition of recently heard voices in 10 subjects with impaired face recognition acquired after cerebral lesions. All 4 subjects with apperceptive prosopagnosia due to lesions limited to fusiform cortex had intact voice discrimination and recognition. One subject with bilateral fusiform and anterior temporal lesions had a combined apperceptive prosopagnosia and apperceptive phonagnosia, the first such described case. Deficits indicating a multimodal syndrome of person recognition were found only in 2 subjects with bilateral anterior temporal lesions. All 3 subjects with right anterior temporal lesions had normal voice perception and recognition, 2 of whom performed normally on perceptual discrimination of faces. This confirms that such lesions can cause a modality-specific associative prosopagnosia.

  8. Synthetic biology approaches to engineer T cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Rupp, Levi J; Roybal, Kole T; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-08-01

    There is rapidly growing interest in learning how to engineer immune cells, such as T lymphocytes, because of the potential of these engineered cells to be used for therapeutic applications such as the recognition and killing of cancer cells. At the same time, our knowhow and capability to logically engineer cellular behavior is growing rapidly with the development of synthetic biology. Here we describe how synthetic biology approaches are being used to rationally alter the behavior of T cells to optimize them for therapeutic functions. We also describe future developments that will be important in order to construct safe and precise T cell therapeutics.

  9. Invisible Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  10. Aerojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA is developing technology for air-breathing rocket engines that could help make space transportation safe, reliable and affordable for ordinary people. Powered by engines that breathe oxygen from the air, the spacecraft would be completely reusable, take off and land at airport runways, and be ready to fly again within days. The engines would get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engines rely totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn the hydrogen fuel. Once the vehicle's speed increases to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-power mode to propel the vehicle into orbit. This Quick Time movie features an aerojet engine which is the main propulsion system of the X-series future launch vehicles.

  11. Rule-Based Orientation Recognition Of A Moving Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gove, Robert J.

    1989-03-01

    This paper presents a detailed description and a comparative analysis of the algorithms used to determine the position and orientation of an object in real-time. The exemplary object, a freely moving gold-fish in an aquarium, provides "real-world" motion, with definable characteristics of motion (the fish never swims upside-down) and the complexities of a non-rigid body. For simplicity of implementation, and since a restricted and stationary viewing domain exists (fish-tank), we reduced the problem of obtaining 3D correspondence information to trivial alignment calculations by using two cameras orthogonally viewing the object. We applied symbolic processing techniques to recognize the 3-D orientation of a moving object of known identity in real-time. Assuming motion, each new frame (sensed by the two cameras) provides images of the object's profile which has most likely undergone translation, rotation, scaling and/or bending of the non-rigid object since the previous frame. We developed an expert system which uses heuristics of the object's motion behavior in the form of rules and information obtained via low-level image processing (like numerical inertial axis calculations) to dynamically estimate the object's orientation. An inference engine provides these estimates at frame rates of up to 10 per second (which is essentially real-time). The advantages of the rule-based approach to orientation recognition will be compared other pattern recognition techniques. Our results of an investigation of statistical pattern recognition, neural networks, and procedural techniques for orientation recognition will be included. We implemented the algorithms in a rapid-prototyping environment, the TI-Ezplorer, equipped with an Odyssey and custom imaging hardware. A brief overview of the workstation is included to clarify one motivation for our choice of algorithms. These algorithms exploit two facets of the prototype image processing and understanding workstation - both low

  12. Information engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  13. Engineering Curricula in Early Education: Describing the Landscape of Open Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagiati, Aikaterini; Yoon, So Yoon; Evangelou, Demetra; Ngambeki, Ida

    2010-01-01

    National debate about K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education has given rise to questions about appropriate materials for engineering education from prekindergarten through grade 12. Introducing engineering in the early years entails recognition of the need for teachers to understand its content and poses the…

  14. Center Planning and Development Student Engineer at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Kenneth T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This summer I was the Student Trainee (Engineering) Pathways Intern (co-op) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the Center Planning & Development (CPD) Directorate. CPD works with commercial companies who are interested in using KSC's unique capabilities for spaceflight, spacecraft processing, ground systems and Research & Development (R&D) projects that fall in line with NASA's Mission and Vision. CPD is divided into three (3) groups: (1) AD-A, which works on the Master Planning for the center, (2) AD-B (where I am), which works on project control, management and integration, and (3) AD-C, which works on partnership development. CPD's main goal is to make KSC the world's preeminent multi-user spaceport and maintain the center as a leader in space exploration. CPD is a very diverse group of employees having a wide knowledge of not only the Space Shuttle, but also Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV). The director of CPD, Scott Colloredo, is on the advisory board for Commercial Space Operations (CSO) and has a degree from ERAU. I worked on a number of different tasks for AD-B, as well as CPD, that includes, but not limited to: reviewing and reissuing engineering documents, weekly notes for CPD and senior management, engineering familiarizations with facilities at KSC, leading a tour for the Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Career Services office, and working on actual agreements/proposals that will be used in the partnership process with multiple partners, along with other projects. Most of the work I have done is sensitive information and cannot be disclosed.

  15. Engineering ethics beyond engineers' ethics.

    PubMed

    Basart, Josep M; Serra, Montse

    2013-03-01

    Engineering ethics is usually focused on engineers' ethics, engineers acting as individuals. Certainly, these professionals play a central role in the matter, but engineers are not a singularity inside engineering; they exist and operate as a part of a complex network of mutual relationships between many other people, organizations and groups. When engineering ethics and engineers' ethics are taken as one and the same thing the paradigm of the ethical engineer which prevails is that of the heroic engineer, a certain model of the ideal engineer: someone both quite individualistic and strong enough to deal with all the moral challenges that could arise. We argue that this is not the best approach, at least today in our interrelated world. We have achieved a high degree of independence from nature by means of technology. In exchange for this autonomy we have become increasingly tied up with very complex systems to which we constantly delegate new tasks and powers. Concerns about safety keep growing everywhere due to the fact that now we have a sensitive awareness of the huge amount of power we are both consuming and deploying, thus, new forms of dialogue and consensus have to be incorporated at different levels, in different forums and at different times. Within these democratic channels of participation not just the needs and interests, but also the responsibilities and mutual commitments of all parties should be taken into account.

  16. Embedded expert system for space shuttle main engine maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pooley, J.; Thompson, W.; Homsley, T.; Teoh, W.; Jones, J.; Lewallen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The SPARTA Embedded Expert System (SEES) is an intelligent health monitoring system that directs analysis by placing confidence factors on possible engine status and then recommends a course of action to an engineer or engine controller. The technique can prevent catastropic failures or costly rocket engine down time because of false alarms. Further, the SEES has potential as an on-board flight monitor for reusable rocket engine systems. The SEES methodology synergistically integrates vibration analysis, pattern recognition and communications theory techniques with an artificial intelligence technique - the Embedded Expert System (EES).

  17. Continuous speech recognition for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Zafar, A; Overhage, J M; McDonald, C J

    1999-01-01

    The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute "twice a day" for "bid" when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal "usable" hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a "speech quality" sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in the system lagging

  18. Continuous Speech Recognition for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Atif; Overhage, J. Marc; McDonald, Clement J.

    1999-01-01

    The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute “twice a day” for “bid” when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal “usable” hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a “speech quality” sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in

  19. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  20. Molecular Recognition and Ligand Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Riccardo; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We review recent developments in our understanding of molecular recognition and ligand association, focusing on two major viewpoints: (a) studies that highlight new physical insight into the molecular recognition process and the driving forces determining thermodynamic signatures of binding and (b) recent methodological advances in applications to protein-ligand binding. In particular, we highlight the challenges posed by compensating enthalpic and entropic terms, competing solute and solvent contributions, and the relevance of complex configurational ensembles comprising multiple protein, ligand, and solvent intermediate states. As more complete physics is taken into account, computational approaches increase their ability to complement experimental measurements, by providing a microscopic, dynamic view of ensemble-averaged experimental observables. Physics-based approaches are increasingly expanding their power in pharmacology applications.

  1. Holistic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Domenico; Martinelli, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how to prepare high-quality engineers who are better equipped to serve in the changing global marketplace, and suggest educators in pursuing the holistic concept of the "unity of knowledge" that will yield a definition of engineering more fitting for the times ahead. The unity of knowledge is fundamentally…

  2. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  3. Corrosion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  4. Electrochemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses engineering ramifications of electrochemistry, focusing on current/potential distribution, evaluation of trade-offs between influences of different phenomena, use of dimensionless numbers to assist in scale-over to new operating conditions, and economics. Also provides examples of electrochemical engineering education content related to…

  5. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  6. Genetic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  7. Quantum-Limited Image Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    middle of the range, as was done here. This accounts for the majority of the error between thoery and experiment shown in Figs. 5.5 and 5.6. Note that even... USERS Unclassified 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL G. Michael Morris 716-275-5140 D0 FORM...utilized in a cluttered environment. iv The estimation of moment invariants for image recognition is also considered. Experiments are performed that

  8. Speech Recognition in 7 Languages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    best monolingual cross-lingual [10] F. Weng, H. Bratt, L. Neumeyer, and A. Stol- recognizers could not always be tested. cke. A Study of Multilingual ...are r the same tm the proaches, namely portation, cross-lingual and simul- two languages are recognized at the same time, the taneous multilingual ...in cross-lingual will present experiments and results for different ap- recognition for different baseline systems and found proaches of multilingual

  9. Receptive Field Structures for Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    that such statistics might be useful for pattern recognition is not new, indeed Julesz (Julesz 1975) suggested that ‘ needle statistics’ could be useful...Gaussians to be manipulated independently of either one’s spatial constant (Figure 4) In so doing, we lose the ability to create ‘ steerable ’ filters...the goal of sensory coding?" Neural Computation 6: 559-601. Freeman, W. T. and E. H. Adelson (1991). "The design and use of steerable filters

  10. Immune recognition of protein antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Laver, W.G.; Air, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 33 papers. Some of the titles are: Antigenic Structure of Influenze Virus Hemagglutinin; Germ-line and Somatic Diversity in the Antibody Response to the Influenza Virus A/PR/8/34 Hemagglutinin; Recognition of Cloned Influenza A Virus Gene Products by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes; Antigenic Structure of the Influenza Virus N2 Neuraminidase; and The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Antigenic Variation in Gonococcal Pillin.

  11. Perceptual Organization and Visual Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    spatial relations are detected directly amtong two-dimensional image features. A basic requirement of the recognition process is that perceptual organi... excellent facilities that made this work possible, and made many important contributions to the content of this thesis. Chapter 5 is based largely on his...Mackworth, who gave me an excellent grounding in computer vision while I was an undergraduatc at the University of British Columbia and has continued

  12. Hydration of protein–RNA recognition sites

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Amita; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of water molecules in 89 protein–RNA complexes taken from the Protein Data Bank. Those with tRNA and single-stranded RNA are less hydrated than with duplex or ribosomal proteins. Protein–RNA interfaces are hydrated less than protein–DNA interfaces, but more than protein–protein interfaces. Majority of the waters at protein–RNA interfaces makes multiple H-bonds; however, a fraction do not make any. Those making H-bonds have preferences for the polar groups of RNA than its partner protein. The spatial distribution of waters makes interfaces with ribosomal proteins and single-stranded RNA relatively ‘dry’ than interfaces with tRNA and duplex RNA. In contrast to protein–DNA interfaces, mainly due to the presence of the 2′OH, the ribose in protein–RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the phosphate or the bases. The minor groove in protein–RNA interfaces is hydrated more than the major groove, while in protein–DNA interfaces it is reverse. The strands make the highest number of water-mediated H-bonds per unit interface area followed by the helices and the non-regular structures. The preserved waters at protein–RNA interfaces make higher number of H-bonds than the other waters. Preserved waters contribute toward the affinity in protein–RNA recognition and should be carefully treated while engineering protein–RNA interfaces. PMID:25114050

  13. Gender recognition from vocal source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, V. N.; Makarov, I. S.

    2008-07-01

    Efficiency of automatic recognition of male and female voices based on solving the inverse problem for glottis area dynamics and for waveform of the glottal airflow volume velocity pulse is studied. The inverse problem is regularized through the use of analytical models of the voice excitation pulse and of the dynamics of the glottis area, as well as the model of one-dimensional glottal airflow. Parameters of these models and spectral parameters of the volume velocity pulse are considered. The following parameters are found to be most promising: the instant of maximum glottis area, the maximum derivative of the area, the slope of the spectrum of the glottal airflow volume velocity pulse, the amplitude ratios of harmonics of this spectrum, and the pitch. On the plane of the first two main components in the space of these parameters, an almost twofold decrease in the classification error relative to that for the pitch alone is attained. The male voice recognition probability is found to be 94.7%, and the female voice recognition probability is 95.9%.

  14. Face Recognition Incorporating Ancillary Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Ki; Toh, Kar-Ann; Lee, Sangyoun

    2007-12-01

    Due to vast variations of extrinsic and intrinsic imaging conditions, face recognition remained to be a challenging computer vision problem even today. This is particularly true when the passive imaging approach is considered for robust applications. To advance existing recognition systems for face, numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to overcome the almost inevitable performance degradation due to external factors such as pose, expression, occlusion, and illumination. In particular, the recent part-based method has provided noticeable room for verification performance improvement based on the localized features which have good tolerance to variation of external conditions. The part-based method, however, does not really stretch the performance without incorporation of global information from the holistic method. In view of the need to fuse the local information and the global information in an adaptive manner for reliable recognition, in this paper we investigate whether such external factors can be explicitly estimated and be used to boost the verification performance during fusion of the holistic and part-based methods. Our empirical evaluations show noticeable performance improvement adopting the proposed method.

  15. Fingerprint recognition using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dholay, Surekha; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-06-01

    Finger Print Recognition is concerned with the difficult task of matching the images of finger print of a person with the finger print present in the database efficiently. Finger print Recognition is used in forensic science which helps in finding the criminals and also used in authentication of a particular person. Since, Finger print is the only thing which is unique among the people and changes from person to person. The present paper describes finger print recognition methods using various edge detection techniques and also how to detect correct finger print using a camera images. The present paper describes the method that does not require a special device but a simple camera can be used for its processes. Hence, the describe technique can also be using in a simple camera mobile phone. The various factors affecting the process will be poor illumination, noise disturbance, viewpoint-dependence, Climate factors, and Imaging conditions. The described factor has to be considered so we have to perform various image enhancement techniques so as to increase the quality and remove noise disturbance of image. The present paper describe the technique of using contour tracking on the finger print image then using edge detection on the contour and after that matching the edges inside the contour.

  16. Automatic speech recognition technology development at ITT Defense Communications Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, George M.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the applications of automatic speech recognition to defense communication systems is presented. Future research efforts include investigations into the following areas: (1) dynamic programming; (2) recognition of speech degraded by noise; (3) speaker independent recognition; (4) large vocabulary recognition; (5) word spotting and continuous speech recognition; and (6) isolated word recognition.

  17. Infant visual attention and object recognition.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Greg D

    2015-05-15

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy.

  18. Mechanical Engineering Education and Its Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ow, C. S.; Kanan, M. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper addresses historical development in Engineering Education in the country, its evolution till present day efforts toward the formation of Professional Engineers (PE). Of particular interest is the proposed recognition of more than one pathways towards PE Certification amongst member countries of the International Engineering Alliance (IEA). However, Engineering Education of Gen Y poses challenges at maintaining relevant benchmarks at the basic degree level. The widespread use of sophisticated software for simulation work in any undergraduate programme has its sacrifices with respect to emphasis on depth of knowledge. A definite mismatch between what is perceived by the educators and the actual performance of graduates had been identified in a forum and an employment survey conducted by the Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM). Suggestions as to how this can be addressed include the setting up of a Board of Educators to regulate the education industry.

  19. A preliminary analysis of human factors affecting the recognition accuracy of a discrete word recognizer for C3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellen, H. W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature pertaining to Voice Recognition abounds with information relevant to the assessment of transitory speech recognition devices. In the past, engineering requirements have dictated the path this technology followed. But, other factors do exist that influence recognition accuracy. This thesis explores the impact of Human Factors on the successful recognition of speech, principally addressing the differences or variability among users. A Threshold Technology T-600 was used for a 100 utterance vocubalary to test 44 subjects. A statistical analysis was conducted on 5 generic categories of Human Factors: Occupational, Operational, Psychological, Physiological and Personal. How the equipment is trained and the experience level of the speaker were found to be key characteristics influencing recognition accuracy. To a lesser extent computer experience, time or week, accent, vital capacity and rate of air flow, speaker cooperativeness and anxiety were found to affect overall error rates.

  20. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  1. A new concept of vertically integrated pattern recognition associative memory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ted; Hoff, Jim; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing fast pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of the future, and investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. In this paper, we will discuss a new concept of using the emerging 3D vertical integration technology to significantly advance the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP. A generic R and D proposal based on this new concept, with a few institutions involved, has recently been submitted to DOE with the goal to design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. The progress of this R and D project will be reported in the future. Here we will only focus on the concept of this new approach.

  2. Toward an automated signature recognition toolkit for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleghorn, T.; Laird, P; Perrine, L.; Culbert, C.; Macha, M.; Saul, R.; Hammen, D.; Moebes, T.; Shelton, R.

    1994-01-01

    Signature recognition is the problem of identifying an event or events from its time series. The generic problem has numerous applications to science and engineering. At NASA's Johnson Space Center, for example, mission control personnel, using electronic displays and strip chart recorders, monitor telemetry data from three-phase electrical buses on the Space Shuttle and maintain records of device activation and deactivation. Since few electrical devices have sensors to indicate their actual status, changes of state are inferred from characteristic current and voltage fluctuations. Controllers recognize these events both by examining the waveform signatures and by listening to audio channels between ground and crew. Recently the authors have developed a prototype system that identifies major electrical events from the telemetry and displays them on a workstation. Eventually the system will be able to identify accurately the signatures of over fifty distinct events in real time, while contending with noise, intermittent loss of signal, overlapping events, and other complications. This system is just one of many possible signature recognition applications in Mission Control. While much of the technology underlying these applications is the same, each application has unique data characteristics, and every control position has its own interface and performance requirements. There is a need, therefore, for CASE tools that can reduce the time to implement a running signature recognition application from months to weeks or days. This paper describes our work to date and our future plans.

  3. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaleh, Khaled; Al-Rousan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL) alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  4. Learning Compact Binary Face Descriptor for Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiwen; Liong, Venice Erin; Zhou, Xiuzhuang; Zhou, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Binary feature descriptors such as local binary patterns (LBP) and its variations have been widely used in many face recognition systems due to their excellent robustness and strong discriminative power. However, most existing binary face descriptors are hand-crafted, which require strong prior knowledge to engineer them by hand. In this paper, we propose a compact binary face descriptor (CBFD) feature learning method for face representation and recognition. Given each face image, we first extract pixel difference vectors (PDVs) in local patches by computing the difference between each pixel and its neighboring pixels. Then, we learn a feature mapping to project these pixel difference vectors into low-dimensional binary vectors in an unsupervised manner, where 1) the variance of all binary codes in the training set is maximized, 2) the loss between the original real-valued codes and the learned binary codes is minimized, and 3) binary codes evenly distribute at each learned bin, so that the redundancy information in PDVs is removed and compact binary codes are obtained. Lastly, we cluster and pool these binary codes into a histogram feature as the final representation for each face image. Moreover, we propose a coupled CBFD (C-CBFD) method by reducing the modality gap of heterogeneous faces at the feature level to make our method applicable to heterogeneous face recognition. Extensive experimental results on five widely used face datasets show that our methods outperform state-of-the-art face descriptors.

  5. Tailoring nanoparticle surface monolayers for biomolecular recognition and delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agasti, Sarit S.

    Engineering the interfaces between biomolecules and nanomaterials is central to the creation of materials for diverse areas of biomedical applications, including therapy, sensing and imaging. The goal of this research has been oriented toward the tailoring of the interfaces through the atomic level control provided by the organic synthesis. By employing a synergistic approach in the research, combining colloids, surface science, organic synthesis and biology, gold nanoparticles with tailored monolayers have been developed for bio-applications. This thesis illustrates the design and synthesis of these surface functionalized gold nanoparticles and their use in protein surface recognition and delivery systems for therapeutic applications. For protein surface recognition, we have fabricated gold nanoparticles bearing a diversity of amino acids termini and studied their interactions with proteins to elucidate the parameters affecting their interactions and catalytic behavior. In therapeutic applications, we have demonstrated the use of organically tailored nanoparticles for the creation of delivery systems featuring tunable stability and regulated drug release. Additionally, gold nanoparticles functionalized with molecular recognition motif have been used to demonstrate host-guest chemistry inside the living cells for the activation of therapeutic gold nanoparticles.

  6. Orchestration of Molecular Information through Higher Order Chemical Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezza, Brian M.

    Broadly defined, higher order chemical recognition is the process whereby discrete chemical building blocks capable of specifically binding to cognate moieties are covalently linked into oligomeric chains. These chains, or sequences, are then able to recognize and bind to their cognate sequences with a high degree of cooperativity. Principally speaking, DNA and RNA are the most readily obtained examples of this chemical phenomenon, and function via Watson-Crick cognate pairing: guanine pairs with cytosine and adenine with thymine (DNA) or uracil (RNA), in an anti-parallel manner. While the theoretical principles, techniques, and equations derived herein apply generally to any higher-order chemical recognition system, in practice we utilize DNA oligomers as a model-building material to experimentally investigate and validate our hypotheses. Historically, general purpose information processing has been a task limited to semiconductor electronics. Molecular computing on the other hand has been limited to ad hoc approaches designed to solve highly specific and unique computation problems, often involving components or techniques that cannot be applied generally in a manner suitable for precise and predictable engineering. Herein, we provide a fundamental framework for harnessing high-order recognition in a modular and programmable fashion to synthesize molecular information process networks of arbitrary construction and complexity. This document provides a solid foundation for routinely embedding computational capability into chemical and biological systems where semiconductor electronics are unsuitable for practical application.

  7. Engineering Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under Goddard Space Flight Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contracts, AST Engineering Services, Inc. developed a system engineering computer software tool to model how certain applications will affect a proposed system's performance. Quantitative System Engineering (QASE) evaluates system timing, capacity and availability. The system is used to predict performance of proposed real-time, aerospace systems, embedded systems, and/or scientific systems, as well as in support of NASA's EDOS (Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System) initiative.

  8. Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John; Wildasin, Michael; Chaltain, Sam

    2002-01-01

    Tells about schools rewarded for upholding First Amendment protections. Discusses the Let Freedom Ring Award. Considers how even the prestige and honor associated with winning national awards for freedom in the schools does not guarantee success in the ongoing fight to practice what the United States Constitution guarantees and educational logic…

  9. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  10. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  11. Electrochemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard

    1976-01-01

    Discusses an electrochemical engineering course that combines transport phenomena and basic physical chemistry. Lecture notes and homework problems are used instead of a textbook; an outline of lecture topics is presented. (MLH)

  12. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  13. Pattern Recognition for a Flight Dynamics Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Restrepo, Carolina; Hurtado, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The design, analysis, and verification and validation of a spacecraft relies heavily on Monte Carlo simulations. Modern computational techniques are able to generate large amounts of Monte Carlo data but flight dynamics engineers lack the time and resources to analyze it all. The growing amounts of data combined with the diminished available time of engineers motivates the need to automate the analysis process. Pattern recognition algorithms are an innovative way of analyzing flight dynamics data efficiently. They can search large data sets for specific patterns and highlight critical variables so analysts can focus their analysis efforts. This work combines a few tractable pattern recognition algorithms with basic flight dynamics concepts to build a practical analysis tool for Monte Carlo simulations. Current results show that this tool can quickly and automatically identify individual design parameters, and most importantly, specific combinations of parameters that should be avoided in order to prevent specific system failures. The current version uses a kernel density estimation algorithm and a sequential feature selection algorithm combined with a k-nearest neighbor classifier to find and rank important design parameters. This provides an increased level of confidence in the analysis and saves a significant amount of time.

  14. Operations Recognition at Drill-Rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmael, B.; Fruhwirth, R.; Arnaout, A.; Thonhauser, G.

    2012-04-01

    Drilling an oil & gas well is always guided by the demand to prevent crises affecting technique, investment and security. To overcome uncertainties caused by lack of knowledge about geological formations during drilling, real-time sensor measurements are used to support the prediction and thus the prevention of such crises. The proposed method supports the extraction of knowledge from sensor data to improve productivity and performance, prevent from mistakes and resolve problems faster. Many mechanical parameters, such as hookload and block position are continuously measured during drilling oil wells. Considering the amount and complexity of the drilling data, it is a real big challenge for a human expert to discover and understand the patterns within the data. In this work machine learning techniques are applied to discover and understand the patterns occurring in such drilling data. We propose a hierarchical approach for drilling operations recognition to break the total drilling time down into a set of pre-defined operation states. This process supports the drilling engineers not only to measure the performance of the drilling process but also to identify patterns in the data that presumably indicate emerging crises. The proposed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, five principal states describing very basic operational states at the rig will be recognized by use of the sensor data. In the second phase, those principal states will be combined to a set of drilling operational states. The principal operation states can be considered as an intermediate layer between sensor data and high level drilling operations. The five physical states used in the intermediate layer are related to drill string rotation & movement, mud circulation, the actual drilling itself and a state where the drill string is suspended from the hook. All those states are binary (yes/no) except drill string movement which has three values (up/down/static). For recognition of

  15. Speech recognition technology: a critique.

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, S E

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces the session on advanced speech recognition technology. The two papers comprising this session argue that current technology yields a performance that is only an order of magnitude in error rate away from human performance and that incremental improvements will bring us to that desired level. I argue that, to the contrary, present performance is far removed from human performance and a revolution in our thinking is required to achieve the goal. It is further asserted that to bring about the revolution more effort should be expended on basic research and less on trying to prematurely commercialize a deficient technology. PMID:7479808

  16. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchterman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

  17. Speech recognition with amplitude and frequency modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Stickney, Ginger S.; Kong, Ying-Yee; Vongphoe, Michael; Bhargave, Ashish; Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli

    2005-02-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are commonly used in communication, but their relative contributions to speech recognition have not been fully explored. To bridge this gap, we derived slowly varying AM and FM from speech sounds and conducted listening tests using stimuli with different modulations in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant subjects. We found that although AM from a limited number of spectral bands may be sufficient for speech recognition in quiet, FM significantly enhances speech recognition in noise, as well as speaker and tone recognition. Additional speech reception threshold measures revealed that FM is particularly critical for speech recognition with a competing voice and is independent of spectral resolution and similarity. These results suggest that AM and FM provide independent yet complementary contributions to support robust speech recognition under realistic listening situations. Encoding FM may improve auditory scene analysis, cochlear-implant, and audiocoding performance. auditory analysis | cochlear implant | neural code | phase | scene analysis

  18. Automatic face recognition in HDR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Manuela; Moreno, Juan-Carlos; Proença, Hugo; Pinheiro, António M. G.

    2014-05-01

    The gaining popularity of the new High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging systems is raising new privacy issues caused by the methods used for visualization. HDR images require tone mapping methods for an appropriate visualization on conventional and non-expensive LDR displays. These visualization methods might result in completely different visualization raising several issues on privacy intrusion. In fact, some visualization methods result in a perceptual recognition of the individuals, while others do not even show any identity. Although perceptual recognition might be possible, a natural question that can rise is how computer based recognition will perform using tone mapping generated images? In this paper, a study where automatic face recognition using sparse representation is tested with images that result from common tone mapping operators applied to HDR images. Its ability for the face identity recognition is described. Furthermore, typical LDR images are used for the face recognition training.

  19. Foreign Language Analysis and Recognition (FLARE) Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Cleared 29 April 2015 14. ABSTRACT This interim report provides research results in the areas of automatic speech recognition (ASR) and information...retrieval (IR). 15. SUBJECT TERMS Automatic speech recognition (ASR), information retrieval (IR). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...period 1 October 2012 to 30 November 2014 under contract FA8650-09-D-6939. The following tasks were completed on Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR

  20. Gesture Recognition Development for the Interactive Datawall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2007-280 Final Technical Report January 2008 GESTURE RECOGNITION DEVELOPMENT FOR THE INTERACTIVE DATAWALL...DATES COVERED (From - To) Sep 05 – Sep 07 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-05-C-0257 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GESTURE RECOGNITION DEVELOPMENT... gesture recognition technology. Also, due to the large screen size (12’ x 3’) of the DataWall, oftentimes, it is difficult to precisely identify what

  1. Performance Improvements of the Phoneme Recognition Algorithm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    present time, there are commercially available speech recognition machines that perform limited speech recognition. There are still major drawbacks to...to recognize. Even though the training period has been made fairly painless to the user, it still severely limits the vocabulary the machine can...this information to perform the recognition routines. 47 ..- 7f Alterations to the templates’ spectrum file was limited to changing values in the

  2. Face Recognition Performance: Role of Demographic Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    BTAS). His other research interests include pattern recognition and computer vision . Mark J. Burge is a scientist with The MITRE Corporation, McLean... Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2037–2041, 2006. [23] X. Tan and B. Triggs, “Enhanced local texture feature sets for face recognition ...wavelets for face recognition ,” Pattern Analysis & Applications, vol. 9, pp. 273–292, 2006. [25] M. Riesenhuber and T. Poggio, “Hierarchical models of

  3. Sparsity-motivated automatic target recognition.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishal M; Nasrabadi, Nasser M; Chellappa, Rama

    2011-04-01

    We present an automatic target recognition algorithm using the recently developed theory of sparse representations and compressive sensing. We show how sparsity can be helpful for efficient utilization of data for target recognition. We verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm in terms of the recognition rate and confusion matrices on the well known Comanche (Boeing-Sikorsky, USA) forward-looking IR data set consisting of ten different military targets at different orientations.

  4. Nanoscale Engineering of Designer Cellulosomes.

    PubMed

    Gunnoo, Melissabye; Cazade, Pierre-André; Galera-Prat, Albert; Nash, Michael A; Czjzek, Mirjam; Cieplak, Marek; Alvarez, Beatriz; Aguilar, Marina; Karpol, Alon; Gaub, Hermann; Carrión-Vázquez, Mariano; Bayer, Edward A; Thompson, Damien

    2016-07-01

    Biocatalysts showcase the upper limit obtainable for high-speed molecular processing and transformation. Efforts to engineer functionality in synthetic nanostructured materials are guided by the increasing knowledge of evolving architectures, which enable controlled molecular motion and precise molecular recognition. The cellulosome is a biological nanomachine, which, as a fundamental component of the plant-digestion machinery from bacterial cells, has a key potential role in the successful development of environmentally-friendly processes to produce biofuels and fine chemicals from the breakdown of biomass waste. Here, the progress toward so-called "designer cellulosomes", which provide an elegant alternative to enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose breakdown, is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to rational design via computational modeling coupled with nanoscale characterization and engineering tools. Remaining challenges and potential routes to industrial application are put forward.

  5. Characterization of molecular recognition in gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hierlemann, A.; Ricco, A.J.; Bodenhoefer, K.; Goepel, W.

    1998-08-01

    Molecular recognition is an important topic when searching for new, selective coating materials for chemical sensing. Recently, the general idea of molecular recognition in the gas phase was challenged by Grate et al. However, in earlier thickness-shear mode resonator (TSMR) investigations, convincing evidence was presented for specific recognition of particular analyte target molecules. In this study, the authors systematically investigated coatings previously shown to be highly selective, such as the bucket-like cyclodextrins for chiral recognition, Ni-camphorates for the specific detection of the bases pyridine and DMMP (dimethylmethylphosphonate), and phthalocyanines to specifically detect benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX).

  6. Toward the ultimate synthesis/recognition system.

    PubMed

    Furui, S

    1995-10-24

    This paper predicts speech synthesis, speech recognition, and speaker recognition technology for the year 2001, and it describes the most important research problems to be solved in order to arrive at these ultimate synthesis and recognition systems. The problems for speech synthesis include natural and intelligible voice production, prosody control based on meaning, capability of controlling synthesized voice quality and choosing individual speaking style, multilingual and multidialectal synthesis, choice of application-oriented speaking styles, capability of adding emotion, and synthesis from concepts. The problems for speech recognition include robust recognition against speech variations, adaptation/normalization to variations due to environmental conditions and speakers, automatic knowledge acquisition for acoustic and linguistic modeling, spontaneous speech recognition, naturalness and ease of human-machine interaction, and recognition of emotion. The problems for speaker recognition are similar to those for speech recognition. The research topics related to all these techniques include the use of articulatory and perceptual constraints and evaluation methods for measuring the quality of technology and systems.

  7. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-04-01

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features.

  8. Ordinal measures for iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2009-12-01

    Images of a human iris contain rich texture information useful for identity authentication. A key and still open issue in iris recognition is how best to represent such textural information using a compact set of features (iris features). In this paper, we propose using ordinal measures for iris feature representation with the objective of characterizing qualitative relationships between iris regions rather than precise measurements of iris image structures. Such a representation may lose some image-specific information, but it achieves a good trade-off between distinctiveness and robustness. We show that ordinal measures are intrinsic features of iris patterns and largely invariant to illumination changes. Moreover, compactness and low computational complexity of ordinal measures enable highly efficient iris recognition. Ordinal measures are a general concept useful for image analysis and many variants can be derived for ordinal feature extraction. In this paper, we develop multilobe differential filters to compute ordinal measures with flexible intralobe and interlobe parameters such as location, scale, orientation, and distance. Experimental results on three public iris image databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ordinal feature models.

  9. Dynamic Features for Iris Recognition.

    PubMed

    da Costa, R M; Gonzaga, A

    2012-08-01

    The human eye is sensitive to visible light. Increasing illumination on the eye causes the pupil of the eye to contract, while decreasing illumination causes the pupil to dilate. Visible light causes specular reflections inside the iris ring. On the other hand, the human retina is less sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1400 nm, but iris detail can still be imaged with NIR illumination. In order to measure the dynamic movement of the human pupil and iris while keeping the light-induced reflexes from affecting the quality of the digitalized image, this paper describes a device based on the consensual reflex. This biological phenomenon contracts and dilates the two pupils synchronously when illuminating one of the eyes by visible light. In this paper, we propose to capture images of the pupil of one eye using NIR illumination while illuminating the other eye using a visible-light pulse. This new approach extracts iris features called "dynamic features (DFs)." This innovative methodology proposes the extraction of information about the way the human eye reacts to light, and to use such information for biometric recognition purposes. The results demonstrate that these features are discriminating features, and, even using the Euclidean distance measure, an average accuracy of recognition of 99.1% was obtained. The proposed methodology has the potential to be "fraud-proof," because these DFs can only be extracted from living irises.

  10. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  11. Sonority contours in word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, Sean

    2003-04-01

    Contrary to the Generativist distinction between competence and performance which asserts that speech or perception errors are due to random, nonlinguistic factors, it seems likely that errors are principled and possibly governed by some of the same constraints as language. A preliminary investigation of errors modeled after the child's ``Chain Whisper'' game (a degraded stimulus task) suggests that a significant number of recognition errors can be characterized as an improvement in syllable sonority contour towards the linguistically least-marked, voiceless-stop-plus-vowel syllable. An independent study of sonority contours showed that approximately half of the English lexicon can be uniquely identified by their contour alone. Additionally, ``sororities'' (groups of words that share a single sonority contour), surprisingly, show no correlation to familiarity or frequency in either size or membership. Together these results imply that sonority contours may be an important factor in word recognition and in defining word ``neighborhoods.'' Moreover, they suggest that linguistic markedness constraints may be more prevalent in performance-related phenomena than previously accepted.

  12. Automatic testing of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Francart, Tom; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Speech reception tests are commonly administered by manually scoring the oral response of the subject. This requires a test supervisor to be continuously present. To avoid this, a subject can type the response, after which it can be scored automatically. However, spelling errors may then be counted as recognition errors, influencing the test results. We demonstrate an autocorrection approach based on two scoring algorithms to cope with spelling errors. The first algorithm deals with sentences and is based on word scores. The second algorithm deals with single words and is based on phoneme scores. Both algorithms were evaluated with a corpus of typed answers based on three different Dutch speech materials. The percentage of differences between automatic and manual scoring was determined, in addition to the mean difference in speech recognition threshold. The sentence correction algorithm performed at a higher accuracy than commonly obtained with these speech materials. The word correction algorithm performed better than the human operator. Both algorithms can be used in practice and allow speech reception tests with open set speech materials over the internet.

  13. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  14. Dynamic chemistry of anion recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu

    2012-01-01

    In the past 40 years, anion recognition by synthetic receptors has grown into a rich and vibrant research topic, developing into a distinct branch of Supramolecular Chemistry. Traditional anion receptors comprise organic scaffolds functionalized with complementary binding groups that are assembled by multistep organic synthesis. Recently, a new approach to anion receptors has emerged, in which the host is dynamically self-assembled in the presence of the anionic guest, via reversible bond formation between functional building units. While coordination bonds were initially employed for the self-assembly of the anion hosts, more recent studies demonstrated that reversible covalent bonds can serve the same purpose. In both cases, due to their labile connections, the molecular constituents have the ability to assemble, dissociate, and recombine continuously, thereby creating a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) of receptors. The anionic guests, through specific molecular recognition, may then amplify (express) the formation of a particular structure among all possible combinations (real or virtual) by shifting the equilibria involved towards the most optimal receptor. This approach is not limited to solution self-assembly, but is equally applicable to crystallization, where the fittest anion-binding crystal may be selected. Finally, the pros and cons of employing dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) vs molecular design for developing anion receptors, and the implications of both approaches to selective anion separations, will be discussed.

  15. Innate immune recognition of cancer.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seng-Ryong; Corrales, Leticia; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    The observation that a subset of cancer patients show evidence for spontaneous CD8+ T cell priming against tumor-associated antigens has generated renewed interest in the innate immune pathways that might serve as a bridge to an adaptive immune response to tumors. Manipulation of this endogenous T cell response with therapeutic intent-for example, using blocking antibodies inhibiting PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1) interactions-is showing impressive clinical results. As such, understanding the innate immune mechanisms that enable this T cell response has important clinical relevance. Defined innate immune interactions in the cancer context include recognition by innate cell populations (NK cells, NKT cells, and γδ T cells) and also by dendritic cells and macrophages in response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Recent evidence has indicated that the major DAMP driving host antitumor immune responses is tumor-derived DNA, sensed by the stimulator of interferon gene (STING) pathway and driving type I IFN production. A deeper knowledge of the clinically relevant innate immune pathways involved in the recognition of tumors is leading toward new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.

  16. Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Hiott, Jim; Golej, Jim; Plumb, Allan

    1993-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the space shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to reengineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. The latest release of the environment was in Feb. 1992.

  17. Appearance and Reality: Does a Recognition Test Really Improve Subsequent Recall and Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandler, George; Rabinowitz, Jan C.

    1981-01-01

    That additional exposure to memorial material improves subsequent retrieval probabilities was explored. The effect of a recognition test on subsequent recall and recognition of categorized lists was studied. Prior recognition tests increased recall of original items, but also increased intrusions. Similarly, prior exposure increased hit rates and…

  18. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-02-03

    A rotary engine is described comprising: two covers spaced from one another; rotors located between the covers and rotating and planetating in different phases; the rotors interengaging to form working chambers therebetween; means to supply fluid to the working chambers and means to exhaust fluid from the working chambers during the operating cycle of the engine; gearing for synchronizing rotation and planetation of the rotors and each including first and second gears arranged so that one of the gears is connected with the rotors while the other of the gears is connected with an immovable part of the engine and the gears engage with one another; carriers interconnecting the rotors and planetating in the same phase with the planetation of the rotors for synchronizing the rotation and planetation of the rotors; shafts arranged to support the carriers during their planetations; and elements for connecting the covers with one another.

  19. A review of Soviet plasma engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The Soviet Union has maintained a substantial and successful electric propulsion research and development effort since the 1950s; however, American researchers are generally unfamiliar with the Soviet accomplishments. Sources of information about Soviet electric propulsion research are noted. The development of plasma engines, a subset of the electric propulsion effort, is reviewed using numerous Soviet sources. The operational principles and status of several engines of the closed electron drift and high-current types are discussed. With recognition of the limited knowledge of the current Soviet program, the Soviet and American programs are compared, revealing some differences in program formulation and emphasis.

  20. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  1. Place recognition using batlike sonar.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-08-02

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map.

  2. Recognition of caudal regression syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boulas, Mari M

    2009-04-01

    Caudal regression syndrome, also referred to as caudal dysplasia and sacral agenesis syndrome, is a rare congenital malformation characterized by varying degrees of developmental failure early in gestation. It involves the lower extremities, the lumbar and coccygeal vertebrae, and corresponding segments of the spinal cord. This is a rare disorder, and true pathogenesis is unclear. The etiology is thought to be related to maternal diabetes, genetic predisposition, and vascular hypoperfusion, but no true causative factor has been determined. Fetal diagnostic tools allow for early recognition of the syndrome, and careful examination of the newborn is essential to determine the extent of the disorder. Associated organ system dysfunction depends on the severity of the disease. Related defects are structural, and systematic problems including respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, urinary, orthopedic, and neurologic can be present in varying degrees of severity and in different combinations. A multidisciplinary approach to management is crucial. Because the primary pathology is irreversible, treatment is only supportive.

  3. New methods in iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Daugman, John

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonometry and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and "rotating" the eye into orthographic perspective; 3) statistical inference methods for detecting and excluding eyelashes; and 4) exploration of score normalizations, depending on the amount of iris data that is available in images and the required scale of database search. Statistical results are presented based on 200 billion iris cross-comparisons that were generated from 632500 irises in the United Arab Emirates database to analyze the normalization issues raised in different regions of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  4. Automatic recognition of auroral forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudovkin, Mikhail I.; Steen, Ake; Nikolaev, N. V.; Kornilov, O. I.; Brandstrom, Urban; Gustavsson, Bjorn; Rydesater, Peter

    1999-03-01

    A method for recognition of geometrical shapes in auroral forms is presented. The method is based on the analysis of isolines of auroral luminosity shapes. The basic variables used are the angle, (phi) (s), between the tangent of the contour and the x-axis of an arbitrary coordinate system, and the differential, d(phi) (s), as a function of the distance, s, along the contour. The analysis also includes Fourier transformation of the experimental function d(phi) (s) obtained for the observed auroral forms, and the comparison of the power spectrum, F(k), with those for a series of model contours. Some dynamical characteristics of the aurora are also discussed.

  5. Brain wave recognition of words.

    PubMed

    Suppes, P; Lu, Z L; Han, B

    1997-12-23

    Electrical and magnetic brain waves of seven subjects under three experimental conditions were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of seven words was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject and condition. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied widely, but all but one of 24 were significantly different from chance. The two best were above 90%. These results show that brain waves carry substantial information about the word being processed under experimental conditions of conscious awareness.

  6. Pattern recognition systems and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, G. D.; Serreyn, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of the pattern recognition tasks are to develop (1) a man-machine interactive data processing system; and (2) procedures to determine effective features as a function of time for crops and soils. The signal analysis and dissemination equipment, SADE, is being developed as a man-machine interactive data processing system. SADE will provide imagery and multi-channel analog tape inputs for digitation and a color display of the data. SADE is an essential tool to aid in the investigation to determine useful features as a function of time for crops and soils. Four related studies are: (1) reliability of the multivariate Gaussian assumption; (2) usefulness of transforming features with regard to the classifier probability of error; (3) advantage of selecting quantizer parameters to minimize the classifier probability of error; and (4) advantage of using contextual data. The study of transformation of variables (features), especially those experimental studies which can be completed with the SADE system, will be done.

  7. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  8. Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition

    DOEpatents

    Segelke, Brent W.; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-11-06

    A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

  9. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  10. Object Recognition Memory and the Rodent Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Gaskin, Stephane; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR…

  11. Isolated Speech Recognition Using Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    In this project Artificial Neural Networks are used as research tool to accomplish Automated Speech Recognition of normal speech. A small size...the first stage of this work are satisfactory and thus the application of artificial neural networks in conjunction with cepstral analysis in isolated word recognition holds promise.

  12. Recognition hypermnesia: how to get it.

    PubMed

    Bergstein, Jacquelyn; Erdelyi, Matthew

    2008-10-01

    Although recall hypermnesia (enhanced recall) over time with repeated testing has by now become an established empirical fact, its recognition counterpart, recognition hypermnesia, has defied clear-cut laboratory confirmation. In four studies, which relied on the retrieval component of recognition memory, it was shown that recognition memory, indexed by d', reliably improved over three successive recognition tests. The stimuli consisted of 140 cartoons, each comprising a picture and a verbal caption. Recognition memory was tested on transforms or part-forms (parts) of the original stimulus material (pictures only, verbal paraphrases of the pictures, the latent content of the cartoons, or the combination of paraphrases and latent contents). The strongest effects were obtained when the originally presented cartoons were tested on their latent (deep semantic) contents. Recognition hypermnesia for part-forms or transforms of earlier presented stimuli has potentially wide-ranging implications since real-world recognition--of faces, texts, visual scenes--usually involves recognising stimuli that are variants, not exact copies, of the originally encountered materials.

  13. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  14. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  15. Gesture recognition for interactive exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jedediah; Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly B; Scott, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a gesture recognition system which can recognize seated exercises that will be incorporated into an in-home automated interactive exercise program. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are used as a motion classifier, with motion features extracted from the grayscale images and the location of the subject's head estimated at initialization. An overall recognition rate of 94.1% is achieved.

  16. Recognition without Awareness: Encoding and Retrieval Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craik, Fergus I. M.; Rose, Nathan S.; Gopie, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The article reports 4 experiments that explore the notion of recognition without awareness using words as the material. Previous work by Voss and associates has shown that complex visual patterns were correctly selected as targets in a 2-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) recognition test although participants reported that they were guessing. The…

  17. Implicit Relational Effects in Associative Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algarabel, S.; Pitarque, A.; Combita, L. M.; Rodriguez, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    We study the contribution of implicit relatedness to associative recognition in two experiments. In the first experiment, we showed an implicit improvement in recognition when the stimulus elements of each word pair shared common letters and they were unpaired at test. Moreover, when asked to study the stimuli under divided attention, recollection…

  18. Recognition without Awareness: An Elusive Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeneson, Annette; Kirwan, C. Brock; Squire, Larry R.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent studies described conditions under which recognition memory performance appeared to be driven by nondeclarative memory. Specifically, participants successfully discriminated old images from highly similar new images even when no conscious memory for the images could be retrieved. Paradoxically, recognition performance was better when…

  19. Performing speech recognition research with hypercard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a HyperCard-based system for performing speech recognition research and to instruct Human Factors professionals on how to use the system to obtain detailed data about the user interface of a prototype speech recognition application.

  20. Speech recognition: how good is good enough?

    PubMed

    Krohn, Richard

    2002-03-01

    Since its infancy in the early 1990s, the technology of speech recognition has undergone a rapid evolution. Not only has the reliability of the programming improved dramatically, the return on investment has become increasingly compelling. The author describes some of the latest health care applications of speech-recognition technology, and how the next advances will be made in this area.

  1. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  2. Online Handwriting Recognition for Indic Scripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, A.; Madhvanath, Sriganesh

    Online handwriting recognition refers to the problem of machine recognition of handwriting captured in the form of pen trajectories. The recognition technology holds significant promise for Indic scripts, given that the Indic languages are used by a sixth of the world’s population, and the greater ease of use of handwriting-based text input for these scripts compared to keyboard-based methods. Even though the recognition of handwritten Devanagari, Bangla, and Tamil has received significant attention in recent times, one may say that research efforts directed at Indic script recognition in general are in their early stages. The structure of the scripts and the variety of shapes and writing styles pose challenges that are different from other scripts and hence require customized techniques for feature representation and recognition. In this chapter, we describe the challenges in recognizing online handwriting in Indic scripts and provide an overview of the state of the art for isolated character and word recognition. We then present in brief some of the promising applications, starting with handwriting-based text input systems (IMEs) that have been built for entering Indic scripts. In the last section, we provide a few pointers to resources such as tools and data sets that are currently available for online Indic script recognition research. endabstract

  3. Sources of Interference in Recognition Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Jeffrey; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Criss, Amy H.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition memory accuracy is harmed by prior testing (a.k.a., output interference [OI]; Tulving & Arbuckle, 1966). In several experiments, we interpolated various tasks between recognition test trials. The stimuli and the tasks were more similar (lexical decision [LD] of words and nonwords) or less similar (gender identification of male and…

  4. BDNF controls object recognition memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Radiske, Andressa; Rossato, Janine I; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Köhler, Cristiano A; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Cammarota, Martín

    2017-03-06

    Reconsolidation restabilizes memory after reactivation. Previously, we reported that the hippocampus is engaged in object recognition memory reconsolidation to allow incorporation of new information into the original engram. Here we show that BDNF is sufficient for this process, and that blockade of BDNF function in dorsal CA1 impairs updating of the reactivated recognition memory trace.

  5. Proline-rich Sequence Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Schlundt, Andreas; Sticht, Jana; Piotukh, Kirill; Kosslick, Daniela; Jahnke, Nadin; Keller, Sandro; Schuemann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Freund, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The tumor maintenance protein Tsg101 has recently gained much attention because of its involvement in endosomal sorting, virus release, cytokinesis, and cancerogenesis. The ubiquitin-E2-like variant (UEV) domain of the protein interacts with proline-rich sequences of target proteins that contain P(S/T)AP amino acid motifs and weakly binds to the ubiquitin moiety of proteins committed to sorting or degradation. Here we performed peptide spot analysis and phage display to refine the peptide binding specificity of the Tsg101 UEV domain. A mass spectrometric proteomics approach that combines domain-based pulldown experiments, binding site inactivation, and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was then used to delineate the relative importance of the peptide and ubiquitin binding sites. Clearly “PTAP” interactions dominate target recognition, and we identified several novel binders as for example the poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1), Sec24b, NFκB2, and eIF4b. For PABP1 and eIF4b the interactions were confirmed in the context of the corresponding full-length proteins in cellular lysates. Therefore, our results strongly suggest additional roles of Tsg101 in cellular regulation of mRNA translation. Regulation of Tsg101 itself by the ubiquitin ligase TAL (Tsg101-associated ligase) is most likely conferred by a single PSAP binding motif that enables the interaction with Tsg101 UEV. Together with the results from the accompanying article (Kofler, M., Schuemann, M., Merz, C., Kosslick, D., Schlundt, A., Tannert, A., Schaefer, M., Lührmann, R., Krause, E., and Freund, C. (2009) Proline-rich sequence recognition: I. Marking GYF and WW domain assembly sites in early spliceosomal complexes. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 8, 2461–2473) on GYF and WW domain pathways our work defines major proline-rich sequence-mediated interaction networks that contribute to the modular assembly of physiologically relevant protein complexes. PMID:19542561

  6. Optoelectronic-based face recognition versus electronic PCA-based face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsamman, A.

    2003-11-01

    Face recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA) using eigenfaces is popular in face recognition markets. In this paper we present a comparison between various optoelectronic face recognition techniques and principal component analysis (PCA) based technique for face recognition. Computer simulations are used to study the effectiveness of PCA based technique especially for facial images with a high level of distortion. Results are then compared to various distortion-invariant optoelectronic face recognition algorithms such as synthetic discriminant functions (SDF), projection-slice SDF, optical correlator based neural networks, and pose estimation based correlation.

  7. Intact recognition of facial expression, gender, and age in patients with impaired recognition of face identity.

    PubMed

    Tranel, D; Damasio, A R; Damasio, H

    1988-05-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to assess the ability to recognize the meaning of facial expressions, gender, and age in four patients with severe impairments of the recognition of facial identity. In three patients the recognition of face identity could be dissociated from that of facial expression, age, and gender. In one, all forms of face recognition were impaired. Thus, a given lesion may preclude one type of recognition but not another. We conclude that (1) the cognitive demands posed by different forms of recognition are met at different processing levels, and (2) different levels depend on different neural substrates.

  8. Photoreceptor engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Thea; Möglich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory photoreceptors not only control diverse adaptive responses in Nature, but as light-regulated actuators they also provide the foundation for optogenetics, the non-invasive and spatiotemporally precise manipulation of cellular events by light. Novel photoreceptors have been engineered that establish control by light over manifold biological processes previously inaccessible to optogenetic intervention. Recently, photoreceptor engineering has witnessed a rapid development, and light-regulated actuators for the perturbation of a plethora of cellular events are now available. Here, we review fundamental principles of photoreceptors and light-regulated allostery. Photoreceptors dichotomize into associating receptors that alter their oligomeric state as part of light-regulated allostery and non-associating receptors that do not. A survey of engineered photoreceptors pinpoints light-regulated association reactions and order-disorder transitions as particularly powerful and versatile design principles. Photochromic photoreceptors that are bidirectionally toggled by two light colors augur enhanced spatiotemporal resolution and use as photoactivatable fluorophores. By identifying desirable traits in engineered photoreceptors, we provide pointers for the design of future, light-regulated actuators. PMID:26137467

  9. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  10. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  11. Adaptive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderSteen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Engineers today cannot meet their professional obligation to the welfare of society if they do not have a broad, multidisciplinary vision, and yet a multidisciplinary vision is becoming enormously difficult to obtain. A new curriculum must emerge that can integrate a focused, discipline-based scientific approach with an integrated approach. To do…

  12. Engineering seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    N.N, Ambraseys

    1991-01-01

    Twenty years have elasped since the first issue of Earthquakes & Volcanoes. Apart from the remarkable increases in the number of scientists actively enagaged in earth sciences, what are the outstanding achievements during the past 20 years in the field of engineering seismology, which is my own speciality?

  13. Concurrent engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Leger, L.; Hunter, D.; Jones, C.; Sprague, R.; Berke, L.; Newell, J.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: issues (liquid rocket propulsion - current development approach, current certification process, and costs of engineering changes); state of the art (DICE information management system, key government participants, project development strategy, quality management, and numerical propulsion system simulation); needs identified; and proposed program.

  14. Review of chart recognition in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Lu, Xiaoqing; Qin, Yeyang; Tang, Zhi; Xu, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    As an effective information transmitting way, chart is widely used to represent scientific statistics datum in books, research papers, newspapers etc. Though textual information is still the major source of data, there has been an increasing trend of introducing graphs, pictures, and figures into the information pool. Text recognition techniques for documents have been accomplished using optical character recognition (OCR) software. Chart recognition techniques as a necessary supplement of OCR for document images are still an unsolved problem due to the great subjectiveness and variety of charts styles. This paper reviews the development process of chart recognition techniques in the past decades and presents the focuses of current researches. The whole process of chart recognition is presented systematically, which mainly includes three parts: chart segmentation, chart classification, and chart Interpretation. In each part, the latest research work is introduced. In the last, the paper concludes with a summary and promising future research direction.

  15. Small feature recognition of moving targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an approach related to automated recognition of small features of movable targets including fast moving objects such as airplanes, etc. Small features recognition is a challenging problem in both fields: pattern recognition of particular configurations and of complexes comprising a number of configurations. Specific target details, although well characterized by their features are often arranged in an elaborated way which makes the recognition task very difficult and welcomes new ideas (approaches). On the other hand, the variety of small characters (features) is intrinsically linked to the technology development of the identified targets and is unavoidable. Due to the complexity of possible technological designs, the feature representation is one of the key issues in optical pattern recognition. A flexible hierarchical prediction modeling is proposed with application examples.

  16. Enantioselective Recognition by Chiral Supramolecular Gels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Qingxian; Liu, Minghua

    2016-10-06

    Chiral supramolecular gels, in which small organic molecules self-assemble into chiral nanostructures and entangle each other to immobilize solvents through various noncovalent interactions, can work as a matrix for enantioselective recognition on chiral analytes. Through gelation and the formation of well-defined nanostructures, the chiral sense of the component molecules can be accumulated or amplified, and thus, the enantioselective recognition ability can be enhanced. Furthermore, a chiral microenvironment formed in the gel networks could provide additional stereochemical recognition geometry and attribute to efficient recognition. In this focus review, enantioselective recognition on chiral analytes through chiral supramolecular gels, with either amplified signals or the gel-sol phase transition, is discussed. This review is expected to provide useful insights into the design and fabrication of supramolecular gel systems with chiral features and high enantioselectivity.

  17. Macromolecular recognition and macroscopic interactions by cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akira; Takashima, Yoshinori

    2013-10-01

    Herein macromolecular recognition by cyclodextrins (CDs) is summarized. Recognition of macromolecules by CDs is classified as main-chain recognition or side-chain recognition. We found that CDs form inclusion complexes with various polymers with high selectivity. Polyrotaxanes in which many CDs are entrapped in a polymer chain were prepared. Tubular polymers were prepared from the polyrotaxanes. CDs were found to recognize side-chains of polymers selectively. CD host polymers were found to form gels with guest polymers in water. These gels showed self-healing properties. When azobenzene was used as a guest, the gel showed sol-gel transition by photoirradiation. When ferrocene was used, redox-responsive gels were obtained. Macroscopic self-assembly through molecular recognition has been discovered. Photoswitchable gel association and dissociation have been observed.

  18. Engineering Students' Perceptions of Engineering Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivy, V.A.; Sullivan, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The field of engineering is defined by a number of specialty areas, thus most engineering students must decide upon an educational specialty track within the engineering major. Data on familiarity with, and perceptions of similarity among 11 engineering specialties were collected from 129 undergraduate engineering students from a public urban…

  19. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, Edward V.

    1988-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in the context of software engineering: early use of the term; the 1968 NATO conference; Barry Boehm's definition; four requirements fo software engineering; and additional criteria for software engineering. Additionally, the four major requirements for software engineering--computer science, mathematics, engineering disciplines, and excellent communication skills--are discussed. The presentation is given in vugraph form.

  20. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  1. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  2. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  3. Analytical concepts for health management systems of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Richard; Tulpule, Sharayu; Hawman, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Substantial improvement in health management systems performance can be realized by implementing advanced analytical methods of processing existing liquid rocket engine sensor data. In this paper, such techniques ranging from time series analysis to multisensor pattern recognition to expert systems to fault isolation models are examined and contrasted. The performance of several of these methods is evaluated using data from test firings of the Space Shuttle main engines.

  4. Engineering Review Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  5. Apply lightweight recognition algorithms in optical music recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Viet-Khoi; Nguyen, Hai-Dang; Nguyen-Khac, Tung-Anh; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2015-02-01

    The problems of digitalization and transformation of musical scores into machine-readable format are necessary to be solved since they help people to enjoy music, to learn music, to conserve music sheets, and even to assist music composers. However, the results of existing methods still require improvements for higher accuracy. Therefore, the authors propose lightweight algorithms for Optical Music Recognition to help people to recognize and automatically play musical scores. In our proposal, after removing staff lines and extracting symbols, each music symbol is represented as a grid of identical M ∗ N cells, and the features are extracted and classified with multiple lightweight SVM classifiers. Through experiments, the authors find that the size of 10 ∗ 12 cells yields the highest precision value. Experimental results on the dataset consisting of 4929 music symbols taken from 18 modern music sheets in the Synthetic Score Database show that our proposed method is able to classify printed musical scores with accuracy up to 99.56%.

  6. Recognition of a signal peptide by the signal recognition particle

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Claudia Y.; Li, Jade; Oubridge, Chris; Hernández, Helena; Robinson, Carol V.; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Targeting of proteins to appropriate sub-cellular compartments is a crucial process in all living cells. Secretory and membrane proteins usually contain an N-terminal signal peptide, which is recognised by the signal recognition particle (SRP) when nascent polypeptide chains emerge from the ribosome. The SRP-ribosome nascent chain complex is then targeted through its GTP-dependent interaction with SRP-receptor to the protein-conducting channel on endoplasmic reticulum membrane in eukaryotes or plasma membrane in bacteria. A universally conserved component of SRP1, 2, SRP54 or its bacterial homolog, fifty-four homolog (Ffh), binds the signal peptides which have a highly divergent sequence divisible into a positively charged n-region, an h-region commonly containing 8-20 hydrophobic residues and a polar c-region 3-5. No structure has been reported that exemplified SRP54 binding of any signal sequence. We have produced a fusion protein between Sulfolobus solfataricus SRP54 and a signal peptide connected via a flexible linker. This fusion protein oligomerises in solution, through interaction between the SRP54 and signal peptide moieties belonging to different chains, and it is functional, able to bind SRP RNA and SRP-receptor FtsY. Here we present the crystal structure at 3.5 Å resolution of an SRP54-signal peptide complex in the dimer, which reveals how a signal sequence is recognised by SRP54. PMID:20364120

  7. Re-engineering Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard M.; Silevitch, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, leaders gathered by the National Association of Manufacturers declared yet another "STEM" emergency. In the face of global competition, they argued, the number of bachelor's degrees awarded annually to U.S. students in science, math and engineering must double by 2015. In fact, the need for STEM talent is even more critical…

  8. Top-down facilitation of visual recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bar, M.; Kassam, K. S.; Ghuman, A. S.; Boshyan, J.; Schmid, A. M.; Dale, A. M.; Hämäläinen, M. S.; Marinkovic, K.; Schacter, D. L.; Rosen, B. R.; Halgren, E.

    2006-01-01

    Cortical analysis related to visual object recognition is traditionally thought to propagate serially along a bottom-up hierarchy of ventral areas. Recent proposals gradually promote the role of top-down processing in recognition, but how such facilitation is triggered remains a puzzle. We tested a specific model, proposing that low spatial frequencies facilitate visual object recognition by initiating top-down processes projected from orbitofrontal to visual cortex. The present study combined magnetoencephalography, which has superior temporal resolution, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and a behavioral task that yields successful recognition with stimulus repetitions. Object recognition elicited differential activity that developed in the left orbitofrontal cortex 50 ms earlier than it did in recognition-related areas in the temporal cortex. This early orbitofrontal activity was directly modulated by the presence of low spatial frequencies in the image. Taken together, the dynamics we revealed provide strong support for the proposal of how top-down facilitation of object recognition is initiated, and our observations are used to derive predictions for future research. PMID:16407167

  9. The neural substrate of gesture recognition.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Mirta; Fridman, Esteban A; Amengual, Alejandra; Falasco, German; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldan; Gerscovich, Eliana Roldan; Ulloa, Erlinda R; Leiguarda, Ramon C

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have linked action recognition with a particular pool of neurons located in the ventral premotor cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus (the mirror neuron system). However, it is still unclear if transitive and intransitive gestures share the same neural substrates during action-recognition processes. In the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the cortical areas active during recognition of pantomimed transitive actions, intransitive gestures, and meaningless control actions. Perception of all types of gestures engaged the right pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and bilaterally in the posterior superior temporal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, occipitotemporal regions and visual cortices. Activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus region was found in both hemispheres during recognition of transitive and intransitive gestures, and in the right hemisphere during the control condition; the middle temporal gyrus showed activation in the left hemisphere when subjects recognized transitive and intransitive gestures; activation of the left inferior parietal lobe and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) was mainly observed in the left hemisphere during recognition of the three conditions. The most striking finding was the greater activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during recognition of intransitive actions. Results show that a similar neural substrate, albeit, with a distinct engagement underlies the cognitive processing of transitive and intransitive gestures recognition. These findings suggest that selective disruptions in these circuits may lead to distinct clinical deficits.

  10. Heuristics for test recognition using contextual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraghimian, Tony

    1995-01-01

    Competitive electronic imaging systems are emerging due to rapidly declining processing power and storage costs. Imaging converts information on paper to electronic pictures. For applications involving large quantities of paper documents, the resulting pictures are further processed by automated character recognition systems, resulting in a text representation of the original document. Current character recognition accuracy varies from one implementation to the next, and greatly depends on each particular application. We define a set of information fusion rules for combining character recognition system output. The combined result has a higher character recognition accuracy and lower error rate than either of the individual recognizer outputs taken separately. This new set of fusion heuristics takes advantage of the following information from multiple text string recognition systems simultaneously: (1) multiple hypotheses and associated confidences for each character in a text string; (2) multiple text string segmentation hypotheses; (3) separate or combined hypotheses for both uppercase and lowercase alphabetic characters; and (4) overall text string hypotheses and associated confidences. Traditionally, only the last of these four information groups is used for fusion of multiple classifications within character recognition systems. We report on a nationally sponsored character recognition benchmark, with results indicating increased accuracy using the heuristic rules described.

  11. Disintegration, recognition, and violence: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Heitmeyer, Wilhelm; Anhut, Reimund

    2008-01-01

    The literature explaining deviance, criminality, or violence offers a broad spectrum of approaches in criminology and sociology. Mostly the theories focus on specific levels of explanation like the macrolevel (for example, strain theories) or the microlevel (for example, self-control theory).This article presents a relatively new theoretical approach combining different levels and focusing on three dimensions associated with specific kinds of recognition: social-structural, institutional, and socioemotional. The social-structural dimension refers to access to the functional systems of society and the accompanying recognition of position, status, and so on. The institutional dimension concentrates on the opportunity to participate in public affairs with the aim of getting moral recognition. The socioemotional dimension emphasizes the quantity and quality of integration in and social support from families, friends, partners, and so on, which provide emotional recognition.The underlying idea is that lack of access, participation, and belonging causes a lack of recognition. When this happens, social and individual problems increase. Thus, deviant and violent behavior can be seen as one potential reaction to a lack of recognition and as a way to gain status and recognition in a different manner (for example, with a delinquent peer group or other gang).

  12. [Face recognition in patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that patients with schizophrenia show severe deficiencies in social communication skills. These deficiencies are believed to be partly derived from abnormalities in face recognition. However, the exact nature of these abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenic patients with respect to face recognition has yet to be clarified. In the present paper, we review the main findings on face recognition deficiencies in patients with schizophrenia, particularly focusing on abnormalities in the recognition of facial expression and gaze direction, which are the primary sources of information of others' mental states. The existing studies reveal that the abnormal recognition of facial expression and gaze direction in schizophrenic patients is attributable to impairments in both perceptual processing of visual stimuli, and cognitive-emotional responses to social information. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients show malfunctions in distributed neural regions, ranging from the fusiform gyrus recruited in the structural encoding of facial stimuli, to the amygdala which plays a primary role in the detection of the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings were obtained from research in patient groups with heterogeneous characteristics. Because previous studies have indicated that impairments in face recognition in schizophrenic patients might vary according to the types of symptoms, it is of primary importance to compare the nature of face recognition deficiencies and the impairments of underlying neural functions across sub-groups of patients.

  13. Textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Changqin; Ren, Fuji

    2016-05-01

    The growing interest in affective computing (AC) brings a lot of valuable research topics that can meet different application demands in enterprise systems. The present study explores a sub area of AC techniques - textual emotion recognition for enhancing enterprise computing. Multi-label emotion recognition in text is able to provide a more comprehensive understanding of emotions than single label emotion recognition. A representation of 'emotion state in text' is proposed to encompass the multidimensional emotions in text. It ensures the description in a formal way of the configurations of basic emotions as well as of the relations between them. Our method allows recognition of the emotions for the words bear indirect emotions, emotion ambiguity and multiple emotions. We further investigate the effect of word order for emotional expression by comparing the performances of bag-of-words model and sequence model for multi-label sentence emotion recognition. The experiments show that the classification results under sequence model are better than under bag-of-words model. And homogeneous Markov model showed promising results of multi-label sentence emotion recognition. This emotion recognition system is able to provide a convenient way to acquire valuable emotion information and to improve enterprise competitive ability in many aspects.

  14. Selective networks and recognition automata.

    PubMed

    Reeke, G N; Edelman, G M

    1984-01-01

    The results we have presented demonstrate that a network based on a selective principle can function in the absence of forced learning or an a priori program to give recognition, classification, generalization, and association. While Darwin II is not a model of any actual nervous system, it does set out to solve one of the same problems that evolution had to solve--the need to form categories in a bottom-up manner from information in the environment, without incorporating the assumptions of any particular observer. The key features of the model that make this possible are (1) Darwin II incorporates selective networks whose initial specificities enable them to respond without instruction to unfamiliar stimuli; (2) degeneracy provides multiple possibilities of response to any one stimulus, at the same time providing functional redundancy against component failure; (3) the output of Darwin II is a pattern of response, making use of the simultaneous responses of multiple degenerate groups to avoid the need for very high specificity and the combinatorial disaster that would imply; (4) reentry within individual networks vitiates the limitations described by Minsky and Papert for a class of perceptual automata lacking such connections; and (5) reentry between intercommunicating networks with different functions gives rise to new functions, such as association, that either one alone could not display. The two kinds of network are roughly analogous to the two kinds of category formation that people use: Darwin, corresponding to the exemplar description of categories, and Wallace, corresponding to the probabilistic matching description of categories. These principles lead to a new class of pattern-recognizing machine of which Darwin II is just an example. There are a number of obvious extensions to this work that we are pursuing. These include giving Darwin II the capability to deal with stimuli that are in motion, an ability that probably precedes the ability of biological

  15. Heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekos, N. F., Jr.; Parsons, E. L., Jr.

    1989-09-01

    For the past decade, the Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored projects to develop diesel and gas turbine engines capable of operating on low-cost, coal-based fuels. Much of the current work addresses the use of coal-water fuel (CWF) in diesel and turbines, although there is some work with dry coal feed and other coal fuels. Both the diesel and gas turbine portions of the program include proof-of-concept and support projects. Specific highlights of the program include: engine tests and economic analyses have shown that CWF can replace 70 percent of the diesel oil used in the duty cycle of a typical main-line locomotive; A. D. Little and Cooper-Bessemer completed a system and economic study of coal-fueled diesel engines for modular power and industrial cogeneration markets. The coal-fueled diesel was found to be competitive at fuel oil prices of $5.50 per million British thermal units (MBtu); Over 200 hours of testing have been completed using CWF in full-scale, single-cylinder diesel engines. Combustion efficiencies have exceeded 99 percent; Both CWF and dry coal fuel forms can be burned in short residence time in-line combustors and in off-base combustors with a combustion efficiency of over 99 percent; Rich/lean combustion systems employed by the three major DOE contractors have demonstrated low NO(sub x) emissions levels; Contractors have also achieved promising results for controlling sulfur oxide (SO(sub x)) emissions using calcium-based sorbents; Slagging combustors have achieved between 65 and 95 percent slag capture, which will limit particulate loading on pre-turbine cleanup devices. For many of the gas turbine and diesel applications emission standards do not exist. Our goal is to develop coal-fueled diesels and gas turbines that not only meet all applicable emission standards that do exist, but also are capable of meeting possible future standards.

  16. Engineering Tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John

    An ideal textbook for a first tribology course, this book provides an interdisciplinary understanding of the field. It includes materials constraints, real design problems and solutions (such as those for journal and rolling element bearing), cams and followers and heavily loaded gear teeth. Including physics, materials science, and surface and lubricant chemistry, the volume integrates quantitative material from a wide variety of disciplines with traditional engineering approaches.

  17. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  18. Neural speech recognition: continuous phoneme decoding using spatiotemporal representations of human cortical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, David A.; Mesgarani, Nima; Leonard, Matthew K.; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-10-01

    Objective. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) and neighboring brain regions play a key role in human language processing. Previous studies have attempted to reconstruct speech information from brain activity in the STG, but few of them incorporate the probabilistic framework and engineering methodology used in modern speech recognition systems. In this work, we describe the initial efforts toward the design of a neural speech recognition (NSR) system that performs continuous phoneme recognition on English stimuli with arbitrary vocabulary sizes using the high gamma band power of local field potentials in the STG and neighboring cortical areas obtained via electrocorticography. Approach. The system implements a Viterbi decoder that incorporates phoneme likelihood estimates from a linear discriminant analysis model and transition probabilities from an n-gram phonemic language model. Grid searches were used in an attempt to determine optimal parameterizations of the feature vectors and Viterbi decoder. Main results. The performance of the system was significantly improved by using spatiotemporal representations of the neural activity (as opposed to purely spatial representations) and by including language modeling and Viterbi decoding in the NSR system. Significance. These results emphasize the importance of modeling the temporal dynamics of neural responses when analyzing their variations with respect to varying stimuli and demonstrate that speech recognition techniques can be successfully leveraged when decoding speech from neural signals. Guided by the results detailed in this work, further development of the NSR system could have applications in the fields of automatic speech recognition and neural prosthetics.

  19. Structural insights into DNA sequence recognition by Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manasi; Nirwan, Neha; van Aelst, Kara; Szczelkun, Mark D.; Saikrishnan, Kayarat

    2016-01-01

    Engineering restriction enzymes with new sequence specificity has been an unaccomplished challenge, presumably because of the complexity of target recognition. Here we report detailed analyses of target recognition by Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes. We determined the structure of the Type ISP enzyme LlaGI bound to its target and compared it with the previously reported structure of a close homologue that binds to a distinct target, LlaBIII. The comparison revealed that, although the two enzymes use almost a similar set of structural elements for target recognition, the residues that read the bases vary. Change in specificity resulted not only from appropriate substitution of amino acids that contacted the bases but also from new contacts made by positionally distinct residues directly or through a water bridge. Sequence analyses of 552 Type ISP enzymes showed that the structural elements involved in target recognition of LlaGI and LlaBIII were structurally well-conserved but sequentially less-conserved. In addition, the residue positions within these structural elements were under strong evolutionary constraint, highlighting the functional importance of these regions. The comparative study helped decipher a partial consensus code for target recognition by Type ISP enzymes. PMID:26975655

  20. Investigation of Time Series Representations and Similarity Measures for Structural Damage Pattern Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, R. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the time series representation methods and similarity measures for sensor data feature extraction and structural damage pattern recognition. Both model-based time series representation and dimensionality reduction methods are studied to compare the effectiveness of feature extraction for damage pattern recognition. The evaluation of feature extraction methods is performed by examining the separation of feature vectors among different damage patterns and the pattern recognition success rate. In addition, the impact of similarity measures on the pattern recognition success rate and the metrics for damage localization are also investigated. The test data used in this study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES) Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case datasets and damage test data with different damage modalities are used. The simulation results show that both time series representation methods and similarity measures have significant impact on the pattern recognition success rate. PMID:24191136

  1. Isolated digit recognition without time alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Jeffrey Mark

    1994-12-01

    This thesis examines methods for isolated digit recognition without using time alignment. Resource requirements for isolated word recognizers that use time alignment can become prohibitively large as the vocabulary to be classified grows. Thus, methods capable of achieving recognition rates comparable to those obtained with current methods using these techniques are needed. The goals of this research are to find feature sets for speech recognition that perform well without using time alignment, and to identify classifiers that provide good performance with these features. Using the digits from the TI46 database, baseline speaker-independent recognition rates of 95.2% for the complete speaker set and 98.1% for the male speaker set are established using dynamic time warping (DTW). This work begins with features derived from spectrograms of each digit. Based on a critical band frequency scale covering the telephone bandwidth (300-3000 Hz), these critical band energy features are classified alone and in combination with several other feature sets, with several different classifiers. With this method, there is one 'short' feature vector per word. For speaker-independent recognition using the complete speaker set and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) classifier, a recognition rate of 92.4% is achieved. For the same classifier with the male speaker set, a recognition rate of 97.1% is achieved. For the male speaker set, there is no statistical difference between results using DTW, and those using the MLP and no time alignment. This shows that there are feature sets that may provide high recognition rates for isolated word recognition without the need for time alignment.

  2. Web Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  3. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  4. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  5. Recognition in a social symbiosis: chemical phenotypes and nestmate recognition behaviors of neotropical parabiotic ants.

    PubMed

    Emery, Virginia J; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2013-01-01

    Social organisms rank among the most abundant and ecologically dominant species on Earth, in part due to exclusive recognition systems that allow cooperators to be distinguished from exploiters. Exploiters, such as social parasites, manipulate their hosts' recognition systems, whereas cooperators are expected to minimize interference with their partner's recognition abilities. Despite our wealth of knowledge about recognition in single-species social nests, less is known of the recognition systems in multi-species nests, particularly involving cooperators. One uncommon type of nesting symbiosis, called parabiosis, involves two species of ants sharing a nest and foraging trails in ostensible cooperation. Here, we investigated recognition cues (cuticular hydrocarbons) and recognition behaviors in the parabiotic mixed-species ant nests of Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior in North-Eastern Amazonia. We found two sympatric, cryptic Cr. levior chemotypes in the population, with one type in each parabiotic colony. Although they share a nest, very few hydrocarbons were shared between Ca. femoratus and either Cr. levior chemotype. The Ca. femoratus hydrocarbons were also unusually long-chained branched alkenes and dienes, compounds not commonly found amongst ants. Despite minimal overlap in hydrocarbon profile, there was evidence of potential interspecific nestmate recognition -Cr. levior ants were more aggressive toward Ca. femoratus non-nestmates than Ca. femoratus nestmates. In contrast to the prediction that sharing a nest could weaken conspecific recognition, each parabiotic species also maintains its own aggressive recognition behaviors to exclude conspecific non-nestmates. This suggests that, despite cohabitation, parabiotic ants maintain their own species-specific colony odors and recognition mechanisms. It is possible that such social symbioses are enabled by the two species each using their own separate recognition cues, and that interspecific nestmate

  6. A statistical pattern recognition paradigm for structural health monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C. R.; Sohn, H.; Park, G. H.

    2004-01-01

    The process of implementing a damage detection strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). Here damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of these systems, including changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity, which adversely affect the system's current or future performance. Our approach is to address the SHM problem in the context of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm (Farrar, Nix and Doebling, 2001). In this paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. When one attempts to apply this paradigm to data from 'real-world' structures, it quickly becomes apparent that data cleansing, normalization, fusion and compression, which can be implemented with either hardware or software, are inherent in Parts 2-4 of this paradigm. The authors believe that all approaches to SHM, as well as all traditional non-destructive evaluation procedures (e.g. ultrasonic inspection, acoustic emissions, active thermography) can be cast in the context of this statistical pattern recognition paradigm. It should be noted that the statistical modeling portion of the structural health monitoring process has received the least attention in the technical literature. The algorithms used in statistical model development usually fall into the three categories of group classification, regression analysis or outlier detection. The ability to use a particular statistical procedure from one of these categories will depend on the availability of data from both an undamaged and damaged structure. This paper will discuss each portion of the SHM statistical pattern recognition paradigm.

  7. Shape recognition of microbial cells by colloidal cell imprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, Josef; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Paunov, Vesselin N.

    2013-08-01

    We have engineered a class of colloids which can recognize the shape and size of targeted microbial cells and selectively bind to their surfaces. These imprinted colloid particles, which we called ``colloid antibodies'', were fabricated by partial fragmentation of silica shells obtained by templating the targeted microbial cells. We successfully demonstrated the shape and size recognition between such colloidal imprints and matching microbial cells. High percentage of binding events of colloidal imprints with the size matching target particles was achieved. We demonstrated selective binding of colloidal imprints to target microbial cells in a binary mixture of cells of different shapes and sizes, which also resulted in high binding selectivity. We explored the role of the electrostatic interactions between the target cells and their colloid imprints by pre-coating both of them with polyelectrolytes. Selective binding occurred predominantly in the case of opposite surface charges of the colloid cell imprint and the targeted cells. The mechanism of the recognition is based on the amplification of the surface adhesion in the case of shape and size match due to the increased contact area between the target cell and the colloidal imprint. We also tested the selective binding for colloid imprints of particles of fixed shape and varying sizes. The concept of cell recognition by colloid imprints could be used for development of colloid antibodies for shape-selective binding of microbes. Such colloid antibodies could be additionally functionalized with surface groups to enhance their binding efficiency to cells of specific shape and deliver a drug payload directly to their surface or allow them to be manipulated using external fields. They could benefit the pharmaceutical industry in developing selective antimicrobial therapies and formulations.

  8. Purposive recognition: an active and qualitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivlin, Ehud; Aloimonos, Yiannis; Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1992-04-01

    We propose an alternative way to study the problem of visual recognition which is closer to the spirit emerging from Brooks' work on building robots than to Marr's reconstructive approach. Our theory is purposive in the sense that recognition is considered in the context of an agent performing it in an environment, along with the agent's intentions that translate into a set of behaviors; it is qualitative in the sense that only partial recovery is needed; it is active in the sense that various partial recovery tasks need for recognition are achieved through active vision; and it is opportunistic in the sense that every available cue is used.

  9. Automatic recognition of targets from hyperspectra images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampropoulos, George A.; Li, Yifeng; Boulter, James F.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present the formulation of the problem for recognition of targets from hyperspectra images. It is shown that conventional recognition techniques may be extended to hyperspectra images for the distribution process. It is also shown that the recognition process is directly proportional to the number of multispectra frames that represent each target. For the discrimination process we propose a parametric and a nonparametric process in which both are extensions to Fisher and Fukunaga-Mantock methods respectively. Examples that show the composition of hyperspectra features are presented.

  10. Segmentation-free ocular detection and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Andres; Panza, Jeffrey; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    2011-06-01

    Iris recognition is a well-known technique to identify persons. However this technique requires high resolution images in order to automatically segment the iris. In some scenarios obtaining the required resolution may be difficult. In this paper, we investigate the recognition of ocular regions using correlation filters without segmenting the iris region. This method uses the whole eye region and surrounding areas, i.e., the ocular region, for identification. In our experiments we use the recently developed Quadratic Correlation Filter and show that at low resolutions segmentation-free ocular recognition can succeed while iris segmentation fails.

  11. Gait recognition based on integral outline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Guan; Fang, Lv

    2017-02-01

    Biometric identification technology replaces traditional security technology, which has become a trend, and gait recognition also has become a hot spot of research because its feature is difficult to imitate and theft. This paper presents a gait recognition system based on integral outline of human body. The system has three important aspects: the preprocessing of gait image, feature extraction and classification. Finally, using a method of polling to evaluate the performance of the system, and summarizing the problems existing in the gait recognition and the direction of development in the future.

  12. Modelling of DNA-protein recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rein, R.; Garduno, R.; Colombano, S.; Nir, S.; Haydock, K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer model-building procedures using stereochemical principles together with theoretical energy calculations appear to be, at this stage, the most promising route toward the elucidation of DNA-protein binding schemes and recognition principles. A review of models and bonding principles is conducted and approaches to modeling are considered, taking into account possible di-hydrogen-bonding schemes between a peptide and a base (or a base pair) of a double-stranded nucleic acid in the major groove, aspects of computer graphic modeling, and a search for isogeometric helices. The energetics of recognition complexes is discussed and several models for peptide DNA recognition are presented.

  13. Hippocampus and neocortex: recognition and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Vann, Seralynne D; Albasser, Mathieu M

    2011-06-01

    Recognition and spatial memory are typically associated with the perirhinal cortex and hippocampal formation, respectively. Solely focusing on these structures for these specific mnemonic functions may, however, be limiting progress in the field. The distinction between these subdivisions of memory is becoming less defined as, for example, hippocampal cells traditionally considered to encode locations also encode place-object associations. There is increasing evidence for the involvement of overlapping networks of brain structures for aspects of both spatial and recognition memory. Future models of spatial and recognition memory will have to extend beyond the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex to incorporate a wider network of cortical and subcortical structures.

  14. Traditional facial tattoos disrupt face recognition processes.

    PubMed

    Buttle, Heather; East, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.

  15. Cortical Networks for Visual Self-Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    This paper briefly reviews recent developments regarding the brain mechanisms of visual self-recognition. A special cognitive mechanism for visual self-recognition has been postulated based on behavioral and neuropsychological evidence, but its neural substrate remains controversial. Recent functional imaging studies suggest that multiple cortical mechanisms play self-specific roles during visual self-recognition, reconciling the existing controversy. Respective roles for the left occipitotemporal, right parietal, and frontal cortices in symbolic, visuospatial, and conceptual aspects of self-representation have been proposed.

  16. Combinatorial methods for gene recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Pevzner, P.A.

    1997-10-29

    The major result of the project is the development of a new approach to gene recognition called spliced alignment algorithm. They have developed an algorithm and implemented a software tool (for both IBM PC and UNIX platforms) which explores all possible exon assemblies in polynomial time and finds the multi-exon structure with the best fit to a related protein. Unlike other existing methods, the algorithm successfully performs exons assemblies even in the case of short exons or exons with unusual codon usage; they also report correct assemblies for the genes with more than 10 exons provided a homologous protein is already known. On a test sample of human genes with known mammalian relatives the average overlap between the predicted and the actual genes was 99%, which is remarkably well as compared to other existing methods. At that, the algorithm absolute correctly reconstructed 87% of genes. The rare discrepancies between the predicted and real axon-intron structures were restricted either to extremely short initial or terminal exons or proved to be results of alternative splicing. Moreover, the algorithm performs reasonably well with non-vertebrate and even prokaryote targets. The spliced alignment software PROCRUSTES has been in extensive use by the academic community since its announcement in August, 1996 via the WWW server (www-hto.usc.edu/software/procrustes) and by biotech companies via the in-house UNIX version.

  17. DCT-based iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Monro, Donald M; Rakshit, Soumyadip; Zhang, Dexin

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a novel iris coding method based on differences of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of overlapped angular patches from normalized iris images. The feature extraction capabilities of the DCT are optimized on the two largest publicly available iris image data sets, 2,156 images of 308 eyes from the CASIA database and 2,955 images of 150 eyes from the Bath database. On this data, we achieve 100 percent Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) and perfect Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves with no registered false accepts or rejects. Individual feature bit and patch position parameters are optimized for matching through a product-of-sum approach to Hamming distance calculation. For verification, a variable threshold is applied to the distance metric and the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR) are recorded. A new worst-case metric is proposed for predicting practical system performance in the absence of matching failures, and the worst case theoretical Equal Error Rate (EER) is predicted to be as low as 2.59 x 10(-4) on the available data sets.

  18. Viral cell recognition and entry.

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhinovirus infection is initiated by the recognition of a specific cell-surface receptor. The major group of rhinovirus serotypes attach to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The attachment process initiates a series of conformational changes resulting in the loss of genomic RNA from the virion. X-ray crystallography and sequence comparisons suggested that a deep crevice or canyon is the site on the virus recognized by the cellular receptor molecule. This has now been verified by electron microscopy of human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) and HRV16 complexed with a soluble component of ICAM-1. A hydrophobic pocket underneath the canyon is the site of binding of various hydrophobic drug compounds that can inhibit attachment and uncoating. This pocket is also associated with an unidentified, possibly cellular in origin, "pocket factor." The pocket factor binding site overlaps the binding site of the receptor. It is suggested that competition between the pocket factor and receptor regulates the conformational changes required for the initiation of the entry of the genomic RNA into the cell. PMID:7849588

  19. Learning curve of speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Tomi A; Kaipio, Johanna; Koivikko, Mika P

    2013-12-01

    Speech recognition (SR) speeds patient care processes by reducing report turnaround times. However, concerns have emerged about prolonged training and an added secretarial burden for radiologists. We assessed how much proofing radiologists who have years of experience with SR and radiologists new to SR must perform, and estimated how quickly the new users become as skilled as the experienced users. We studied SR log entries for 0.25 million reports from 154 radiologists and after careful exclusions, defined a group of 11 experienced radiologists and 71 radiologists new to SR (24,833 and 122,093 reports, respectively). Data were analyzed for sound file and report lengths, character-based error rates, and words unknown to the SR's dictionary. Experienced radiologists corrected 6 characters for each report and for new users, 11. Some users presented a very unfavorable learning curve, with error rates not declining as expected. New users' reports were longer, and data for the experienced users indicates that their reports, initially equally lengthy, shortened over a period of several years. For most radiologists, only minor corrections of dictated reports were necessary. While new users adopted SR quickly, with a subset outperforming experienced users from the start, identification of users struggling with SR will help facilitate troubleshooting and support.

  20. Place recognition using batlike sonar

    PubMed Central

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14188.001 PMID:27481189

  1. Defining protein electrostatic recognition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Roberts, Victoria A.

    The objective is to elucidate the nature of electrostatic forces controlling protein recognition processes by using a tightly coupled computational and interactive computer graphics approach. The TURNIP program was developed to determine the most favorable precollision orientations for two molecules by systematic search of all orientations and evaluation of the resulting electrostatic interactions. TURNIP was applied to the transient interaction between two electron transfer metalloproteins, plastocyanin and cytochrome c. The results suggest that the productive electron-transfer complex involves interaction of the positive region of cytochrome c with the negative patch of plastocyanin, consistent with experimental data. Application of TURNIP to the formation of the stable complex between the HyHEL-5 antibody and its protein antigen lysozyme showed that long-distance electrostatic forces guide lysozyme toward the HyHEL-5 binding site, but do not fine tune its orientation. Determination of docked antigen/antibody complexes requires including steric as well as electrostatic interactions, as was done for the U10 mutant of the anti-phosphorylcholine antibody S107. The graphics program Flex, a convenient desktop workstation program for visualizing molecular dynamics and normal mode motions, was enhanced. Flex now has a user interface and was rewritten to use standard graphics libraries, so as to run on most desktop workstations.

  2. Distributed nestmate recognition in ants

    PubMed Central

    Esponda, Fernando; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a distributed model of nestmate recognition, analogous to the one used by the vertebrate immune system, in which colony response results from the diverse reactions of many ants. The model describes how individual behaviour produces colony response to non-nestmates. No single ant knows the odour identity of the colony. Instead, colony identity is defined collectively by all the ants in the colony. Each ant responds to the odour of other ants by reference to its own unique decision boundary, which is a result of its experience of encounters with other ants. Each ant thus recognizes a particular set of chemical profiles as being those of non-nestmates. This model predicts, as experimental results have shown, that the outcome of behavioural assays is likely to be variable, that it depends on the number of ants tested, that response to non-nestmates changes over time and that it changes in response to the experience of individual ants. A distributed system allows a colony to identify non-nestmates without requiring that all individuals have the same complete information and helps to facilitate the tracking of changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, because only a subset of ants must respond to provide an adequate response. PMID:25833853

  3. Distributed nestmate recognition in ants.

    PubMed

    Esponda, Fernando; Gordon, Deborah M

    2015-05-07

    We propose a distributed model of nestmate recognition, analogous to the one used by the vertebrate immune system, in which colony response results from the diverse reactions of many ants. The model describes how individual behaviour produces colony response to non-nestmates. No single ant knows the odour identity of the colony. Instead, colony identity is defined collectively by all the ants in the colony. Each ant responds to the odour of other ants by reference to its own unique decision boundary, which is a result of its experience of encounters with other ants. Each ant thus recognizes a particular set of chemical profiles as being those of non-nestmates. This model predicts, as experimental results have shown, that the outcome of behavioural assays is likely to be variable, that it depends on the number of ants tested, that response to non-nestmates changes over time and that it changes in response to the experience of individual ants. A distributed system allows a colony to identify non-nestmates without requiring that all individuals have the same complete information and helps to facilitate the tracking of changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles, because only a subset of ants must respond to provide an adequate response.

  4. Recurrent Processing during Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Randall C.; Wyatte, Dean; Herd, Seth; Mingus, Brian; Jilk, David J.

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of naturally occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain’s visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time. PMID:23554596

  5. Recognition Sequences and Substrate Evolution in Cyanobactin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products are of broad interest because of their intrinsic bioactivities and potential for synthetic biology. The RiPP cyanobactin pathways pat and tru have been experimentally shown to be extremely tolerant of mutations. In nature, the pathways exhibit “substrate evolution”, where enzymes remain constant while the substrates of those enzymes are hypervariable and readily evolvable. Here, we sought to determine the mechanism behind this promiscuity. Analysis of a series of different enzyme–substrate combinations from five different cyanobactin gene clusters, in addition to engineered substrates, led us to define short discrete recognition elements within substrates that are responsible for directing enzymes. We show that these recognition sequences (RSs) are portable and can be interchanged to control which functional groups are added to the final natural product. In addition to the previously assigned N- and C-terminal proteolysis RSs, here we assign the RS for heterocyclization modification. We show that substrate elements can be swapped in vivo leading to successful production of natural products in E. coli. The exchangeability of these elements holds promise in synthetic biology approaches to tailor peptide products in vivo and in vitro. PMID:24625112

  6. Dual strategies for peptidoglycan discrimination by peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs).

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Chittoor P; Brown, Patrick H; Roychowdhury, Abhijit; Wang, Qian; Guan, Rongjin; Silverman, Neal; Goldman, William E; Boons, Geert-Jan; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2006-01-17

    The innate immune system constitutes the first line of defense against microorganisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Although much progress has been made toward identifying key receptors and understanding their role in host defense, far less is known about how these receptors recognize microbial ligands. Such studies have been severely hampered by the need to purify ligands from microbial sources and a reliance on biological assays, rather than direct binding, to monitor recognition. We used synthetic peptidoglycan (PGN) derivatives, combined with microcalorimetry, to define the binding specificities of human and insect peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs). We demonstrate that these innate immune receptors use dual strategies to distinguish between PGNs from different bacteria: one based on the composition of the PGN peptide stem and another that senses the peptide bridge crosslinking the stems. To pinpoint the site of PGRPs that mediates discrimination, we engineered structure-based variants having altered PGN-binding properties. The plasticity of the PGRP-binding site revealed by these mutants suggests an intrinsic capacity of the innate immune system to rapidly evolve specificities to meet new microbial challenges.

  7. Environmental engineering education enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.

    2012-04-01

    Since higher education plays a central role in the development of both human beings and modern societies, enhancing social, cultural and economic development, active citizenship, ethical values and expertises for a sustainable growth, environment respectful, the European Commission promotes a wide range of programmes. Among the EC programmes, the TEMPUS - Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies, with the support of the DG EAC of the European Commission, has contributed to many aspects of general interest for higher education. Curricula harmonization, LifeLong Learning Programme development, ICT use, quality assessment, accreditation, innovation learning methods, growth of networks of institutions trusting each other, are the focused aspects. Such a solid cooperation framework is surely among the main outcomes of the TEMPUS Projects leaded by the University of Firenze UNIFI (Italy), DEREC - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Curriculum (2005-2008), and its spin-off DEREL - Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning (2010-2013), and VICES - Videoconferencing Educational Services (2009-2012). DEREC and DEREL TEMPUS projects, through the co-operation of Universities in Italy, Austria, Germany, Greece, Macedonia, Albania and Serbia, are aimed at the development of first and second level curricula in "Environment and Resources Engineering" at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University - UKIM Skopje (MK). In the DEREC Project the conditions for offering a joint degree title in the field of Environmental Engineering between UNIFI and UKIM Skopje were fulfilled and a shared educational programme leading to the mutual recognition of degree titles was defined. The DEREL project, as logical continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second level curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at UKIM Skopje, University of Novi Sad (RS) and Polytechnic University of Tirana (AL). following

  8. Aesthetics and ethics in engineering: insights from Polanyi.

    PubMed

    Dias, Priyan

    2011-06-01

    Polanyi insisted that scientific knowledge was intensely personal in nature, though held with universal intent. His insights regarding the personal values of beauty and morality in science are first enunciated. These are then explored for their relevance to engineering. It is shown that the practice of engineering is also governed by aesthetics and ethics. For example, Polanyi's three spheres of morality in science--that of the individual scientist, the scientific community and the wider society--has parallel entities in engineering. The existence of shared values in engineering is also demonstrated, in aesthetics through an example that shows convergence of practitioner opinion to solutions that represent accepted models of aesthetics; and in ethics through the recognition that many professional engineering institutions hold that the safety of the public supersedes the interests of the client. Such professional consensus can be seen as justification for studying engineering aesthetics and ethics as inter-subjective disciplines.

  9. Engineering Design Handbook: Value Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-07-20

    worthwhile contribution to those goings-on, is often as important to the employee as the amount of compensation he receives. Training in the elements...be set up for: top management, operational management, operating personnel, and value engineers. 4-2.3.1 TOP Managiement Briefings In these...that is what you are being paid to handle, and the level of compensation is very likely to be (or should be) commensurate with your efficacy in

  10. Temporal regulation of kin recognition maintains recognition-cue diversity and suppresses cheating.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsing-I; Shaulsky, Gad

    2015-05-28

    Kin recognition, the ability to distinguish kin from non-kin, can facilitate cooperation between relatives. Evolutionary theory predicts that polymorphism in recognition cues, which is essential for effective recognition, would be unstable. Individuals carrying rare recognition cues would benefit less from social interactions than individuals with common cues, leading to loss of the genetic-cue diversity. We test this evolutionary hypothesis in Dictyostelium discoideum, which forms multicellular fruiting bodies by aggregation and utilizes two polymorphic membrane proteins to facilitate preferential cooperation. Surprisingly, we find that rare recognition variants are tolerated and maintain their frequencies among incompatible majority during development. Although the rare variants are initially excluded from the aggregates, they subsequently rejoin the aggregate and produce spores. Social cheating is also refrained in late development, thus limiting the cost of chimerism. Our results suggest a potential mechanism to sustain the evolutionary stability of kin-recognition genes and to suppress cheating.

  11. When false recognition is unopposed by true recognition: gist-based memory distortion in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Budson, A E; Daffner, K R; Desikan, R; Schacter, D L

    2000-04-01

    The authors examined false recognition of semantic associates in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), older adults, and young adults using a paradigm that provided rates of false recognition after single and multiple exposures to word lists. Using corrected false recognition scores to control for unrelated false alarms, the authors found that (a) the level of false recognition after a single list exposure was lower in AD patients than in controls; (b) across 5 trials, false recognition increased in AD patients, decreased in young adults, and showed a fluctuating pattern in older adults; and (c) all groups showed an increase in true recognition over the 5 trials. Analyses suggested that AD patients built up semantic gist across trials, whereas both control groups were able to use increased item-specific recollection and more conservative response criteria to suppress gist-based false alarms.

  12. Shape recognition for capacitive touch display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarneri, I.; Capra, A.; Farinella, G. M.; Battiato, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present a technique to classify five common classes of shapes acquired with a capacitive touch display: finger, ear, cheek, hand hold, half ear-half cheek. The need of algorithms able to discriminate among the aforementioned shapes comes from the growing diffusion of touch screen based consumer devices (e.g. smartphones, tablet, etc.). In this context, detection and the recognition of fingers are fundamental tasks in many touch based user applications (e.g., mobile games). Shape recognition algorithms are also extremely useful to identify accidental touches in order to avoid involuntary activation of the device functionalities (e.g., accidental calls). Our solution makes use of simple descriptors designed to capture discriminative information of the considered classes of shapes. The recognition is performed through a decision tree based approach whose parameters are learned on a set of labeled samples. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves good recognition accuracy.

  13. History of Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism for signaling pregnancy recognition is highly variable among species, and the signaling molecule itself varies between estrogens in pigs to chorionic gonadotrophin in primates. This chapter provides insight into the menstrual cycle of women and estrous cycles of rodents, dog, cat, pigs, sheep, rabbits, and marsupials, as well as the hormones required for pregnancy recognition. Pregnancy recognition involves specific hormones such as prolactin in rodents or interferons in ruminants and estrogens in pigs that in their own way ensure the maintenance of the corpus luteum and its secretion of progesterone which is the hormone of pregnancy. However, these pregnancy recognition signals may also modify gene expression in a cell-specific and temporal manner to ensure the growth and development of the conceptus. This chapter provides some historical aspects of the development of understanding of mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in several species of mammals.

  14. Relevance feedback-based building recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Allinson, Nigel M.

    2010-07-01

    Building recognition is a nontrivial task in computer vision research which can be utilized in robot localization, mobile navigation, etc. However, existing building recognition systems usually encounter the following two problems: 1) extracted low level features cannot reveal the true semantic concepts; and 2) they usually involve high dimensional data which require heavy computational costs and memory. Relevance feedback (RF), widely applied in multimedia information retrieval, is able to bridge the gap between the low level visual features and high level concepts; while dimensionality reduction methods can mitigate the high-dimensional problem. In this paper, we propose a building recognition scheme which integrates the RF and subspace learning algorithms. Experimental results undertaken on our own building database show that the newly proposed scheme appreciably enhances the recognition accuracy.

  15. A Neural Network Based Speech Recognition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    encoder and identifies individual words. This use of neural networks offers two advantages over conventional algorithmic detectors: the detection...environment. Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Neural networks : Back propagation; Speech recognition.

  16. Offline Arabic handwriting recognition: a survey.

    PubMed

    Lorigo, Liana M; Govindaraju, Venu

    2006-05-01

    The automatic recognition of text on scanned images has enabled many applications such as searching for words in large volumes of documents, automatic sorting of postal mail, and convenient editing of previously printed documents. The domain of handwriting in the Arabic script presents unique technical challenges and has been addressed more recently than other domains. Many different methods have been proposed and applied to various types of images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these methods. It is the first survey to focus on Arabic handwriting recognition and the first Arabic character recognition survey to provide recognition rates and descriptions of test data for the approaches discussed. It includes background on the field, discussion of the methods, and future research directions.

  17. Visual cluster analysis and pattern recognition methods

    DOEpatents

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil; Martinez, Rubel Francisco

    2001-01-01

    A method of clustering using a novel template to define a region of influence. Using neighboring approximation methods, computation times can be significantly reduced. The template and method are applicable and improve pattern recognition techniques.

  18. Speech therapy and voice recognition instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J.; Babcock, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of electronic circuit for examining variations in vocal excitation for diagnostic purposes and in speech recognition for determiniog voice patterns and pitch changes are described. Operation of the circuit is discussed and circuit diagram is provided.

  19. Hand gesture recognition based on surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Samadani, Ali-Akbar; Kulic, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Human hands are the most dexterous of human limbs and hand gestures play an important role in non-verbal communication. Underlying electromyograms associated with hand gestures provide a wealth of information based on which varying hand gestures can be recognized. This paper develops an inter-individual hand gesture recognition model based on Hidden Markov models that receives surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as inputs and predicts a corresponding hand gesture. The developed recognition model is tested with a dataset of 10 various hand gestures performed by 25 subjects in a leave-one-subject-out cross validation and an inter-individual recognition rate of 79% was achieved. The promising recognition rate demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach for discriminating between gesture-specific sEMG signals and could inform the design of sEMG-controlled prostheses and assistive devices.

  20. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  1. Perceptual fluency and affect without recognition.

    PubMed

    Anand, P; Sternthal, B

    1991-05-01

    A dichotic listening task was used to investigate the affect-without-recognition phenomenon. Subjects performed a distractor task by responding to the information presented in one ear while ignoring the target information presented in the other ear. The subjects' recognition of and affect toward the target information as well as toward foils was measured. The results offer evidence for the affect-without-recognition phenomenon. Furthermore, the data suggest that the subjects' affect toward the stimuli depended primarily on the extent to which the stimuli were perceived as familiar (i.e., subjective familiarity), and this perception was influenced by the ear in which the distractor or the target information was presented. These data are interpreted in terms of current models of recognition memory and hemispheric lateralization.

  2. Description, Recognition and Analysis of Biological Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Donggang; Jin, Jesse S.; Luo Suhuai; Pham, Tuan D.; Lai Wei

    2010-01-25

    Description, recognition and analysis biological images plays an important role for human to describe and understand the related biological information. The color images are separated by color reduction. A new and efficient linearization algorithm is introduced based on some criteria of difference chain code. A series of critical points is got based on the linearized lines. The series of curvature angle, linearity, maximum linearity, convexity, concavity and bend angle of linearized lines are calculated from the starting line to the end line along all smoothed contours. The useful method can be used for shape description and recognition. The analysis, decision, classification of the biological images are based on the description of morphological structures, color information and prior knowledge, which are associated each other. The efficiency of the algorithms is described based on two applications. One application is the description, recognition and analysis of color flower images. Another one is related to the dynamic description, recognition and analysis of cell-cycle images.

  3. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  4. Recognition of dementia in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Katie; Mezey, Mathy

    2008-01-01

    Many hospital patients with dementia have no documented dementia diagnosis. In some cases, this is because they have never been diagnosed. Recognition of Dementia in Hospitalized Older Adults proposes several approaches that hospital nurses can use to increase recognition of dementia. This article describes the Try This approaches, how to implement them, and how to incorporate them into a hospital's current admission procedures. For a free online video demonstrating the use of these approaches, go to http://links.lww.com/A216.

  5. Neural-Network Object-Recognition Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, L.; Reid, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    HONTIOR computer program implements third-order neural network exhibiting invariance under translation, change of scale, and in-plane rotation. Invariance incorporated directly into architecture of network. Only one view of each object needed to train network for two-dimensional-translation-invariant recognition of object. Also used for three-dimensional-transformation-invariant recognition by training network on only set of out-of-plane rotated views. Written in C language.

  6. Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.

  7. Optical iconic filters for large class recognition.

    PubMed

    Casasent, D; Mahalamobis, A

    1987-06-01

    Approaches are advanced for pattern recognition when a large number of classes must be identified. Multilevel encoded multiple-iconic filters are considered for this problem. Hierarchical arrangements of iconic filters and/or preprocessing stages are described. A theoretical basis for the sidelobe level and noise effects of filters designed for large class problems is advanced. Experimental data are provided for an optical character recognition case study.

  8. Finite Memory Model for Haptic Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Slot 4 bu f fer s hort- term storel Slot N Long- ’erm store The model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin . Primary memory here is as rehearsal...7 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, Califormia AD-A245 342 THESIS Finite Memory Model for Haptic Recognition by Philip G. Beieri December 1991...ELEMEN1 No.) NO. No. ACCESSION NO. I1. TITLE (include Securitn Classification) FINITE MEMORY MODEL FOR HAPTIC RECOGNITION’ 12. PERSONALEAUTHOR(S) Philip

  9. Door latching recognition apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Jr., Robert F.

    2012-05-15

    An acoustic door latch detector is provided in which a sound recognition sensor is integrated into a door or door lock mechanism. The programmable sound recognition sensor can be trained to recognize the acoustic signature of the door and door lock mechanism being properly engaged and secured. The acoustic sensor will signal a first indicator indicating that proper closure was detected or sound an alarm condition if the proper acoustic signature is not detected within a predetermined time interval.

  10. Optical Pattern Recognition for Missile Guidance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    crystal, missile guidance, multi-sensor pattern recognition, normalized invariant moments, optical data processing , optical patterni recognition, photo...computing1 offers the attractive features vided in Sec. II for completeness and to enable future of parallel processing in real time and thus has been of...Fourier plane, Eq. (5) is used. rameter in coherent optical processing application. We In practice, MTF as defined is really a contrast transfer can

  11. Combat Systems Department Employee Recognition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    the individual’s view of positive reinforcement . Include them in discussions. Ask for their opinions. 4 NSWCDD/MP-96/137 SECTION 3 INSTRUCTIONS 3.1...PROVIDES POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT . THE EASIER IT IS TO DO, THE MORE LIKELY IT IS TO GET DONE. N-DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION SYSTEM PRI NCI PLES THERE ARE...INDIVIDUAL’S VIEW OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT . ASK THEM I Papa .18Iv 15 N-DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION SYSTEM * OUTLINE A. TASK FORCE MEMBERSHIP

  12. Mission engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul; Fatig, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's projects are facing new challenges with respect to the cost effective development and operation of spaceflight missions. Challenges, such as cost limits, compression of schedules, rapidly changing technology, and increasing mission complexity are making the mission development process more dynamic. A concept of 'Mission Engineering' as a means of addressing these challenges is proposed. It is an end-to-end, multimission development methodology that seeks to integrate the development processes between the space, ground, science, and operations segments of a mission. It thereby promotes more mission-oriented system solutions, within and across missions.

  13. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Norman

    1988-01-01

    The goals of the Software Engineering Institute's Education Program are as follows: to increase the number of highly qualified software engineers--new software engineers and existing practitioners; and to be the leading center of expertise for software engineering education and training. A discussion of these goals is presented in vugraph form.

  14. Aided versus automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hair, Mark A.; Purvis, Bradley D.; Brown, Jeff

    1997-06-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms have offered the promise of recognizing items of military importance over the past 20 years. It is the experience of the authors that greater ATR success would be possible if the ATR were used to 'aid' the human operator instead of automatically 'direct' the operator. ATRs have failed not due to their probability of detection versus false alarm rate, but to neglect of the human component. ATRs are designed to improve overall throughput by relieving the human operator of the need to perform repetitive tasks like scanning vast quantities of imagery for possible targets. ATRs are typically inserted prior to the operator and provide cues, which are then accepted or rejected. From our experience at three field exercises and a current operational deployment to the Bosnian theater, this is not the best way to get total system performance. The human operator makes decisions based on learning, history of past events, and surrounding contextual information. Loss of these factors by providing imagery, latent with symbolic cues on top of the original imagery, actually increases the workload of the operator. This paper covers the lessons learned from the field demonstrations and the operational deployment. The reconnaissance and intelligence community's primary use of an ATR should be to establish prioritized cues of potential targets for an operator to 'pull' from and to be able to 'send' targets identified by the operator for a 'second opinion.' The Army and Air Force are modifying their exploitation workstations over the next 18 months to use ATRs, which operate in this fashion. This will be the future architecture that ATRs for the reconnaissance and intelligence community should integrate into.

  15. Engineering RNA-binding proteins for biology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

    2013-08-01

    RNA-binding proteins play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. Many have modular structures and combine relatively few common domains in various arrangements to recognize RNA sequences and/or structures. Recent progress in engineering the specificity of the PUF class RNA-binding proteins has shown that RNA-binding domains may be combined with various effector or functional domains to regulate the metabolism of targeted RNAs. Designer RNA-binding proteins with tailored sequence specificity will provide valuable tools for biochemical research as well as potential therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss the suitability of various RNA-binding domains for engineering RNA-binding specificity, based on the structural basis for their recognition. We also compare various protein engineering and design methods applied to RNA-binding proteins, and discuss future applications of these proteins.

  16. Pattern classification approach to rocket engine diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Tulpule, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a systems level approach to integrate state-of-the-art rocket engine technology with advanced computational techniques to develop an integrated diagnostic system (IDS) for future rocket propulsion systems. The key feature of this IDS is the use of advanced diagnostic algorithms for failure detection as opposed to the current practice of redline-based failure detection methods. The paper presents a top-down analysis of rocket engine diagnostic requirements, rocket engine operation, applicable diagnostic algorithms, and algorithm design techniques, which serve as a basis for the IDS. The concepts of hierarchical, model-based information processing are described, together with the use uf signal processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence techniques which are an integral part of this diagnostic system. 27 refs.

  17. Physical environment virtualization for human activities recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshtkar, Azin; Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2015-05-01

    Human activity recognition research relies heavily on extensive datasets to verify and validate performance of activity recognition algorithms. However, obtaining real datasets are expensive and highly time consuming. A physics-based virtual simulation can accelerate the development of context based human activity recognition algorithms and techniques by generating relevant training and testing videos simulating diverse operational scenarios. In this paper, we discuss in detail the requisite capabilities of a virtual environment to aid as a test bed for evaluating and enhancing activity recognition algorithms. To demonstrate the numerous advantages of virtual environment development, a newly developed virtual environment simulation modeling (VESM) environment is presented here to generate calibrated multisource imagery datasets suitable for development and testing of recognition algorithms for context-based human activities. The VESM environment serves as a versatile test bed to generate a vast amount of realistic data for training and testing of sensor processing algorithms. To demonstrate the effectiveness of VESM environment, we present various simulated scenarios and processed results to infer proper semantic annotations from the high fidelity imagery data for human-vehicle activity recognition under different operational contexts.

  18. Oxytocin improves emotion recognition for older males.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice E; Glue, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Older adults (≥60 years) perform worse than young adults (18-30 years) when recognizing facial expressions of emotion. The hypothesized cause of these changes might be declines in neurotransmitters that could affect information processing within the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuropeptide oxytocin that functions to increase neurotransmission. Research suggests that oxytocin benefits the emotion recognition of less socially able individuals. Men tend to have lower levels of oxytocin and older men tend to have worse emotion recognition than older women; therefore, there is reason to think that older men will be particularly likely to benefit from oxytocin. We examined this idea using a double-blind design, testing 68 older and 68 young adults randomly allocated to receive oxytocin nasal spray (20 international units) or placebo. Forty-five minutes afterward they completed an emotion recognition task assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces. Older males receiving oxytocin showed improved emotion recognition relative to those taking placebo. No differences were found for older females or young adults. We hypothesize that oxytocin facilitates emotion recognition by improving neurotransmission in the group with the worst emotion recognition.

  19. Multispectral palmprint recognition using a quaternion matrix.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.

  20. Hierarchical Context Modeling for Video Event Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Ji, Qiang

    2016-10-11

    Current video event recognition research remains largely target-centered. For real-world surveillance videos, targetcentered event recognition faces great challenges due to large intra-class target variation, limited image resolution, and poor detection and tracking results. To mitigate these challenges, we introduced a context-augmented video event recognition approach. Specifically, we explicitly capture different types of contexts from three levels including image level, semantic level, and prior level. At the image level, we introduce two types of contextual features including the appearance context features and interaction context features to capture the appearance of context objects and their interactions with the target objects. At the semantic level, we propose a deep model based on deep Boltzmann machine to learn event object representations and their interactions. At the prior level, we utilize two types of prior-level contexts including scene priming and dynamic cueing. Finally, we introduce a hierarchical context model that systematically integrates the contextual information at different levels. Through the hierarchical context model, contexts at different levels jointly contribute to the event recognition. We evaluate the hierarchical context model for event recognition on benchmark surveillance video datasets. Results show that incorporating contexts in each level can improve event recognition performance, and jointly integrating three levels of contexts through our hierarchical model achieves the best performance.

  1. Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Algarabel, Salvador; Fuentes, Manuel; Escudero, Joaquín; Pitarque, Alfonso; Peset, Vicente; Mazón, José-Francisco; Meléndez, Juan-Carlos

    2012-09-01

    There is no agreement on the pattern of recognition memory deficits characteristic of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Whereas lower performance in recollection is the hallmark of MCI, there is a strong controversy about possible deficits in familiarity estimates when using recognition memory tasks. The aim of this research is to shed light on the pattern of responding in recollection and familiarity in MCI. Five groups of participants were tested. The main participant samples were those formed by two MCI groups differing in age and an Alzheimer's disease group (AD), which were compared with two control groups. Whereas one of the control groups served to assess the performance of the MCI and AD people, the other one, composed of young healthy participants, served the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of the experimental tasks used in the evaluation of the different components of recognition memory. We used an associative recognition task as a direct index of recollection and a choice task on a pair of stimuli, one of which was perceptually similar to those studied in the associative recognition phase, as an index of familiarity. Our results indicate that recollection decreases with age and neurological status, and familiarity remains stable in the elderly control sample but it is deficient in MCI. This research shows that a unique encoding situation generated deficits in recollective and familiarity mechanisms in mild cognitive impaired individuals, providing evidence for the existence of deficits in both retrieval processes in recognition memory in a MCI stage.

  2. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  3. Object recognition by artificial cortical maps.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio; Domenella, Rosaria Grazia

    2007-09-01

    Object recognition is one of the most important functions of the human visual system, yet one of the least understood, this despite the fact that vision is certainly the most studied function of the brain. We understand relatively well how several processes in the cortical visual areas that support recognition capabilities take place, such as orientation discrimination and color constancy. This paper proposes a model of the development of object recognition capability, based on two main theoretical principles. The first is that recognition does not imply any sort of geometrical reconstruction, it is instead fully driven by the two dimensional view captured by the retina. The second assumption is that all the processing functions involved in recognition are not genetically determined or hardwired in neural circuits, but are the result of interactions between epigenetic influences and basic neural plasticity mechanisms. The model is organized in modules roughly related to the main visual biological areas, and is implemented mainly using the LISSOM architecture, a recent neural self-organizing map model that simulates the effects of intercortical lateral connections. This paper shows how recognition capabilities, similar to those found in brain ventral visual areas, can develop spontaneously by exposure to natural images in an artificial cortical model.

  4. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

  5. Selecting and implementing a voice recognition system.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, S; Cassimus, G C

    1999-01-01

    A single radiology department serves the three separate organizations that comprise Emory Healthcare in Atlanta--three separate hospitals, the Emory Clinic and the Emory University School of Medicine. In 1996, the chairman of Emory Healthcare issued a mandate to the radiology department to decrease its report turnaround time, provide better service and increase customer satisfaction. The area where the greatest effect could be made without involving the transcription area was the "exam complete to dictate" piece of the reporting process. A committee investigating voice recognition systems established an essential criteria for potential vendors--to be able to download patient scheduling and demographic information from the existing RIS to the new system. Second, the system had to be flexible and straightforward for doctors to learn. It must have a word processing package for easy report correction and editing, and a microphone that would rewind and correct dictation before recognition took place. To keep capital costs low for the pilot, the committee opted for server recognition rather than purchase the expensive workstations necessary for real-time recognition. A switch was made later to real-time recognition. PACS and voice recognition have proven to be highly complementary. Most importantly, the new system has had a tremendous impact on turnaround time in the "dictate to final" phase. Once in the 30-hour range, 65 percent of the reports are now turned around in less than 15 minutes, 80 percent in less than 30 minutes, and 90 percent in less than an hour.

  6. Core and Off-Core Processes in Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian; Forsberg, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    An emerging methodology of organizing systems-engineering plans is based on a concept of core and off-core processes or activities. This concept has emerged as a result of recognition of a risk in the traditional representation of systems-engineering plans by a Vee model alone, according to which a large system is decomposed into levels of smaller subsystems, then integrated through levels of increasing scope until the full system is constructed. Actual systems-engineering activity is more complicated, raising the possibility that the staff will become confused in the absence of plans which explain the nature and ordering of work beyond the traditional Vee model.

  7. Individual recognition between mother and infant bats (Myotis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D.; Shaughnessy, A.; Gould, E.

    1972-01-01

    The recognition process and the basis for that recognition, in brown bats, between mother and infant are analyzed. Two parameters, ultrasonic communication and olfactory stimuli, are investigated. The test animals were not allowed any visual contact. It was concluded that individual recognition between mother and infant occurred. However, it could not be determined if the recognition was based on ultrasonic signals or olfactory stimuli.

  8. 29 CFR 29.13 - Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitor a State Registration Agency for compliance with the recognition requirements of this part through... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. 29.13 Section... PROGRAMS § 29.13 Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. (a) Recognition. The Department may...

  9. 29 CFR 29.13 - Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitor a State Registration Agency for compliance with the recognition requirements of this part through... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. 29.13 Section... PROGRAMS § 29.13 Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. (a) Recognition. The Department may...

  10. 29 CFR 29.13 - Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monitor a State Registration Agency for compliance with the recognition requirements of this part through... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. 29.13 Section... PROGRAMS § 29.13 Recognition of State Apprenticeship Agencies. (a) Recognition. The Department may...

  11. Benchmarking Spike-Based Visual Recognition: A Dataset and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Pineda-García, Garibaldi; Stromatias, Evangelos; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Furber, Steve B.

    2016-01-01

    Today, increasing attention is being paid to research into spike-based neural computation both to gain a better understanding of the brain and to explore biologically-inspired computation. Within this field, the primate visual pathway and its hierarchical organization have been extensively studied. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), inspired by the understanding of observed biological structure and function, have been successfully applied to visual recognition and classification tasks. In addition, implementations on neuromorphic hardware have enabled large-scale networks to run in (or even faster than) real time, making spike-based neural vision processing accessible on mobile robots. Neuromorphic sensors such as silicon retinas are able to feed such mobile systems with real-time visual stimuli. A new set of vision benchmarks for spike-based neural processing are now needed to measure progress quantitatively within this rapidly advancing field. We propose that a large dataset of spike-based visual stimuli is needed to provide meaningful comparisons between different systems, and a corresponding evaluation methodology is also required to measure the performance of SNN models and their hardware implementations. In this paper we first propose an initial NE (Neuromorphic Engineering) dataset based on standard computer vision benchmarksand that uses digits from the MNIST database. This dataset is compatible with the state of current research on spike-based image recognition. The corresponding spike trains are produced using a range of techniques: rate-based Poisson spike generation, rank order encoding, and recorded output from a silicon retina with both flashing and oscillating input stimuli. In addition, a complementary evaluation methodology is presented to assess both model-level and hardware-level performance. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the dataset and the evaluation methodology using two SNN models to validate the performance of the models and their hardware

  12. Deep learning and face recognition: the state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaban, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have established themselves as a dominant technique in machine learning. DNNs have been top performers on a wide variety of tasks including image classification, speech recognition, and face recognition.1-3 Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been used in nearly all of the top performing methods on the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) dataset.3-6 In this talk and accompanying paper, I attempt to provide a review and summary of the deep learning techniques used in the state-of-the-art. In addition, I highlight the need for both larger and more challenging public datasets to benchmark these systems. Despite the ability of DNNs and autoencoders to perform unsupervised feature learning, modern facial recognition pipelines still require domain specific engineering in the form of re-alignment. For example, in Facebook's recent DeepFace paper, a 3D "frontalization" step lies at the beginning of the pipeline. This step creates a 3D face model for the incoming image and then uses a series of affine transformations of the fiducial points to "frontalize" the image. This step enables the DeepFace system to use a neural network architecture with locally connected layers without weight sharing as opposed to standard convolutional layers.6 Deep learning techniques combined with large datasets have allowed research groups to surpass human level performance on the LFW dataset.3, 5 The high accuracy (99.63% for FaceNet at the time of publishing) and utilization of outside data (hundreds of millions of images in the case of Google's FaceNet) suggest that current face verification benchmarks such as LFW may not be challenging enough, nor provide enough data, for current techniques.3, 5 There exist a variety of organizations with mobile photo sharing applications that would be capable of releasing a very large scale and highly diverse dataset of facial images captured on mobile devices. Such an "ImageNet for Face Recognition" would likely receive a warm

  13. Benchmarking Spike-Based Visual Recognition: A Dataset and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Pineda-García, Garibaldi; Stromatias, Evangelos; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Furber, Steve B

    2016-01-01

    Today, increasing attention is being paid to research into spike-based neural computation both to gain a better understanding of the brain and to explore biologically-inspired computation. Within this field, the primate visual pathway and its hierarchical organization have been extensively studied. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), inspired by the understanding of observed biological structure and function, have been successfully applied to visual recognition and classification tasks. In addition, implementations on neuromorphic hardware have enabled large-scale networks to run in (or even faster than) real time, making spike-based neural vision processing accessible on mobile robots. Neuromorphic sensors such as silicon retinas are able to feed such mobile systems with real-time visual stimuli. A new set of vision benchmarks for spike-based neural processing are now needed to measure progress quantitatively within this rapidly advancing field. We propose that a large dataset of spike-based visual stimuli is needed to provide meaningful comparisons between different systems, and a corresponding evaluation methodology is also required to measure the performance of SNN models and their hardware implementations. In this paper we first propose an initial NE (Neuromorphic Engineering) dataset based on standard computer vision benchmarksand that uses digits from the MNIST database. This dataset is compatible with the state of current research on spike-based image recognition. The corresponding spike trains are produced using a range of techniques: rate-based Poisson spike generation, rank order encoding, and recorded output from a silicon retina with both flashing and oscillating input stimuli. In addition, a complementary evaluation methodology is presented to assess both model-level and hardware-level performance. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the dataset and the evaluation methodology using two SNN models to validate the performance of the models and their hardware

  14. Providing the Persistent Data Storage in a Software Engineering Environment Using Java/COBRA and a DBMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhaliwal, Swarn S.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to build the software foundation for the WHERE (Web-based Hyper-text Environment for Requirements Engineering) project. The TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling) was chosen as the foundation software for the WHERE project which aims to provide an environment for facilitating collaboration among geographically distributed people involved in the Requirements Engineering process. The TCM is a collection of diagram and table editors and has been implemented in the C++ programming language. The C++ implementation of the TCM was translated into Java in order to allow the editors to be used for building various functionality of the WHERE project; the WHERE project intends to use the Web as its communication back- bone. One of the limitations of the translated software (TcmJava), which militated against its use in the WHERE project, was persistent data management mechanisms which it inherited from the original TCM; it was designed to be used in standalone applications. Before TcmJava editors could be used as a part of the multi-user, geographically distributed applications of the WHERE project, a persistent storage mechanism must be built which would allow data communication over the Internet, using the capabilities of the Web. An approach involving features of Java, CORBA (Common Object Request Broker), the Web, a middle-ware (Java Relational Binding (JRB)), and a database server was used to build the persistent data management infrastructure for the WHERE project. The developed infrastructure allows a TcmJava editor to be downloaded and run from a network host by using a JDK 1.1 (Java Developer's Kit) compatible Web-browser. The aforementioned editor establishes connection with a server by using the ORB (Object Request Broker) software and stores/retrieves data in/from the server. The server consists of a CORBA object or objects depending upon whether the data is to be made persistent on a single server or multiple servers. The CORBA

  15. Improving protein fold recognition by random forest

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recognizing the correct structural fold among known template protein structures for a target protein (i.e. fold recognition) is essential for template-based protein structure modeling. Since the fold recognition problem can be defined as a binary classification problem of predicting whether or not the unknown fold of a target protein is similar to an already known template protein structure in a library, machine learning methods have been effectively applied to tackle this problem. In our work, we developed RF-Fold that uses random forest - one of the most powerful and scalable machine learning classification methods - to recognize protein folds. Results RF-Fold consists of hundreds of decision trees that can be trained efficiently on very large datasets to make accurate predictions on a highly imbalanced dataset. We evaluated RF-Fold on the standard Lindahl's benchmark dataset comprised of 976 × 975 target-template protein pairs through cross-validation. Compared with 17 different fold recognition methods, the performance of RF-Fold is generally comparable to the best performance in fold recognition of different difficulty ranging from the easiest family level, the medium-hard superfamily level, and to the hardest fold level. Based on the top-one template protein ranked by RF-Fold, the correct recognition rate is 84.5%, 63.4%, and 40.8% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively. Based on the top-five template protein folds ranked by RF-Fold, the correct recognition rate increases to 91.5%, 79.3% and 58.3% at family, superfamily, and fold levels. Conclusions The good performance achieved by the RF-Fold demonstrates the random forest's effectiveness for protein fold recognition. PMID:25350499

  16. Semantic pyramids for gender and action recognition.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahad Shahbaz; van de Weijer, Joost; Anwer, Rao Muhammad; Felsberg, Michael; Gatta, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Person description is a challenging problem in computer vision. We investigated two major aspects of person description: 1) gender and 2) action recognition in still images. Most state-of-the-art approaches for gender and action recognition rely on the description of a single body part, such as face or full-body. However, relying on a single body part is suboptimal due to significant variations in scale, viewpoint, and pose in real-world images. This paper proposes a semantic pyramid approach for pose normalization. Our approach is fully automatic and based on combining information from full-body, upper-body, and face regions for gender and action recognition in still images. The proposed approach does not require any annotations for upper-body and face of a person. Instead, we rely on pretrained state-of-the-art upper-body and face detectors to automatically extract semantic information of a person. Given multiple bounding boxes from each body part detector, we then propose a simple method to select the best candidate bounding box, which is used for feature extraction. Finally, the extracted features from the full-body, upper-body, and face regions are combined into a single representation for classification. To validate the proposed approach for gender recognition, experiments are performed on three large data sets namely: 1) human attribute; 2) head-shoulder; and 3) proxemics. For action recognition, we perform experiments on four data sets most used for benchmarking action recognition in still images: 1) Sports; 2) Willow; 3) PASCAL VOC 2010; and 4) Stanford-40. Our experiments clearly demonstrate that the proposed approach, despite its simplicity, outperforms state-of-the-art methods for gender and action recognition.

  17. Impaired picture recognition in transient epileptic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Michaela; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Zeman, Adam; Butler, Christopher; Della Sala, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an epileptic syndrome characterized by recurrent, brief episodes of amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is often associated with the rapid decline in recall of new information over hours to days (accelerated long-term forgetting - 'ALF'). It remains unknown how recognition memory is affected in TEA over time. Here, we report a systematic study of picture recognition in patients with TEA over the course of one week. Sixteen patients with TEA and 16 matched controls were presented with 300 photos of everyday life scenes. Yes/no picture recognition was tested 5min, 2.5h, 7.5h, 24h, and 1week after picture presentation using a subset of target pictures as well as similar and different foils. Picture recognition was impaired in the patient group at all test times, including the 5-minute test, but it declined normally over the course of 1week. This impairment was associated predominantly with an increased false alarm rate, especially for similar foils. High performance on a control test indicates that this impairment was not associated with perceptual or discrimination deficits. Our findings suggest that, at least in some TEA patients with ALF in verbal recall, picture recognition does not decline more rapidly than in controls over 1week. However, our findings of an early picture recognition deficit suggest that new visual memories are impoverished after minutes in TEA. This could be the result of deficient encoding or impaired early consolidation. The early picture recognition deficit observed could reflect either the early stages of the process that leads to ALF or a separable deficit of anterograde memory in TEA. Lastly, our study suggests that at least some patients with TEA are prone to falsely recognizing new everyday visual information that they have not in fact seen previously. This deficit, alongside their ALF in free recall, likely affects everyday memory performance.

  18. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brownfield, L.A.

    1980-12-02

    The major components of this rotary engine are two equal sized rotary units, the housing containing them along with associated ignition and cooling systems. Each of the rotary units consists of a shaft, gear, two outer compressor wheels, and one center power wheel which has twice the axial thickness as the compressor wheel. All the wheels are cylindrical in shape with a lobe section comprising a 180/sup 0/ arc on the periphery of each wheel which forms an expanding and contracting volumetric chamber by means of leading and trailing lips. The lobes of the first rotary unit are situated 180/sup 0/ opposite the lobes of the second adjacent mating rotary unit, thus lobes can intermesh with its corresponding wheel.

  19. Radial engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kmicikiewicz, M.A.

    1988-03-01

    A radial engine is described comprising: a housing; equally spaced openings disposed in ring-like arrangement on the periphery of the housing; a piston and cylinder arrangement in each of the opening, a piston rod for each arrangement fixed to and extending radially inwardly from its respective piston and through its respective opening; shoe means pivotally attached at the other end of each of the piston rod; radial guide means extending in the housing in line with each of the piston rods, and the shoe means provided with guide means followers to ensure radial reciprocal movement of the piston rods and shoe means; and a connecting ring journaled on a crankshaft for circular translation motion in the housing, the ring including a circular rim. Each shoe means includes an arcuate follower member being slidably connected to the rim of the connecting ring.

  20. How Engineers Engineer: Lessons from My First Big Engineering Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2008-01-01

    Little did the author realize how much his first engineering project would change his career path, but when it came, he was hooked forever on doing R&D-type engineering. In this article, the author takes the reader back to his first really important electrical engineering project. While the technology he worked on back then is antiquated by…

  1. Molecular Recognition at the Protein-Hydroxyapatite Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Stayton, Partick S.; Drobny, G. P.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Long, Joanna R.; Gilbert, Michelle R.

    2003-09-01

    Proteins found in mineralized tissues act as nature's crystal engineers, where they play a key role in promoting or inhibiting the growth of minerals, such as hydroxyapitite (bones/teeth) and calcium oxalate (kidney stones). Despite their importance in hard-tissue formation and remodeling, and in pathological processes such as stone formation and arterial calcification, there is little known of the protein structure-function relationships that govern hard-tissue engineering. Here we review early studies that have utilized solid-state NMR (ssNMR) techniques to provide in situ secondary-structure determination of statherin and statherin peptides on their biologically relevant hydroxyapatite (HAP) surfaces. In addition to direct structural study, molecular dynamics studies have provided considerable insight into the protein-binding footprint on hydroxyapatite. The molecular insight provided by these studies has also led to the design of biomimetic fusion peptides that utilize nature's crystal-recognition mechanism to display accessible and dynamic bioactive sequences from the HAP surface. These peptides selectively engage adhesion receptors and direct specific outside-in signaling pathway activation in osteoblast-like cells.

  2. Aging and IQ Effects on Associative Recognition and Priming in Item Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Two ways to examine memory for associative relationships between pairs of words were tested: an explicit method, associative recognition, and an implicit method, priming in item recognition. In an experiment with both kinds of tests, participants were asked to learn pairs of words. For the explicit test, participants were asked to decide whether…

  3. What Types of Visual Recognition Tasks Are Mediated by the Neural Subsystem that Subserves Face Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Brian E.; Cooper, Eric E.

    2006-01-01

    Three divided visual field experiments tested current hypotheses about the types of visual shape representation tasks that recruit the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying face recognition. Experiment 1 found a right hemisphere advantage for subordinate but not basic-level face recognition. Experiment 2 found a right hemisphere advantage for…

  4. A motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: regulatory focus affects recognition of emotions in faces.

    PubMed

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Sassenberg, Kai; Ray, Devin G; Scheiter, Katharina; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined an unexplored motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: observer regulatory focus. It was predicted that a promotion focus would enhance facial emotion recognition relative to a prevention focus because the attentional strategies associated with promotion focus enhance performance on well-learned or innate tasks - such as facial emotion recognition. In Study 1, a promotion or a prevention focus was experimentally induced and better facial emotion recognition was observed in a promotion focus compared to a prevention focus. In Study 2, individual differences in chronic regulatory focus were assessed and attention allocation was measured using eye tracking during the facial emotion recognition task. Results indicated that the positive relation between a promotion focus and facial emotion recognition is mediated by shorter fixation duration on the face which reflects a pattern of attention allocation matched to the eager strategy in a promotion focus (i.e., striving to make hits). A prevention focus did not have an impact neither on perceptual processing nor on facial emotion recognition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate important mechanisms and consequences of observer motivational orientation for facial emotion recognition.

  5. Effects of Recognition on Subsequent Recall: Comments on "Determinants of Recognition and Recall: Accessibility and Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Donald E.; Broadbent, Margaret H. P.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts have been made by Rabinowitz, Mandler, and Patterson (AA 527 084) to show that both recall and recognition involve the accessibility of individual words. Their recall tests preceded recognition tests, or vice versa, thus contaminating each other; a fresh experiment is presented to confirm that this is so. (Editor)

  6. Recognition of Prior Learning, Self-Realisation and Identity within Axel Honneth's Theory of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Fredrik; Kubiak, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues for the significance of Axel Honneth's theory of recognition for understanding recognition of prior learning (RPL). Case studies of the experiences of RPL by paraprofessional workers in health and social care in the UK and Sweden are used to explicate this significance. The results maintain that there are varying conditions of…

  7. A Motivational Determinant of Facial Emotion Recognition: Regulatory Focus Affects Recognition of Emotions in Faces

    PubMed Central

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Sassenberg, Kai; Ray, Devin G.; Scheiter, Katharina; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined an unexplored motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: observer regulatory focus. It was predicted that a promotion focus would enhance facial emotion recognition relative to a prevention focus because the attentional strategies associated with promotion focus enhance performance on well-learned or innate tasks - such as facial emotion recognition. In Study 1, a promotion or a prevention focus was experimentally induced and better facial emotion recognition was observed in a promotion focus compared to a prevention focus. In Study 2, individual differences in chronic regulatory focus were assessed and attention allocation was measured using eye tracking during the facial emotion recognition task. Results indicated that the positive relation between a promotion focus and facial emotion recognition is mediated by shorter fixation duration on the face which reflects a pattern of attention allocation matched to the eager strategy in a promotion focus (i.e., striving to make hits). A prevention focus did not have an impact neither on perceptual processing nor on facial emotion recognition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate important mechanisms and consequences of observer motivational orientation for facial emotion recognition. PMID:25380247

  8. The responsibilities of engineers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  9. A dynamic image recognition method for sleeper springs trouble of moving freight cars based on Haar features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fuqiang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Guangjun

    2006-11-01

    A novel conception of automatic recognition for free-trouble sleeper springs is proposed and Adaboost algorithm based on Haar features is applied for the sleeper springs recognition in Trouble of moving Freight car Detection System (TFDS). In the recognition system, feature set of sleeper springs is determined by Haar features and selected by Adaboost algorithm. In order to recognize and select the free-trouble sleeper springs from all the captured dynamic images, a cascade of classifier is established by searching dynamic images. The amount of detected images is drastically reduced and the recognition efficiency is improved due to the conception of free-trouble recognition. Experiments show that the proposed method is characterized by simple feature, high efficiency and robustness. It performs high robustness against noise as well as translation, rotation and scale transformations of objects and indicates high stability to images with poor quality such as low resolution, partial occlusion, poor illumination and overexposure etc. The recognition time of a 640×480 image is about 16ms, and Correct Detection Rate is high up to about 97%, while Miss Detection Rate and Error Detection Rate are very low. The proposed method can recognize sleeper springs in all-weather conditions, which advances the engineering application for TFDS.

  10. Assessment of H.264 video compression on automated face recognition performance in surveillance and mobile video scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klare, Brendan; Burge, Mark

    2010-04-01

    We assess the impact of the H.264 video codec on the match performance of automated face recognition in surveillance and mobile video applications. A set of two hundred access control (90 pixel inter-pupilary distance) and distance surveillance (45 pixel inter-pupilary distance) videos taken under non-ideal imaging and facial recognition (e.g., pose, illumination, and expression) conditions were matched using two commercial face recognition engines in the studies. The first study evaluated automated face recognition performance on access control and distance surveillance videos at CIF and VGA resolutions using the H.264 baseline profile at nine bitrates rates ranging from 8kbs to 2048kbs. In our experiments, video signals were able to be compressed up to 128kbs before a significant drop face recognition performance occurred. The second study evaluated automated face recognition on mobile devices at QCIF, iPhone, and Android resolutions for each of the H.264 PDA profiles. Rank one match performance, cumulative match scores, and failure to enroll rates are reported.

  11. Practical vision based degraded text recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published

  12. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  13. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, Evan

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  14. Design Concerns in the Engineering of Virtual Worlds for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapanotti, Lucia; Hall, Jon G.

    2011-01-01

    The convergence of 3D simulation and social networking into current multi-user virtual environments has opened the door to new forms of interaction for learning in order to complement the face-to-face and Web 2.0-based systems. Yet, despite a growing user community, design knowledge for virtual worlds remains patchy, particularly when it comes to…

  15. Brain-wave recognition of sentences

    PubMed Central

    Suppes, Patrick; Han, Bing; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    1998-01-01

    Electrical and magnetic brain waves of two subjects were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of 12 sentences or seven words auditorily presented was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to each of which a Fourier transform was applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject. A still further improvement was obtained by taking differences between recordings of two electrodes to obtain bipolar pairs that then were used for the same analysis. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied, but the best were above 90%. The first words of prototypes of sentences also were cut and pasted to test, at least partially, the invariance of a word’s brain wave in different sentence contexts. The best result was above 80% correct recognition. Test samples made up only of individual trials also were analyzed. The best result was 134 correct of 288 (47%), which is promising, given that the expected recognition number by chance is just 24 (or 8.3%). The work reported in this paper extends our earlier work on brain-wave recognition of words only. The recognition rates reported here further strengthen the case that recordings of electric brain waves of words or sentences, together with extensive mathematical and statistical analysis, can be the basis of new developments in our understanding of brain processing of language. PMID:9861061

  16. Recognition of Telugu characters using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Sukhaswami, M B; Seetharamulu, P; Pujari, A K

    1995-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to recognize printed and handwritten Telugu characters using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Earlier work on recognition of Telugu characters has been done using conventional pattern recognition techniques. We make an initial attempt here of using neural networks for recognition with the aim of improving upon earlier methods which do not perform effectively in the presence of noise and distortion in the characters. The Hopfield model of neural network working as an associative memory is chosen for recognition purposes initially. Due to limitation in the capacity of the Hopfield neural network, we propose a new scheme named here as the Multiple Neural Network Associative Memory (MNNAM). The limitation in storage capacity has been overcome by combining multiple neural networks which work in parallel. It is also demonstrated that the Hopfield network is suitable for recognizing noisy printed characters as well as handwritten characters written by different "hands" in a variety of styles. Detailed experiments have been carried out using several learning strategies and results are reported. It is shown here that satisfactory recognition is possible using the proposed strategy. A detailed preprocessing scheme of the Telugu characters from digitized documents is also described.

  17. The perirhinal cortex and recognition memory interference

    PubMed Central

    Watson, H.C.; Lee, A. C. H.

    2013-01-01

    There has recently been an increase in interest in the effects of visual interference on memory processing, with the aim of eluciating the role of the perirhinal cortex (PRC) in recognition memory. One view argues that the PRC processes highly complex conjunctions of object features, and recent evidence from rodents suggests that these representations may be vital for buffering against the effects of pre-retrieval interference on object recognition memory. To investigate whether PRC-dependent object representations play a similar role in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan neurologically healthy participants while they carried out a novel interference-match-to-sample task. This paradigm was specifically designed to concurrently assess the impact of object vs. spatial interference, on recognition memory for objects or scenes, while keeping constant the amount of object and scene information presented across all trials. Activity at retrieval was examined, within an anatomically defined PRC region of interest, according to the demand for object or scene memory, following a period of object compared to spatial interference. Critically, we found greater PRC activity for object memory following object interference, compared to object memory following scene interference, and no difference between object and scene interference for scene recognition. These data demonstrate a role for the human PRC following a period of object, but not scene, interference, during object recognition memory, and emphasize the importance of representational content to mnemonic processing. PMID:23447626

  18. Gesture recognition by instantaneous surface EMG images.

    PubMed

    Geng, Weidong; Du, Yu; Jin, Wenguang; Wei, Wentao; Hu, Yu; Li, Jiajun

    2016-11-15

    Gesture recognition in non-intrusive muscle-computer interfaces is usually based on windowed descriptive and discriminatory surface electromyography (sEMG) features because the recorded amplitude of a myoelectric signal may rapidly fluctuate between voltages above and below zero. Here, we present that the patterns inside the instantaneous values of high-density sEMG enables gesture recognition to be performed merely with sEMG signals at a specific instant. We introduce the concept of an sEMG image spatially composed from high-density sEMG and verify our findings from a computational perspective with experiments on gesture recognition based on sEMG images with a classification scheme of a deep convolutional network. Without any windowed features, the resultant recognition accuracy of an 8-gesture within-subject test reached 89.3% on a single frame of sEMG image and reached 99.0% using simple majority voting over 40 frames with a 1,000 Hz sampling rate. Experiments on the recognition of 52 gestures of NinaPro database and 27 gestures of CSL-HDEMG database also validated that our approach outperforms state-of-the-arts methods. Our findings are a starting point for the development of more fluid and natural muscle-computer interfaces with very little observational latency. For example, active prostheses and exoskeletons based on high-density electrodes could be controlled with instantaneous responses.

  19. Gesture recognition by instantaneous surface EMG images

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Weidong; Du, Yu; Jin, Wenguang; Wei, Wentao; Hu, Yu; Li, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Gesture recognition in non-intrusive muscle-computer interfaces is usually based on windowed descriptive and discriminatory surface electromyography (sEMG) features because the recorded amplitude of a myoelectric signal may rapidly fluctuate between voltages above and below zero. Here, we present that the patterns inside the instantaneous values of high-density sEMG enables gesture recognition to be performed merely with sEMG signals at a specific instant. We introduce the concept of an sEMG image spatially composed from high-density sEMG and verify our findings from a computational perspective with experiments on gesture recognition based on sEMG images with a classification scheme of a deep convolutional network. Without any windowed features, the resultant recognition accuracy of an 8-gesture within-subject test reached 89.3% on a single frame of sEMG image and reached 99.0% using simple majority voting over 40 frames with a 1,000 Hz sampling rate. Experiments on the recognition of 52 gestures of NinaPro database and 27 gestures of CSL-HDEMG database also validated that our approach outperforms state-of-the-arts methods. Our findings are a starting point for the development of more fluid and natural muscle-computer interfaces with very little observational latency. For example, active prostheses and exoskeletons based on high-density electrodes could be controlled with instantaneous responses. PMID:27845347

  20. How Fast is Famous Face Recognition?

    PubMed Central

    Barragan-Jason, Gladys; Lachat, Fanny; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid recognition of familiar faces is crucial for social interactions. However the actual speed with which recognition can be achieved remains largely unknown as most studies have been carried out without any speed constraints. Different paradigms have been used, leading to conflicting results, and although many authors suggest that face recognition is fast, the speed of face recognition has not been directly compared to “fast” visual tasks. In this study, we sought to overcome these limitations. Subjects performed three tasks, a familiarity categorization task (famous faces among unknown faces), a superordinate categorization task (human faces among animal ones), and a gender categorization task. All tasks were performed under speed constraints. The results show that, despite the use of speed constraints, subjects were slow when they had to categorize famous faces: minimum reaction time was 467 ms, which is 180 ms more than during superordinate categorization and 160 ms more than in the gender condition. Our results are compatible with a hierarchy of face processing from the superordinate level to the familiarity level. The processes taking place between detection and recognition need to be investigated in detail. PMID:23162503

  1. Sleep enhances explicit recollection in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of memories, with the different sleep stages affecting different types of memory. In the present study, we used the process-dissociation procedure to compare the effects of sleep on estimates of explicit (recollection) and implicit (familiarity) memory formation on a word-list discrimination task. Subjects studied two lists of words before a 3-h retention interval of sleep or wakefulness, and recognition was tested afterward. The retention intervals were positioned either in the early night when sleep is dominated by slow-wave sleep (SWS), or in the late night, when sleep is dominated by REM sleep. Sleep enhanced explicit recognition memory, as compared with wakefulness (P < 0.05), whereas familiarity was not affected by sleep. Moreover, explicit recognition was particularly enhanced after sleep in the early-night retention interval, and especially when the words were presented with the same contextual features as during learning, i.e., in the same font (P < 0.05). The data indicate that in a task that allows separating the contribution of explicit and implicit memory, sleep particularly supports explicit memory formation. The mechanism of this effect appears to be linked to SWS.

  2. Speech recognition system for an automotive vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Noso, K.; Futami, T.

    1987-01-13

    A speech recognition system is described for an automotive vehicle for activating vehicle actuators in response to predetermined spoken instructions supplied to the system via a microphone, which comprises: (a) a manually controlled record switch for deriving a record signal when activated; (b) a manually controlled recognition switch for deriving a recognition signal when activated; (c) a speech recognizer for sequentially recording reference spoken instructions whenever one reference spoken instruction is supplied to the system through the microphone while the record switch is activated, a memory having a storage area for each spoken instruction, and means for shifting access to each storage area for each spoken instruction has been recorded in the storage area provided therefore. A means is included for activating vehicle actuators sequentially whenever one recognition spoken instruction is supplied to the system via the microphone while the recognition switch is activated and when the spoken instruction to be recognized is similar to the reference spoken instruction; and (d) means for deriving skip instruction signal and for coupling the skip instruction signal to the speech recognizer to shift access from a currently accessed storage area for recording a current reference spoken instruction to a succeeding storage area for recording a succeeding reference spoken instruction even when the current reference spoken instruction is not supplied to the system through the microphone.

  3. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a “Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind” that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call “Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind.” While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation. PMID:26236228

  4. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  5. Brain-wave recognition of sentences.

    PubMed

    Suppes, P; Han, B; Lu, Z L

    1998-12-22

    Electrical and magnetic brain waves of two subjects were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of 12 sentences or seven words auditorily presented was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to each of which a Fourier transform was applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject. A still further improvement was obtained by taking differences between recordings of two electrodes to obtain bipolar pairs that then were used for the same analysis. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied, but the best were above 90%. The first words of prototypes of sentences also were cut and pasted to test, at least partially, the invariance of a word's brain wave in different sentence contexts. The best result was above 80% correct recognition. Test samples made up only of individual trials also were analyzed. The best result was 134 correct of 288 (47%), which is promising, given that the expected recognition number by chance is just 24 (or 8.3%). The work reported in this paper extends our earlier work on brain-wave recognition of words only. The recognition rates reported here further strengthen the case that recordings of electric brain waves of words or sentences, together with extensive mathematical and statistical analysis, can be the basis of new developments in our understanding of brain processing of language.

  6. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    PubMed

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  7. The perirhinal cortex and recognition memory interference.

    PubMed

    Watson, Hilary C; Lee, Andy C H

    2013-02-27

    There has recently been an increase in interest in the effects of visual interference on memory processing, with the aim of elucidating the role of the perirhinal cortex (PRC) in recognition memory. One view argues that the PRC processes highly complex conjunctions of object features, and recent evidence from rodents suggests that these representations may be vital for buffering against the effects of pre-retrieval interference on object recognition memory. To investigate whether PRC-dependent object representations play a similar role in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan neurologically healthy participants while they performed a novel interference-match-to-sample task. This paradigm was specifically designed to concurrently assess the impact of object versus spatial interference, on recognition memory for objects or scenes, while keeping constant the amount of object and scene information presented across all trials. Activity at retrieval was examined, within an anatomically defined PRC region of interest, according to the demand for object or scene memory, following a period of object compared with spatial interference. Critically, we found greater PRC activity for object memory following object interference, compared with object memory following scene interference, and no difference between object and scene interference for scene recognition. These data demonstrate a role for the human PRC during object recognition memory, following a period of object, but not scene interference, and emphasize the importance of representational content to mnemonic processing.

  8. Exposure effects on music preference and recognition.

    PubMed

    Peretz, I; Gaudreau, D; Bonnel, A M

    1998-09-01

    In three experiments, the effects of exposure to melodies on their subsequent liking and recognition were explored. In each experiment, the subjects first listened to a set of familiar and unfamiliar melodies in a study phase. In the subsequent test phase, the melodies were repeated, along with a set of distractors matched in familiarity. Half the subjects were required to rate their liking of each melody, and half had to identify the melodies they had heard earlier in the study phase. Repetition of the studied melodies was found to increase liking of the unfamiliar melodies in the affect task and to be best for detection of familiar melodies in the recognition task (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). These memory effects were found to fade at different time delays between study and test in the affect and recognition tasks, with the latter leading to the most persistent effects (Experiment 2). Both study-to-test changes in melody timbre and manipulation of study tasks had a marked impact on recognition and little influence on liking judgments (Experiment 3). Thus, all manipulated variables were found to dissociate the memory effects in the two tasks. The results are consistent with the view that memory effects in the affect and recognition tasks pertain to the implicit and explicit forms of memory, respectively. Part of the results are, however, at variance with the literature on implicit and explicit memory in the auditory domain. Attribution of these differences to the use of musical material is discussed.

  9. Configural processing in face recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Barbara L.; Marvel, Cherie L.; Drapalski, Amy; Rosse, Richard B.; Deutsch, Stephen I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. There is currently substantial literature to suggest that patients with schizophrenia are impaired on many face-processing tasks. This study investigated the specific effects of configural changes on face recognition in groups of schizophrenia patients. Methods. In Experiment 1, participants identified facial expressions in upright faces and in faces inverted from their upright orientation. Experiments 2 and 3 examined recognition memory for faces and other non-face objects presented in upright and inverted orientations. Experiment 4 explored recognition of facial identity in composite images where the top half of one face was fused to the bottom half of another face to form a new face configuration. Results. In each experiment, the configural change had the same effect on face recognition for the schizophenia patients as it did for control participants. Recognising inverted faces was more difficult than recognising upright faces, with a disproportionate effect of inversion on faces relative to other objects. Recognition of facial identity in face-halves was interfered with by the formation of a new face configuration. Conclusion. Collectively, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia rely on configural information to recognise photographs of faces. PMID:16528403

  10. False recognition of instruction-set lures.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-01-01

    False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition.

  11. The Role and Prospects of the Professional Engineers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakuma, Maki; Sakaki, Isao; Sagawa, Wataru

    The Professional Engineer in Japan is qualified by passing two step examinations. A person who has passed first-step PE Examination is called as Engineer in Training. IPEJ helps and provides the opportunity for Engineers in Training to acquire the necessary skill to become a PE. Every PE shall have sufficient knowledge of the professional ethics and shall continue professional development as one of obligations so as to improve the competence of the PE, and IPEJ provide the various opportunities. Two kinds of international mutual recognition schemes for engineers‧ qualification have been agreed and effective for enabling competent engineers to work freely across national borders. Young engineers are expected to train and improve the technical capability and challenge to become PE.

  12. Feature quality-based multimodal unconstrained eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Eliza Y.; Lin, Yong; Thomas, N. Luke; Belcher, Craig; Delp, Edward J.

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition has been tested to the most accurate biometrics using high resolution near infrared images. However, it does not work well under visible wavelength illumination. Sclera recognition, however, has been shown to achieve reasonable recognition accuracy under visible wavelengths. Combining iris and sclera recognition together can achieve better recognition accuracy. However, image quality can significantly affect the recognition accuracy. Moreover, in unconstrained situations, the acquired eye images may not be frontally facing. In this research, we proposed a feature quality-based multimodal unconstrained eye recognition method that combine the respective strengths of iris recognition and sclera recognition for human identification and can work with frontal and off-angle eye images. The research results show that the proposed method is very promising.

  13. Automatic target recognition in acoustics: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, John R.

    2002-11-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) constitutes one of the major uses for acoustical signal processing. ATR is employed in manned systems for operator workload reduction and performance improvement, as well as in autonomous applications. An overview of some of the major components involved in the architecture of such systems is provided. Feature extraction is the most critical step of ATR and is necessarily application specific. Generic feature selection and ranking methods are presented, including heuristic search and information-theoretic measures. Basic pattern recognition definitions and techniques are reviewed. Commonly used classification paradigms include classical statistical formulations, both parametric and nonparametric, and neural nets; support vector machines and nonmetric methods such as decision forests are some alternative techniques that have received recent attention. A few practical issues often encountered when constructing recognition systems, including training data requirements, ground truth labeling, and performance evaluation methodologies and metrics, are also addressed.

  14. Facial expression recognition based on improved DAGSVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuan; Cui, Ye; Zhang, Yi

    2014-11-01

    For the cumulative error problem because of randomization sequence of traditional DAGSVM(Directed Acyclic Graph Support Vector Machine) classification, this paper presents an improved DAGSVM expression recognition method. The method uses the distance of class and the standard deviation as the measure of the classer, which minimize the error rate of the upper structure of the classification. At the same time, this paper uses the method which combines discrete cosine transform (Discrete Cosine Transform, DCT) with Local Binary Pattern(Local Binary Pattern - LBP) ,to extract expression feature and be the input to improve the DAGSVM classifier for recognition. Experimental results show that compared with other multi-class support vector machine method, improved DAGSVM classifier can achieve higher recognition rate. And when it's used at the platform of the intelligent wheelchair, experiments show that the method has a better robustness.

  15. Automatic speech recognition for large vocabularies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktas, A.; Kaemmerer, B.; Kuepper, W.; Lagger, H.

    1985-12-01

    An isolated word recognition system for large vocabularies (1000 to 5000 words) with 98% recognition performance was developed. It was implemented on an array processor for real time requirements. The speech signal is described by short time autocorrelation functions. Short response times as well as high recognition accuracies are achieved by means of a hierarchical classification scheme. A fast preselection stage yields a small number of suitable word candidates to be considered for further classification. To that end a linear segmentation or a segmentation based on acoustic or phonetic cues was performed. High selectivity is obtained by using fine temporal resolution and nonlinear time alignment in the final classification step. By taking into account phonetically identical fragments of words, a distinction between highly confusable words can be made. Speaker adaptation for new system users is performed within a relatively short training phase.

  16. Object recognition approach based on feature fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Runsheng

    2001-09-01

    Multi-sensor information fusion plays an important pole in object recognition and many other application fields. Fusion performance is tightly depended on the fusion level selected and the approach used. Feature level fusion is a potential and difficult fusion level though there might be mainly three fusion levels. Two schemes are developed for key issues of feature level fusion in this paper. In feature selecting, a normal method developed is to analyze the mutual relationship among the features that can be used, and to be applied to order features. In object recognition, a multi-level recognition scheme is developed, whose procedure can be controlled and updated by analyzing the decision result obtained in order to achieve a final reliable result. The new approach is applied to recognize work-piece objects with twelve classes in optical images and open-country objects with four classes based on infrared image sequence and MMW radar. Experimental results are satisfied.

  17. Olfactory kin recognition in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Krause, E Tobias; Krüger, Oliver; Kohlmeier, Philip; Caspers, Barbara A

    2012-06-23

    The ability to recognize close relatives in order to cooperate or to avoid inbreeding is widespread across all taxa. One accepted mechanism for kin recognition in birds is associative learning of visual or acoustic cues. However, how could individuals ever learn to recognize unfamiliar kin? Here, we provide the first evidence for a novel mechanism of kin recognition in birds. Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) fledglings are able to distinguish between kin and non-kin based on olfactory cues alone. Since olfactory cues are likely to be genetically based, this finding establishes a neglected mechanism of kin recognition in birds, particularly in songbirds, with potentially far-reaching consequences for both kin selection and inbreeding avoidance.

  18. Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network for Facial Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Bruno J. T.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.; Ren, Tsang I.

    2014-01-01

    Autoassociative artificial neural networks have been used in many different computer vision applications. However, it is difficult to define the most suitable neural network architecture because this definition is based on previous knowledge and depends on the problem domain. To address this problem, we propose a constructive autoassociative neural network called CANet (Constructive Autoassociative Neural Network). CANet integrates the concepts of receptive fields and autoassociative memory in a dynamic architecture that changes the configuration of the receptive fields by adding new neurons in the hidden layer, while a pruning algorithm removes neurons from the output layer. Neurons in the CANet output layer present lateral inhibitory connections that improve the recognition rate. Experiments in face recognition and facial expression recognition show that the CANet outperforms other methods presented in the literature. PMID:25542018

  19. Cognitive and artificial representations in handwriting recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenaghan, Andrew P.; Malyan, Ron

    1996-03-01

    Both cognitive processes and artificial recognition systems may be characterized by the forms of representation they build and manipulate. This paper looks at how handwriting is represented in current recognition systems and the psychological evidence for its representation in the cognitive processes responsible for reading. Empirical psychological work on feature extraction in early visual processing is surveyed to show that a sound psychological basis for feature extraction exists and to describe the features this approach leads to. The first stage of the development of an architecture for a handwriting recognition system which has been strongly influenced by the psychological evidence for the cognitive processes and representations used in early visual processing, is reported. This architecture builds a number of parallel low level feature maps from raw data. These feature maps are thresholded and a region labeling algorithm is used to generate sets of features. Fuzzy logic is used to quantify the uncertainty in the presence of individual features.

  20. A Survey on Automatic Speaker Recognition Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquib, Zia; Salam, Nirmala; Nair, Rekha P.; Pandey, Nipun; Joshi, Akanksha

    Human listeners are capable of identifying a speaker, over the telephone or an entryway out of sight, by listening to the voice of the speaker. Achieving this intrinsic human specific capability is a major challenge for Voice Biometrics. Like human listeners, voice biometrics uses the features of a person's voice to ascertain the speaker's identity. The best-known commercialized forms of voice Biometrics is Speaker Recognition System (SRS). Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. This literature survey paper gives brief introduction on SRS, and then discusses general architecture of SRS, biometric standards relevant to voice/speech, typical applications of SRS, and current research in Speaker Recognition Systems. We have also surveyed various approaches for SRS.