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Sample records for multichannel cochlear implants

  1. Multichannel cochlear implants in partially ossified cochleas.

    PubMed

    Balkany, T; Gantz, B; Nadol, J B

    1988-01-01

    Deposition of bone within the fluid spaces of the cochlea is encountered commonly in cochlear implant candidates and previously has been considered a relative contraindication to the use of multichannel intracochlear electrodes. This contraindication has been based on possible mechanical difficulty with electrode insertion as well as uncertainty about the potential benefit of the multichannel device in the patient. Fifteen profoundly deaf patients with partial ossification of the basal turn of the cochlea received implants with long intracochlear electrodes (11, Nucleus; 1, University of California at San Francisco/Storz; and 3, Symbion/Inneraid). In 11 cases, ossification had been predicted preoperatively by computed tomographic scan. Electrodes were completely inserted in 14 patients, and partial insertion was accomplished in one patient. All patients currently are using their devices and nine of 12 postlingually deaf patients have achieved some degree of open-set speech discrimination. This series demonstrates that in experienced hands, insertion of long multichannel electrodes into partially ossified cochleas is possible and that results are similar to those achieved in patients who have nonossified cochleas. PMID:3140705

  2. The effect of a multichannel cochlear implant on phoneme perception.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, T T; Sorri, M J; Löppönen, H J

    2001-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of a multichannel cochlear implant on phoneme perception in Finnish-speaking postlingually deafened adults. Phoneme recognition was studied with 100 prerecorded nonsense syllables (open-set) presented at 70 dB SPL, auditorily only, in a free-field situation. Ten subjects were tested before implantation both with and without a hearing aid (HA), and 3, 6 and 12 months after switching on the implant. Before implantation without a HA, the subjects did not recognize vowels, consonants or syllables. Four of the subjects used a HA before implantation, and the mean recognition scores of these subjects were 34% for vowels, 28% for consonants and 13% for syllables. One year after switching on the implant, the mean recognition scores were 77% for vowels, 66% for consonants and 46% for syllables. According to phonological analysis vowels appear to be easier to perceive than consonants during the first stage after multichannel cochlear implantation.

  3. Speech perception and functional benefit after multichannel cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, T T; Sorri, M J; Löppönen, H J

    2001-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the effect of a multichannel cochlear implant on speech perception and the functional benefit of cochlear implantation in Finnish-speaking postlingually deafened adults. Fourteen subjects were enrolled. Sentence and word recognition were studied with open-set tests auditorily only. One year after implantation, the listening performance was assessed by case histories and interviews. Before implantation for subjects with a hearing aid, the mean recognition score was 38% for sentences and 17% for words. One year after switching on the implant, the mean recognition score was 84% for sentences and 70% for words. Before implantation, the majority of the subjects were not aware of environmental sounds and only a few were able to recognize some environmental sounds. One year after switching on the implant, the majority of the subjects were able to use the telephone with a familiar speaker. All the subjects were able to recognize speech auditorily only and had thus gained good functional benefit from the implant.

  4. Phoneme recognition and confusions with multichannel cochlear implants: vowels.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Taina T; Määttä, Taisto K; Löppönen, Heikki J; Sorri, Martti J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how postlingually severely or profoundly hearing-impaired adults relearn to recognize vowels after receiving multichannel cochlear implants. Vowel recognition of 19 Finnish-speaking subjects was studied for a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of 24 months using an open-set nonsense-syllable test in a prospective repeated-measure design. The responses were coded for phoneme errors, and 95% confidence intervals for recognition and confusions were calculated. The average vowel recognition was 68% (95% confidence interval = 66-70%) 6 months after switch-on and 80% (95% confidence interval = 78-82%) 24 months after switch-on. The vowels [ae], [u], [i], [o], and [a] were the easiest to recognize, and the vowels [y], [e], and [ø] were the most difficult. In conclusion, adaptation to electrical hearing using a multichannel cochlear implant was achieved well; but for at least 2 years, given two vowels with either F1 or F2 at roughly the some frequencies, confusions were drawn more towards the closest vowel with the next highest F1 or F2.

  5. Phoneme recognition and confusions with multichannel cochlear implants: consonants.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Taina T; Määttä, Taisto K; Löppönen, Heikki J; Sorri, Martti J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how postlingually severely or profoundly hearing-impaired adults relearn to recognize consonants after receiving multichannel cochlear implants. Consonant recognition of 19 Finnish-speaking subjects was studied for a minimum of 6 months and a maximum of 24 months using an open-set nonsense-syllable test in a prospective repeated-measure design. Responses were coded for phoneme errors, and proportions of correct responses and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for recognition and confusions. Two years after the switch-on, the mean recognition of consonants was 71% (95% confidence interval = 68-73%). The manner of articulation was easier to classify than the place of articulation, and the consonants [s], [r], [k], [t], [p], [n], and [j] were easier to recognize than [h], [m], [l], and [v]. Adaptation to electrical hearing with a multichannel cochlear implant was successful, but consonants with alveolar, palatal, or velar transitions (high F2) were better recognized than consonants with labial transitions (low F2). The locus of the F2 transitions of the consonants with better recognition was at the frequencies 1.5-2 kHz, whereas the locus of the F2 transitions of the consonants with poorer recognition was at 1.2-1.4 kHz. A tendency to confuse consonants with the closest consonant with higher F2 transition was also noted.

  6. Multichannel Cochlear Implantation and the Organization of Early Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Helen A.; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.; von Hapsburg, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    A case study of a child who was stimulated with a cochlear implant at age 25 months is reported. Postimplantation, nasals decreased and other consonant types increased, particularly alveolars. The vowel space expanded, including increased production of diphthongs. Serial organization of speech postimplantation mirrored basic motor propensities in…

  7. Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine; Scott, Larry

    This brochure explains what a cochlear implant is, lists the types of individuals with deafness who may be helped by a cochlear implant, describes the process of evaluating people for cochlear implants, discusses the surgical process for implanting the aid, traces the path of sound through the cochlear implant to the brain, notes the costs of…

  8. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... electrodes are inserted. The electronic device at the base of the electrode array is then placed under ... FDA approval for implants The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates cochlear implant devices for both adults ...

  9. Aerodynamic assessment of the speech of adults undergoing multichannel cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Leeper, H A; Gagné, J P; Parnes, L S; Vidas, S

    1993-04-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics of the speech of adult multichannel cochlear implant (Nucleus, 21-channel) recipients. Five adults with an acquired profound sensorineural hearing loss were tested before implantation, immediately following implantation, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after implantation. A commercially available computerized pressure-flow instrumentation system was employed to assess the respiratory, laryngeal, velopharyngeal, and oral articulatory subsystems of speech of the implantees. The results of the investigation indicated 1) a slight increase in airflow rate values for sustained vowel /a/phonation after implantation, 2) a slight increase in duration of sustained vowel phonation from the preimplant period to the last postimplant period, 3) an increase in laryngeal airway resistance after implantation that resulted from a larger increase in estimated transglottal pressure than in transglottal airflow, 4) maintenance of normal velopharyngeal closure in oral-nasal contrastive contexts, and 5) slight increases in oral orifice area for fricative syllable utterances following implantation. Individual strategies for coordinated control of the speech mechanism appear to be potent variables to consider when assessing speech production. PMID:8476171

  10. The multi-channel cochlear implant and the relief of severe-to-profound deafness.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graeme

    2012-05-01

    This personal reflection outlines the discoveries at the University of Melbourne leading to the multi-channel cochlear implant, and its development industrially by Cochlear Limited. My earlier experimental electrophysiological research demonstrated temporal coding occurred for only low frequencies, i.e. below 200-500 pulses/second. I was able to confirm these findings perceptually in behaviourally conditioned animals. In addition, these studies showed that temporal discrimination occurred across spatial coding channels. These experimental results correlated with the later conscious experience for electrical stimulation in my implant patients. In addition, the mid-to-high frequencies were coded in part by place of stimulation using bipolar and monopolar stimulation to restrict current spread. Furthermore, place of stimulation had the qualities of sharpness and dullness, and was also experienced as vowels. Owing to the limitation in coding speech with a physiological model due to the overlap of electrical current leading to unpredictable variations in loudness, a speech coding strategy that extracted the most important speech features for transmission through an electro-neural 'bottle-neck' to the brain was explored. Our inaugural strategy, discovered in 1978, extracted the second formant for place of stimulation, voicing for rate of stimulation, and sound pressure for current level. This was the first coding strategy to provide open-set speech understanding, as shown by standard audiological tests, and it became the first clinically successful interface between the world and human consciousness. This strategy was improved with place coding for the third formant or high-frequency spectrum, and then the spectral maxima. In 1989, I operated on our first patient to receive a bilateral implant, and in 1990, the first with a bimodal processor. The psychophysics and speech perception for these showed that the stimuli from each side could be fused into a single image, and

  11. The multi-channel cochlear implant and the relief of severe-to-profound deafness.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graeme

    2012-05-01

    This personal reflection outlines the discoveries at the University of Melbourne leading to the multi-channel cochlear implant, and its development industrially by Cochlear Limited. My earlier experimental electrophysiological research demonstrated temporal coding occurred for only low frequencies, i.e. below 200-500 pulses/second. I was able to confirm these findings perceptually in behaviourally conditioned animals. In addition, these studies showed that temporal discrimination occurred across spatial coding channels. These experimental results correlated with the later conscious experience for electrical stimulation in my implant patients. In addition, the mid-to-high frequencies were coded in part by place of stimulation using bipolar and monopolar stimulation to restrict current spread. Furthermore, place of stimulation had the qualities of sharpness and dullness, and was also experienced as vowels. Owing to the limitation in coding speech with a physiological model due to the overlap of electrical current leading to unpredictable variations in loudness, a speech coding strategy that extracted the most important speech features for transmission through an electro-neural 'bottle-neck' to the brain was explored. Our inaugural strategy, discovered in 1978, extracted the second formant for place of stimulation, voicing for rate of stimulation, and sound pressure for current level. This was the first coding strategy to provide open-set speech understanding, as shown by standard audiological tests, and it became the first clinically successful interface between the world and human consciousness. This strategy was improved with place coding for the third formant or high-frequency spectrum, and then the spectral maxima. In 1989, I operated on our first patient to receive a bilateral implant, and in 1990, the first with a bimodal processor. The psychophysics and speech perception for these showed that the stimuli from each side could be fused into a single image, and

  12. Development of a multichannel vestibular prosthesis prototype by modification of a commercially available cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Nicolas S; Hageman, Kristin N; Dai, Chenkai; Della Santina, Charles C; Fridman, Gene Y

    2013-09-01

    No adequate treatment exists for individuals who remain disabled by bilateral loss of vestibular (inner ear inertial) sensation despite rehabilitation. We have restored vestibular reflexes using lab-built multichannel vestibular prostheses (MVPs) in animals, but translation to clinical practice may be best accomplished by modification of a commercially available cochlear implant (CI). In this interim report, we describe preliminary efforts toward that goal. We developed software and circuitry to sense head rotation and drive a CI's implanted stimulator (IS) to deliver up to 1 K pulses/s via nine electrodes implanted near vestibular nerve branches. Studies in two rhesus monkeys using the modified CI revealed in vivo performance similar to our existing dedicated MVPs. A key focus of our study was the head-worn unit (HWU), which magnetically couples across the scalp to the IS. The HWU must remain securely fixed to the skull to faithfully sense head motion and maintain continuous stimulation. We measured normal and shear force thresholds at which HWU-IS decoupling occurred as a function of scalp thickness and calculated pressure exerted on the scalp. The HWU remained attached for human scalp thicknesses from 3-7.8 mm for forces experienced during routine daily activities, while pressure on the scalp remained below capillary perfusion pressure.

  13. Noise-enhanced information transmission in a model of multichannel cochlear implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allingham, David; Stocks, Nigel G.; Morse, Robert P.; Meyer, Georg F.

    2004-05-01

    Cochlear implants are used to restore functional hearing to people with profound deafness. Success, as measured by speech intelligibility scores, varies greatly amongst patients; a few receive almost no benefit while some are able to use a telephone under favourable listening conditions. Using a novel nerve model and the principles of suprathreshold stochastic resonance, we demonstrate that the rate of information transfer through a cochlear implant system can be globally maximized by the addition of noise. If this additional information could be used by the brain then it would lead to greater speech intelligibility, which is important given that the intelligibility of all cochlear implant recipients is poorer than that of people with normal hearing, particularly in adverse listening conditions.

  14. Trends in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management. PMID:15247993

  15. Cochlear implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... implant. These specialists may include: Audiologists Speech therapists Ear, nose, and throat doctors (otolaryngologists) This is a very important part of the process. You will need to work closely with your team of specialists to get ...

  16. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... additional visits are needed for activating, adjusting, and programming the various electrodes that have been implanted. Also, ... to the center for checkups once the final programming is made to the speech processor. Both children ...

  17. Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... outside of the body, behind the ear. A second part is surgically placed under the skin. An implant does not restore normal hearing. It can help a person understand speech. Children and adults can benefit from them. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  18. [Biomaterials in cochlear implants].

    PubMed

    Stöver, T; Lenarz, T

    2009-05-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) represent the "gold standard" for the treatment of congenitally deaf children and postlingually deafened adults. Thus, cochlear implantation is a success story of new bionic prosthesis development. Owing to routine application of cochlear implants in adults but also in very young children (below the age of one), high demands are placed on the implants. This is especially true for biocompatibility aspects of surface materials of implant parts which are in contact with the human body. In addition, there are various mechanical requirements which certain components of the implants must fulfil, such as flexibility of the electrode array and mechanical resistance of the implant housing. Due to the close contact of the implant to the middle ear mucosa and because the electrode array is positioned in the perilymphatic space via cochleostomy, there is a potential risk of bacterial transferral along the electrode array into the cochlea. Various requirements that have to be fulfilled by cochlear implants, such as biocompatibility, electrode micromechanics, and although a very high level of technical standards has been carried out there is still demand for the improvement of implants as well as of the materials used for manufacturing, ultimately leading to increased implant performance. General considerations of material aspects related to cochlear implants as well as potential future perspectives of implant development will be discussed.

  19. Cochlear implants in young children.

    PubMed

    Niparko, John K; Blankenhorn, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The cochlear implant is best characterized as a device that provides access to the sound environment. The device enables the hearing pathway to respond to environmental and speech sounds, providing informational cues from the surroundings and from others that may escape visual detection. As the developmental effects of a profound hearing loss are multiple, cochlear implants have been applied to ever younger children in an attempt to promote a more normal level of developmental learning through audition. In deafness, transducer elements of the inner ear fail to trigger auditory nerve afferent nerves in the presence of sound input. However, large reserves of afferent fibers exist even in the auditory nerve of a profoundly deaf patient. Furthermore, these nerve fibers retain the ability to respond to prosthetic activation. Through developmental learning in the early, formative years, auditory centers of the brain appear capable of processing information from the implant to provide speech comprehension and oral language development. Multichannel implants have replaced original single channel designs. multichannel devices enable larger percentages of recipients to recognize the spoken word without visual cues because they provide spectral information in addition to temporal and intensity cues. Testing under conditions of auditory (implant)-only input reveals significant open-set speech understanding capabilities in more than 75% of children after three years of device use. The benefit provided by implants may vary with a number of conditions including: hearing history, age of deafness onset, age at implantation, etiology of deafness, linguistic abilities, and the presence of a motivated system of support of oral language development. Patient variables should be given individual consideration in judging candidacy for a cochlear implant and in planning rehabilitative and education services after surgery and activation of the device.

  20. Multichannel extracochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Pulec, J L; Smith, J C; Lewis, M L; Hortmann, G

    1989-03-01

    The transcutaneous eight-channel extracochlear implant has undergone continuous revision to simplify the surgical technique, to minimize patient morbidity, and to improve performance. The extracochlear electrode array has been miniaturized so that it can be inserted through the facial recess without disturbing the external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, or malleus. The use of the remote antenna placed around the external auditory canal has greatly increased battery life and patient comfort. With its simplified incisions, the surgical procedure can be performed as out-patient surgery. Preoperative cochlear nerve testing and use of evoked response cochlear nerve testing allow preadjustment of the speech processor. Current features and performance of the implant are discussed.

  1. Mathematical modeling of vowel perception by users of analog multichannel cochlear implants: temporal and channel-amplitude cues.

    PubMed

    Svirsky, M A

    2000-03-01

    A "multidimensional phoneme identification" (MPI) model is proposed to account for vowel perception by cochlear implant users. A multidimensional extension of the Durlach-Braida model of intensity perception, this model incorporates an internal noise model and a decision model to account separately for errors due to poor sensitivity and response bias. The MPI model provides a complete quantitative description of how listeners encode and combine acoustic cues, and how they use this information to determine which sound they heard. Thus, it allows for testing specific hypotheses about phoneme identification in a very stringent fashion. As an example of the model's application, vowel identification matrices obtained with synthetic speech stimuli (including "conflicting cue" conditions [Dorman et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92, 3428-3432 (1992)] were examined. The listeners were users of the "compressed-analog" stimulation strategy, which filters the speech spectrum into four partly overlapping frequency bands and delivers each signal to one of four electrodes in the cochlea. It was found that a simple model incorporating one temporal cue (i.e., an acoustic cue based only on the time waveforms delivered to the most basal channel) and spectral cues (based on the distribution of amplitudes among channels) can be quite successful in explaining listener responses. The new approach represented by the MPI model may be used to obtain useful insights about speech perception by cochlear implant users in particular, and by all kinds of listeners in general.

  2. Scuba diving with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Kompis, Martin; Vibert, Dominique; Senn, Pascal; Vischer, Mattheus W; Häusler, Rudolf

    2003-05-01

    We report on a patient with bilateral cochlear implants (a Med-El Combi40 and a Med-El Combi40+), as well as considerable experience in scuba diving with both of his implants. After having been exposed to 68 and 89 dives, respectively, in depths of up to 43 m, both cochlear implants are in working order and the patient continues to receive excellent speech recognition scores with both cochlear implant systems. The presented data show that scuba diving after cochlear implantation is possible over a considerable number of dives without any major negative impact on the implants.

  3. Considering optogenetic stimulation for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marcus; Moser, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Electrical cochlear implants are by far the most successful neuroprostheses and have been implanted in over 300,000 people worldwide. Cochlear implants enable open speech comprehension in most patients but are limited in providing music appreciation and speech understanding in noisy environments. This is generally considered to be due to low frequency resolution as a consequence of wide current spread from stimulation contacts. Accordingly, the number of independently usable stimulation channels is limited to less than a dozen. As light can be conveniently focused, optical stimulation might provide an alternative approach to cochlear implants with increased number of independent stimulation channels. Here, we focus on summarizing recent work on optogenetic stimulation as one way to develop optical cochlear implants. We conclude that proof of principle has been presented for optogenetic stimulation of the cochlea and central auditory neurons in rodents as well as for the technical realization of flexible μLED-based multichannel cochlear implants. Still, much remains to be done in order to advance the technique for auditory research and even more for eventual clinical translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25601298

  4. [Neurotology and cochlear implants].

    PubMed

    Merchán, Miguel A

    2015-05-01

    In this review we analyse cochlear implantation in terms of the fundamental aspects of the functioning of the auditory system. Concepts concerning neuronal plasticity applied to electrical stimulation in perinatal and adult deep hypoacusis are reviewed, and the latest scientific bases that justify early implantation following screening for congenital deafness are discussed. Finally, this review aims to serve as an example of the importance of fostering the sub-specialty of neurotology in our milieu, with the aim of bridging some of the gaps between specialties and thus improving both the knowledge in the field of research on auditory pathologies and in the screening of patients. The objectives of this review, targeted above all towards specialists in the field of otorhinolaryngology, are to analyse some significant neurological foundations in order to reach a better understanding of the clinical events that condition the indications and the rehabilitation of patients with cochlear implants, as well as to use this means to foster the growth of the sub-specialty of neurotology.

  5. Biomaterials in cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Stöver, Timo; Lenarz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The cochlear implant (CI) represents, for almost 25 years now, the gold standard in the treatment of children born deaf and for postlingually deafened adults. These devices thus constitute the greatest success story in the field of ‘neurobionic’ prostheses. Their (now routine) fitting in adults, and especially in young children and even babies, places exacting demands on these implants, particularly with regard to the biocompatibility of a CI’s surface components. Furthermore, certain parts of the implant face considerable mechanical challenges, such as the need for the electrode array to be flexible and resistant to breakage, and for the implant casing to be able to withstand external forces. As these implants are in the immediate vicinity of the middle-ear mucosa and of the junction to the perilymph of the cochlea, the risk exists – at least in principle – that bacteria may spread along the electrode array into the cochlea. The wide-ranging requirements made of the CI in terms of biocompatibility and the electrode mechanism mean that there is still further scope – despite the fact that CIs are already technically highly sophisticated – for ongoing improvements to the properties of these implants and their constituent materials, thus enhancing the effectiveness of these devices. This paper will therefore discuss fundamental material aspects of CIs as well as the potential for their future development. PMID:22073103

  6. Electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABR) and middle latency responses (EMLR) obtained from patients with the nucleus multichannel cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Shallop, J K; Beiter, A L; Goin, D W; Mischke, R E

    1990-02-01

    Electrical auditory brain stem responses (EABR) and electrical middle latency responses (EMLR) were recorded from patients who had received the Nucleus multichannel cochlear implant system. Twenty-five sequential patients had either intraoperative or outpatient EABR testing. We also recorded EMLRs from several outpatients. EABR results were consistent among all patients tested. Wave V mean latencies were the shortest (3.82 msec) for the most apical electrode (E20) and increased slightly for the medial (E12) and basal (E5) electrodes (3.94 and 4.20 msec, respectively). Absolute latencies for all EABR component waves were observed to be 1 to 1.5 msec shorter than typical acoustic auditory brain stem response (ABR) mean latencies. We have examined the relationships between patients' EABR/EMLR and their behavioral responses to electrical stimulation. Generally, the behavioral threshold and comfort current levels were lower than the predicted values based on EABR/EMLR findings. This observation may be due in part to psychophysical loudness differences noted for pulse rates of 10 to 500 pulses per second in some of the patients that we have studied in greater detail.

  7. Telephone use by a multi-channel cochlear implant patient. An evaluation using open-set CID sentences.

    PubMed

    Brown, A M; Clark, G M; Dowell, R C; Martin, L F; Seligman, P M

    1985-03-01

    A totally deaf person with a multiple-channel cochlear prosthesis obtained open-set speech discrimination using the telephone. CID Everyday Sentences were presented by telephone to the patient, who repeated an average of 21 per cent of key words correctly on the first presentation, and 47 per cent when a repeat of the sentences was permitted. This result is consistent with the patient's reports of telephone usage.

  8. Myths about Cochlear Implants: A Family Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, B.

    1994-01-01

    A parent of two young children who received cochlear implant surgery addresses common myths about this procedure including "deaf people don't support the use of cochlear implants,""if you choose cochlear implant surgery, you are choosing the hearing world,""hearing parents are not qualified to decide," and "the deaf child him/herself should…

  9. [Professional occupation after cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Kós, Maria-Izabel; Degive, Colette; Boëx, Colette; Maire, Raphaël; Guyot, Jean-Philippe

    2006-10-01

    This study verifies whether cochlear implants helps deaf adults to maintain or develop their professional occupations. Sixty-seven patients received a questionnaire concerning their professional activities before and after implantation. At the time of implantation 34 were professionally active. After the implantation 29 remained active, 4 of them reporting positive developments in their careers. Five patients became inactive. The previously inactive patients remained inactive. There was no difference in auditory performances between professionally active or inactive patients. Cochlear implants enable most implanted adults to maintain and even progress in their professions. However, deafness still represents an obstacle to social integration as inactive patients who searched for a job were rejected after the job interviews. PMID:17076153

  10. Professional occupation after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Kos, M-I; Degive, C; Boex, C; Guyot, J-P

    2007-03-01

    The aims of this study were to verify whether cochlear implants helped profoundly deaf adults to maintain or even to develop their professional occupations, and to identify other elements that may contribute to or, on the contrary, impede such patients' professional success. All adult patients received a questionnaire concerning their professional activities before and after implantation. Demographic data, health information, hearing performance and degree of satisfaction with the implant were also considered. Sixty-seven adults had been implanted, with three different devices, since 1985. At the time of implantation, 34 had been professionally active. After implantation, 29 had remained professionally active, four of whom reported positive developments in their careers. Five patients had become professionally inactive. Those patients who had previously been professionally inactive remained so. There had been no difference in performance, either between different types of cochlear implants or between professionally active or inactive patients. The implanted patients had kept their jobs and many of them had developed their professional skills. In spite of this, cochlear implants may still be perceived as proving insufficiently satisfactory hearing to enable professionally inactive patients to reintegrate and to facilitate further learning or career developments. PMID:17052367

  11. Cochlear implantation: a biomechanical prosthesis for hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Robert; Hunter, Jacob B; Sweeney, Alex D; Bennett, Marc L

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants are a medical prosthesis used to treat sensorineural deafness, and one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The following article is an overview of cochlear implant technology. The history of cochlear implantation and the development of modern implant technology will be discussed, as well as current surgical techniques. Research regarding expansion of candidacy, hearing preservation cochlear implantation, and implantation for unilateral deafness are described. Lastly, innovative technology is discussed, including the hybrid cochlear implant and the totally implantable cochlear implant.

  12. IMPORTANCE OF COCHLEAR HEALTH FOR IMPLANT FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Pfingst, Bryan E.; Zhou, Ning; Colesa, Deborah J.; Watts, Melissa M.; Strahl, Stefan B.; Garadat, Soha N.; Schvartz-Leyzac, Kara C.; Budenz, Cameron L.; Raphael, Yehoash; Zwolan, Teresa A.

    2014-01-01

    Amazing progress has been made in providing useful hearing to hearing-impaired individuals using cochlear implants, but challenges remain. One such challenge is understanding the effects of partial degeneration of the auditory nerve, the target of cochlear implant stimulation. Here we review studies from our human and animal laboratories aimed at characterizing the health of the implanted cochlea and the auditory nerve. We use the data on cochlear and neural health to guide rehabilitation strategies. The data also motivate the development of tissue-engineering procedures to preserve or build a healthy cochlea and improve performance obtained by cochlear implant recipients or eventually replace the need for a cochlear implant. PMID:25261772

  13. Cochlear Implantation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ≥60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ≥60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into

  14. Cochlear implant optimized noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Arora, Komal; Dawson, Pam W

    2012-12-01

    Noise-reduction methods have provided significant improvements in speech perception for cochlear implant recipients, where only quality improvements have been found in hearing aid recipients. Recent psychoacoustic studies have suggested changes to noise-reduction techniques specifically for cochlear implants, due to differences between hearing aid recipient and cochlear implant recipient hearing. An optimized noise-reduction method was developed with significantly increased temporal smoothing of the signal-to-noise ratio estimate and a more aggressive gain function compared to current noise-reduction methods. This optimized noise-reduction algorithm was tested with 12 cochlear implant recipients over four test sessions. Speech perception was assessed through speech in noise tests with three noise types; speech-weighted noise, 20-talker babble and 4-talker babble. A significant speech perception improvement using optimized noise reduction over standard processing was found in babble noise and speech-weighted noise and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted noise. Speech perception in quiet was not degraded. Listening quality testing for noise annoyance and overall preference found significant improvements over the standard processing and over a current noise-reduction method in speech-weighted and babble noise types. This optimized method has shown significant speech perception and quality improvements compared to the standard processing and a current noise-reduction method.

  15. Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Mathias; McAlpine, David

    2015-12-30

    This special issue contains a collection of 13 papers highlighting the collaborative research and engineering project entitled Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology-ABCIT-as well as research spin-offs from the project. In this introductory editorial, a brief history of the project is provided, alongside an overview of the studies.

  16. Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology

    PubMed Central

    McAlpine, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains a collection of 13 papers highlighting the collaborative research and engineering project entitled Advancing Binaural Cochlear Implant Technology—ABCIT—as well as research spin-offs from the project. In this introductory editorial, a brief history of the project is provided, alongside an overview of the studies. PMID:26721929

  17. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing. PMID:24404581

  18. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing.

  19. Cochlear Implantation in Unique Pediatric Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Anna X.; Kim, Grace G.; Zdanski, Carlton J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Over the last decade, the selection criteria for cochlear implantation have expanded to include children with special auditory, otologic, and medical problems. Included within this expanded group of candidates are those children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, cochleovestibular malformations, cochlear nerve deficiency, associated syndromes, as well as multiple medical and developmental disorders. Definitive indications for cochlear implantation in these unique pediatric populations are in evolution. This review will provide an overview of managing and habilitating hearing loss within these populations with specific focus on cochlear implantation as a treatment option. Recent findings Cochlear implants have been successfully implanted in children within unique populations with variable results. Evaluation for cochlear implant candidacy includes the core components of a full medical, audiologic, and speech and language evaluations. When considering candidacy in these children, additional aspects to consider include disorder specific surgical considerations and child/care-giver counseling regarding reasonable post-implantation outcome expectations. Summary Cochlear implantations are accepted as the standard of care for improving hearing and speech development in children with severe to profound hearing loss. However, children with sensorineural hearing loss who meet established audiologic criteria for cochlear implantation may have unique audiologic, medical, and anatomic characteristics that necessitate special consideration regarding cochlear implantation candidacy and outcome. Individualized pre-operative candidacy and counseling, surgical evaluation, and reasonable post-operative outcome expectations should be taken into account in the management of these children. PMID:23128686

  20. Spatial Channel Interactions in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-01-01

    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis for its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same 5 modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured voltage distribution as a function of electrode position in the cochlea in response to stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of electrode position in response to stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or lower in all measures. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope, and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological, and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal side. On the contrary, the evoked

  1. Spatial channel interactions in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis owing to its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same five modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured the voltage distribution as a function of the electrode position in the cochlea in response to the stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of the electrode position in response to the stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or less in all measurements. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing a wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal

  2. Spatial channel interactions in cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis owing to its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same five modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured the voltage distribution as a function of the electrode position in the cochlea in response to the stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of the electrode position in response to the stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or less in all measurements. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing a wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal

  3. Cortical Plasticity after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, B.; Gjedde, A.; Wallentin, M.; Vuust, P.

    2013-01-01

    The most dramatic progress in the restoration of hearing takes place in the first months after cochlear implantation. To map the brain activity underlying this process, we used positron emission tomography at three time points: within 14 days, three months, and six months after switch-on. Fifteen recently implanted adult implant recipients listened to running speech or speech-like noise in four sequential PET sessions at each milestone. CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss showed differential activation of left superior temporal gyrus during speech and speech-like stimuli, unlike CI listeners with prelingual hearing loss. Furthermore, Broca's area was activated as an effect of time, but only in CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss. The study demonstrates that adaptation to the cochlear implant is highly related to the history of hearing loss. Speech processing in patients whose hearing loss occurred after the acquisition of language involves brain areas associated with speech comprehension, which is not the case for patients whose hearing loss occurred before the acquisition of language. Finally, the findings confirm the key role of Broca's area in restoration of speech perception, but only in individuals in whom Broca's area has been active prior to the loss of hearing. PMID:24377050

  4. Cortical plasticity after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, B; Gjedde, A; Wallentin, M; Vuust, P

    2013-01-01

    The most dramatic progress in the restoration of hearing takes place in the first months after cochlear implantation. To map the brain activity underlying this process, we used positron emission tomography at three time points: within 14 days, three months, and six months after switch-on. Fifteen recently implanted adult implant recipients listened to running speech or speech-like noise in four sequential PET sessions at each milestone. CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss showed differential activation of left superior temporal gyrus during speech and speech-like stimuli, unlike CI listeners with prelingual hearing loss. Furthermore, Broca's area was activated as an effect of time, but only in CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss. The study demonstrates that adaptation to the cochlear implant is highly related to the history of hearing loss. Speech processing in patients whose hearing loss occurred after the acquisition of language involves brain areas associated with speech comprehension, which is not the case for patients whose hearing loss occurred before the acquisition of language. Finally, the findings confirm the key role of Broca's area in restoration of speech perception, but only in individuals in whom Broca's area has been active prior to the loss of hearing. PMID:24377050

  5. Cortical plasticity after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, B; Gjedde, A; Wallentin, M; Vuust, P

    2013-01-01

    The most dramatic progress in the restoration of hearing takes place in the first months after cochlear implantation. To map the brain activity underlying this process, we used positron emission tomography at three time points: within 14 days, three months, and six months after switch-on. Fifteen recently implanted adult implant recipients listened to running speech or speech-like noise in four sequential PET sessions at each milestone. CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss showed differential activation of left superior temporal gyrus during speech and speech-like stimuli, unlike CI listeners with prelingual hearing loss. Furthermore, Broca's area was activated as an effect of time, but only in CI listeners with postlingual hearing loss. The study demonstrates that adaptation to the cochlear implant is highly related to the history of hearing loss. Speech processing in patients whose hearing loss occurred after the acquisition of language involves brain areas associated with speech comprehension, which is not the case for patients whose hearing loss occurred before the acquisition of language. Finally, the findings confirm the key role of Broca's area in restoration of speech perception, but only in individuals in whom Broca's area has been active prior to the loss of hearing.

  6. Voice and Pronunciation of Cochlear Implant Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horga, Damir; Liker, Marko

    2006-01-01

    Patients with cochlear implants have the ability to exercise auditory control over their own speech production and over the speech of others, which is important for the development of speech control. In the present investigation three groups of 10 subjects were compared. The groups comprised: (1) cochlear implant users, (2) profoundly deaf using…

  7. Cochlear Implants: The Young People's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Alexandra; Archbold, Sue; Gregory, Susan; Skipp, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is a relatively new procedure, which has already had significant impact on the lives of many profoundly deaf children and adults, in providing useful hearing to those unable to benefit significantly from hearing aids. After 16 years of cochlear implantation in the United Kingdom, there is now a body of evidence covering a…

  8. Deafblind People's Experiences of Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soper, Janet

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implants are electronic devices that create the sensation of hearing in those who cannot obtain any benefit from conventional hearing aids. This article examines the experience of cochlear implantation in a select group of individuals with acquired deafblindness, focusing on three key themes: access to communication, information and…

  9. Cochlear implantation: a biomechanical prosthesis for hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Robert; Hunter, Jacob B.; Sweeney, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants are a medical prosthesis used to treat sensorineural deafness, and one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The following article is an overview of cochlear implant technology. The history of cochlear implantation and the development of modern implant technology will be discussed, as well as current surgical techniques. Research regarding expansion of candidacy, hearing preservation cochlear implantation, and implantation for unilateral deafness are described. Lastly, innovative technology is discussed, including the hybrid cochlear implant and the totally implantable cochlear implant. PMID:26097718

  10. Cochlear Implant Using Neural Prosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Shashi kumar; Dubey, Pratik Kumar

    2012-10-01

    This research is based on neural prosthetic device. The oldest and most widely used of these electrical, and often computerized, devices is the cochlear implant, which has provided hearing to thousands of congenitally deaf people in this country. Recently, the use of the cochlear implant is expanding to the elderly, who frequently suffer major hearing loss. More cutting edge are artificial retinas, which are helping dozens of blind people see, and ìsmartî artificial arms and legs that amputees can maneuver by thoughts alone, and that feel more like real limbs.Research, which curiosity led to explore frog legs dancing during thunderstorms, a snail shapedorgan in the inner ear, and how various eye cells react to light, have fostered an understanding of how to ìtalkî to the nervous system. That understanding combined with the miniaturization of electronics and enhanced computer processing has enabled prosthetic devices that often can bridge the gap in nerve signaling that is caused by disease or injury.

  11. Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: Why Do Children Receive Implants Late?

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Julia; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early cochlear implantation has been widely promoted for children who derive inadequate benefit from conventional acoustic amplification. Universal newborn hearing screening has led to earlier identification and intervention, including cochlear implantation in much of the world. The purpose of this study was to examine age and time to cochlear implantation and to understand the factors that affected late cochlear implantation in children who received cochlear implants. Design: In this population-based study, data were examined for all children who underwent cochlear implant surgery in one region of Canada from 2002 to 2013. Clinical characteristics were collected prospectively as part of a larger project examining outcomes from newborn hearing screening. For this study, audiologic details including age and severity of hearing loss at diagnosis, age at cochlear implant candidacy, and age at cochlear implantation were documented. Additional detailed medical chart information was extracted to identify the factors associated with late implantation for children who received cochlear implants more than 12 months after confirmation of hearing loss. Results: The median age of diagnosis of permanent hearing loss for 187 children was 12.6 (interquartile range: 5.5, 21.7) months, and the age of cochlear implantation over the 12-year period was highly variable with a median age of 36.2 (interquartile range: 21.4, 71.3) months. A total of 118 (63.1%) received their first implant more than 12 months after confirmation of hearing loss. Detailed analysis of clinical profiles for these 118 children revealed that late implantation could be accounted for primarily by progressive hearing loss (52.5%), complex medical conditions (16.9%), family indecision (9.3%), geographical location (5.9%), and other miscellaneous known (6.8%) and unknown factors (8.5%). Conclusions: This study confirms that despite the trend toward earlier implantation, a substantial number of children

  12. Informed Consent, Deaf Culture, and Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Pass, Lauren; Graber, Abraham D

    2015-01-01

    While cochlear implantation is now considered routine in many parts of the world, the debate over how to ethically implement this technology continues. One's stance on implantation often hinges on one's understanding of deafness. On one end of the spectrum are those who see cochlear implants as a much needed cure for an otherwise intractable disability. On the other end of the spectrum are those who view the Deaf as members of a thriving culture and see the cochlear implant as an attempt to eliminate this culture. Rather than take a stance in this debate, we will argue that the informed consent process for cochlear implantation must include access to Deaf perspectives. Deaf individuals know best what it is like to be a member of the Deaf community; the reasonable person would put significant weight on the testimony of Deaf individuals when considering whether to undergo cochlear implantation. The reasonable person standard determines what information careproviders must present as part of the informed consent process; thus, informed consent for cochlear implantation requires access to the testimony of Deaf individuals. PMID:26399672

  13. Informed Consent, Deaf Culture, and Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Pass, Lauren; Graber, Abraham D

    2015-01-01

    While cochlear implantation is now considered routine in many parts of the world, the debate over how to ethically implement this technology continues. One's stance on implantation often hinges on one's understanding of deafness. On one end of the spectrum are those who see cochlear implants as a much needed cure for an otherwise intractable disability. On the other end of the spectrum are those who view the Deaf as members of a thriving culture and see the cochlear implant as an attempt to eliminate this culture. Rather than take a stance in this debate, we will argue that the informed consent process for cochlear implantation must include access to Deaf perspectives. Deaf individuals know best what it is like to be a member of the Deaf community; the reasonable person would put significant weight on the testimony of Deaf individuals when considering whether to undergo cochlear implantation. The reasonable person standard determines what information careproviders must present as part of the informed consent process; thus, informed consent for cochlear implantation requires access to the testimony of Deaf individuals.

  14. Benefits and Risks of Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... in aircraft interact in unpredictable ways with other computer systems Will have to be careful of static electricity. Static electricity may temporarily or permanently damage a cochlear implant. It ... computer monitors, or synthetic fabric. For more details regarding ...

  15. Cochlear implant in an ambulatory surgery center.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Aimee M; Lassen, L Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Presbycusis, or sensorineural hearing loss in the elderly population, affects approximately 40% to 50% of people over the age of 75. A variety of devices are available to those with hearing loss. Cochlear implants, for example, are especially useful for those with severe-to-profound hearing loss. The population is aging, so the demand for cochlear implantation in ambulatory surgery centers will likely increase. Ambulatory surgery centers (ASC) can provide a more convenient and less expensive location for cochlear implant surgery than hospital-based operating facilities. Patient selection using standard ASC criteria, coupled with an understanding of the unique surgical and anesthetic needs of cochlear implant patients, are key to bringing this once exotic inpatient procedure into the ASC.

  16. Compression, cochlear implants, and psychophysical laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2001-05-01

    Cochlear compression contributes significantly to sharp frequency tuning and wide dynamic range in audition. The physiological mechanism underlying the compression has been traced to the outer hair cell function. Electric stimulation of the auditory nerve in cochlear implants bypasses this compression function, serving as a research tool to delineate the peripheral and central contributions to auditory functions. In this talk, I will compare psychophysical performance between acoustic and electric hearing in intensity, frequency, and time processing, and pay particular attention to the data that demonstrate the role of cochlear compression. Examples include both the cochlear-implant listeners' extremely narrow dynamic range and poor pitch discrimination and their exquisite sensitivity to changes in amplitude and phase. A unified view on the complementary contributions of cochlear compression and central expansion will be developed to account for Webers' law and Stevens power law.

  17. Understanding music with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Lisa; Mürbe, Dirk; Hahne, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Direct stimulation of the auditory nerve via a Cochlear Implant (CI) enables profoundly hearing-impaired people to perceive sounds. Many CI users find language comprehension satisfactory, but music perception is generally considered difficult. However, music contains different dimensions which might be accessible in different ways. We aimed to highlight three main dimensions of music processing in CI users which rely on different processing mechanisms: (1) musical discrimination abilities, (2) access to meaning in music, and (3) subjective music appreciation. All three dimensions were investigated in two CI user groups (post- and prelingually deafened CI users, all implanted as adults) and a matched normal hearing control group. The meaning of music was studied by using event-related potentials (with the N400 component as marker) during a music-word priming task while music appreciation was gathered by a questionnaire. The results reveal a double dissociation between the three dimensions of music processing. Despite impaired discrimination abilities of both CI user groups compared to the control group, appreciation was reduced only in postlingual CI users. While musical meaning processing was restorable in postlingual CI users, as shown by a N400 effect, data of prelingual CI users lack the N400 effect and indicate previous dysfunctional concept building. PMID:27558546

  18. Understanding music with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Lisa; Mürbe, Dirk; Hahne, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Direct stimulation of the auditory nerve via a Cochlear Implant (CI) enables profoundly hearing-impaired people to perceive sounds. Many CI users find language comprehension satisfactory, but music perception is generally considered difficult. However, music contains different dimensions which might be accessible in different ways. We aimed to highlight three main dimensions of music processing in CI users which rely on different processing mechanisms: (1) musical discrimination abilities, (2) access to meaning in music, and (3) subjective music appreciation. All three dimensions were investigated in two CI user groups (post- and prelingually deafened CI users, all implanted as adults) and a matched normal hearing control group. The meaning of music was studied by using event-related potentials (with the N400 component as marker) during a music-word priming task while music appreciation was gathered by a questionnaire. The results reveal a double dissociation between the three dimensions of music processing. Despite impaired discrimination abilities of both CI user groups compared to the control group, appreciation was reduced only in postlingual CI users. While musical meaning processing was restorable in postlingual CI users, as shown by a N400 effect, data of prelingual CI users lack the N400 effect and indicate previous dysfunctional concept building. PMID:27558546

  19. Cochlear implantations in visually impaired patients.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kenji; Kanda, Yokihiko; Kumagami, Hidetaka; Yashida, Haruo; Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Miyamoto, Ikue; Takahashi, Haruo

    2007-04-01

    We retrospectively review the cases to evaluate the outcome of cochlear implantation (CI) in patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss and visual impairment (VI). Six adults with severe or profound hearing loss and significant VI underwent multichannel CI. Follow-up period ranged from 17 months to 7 years. Case history, etiology of visual and hearing loss, and benefit from CI were evaluated. To measure the outcomes, we selected the pure-tone thresholds with CI, the speech discrimination scores (SDS) using the Japanese video SDS system, the speech perception rates using the Japanese CD SDS system by monosyllable and word, and the open-set and closed sentence score using live voice. All the patients live happily after CI. There was no significant difference between the present six patients and the patients with profound hearing loss without VI in evaluations of hearing and quality of life. CI can play a significant rehabilitative role in patients with severe hearing loss and VI. PMID:17082944

  20. Cochlear implants: selection criteria and shifting borders.

    PubMed

    Lenarz, T

    1998-01-01

    Cochlear implants have proven to be effective and reliable in postlingually deaf adults. This is also true for congenitally deaf and perilingually deaf children up to the age of six years. Due to the increasing experience, the improvement of implant technology and the proven reliability the selection criteria are broadened with shifting borders. The main extensions are related to age, additional handicaps, residual hearing and special etiologies of deafness. Increasing evidence shows that very early implantation results in better performance and better hearing and speech development. Near-normal language acquisition can be achieved in children implanted under the age of four. Additional handicaps do not automatically exclude a candidate from cochlear implantation. A case-to-case decision has to be made based on additional diagnostics and the experience of the implant centre. A list of suitable handicaps is provided. Severely hearing impaired patients may also be considered for cochlear implantation if their residual hearing provides no benefit for speech discrimination. The same holds true for children. Cochlear implantation in obliterated cochleae and inner ear malformation requires a special surgical technique and special electrode arrays. In this way even difficult cases can be managed with remarkable outcome. Over all, the selection criteria have been broadened with increasing experience and technological improvement. This development may continue and the borderline between hearing aids and cochlear implants will shift further towards severe hearing loss. However, the basis for success still remains good rehabilitation, a team approach and the willingness of the patient to undergo the whole process of cochlear implantation.

  1. The early days of the multi channel cochlear implant: efforts and achievement in France.

    PubMed

    Chouard, C H

    2015-04-01

    On September 10th 2013, the clinical medical research Lasker award winners were rewarded for their work on multichannel cochlear implant. It has been my pleasure to see that such a major topic had caught the attention of the Members of the Jury for this prestigious award. That is why I accepted an invitation to participate in a special issue of Hearing Research devoted to the three winners. Here I highlight four scientific contributions made by the French team in late 1970s and early 1980s to modern multichannel cochlear implant development. 1) Chouard and MacLeod plotted an approximate frequency map of the whole length of the human cochlea, including its "hidden face" corresponding to speech frequencies. Moreover MacLeod suggested a sequential display of electrical stimulation as a function of each electrode, a precursor to today's electrodogram and interleaved stimulation. 2) Chouard performed total cochlear implantation in a deaf adult male with 8 electrically independent electrodes that were evenly distributed along the cochlea. 3) Chouard and MacLeod described in a patent detailed sound signal processing for a functional multichannel cochlear implant and reported speech discrimination without help of lip reading in some totally deafened patients. 4) Chouard experimentally demonstrated in the guinea pig the advantage of early cochlear implantation in treating profound neonatal deafness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .

  2. The early days of the multi channel cochlear implant: efforts and achievement in France.

    PubMed

    Chouard, C H

    2015-04-01

    On September 10th 2013, the clinical medical research Lasker award winners were rewarded for their work on multichannel cochlear implant. It has been my pleasure to see that such a major topic had caught the attention of the Members of the Jury for this prestigious award. That is why I accepted an invitation to participate in a special issue of Hearing Research devoted to the three winners. Here I highlight four scientific contributions made by the French team in late 1970s and early 1980s to modern multichannel cochlear implant development. 1) Chouard and MacLeod plotted an approximate frequency map of the whole length of the human cochlea, including its "hidden face" corresponding to speech frequencies. Moreover MacLeod suggested a sequential display of electrical stimulation as a function of each electrode, a precursor to today's electrodogram and interleaved stimulation. 2) Chouard performed total cochlear implantation in a deaf adult male with 8 electrically independent electrodes that were evenly distributed along the cochlea. 3) Chouard and MacLeod described in a patent detailed sound signal processing for a functional multichannel cochlear implant and reported speech discrimination without help of lip reading in some totally deafened patients. 4) Chouard experimentally demonstrated in the guinea pig the advantage of early cochlear implantation in treating profound neonatal deafness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25499127

  3. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    PubMed

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  4. Educational Progress Profiles of Cochlear Implant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Sarah A.

    This study examined the educational development of 22 children (ages 2 to 10), under the supervision of the Cochlear Implant Team of the Medical College of Virginia, who had received implants as a result of deafness (in most cases prelingual and congenital) from 6 months to 3 years prior to the study. Data included a review of the children's case…

  5. Deaf Education: The Impact of Cochlear Implantation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbold, Sue; Mayer, Connie

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact that cochlear implantation has had on the practice of deaf education in terms of educational placement, communication choices, and educational attainments. Although there is variation in outcome, more children with implants are going to mainstream schools, and using spoken language as their primary means of…

  6. Cochlear implants: our experience and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Mariane Barreto Brandão; de Lima, Francis Vinicius Fontes; Santos, Ronaldo Carvalho; Santos, Arlete Cristina Granizo; Barreto, Valéria Maria Prado; de Jesus, Eduardo Passos Fiel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Cochlear Implants are important for individuals with severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Objective: Evaluate the experience of cochlear implant center of Otorhinolaryngology through the analysis of records of 9 patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed with the patients records. Number 0191.0.107.000-11 ethics committee approval. We evaluated gender, etiology, age at surgery, duration of deafness, classification of deafness, unilateral or bilateral surgery, intraoperative and postoperative neural response and impedance of the electrodes in intraoperative and preoperative tests and found those that counter-indicated surgery. Results: There were 6 pediatric and 3 adult patients. Four male and 5 female. Etiologies: maternal rubella, cytomegalovirus, ototoxicity, meningitis, and sudden deafness. The age at surgery and duration of deafness ranged from 2–46 years and 2–18 years, respectively. Seven patients were pre-lingual. All had profound bilateral PA. There were 7 bilateral implants. Intraoperative complications: hemorrhage. Complications after surgery: vertigo and internal device failure. In 7 patients the electrodes were implanted through. Telemetry showed satisfactory neural response and impedance. CT and MRI was performed in all patients. We found enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct in a patient and incudomalleolar malformation. Conclusion: The cochlear implant as a form of auditory rehabilitation is well established and spreading to different centers specialized in otoaudiology. Thus, the need for structured services and trained professionals in this type of procedure is clear. PMID:25991976

  7. Music Therapy for Preschool Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia; Kenworthy, Maura; Van Voorst, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides research and clinical information relevant to music therapy for preschool children who use cochlear implants (CI). It consolidates information from various disciplinary sources regarding (a) cochlear implantation of young prelingually-deaf children (~age 2-5), (b) patterns of auditory and speech-language development, and (c) research regarding music perception of children with CIs. This information serves as a foundation for the final portion of the article, which describes typical music therapy goals and examples of interventions suitable for preschool children. PMID:23904691

  8. [Cochlear implants in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Mlynski, R; Plontke, S

    2013-05-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) have become standard in the treatment of prelingual, postlingual and perilingual deafness and hearing loss in children. Bilateral implants are considered standard for bilaterally affected children. The benefits for speech and language development, as well as speech intelligibility brought by CI-enabled hearing are greatest if these are received as soon after diagnosis as possible. Continued improvements in preoperative diagnostics, electrode design, speech coding strategies and surgical techniques, have broadened the CI applications spectrum. Nowadays--with the exception of cochlear- and cochlear nerve aplasia--almost all malformations are manageable with CIs. New indications concern partial and unilateral deafness. Treatment with CIs requires exceptional team work. In addition to ongoing medical care of the children, the involvement of parents and relatives in the cooperation between surgeons, audiologists, teachers and specialist centers is important for successful rehabilitation. PMID:23649525

  9. Beyond cochlear implants: awakening the deafened brain.

    PubMed

    Moore, David R; Shannon, Robert V

    2009-06-01

    Cochlear implants have provided hearing to more than 120,000 deaf people. Recent surgical developments include direct electrical stimulation of the brain, bilateral implants and implantation in children less than 1 year old. However, research is beginning to refocus on the role of the brain in providing benefits to implant users. The auditory system is able to use the highly impoverished input provided by implants to interpret speech, but this only works well in those who have developed language before their deafness or in those who receive their implant at a very young age. We discuss recent evidence suggesting that developing the ability of the brain to learn how to use an implant may be as important as further improvements of the implant technology. PMID:19471266

  10. Word Learning in Children following Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Carter, Allyson K.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Ying, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental procedure was developed to investigate word-learning skills of children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Using interactive play scenarios, 2- to 5-year olds were presented with sets of objects (Beanie Baby stuffed animals) and words for their names that corresponded to salient perceptual attributes (e.g., "horns" for a goat). Their…

  11. Gender Categorization in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massida, Zoe; Marx, Mathieu; Belin, Pascal; James, Christopher; Fraysse, Bernard; Barone, Pascal; Deguine, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the ability of subjects with cochlear implants (CIs) to discriminate voice gender and how this ability evolved as a function of CI experience. Method: The authors presented a continuum of voice samples created by voice morphing, with 9 intermediate acoustic parameter steps between a typical male and a…

  12. "Does God Have a Cochlear Implant?".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses psychological and ethical considerations when providing family therapy for parents considering cochlear implantation for the deaf/hard-of-hearing child. Family dynamics, multilevel criteria of informed consent, therapist bias, and intervention strategies are illustrated by a case study of an 8-year-old boy. (Contains seven…

  13. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  14. Endoscopic assisted cochlear implants in ear malformations.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Daniele; Soloperto, Davide; Guarnaccia, Maria C; Genovese, Elisabetta; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Presutti, Livio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of present study is to describe the use of the endoscopic assisted cochlear implant approach in cases with severely malformed temporal bones and with anomalous anatomy of the inner ear and tympanic cavity. Eight patients with malformed middle and inner ear and bilateral profound hearing loss were operated using an endoscopic assisted cochlear implant procedure at our tertiary university referral center between January and September 2013. Five patients received a cochlear implant using a suprameatal endoscopic assisted approach. A chart review of clinical data and videos from the operations was performed. All procedures were re-analyzed and codified. In all patients, discharge from hospital was on the third day post-surgery. No immediate or late postoperative complications were noted. The current mean follow-up is 6 months, with range between 4 and 12 months. This approach proved to be successful in cochlear implant placement. It guaranteed a very good control on the facial nerve, even in cases with difficult anatomical conditions, mainly thanks to the endoscopic procedure. It also permitted an appropriate anatomical orientation of the abnormal middle ear with a direct safe cochleostomy, when the round window position would have been difficult to treat using a traditional approach. PMID:25085636

  15. Auditory Learning in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Srikanta K.; Boddupally, Shiva P.; Rayapati, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and characterize the training-induced changes in speech-in-noise perception in children with congenital deafness who have cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Twenty-seven children with congenital deafness who have CIs were studied. Eleven children with CIs were trained on a speech-in-noise task,…

  16. Impairment of Caloric Function after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Heide; Haversat, Heather H.; Michaelides, Elias M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review current literature on caloric function following cochlear implantation while analyzing any correlations of caloric function changes with vestibular symptoms. Method: This article is a systematic review of evidence-based literature. English language articles published between 1980 and 2014 that presented some…

  17. Cochlear otosclerosis: does bone formation affect cochlear implant surgery?

    PubMed

    Fayad, J; Moloy, P; Linthicum, F H

    1990-05-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate that new bone formation in the scala tympani of patients deaf from otosclerosis does not preclude cochlear implant surgery. In seven temporal bones from patients with otosclerosis, we measured the extent of new bone from the round window to the distal part of the new growth. We compared results to surgical data on the extent of drilling and depth and ease of placement of the electrode in 20 patients deaf from otosclerosis. We also examined clinical performance and voltage requirements for long-term implant use in patients with and patients without ossification of the scala tympani. Findings in our limited sample of patients and bones show that obstruction of the basal turn, which occurs in some otosclerotic patients, does not preclude implant surgery. The dynamic range in the studied sample was relatively stable long-term and clinical performance did not differ between groups with and without an ossified scala tympani. PMID:2188511

  18. The inferior cochlear vein: surgical aspects in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, HongLei; Chen, Wei; Zhu, XiaoQuan; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-02-01

    The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). This may be essential to consider during selection of different trajectories for electrode insertion aiming at preserving residual hearing. Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. The vein also drains blood from the modiolus containing the spiral ganglion neurons. Surgical interference with this vein could cause neural damage influencing CI outcome. We analyzed the topographical relationship between the RW and ICV bony channel and cochlear aqueduct (CA) from a surgical standpoint. Archival human temporal bones were further microdissected to visualize the CA and its accessory canals (AC1 and AC2). This was combined with examinations of plastic and silicone molds of the human labyrinth. Metric analyses were made using photo stereomicroscopy documenting the proximal portion of the AC1, the internal aperture of the CA and the RW. The mean distance between the AC1 and the anterior rim of the RW was 0.81 mm in bone specimens and 0.67 mm assessed in corrosion casts. The AC1 runs from the floor of the scala tympani through the otic capsule passing parallel to the CA to the posterior cranial fossa. The mean distance between the CA and AC1 canal was 0.31 and 0.25 mm, respectively. PMID:25700831

  19. Surgical evaluation of candidates for cochlear implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Lilly, D. J.; Fowler, L. P.; Stypulkowski, P. H.

    1987-01-01

    The customary presentation of surgical procedures to patients in the United States consists of discussions on alternative treatment methods, risks of the procedure(s) under consideration, and potential benefits for the patient. Because the contents of the normal speech signal have not been defined in a way that permits a surgeon systematically to provide alternative auditory signals to a deaf patient, the burden is placed on the surgeon to make an arbitrary selection of candidates and available devices for cochlear prosthetic implantation. In an attempt to obtain some information regarding the ability of a deaf patient to use electrical signals to detect and understand speech, the Good Samaritan Hospital and Neurological Sciences Institute cochlear implant team has routinely performed tympanotomies using local anesthesia and has positioned temporary electrodes onto the round windows of implant candidates. The purpose of this paper is to review our experience with this procedure and to provide some observations that may be useful in a comprehensive preoperative evaluation for totally deaf patients who are being considered for cochlear implantation.

  20. Serving Deaf Students Who Have Cochlear Implants. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searls, J. Matt, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are complex electronic devices surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear. These devices utilize electrodes placed in the inner ear (the cochlea) to stimulate the auditory nerve of individuals with significant permanent hearing loss. Cochlear implants may not be suitable for everyone. They are designed to provide…

  1. Evaluation of Evoked Potentials to Dyadic Tones after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandmann, Pascale; Eichele, Tom; Buechler, Michael; Debener, Stefan; Jancke, Lutz; Dillier, Norbert; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Meyer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Auditory evoked potentials are tools widely used to assess auditory cortex functions in clinical context. However, in cochlear implant users, electrophysiological measures are challenging due to implant-created artefacts in the EEG. Here, we used independent component analysis to reduce cochlear implant-related artefacts in event-related EEGs of…

  2. Speech Production Intelligibility of Early Implanted Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Mirette G.; Waltzman, Susan B.; Tajudeen, Bobby; Svirsky, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the influence of age, and age at implantation, on speech production intelligibility in prelingually deaf pediatric cochlear implant recipients. Methods Forty prelingually, profoundly deaf children who received cochlear implants between 8 and 40 months of age. Their age at testing ranged between 2.5 – 18 years. Children were recorded repeating the ten sentences in the Beginner’s Intelligibility Test. These recordings were played back to normal-hearing listeners who were unfamiliar with deaf speech and who were instructed to write down what they heard. They also rated each subject for the intelligibility of their speech production on a 5-point rating scale. The main outcome measures were the percentage of target words correctly transcribed, and the intelligibility ratings, in both cases averaged across three normal-hearing listeners. Results The data showed a strong effect of age at testing, with older children being more intelligible. This effect was particularly pronounced for children implanted in the first 24 months of life, all of whom had speech production intelligibility scores of 80% or higher when they were tested at age 5.5 years or older. This was true for only five out of nine children implanted at age 25 to 36 months. Conclusions Profoundly deaf children who receive cochlear implants in the first two years of life produce highly intelligible speech before age 6. This is also true for most, but not all children implanted in their third year. PMID:20472308

  3. Communication strategies of adult cochlear implant candidates.

    PubMed

    Elfenbein, J L; Lansing, C R; Davis, J M; Kallaus-Gay, A

    1994-01-01

    Adult cochlear implant candidates' abilities to cope with communication breakdown were assessed using the Communication Strategies Task (CST). Forty adult cochlear implant candidates with acquired hearing losses and 10 adults with normal hearing served as subjects. Appropriateness of responses to the CST were rated by 10 certified speech-language pathologists and audiologists. Seventy-six percent of the subjects demonstrated difficulty identifying onset or resolution of communication breakdown, communicators' feelings, factors contributing to communication breakdown, and appropriate repair strategies. The responses of individuals with sudden hearing losses did not differ significantly from the responses of individuals with progressive hearing losses. Response patterns did not correlate with the age of onset of the hearing loss, duration of deafness, age at the time of evaluation, or educational background. The results of this study suggest that ability to cope with communication breakdown must be evaluated on an individual basis. PMID:8155895

  4. Objective electrophysiological measures from cochlear implant patients.

    PubMed

    Shallop, J K

    1993-02-01

    Various objective electrophysiological techniques have been used to supplement the behavioral measurements for cochlear implant patients. This report summarizes various studies of these measurements, including stimulus artifact, averaged electrode voltages, electrical stapedius reflexes, electrical auditory brain stem responses, electrical middle latency responses, and cortical auditory responses. These techniques have been shown to provide valuable information in the evaluation of device and electrode integrity in addition to correlated values to behavioral thresholds and comfort levels.

  5. Implants and Ethnocide: Learning from the Cochlear Implant Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the fictional case of the "Babel fish" to explore and illustrate the issues involved in the controversy about the use of cochlear implants in prelinguistically deaf children. Analysis of this controversy suggests that the development of genetic tests for deafness poses a serious threat to the continued flourishing of Deaf culture.…

  6. Music perception with cochlear implants: a review.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Hugh J

    2004-01-01

    The acceptance of cochlear implantation as an effective and safe treatment for deafness has increased steadily over the past quarter century. The earliest devices were the first implanted prostheses found to be successful in compensating partially for lost sensory function by direct electrical stimulation of nerves. Initially, the main intention was to provide limited auditory sensations to people with profound or total sensorineural hearing impairment in both ears. Although the first cochlear implants aimed to provide patients with little more than awareness of environmental sounds and some cues to assist visual speech-reading, the technology has advanced rapidly. Currently, most people with modern cochlear implant systems can understand speech using the device alone, at least in favorable listening conditions. In recent years, an increasing research effort has been directed towards implant users' perception of nonspeech sounds, especially music. This paper reviews that research, discusses the published experimental results in terms of both psychophysical observations and device function, and concludes with some practical suggestions about how perception of music might be enhanced for implant recipients in the future. The most significant findings of past research are: (1) On average, implant users perceive rhythm about as well as listeners with normal hearing; (2) Even with technically sophisticated multiple-channel sound processors, recognition of melodies, especially without rhythmic or verbal cues, is poor, with performance at little better than chance levels for many implant users; (3) Perception of timbre, which is usually evaluated by experimental procedures that require subjects to identify musical instrument sounds, is generally unsatisfactory; (4) Implant users tend to rate the quality of musical sounds as less pleasant than listeners with normal hearing; (5) Auditory training programs that have been devised specifically to provide implant users with

  7. Hearing preservation in cochlear implant surgery.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Priscila Carvalho; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes; Lopes, Rafaela Aquino Fernandes; Ramos Venosa, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires

    2014-01-01

    In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a "soft surgery" cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients. PMID:25276136

  8. Cochlear Implants:System Design, Integration and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rebscher, Stephen; Harrison, William V.; Sun, Xiaoan; Feng, Haihong

    2009-01-01

    As the most successful neural prosthesis, cochlear implants have provided partial hearing to more than 120,000 persons worldwide; half of which being pediatric users who are able to develop nearly normal language. Biomedical engineers have played a central role in the design, integration and evaluation of the cochlear implant system, but the overall success is a result of collaborative work with physiologists, psychologists, physicians, educators, and entrepreneurs. This review presents broad yet in-depth academic and industrial perspectives on the underlying research and ongoing development of cochlear implants. The introduction accounts for major events and advances in cochlear implants, including dynamic interplays among engineers, scientists, physicians, and policy makers. The review takes a system approach to address critical issues from design and specifications to integration and evaluation. First, the cochlear implant system design and specifications are laid out. Second, the design goals, principles, and methods of the subsystem components are identified from the external speech processor and radio frequency transmission link to the internal receiver, stimulator and electrode arrays. Third, system integration and functional evaluation are presented with respect to safety, reliability, and challenges facing the present and future cochlear implant designers and users. Finally, issues beyond cochlear implants are discussed to address treatment options for the entire spectrum of hearing impairment as well as to use the cochlear implant as a model to design and evaluate other similar neural prostheses such as vestibular and retinal implants. PMID:19946565

  9. Hearing Preservation after Cochlear Implantation: UNICAMP Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Guimaraes, Alexandre C.; Duarte, Alexandre S. M.; Muranaka, Eder B.; Soki, Marcelo N.; Martins, Renata S. Zanotello; Bianchini, Walter A.; Paschoal, Jorge R.; Castilho, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is an excellent choice for people with residual hearing in low frequencies but not high frequencies and who derive insufficient benefit from hearing aids. For EAS to be effective, subjects' residual hearing must be preserved during cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Methods. We implanted 6 subjects with a CI. We used a special surgical technique and an electrode designed to be atraumatic. Subjects' rates of residual hearing preservation were measured 3 times postoperatively, lastly after at least a year of implant experience. Subjects' aided speech perception was tested pre- and postoperatively with a sentence test in quiet. Subjects' subjective responses assessed after a year of EAS or CI experience. Results. 4 subjects had total or partial residual hearing preservation; 2 subjects had total residual hearing loss. All subjects' hearing and speech perception benefited from cochlear implantation. CI diminished or eliminated tinnitus in all 4 subjects who had it preoperatively. 5 subjects reported great satisfaction with their new device. Conclusions. When we have more experience with our surgical technique we are confident we will be able to report increased rates of residual hearing preservation. Hopefully, our study will raise the profile of EAS in Brazil and Latin/South America. PMID:23573094

  10. Better speech recognition with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Blake S.; Finley, Charles C.; Lawson, Dewey T.; Wolford, Robert D.; Eddington, Donald K.; Rabinowitz, William M.

    1991-07-01

    HIGH levels of speech recognition have been achieved with a new sound processing strategy for multielectrode cochlear implants. A cochlear implant system consists of one or more implanted elec-trodes for direct electrical activation of the auditory nerve, an external speech processor that transforms a microphone input into stimuli for each electrode, and a transcutaneous (rf-link) or per-cutaneous (direct) connection between the processor and the elec-trodes. We report here the comparison of the new strategy and a standard clinical processor. The standard compressed analogue (CA) processor1,2 presented analogue waveforms simultaneously to all electrodes, whereas the new continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) strategy presented brief pulses to each electrode in a nonover-lapping sequence. Seven experienced implant users, selected for their excellent performance with the CA processor, participated as subjects. The new strategy produced large improvements in the scores of speech reception tests for all subjects. These results have important implications for the treatment of deafness and for minimal representations of speech at the auditory periphery.

  11. Evaluating the Feasibility of Using Remote Technology for Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of remote technology to provide cochlear implant services has gained popularity in recent years. This article contains a review of research evaluating the feasibility of remote service delivery for recipients of cochlear implants. To date, published studies have determined that speech-processor programming levels and other objective tests…

  12. Congenitally Deafblind Children and Cochlear Implants: Effects on Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    There has been much research conducted demonstrating the positive benefits of cochlear implantation (CI) in children who are deaf. Research on CI in children who are both deaf and blind, however, is lacking. The purpose of this article is to present a study of five congenitally deafblind children who received cochlear implants between 2.2 and 4.2…

  13. Including Children with Cochlear Implants in General Education Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stith, Joanna L.; Drasgow, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Cochlear implants can provide partial hearing to individuals with substantial hearing loss. Because of improvements in early identification and intervention, more children with cochlear implants will be included in elementary school general education classrooms. Thus, general education teachers should be prepared for teaching children with…

  14. An Introduction to Cochlear Implant Technology, Activation, and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jan A.; Teagle, Holly F. B.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides information about the hardware components and speech-processing strategies of cochlear implant systems. The use of assistive listening devices with cochlear implants is also discussed. A brief description of surgical procedures and the initial activation of the device are also presented, along with programming considerations.…

  15. Taxonomic Knowledge of Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily; Dinsmoor, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the taxonomic vocabulary knowledge and organization of children with cochlear implants to (a) children with normal hearing matched for age, and (b) children matched for vocabulary development. Method: Ten children with cochlear implants, 10 age-matched children with normal hearing, and 10…

  16. Parents' Views on Changing Communication after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Linda M.; Hardie, Tim; Archbold, Sue M.; Wheeler, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    We sent questionnaires to families of all 288 children who had received cochlear implants at one center in the United Kingdom at least 5 years previously. Thus, it was a large, unselected group. We received 142 replies and 119 indicated that the child and family had changed their communication approach following cochlear implantation. In 113 cases…

  17. Relationships among Professionals' Knowledge, Experience, and Expectations Regarding Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Itzhak, D.; Most, T.; Weisel, A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between teachers' and communication clinicians' self-reported knowledge on cochlear implants and their expectations of CIs. The authors also explored these professionals' views regarding the child's communication mode, educational setting, and social options following cochlear implantation. The…

  18. Emotion Understanding in Deaf Children with a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiefferink, Carin H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion…

  19. Speech Intelligibility and Prosody Production in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Phan, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between speech intelligibility and prosody production in children who use cochlear implants. Methods: The Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and Prosodic Utterance Production (PUP) task were administered to 15 children who use cochlear implants and 10 children with normal…

  20. Realization of Complex Onsets by Pediatric Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined variations in English complex onset realizations by children who use cochlear implants. Data consisted of 227 productions of two-segment onset clusters from 12 children. In general, onset cluster realizations of children with cochlear implants did not differ markedly from those reported for children with normal hearing: null…

  1. The Hearing Outcomes of Cochlear Implantation in Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Hajime; Kashio, Akinori; Sakata, Aki; Tsutsumiuchi, Katsuhiro; Matsumoto, Yu; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of cochlear implantation for sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Method. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who underwent cochlear implantation at the University of Tokyo Hospital. Clinical classification, genetic mutation, clinical course, preoperative hearing threshold, high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and postoperative hearing outcome were assessed. Result. Five children with Waardenburg syndrome underwent cochlear implantation. The average age at implantation was 2 years 11 months (ranging from 1 year 9 months to 6 years 3 months). Four patients had congenital profound hearing loss and one patient had progressive hearing loss. Two patients had an inner ear malformation of cochlear incomplete partition type 2. No surgical complication or difficulty was seen in any patient. All patients showed good hearing outcome postoperatively. Conclusion. Cochlear implantation could be a good treatment option for Waardenburg syndrome. PMID:27376080

  2. Emotion understanding in deaf children with a cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Wiefferink, Carin H; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H M

    2013-04-01

    It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion understanding were examined: (a) emotion recognition in facial expressions and (b) emotion attribution in a situational context. On all emotion-understanding tasks, children with a cochlear implant were less proficient than children with normal hearing. In children with normal hearing, performance and language skills were positively associated. In children with cochlear implants, language was positively associated only with tasks in which a verbal demand was made on children. These findings indicate that hearing loss in children, despite a cochlear implant, affects all aspects of emotion understanding measured in this study, including their nonverbal emotion-understanding skills.

  3. Exploring Perspectives on Cochlear Implants and Language Acquisition within the Deaf Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implants generated intense debate almost immediately following their introduction in the 1980s. Today, with a vast number of deaf individuals with cochlear implants, the debate about the cochlear implant device and mode of communication continues. Q-methodology was used in this study to explore cochlear implants and language acquisition…

  4. Characteristics of stapedius muscle electromyograms elicited by cochlear implant stimulation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Clement, R S; Kipke, D R

    2004-01-01

    The electrical stapedius reflex (ESR) threshold, detected by eardrum acoustic impedance change, is strongly correlated with cochlear implant recipients' behavioral comfort levels. However reports suggest acoustic impedance changes are not detectable in 30-40% of patients. The goals of this study were to develop an animal model and investigate the characteristics of the stapedius muscle electromyogram (SEMG) elicited by a cochlear implant, as an alternative measure of ESR activation. Bipolar tungsten micro wire electrodes recorded the SEMG signal from the stapedius muscle of 6 rats. The cochlea was implanted with a multichannel intracochlear electrode that delivered biphasic electrical pulses. Maximum SEMG potentials were 20-500 microV (mean: 174 microV) or 8-42 dB SNR (mean: 24 dB). The dynamic range of the responses that reached saturation were approximately 10 dB, with threshold inversely dependent on pulse-width and electrode separation. The electrical brainstem response (EABR) threshold was 5.6 dB lower than the ESR threshold on average, but the standard deviation was relatively high (2.4 dB), suggesting that these two signals could provide independent information for objective cochlear implant fitting. Post-operative SEMGs were recorded in several animals; including one animal for up to 63 days. The results suggest the overall feasibility of the approach for objective cochlear implant fitting.

  5. Cochlear re-implantation: lessons learnt and the way ahead.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Uma; Sikka, Kapil; Agarwal, Shivani; Kumar, Rakesh; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Suresh C

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion A cochlear re-implantation procedure is undesirable; however, the cochlear implant surgeon may have to perform a re-implantation procedure occasionally for various reasons. Following standard techniques, implant performance comparable with primary implantation may be achieved. Objective To study the causes and outcomes of cochlear re-implantation in an Asian Indian population. Study design Retrospective analysis of clinical charts over an 18-year period with prospective follow-up of patients. Methods The charts of 534 patients, who underwent cochlear implant, at an Otorhinolaryngology institutional Centre, from January 1997 to January 2015 were studied. Of these, the charts of 18 patients who underwent cochlear re-implantation were studied. The causes and audiological and speech outcomes were analysed. Results Eighteen patients (3.4%) underwent cochlear re-implantation for various reasons. The commonest indication was device failure in seven patients (39%), followed by electrode extrusion in five (28%), trauma in three (11%), electrode migration in two (11%) and improper electrode placement in one (6%) patient. The audiological performance tests and speech tests either remained the same or improved from those achieved for patients undergoing primary implantation, in 87% patients.

  6. Hearing Preservation Among Patients Undergoing Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Van Abel, Kathryn M.; Dunn, Camille C.; Sladen, Douglas P.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Beatty, Charles W.; Neff, Brian A.; Hansen, Marlan; Gantz, Bruce J.; Driscoll, Colin L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite successful preservation of low-frequency hearing in patients undergoing cochlear implantation (CI) with shorter electrode lengths, there is still controversy regarding which electrodes maximize hearing preservation (HP). The thin straight electrode array (TSEA) has been suggested as a full cochlear coverage option for HP. However, very little is known regarding its HP potential. Methods A retrospective review was performed at two tertiary academic medical centers, reviewing the electronic records for 52 patients (mean, 58.2 yr; range, 11–85 yr) implanted with the Cochlear Nucleus CI422 Slim Straight (Centennial, CO, USA) electrode array, referred to herein as the thin straight electrode array or TSEA. All patients had a preoperative low-frequency pure-tone average (LFPTA) of 85 dB HL or less. Hearing thresholds were measured at initial activation (t1) and 6 months after activation (t2). HP was assessed by evaluating functional HP using a cutoff level of 85 dB HL PTA. Results At t1, 54% of the subjects had functional hearing; 33% of these subjects had an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL, and 17% had an LFPTA between 56 and 70 dB HL. At t2, 47% of the patients had functional hearing, with 31% having an LFPTA between 71 and 85 dB HL. Discussion Preliminary research suggests that the TSEA has the potential to preserve functional hearing in 54% of patients at t1. However, 22% (n = 6) of the patients who had functional hearing at t1 (n = 28) lost their hearing between t1 and t2. Further studies are needed to evaluate factors that influence HP with the TSEA electrode and determine the speech perception benefits using electric and acoustic hearing over electric alone. PMID:25575373

  7. Effects of Cochlear Implants on Children's Reading and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should…

  8. A physiological and behavioral system for hearing restoration with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    King, Julia; Shehu, Ina; Roland, J Thomas; Svirsky, Mario A; Froemke, Robert C

    2016-08-01

    Cochlear implants are neuroprosthetic devices that provide hearing to deaf patients, although outcomes are highly variable even with prolonged training and use. The central auditory system must process cochlear implant signals, but it is unclear how neural circuits adapt-or fail to adapt-to such inputs. The knowledge of these mechanisms is required for development of next-generation neuroprosthetics that interface with existing neural circuits and enable synaptic plasticity to improve perceptual outcomes. Here, we describe a new system for cochlear implant insertion, stimulation, and behavioral training in rats. Animals were first ensured to have significant hearing loss via physiological and behavioral criteria. We developed a surgical approach for multichannel (2- or 8-channel) array insertion, comparable with implantation procedures and depth in humans. Peripheral and cortical responses to stimulation were used to program the implant objectively. Animals fitted with implants learned to use them for an auditory-dependent task that assesses frequency detection and recognition in a background of environmentally and self-generated noise and ceased responding appropriately to sounds when the implant was temporarily inactivated. This physiologically calibrated and behaviorally validated system provides a powerful opportunity to study the neural basis of neuroprosthetic device use and plasticity. PMID:27281743

  9. Cochlear implant simulator for surgical technique analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turok, Rebecca L.; Labadie, Robert F.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Noble, Jack H.

    2014-03-01

    Cochlear Implant (CI) surgery is a procedure in which an electrode array is inserted into the cochlea. The electrode array is used to stimulate auditory nerve fibers and restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss. The primary goals when placing the electrode array are to fully insert the array into the cochlea while minimizing trauma to the cochlea. Studying the relationship between surgical outcome and various surgical techniques has been difficult since trauma and electrode placement are generally unknown without histology. Our group has created a CI placement simulator that combines an interactive 3D visualization environment with a haptic-feedback-enabled controller. Surgical techniques and patient anatomy can be varied between simulations so that outcomes can be studied under varied conditions. With this system, we envision that through numerous trials we will be able to statistically analyze how outcomes relate to surgical techniques. As a first test of this system, in this work, we have designed an experiment in which we compare the spatial distribution of forces imparted to the cochlea in the array insertion procedure when using two different but commonly used surgical techniques for cochlear access, called round window and cochleostomy access. Our results suggest that CIs implanted using round window access may cause less trauma to deeper intracochlear structures than cochleostomy techniques. This result is of interest because it challenges traditional thinking in the otological community but might offer an explanation for recent anecdotal evidence that suggests that round window access techniques lead to better outcomes.

  10. Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation on Balance Control and Sensory Organization in Adult Patients with Profound Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Parietti-Winkler, Cécile; Lion, Alexis; Montaut-Verient, Bettina; Grosjean, Rémy; Gauchard, Gérome C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies were interested in the consequence of vestibular dysfunction related to cochlear implantation on balance control. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of unilateral cochlear implantation on the modalities of balance control and sensorimotor strategies. Posturographic and vestibular evaluations were performed in 10 patients (55 ± 20 years) with profound hearing loss who were candidates to undergo unilateral multichannel cochlear implantation. The evaluation was carried out shortly before and one year after surgery. Posturographic tests were also performed in 10 age-matched healthy participants (63 ± 16 years). Vestibular compensation was observed within one year. In addition, postural performances of the patients increased within one year after cochlear implantation, especially in the more complex situations, in which sensory information is either unavailable or conflicting. Before surgery, postural performances were higher in the control group compared to the patients' group. One year after cochlear implantation, postural control was close to normalize. The improvement of postural performance could be explained by a mechanism of vestibular compensation. In addition, the recovery of auditory information which is the consequence of cochlear implantation could lead to an extended exploration of the environment possibly favoring the development of new balance strategies. PMID:26583121

  11. Audio-vocal responses elicited in adult cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Torrey M.; Suneel, Deepa; Aronoff, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory deprivation experienced prior to receiving a cochlear implant could compromise neural connections that allow for modulation of vocalization using auditory feedback. In this report, pitch-shift stimuli were presented to adult cochlear implant users to test whether compensatory motor changes in vocal F0 could be elicited. In five of six participants, rapid adjustments in vocal F0 were detected following the stimuli, which resemble the cortically mediated pitch-shift responses observed in typical hearing individuals. These findings suggest that cochlear implants can convey vocal F0 shifts to the auditory pathway that might benefit audio-vocal monitoring. PMID:26520350

  12. Restoration of auditory nerve synapses in cats by cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ryugo, D K; Kretzmer, E A; Niparko, J K

    2005-12-01

    Congenital deafness results in abnormal synaptic structure in endings of the auditory nerve. If these abnormalities persist after restoration of auditory nerve activity by a cochlear implant, the processing of time-varying signals such as speech would likely be impaired. We stimulated congenitally deaf cats for 3 months with a six-channel cochlear implant. The device used human speech-processing programs, and cats responded to environmental sounds. Auditory nerve fibers exhibited a recovery of normal synaptic structure in these cats. This rescue of synapses is attributed to a return of spike activity in the auditory nerve and may help explain cochlear implant benefits in childhood deafness. PMID:16322457

  13. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery: more common than expected?

    PubMed

    Dietz, Aarno; Wennström, Minna; Lehtimäki, Antti; Löppönen, Heikki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    The overall complication rate of cochlear implant surgery is low and so-called electrode failures (electrode migration, misplacement, etc.,) account for only a minority of all complications. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of electrode migration as the cause for increased impedance values and non-auditory stimulation in the basal channels. Within the scope of a quality control process, the cochlear implant database of the Kuopio University Hospital (Finland) was reviewed. Patients with gradual elevation of impedance values and/or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrode channels were re-examined and cone-beam computed tomography was administered. There were 162 cochlear implant recipients and 201 implanted devices registered in the database. A total of 18 patients (18 devices) were identified having significantly increased impedance values or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrodes. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed extra-cochlear electrodes in 12 of these patients due to the migration of the electrode array. All extruded electrodes were lateral wall electrodes, i.e., straight electrode arrays (Cochlear CI422 and Med-El devices). The most common feature of electrode migration was the gradual increase of the impedance values in the basal electrodes, even though telemetry could also be unsuspicious. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery may be more common than previously reported. At surgery, special attention should be paid to the reliable fixation of the electrode array. This study underlines the importance of postoperative imaging after cochlear implant surgery.

  14. Electrical middle ear muscle reflex: use in cochlear implant programming.

    PubMed

    Hodges, A V; Balkany, T J; Ruth, R A; Lambert, P R; Dolan-Ash, S; Schloffman, J J

    1997-09-01

    Programming of multichannel cochlear implants (CIs) requires subjective responses to a series of sophisticated psychophysical percepts. It is often difficult for young prelinguistically deaf children to provide adequate responses for device fitting. This is especially true in setting levels of maximum comfortable loudness, whereby failure to indicate growth of loudness may result in elevation of stimulus levels to the threshold of pain. The acoustic or stapedial muscle reflex has been used previously to provide objective confirmation of acoustic stimulation, and there have been attempts to use the reflex in hearing aid fitting. It has also been suggested that electrically elicited middle ear muscle reflexes (eMEMR) may have applicability in confirming and quantifying electrical stimulation through a CI. To assess the relationship between eMEMR characteristics and levels of loudness perception with CIs, determine reliability of the response, and investigate potential use of eMEMR in CI programming, 25 postlinguistically deafened adult CI users were evaluated. Reflexes have also been attempted on 40 children, with responses present in 31 (71%). Comfort levels predicted by eMEMR were highly correlated with those obtained through subjective judgments in the adult subjects. The eMEMR provides an objective, accurate, and rapid method of estimating maximum comfortable loudness levels, which may be useful in the initial programming of young implant recipients.

  15. Cochlear Implants Special Issue Article: Vocal Emotion Recognition by Normal-Hearing Listeners and Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the ability of normal-hearing listeners and cochlear implant users to recognize vocal emotions. Sentences were produced by 1 male and 1 female talker according to 5 target emotions: angry, anxious, happy, sad, and neutral. Overall amplitude differences between the stimuli were either preserved or normalized. In experiment 1, vocal emotion recognition was measured in normal-hearing and cochlear implant listeners; cochlear implant subjects were tested using their clinically assigned processors. When overall amplitude cues were preserved, normal-hearing listeners achieved near-perfect performance, whereas listeners with cochlear implant recognized less than half of the target emotions. Removing the overall amplitude cues significantly worsened mean normal-hearing and cochlear implant performance. In experiment 2, vocal emotion recognition was measured in listeners with cochlear implant as a function of the number of channels (from 1 to 8) and envelope filter cutoff frequency (50 vs 400 Hz) in experimental speech processors. In experiment 3, vocal emotion recognition was measured in normal-hearing listeners as a function of the number of channels (from 1 to 16) and envelope filter cutoff frequency (50 vs 500 Hz) in acoustic cochlear implant simulations. Results from experiments 2 and 3 showed that both cochlear implant and normal-hearing performance significantly improved as the number of channels or the envelope filter cutoff frequency was increased. The results suggest that spectral, temporal, and overall amplitude cues each contribute to vocal emotion recognition. The poorer cochlear implant performance is most likely attributable to the lack of salient pitch cues and the limited functional spectral resolution. PMID:18003871

  16. Surgical Management of the Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Seth M.; Haynes, David S.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the surgical management of children receiving cochlear implants. It identifies preoperative considerations to select patients likely to benefit, contraindications, some new surgical techniques, complications, special considerations (otitis media, meningitis, head growth, inner ear malformations, and cochlear obstruction).…

  17. Changes in gene expression and hearing thresholds after cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongzheng; Stark, Gemaine; Reiss, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis Gene expression changes occur in conjunction with hearing threshold changes after cochlear implantation. Background Between 30–50% of individuals who receive electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) cochlear implants lose residual hearing after cochlear implantation, reducing the benefits of EAS. The mechanism underlying this hearing loss is unknown; potential pathways include mechanical damage, inflammation, or tissue remodeling changes. Methods Guinea pigs were implanted in one ear with cochlear implant electrode arrays, with non-implanted ears serving as controls, and allowed to recover for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days. Hearing threshold changes were measured over time. Cochlear ribonucleic acid was analyzed using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the following gene families: cytokines, tight junction claudins, ion and water (aquaporin) transport channels, gap junction connexins, and tissue remodeling genes. Results Significant increases in expression were observed for cochlear inflammatory genes (Cxcl1, IL-1b, TNFα and Tnfrsf1a/b) and ion homeostasis genes (Scnn1γ, Aqp3 and Gjb3). Upregulation of tissue remodeling genes (TGF-β, MMP2, MMP9) as well as a paracrine gene (CTGF) was also observed. Hearing loss occurred rapidly, peaking at 3 days with some recovery at 7 and 14 days after implantation. MM9 exhibited extreme upregulation of expression and was qualitatively associated with changes in hearing thresholds. Conclusion Cochlear implantation induces similar changes as middle ear inflammation for genes involved in inflammation and ion and water transport function, whereas tissue remodeling changes differ markedly. The upregulation of MMP9 with hearing loss is consistent with previous findings linking stria vascularis vessel changes with cochlear implant-induced hearing loss. PMID:25970030

  18. Cochlear Implantation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Adrien A.; Nazarian, Ronen; Telischi, Fred F.; Martinez, Diane; Hodges, Annelle; Velandia, Sandra; Cejas-Cruz, Ivette; Balkany, Thomas J.; Lo, Kaming; Lang, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the outcome of cochlear implantation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Study Design Retrospective case review and survey Setting Tertiary referral center Patients Children who meet criteria for cochlear implantation and diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder Main Outcome Measures Receptive and expressive language scores and parental survey data. Results 15 patients with history of ASD and cochlear implantation were analyzed and compared to 15 patients who received cochlear implant and have no other disability. Post-operatively, more than 67% of children with ASD significantly improved their speech perception skills and 60% significantly improved their speech expression skills while all patients in the control group showed significant improvement in both aspects. The top three reported improvements after cochlear implantation were name recognition, response to verbal requests, and enjoyment of music. Of all behavioral aspects, the use of eye contact was the least improved. Survey results in regards to improvements in patient interaction were more subtle when compared to those related to sound and speech perception. The most improved aspects in the ASD patients’ lives after cochlear implantation appeared to be attending to other people’s requests and conforming to family routines. Of note, awareness of the child’s environment is the most highly ranked improvement attributed to the cochlear implant. Conclusions Cochlear implants are effective and beneficial for hearing impaired members of the ASD population even though development of language may lag behind that of implanted children with no additional disabilities. Significant speech perception and overall behavior improvement are noted. PMID:25899551

  19. The development of the Nucleus Freedom Cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    Patrick, James F; Busby, Peter A; Gibson, Peter J

    2006-12-01

    Cochlear Limited (Cochlear) released the fourth-generation cochlear implant system, Nucleus Freedom, in 2005. Freedom is based on 25 years of experience in cochlear implant research and development and incorporates advances in medicine, implantable materials, electronic technology, and sound coding. This article presents the development of Cochlear's implant systems, with an overview of the first 3 generations, and details of the Freedom system: the CI24RE receiver-stimulator, the Contour Advance electrode, the modular Freedom processor, the available speech coding strategies, the input processing options of Smart Sound to improve the signal before coding as electrical signals, and the programming software. Preliminary results from multicenter studies with the Freedom system are reported, demonstrating better levels of performance compared with the previous systems. The final section presents the most recent implant reliability data, with the early findings at 18 months showing improved reliability of the Freedom implant compared with the earlier Nucleus 3 System. Also reported are some of the findings of Cochlear's collaborative research programs to improve recipient outcomes. Included are studies showing the benefits from bilateral implants, electroacoustic stimulation using an ipsilateral and/or contralateral hearing aid, advanced speech coding, and streamlined speech processor programming.

  20. Programming, Care, and Troubleshooting of Cochlear Implants for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley-Williams, Andrea J.; Sladen, Douglas P.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current cochlear implant technology, programming strategies, troubleshooting, and care techniques. It considers: device components, initial stimulation, speech coding strategies, use and care, troubleshooting, and the classroom environment. (Contains references.) (DB)

  1. Dynamics of auditory plasticity after cochlear implantation: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pantev, C; Dinnesen, A; Ross, B; Wollbrink, A; Knief, A

    2006-01-01

    Human representational cortex may fundamentally alter its organization and (re)gain the capacity for auditory processing even when it is deprived of its input for more than two decades. Stimulus-evoked brain activity was recorded in post-lingual deaf patients after implantation of a cochlear prosthesis, which partly restored their hearing. During a 2 year follow-up study this activity revealed almost normal component configuration and was localized in the auditory cortex, demonstrating adequacy of the cochlear implant stimulation. Evoked brain activity increased over several months after the cochlear implant was turned on. This is taken as a measure of the temporal dynamics of plasticity of the human auditory system after implantation of cochlear prosthesis. PMID:15843632

  2. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  3. Accurate Guitar Tuning by Cochlear Implant Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task. PMID:24651081

  4. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    PubMed

    Lu, Thomas; Huang, Juan; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Modern cochlear implant (CI) users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  5. Management of Children Using Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Psarros, Colleen; Incerti, Paula; Hill, Mandy

    2001-01-01

    Four case studies identify six factors affecting successful use of a hearing aid with a cochlear implant: duration of hearing aid use prior to implantation, amount of residual hearing in the non-implanted ear, educational and listening demands, cosmetic issues, hearing aid rejection, and extended period of non-use of hearing aid. (Contains…

  6. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Unsuccessful Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munivrana, Boska; Mildner, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In some cochlear implant users, success is not achieved in spite of optimal clinical factors (including age at implantation, duration of rehabilitation and post-implant hearing level), which may be attributed to disorders at higher levels of the auditory pathway. We used cortical auditory evoked potentials to investigate the ability to perceive…

  7. Bilateral Cochlear Implantation in Children: Experiences and Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Andrea; Spitzlei, Vera; Lippert, Karl L.; Keilmann, Annerose

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2006, the University Clinic for Ear Nose and Throat and Communication Disorders in Mainz, Germany, performed 41 bilateral cochlear implantations in children. This article addresses some of the factors to be considered in a decision to bilaterally implant a child, including the age of the child at the first implant, the length of…

  8. Cochlear implantation in a patient with Perisylvian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wendy; Axon, Patrick

    2007-06-01

    Perisylvian syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterised by the partial paralysis of muscles, epilepsy and mild to severe mental retardation. It is associated with hearing loss and delay in language and speech development. This presents additional challenges in the assessment of whether a child is suitable for cochlea implantation. The method to determine whether the hearing loss is of cochlear or central origin and the progress of a child with Perisylvian syndrome who received a cochlear implant is discussed. PMID:17549806

  9. [A modified speech enhancement algorithm for electronic cochlear implant and its digital signal processing realization].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulin; Tian, Xuelong

    2014-08-01

    In order to improve the speech quality and auditory perceptiveness of electronic cochlear implant under strong noise background, a speech enhancement system used for electronic cochlear implant front-end was constructed. Taking digital signal processing (DSP) as the core, the system combines its multi-channel buffered serial port (McBSP) data transmission channel with extended audio interface chip TLV320AIC10, so speech signal acquisition and output with high speed are realized. Meanwhile, due to the traditional speech enhancement method which has the problems as bad adaptability, slow convergence speed and big steady-state error, versiera function and de-correlation principle were used to improve the existing adaptive filtering algorithm, which effectively enhanced the quality of voice communications. Test results verified the stability of the system and the de-noising performance of the algorithm, and it also proved that they could provide clearer speech signals for the deaf or tinnitus patients.

  10. [A modified speech enhancement algorithm for electronic cochlear implant and its digital signal processing realization].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulin; Tian, Xuelong

    2014-08-01

    In order to improve the speech quality and auditory perceptiveness of electronic cochlear implant under strong noise background, a speech enhancement system used for electronic cochlear implant front-end was constructed. Taking digital signal processing (DSP) as the core, the system combines its multi-channel buffered serial port (McBSP) data transmission channel with extended audio interface chip TLV320AIC10, so speech signal acquisition and output with high speed are realized. Meanwhile, due to the traditional speech enhancement method which has the problems as bad adaptability, slow convergence speed and big steady-state error, versiera function and de-correlation principle were used to improve the existing adaptive filtering algorithm, which effectively enhanced the quality of voice communications. Test results verified the stability of the system and the de-noising performance of the algorithm, and it also proved that they could provide clearer speech signals for the deaf or tinnitus patients. PMID:25464779

  11. [A modified speech enhancement algorithm for electronic cochlear implant and its digital signal processing realization].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulin; Tian, Xuelong

    2014-08-01

    In order to improve the speech quality and auditory perceptiveness of electronic cochlear implant under strong noise background, a speech enhancement system used for electronic cochlear implant front-end was constructed. Taking digital signal processing (DSP) as the core, the system combines its multi-channel buffered serial port (McBSP) data transmission channel with extended audio interface chip TLV320AIC10, so speech signal acquisition and output with high speed are realized. Meanwhile, due to the traditional speech enhancement method which has the problems as bad adaptability, slow convergence speed and big steady-state error, versiera function and de-correlation principle were used to improve the existing adaptive filtering algorithm, which effectively enhanced the quality of voice communications. Test results verified the stability of the system and the de-noising performance of the algorithm, and it also proved that they could provide clearer speech signals for the deaf or tinnitus patients. PMID:25508410

  12. Preservation of basal inner ear structures in cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Adunka, Oliver; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Hambek, Markus; Unkelbach, Marc H; Radeloff, Andreas; Kiefer, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this report was to examine basal trauma in implanted human temporal bones and discuss modified approaches to the basal cochlear turn to avoid destruction of basal cochlear structures. Thirty-three human temporal bones were implanted with four different cochlear implant electrode arrays manufactured by MED-EL using either a caudal approach cochleostomy or round window membrane insertions. All specimens were processed with a special histological technique that allows sectioning of undecalcified bone with the electrode in situ. All bones were evaluated histologically in terms of basal cochlear trauma. Two pathomechanisms of basal trauma could be distinguished and were evaluated separately, buckling of the basal end of the array and trauma by drilling. Using the caudal approach cochleostomy, the total percentage of destructive basal trauma was 48% compared to less than 15% when performing round window membrane insertions. Although it is still unclear whether basal cochlear trauma influences apical cochlear function or not, adapted surgical procedures and no forceful insertion maneuvers should be used when performing cochlear implantations with hearing preservation.

  13. Music Perception of Cochlear Implant Recipients with Implications for Music Instruction: A Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Feilin; Gfeller, Kate

    2012-03-23

    This review of literature presents a systematic analysis of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients regarding music perception. Specifically, it a) analyzes individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, timbre, and pitch) as they interface with the technical characteristics of cochlear implants and the perceptual abilities of cochlear implant recipients; and b) describes accommodations for music instruction that support successful participation of children with cochlear implants. This article consolidates research studies from various disciplines (audiology, hearing science, speech-language pathology, cochlear implants, and music therapy) to provide practical recommendations for educators in fostering the musical growth of children with cochlear implants. PMID:23469365

  14. Music Perception of Cochlear Implant Recipients with Implications for Music Instruction: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Feilin; Gfeller, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This review of literature presents a systematic analysis of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant recipients regarding music perception. Specifically, it a) analyzes individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, timbre, and pitch) as they interface with the technical characteristics of cochlear implants and the perceptual abilities of cochlear implant recipients; and b) describes accommodations for music instruction that support successful participation of children with cochlear implants. This article consolidates research studies from various disciplines (audiology, hearing science, speech-language pathology, cochlear implants, and music therapy) to provide practical recommendations for educators in fostering the musical growth of children with cochlear implants. PMID:23469365

  15. Electrophysiological channel interactions using focused multipolar stimulation for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Shefin S.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Wise, Andrew K.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Fallon, James B.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Speech intelligibility with existing multichannel cochlear implants (CIs) is thought to be limited by poor spatial selectivity and interactions between CI channels caused by overlapping activation with monopolar (MP) stimulation. Our previous studies have shown that focused multipolar (FMP) and tripolar (TP) stimulation produce more restricted neural activation in the inferior colliculus (IC), compared to MP stimulation. Approach. This study explored interactions in the IC produced by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels. We recorded multi-unit neural activity in the IC of anaesthetized cats with normal and severely degenerated spiral ganglion neuron populations in response to FMP, TP and MP stimulation from a 14 channel CI. Stimuli were applied to a ‘fixed’ CI channel, chosen toward the middle of the cochlear electrode array, and the effects of simultaneously stimulating a more apical ‘test’ CI channel were measured as a function of spatial separation between the two stimulation channels and stimulus level of the fixed channel. Channel interactions were quantified by changes in neural responses and IC threshold (i.e., threshold shift) elicited by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels, compared to stimulation of the test channel alone. Main results. Channel interactions were significantly lower for FMP and TP than for MP stimulation (p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was observed between FMP and TP stimulation. With MP stimulation, threshold shifts increased with decreased inter-electrode spacing and increased stimulus levels of the fixed channel. For FMP and TP stimulation, channel interactions were found to be similar for different inter-electrode spacing and stimulus levels of the fixed channel. Significance. The present study demonstrates how the degree of channel interactions in a CI can be controlled using stimulation configurations such as FMP and TP; such knowledge is essential in enhancing CI function in complex

  16. Cochlear Implantation in Adults with Asymmetric Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Laura K.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Cowdrey, Lisa; King, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objective Bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss is a standard criterion for cochlear implantation. Increasingly, patients are implanted in one ear and continue to use a hearing aid in the non-implanted ear to improve abilities such as sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Patients with severe-to-profound hearing loss in one ear and a more moderate hearing loss in the other ear (i.e., asymmetric hearing) are not typically considered candidates for cochlear implantation. Amplification in the poorer ear is often unsuccessful due to limited benefit, restricting the patient to unilateral listening from the better ear alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with asymmetric hearing loss could benefit from cochlear implantation in the poorer ear with continued use of a hearing aid in the better ear. Design Ten adults with asymmetric hearing between ears participated. In the poorer ear, all participants met cochlear implant candidacy guidelines; seven had postlingual onset and three had pre/perilingual onset of severe-to-profound hearing loss. All had open-set speech recognition in the better hearing ear. Assessment measures included word and sentence recognition in quiet, sentence recognition in fixed noise (four-talker babble) and in diffuse restaurant noise using an adaptive procedure, localization of word stimuli and a hearing handicap scale. Participants were evaluated pre-implant with hearing aids and post-implant with the implant alone, the hearing aid alone in the better ear and bimodally (the implant and hearing aid in combination). Postlingual participants were evaluated at six months post-implant and pre/perilingual participants were evaluated at six and 12 months post-implant. Data analysis compared results 1) of the poorer hearing ear pre-implant (with hearing aid) and post-implant (with cochlear implant), 2) with the device(s) used for everyday listening pre- and post-implant and, 3) between the hearing

  17. Evaluation of cochlear implanted children's voices.

    PubMed

    Perrin, E; Berger-Vachon, C; Topouzkhanian, A; Truy, E; Morgon, A

    1999-02-15

    Cochlear implant (CI) is a good means in developing communication in deaf children. Nevertheless, compared to children with the same age, CI patients' voices are far from being similar. In this work, the voice of CI children has been compared with the voice of corresponding normal children (same age, same sex) included in the main stream. Six girls and two boys participated to the experiment. The phonetic material was a paragraph of the French standard text La bise et le soleil (The North Wind and the Sun). An objective and a subjective analysis of the voice were done and parameters were compared between both groups of people (implantees and control). Studied parameters were voice pitch, intensity, fluency, pauses, articulation and pleasantness in the objective analysis, and voice pitch, formants, and duration for the objective study. It appeared that intensity variations were different between control and implanted subjects. Also voice formants were not situated in the same region regarding the normal ranges, but differences were difficult to assess. Globally, the main change was in the speaking duration. This method is open for further studies and points out some relevant items for an efficient use in rehabilitation sessions. PMID:10206368

  18. Current Research with Cochlear Implants at Arizona State University

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Michael F.; Spahr, Anthony; Gifford, Rene H.; Cook, Sarah; Zhang, Ting; Loiselle, Louise; Yost, William; Cardy, Lara; Whittingham, JoAnne; Schramm, David

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review, and discuss the clinical implications of, five projects currently underway in the Cochlear Implant Laboratory at Arizona State University. The projects are (1) norming the AzBio sentence test, (2) comparing the performance of bilateral and bimodal cochlear implant (CI) patients in realistic listening environments, (3) accounting for the benefit provided to bimodal patients by low-frequency acoustic stimulation, (4) assessing localization by bilateral hearing aid patients and the implications of that work for hearing preservation patients, and (5) studying heart rate variability as a possible measure for quantifying the stress of listening via an implant. The long-term goals of the laboratory are to improve the performance of patients fit with cochlear implants and to understand the mechanisms, physiological or electronic, that underlie changes in performance. We began our work with cochlear implant patients in the mid-1980s and received our first grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for work with implanted patients in 1989. Since that date our work with cochlear implant patients has been funded continuously by the NIH. In this report we describe some of the research currently being conducted in our laboratory. PMID:22668760

  19. Abnormal pitch perception produced by cochlear implant stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects' acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1-2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the "mean" shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large "variance" of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance. PMID:24551131

  20. Abnormal pitch perception produced by cochlear implant stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects' acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1-2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the "mean" shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large "variance" of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance.

  1. Noise reduction technologies implemented in head-worn preprocessors for improving cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; Nelson, Lance; Teske, Melissa

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a multichannel adaptive directional microphone and a modulation-based noise reduction algorithm could enhance cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields. A hearing aid was modified to output electrical signals (ePreprocessor) and a cochlear implant speech processor was modified to receive electrical signals (eProcessor). The ePreprocessor was programmed to flat frequency response and linear amplification. Cochlear implant listeners wore the ePreprocessor-eProcessor system in three reverberant noise fields: 1) one noise source with variable locations; 2) three noise sources with variable locations; and 3) eight evenly spaced noise sources from 0° to 360°. Listeners' speech recognition scores were tested when the ePreprocessor was programmed to omnidirectional microphone (OMNI), omnidirectional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (OMNI + NR), and adaptive directional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (ADM + NR). They were also tested with their own cochlear implant speech processor (CI_OMNI) in the three noise fields. Additionally, listeners rated overall sound quality preferences on recordings made in the noise fields. Results indicated that ADM+NR produced the highest speech recognition scores and the most preferable rating in all noise fields. Factors requiring attention in the hearing aid-cochlear implant integration process are discussed.

  2. Physiological basis for cochlear and auditory brainstem implants.

    PubMed

    Møller, Aage R

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implants bypass functions of the cochlea that have been regarded to be fundamental for discrimination of the frequency (or spectrum). Frequency discrimination is essential for discrimination of sounds, including speech sounds, and the normal auditory system is assumed to make use of both (power) spectral and temporal information for frequency discrimination. Spectral information is represented by the place on the basilar membrane that generates the largest amplitude of vibration on the basilar membrane. Evidence has been presented that the temporal representation of frequency is more robust than the place representation and thus regarded more important for speech discrimination. The fact that some cochlear implants provide good speech discrimination using only information about the energy in a few spectral bands seems to contradict these studies. In that way, frequency discrimination may be similar to trichromatic color vision, which is based on the energy in only three different spectral bands of light, accomplished by different color-sensitive pigments in the cones of the retina. Cochlear nucleus implants (ABIs) also bypass the auditory nerve, which does not perform any processing. Therefore, it may be expected that ABIs are equally efficient as cochlear implants. However, experience from the use of ABIs in patients with bilateral vestibular schwannoma has not been encouraging, but recent studies of the use of ABIs in patients with other causes of injuries to the auditory nerve have shown similar speech discrimination as achieved with modern cochlear implants. Cochlear implants and ABIs are successful in providing speech discrimination because of redundancy in the processing in the ear, redundancy of the speech signal and because the auditory nervous system has a high degree of plasticity. Expression of neural plasticity makes the auditory nervous system adapt to the change in demands of processing of the information provided by cochlear implants. PMID

  3. Single and Multiple Microphone Noise Reduction Strategies in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi; Friedland, David R.

    2012-01-01

    To restore hearing sensation, cochlear implants deliver electrical pulses to the auditory nerve by relying on sophisticated signal processing algorithms that convert acoustic inputs to electrical stimuli. Although individuals fitted with cochlear implants perform well in quiet, in the presence of background noise, the speech intelligibility of cochlear implant listeners is more susceptible to background noise than that of normal hearing listeners. Traditionally, to increase performance in noise, single-microphone noise reduction strategies have been used. More recently, a number of approaches have suggested that speech intelligibility in noise can be improved further by making use of two or more microphones, instead. Processing strategies based on multiple microphones can better exploit the spatial diversity of speech and noise because such strategies rely mostly on spatial information about the relative position of competing sound sources. In this article, we identify and elucidate the most significant theoretical aspects that underpin single- and multi-microphone noise reduction strategies for cochlear implants. More analytically, we focus on strategies of both types that have been shown to be promising for use in current-generation implant devices. We present data from past and more recent studies, and furthermore we outline the direction that future research in the area of noise reduction for cochlear implants could follow. PMID:22923425

  4. Single and multiple microphone noise reduction strategies in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi; Friedland, David R

    2012-06-01

    To restore hearing sensation, cochlear implants deliver electrical pulses to the auditory nerve by relying on sophisticated signal processing algorithms that convert acoustic inputs to electrical stimuli. Although individuals fitted with cochlear implants perform well in quiet, in the presence of background noise, the speech intelligibility of cochlear implant listeners is more susceptible to background noise than that of normal hearing listeners. Traditionally, to increase performance in noise, single-microphone noise reduction strategies have been used. More recently, a number of approaches have suggested that speech intelligibility in noise can be improved further by making use of two or more microphones, instead. Processing strategies based on multiple microphones can better exploit the spatial diversity of speech and noise because such strategies rely mostly on spatial information about the relative position of competing sound sources. In this article, we identify and elucidate the most significant theoretical aspects that underpin single- and multi-microphone noise reduction strategies for cochlear implants. More analytically, we focus on strategies of both types that have been shown to be promising for use in current-generation implant devices. We present data from past and more recent studies, and furthermore we outline the direction that future research in the area of noise reduction for cochlear implants could follow.

  5. Cochlear Implantation, Enhancements, Transhumanism and Posthumanism: Some Human Questions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Biomedical engineering technologies such as brain-machine interfaces and neuroprosthetics are advancements which assist human beings in varied ways. There are exciting yet speculative visions of how the neurosciences and bioengineering may influence human nature. However, these could be preparing a possible pathway towards an enhanced and even posthuman future. This article seeks to investigate several ethical themes and wider questions of enhancement, transhumanism and posthumanism. Four themes of interest are: autonomy, identity, futures, and community. Three larger questions can be asked: will everyone be enhanced? Will we be "human" if we are not, one day, transhuman? Should we be enhanced or not? The article proceeds by concentrating on a widespread and sometimes controversial application: the cochlear implant, an auditory prosthesis implanted into Deaf patients. Cochlear implantation and its reception in both the deaf and hearing communities have a distinctive moral discourse, which can offer surprising insights. The paper begins with several points about the enhancement of human beings, transhumanism's reach beyond the human, and posthuman aspirations. Next it focuses on cochlear implants on two sides. Firstly, a shorter consideration of what technologies may do to humans in a transhumanist world. Secondly, a deeper analysis of cochlear implantation's unique socio-political movement, its ethical explanations and cultural experiences linked with pediatric cochlear implantation-and how those wary of being thrust towards posthumanism could marshal such ideas by analogy. As transhumanism approaches, the issues and questions merit continuing intense analysis.

  6. Localization ability with bimodal hearing aids and bilateral cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeber, Bernhard U.; Baumann, Uwe; Fastl, Hugo

    2004-09-01

    After successful cochlear implantation in one ear, some patients continue to use a hearing aid at the contralateral ear. They report an improved reception of speech, especially in noise, as well as a better perception of music when the hearing aid and cochlear implant are used in this bimodal combination. Some individuals in this bimodal patient group also report the impression of an improved localization ability. Similar experiences are reported by the group of bilateral cochlear implantees. In this study, a survey of 11 bimodally and 4 bilaterally equipped cochlear implant users was carried out to assess localization ability. Individuals in the bimodal implant group were all provided with the same type of hearing aid in the opposite ear, and subjects in the bilateral implant group used cochlear implants of the same manufacturer on each ear. Subjects adjusted the spot of a computer-controlled laser-pointer to the perceived direction of sound incidence in the frontal horizontal plane by rotating a trackball. Two subjects of the bimodal group who had substantial residual hearing showed localization ability in the bimodal configuration, whereas using each single device only the subject with better residual hearing was able to discriminate the side of sound origin. Five other subjects with more pronounced hearing loss displayed an ability for side discrimination through the use of bimodal aids, while four of them were already able to discriminate the side with a single device. Of the bilateral cochlear implant group one subject showed localization accuracy close to that of normal hearing subjects. This subject was also able to discriminate the side of sound origin using the first implanted device alone. The other three bilaterally equipped subjects showed limited localization ability using both devices. Among them one subject demonstrated a side-discrimination ability using only the first implanted device.

  7. Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccine=MPSV4 Meningococcal conjugate vaccine=MenACWY Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants ... References FACT SHEET What You Should Know Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations Pneumococcal Vaccination for Cochlear Implant Candidates and ...

  8. Cochlear implants and the deaf child: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Russell, K E; Coffin, C; Kenna, M

    1999-01-01

    Cochlear implants are no longer considered new or experimental technology and are available for children with profound sensorineural hearing loss. Pediatric cochlear implantation requires a multidisciplinary team approach with contributions from surgeons, audiologists, speech-language pathologists, psychologists, nurses, special educators, and parents. The decision to perform cochlear implantation in children must be seriously considered. Some in the deaf community voice strong objections to the procedure. Additionally, it requires an enormous commitment on the part of the family and the health care system in both personal and financial terms. The surgery has some risks, and the rehabilitation period is lengthy. Outcomes are variable, and many factors play a role in a child's successful use of implants. Nonetheless, gradual, steady improvement in speech perception, speech production, and language typically occurs. The approach of Children's Hospital in Boston to the assessment, the surgical procedure, and follow-up is detailed here.

  9. Motor Development of Deaf Children with and without Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheysen, Freja; Loots, Gerrit; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cochlear implant (CI) on the motor development of deaf children. The study involved 36 mainstreamed deaf children (15 boys, 21 girls; 4- to 12-years old) without any developmental problems. Of these children, 20 had been implanted. Forty-three hearing children constituted a comparison…

  10. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Anne E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors sought to determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12 and 38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5 years, better…

  11. Retrolabyrinthine approach for cochlear nerve preservation in neurofibromatosis type 2 and simultaneous cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Monteiro, Tatiana Alves; Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valeria Schmidt; de Brito, Rubens

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Few cases of cochlear implantation (CI) in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients had been reported in the literature. The approaches described were translabyrinthine, retrosigmoid or middle cranial fossa. Objectives: To describe a case of a NF2- deafened-patient who underwent to vestibular schwannoma resection via RLA with cochlear nerve preservation and CI through the round window, at the same surgical time. Resumed Report: A 36-year-old woman with severe bilateral hearing loss due to NF2 was submitted to vestibular schwannoma resection and simultaneous CI. Functional assessment of cochlear nerve was performed by electrical promontory stimulation. Complete tumor removal was accomplishment via RLA with anatomic and functional cochlear and facial nerve preservation. Cochlear electrode array was partially inserted via round window. Sound field hearing threshold improvement was achieved. Mean tonal threshold was 46.2 dB HL. The patient could only detect environmental sounds and human voice but cannot discriminate vowels, words nor do sentences at 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Cochlear implantation is a feasible auditory restoration option in NF2 when cochlear anatomic and functional nerve preservation is achieved. The RLA is adequate for this purpose and features as an option for hearing preservation in NF2 patients. PMID:25992034

  12. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart, followed by 4 environmental sound training sessions conducted on separate days in 1 week, and concluded with 2 posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Each testing session included an environmental sound test, which consisted of 40 familiar everyday sounds, each represented by 4 different tokens, as well as the Consonant Nucleus Consonant (CNC) word test, and Revised Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN-R) sentence test. Results Environmental sounds scores were lower than for either of the speech tests. Following training, there was a significant average improvement of 15.8 points in environmental sound perception, which persisted 1 week later after training was discontinued. No significant improvements were observed for either speech test. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that environmental sound perception, which remains problematic even for experienced CI patients, can be improved with a home-based computer training regimen. Such computer-based training may thus provide an effective low-cost approach to rehabilitation for CI users, and potentially, other hearing impaired populations. PMID:25633579

  13. Relations between cochlear histopathology and hearing loss in experimental cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, S J; Monksfield, P; Kel, G; Connolly, T; Souter, M A; Chang, A; Marovic, P; O'Leary, J S; Richardson, R; Eastwood, H

    2013-04-01

    This study reviews the cochlear histology from four hearing preservation cochlear implantation experiments conducted on 73 guinea pigs from our institution, and relates histopathological findings to residual hearing. All guinea pigs had normal hearing prior to surgery and underwent cochlear implantation via a cochleostomy with a silastic-platinum dummy electrode. Pure tone auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds from 2 to 32 kHz were recorded prior to surgery, and at one and four weeks postoperatively. The cochleae were then fixed in paraformaldehyde, decalcified, paraffin embedded, and mid-modiolar sections were prepared. The treatment groups were as follows: 1) Systemic dexamethasone, 0.2 mg/kg administered 1 h before implantation, 2) Local dexamethasone, 2% applied topically to the round window for 30 min prior to cochlear implantation, 3) Local n-acetyl cysteine, 200 μg applied topically to the round window for 30 min prior to implantation, 4) inoculation to keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH) prior to implantation, and 5) untreated controls. There was a significant correlation between the extent of the tissue reaction in the cochlea and the presence of foreign body giant cells (FBGCs), new bone formation and injury to the osseous spiral lamina (OSL). The extent of the tissue response, as a percentage of the area of the scala tympani, limited the best hearing that was observed four weeks after cochlear implantation. Poorer hearing at four weeks correlated with a more extensive tissue response, lower outer hair cell (OHC) counts and OSL injury in the basal turn. Progressive hearing loss was also correlated with the extent of tissue response. Hearing at 2 kHz, which corresponds to the region of the second cochlear turn, did not correspond with loco-regional inner hair cell (IHC), OHC or SGC counts. We conclude that cochlear injury is associated with poorer hearing early after implantation. The tissue response is related to indices of cochlear

  14. Speech Intelligibility and Prosody Production in Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Steven B.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Phan, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between speech intelligibility and prosody production in children who use cochlear implants. Methods The Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and Prosodic Utterance Production (PUP) task were administered to 15 children who use cochlear implants and 10 children with normal hearing. Adult listeners with normal hearing judged the intelligibility of the words in the BIT sentences, identified the PUP sentences as one of four grammatical or emotional moods (i.e., declarative, interrogative, happy, or sad), and rated the PUP sentences according to how well they thought the child conveyed the designated mood. Results Percent correct scores were higher for intelligibility than for prosody and higher for children with normal hearing than for children with cochlear implants. Declarative sentences were most readily identified and received the highest ratings by adult listeners; interrogative sentences were least readily identified and received the lowest ratings. Correlations between intelligibility and all mood identification and rating scores except declarative were not significant. Discussion The findings suggest that the development of speech intelligibility progresses ahead of prosody in both children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing; however, children with normal hearing still perform better than children with cochlear implants on measures of intelligibility and prosody even after accounting for hearing age. Problems with interrogative intonation may be related to more general restrictions on rising intonation, and the correlation results indicate that intelligibility and sentence intonation may be relatively dissociated at these ages. PMID:22717120

  15. Hearing Experience and Receptive Vocabulary Development in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Mary K.; Pisoni, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition"…

  16. New Criteria of Indication and Selection of Patients to Cochlear Implant

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, André L. L.; Araújo, Mercêdes F. S.; Oliveira, Carlos A. C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous changes continue to occur in cochlear implant candidacy. In general, these have been accompanied by concomitant and satisfactory changes in surgical techniques. Together, this has advanced the utility and safety of cochlear implantation. Most devices are now approved for use in patients with severe to profound unilateral hearing loss rather then the prior requirement of a bilateral profound loss. Furthermore, studies have begun utilizing short electrode arrays for shallow insertion in patients with considerable low-frequency residual hearing. This technique will allow the recipient to continue to use acoustically amplified hearing for the low frequencies simultaneously with a cochlear implant for the high frequencies. The advances in design of, and indications for, cochlear implants have been matched by improvements in surgical techniques and decrease in complications. The resulting improvements in safety and efficacy have further encouraged the use of these devices. This paper will review the new concepts in the candidacy of cochlear implant. Medline data base was used to search articles dealing with the following topics: cochlear implant in younger children, cochlear implant and hearing preservation, cochlear implant for unilateral deafness and tinnitus, genetic hearing loss and cochlear implant, bilateral cochlear implant, neuropathy and cochlear implant and neural plasticity, and the selection of patients for cochlear implant. PMID:22013448

  17. Temporal bone characterization and cochlear implant feasibility in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Luke A; Della Santina, Charles C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2012-08-01

    The marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a valuable non-human primate model for studying behavioral and neural mechanisms related to vocal communication. It is also well suited for investigating neural mechanisms related to cochlear implants. The purpose of this study was to characterize marmoset temporal bone anatomy and investigate the feasibility of implanting a multi-channel intracochlear electrode into the marmoset scala tympani. Micro computed tomography (microCT) was used to create high-resolution images of marmoset temporal bones. Cochlear fluid spaces, middle ear ossicles, semicircular canals and the surrounding temporal bone were reconstructed in three-dimensional space. Our results show that the marmoset cochlea is ∼16.5 mm in length and has ∼2.8 turns. The cross-sectional area of the scala tympani is greatest (∼0.8 mm(2)) at ∼1.75 mm from the base of the scala, reduces to ∼0.4 mm(2) at 5 mm from the base, and decreases at a constant rate for the remaining length. Interestingly, this length-area profile, when scaled 2.5 times, is similar to the scala tympani of the human cochlea. Given these dimensions, a compatible multi-channel implant electrode was identified. In a cadaveric specimen, this electrode was inserted ¾ turn into the scala tympani through a cochleostomy at ∼1 mm apical to the round window. The depth of the most apical electrode band was ∼8 mm. Our study provides detailed structural anatomy data for the middle and inner ear of the marmoset, and suggests the potential of the marmoset as a new non-human primate model for cochlear implant research. PMID:22583919

  18. Cochlear Implantation in a Patient with Kabuki Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vesseur, Annemarie; Cillessen, Eva; Mylanus, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Criteria for cochlear implants are expanding and now include children with disabilities in addition to hearing loss, such as those with Kabuki syndrome (KS). This case report describes language outcomes and changes in the quality of life of a female child with KS after cochlear implantation. The subject had a profound progressive sensorineural hearing loss, cognitive impairments, and other disabilities and communicated using vocalized sounds and the Dutch Sign Language. After cochlear implantation at an age of nine years and three months, the patient displayed no progress in speech production and minimal progress in receptive language development, but she had an increased awareness of the world and an increase in the quality of life. PMID:27341000

  19. Estimation of risks associated with paediatric cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J Cyne; Smith, Andrée Durieux; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Annette; Angus, Douglas; Benzies, Karen; Schramm, David

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the rates of complications associated with paediatric cochlear implantation use: a) at one Canadian cochlear implant (CI) centre, and b) in the published literature. It comprised a retrospective hospital-based chart review and a concurrent review of complications in the published literature. There were 224 children who had undergone surgery from 1994 to June 2007. Results indicate that the rates of complications at the local Canadian paediatric CI centre are not significantly different from the literature rates for all examined complication types. This hospital-based retrospective chart review and review of the literature provide readers with an estimation of the risks to aid in evidence-based decision-making surrounding paediatric cochlear implantation.

  20. Cochlear implant electrode array misplaced in Hyrtl's fissure.

    PubMed

    Mouzali, Amina; Ouennoughi, Kheiredidine; Haraoubia, Mohamed-Salah; Zemirli, Omar; Triglia, Jean Michel

    2011-11-01

    Hyrtl's fissure is a cleft that is present in the developing fetal petrous temporal bone and extends from the area inferior to the round window to the meninges of the posterior fossa. Persistent Hyrtl's fissure, due to incomplete ossification, is considered a rare temporal bone malformation, and is a known cause of perilabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Very few cases are reported as being at risk of complication of cochlear implant surgery. Here we report the case of an 8-year-old boy with misplacement of an electrode array in Hyrtl's fissure. The diagnosis was made postoperatively, since cochlear implant failure was suspected from non-auditory responses. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the extracochlear location of the electrode array. We emphasize the role of presurgical imaging CT and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting temporal bone abnormalities, and we discuss the value of intraoperative auditory nerve response telemetry and postoperative radiological evaluation in diagnosing cochlear implant misplacement.

  1. Cochlear Implantation in Common Forms of Genetic Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Vivero, Richard J.; Fan, Kenneth; Angeli, Simon; Balkany, Thomas J; Liu, Xue Z

    2010-01-01

    Genetic factors are among the main etiologies of severe to profound hearing loss and may play an important role in cochlear implantation (CI) outcomes. While genes for common forms of deafness have been cloned, efforts to correlate the functional outcome of CIs with a genetic form of deafness carried by the patient have been largely anecdotal to date. It has been suggested that the differences in auditory performance may be explained by differences in the number of surviving spiral ganglion cells, etiology of hearing loss, and other factors. Knowledge of the specific loci and mutations involved in patients who receive cochlear implants may elucidate other factors related to CI performance. In this review article, current knowledge of cochlear implants for hereditary hearing loss will be discussed with an emphasis on relevant clinical genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:20655117

  2. Prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant candidates

    PubMed Central

    Aldhafeeri, Ahmad M.; Alsanosi, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of inner ear anomalies and the frequency of different anomaly types among cochlear implant recipients. Methods: This study included a retrospective chart review of all patients who received cochlear implants between January 2009 and January 2013 in King Abdulaziz University Hospital cochlear implant program in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All subjects underwent thin-cut CT of the temporal bone and MRI. The collected data included age, gender, and CT and MRI findings regarding temporal bone anomalies. Patients with any identified congenital inner ear anomalies were included in the study. Results: In total, 316 patients’ cases were reviewed. Inner ear malformations were identified in 24 patients, which represented a prevalence of 7.5%. Among these 24 patients, 8 (33.3%) presented with a large vestibular aqueduct (LVA), 8 (33.3%) semicircular canal (SCC) dysplasia, 7 (29.1%) classical Mondini deformity, and one (4.1%) cochlear hypoplasia. Conclusion: The prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant recipients was 7.5%. This result is consistent with findings worldwide. The most common anomalies were LVA and SCC hypoplasia; by contrast, in other regions, the most common anomaly is either the Mondini deformity, or LVA. PMID:27652360

  3. [Cochlear implant in children: rational, indications and cost/efficacy].

    PubMed

    Martini, A; Bovo, R; Trevisi, P; Forli, F; Berrettini, S

    2013-06-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a partially implanted electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound and support speech to severely to profoundly hearing impaired patients. It is constituted by an external portion, that usually sits behind the ear and an internal portion surgically placed under the skin. The external components include a microphone connected to a speech processor that selects and arranges sounds pucked up by the microphone. This is connected to a transmitter coil, worn on the side of the head, which transmits data to an internal receiver coil placed under the skin. The received data are delivered to an array of electrodes that are surgically implanted within the cochlea. The primary neural targets of the electrodes are the spiral ganglion cells which innervate fibers of the auditory nerve. When the electrodes are activated by the signal, they send a current along the auditory nerve and auditory pathways to the auditory cortex. Children and adults who are profoundly or severely hearing impaired can be fitted with cochlear implants. According to the Food and Drug Administration, approximately 188,000 people worldwide have received implants. In Italy it is extimated that there are about 6-7000 implanted patients, with an average of 700 CI surgeries per year. Cochlear implantation, followed by intensive postimplantation speech therapy, can help young children to acquire speech, language, and social skills. Early implantation provides exposure to sounds that can be helpful during the critical period when children learn speech and language skills. In 2000, the Food and Drug Administration lowered the age of eligibility to 12 months for one type of CI. With regard to the results after cochlear implantation in relation to early implantation, better linguistic results are reported in children implanted before 12 months of life, even if no sufficient data exist regarding the relation between this advantage and the duration of implant use and how long

  4. PET-imaging of brain plasticity after cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Strelnikov, K; Marx, M; Lagleyre, S; Fraysse, B; Deguine, O; Barone, P

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we review the PET neuroimaging literature, which indicates peculiarities of brain networks involved in speech restoration after cochlear implantation. We consider data on implanted patients during stimulation as well as during resting state, which indicates basic long-term reorganisation of brain functional architecture. On the basis of our analysis of neuroimaging literature and considering our own studies, we indicate that auditory recovery in deaf patients after cochlear implantation partly relies on visual cues. The brain develops mechanisms of audio-visual integration as a strategy to achieve high levels of speech recognition. It turns out that this neuroimaging evidence is in line with behavioural findings of better audiovisual integration in these patients. Thus, strong visually and audio-visually based rehabilitation during the first months after cochlear implantation would significantly improve and fasten the functional recovery of speech intelligibility and other auditory functions in these patients. We provide perspectives for further neuroimaging studies in cochlear implanted patients, which would help understand brain organisation to restore auditory cognitive processing in the implanted patients and would potentially suggest novel approaches for their rehabilitation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25448166

  5. Are routine preoperative CT scans necessary in adult cochlear implantation? Implications for the allocation of resources in cochlear implant programs.

    PubMed

    Kenway, Bruno; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Kasbekar, Anand V; Axon, Patrick R; Donnelly, Neil

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to critically assess the influence of preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans on implantation decisions for adult cochlear implant candidates. The working hypothesis was that these routine scans might not provide critical additional information in most adult cochlear implant candidates. The charts of 175 adults with unilateral cochlear implantation were reviewed. Preoperative CT scan reports were audited, and scans with reported pathology were examined by an Otologist/ENT Surgeon. Clinic notes and multidisciplinary team meeting summaries were also analyzed to assess whether the results of the radiology report had influenced the decision to implant or the laterality of implantation. Twenty-five of the 175 scans (14.3%) showed an abnormality. Five of those 25 scans showed evidence of previous surgeries already known to the clinicians. Of the remaining 20 scans, 17 showed abnormalities, including wide vestibular aqueducts, Mondini deformities, and varying degrees of otospongiosis, the identification of which can be considered preoperatively helpful. Of the 175 scans, 3 (1.7%) demonstrated abnormalities that influenced the side of implantation or the decision to implant and, therefore, had an impact on treatment. We conclude that a preoperative CT scan seems to have an impact on treatment in only a small percentage of adult cochlear implantees. Hence, it may only need to be performed in patients with a history or clinical suspicion of meningitis or otosclerosis, if the individual was born deaf or became deaf before the age of 16, or if there are other clinical reasons to scan (e.g., otoscopic appearance). The related resources can be allocated to other facets of cochlear implant programs. PMID:27551842

  6. Cochlear Implant-Evoked Cortical Activation in Children with Cochlear Nerve Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuman; Grose, John; Hang, Anna X.; Buchman, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the results of cochlear implant-elicited cortical auditory evoked potentials (eCAEP) in children with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND). Study Design Case control series. Setting Tertiary academic referral center. Patients Seven children with CND that have a cochlear implant in their affected ear. Four children without CND served as controls. Intervention(s) eCAEPs were elicited by activation of individual cochlear implant electrodes. Main Outcome Measure(s) Onset responses (P1-N1-P2 complex). Results Three of 7 CND children demonstrated eCAEP responses across a broad range of electrodes despite having limited or no open set speech perception abilities using their implants. Two of these children had eCAEPs that were characterized by substantial variability in latency, amplitude, and number of electrodes with identifiable responses. The remaining 4 ears with CND and poor speech perception had multiphasic responses that are inconsistent with eCAEPs. Non-CND ears with excellent speech perception abilities demonstrated robust responses on all electrodes stimulated. Conclusions Abent eCAEP responses were indicative of poor open-set speech perception skills in all cases. However, eCAEP onset responses were measurable in some children with imaging evidence of CND, indicating probable cochlear nerve hypoplasia rather than aplasia. That some children with CND and poor speech perception had robust eCAEPs in some instances makes this particular measure of limited utility for predicting good speech perception outcomes following cochlear implantation in these children. The origin of multiphasic responses remains to be determined but may be of somatosensory origin in some instances. PMID:22872179

  7. Cochlear implantation and management of chronic suppurative otitis media: single stage procedure?

    PubMed

    Basavaraj, S; Shanks, M; Sivaji, N; Allen, Agnes A

    2005-10-01

    In a series of 360 patients who underwent cochlear implantation at our center, four patients (five procedures) had cochlear implantation with obliteration of the mastoid cavity and management of cholesteatoma as a single-staged procedure. Three patients were bilaterally deaf secondary to CSOM and had bilateral mastoid cavities, and in one patient congenital cholesteatoma was identified during cochlear implantation. A mastoidectomy or revision mastoidectomy with obliteration of the mastoid cavity and cochlear implantation was performed as a single stage procedure. Cholesteatoma reoccurred in one patient 9 years after cochlear implantation. Surgical procedures, complications, follow-up and outcomes are discussed. PMID:15756568

  8. Enhanced cochlear implant coding using multiplicative noise (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert P.; Stocks, Nigel G.

    2005-05-01

    We have previously advocated the deliberate addition of noise to cochlear implant signals to enhance the speech comprehension of cochlear implant users. The function of the additive noise is to mimic noise sources that are present in a healthy ear (originating, for example, from Brownian motion of the hair cells and the fluctuations induced by the opening and closing of ion channels) but are largely absent in a deafened ear where the hair cells have been damaged or destroyed. The normal ear, however, also contains multiplicative noise sources that result from the quantal nature of synaptic transmission between the inner hair-cells and the cochlear nerve. These noise synaptic noise sources are also largely absent in the deafened ear. Given that previous studies suggest that additive noise can enhance information coding by sensory systems, we have investigated whether multiplicative noise also enhances coding in a model of electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve by a cochlear implant. The model was based on leaky integrate-and-fire dynamics and modelled refractory and accommodation effects by a threshold dependency derived from the sodium-inactivation dynamics of the Frankenhauser-Huxley equations for myelinated nerves. We show that multiplicative noise leads to a fundamental change in the coding mechanism and can lead to a marked increase in the transmitted information compared with additive noise or a control condition with no noise. These results suggest that multiplicative noise in the normal auditory system might have a functional role.

  9. Theory of mind and language in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Remmel, Ethan; Peters, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Thirty children with cochlear implants (CI children), age range 3-12 years, and 30 children with normal hearing (NH children), age range 4-6 years, were tested on theory of mind and language measures. The CI children showed little to no delay on either theory of mind, relative to the NH children, or spoken language, relative to hearing norms. The CI children showed a slightly atypical sequence of acquisition of theory of mind concepts. The CI children's theory of mind performance was associated with general syntactic proficiency more than measures of complement syntax, and with time since implantation more than age at implantation. Results suggest that cochlear implantation can benefit spoken language ability, which may then benefit theory of mind, perhaps by increasing access to mental state language.

  10. Fricatives, Affricates, and Vowels in Croatian Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildner, Vesna; Liker, Marko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the research was to analyse the speech of children with cochlear implants over approximately a 46-month period, and compare it with the speech of hearing controls. It focused on three categories of sounds in Croatian: vowels (F1 and F2 of /i/, /e/, /a/, /o/ and /u/), fricatives /s/ and /[esh]/ (spectral differences expressed in terms of…

  11. Acoustic and Semantic Enhancements for Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiljanic, Rajka; Sladen, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how signal clarity interacts with the use of sentence context information in determining speech-in-noise recognition for children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing. Method: One hundred and twenty sentences in which the final word varied in predictability (high vs. low semantic…

  12. Counselling Challenges and Strategies for Cochlear Implant Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear implant specialists daily observe patients and families grapple with a wide range of emotions. As nonprofessional counsellors, we can help patients address those emotions by providing more opportunities to talk about their thoughts and feelings. This paper will review some familiar counselling challenges, such as the disappointment that…

  13. Spelling of Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Heather; Kessler, Brett; Treiman, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The spellings of 39 profoundly deaf users of cochlear implants, aged 6 to 12 years, were compared with those of 39 hearing peers. When controlled for age and reading ability, the error rates of the 2 groups were not significantly different. Both groups evinced phonological spelling strategies, performing better on words with more typical…

  14. Cochlear Implants in the Inclusive Classroom: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jachova, Zora; Kovacevic, Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a child aged 12 years with a cochlear implant who is attending a mainstream educational setting in Skopje, FYR Macedonia. The study, which uses both qualitative and quantitative data, took place over a period of 12 months. It illustrates the importance of professional development and training of teachers and a…

  15. Sensitive Periods and Language in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Madrid-Canovas, Sonia; Blanco-Montanez, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that the existence of a short sensitive period for lower-level speech perception/articulation skills, and a long one for higher-level language skills, may partly explain the language outcomes of children with cochlear implants (CIs). The participants were fourteen children fitted with a CI before their second…

  16. Consonant Cluster Production by Pediatric Users of Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Steven B.; Finnegan, Kevin R.

    2000-01-01

    Production of 19 word-initial two-segment consonant clusters was examined in 12 children (ages 6-16) with cochlear implants, including 6 using oral communication and 6 using total communication. Results showed that 48% of the clusters were correctly produced (75% correct for oral communication users and 21% correct for total communication users).…

  17. Growing up with a Cochlear Implant: Education, Vocation, and Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Gantz, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term educational/vocational, affiliation, and quality-of-life outcomes of the first and second cohorts of children with bilateral, profound hearing loss who received cochlear implants under a large National Institutes of Health-funded study was investigated in 41 of 61 eligible participants. Educational and vocational outcomes were…

  18. Linguistic and Pragmatic Skills in Toddlers with Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Baruffaldi, Francesca; Burdo, Sandro; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of deaf children received cochlear implants (CI) in the first years of life, but no study has focused on linguistic and pragmatic skills in children with CI younger than 3 years of age. Aims: To estimate the percentage of children who had received a CI before 2 years of age whose linguistic skills were within the…

  19. Speech Perception in Noise by Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Amanda; Nittrouer, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Common wisdom suggests that listening in noise poses disproportionately greater difficulty for listeners with cochlear implants (CIs) than for peers with normal hearing (NH). The purpose of this study was to examine phonological, language, and cognitive skills that might help explain speech-in-noise abilities for children with CIs.…

  20. Picture Naming and Verbal Fluency in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Schwartz, Richard G.; Cleary, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors examined lexical naming in children with cochlear implants (CIs). The goal was to determine whether children with CIs have deficits in lexical access and organization as revealed through reaction time in picture-naming and verbal fluency (VF) experiments. Method: Children with CIs (n = 20, ages 7-10) were…

  1. TeleCITE: Telehealth--A Cochlear Implant Therapy Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stith, Joanna; Stredler-Brown, Arlene; Greenway, Pat; Kahn, Gary

    2012-01-01

    What might bring the efforts of a physician, a speech-language pathologist, a teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing, and a nurse together? The answer is the innovative use of telepractice to deliver high quality, family-centered early intervention to infants and toddlers with hearing loss. TeleCITE: Telehealth--A Cochlear Implant Therapy…

  2. How the Cochlear Implant Helps Deaf Children Learn To Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, Jean S.; Gustus, Christine

    This conference presentation discusses how the Nucleus 22 cochlear implant, with its ability to improve speech perception, can be capitalized upon to improve the speech production of very profoundly deaf children. The paper is designed to accompany a video presentation demonstrating the speech ability and theory of two young children (ages 3 and…

  3. Communication Intervention for Children with Cochlear Implants: Two Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Leonard, Jeannette S.; Pachuilo, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the intervention programs attended and progress made by two children (ages 3 and 7) who exhibited considerable differences in benefit from their cochlear implants. Their intervention programs employed both analytical and synthetic auditory training and emphasized the development of speech production and language skills.…

  4. Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Sophie E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether preschoolage…

  5. Relational Learning in Children with Deafness and Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida-Verdu, Ana Claudia; Huziwara, Edson M.; de Souza, Deisy G.; de Rose, Julio C.; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Lopes, Jair, Jr.; Alves, Cristiane O.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This four-experiment series sought to evaluate the potential of children with neurosensory deafness and cochlear implants to exhibit auditory-visual and visual-visual stimulus equivalence relations within a matching-to-sample format. Twelve children who became deaf prior to acquiring language (prelingual) and four who became deaf afterwards…

  6. Production Accuracy in a Young Cochlear Implant Recipient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Davis, Barbara L.; Morrison, Helen M.

    2005-01-01

    The availability of cochlear implants in younger children has provided the opportunity to evaluate the relative impact of the production system, or the sounds young children can say, and the auditory system, or the sounds children can hear, on early vocal communication. Limited access to the acoustic properties of speech results in differences in…

  7. Effects of Talker Variability on Vowel Recognition in Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-ping; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of talker variability on vowel recognition by cochlear implant (CI) users and by normal-hearing (NH) participants listening to 4-channel acoustic CI simulations. Method: CI users were tested with their clinically assigned speech processors. For NH participants, 3 CI processors were simulated, using different…

  8. Two new directions in speech processor design for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Blake S; Schatzer, Reinhold; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A; Sun, Xiaoan; Lawson, Dewey T; Wolford, Robert D

    2005-08-01

    Two new approaches to the design of speech processors for cochlear implants are described. The first aims to represent "fine structure" or "fine frequency" information in a way that it can be perceived and used by patients, and the second aims to provide a closer mimicking than was previously possible of the signal processing that occurs in the normal cochlea.

  9. Perioperative complications of cochlear implant surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Darlong, V; Khanna, Puneet; Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Chandralekha; Pandey, Ravindra; Punj, Jyotsna; Kumar, Rakesh; Sikka, Kapil

    2015-02-01

    Cochlear implant is a commonly performed surgery for hearing loss in pre-school and school children. However, data on anesthesia management and anesthesia-related complications are sparse. We retrospectively reviewed the data of our institute from January, 2007 to December, 2012. Medical records and anesthesia charts of all the patients who had undergone cochlear implant under general anesthesia between this period were reviewed. Information related to the demographic profile, preoperative evaluation, anesthetic techniques, and perioperative complications were collected and analyzed. A total of 190 patients underwent cochlear implant surgery for pre-lingual (175) and post-lingual (15) deafness. General endotracheal anesthesia with inhalational agents was used in all the cases. Difficult intubation was encountered in three patients. Anesthesia-related complications were laryngospasm at extubation (4.73 %), emergence agitation (2.63 %), and postoperative nausea and vomiting (1.05 %). Major surgical complications were CSF leak without meningitis (3.15 %), device migration/failure (1.05 %), and flap infection (1.57 %). Cochlear implant under general anesthesia in small children is safe and anesthesia-related complications were minimal. Surgical complications, although more frequent, were predominantly minor and self-limiting.

  10. Word Learning Processes in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether 3 aspects of the word learning process--fast mapping, retention, and extension--are problematic for children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: The authors compared responses of 24 children with CIs, 24 age-matched hearing children, and 23 vocabulary-matched hearing children to a novel object noun training episode.…

  11. Spoken Word Recognition in Toddlers Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the time course of spoken word recognition in 2-year-old children who use cochlear implants (CIs) in quiet and in the presence of speech competitors. Method: Children who use CIs and age-matched peers with normal acoustic hearing listened to familiar auditory labels, in quiet or in the presence of…

  12. Prosody and Voice Characteristics of Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenden, Jessica M.; Flipsen, Peter, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive, longitudinal study involved the analysis of the prosody and voice characteristics of conversational speech produced by six young children with severe to profound hearing impairments who had been fitted with cochlear implants. A total of 40 samples were analyzed using the Prosody-Voice Screening Profile (PVSP; Shriberg, L. D.,…

  13. Deaf Teenagers with Cochlear Implants in Conversation with Hearing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibertsson, Tina; Hansson, Kristina; Maki-Torkko, Elina; Willstedt-Svensson, Ursula; Sahlen, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the use of requests for clarification in conversations between teenagers with a cochlear implant (CI) and hearing peers. So far very few studies have focused on conversational abilities in children with CI. Aims: The aim was to explore co-construction of dialogue in a referential communication task and the…

  14. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e.,…

  15. Models of Deafness: Cochlear Implants in the Australian Daily Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Des

    2005-01-01

    This article examined a database of Australian daily newspapers on the terms cochlear implant and deaf children to investigate how journalists and columnists report competing models of deafness: as either "medical" (deafness is a condition to be cured) or "sociocultural" (deafness provides a way of life to be lived). The results from the cochlear…

  16. Strategies for Working with Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraer-Joiner, Lyn; Prause-Weber, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 23,000 individuals in the United States, including 10,000 children, have a cochlear implant. This biomedical electronic device has been a breakthrough in the auditory rehabilitation of individuals diagnosed with severe or profound sensorineural hearing losses who…

  17. Use of Acoustic Cues by Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giezen, Marcel R.; Escudero, Paola; Baker, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the use of different acoustic cues in auditory perception of consonant and vowel contrasts by profoundly deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) in comparison to age-matched children and young adults with normal hearing. Method: A speech sound categorization task in an XAB format was administered to 15 children ages…

  18. Identification and Multiplicity of Double Vowels in Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Bomjun J.; Perry, Trevor T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined cochlear implant (CI) users' perception of vowels presented concurrently (i.e., "double vowels") to further our understanding of auditory grouping in electric hearing. Method: Identification of double vowels and single vowels was measured with 10 CI subjects. Fundamental frequencies (F0s) of…

  19. Single Word and Sentence Intelligibility in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khwaileh, Fadwa A.; Flipsen, Peter, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the intelligibility of speech produced by 17 children (aged 4-11 years) with cochlear implants. Stimulus items included sentences from the Beginners' Intelligibility Test (BIT) and words from the Children Speech Intelligibility Measure (CSIM). Naive listeners responded by writing sentences heard or with two types of responses…

  20. Outcomes from Cochlear Implantation for Child and Family: Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbold, Sue; Sach, Tracey; O'Neill, Ciaran; Lutman, Mark; Gregory, Susan

    2008-01-01

    While cochlear implantation is an increasingly routine provision for profoundly deaf children in many countries, parents still require information about the procedure and likely outcomes in order to make an informed decision. Other parents can provide them with the insights of those who have undergone the process themselves and observed outcomes…

  1. Production of Consonants by Prelinguistically Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Marie-Eve Gaul; Le Normand, Marie-Therese; Cohen, Henri

    2007-01-01

    Consonant production following the sensory restoration of audition was investigated in 22 prelinguistically deaf French children who received cochlear implants. Spontaneous speech productions were recorded at 6, 12, and 18 months post-surgery and consonant inventories were derived from both glossable and non-glossable phones using two acquisition…

  2. Theory of Mind and Language in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remmel, Ethan; Peters, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Thirty children with cochlear implants (CI children), age range 3-12 years, and 30 children with normal hearing (NH children), age range 4-6 years, were tested on theory of mind and language measures. The CI children showed little to no delay on either theory of mind, relative to the NH children, or spoken language, relative to hearing norms. The…

  3. Examining Speech Sound Acquisition for Children with Cochlear Implants Using the GFTA-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flipsen, Peter, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines use of the Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation-Second Edition (GFTA-2) with children who use cochlear implants to evaluate whether or not it would be appropriate to use this test with this population. Participants included 15 children with cochlear implants who ranged in age of implantation and amount of implant experience.…

  4. Profile of cochlear implant users of the city of Manaus

    PubMed Central

    Pedrett, Mariana dos Santos; Moreira, Sandra Costa

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The cochlear implant is a device that is intended to substitute for the function of cochlear hair cells, electrically stimulate auditory nerve fibers, and contribute to the perception of speech sounds. However, the surgical procedure alone is not enough for the user to achieve favorable results in habilitation/rehabilitation. Objective: To characterize the patients from Manaus who have received cochlear implants based on the criteria for surgery. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 15 cases and recorded etiological aspects of deafness, age, gender, duration of implant use, use of hearing aids, and participation in individual therapy. Data were recorded in a protocol designed specifically for this purpose. All patients were natives of Manaus. Results: The leading etiological aspect was ototoxicity associated with prematurity in newborns undergoing treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit. The age at surgery is carefully observed in the evaluation of implant centers, as well as if the candidate is pre-or post-lingual. In this study, 73% of patients were pre-lingual and did not benefit from hearing aids. As to the degree and type of hearing loss, 93% had audiological reports indicating profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and 7% had severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. This latter finding confirmed one of the basic principles of implant placement. Conclusion: This study allowed us to verify that there are reduced number of cochlear implant recipients in Manaus, but they have met the criteria required by implant centers located in other states of Brazil. PMID:25991973

  5. Relationship between multipulse integration and speech recognition with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Pfingst, Bryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of performance with cochlear implants and postmortem conditions in the cochlea in humans have shown mixed results. The limitations in those studies favor the use of within-subject designs and non-invasive measures to estimate cochlear conditions. One non-invasive correlate of cochlear health is multipulse integration, established in an animal model. The present study used this measure to relate neural health in human cochlear implant users to their speech recognition performance. The multipulse-integration slopes were derived based on psychophysical detection thresholds measured for two pulse rates (80 and 640 pulses per second). A within-subject design was used in eight subjects with bilateral implants where the direction and magnitude of ear differences in the multipulse-integration slopes were compared with those of the speech-recognition results. The speech measures included speech reception threshold for sentences and phoneme recognition in noise. The magnitude of ear difference in the integration slopes was significantly correlated with the magnitude of ear difference in speech reception thresholds, consonant recognition in noise, and transmission of place of articulation of consonants. These results suggest that multipulse integration predicts speech recognition in noise and perception of features that use dynamic spectral cues. PMID:25190399

  6. Prelingual deafness: Benefits from cochlear implants versus conventional hearing aids

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Torre, Ana Adelina Giantomassi Della; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Brito, Rubens de

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The majority of patients with hearing loss, including those with severe hearing loss, benefits from the use of hearing aids. The cochlear implant is believed to achieve better results in a child with hearing loss in cases where the severity of disability renders hearing aids incapable of providing adequate sound information, as they require sufficient cochlear reserve so that acoustic detention occurs. Objective: To assess if cochlear implants provide more benefit than conventional hearing aids in prelingually deaf patients. Summary of the findings: The study was a systematic review of scientific papers selected by a search of the SciELO, Cochrane, MEDLINE, and LILACS-BIREME databases. Among the 2169 articles found, 12 studies proved relevant to the issue and presented an evidence strength rating of B. No publications rated evidence strength A. Seven of the studies analyzed were prospective cohorts and 5 were cross-sectional studies. Conclusion: Based on several studies, cochlear implants were demonstrated to be the best current alternative for bilateral severe or profound hearing loss, achieving better results in speech perception and development in prelingual children when compared to conventional hearing aids. PMID:25991962

  7. McGurk effects in cochlear-implanted deaf subjects.

    PubMed

    Rouger, Julien; Fraysse, Bernard; Deguine, Olivier; Barone, Pascal

    2008-01-10

    Cochlear implants are neuroprostheses designed to restore speech perception in case of profound bilateral hearing loss. As speech is fundamentally an audiovisual percept, a deficit in processing auditory information might lead to changes in audiovisual integration of speech comprehension. Using vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli under unimodal, audiovisual congruent and audiovisual incongruent (McGurk) conditions, we tested postlingually deaf cochlear-implanted (CI) users and normally hearing (NH) subjects in order to investigate their audiovisual perceptive strategies. Mode/Place-of-articulation perceptive analysis and information transmission analysis of congruent and incongruent percepts indicated a similar sensory specialization for CI users when compared to NH subjects, with voicing and nasality cues transmitted via audition and place cues principally transmitted via vision. NH as well as CI subjects underwent typical McGurk illusory percepts. However, while normally hearing subjects show a well-balanced bimodal integration of incongruent speech, we demonstrated that cochlear implantees present a bias toward a visual-predominant bimodal integration. Our results are complementary to previous studies showing that CI users maintain a high level of speechreading, even after several years of recovery of auditory speech comprehension. Altogether, our results suggest a cross-modal reorganization of speech comprehension in cochlear-implanted patients that might recruit more strongly than in NH the visual and visuo-auditory brain areas involved in speechreading. PMID:18062941

  8. Cochlear implantation in the world's largest medical device market: Utilization and awareness of cochlear implants in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Donna L.

    2013-01-01

    Provision of cochlear implants (CIs) for those within the criteria for implantation remains lower in the United States than in some other developed nations. When adults and children are grouped together, the rate of utilization/provision remains low at around 6%. For children, the provision rate is about 50% of those who could benefit from an implant, compared with figures of about 90% for the Flanders part of Belgium, the United Kingdom and other European countries. The probable reasons for this underprovision include: low awareness of the benefits of CIs among the population; low awareness among health-care professionals; the lack of specific referral pathways; some political issues relating to the Deaf Community; and financial issues related to health provision. Such financial issues result in situations which either fail to provide for access to implants or provide too low a level of the necessary funding, especially for low-income individuals covered by public health-care programs such as Medicaid. These issues might be mitigated by adoption and publication of standards for best clinical practices for CI provision, availability of current cost-effectiveness data, and the existence of an organization dedicated to cochlear implantation. Such an organization, the American Cochlear Implant Alliance (ACI Alliance), was recently organized and is described in the paper by Niparko et al. in this Supplement. PMID:23453146

  9. Osteopetrosis of the Temporal Bone Treated with Cochlear Implant.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Marcin; Zasławska, Katarzyna; Trojanowska, Agnieszka; Szymanska, Anna; Zadrozniak, Marek

    2015-08-01

    Osteopetrosis is a heterogeneous group of skeletal disorders. It is a rare genetic disease caused by osteoclast dysfunction, leading to invalid bone desorption and remodeling and an increase in skeletal mass and density. We present the case of a 52-year-old female with osteopetrosis of the temporal bone. She reported loss of hearing in her left ear 14 years ago because of a head trauma. Four months ago, she was conservatively treated because of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in her right ear with no improvement. Her pure tone average audiogram was bilaterally 90 dB with 10% speech recognition. The patient was implanted with a cochlear implant. Except for the extremely thick and dense cortical bone of the mastoid, surgery was uneventful. Speech recognition 6 months after the surgery showed 75%. The results were stable for 3 years follow-up. Patients with profound hearing loss caused by osteopetrosis may benefit from cochlear implantation. PMID:26381012

  10. Mandarin melody recognition by pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Feilin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of children with implants who speak Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, to recognize familiar melodies. It further examined the relative contributions of pitch, rhythm, and lyrics to melody recognition. Two groups of participants (ages 7-15; n = 20 for each group), those with cochlear implants and those with typical hearing, listened to 2 sets (traditional Mandarin children's songs and children's songs from Western cultures translated into Mandarin) of three melodies. These melodies were presented in 3 conditions: (a) melodic contour only (pitches in equal durations); (b) melodic contour with rhythmic patterns; and (c) melodic contour with rhythmic patterns and lyrics. The results indicated that pediatric cochlear implant recipients performed with greater accuracy in melody recognition when lyrics were available. Their scores were significantly lower when melodies containing only pitch features. Providing the rhythmic patterns aided participants' identification of the target melodies, but less so than the lyrics. Applications of findings to aural rehabilitation are discussed.

  11. Telephone speech comprehension with use of the nucleus cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Cohen, N L; Waltzman, S B; Shapiro, W H

    1989-08-01

    The reported telephone usage by cochlear implant recipients has become a major issue of controversy. Although patients and clinicians report good communication skills via the telephone, no standardized tests have been used and no quantifiable results have been reported. In an effort to determine the extent to which our better-performing patients can use the telephone, we established a clinical protocol to assess their ability to recognize speech, taking into consideration the problems inherent in telephone testing. Eight cochlear implant recipients were administered the NU-6 Monosyllabic Word Test and the City University of New York Topic Related Sentences under the following listening conditions: soundfield in a soundproof suite and via telephone within the hospital, locally, and long-distance. Twenty-three percent of the patients implanted at New York University Medical Center demonstrated a significant degree of telephone communication ability.

  12. Cochlear implantation in a child with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Migirov, Lela; Henkin, Yael; Hildesheimer, Minka; Kronenberg, Jona

    2003-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary disease of connective tissue and affects bone, dentine, sclera, joint, tendon, blood vessels, heart valves, and skin. Approximately 50% of the adult patients with OI have associated hearing impairment. To date, only three cases of cochlear implantation in adults with OI have been reported, but none in children. We present a case of cochlear implantation in a congenitally deaf 6-year-old boy with OI. The Nucleus 24 Contour device was successfully implanted using the suprameatal approach (SMA). At 6 months post-initial stimulation there was no evidence of non-acoustic nerve excitation (i.e. facial twitching) or discomfort, and significant progress in auditory abilities was manifested by open set word identification. PMID:12745164

  13. [Long-latency auditory evoked potentials in cochlear implants].

    PubMed

    Mata, J J; Jiménez, J M; Pérez, J; Postigo, A; Roldán, B

    1999-01-01

    Cortical evoked potentials were evaluated in patients with cochlear implants. In a group of 8 adults of different ages, the lingual state before implantation and during rehabilitation were evaluated. Using cortical evoked potentials, the results of the P300 wave in response to two tones, one frequent (1,000 Hz) and the other infrequent (2,000 Hz), presented at 70 and 80 dB HL were studied. Results were analyzed and compared in relation to locutive state, rehabilitation stage, and intensity of stimulus. Absolute latencies did not differ significantly. However, latency values in relation to reaction time were significantly longer in prelingual than in postlingual patients (p < 0.05, Student test). The results confirmed the normality of central cognitive processes in patients with cochlear implants in objective assessment of P300 latency. The results suggest differences between prelingual and postlingual patients in relation to central signal processing.

  14. A Psychophysics experimental software to evaluate electrical pitch discrimination in Nucleus cochlear implanted patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Zaballos, M. T.; Ramos de Miguel, A.; Killian, M.; Ramos Macías, A.

    2016-02-01

    Multichannel electrode array design in cochlear implants has evolved into two major categories: straight and perimodiolar electrodes. When implanted, the former lies along the outer wall of the scala tympani, while the later are located closer to the modiolus, where the neural ends are. Therefore, a perimodiolar position of the electrode array could be expected to result in reduced stimulus thresholds and stimulating currents, increased dynamic range, and more localized stimulation of the neural elements. However, their advantage for pitch discrimination has not been conclusively stated. Therefore, in order to study electrode independence, a psychophysical software has been developed, making use of Nucleus Implant Communicator tools provided by Cochlear company under a research agreement. The application comprises a graphical interface to facilitate its use, since previous software has always required some type of computer language skills. It allows for customization of electrical pulse parameters, measurement of threshold and comfort levels, loudness balancing and alternative forced choice experiments to determine electrode discrimination in Nucleus© users.

  15. Clinical Validation of Percutaneous Cochlear Implant Surgery: Initial Report

    PubMed Central

    Labadie, Robert F.; Noble, Jack H.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Balachandran, Ramya; Majdani, Omid; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective Percutaneous cochlear implant surgery consists of a single drill path from the lateral mastoid cortex to the cochlea via the facial recess. We sought to clinically validate this technique in patients undergoing traditional cochlear implant surgery. Study Design Prospective clinical trial. Methods After institutional regulatory board approved protocols, five ears were studied via the following steps. 1) In the clinic under local anesthesia, bone-implanted anchors were placed surrounding each mastoid. 2) Temporal-bone computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained. 3) On the CT scans, paths were planned from the lateral mastoid cortex, through the facial recess, to the basal turn of the cochlea both “manually” and “automatically” using computer software. 4) Customized microstereotactic frames were rapid-prototyped to serve as drill guides constraining the drill to follow the appropriate path. 5) During cochlear implant surgery, after drilling of the facial recess, drill guides were mounted on the bone-implanted anchors. 6) Accuracy of paths was assessed via intraoperative photodocumentation. Results All surgical paths successfully traversed the facial recess and hit the basal turn of the cochlea. Distance in millimeters (average SD) from the midpoint of the drill to the facial nerve was 1.18 ± 0.68 for the “manual” path and 1.24 ± 0.44 mm for the “automatic” path and for the chorda tympani 0.986 ± 0.48 for the “manual” path and 1.22 ± 0.62 for the “automatic” path. Conclusions Percutaneous cochlear implant access using customized drill guides based on preoperative CT scans and image-guided surgery technology can be safely accomplished. PMID:18401279

  16. Blood flow in the ears of patients receiving cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tsutomu; Hattori, Taku; Sone, Michihiko; Sato, Eisuke; Tominaga, Mitsuo; Sugiura, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    We measured cochlear blood flow (CBF) in 55 patients who received cochlear implants, using a laser-Doppler probe placed over the site of drilling in the cochlear bony wall. The subjects included 29 patients with congenital deafness of unknown cause, 8 with idiopathic progressive sensorineural hearing loss, 4 with postmeningitic deafness, 3 with Waardenburg's syndrome, 3 with congenital cytomegalovirus infection, and 8 whose deafness had other causes. There was a wide range of CBF values in patients with congenital deafness of unknown cause. In the patients with idiopathic progressive sensorineural hearing loss, the CBF was significantly lower in patients more than 40 years old. Intracochlear calcification following meningitis appears to be associated with a reduced CBF.

  17. Age-Dependent Cost-Utility of Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Yeh, Susan T.; Seshamani, Meena; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Tobey, Emily A.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Frick, Kevin D.; Niparko, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cochlear implantation has become the mainstay of treatment for children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Yet, despite mounting evidence on the clinical benefits of early implantation, little data are available on the long-term societal benefits and comparative effectiveness of this procedure across various ages of implantation--a choice parameter for parents and clinicians with high prognostic value for clinical outcome. As such, the aim of the current study is to evaluate a model of the consequences of the timing of this intervention from a societal economic perspective. Average cost-utility of pediatric cochlear implantation by age at intervention will be analyzed. Design Prospective, longitudinal assessment of health-utility and educational placement outcomes in 175 children recruited from 6 US centers between November 2002 and December 2004, who had severe-to-profound SNHL onset within 1 year of age, underwent cochlear implantation before 5 years of age, and had up to 6 years of post-implant follow-up that ended in November 2008 to December 2011. Costs of care were collected retrospectively and stratified by pre-operative, operative, and post-operative expenditures. Incremental costs and benefits of implantation were compared between the three age groups and relative to a non-implantation baseline. Results Children implanted at <18 months of age gained an average of 10.7 QALYs over their projected lifetime as compared to 9.0 and 8.4 QALYs for those implanted between 18 and 36 months and at >36 months of age, respectively. Medical and surgical complication rates were not significantly different between the 3 age groups. Additionally, mean lifetime costs of implantation were similar between the 3 groups, at approximately $2,000/child/year (77.5 year life expectancy), yielding costs of $14,996, $17,849, and $19,173 per QALY for the youngest, middle, and oldest implant age groups, respectively. Full mainstream classroom

  18. Cochlear implantation in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Makizumi, Yoshimi; Kashio, Akinori; Sakamoto, Takashi; Karino, Shotaro; Kakigi, Akinobu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by a deficit in the synthesis of type I collagen. Hearing loss affects 42-58% of OI patients and progresses to deafness in 35-60% of these patients. For OI patients, cochlear implantation (CI) is the only promising treatment option. However, literature on CI in patients with OI is relatively rare. After CI, speech perception is generally good. However, among patients with severe demineralization of the cochlea, most patients are reported to have complications of facial nerve stimulation (FNS), preventing some patients from using the cochlear implant on a daily basis. Here we report a successful CI using a Nucleus CI24 Contour Advance cochlear implant in a patient with OI. Although high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed extensive demineralization of the cochlea, intracochlear electrodes were inserted properly. The use of a modiolus-hugging device and the advance off-stylet technique contributed to the successful implantation, with no complications such as FNS or misplacement of electrodes. Therefore, CI can be used for treating deaf patients with OI. PMID:23219154

  19. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Venail, Frederic; Mura, Thibault; Akkari, Mohamed; Mathiolon, Caroline; Menjot de Champfleur, Sophie; Piron, Jean Pierre; Sicard, Marielle; Sterkers-Artieres, Françoise; Mondain, Michel; Uziel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement), electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device). The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry) algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = −0.11 ± 0.02, P < 0.01), the scalar placement of the electrodes (β = −8.50 ± 1.97, P < 0.01), and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF). Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas. PMID:26236725

  20. Speaker normalization for chinese vowel recognition in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2005-07-01

    Because of the limited spectra-temporal resolution associated with cochlear implants, implant patients often have greater difficulty with multitalker speech recognition. The present study investigated whether multitalker speech recognition can be improved by applying speaker normalization techniques to cochlear implant speech processing. Multitalker Chinese vowel recognition was tested with normal-hearing Chinese-speaking subjects listening to a 4-channel cochlear implant simulation, with and without speaker normalization. For each subject, speaker normalization was referenced to the speaker that produced the best recognition performance under conditions without speaker normalization. To match the remaining speakers to this "optimal" output pattern, the overall frequency range of the analysis filter bank was adjusted for each speaker according to the ratio of the mean third formant frequency values between the specific speaker and the reference speaker. Results showed that speaker normalization provided a small but significant improvement in subjects' overall recognition performance. After speaker normalization, subjects' patterns of recognition performance across speakers changed, demonstrating the potential for speaker-dependent effects with the proposed normalization technique. PMID:16042003

  1. Positron Emission Tomography in Cochlear Implant and Auditory Brainstem Implant Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Richard T.; Wong, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography imaging was used to evaluate the brain's response to auditory stimulation, including speech, in deaf adults (five with cochlear implants and one with an auditory brainstem implant). Functional speech processing was associated with activation in areas classically associated with speech processing. (Contains five…

  2. MED-EL Cochlear Implants: State of the Art and a Glimpse Into the Future

    PubMed Central

    Hochmair, Ingeborg; Nopp, Peter; Jolly, Claude; Schmidt, Marcus; Schößer, Hansjörg; Garnham, Carolyn; Anderson, Ilona

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is an accepted treatment method for adults and children with severe to profound hearing loss. Confidence in technology has led to changes in individuals who can receive a cochlear implant and changes in expected benefit with a cochlear implant. This article describes the research and development activities at MED-EL, which make possible the implementation of new speech-coding strategies as well as the application of acoustic and electric stimulation via a combined speech processor in MED-EL devices. Research on benefits from bilateral cochlear implantation and electric-acoustic stimulation are also reviewed. Finally, the potential of drug delivery systems is considered as a way to improve cochlear implant outcomes, and results from preliminary evaluations of a hybrid cochlear implant system with drug delivery capabilities are reported. PMID:17172548

  3. Pediatric Cochlear Implants: An Overview of the Alternatives in Education and Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Judith M., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 10 papers is intended as a resource book integrating information on pediatric cochlear implants for educators, parents, implant teams, and rehabilitation specialists. The papers focus on the importance of providing an oral educational environment to maximize cochlear implant success. An introduction notes controversies in the…

  4. Educational Interpreters: Meeting the Communication Needs of Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Julie; Higbee, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved cochlear implants for deaf and hard of hearing children, the number of children who have cochlear implants has increased in mainstream settings. Recent research suggests that these students, like their deaf and hard of hearing peers without implants who use sign language,…

  5. Rehabilitation with Cochlear Implant in Patient with Harboyan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Lauren Medeiros; Dorfman, Maria Elza Kazumi Yamaguti; Lavinsky, Luiz; Sleifer, Pricila

    2013-01-01

    Background Harboyan syndrome, defined as congenital corneal dystrophy associated with progressive sensorineural hearing loss, was first described by Harboyan in 1971. It is a hereditary disease manifested by eye lesions consistent with corneal endothelial dystrophy and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. There is bilateral symmetric progressive hearing loss, which may be either dominant or recessive. Objective To report a case of a patient with a diagnosis of Harboyan syndrome. Case Report A 25-year-old woman with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, showing poor hearing performance while using a personal sound amplification device, underwent hearing rehabilitation with a cochlear implant. Conclusion Rehabilitation was imperative in this case. The cochlear implant has proven to be the best therapeutic option, providing the patient with a better quality of life. PMID:25992045

  6. Electrode Migration in Patients with Perimodiolar Cochlear Implant Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, Philipp; Rademacher, Grit; Mutze, Sven; Ernst, Arneborg; Todt, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Migration of a cochlear implant electrode is a hitherto uncommon complication. So far, array migration has only been observed in lateral wall electrodes. Between 1999 and 2014, a total of 27 patients received bilateral perimodiolar electrode arrays at our institution. The insertion depth angle was estimated on the initial postoperative scans and compared with the insertion depth angle of the postoperative scans performed after contralateral cochlear implantation. Seven (25.93%) patients were found to have an electrode array migration of more than 15°. Electrode migration in perimodiolar electrodes seems to be less frequent and to occur to a lower extent than in lateral wall electrodes. Electrode migration was clinically asymptomatic in all cases.

  7. Deafness: Cross-modal plasticity and cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Jeung-Whoon; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Chong Sun

    2001-01-01

    Hearing in profoundly deaf people can be helped by inserting an implant into the inner ear to stimulate the cochlear nerve. This also boosts the low metabolic activity of the auditory cortex, the region of the brain normally used for hearing. Other sensory modalities, such as sign language, can also activate the auditory cortex, a phenomenon known as cross-modal plasticity. Here we show that when metabolism in the auditory cortex of prelingually deaf children (whose hearing was lost before they learned to talk) has been restored by cross-modal plasticity, the auditory cortex can no longer respond to signals from a cochlear implant installed afterwards. Neural substrates in the auditory cortex might therefore be routed permanently to other cognitive processes in prelingually deaf patients.

  8. Auditory plasticity in deaf children with bilateral cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2005-04-01

    Human children with cochlear implants represent a unique population of individuals who have undergone variable amounts of auditory deprivation prior to being able to hear. Even more unique are children who received bilateral cochlear implants (BICIs), in sequential surgical procedures, several years apart. Auditory deprivation in these individuals consists of a two-stage process, whereby complete deafness is experienced initially, followed by deafness in one ear. We studied the effects of post-implant experience on the ability of deaf children to localize sounds and to understand speech in noise. These are two of the most important functions that are known to depend on binaural hearing. Children were tested at time intervals ranging from 3-months to 24-months following implantation of the second ear, while listening with either implant alone or bilaterally. Our findings suggest that the period during which plasticity occurs in human binaural system is protracted, extending into middle-to-late childhood. The rate at which benefits from bilateral hearing abilities are attained following deprivation is faster for speech intelligibility in noise compared with sound localization. Finally, the age at which the second implant was received may play an important role in the acquisition of binaural abilities. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD.

  9. The evolution of cochlear implant technology and its clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Hainarosie, M; Zainea, V; Hainarosie, R

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a brief history of the development of the cochlear implant, from its beginnings to the present day. After a short description of the device, it describes the evolution of the technology for three of the top manufacturing companies, from the first model marketed, to the latest. It presents the technological advancements from one model to the next, taking into account the exterior design, processing capabilities and functionality. PMID:25870662

  10. The evolution of cochlear implant technology and its clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hainarosie, M; Zainea, V; Hainarosie, R

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a brief history of the development of the cochlear implant, from its beginnings to the present day. After a short description of the device, it describes the evolution of the technology for three of the top manufacturing companies, from the first model marketed, to the latest. It presents the technological advancements from one model to the next, taking into account the exterior design, processing capabilities and functionality.

  11. A beamformer post-filter for cochlear implant noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Hersbach, Adam A; Grayden, David B; Fallon, James B; McDermott, Hugh J

    2013-04-01

    Cochlear implant users have limited ability to understand speech in noisy conditions. Signal processing methods to address this issue that use multiple microphones typically use beamforming to perform noise reduction. However, the effectiveness of the beamformer is diminished as the number of interfering noises increases and the acoustic environment becomes more diffuse. A multi-microphone noise reduction algorithm that aims to address this issue is presented in this study. The algorithm uses spatial filtering to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and attenuates time-frequency elements that have poor SNR. The algorithm was evaluated by measuring intelligibility of speech embedded in 4-talker babble where the interfering talkers were spatially separated and changed location during the test. Twelve cochlear implant users took part in the evaluation, which demonstrated a significant mean improvement of 4.6 dB (standard error 0.4, P < 0.001) in speech reception threshold compared to an adaptive beamformer. The results suggest that a substantial improvement in performance can be gained for cochlear implant users in noisy environments where the noise is spatially separated from the target speech.

  12. Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Two Generations of Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Nicolas; Gérard, Anaïs; Dupré, Jeanne; Goursonnet, Delphine; Hoen, Michel; Gnansia, Dan; Angellier, Gaëlle; Thariat, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the behavior of two different generations of cochlear implant systems subjected to a clinical radiotherapy scheme and to determine the maximal acceptable cumulative radiation levels at which the devices show out-of-specification behaviors. Using stereotactic irradiation (Cyberknife, 6 MV photon beam), three Digisonic SP and three Neuro devices were submitted to 5 Gy doses that cumulated to 60 Gy (12 sessions) and 80 Gy (16 sessions), respectively. A follow-up series of irradiation was then applied, in which Digisonic SP devices received two additional fractions of 50 Gy each, cumulating to 160 Gy, and Neuro devices three additional fractions of 20, 40, and 150 Gy, cumulating to 290 Gy. Output current values were monitored during the treatment. At clinical doses, with 60 or 80 Gy cumulative radiation exposure, no single measurement showed more than 10% divergence from the reference measure. The cochlear implants tested in this study showed high resistance to clinically relevant cumulative radiation doses and showed no out-of-bounds behavior up to cumulative doses of 140 or 160 Gy. These observations suggest that cochlear implant users can undergo radiotherapy up to cumulative doses well above those currently used in clinical situations without risk of failure. PMID:26491679

  13. Profiles of Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ertmer, David J.; Young, Nancy M.; Nathani, Suneeti

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine prelinguistic vocal development in very young cochlear implant recipients. A prospective longitudinal research design was used to observe the sequence and time-course of vocal development in seven children who were implanted between 10 and 36 months of age. Speech samples were collected twice before implant activation and on a monthly basis thereafter for up to 2 years. Children’s vocalizations were classified according to the levels of the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development- Revised (SAEVD-R; Nathani, Ertmer, & Stark, in press). The main findings were (a) six of seven children made advancements in vocal development after implantation, (b) children implanted between 12 and 36 months progressed through SAEVD-R levels in the predicted sequence whereas a child implanted at a younger age showed a different sequence, (c) milestones in vocal development were often achieved with fewer months of hearing experience than observed in typically developing infants and appeared to be influenced by age at implantation, and (d) in general, children implanted at younger ages completed vocal development at younger chronological ages than those implanted later in life. Clinical indicators of benefit from implant use were also identified. PMID:17463237

  14. Preliminary speech recognition results after cochlear implantation in patients with unilateral hearing loss: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cochlear implants known to provide support in individuals with bilateral hearing loss may also be of great benefit for individuals with unilateral hearing loss. This case report demonstrates the positive effects of cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise conditions in patients with unilateral hearing loss and normal hearing on the contralateral side. To the best of our knowledge, the data presented here are from the first few cases to receive a cochlear implant for unilateral hearing loss. Case presentation Four Caucasian German men, two aged 48 and the others aged 51 and 57 years old, with post-lingual unilateral hearing loss and normal hearing on the contralateral side were implanted with a cochlear implant. All our patients were members of the German army. Before and after implantation, they were given a battery of speech tests in different hearing conditions to assess the effect of unilateral cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise conditions. Test results showed that all patients benefited from unilateral cochlear implantation, particularly in terms of speech understanding in noise conditions. Conclusions Unilateral cochlear implantation might be a successful treatment method for patients with unilateral hearing loss not benefiting from alternative treatment options. The results of this case report open up the field of cochlear implantation for expanded criteria and new areas of research. PMID:21810235

  15. Voice discrimination in cochlear-implanted deaf subjects.

    PubMed

    Massida, Z; Belin, P; James, C; Rouger, J; Fraysse, B; Barone, P; Deguine, O

    2011-05-01

    The human voice is important for social communication because voices carry speech and other information such as a person's physical characteristics and affective state. Further restricted temporal cortical regions are specifically involved in voice processing. In cochlear-implanted deaf patients, the processor alters the spectral cues which are crucial for the perception of the paralinguistic information of human voices. The aim of this study was to assess the abilities of voice discrimination in cochlear-implant (CI) users and in normal-hearing subjects (NHS) using a CI simulation (vocoder). In NHS the performance in voice discrimination decreased when reducing the spectral information by decreasing the number of channels of the vocoder. In CI patients with different delays after implantation we observed a strong impairment in voice discrimination at time of activation of the neuroprosthesis. No significant improvement can be detected in patients after two years of experience of the implant while they have reached a higher level of recovery of speech perception, suggesting a dissociation in the dynamic of functional recuperation of speech and voice processing. In addition to the lack of spectral cues due to the implant processor, we hypothesized that the origin of such deficit could derive from a crossmodal reorganization of the temporal voice areas in CI patients. PMID:21167924

  16. Fiber-optic bending sensor for cochlear implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enbang; Yao, Jianquan

    2006-09-01

    Cochlear implantation has been proved as a great success in treating profound sensorineural deafness in both children and adults. Cochlear electrode array implantation is a complex and delicate surgical process. Surgically induced damage to the inner wall of the scala tympani could happen if the insertion angle of the electrode is incorrect and an excessive insertion force is applied to the electrode. This damage could lead to severe degeneration of the remaining neural elements. It is therefore of vital importance to monitor the shape and position of the electrode during the implantation surgery. In this paper, we report a fiber-optic bending sensor which can be integrated with the electrode and used to guide the implantation process. The sensor consists of a piece of optical fiber. The end of the fiber is coated with aluminum layer to form a mirror. Bending the fiber with the electrode introduces loss to the light transmitting in the fiber. By detecting the power of the reflected light, we can detennine the bending happened to the fiber, and consequently measure the curved shape of the electrode. Experimental results show that the proposed fiber sensor is a promising technique to make in-situ monitoring of the shape and position of the electrode during the implantation process.

  17. Pitch Discrimination: An Independent Factor in Cochlear Implant Performance Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kenway, Bruno; Tam, Yu Chuen; Vanat, Zebunnisa; Harris, Frances; Gray, Roger; Birchall, John; Carlyon, Robert; Axon, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in pitch-ranking ability across a range of speech understanding performance levels and as a function of electrode position. Study Design: An observational study of a cross-section of cochlear implantees. Setting: Tertiary referral center for cochlear implantation. Patients: A total of 22 patients were recruited. All three manufacturers’ devices were included (MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria, n = 10; Advanced Bionics, California, USA, n = 8; and Cochlear, Sydney, Australia, n = 4) and all patients were long-term users (more than 18 months). Twelve of these were poor performers (scores on BKB sentence lists <60%) and 10 were excellent performers (BKB >90%). Intervention: After measurement of threshold and comfort levels, and loudness balancing across the array, all patients underwent thorough pitch-ranking assessments at 80% of comfort levels. Main Outcome Measure: Ability to discriminate pitch across the electrode array, measured by consistency in discrimination of adjacent pairs of electrodes, as well as an assessment of the pitch order across the array using the midpoint comparison task. Results: Within the poor performing group there was wide variability in ability to pitch rank, from no errors, to a complete inability to reliably and consistently differentiate pitch change across the electrode array. Good performers were overall significantly more accurate at pitch ranking (p = 0.026). Consistent pitch ranking was found to be a significant independent predictor of BKB score, even after adjusting for age. Users of the MED-EL implant experienced significantly more pitch confusions at the apex than at more basal parts of the electrode array. Conclusions: Many cochlear implant users struggle to discriminate pitch effectively. Accurate pitch ranking appears to be an independent predictor of overall outcome. Future work will concentrate on manipulating maps based upon pitch discrimination findings in an attempt to improve

  18. Cochlear Implant Spatial Selectivity with Monopolar, Bipolar and Tripolar Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ziyan; Tang, Qing; Zeng, Fan-Gang; Guan, Tian; Ye, Datian

    2011-01-01

    Sharp spatial selectivity is critical to auditory performance, particularly in pitch related tasks. Most contemporary cochlear implants have employed monopolar stimulation that produces broad electric fields, which presumably contribute to poor pitch and pitch-related performance by implant users. Bipolar or tripolar stimulation can generate focused electric fields but requires higher current to reach threshold and, more interestingly, has not produced any apparent improvement in cochlear implant performance. The present study addressed this dilemma by measuring psychophysical and physiological spatial selectivity with both broad and focused stimulations in the same cohort of subjects. Different current levels were adjusted by systematically measuring loudness growth for each stimulus, each stimulation mode, and in each subject. Both psychophysical and physiological measures showed that, although focused stimulation produced significantly sharper spatial tuning than monopolar stimulation, it could shift the tuning position or even split the tuning tips. The altered tuning with focused stimulation is interpreted as a result of poor electrode-to-neuron interface in the cochlea, and is suggested to be mainly responsible for the lack of consistent improvement in implant performance. A linear model could satisfactorily quantify the psychophysical and physiological data and derive the tuning width. Significant correlation was found between the individual physiological and psychophysical tuning widths, and the correlation was improved by log-linearly transforming the physiological data to predict the psychophysical data. Because the physiological measure took only one-tenth of the time of the psychophysical measure, the present model is of high clinical significance in terms of predicting and improving cochlear implant performance. PMID:22138630

  19. Achieving early functional auditory access in paediatric cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Orzan, E; Muzzi, E; Marchi, R; Falzone, C; Battelino, S; Ciciriello, E

    2016-02-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) is a viable option for providing access to auditory stimulation in severe-to-profound hearing loss/impairment of cochlear origin. It has been demonstrated that CI is safe and effective for deaf children. Younger age at activation after CI is linked with better outcomes. It is important to study variables and issues that can interfere with an early fitting and access to sound after CI. They range from patient characteristics, family compliance and support, to technical, medical or organisational problems. A SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix was conducted to discuss issues and propose recommendations to be considered when operating an early switch on of the CI. PMID:27054390

  20. Children with Cochlear Implants and Developmental Disabilities: A Language Skills Study with Developmentally Matched Hearing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Grether, Sandra; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    The number of children receiving cochlear implants (CIs) with significant disabilities in addition to their deafness has increased substantially. Unfortunately, children with additional disabilities receiving CIs have largely been excluded from studies on cochlear implant outcomes. Thus limited data exists on outcomes in this population to guide…

  1. Synchrony, Complexity and Directiveness in Mothers’ Interactions with Infants Pre- and Post-Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Mary K.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Morris, Kourtney J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of profound hearing loss on mother-infant interactions before and after cochlear implantation with a focus on maternal synchrony, complexity, and directiveness. Participants included two groups of mother-infant dyads: 9 dyads of mothers and infants with normal hearing; and 9 dyads of hearing mothers and infants with profound hearing loss. Dyads were observed at two time points: Time 1, scheduled to occur before cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss (mean age = 13.6 months); and Time 2 (mean age = 23.3 months), scheduled to occur approximately six months after cochlear implantation. Hearing infants were age-matched to infants with hearing loss at both time points. Dependent variables included the proportion of maternal utterances that overlapped infant vocalizations, maternal mean length of utterance, infant word use, and combined maternal directives and prohibitions. Results showed mothers’ utterances overlapped the vocalizations of infants with hearing loss more often before cochlear implantation than after, mothers used less complex utterances with infants with cochlear implants compared to hearing peers (Time 2), and mothers of infants with profound hearing loss used frequent directives and prohibitions both before and after cochlear implantation. Together, mothers and infants adapted relatively quickly to infants’ access to cochlear implants, showing improved interactional synchrony, increased infant word use, and levels of maternal language complexity compatible with infants’ word use, all within seven months of cochlear implant activation. PMID:24793733

  2. Children with Cochlear Implants in Australia: Educational Settings, Supports, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

    2010-01-01

    This Australian study examined the communication, academic, and social outcomes of pediatric cochlear implantation from the perspectives of teachers working with children with cochlear implants. The children were aged from 1 to 18 years and attended a range of educational settings in early intervention, primary, and secondary schooling. One…

  3. Cochlear Implants in Children with Hearing Loss: Maternal Expectations and Impact on the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Most, Tova

    2005-01-01

    To facilitate evaluations of cochlear implant candidates and to promote (re)habilitation efficacy and collaboration with families, this study examined the expectations of 35 mothers with typical hearing and their beliefs and difficulties related to their child's hearing loss and current or future cochlear implantation. Questionnaires measured…

  4. Contribution of Family Environment to Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users' Speech and Language Outcomes: Some Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Lalonde, Kaylah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the family environments of children with cochlear implants and to examine relationships between family environment and postimplant language development and executive function. Method: Forty-five families of children with cochlear implants completed a self-report family environment questionnaire (Family Environment Scale-Fourth…

  5. Speech Perception for Adults Who Use Hearing Aids in Conjunction with Cochlear Implants in Opposite Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Mansze; Grayden, David; Dowell, Richard C.; Lawrence, David

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to (a) investigate the effect of using a hearing aid in conjunction with a cochlear implant in opposite ears on speech perception in quiet and in noise, (b) identify the speech information obtained from a hearing aid that is additive to the information obtained from a cochlear implant, and (c) explore the relationship between…

  6. Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…

  7. Speech and Literacy Development in a Child with a Cochlear Implant: Application of a Psycholinguistic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, Michelle; Randall-Pieterse, Candice; Geiger, Martha

    2013-01-01

    This single case study describes the speech, phonological awareness and literacy of a 6;0-year-old girl with a cochlear implant. NG, a child with a congenital bilateral severe/profound hearing loss, received a monaural cochlear implant at the age of 3;0, three years prior to the study. Using a psycholinguistic framework to investigate her single…

  8. Comparison of Auditory Perception in Cochlear Implanted Children with and without Additional Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyed Basir; Monshizadeh, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: The number of children with cochlear implants who have other difficulties such as attention deficiency and cerebral palsy has increased dramatically. Despite the need for information on the results of cochlear implantation in this group, the available literature is extremely limited. We, therefore, sought to compare the levels of auditory perception in children with cochlear implants with and without additional disabilities. Methods: A spondee test comprising 20 two-syllable words was performed. The data analysis was done using SPSS, version 19. Results: Thirty-one children who had received cochlear implants 2 years previously and were at an average age of 7.5 years were compared via the spondee test. From the 31 children, 15 had one or more additional disabilities. The data analysis indicated that the mean score of auditory perception in this group was approximately 30 scores below that of the children with cochlear implants who had no additional disabilities. Conclusion: Although there was an improvement in the auditory perception of all the children with cochlear implants, there was a noticeable difference in the level of auditory perception between those with and without additional disabilities. Deafness and additional disabilities depended the children on lip reading alongside the auditory ways of communication. In addition, the level of auditory perception in the children with cochlear implants who had more than one additional disability was significantly less than that of the other children with cochlear implants who had one additional disability. PMID:27217602

  9. Persistent Language Delay versus Late Language Emergence in Children with Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Ann E.; Nicholas, Johanna; Tobey, Emily; Davidson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation is to differentiate children using cochlear implants (CIs) who did or did not achieve age-appropriate language scores by mid-elementary grades and to identify risk factors for persistent language delay following early cochlear implantation. Materials and Method: Children receiving unilateral CIs at…

  10. Synchrony, complexity and directiveness in mothers' interactions with infants pre- and post-cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Mary K; Bergeson, Tonya R; Morris, Kourtney J

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated effects of profound hearing loss on mother-infant interactions before and after cochlear implantation with a focus on maternal synchrony, complexity, and directiveness. Participants included two groups of mother-infant dyads: 9 dyads of mothers and infants with normal hearing; and 9 dyads of hearing mothers and infants with profound hearing loss. Dyads were observed at two time points: Time 1, scheduled to occur before cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss (mean age=13.6 months); and Time 2 (mean age=23.3 months), scheduled to occur approximately six months after cochlear implantation. Hearing infants were age-matched to infants with hearing loss at both time points. Dependent variables included the proportion of maternal utterances that overlapped infant vocalizations, maternal mean length of utterance, infant word use, and combined maternal directives and prohibitions. Results showed mothers' utterances overlapped the vocalizations of infants with hearing loss more often before cochlear implantation than after, mothers used less complex utterances with infants with cochlear implants compared to hearing peers (Time 2), and mothers of infants with profound hearing loss used frequent directives and prohibitions both before and after cochlear implantation. Together, mothers and infants adapted relatively quickly to infants' access to cochlear implants, showing improved interactional synchrony, increased infant word use, and levels of maternal language complexity compatible with infants' word use, all within seven months of cochlear implant activation.

  11. Analogic and Symbolic Comparison of Numerosity in Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfe, Barbara; Lucangeli, Daniela; Genovese, Elisabetta; Monzani, Daniele; Gubernale, Marco; Trevisi, Patrizia; Santarelli, Rosamaria

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how preschoolers with cochlear implants process numerical comparisons from two different inputs: a) nonverbal (analogical) and b) verbal (symbolic). Preschool cochlear-implanted children (CI) ranging in age from 4;3 to 6;1 were compared with 99 age-matched hearing children (HC) in three numerical tasks: verbal counting, a digit…

  12. The Self-Regulation of a Child with Cochlear Implants within a School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Kristin L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research, which utilized a narrative design strategy, was to describe the process of self-regulation of a child who has bilateral cochlear implants within the social environment of school. The study investigated the use of self-regulatory strategies by the cochlear implant recipient. It also examined how the child…

  13. Searching for Cochlear Implant Information on the Internet Maze: Implications for Parents and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Jamieson, Janet R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study has three purposes: (a) to determine who disseminates information on cochlear implants on the Web; (b) to describe a representative sample of Web sites that disseminate information on cochlear implants, with a focus on the content topics and their relevance to parents of deaf children; and (c) to discuss the practical issues of…

  14. Cochlear Implantation among Deaf Children with Additional Disabilities: Parental Perceptions of Benefits, Challenges, and Service Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Curle, Deirdre; Jamieson, Janet R.; Chia, Ruth; Kozak, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of children with additional disabilities are receiving cochlear implants (CIs), little is known about family perspectives of the benefits and the challenges of cochlear implantation in this pediatric population. This study examines perceptions among parents of deaf children with additional disabilities regarding…

  15. Negotiating Reassurance: Parents' Narratives on Follow-Up after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruin, Marieke; Ohna, Stein Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of parental experiences on follow-up after cochlear implantation. Data were constructed in semi-structured, individual interviews with the parents of 14 children who use cochlear implants. Drawing on narrative analysis, the study explores parental responses to insecurity concerning children's learning and…

  16. Cyborgization: Deaf Education for Young Children in the Cochlear Implantation Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    The author, who was raised oral deaf himself, recounts a visit to a school for young deaf children and discovers that young d/Deaf children and their rights are subverted by the cochlear implantation empire. The hypercapitalist, techno-manic times of cochlear implantation has wreaked havoc to the lives of not only young children with deafness but…

  17. Close-field electroporation gene delivery using the cochlear implant electrode array enhances the bionic ear.

    PubMed

    Pinyon, Jeremy L; Tadros, Sherif F; Froud, Kristina E; Y Wong, Ann C; Tompson, Isabella T; Crawford, Edward N; Ko, Myungseo; Morris, Renée; Klugmann, Matthias; Housley, Gary D

    2014-04-23

    The cochlear implant is the most successful bionic prosthesis and has transformed the lives of people with profound hearing loss. However, the performance of the "bionic ear" is still largely constrained by the neural interface itself. Current spread inherent to broad monopolar stimulation of the spiral ganglion neuron somata obviates the intrinsic tonotopic mapping of the cochlear nerve. We show in the guinea pig that neurotrophin gene therapy integrated into the cochlear implant improves its performance by stimulating spiral ganglion neurite regeneration. We used the cochlear implant electrode array for novel "close-field" electroporation to transduce mesenchymal cells lining the cochlear perilymphatic canals with a naked complementary DNA gene construct driving expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. The focusing of electric fields by particular cochlear implant electrode configurations led to surprisingly efficient gene delivery to adjacent mesenchymal cells. The resulting BDNF expression stimulated regeneration of spiral ganglion neurites, which had atrophied 2 weeks after ototoxic treatment, in a bilateral sensorineural deafness model. In this model, delivery of a control GFP-only vector failed to restore neuron structure, with atrophied neurons indistinguishable from unimplanted cochleae. With BDNF therapy, the regenerated spiral ganglion neurites extended close to the cochlear implant electrodes, with localized ectopic branching. This neural remodeling enabled bipolar stimulation via the cochlear implant array, with low stimulus thresholds and expanded dynamic range of the cochlear nerve, determined via electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. This development may broadly improve neural interfaces and extend molecular medicine applications.

  18. The identification of musical instruments through nucleus cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Grasmeder, M L; Lutman, M E

    2006-09-01

    In this study, self-reported ability to recognize musical instruments was investigated by means of a questionnaire, which was sent to a group of adult Nucleus cochlear implant users and a group of normally hearing subjects. In addition, spectrograms and electrodograms were produced and analysed for samples of music played on 10 different musical instruments. Self-reported ability to recognize some instruments was poor in the group of implant users, particularly for the saxophone, tuba and clarinet. Electrodograms showed that these instruments could only be identified using distorted spectral information or reduced temporal information. Other instruments, such as the drum and piano, could be identified using temporal information. Limited spectral resolution makes the recognition of musical instruments difficult for Nucleus implant users.

  19. Objective intraoperative method to record averaged electromyographic stapedius muscle reflexes in cochlear implant patients.

    PubMed

    Almqvist, B; Harris, S; Shallop, J K

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a procedure to measure the averaged stapedius muscle reflex in response to electrical stimulation (AESR) with a cochlear implant. The AESR, as activated by ipsilateral stimulation with a cochlear implant, was investigated intra-operatively in a series of 12 children. After the cochlear implant was placed into the cochlea and secured by the surgeon, an electromyographic (EMG) needle electrode was gently placed into the stapedius muscle. During stimulation of the cochlear implant, the stapedius reflex was monitored visually (VESR) and as an averaged EMG response (AESR). Consistent AESRs were obtained in 7 of the 12 children. These measures provide a method to obtain stapedius muscle responses that may be helpful in the programming of young children with cochlear implants. Comparative post-operative measures were also obtained, including behavioral threshold levels, behavioral comfort levels, and the contralateral stapedius reflex threshold (ESR) on selected electrodes.

  20. School failure in students who are normal-hearing or deaf: with or without cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina Costa; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of cochlear implants on the school failure of deaf who attend mainstream classes by comparing them to their normal-hearing peers as well as deaf without cochlear implants. This case-control study included participants aged 8-18 years. The number of school years failed was obtained from school records. The greatest differences in achievement levels were found between hearing students and those who were deaf without cochlear implants. Cochlear implants provide educational opportunities for hearing-impaired students, yet those without cochlear implants remain at a great disadvantage. These findings suggest that measures promoting greater equity and quality for all deaf students allow achievement levels closer to those of the not impaired. PMID:27026931

  1. Variability of the mental representation of the cochlear anatomy during cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Renato; Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Bernardeschi, Daniele; De Seta, Daniele; Bensimon, Jean Loup; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier; Nguyen, Yann

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mental representation of the insertion axis of surgeons with different degrees of experience, and reproducibility of the insertion axis in repeated measures. A mastoidectomy and a posterior tympanotomy were prepared in five different artificial temporal bones. A cone-beam CT was performed for each temporal bone and the data were registered on a magnetic navigation system. In these five temporal bones, 16 surgeons (3 experts; >50 cochlear implant surgery/year; 7 fellows with few cochlear implant experience, and 6 residents) were asked to determine the optimal insertion axis according to their mental representation. Compared to a planned ideal axis, the insertion axis was better determined by the experts with higher accuracy (axial: 7° ± 1.5°, coronal: 6° ± 1.5°) than fellows (axial: 14° ± 1.7°, coronal: 13° ± 1.7°; p < 0.05), or residents (axial: 15° ± 1.5°; p < 0.001, coronal: 17° ± 1.9°; p < 0.001). This study suggests that mental representation of the cochlea is experience-dependent. A high variation of the insertion axis to the scala tympani can be observed due to the complexity of the temporal bone anatomy and lack of landmarks to determine scala tympani orientation. Navigation systems can be used to evaluate and improve mental representation of the insertion axis to the scala tympani for cochlear implant surgery. PMID:26324880

  2. Consonant Development in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users Who Were Implanted before 30 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Linda J.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This study provided a yearly record of consonant development for the initial 4 years of cochlear implant (CI) use and established a precedent for using a standardized articulation test, the "Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation--2" (Goldman, R., & Fristoe, M. [2000]. Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation--2. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance…

  3. Vowel acquisition by prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Marie-Eve; Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Ménard, Lucie; Goud, Marilyne; Cohen, Henri

    2001-05-01

    Phonetic transcriptions (study 1) and acoustic analysis (study 2) were used to clarify the nature and rhythm of vowel acquisition following the cochlear implantation of prelingually deaf children. In the first study, seven children were divided according to their degree of hearing loss (DHL): DHL I: 90-100 dB of hearing loss, 1 children; DHL II: 100-110 dB, 3 children; and DHL III: over 110 dB, 3 children. Spontaneous speech productions were recorded and videotaped 6 and 12 months postsurgery and vowel inventories were obtained by listing all vowels that occurred at least twice in the child's repertoire at the time of recording. Results showed that degree of hearing loss and age at implantation have a significant impact on vowel acquisition. Indeed, DHL I and II children demonstrated more diversified as well as more typical pattern of acquisition. In the second study, the values of the first and second formants were extracted. The results suggest evolving use of the acoustic space, reflecting the use of auditory feedback to produce the three phonological features exploited to contrast French vowels (height, place of articulation, and rounding). The possible influence of visual feedback before cochlear implant is discussed.

  4. Improved fundamental frequency coding in cochlear implant signal processing.

    PubMed

    Milczynski, Matthias; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2009-04-01

    A new signal processing algorithm for improved pitch perception in cochlear implants is proposed. The algorithm realizes fundamental frequency (F0) coding by explicitly modulating the amplitude of the electrical stimulus. The proposed processing scheme is compared with the standard advanced combination encoder strategy in psychophysical music perception related tasks. Possible filter-bank and loudness cues between the strategies under study were minimized to predominantly focus on differences in temporal processing. The results demonstrate significant benefits provided by the new coding strategy for pitch ranking, melodic contour identification, and familiar melody identification. PMID:19354401

  5. Cochlear implant and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hagr, Abdulrahman Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder defined by the occurrence of megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and bilateral sensorineural deafness, responding in varying degrees to thiamine treatment. We report a precedence case for the treatment of deafness associated with the typical triad of thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia in a 4-year-old boy who showed a poor use of preoperative hearing aids but demonstrated significant improvements in hearing ability 1 year after receiving a cochlear implant. PMID:24658560

  6. Perceptual fusion of polyphonic pitch in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Patrick J; Guo, Benjamin Z; Limb, Charles J

    2009-11-01

    In music, multiple pitches often occur simultaneously, an essential feature of harmony. In the present study, the authors assessed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) users to perceive polyphonic pitch. Acoustically presented stimuli consisted of one, two, or three superposed tones with different fundamental frequencies (f(0)). The normal hearing control group obtained significantly higher mean scores than the CI group. CI users performed near chance levels in recognizing two- and three-pitch stimuli, and demonstrated perceptual fusion of multiple pitches as single-pitch units. These results suggest that limitations in polyphonic pitch perception may significantly impair music perception in CI users.

  7. Precedence based speech segregation in bilateral cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shaikat; Montazeri, Vahid; Assmann, Peter F.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2015-01-01

    The precedence effect (PE) enables the perceptual dominance by a source (lead) over an echo (lag) in reverberant environments. In addition to facilitating sound localization, the PE can play an important role in spatial unmasking of speech. Listeners attending to binaural vocoder simulations with identical channel center frequencies and phase demonstrated PE-based benefits in a closed-set speech segregation task. When presented with the same stimuli, bilateral cochlear implant users did not derive such benefits. These findings suggest that envelope extraction in itself may not lead to a breakdown of the PE benefits, and that other factors may play a role. PMID:26723365

  8. Cochlear implantation for severe sensorineural hearing loss caused by lightning.

    PubMed

    Myung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Il-Woo; Goh, Eui-Kyung; Kong, Soo-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Lightning strike can produce an array of clinical symptoms and injuries. It may damage multiple organs and cause auditory injuries ranging from transient hearing loss and vertigo to complete disruption of the auditory system. Tympanic-membrane rupture is relatively common in patients with lightning injury. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms of auditory lesions in lightning survivors have not been fully elucidated. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss caused by a lightning strike, who was successfully rehabilitated after a cochlear implantation.

  9. Prediction of Cochlear Implant Outcomes in Patients With Prelingual Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Hoon; Lee, Myoung Jin; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Lee, Sang Heun; Jang, Jeong Hun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the factors that limit post-cochlear implantation (CI) speech perception in prelingually deaf children. Methods. Patients with CI were divided into two groups according to Category of Auditory Performance (CAP) scores 3 years post-CI: the poor performance group (poor performance group, CAP scores≤4, n=41) and the good performance group (good performance group, CAP scores≥5, n=85). The distribution and contribution of the potential limiting factors related to post-CI speech perception was compared. Results. Perinatal problems, inner ear anomalies, narrow bony cochlear nerve canal (BCNC), and intraoperative problems was significantly higher in the poor performance group than the good performance group (P=0.010, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P=0.045, respectively). The mean number of limiting factors was significantly higher in the poor performance group (1.98±1.04) than the good performance group (1.25±1.11, P=0.001). The odds ratios for perinatal problems and narrow bony cochlear nerve canal in the poor performance group in comparison with the good performance group were 4.878 (95% confidence interval, 0.067 to 0.625; P=0.005) and 4.785 (95% confidence interval, 0.045 to 0.972; P=0.046). Conclusion. This study highlights the comprehensive prediction of speech perception after CI and provides otologic surgeons with useful information for individualized preoperative counseling of CI candidates. PMID:27337951

  10. [A review of research on music perception ability for adult cochlear implant users].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziye; Liu, Bo; Wang, Shuo

    2012-11-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a kind of surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who has severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment. However, studies have shown that the performance in music perception for CI users has not been achieved to an ideal level. It is important to evaluate the ability to perceive music using well designed music perception test materials, in order to improve the quality of life for cochlear implant users. This paper reviewed the studies on assessing music perception ability for adult cochlear implant users from the existing literature. PMID:23379124

  11. [Electrophysiologic and other objective tests in pediatric cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Bordure, P; O'Donoghue, G M; Mason, S

    1996-01-01

    Various electrophysiological procedures have been developed and utilized in pediatric cochlear implant patients. During surgery and just before implantation, recording of Electrically-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses (EABR) by electrical stimulation via a promontory needle electrode is a useful tool to select the suitable ear for implantation in the absence of other criteria. After implantation, peroperative assessment of the Electrically-Evoked Stapedius Reflex thresholds allows an estimation of the comfort levels not to be exceeded during the first tuning sessions. Recording of Averaged Electrode Voltages (AEV) provides assurance against general device failure, and can localize defectives electrodes which will be disactivated. Finally EABR obtained by electrical stimulation via the implant is the last control showing objective auditory responses. Furthermore there is a strong correlation between EABR thresholds and behavioral thresholds which will be obtained during the first tuning session. When a device malfunction is suspected after implantation, recording of AEV and EABR are performed, and the results are compared with the preoperative data.

  12. Extraocular Surgical Approach for Placement of Subretinal Implants in Blind Patients: Lessons from Cochlear-Implants

    PubMed Central

    Koitschev, Assen; Stingl, Katarina; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Braun, Angelika; Gekeler, Florian; Greppmaier, Udo; Sachs, Helmut; Peters, Tobias; Wilhelm, Barbara; Zrenner, Eberhart; Besch, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    In hereditary retinal diseases photoreceptors progressively degenerate, often causing blindness without therapy being available. Newly developed subretinal implants can substitute functions of photoreceptors. Retina implant extraocular surgical technique relies strongly on cochlear-implant know-how. However, a completely new surgical approach providing safe handling of the photosensor array had to be developed. The Retina Implant Alpha IMS consisting of a subretinal microphotodiode array and cable linked to a cochlear-implant-like ceramic housing was introduced via a retroauricular incision through a subperiosteal tunnel above the zygoma into the orbit using a specially designed trocar. Implant housing was fixed in a bony bed within a tight subperiosteal pocket in all patients. Primary outcomes were patient short term safety as well as effectiveness. Nine patients participated in the first part of the multicenter trial and received the subretinal visual implant in one eye. In all cases microphotodiode array pull-through procedure and stable positioning were possible without affecting the device function. No intraoperative complications were encountered. The minimally invasive suprazygomatic tunneling technique for the sensor unit as well as a subperiosteal pocket fixation of the implant housing provides a safe extraocular implantation approach of a subretinal device with a transcutaneous extracorporeal power supply. PMID:26783453

  13. Cochlear implants: a remarkable past and a brilliant future

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Blake S.; Dorman, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to (i) provide a brief history of cochlear implants; (ii) present a status report on the current state of implant engineering and the levels of speech understanding enabled by that engineering; (iii) describe limitations of current signal processing strategies and (iv) suggest new directions for research. With current technology the “average” implant patient, when listening to predictable conversations in quiet, is able to communicate with relative ease. However, in an environment typical of a workplace the average patient has a great deal of difficulty. Patients who are “above average” in terms of speech understanding, can achieve 100% correct scores on the most difficult tests of speech understanding in quiet but also have significant difficulty when signals are presented in noise. The major factors in these outcomes appear to be (i) a loss of low-frequency, fine structure information possibly due to the envelope extraction algorithms common to cochlear implant signal processing; (ii) a limitation in the number of effective channels of stimulation due to overlap in electric fields from electrodes, and (iii) central processing deficits, especially for patients with poor speech understanding. Two recent developments, bilateral implants and combined electric and acoustic stimulation, have promise to remediate some of the difficulties experienced by patients in noise and to reinstate low-frequency fine structure information. If other possibilities are realized, e.g., electrodes that emit drugs to inhibit cell death following trauma and to induce the growth of neurites toward electrodes, then the future is very bright indeed. PMID:18616994

  14. Sensitive periods and language in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Madrid-Cánovas, Sonia; Blanco-Montañez, Gema

    2016-05-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that the existence of a short sensitive period for lower-level speech perception/articulation skills, and a long one for higher-level language skills, may partly explain the language outcomes of children with cochlear implants (CIs). The participants were fourteen children fitted with a CI before their second birthday. Data about their language skills and the environmental conditions (e.g. Family Involvement in rehabilitation) were obtained over a period of three years. Age at implantation correlated exclusively with the ratio of errors of place of articulation, a phonological feature for which CIs provide insufficient information. The degree of Family Involvement was significantly correlated with the remaining language measures. We conclude that small plasticity reductions affecting lower-level skills may partly explain the difficulties of some CI users in developing language. PMID:26924727

  15. Forward-masked spatial tuning curves in cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David A.; Donaldson, Gail S.; Kreft, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Forward-masked psychophysical spatial tuning curves (fmSTCs) were measured in twelve cochlear-implant subjects, six using bipolar stimulation (Nucleus devices)and six using monopolar stimulation (Clarion devices). fmSTCs were measured at several probe levels on a middle electrode using a fixed-level probe stimulus and variable-level maskers. The average fmSTC slopes obtained in subjects using bipolar stimulation (3.7 dB/mm) were approximately three times steeper than average slopes obtained in subjects using monopolar stimulation (1.2 dB/mm). Average spatial bandwidths were about half as wide for subjects with bipolar stimulation (2.6 mm) than for subjects with monopolar stimulation (4.6 mm). None of the tuning curve characteristics changed significantly with probe level. fmSTCs replotted in terms of acoustic frequency, using Greenwood’s [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 33, 1344–1356 (1961)] frequency-to-place equation, were compared with forward-masked psychophysical tuning curves obtained previously from normal-hearing and hearing-impaired acoustic listeners. The average tuning characteristics of fmSTCs in electric hearing were similar to the broad tuning observed in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired acoustic listeners at high stimulus levels. This suggests that spatial tuning is not the primary factor limiting speech perception in many cochlear implant users. PMID:18345841

  16. Speech feature discrimination in deaf children following cochlear implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeson, Tonya R.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler

    2002-05-01

    Speech feature discrimination is a fundamental perceptual skill that is often assumed to underlie word recognition and sentence comprehension performance. To investigate the development of speech feature discrimination in deaf children with cochlear implants, we conducted a retrospective analysis of results from the Minimal Pairs Test (Robbins et al., 1988) selected from patients enrolled in a longitudinal study of speech perception and language development. The MP test uses a 2AFC procedure in which children hear a word and select one of two pictures (bat-pat). All 43 children were prelingually deafened, received a cochlear implant before 6 years of age or between ages 6 and 9, and used either oral or total communication. Children were tested once every 6 months to 1 year for 7 years; not all children were tested at each interval. By 2 years postimplant, the majority of these children achieved near-ceiling levels of discrimination performance for vowel height, vowel place, and consonant manner. Most of the children also achieved plateaus but did not reach ceiling performance for consonant place and voicing. The relationship between speech feature discrimination, spoken word recognition, and sentence comprehension will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD Research Grant No. R01DC00064 and NIH/NIDCD Training Grant No. T32DC00012.

  17. Managing cochlear implant patients with suspected insulation damage.

    PubMed

    Cullington, Helen E

    2013-01-01

    Six Nucleus® 24 Contour™ and five Nucleus® Freedom™ with Contour Advance™ cochlear implants examined at the South of England Cochlear Implant Centre have failed and were explanted because of insulation damage. Insulation damage occurs when the silicone elastomer coating surrounding the electrode array wires and electronics capsule fails, allowing fluid entry to the electrode lead bundle. In addition, four Nucleus® 24 Contour™, one Nucleus® Freedom™ with Contour Advance™, and one Nucleus® 24 devices have failed as a result of suspected insulation damage; two have been explanted but explant reports not yet been received from the device manufacturer, four have not been explanted. Sixteen other Nucleus® devices are suspected to have insulation damage but the patients have retained clinical benefit, with remapping to exclude some or all affected electrodes in 14 cases. Insulation damage does not cause a sudden loss of sound; instead, a progressive deterioration can occur, which can make management and detection challenging, particularly in young children or those with additional needs. Monitoring of both impedances and clinical benefit is recommended. PMID:23411657

  18. Managing cochlear implant patients with suspected insulation damage.

    PubMed

    Cullington, Helen E

    2013-01-01

    Six Nucleus® 24 Contour™ and five Nucleus® Freedom™ with Contour Advance™ cochlear implants examined at the South of England Cochlear Implant Centre have failed and were explanted because of insulation damage. Insulation damage occurs when the silicone elastomer coating surrounding the electrode array wires and electronics capsule fails, allowing fluid entry to the electrode lead bundle. In addition, four Nucleus® 24 Contour™, one Nucleus® Freedom™ with Contour Advance™, and one Nucleus® 24 devices have failed as a result of suspected insulation damage; two have been explanted but explant reports not yet been received from the device manufacturer, four have not been explanted. Sixteen other Nucleus® devices are suspected to have insulation damage but the patients have retained clinical benefit, with remapping to exclude some or all affected electrodes in 14 cases. Insulation damage does not cause a sudden loss of sound; instead, a progressive deterioration can occur, which can make management and detection challenging, particularly in young children or those with additional needs. Monitoring of both impedances and clinical benefit is recommended.

  19. Hearing ability by telephone of patients with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ito, J; Nakatake, M; Fujita, S

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the telephone communication ability of patients with cochlear implants who could understand conversations in natural voice without difficulty. The hearing ability of those patients with telephone adapters, which usually are used to reduce noise level in the telephone and to record into a tape recorder, was also investigated. Vowel-confusion, consonant-confusion, and speech-tracking test results of patients listening to voices by telephone and by telephone adapter were compared with those of patients listening to natural, nontelephone voices. The average score of the speech-tracking test with natural voice was 111.5 phrases per 5 minutes. This score dropped to 62.4 by telephone. However, with a telephone adapter, the score of the speech-tracking test was 109.3 phrases per 5 minutes. This was almost the same score as that of the natural voice. So, generally speaking, the telephone communication ability of cochlear implant patients was not good enough. However, hearing ability with a telephone adapter came close to hearing ability during natural speech.

  20. [Long-term functional outcomes of cochlear implants in children].

    PubMed

    Laszig, R; Aschendorff, A; Beck, R; Schild, C; Kröger, S; Wesarg, T; Arndt, S

    2009-07-01

    The treatment of deaf and hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants has been established for several years. Nonetheless, no long-term results exist for studies of a representatively large number of children in the German-speaking area. These are necessary in order to formulate prognoses regarding the development and results of children undergoing implantation at various ages. In a retrospective study, we assessed the data of 156 children with various implantation ages and a minimum follow-up period of 5 years for whom speech and audiological data (Oldenburg Sentence Test, Freiburg words/numbers test) were available. Our findings confirm the assumption that early-implanted children (<2 years) achieve the best speech-comprehension results. For this reason, support for a sufficient universal neonate hearing screen should be emphatically given so that implantation, after a hearing test phase, can be targeted in the first year of life. The surgical, anesthesiological, and rehabilitation conditions must be fulfilled, and surgical experience is required for operation on infants and small children. PMID:19517077

  1. Preoperative imaging of sensorineural hearing loss in pediatric candidates for cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Young, Joseph Y; Ryan, Maura E; Young, Nancy M

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for children with marked bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. It provides auditory benefits that range from simple sound detection to substantial word understanding. Improved hearing through cochlear implantation has been demonstrated to enhance the rate of language acquisition, enable development of spoken language, and advance literacy in deaf children. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography both have roles in the preoperative assessment of inner-ear abnormalities, cochlear nerve deficiency, and variant anatomy that may affect the decision to implant and the prognosis for auditory improvement and increase the risk for complications. Most cochlear abnormalities may be successfully treated with cochlear implantation, but the presence of a cochlear malformation may increase the risk for intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage and postoperative bacterial meningitis. Eighth-nerve deficiency correlates with poor auditory outcomes and may affect eligibility for cochlear implantation. Another important consideration for implantation is the presence of labyrinthitis ossificans in some children with deafness resulting from bacterial meningitis, which may cause obstruction that limits electrode insertion. Anatomic variations of the facial nerve or middle-ear cavity, which are more common in syndromic patients, may also affect the surgical approach and make implantation difficult.

  2. Clinical evaluation of the xDP output compression strategy for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Bozorg-Grayeli, Alexis; Guevara, Nicolas; Bebear, Jean-Pierre; Ardoint, Marine; Saaï, Sonia; Hoen, Michel; Gnansia, Dan; Romanet, Philippe; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Technological advances in the domain of digital signal processing adapted to cochlear implants (CI) are partially responsible for the ever-improving outcomes observed with this neural prosthesis. The goal of the present study was to evaluate audiometric outcomes with a new signal processing strategy implemented in Oticon Medical-Neurelec cochlear implant systems, the xDP strategy. The core of this approach is a preset-based back-end output compression system, modulating a multi-channel transfer function depending on the intensity and information content of input sounds. Twenty adult CI patients, matched for age and CI experience, were included in this study. Pure-tone thresholds and vocal audiometry scores were measured with their former signal processing strategy and with xDP. Speech perception was assessed using dissyllabic words presented in quiet, at different intensity levels: 40, 55, 70, and 85 dB SPL, and in a cocktail party noise at a signal-to-noise ratio of +10 dB. Results with the xDP strategy showed, as awaited, no major modification of pure-tone thresholds. A global increase of speech perception scores was observed after a 1-month habituation period, with significant improvements for speech perception in quiet for moderate (55 dB SPL), loud speech sounds (85 dB SPL), and speech-in-noise comprehension. Subjective signal quality assessment showed a preference for Crystalis(xDP) over the former strategy. These results allow the quantification of improvements provided by the xDP signal processing strategy.

  3. Bringing Hearing to the Deaf--Cochlear Implants: a Technical and Personal Account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipsey, Ian

    2006-04-01

    Cochlear implants are the first device to successfully restore neural function. They have instigated a popular but controversial revolution in the treatment of deafness, and they serve as a model for research in neuroscience and biomedical engineering. In this talk the physiology of natural hearing will be reviewed from the perspective of a physicist, and the function of cochlear implants will be described in the context of historical treatments, electrical engineering, psychophysics, clinical evaluation of efficacy and personal experience. The social implications of cochlear implantation and the future outlook for auditory prostheses will also be discussed.

  4. Bringing Hearing to the Deaf - Cochlear Implants: A Technical and Personal Account

    SciTech Connect

    Shipsey, Ian

    2003-12-17

    Cochlear implants are the first device to successfully restore neural function. They have instigated a popular but controversial revolution in the treatment of deafness and they serve as a model for research in neuroscience and biomedical engineering. In this talk the physiology of natural hearing will be reviewed from the perspective of a physicist, and the function of cochlear implants will be described in the context of historical treatments, electrical engineering, psychophysics, clinical evaluation of efficacy and personal experience. The social implications of cochlear implantation and the future outlook for auditory prostheses will also be discussed.

  5. Sensitivity in Interactions between Hearing Mothers and their Toddlers with Hearing Loss: The Effect of Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Zaharah Abu; Brown, P. Margaret; Remine, Maria D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of cochlear implantation and age at implantation on maternal interactional sensitivity. Three groups of dyads were studied at two points over 1 year. The hearing aid (HA) group wore hearing aids throughout the study, the early cochlear implanted (ECI) group were implanted prior to 22 months of age, and…

  6. Blood flow measurements in the ears of patients receiving cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tsutomu; Hattori, Taku; Sone, Michihiko; Sato, Eisuke; Tominaga, Mitsuo

    2002-11-01

    We measured cochlear blood flow in 12 patients who received cochlear implants, using a laser-Doppler probe with an outer diameter of 0.8 mm. The subjects had congenital deafness, idiopathic progressive sensorineural hearing loss, Waardenburg's syndrome, narrow internal auditory canal, or sudden deafness. Putting the probe tip to the site of drilling for cochlear implantation, we measured blood flow before, during, and after the cochlear bony wall was opened. The laser-Doppler output was confirmed even after the tip of the probe was inserted into the perilymphatic space in all cases. Our results revealed that blood flow was maintained in all cochleas, although there was a probability of reduction in blood flow volume. We conclude that laser-Doppler flowmetry is both relatively safe and useful for measuring blood flow in the ears during cochlear implantation procedures.

  7. Towards quantifying cochlear implant localization performance in complex acoustic environments.

    PubMed

    Kerber, S; Seeber, B U

    2011-08-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users frequently report listening difficulties in reverberant and noisy spaces. While it is common to assess speech understanding with implants in background noise, binaural hearing performance has rarely been quantified in the presence of other sources, although the binaural system is a major contributor to the robustness of speech understanding in noisy situations with normal hearing. Here, a pointing task was used to measure horizontal localization ability of a bilateral CI user in quiet and in a continuous diffuse noise interferer at a signal-to-noise ratio of 0 dB. Results were compared to localization performance of six normal hearing listeners. The average localization error of the normal hearing listeners was within normal ranges reported previously and only increased by 1.8° when the interfering noise was introduced. In contrast, the bilateral CI user showed a localization error of 22° in quiet which rose to 31° in noise. This increase was partly due to target sounds being inaudible when presented from frontal locations between -20° and +20°. With the noise present, the implant user was only able to reliably hear target sounds presented from locations well off the median plane. The results give support to the informal complaints raised by CI users and can help to define targets for the design of, e.g., noise reduction algorithms for implant processors.

  8. Successful outcomes of cochlear implantation in long-term unilateral deafness: brain plasticity?

    PubMed

    Távora-Vieira, Dayse; Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Maric, Vesna; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2013-09-11

    To investigate the implications of duration of deafness in the rehabilitation of unilateral deafness utilizing cochlear implantation. From the ongoing prospective cochlear implantation in unilateral deafness study, we looked at five adults who received a cochlear implant for long-term unilateral deafness. Speech perception in noise and subjective evaluation of the benefits of cochlear implantation were measured at 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. The results were analyzed and compared with published data from normal hearing individuals and adults using cochlear implants bilaterally. Analysis of speech perception in noise showed significant improvement for three spatial configurations: speech and noise from the front (S0/N0; P=0.003), speech from the front and noise from the normal hearing ear (S0/NHE; P=0.001), speech from the implanted ear, and noise from the normal hearing ear (SCI/NHE; P<0.001). The scores obtained at 12 months after surgery improved to values similar to those obtained by individuals with normal hearing. The results of subjective measures showed significant improvement in hearing over time to the scores obtained by individuals with a bilateral cochlear implants and those with normal hearing. In this study, older adults with more than 25 years of unilateral deafness obtained scores in speech perception testing and in subjective evaluation that are similar to those attained by individuals with normal hearing and/or those with bilateral cochlear implants. Therefore, patients with postlingual unilateral deafness should not be excluded as cochlear implant candidates on the basis of a long duration of deafness.

  9. Age or Experience? The Influence of Age at Implantation and Social and Linguistic Environment on Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szagun, Gisela; Stumper, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the influence of social environmental variables and age at implantation on language development in children with cochlear implants. Method: Participants were 25 children with cochlear implants and their parents. Age at implantation ranged from 6 months to 42 months (M[subscript age] = 20.4 months, SD = 22.0…

  10. Coding strategies for cochlear implants under adverse environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmina, Qudsia

    Cochlear implants are electronic prosthetic devices that restores partial hearing in patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Although most coding strategies have significantly improved the perception of speech in quite listening conditions, there remains limitations on speech perception under adverse environments such as in background noise, reverberation and band-limited channels, and we propose strategies that improve the intelligibility of speech transmitted over the telephone networks, reverberated speech and speech in the presence of background noise. For telephone processed speech, we propose to examine the effects of adding low-frequency and high- frequency information to the band-limited telephone speech. Four listening conditions were designed to simulate the receiving frequency characteristics of telephone handsets. Results indicated improvement in cochlear implant and bimodal listening when telephone speech was augmented with high frequency information and therefore this study provides support for design of algorithms to extend the bandwidth towards higher frequencies. The results also indicated added benefit from hearing aids for bimodal listeners in all four types of listening conditions. Speech understanding in acoustically reverberant environments is always a difficult task for hearing impaired listeners. Reverberated sounds consists of direct sound, early reflections and late reflections. Late reflections are known to be detrimental to speech intelligibility. In this study, we propose a reverberation suppression strategy based on spectral subtraction to suppress the reverberant energies from late reflections. Results from listening tests for two reverberant conditions (RT60 = 0.3s and 1.0s) indicated significant improvement when stimuli was processed with SS strategy. The proposed strategy operates with little to no prior information on the signal and the room characteristics and therefore, can potentially be implemented in real-time CI

  11. Toward automated cochlear implant insertion using tubular manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granna, Josephine; Rau, Thomas S.; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    During manual cochlear implant electrode insertion the surgeon is at risk to damage the intracochlear fine-structure, as the electrode array is inserted through a small opening in the cochlea blindly with little force-feedback. This paper addresses a novel concept for cochlear electrode insertion using tubular manipulators to reduce risks of causing trauma during insertion and to automate the insertion process. We propose a tubular manipulator incorporated into the electrode array composed of an inner wire within a tube, both elastic and helically shaped. It is our vision to use this manipulator to actuate the initially straight electrode array during insertion into the cochlea by actuation of the wire and tube, i.e. translation and slight axial rotation. In this paper, we evaluate the geometry of the human cochlea in 22 patient datasets in order to derive design requirements for the manipulator. We propose an optimization algorithm to automatically determine the tube set parameters (curvature, torsion, diameter, length) for an ideal final position within the cochlea. To prove our concept, we demonstrate that insertion can be realized in a follow-the-leader fashion for 19 out of 22 cochleas. This is possible with only 4 different tube/wire sets.

  12. Speech Intelligibility of Cochlear-Implanted and Normal-Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    Poursoroush, Sara; Ghorbani, Ali; Soleymani, Zahra; Kamali, Mohammd; Yousefi, Negin; Poursoroush, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Speech intelligibility, the ability to be understood verbally by listeners, is the gold standard for assessing the effectiveness of cochlear implantation. Thus, the goal of this study was to compare the speech intelligibility between normal-hearing and cochlear-implanted children using the Persian intelligibility test. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six cochlear-implanted children aged 48–95 months, who had been exposed to 95–100 speech therapy sessions, were compared with 40 normal-hearing children aged 48–84 months. The average post-implanted time was 14.53 months. Speech intelligibility was assessed using the Persian sentence speech intelligibility test. Results: The mean score of the speech intelligibility test among cochlear-implanted children was 63.71% (standard deviation [SD], 1.06) compared with 100% intelligible among all normal-hearing children (P<0.000). No effects of age or gender on speech intelligibility were observed in these two groups at this range of ages (P>0.05). Conclusion: Speech intelligibility in the Persian language was poorer in cochlear-implanted children in comparison with normal-hearing children. The differences in speech intelligibility between cochlear-implanted and normal-hearing children can be shown through the Persian sentence speech intelligibility test. PMID:26568940

  13. Expressive vocabulary, morphology, syntax and narrative skills in profoundly deaf children after early cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-06-01

    Practical experience and research reveal generic spoken language benefits after cochlear implantation. However, systematic research on specific language domains and error analyses are required to probe sub-skills. Moreover, the effect of predictive factors on distinct language domains is unknown. In this study, outcomes of 70 school-aged children with cochlear implants were compared with hearing peers. Approximately half of the children with cochlear implants achieved age-adequate language levels. Results did not reveal systematic strong or weak language domains. Error analyses showed difficulties with morphological and syntactic rules and inefficient narrative skills. Children without additional disabilities who received early intervention were raised with one spoken language, and used a second cochlear implant or contralateral hearing aid were more likely to present good language skills.

  14. Use of Narrative-Based Language Intervention with Children who have Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Ellie C.; Swanson, Lori A.; Buebler, Velvet

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the use of narrative-based language intervention (NBLI) with 3 children who have cochlear implants. Findings reveal that NBLI is effective intervention to increase the narrative skills of children with specific language impairment.

  15. [Extruded cochlear implant magnet covered with a temporoparietal fascial flap. A case report].

    PubMed

    Lima Sánchez, J; Berenguer, B; Aránguez, G; González Meli, B; Marín Molina, C; de Tomás Palacios, E

    2013-01-01

    Complications are infrequent after cochlear implant surgery but they might occur despite careful preoperative planning and meticulous surgical technique. Among the most commonly encountered problems are those associated with the postauricular flap. An exposed, and therefore contaminated, device requires immediate attention and intervention. Cochlear implantation revision surgery is justified by two main reasons, the high price of these devices and the difficulty of reimplantation, due to cochlear fibrosis and ossification after its removal. There are multiple options in cochlear implantation revision surgery with infected device. However, the temporoparietal fascia flap is highly vascularized and provides some advantages over other alternatives. We report a case of a 5 year old boy with bilateral sensor neural hearing loss, who suffered a device extrusion three years after its implantation. PMID:23833928

  16. Unilateral spectral and temporal compression reduces binaural fusion for normal hearing listeners with cochlear implant simulations.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, Justin M; Shayman, Corey; Prasad, Akila; Suneel, Deepa; Stelmach, Julia

    2015-02-01

    Patients with single sided deafness have recently begun receiving cochlear implants in their deaf ear. These patients gain a significant benefit from having a cochlear implant. However, despite this benefit, they are considerably slower to develop binaural abilities such as summation compared to bilateral cochlear implant patients. This suggests that these patients have difficulty fusing electric and acoustic signals. Although this may reflect inherent differences between electric and acoustic stimulation, it may also reflect properties of the processor and fitting system, which result in spectral and temporal compression. To examine the possibility that unilateral spectral and temporal compression can adversely affect binaural fusion, this study tested normal hearing listeners' binaural fusion through the use of vocoded speech with unilateral spectral and temporal compression. The results indicate that unilateral spectral and temporal compression can each hinder binaural fusion and thus may adversely affect binaural abilities in patients with single sided deafness who use a cochlear implant in their deaf ear. PMID:25549574

  17. Expressive vocabulary, morphology, syntax and narrative skills in profoundly deaf children after early cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-06-01

    Practical experience and research reveal generic spoken language benefits after cochlear implantation. However, systematic research on specific language domains and error analyses are required to probe sub-skills. Moreover, the effect of predictive factors on distinct language domains is unknown. In this study, outcomes of 70 school-aged children with cochlear implants were compared with hearing peers. Approximately half of the children with cochlear implants achieved age-adequate language levels. Results did not reveal systematic strong or weak language domains. Error analyses showed difficulties with morphological and syntactic rules and inefficient narrative skills. Children without additional disabilities who received early intervention were raised with one spoken language, and used a second cochlear implant or contralateral hearing aid were more likely to present good language skills. PMID:23584181

  18. Frequency of vocalization before and after cochlear implantation: Dynamic effect of auditory feedback on infant behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    The motivation for infants’ non-word vocalizations in the second half of the first year and later is unclear. This study of hearing infants and infants with profound hearing loss with and without cochlear implants addressed the hypothesis that vocalizations are primarily motivated by auditory feedback. Early access to cochlear implants has created unique conditions of auditory manipulation that permit empirical tests of relations between auditory perception and infant behavior. Evidence from two separate tests of the research hypothesis showed, before cochlear implantation, infants with profound hearing loss vocalized significantly less often than hearing infants; however, soon after cochlear implantation, they vocalized at levels commensurate with hearing peers. In contrast, vocal behaviors that are typically considered reflexive or emotion-based signals (e.g., crying) were infrequent overall and did not vary with auditory access. These results support the hypothesis that auditory feedback is a critical component motivating early vocalization frequency. PMID:24980742

  19. A phone-assistive device based on Bluetooth technology for cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Loizou, Philipos C; Dorman, Michael F

    2003-09-01

    Hearing-impaired people, and particularly hearing-aid and cochlear-implant users, often have difficulty communicating over the telephone. The intelligibility of telephone speech is considerably lower than the intelligibility of face-to-face speech. This is partly because of lack of visual cues, limited telephone bandwidth, and background noise. In addition, cellphones may cause interference with the hearing aid or cochlear implant. To address these problems that hearing-impaired people experience with telephones, this paper proposes a wireless phone adapter that can be used to route the audio signal directly to the hearing aid or cochlear implant processor. This adapter is based on Bluetooth technology. The favorable features of this new wireless technology make the adapter superior to traditional assistive listening devices. A hardware prototype was built and software programs were written to implement the headset profile in the Bluetooth specification. Three cochlear implant users were tested with the proposed phone-adapter and reported good speech quality.

  20. Musician effect in cochlear implant simulated gender categorization.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christina D; Galvin, John J; Free, Rolien H; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Musicians have been shown to better perceive pitch and timbre cues in speech and music, compared to non-musicians. It is unclear whether this "musician advantage" persists under conditions of spectro-temporal degradation, as experienced by cochlear-implant (CI) users. In this study, gender categorization was measured in normal-hearing musicians and non-musicians listening to acoustic CI simulations. Recordings of Dutch words were synthesized to systematically vary fundamental frequency, vocal-tract length, or both to create voices from the female source talker to a synthesized male talker. Results showed an overall musician effect, mainly due to musicians weighting fundamental frequency more than non-musicians in CI simulations.

  1. The Cost of Cochlear Implantation: A Review of Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Nadège, Costa; Valérie, Garnault; Laura, Ferlicoq; Hélène, Derumeaux-Burel; Vanina, Bongard; Olivier, Deguine; Bernard, Fraysse; Laurent, Molinier

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Cost studies can provide useful guidance, so long as they adhere to accepted methodology. Cochlear implants (CIs) are electronic devices introduced surgically into the inner ear. It is a relevant example to review cost study analyses because of its costliness. The aim of this study was to review relevant published cost studies of CI to analyze the method used. Methods. First, we described the key points of cost study methodology. Cost studies relating to CI were systematically reviewed, focussing on an analysis of the different methods used. Results. The methods, data sources, and estimated cost categories in each study varied widely. The paper showed that cost studies adopted significantly different approaches to estimate costs of CI, reflecting a lack of consensus on the methodology of cost studies. Conclusion. To increase its credibility, closer agreement among researchers on the methodological principles of cost studies would be desirable. PMID:22028715

  2. Case Report of Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation after Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takahiro; Matsuda, Keiji; Okuda, Takumi; Tono, Tetsuya; Takaki, Minoru; Hayashi, Tamon; Hanamure, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is a relatively rare condition and is mainly seen in children. We report of a 7-year-old girl suffering from AARF after cochlear implantation (CI). Fortunately, early diagnosis based on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) was made, and the patient was cured with conservative therapy. Nontraumatic AARF, which is also known as Grisel's syndrome and occurs subsequent to neck infections or ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery, represents only a small fraction of AARF cases. Two factors are mainly thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the condition estimated, namely, (i) neck immaturity in children and (ii) infiltration by inflammatory mediators around the upper neck joint, easily permitted by the neck vasculature. AARF should be suspected in case of torticollis developing after ENT surgery. PMID:27340580

  3. Case Report of Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation after Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Keiji; Okuda, Takumi; Tono, Tetsuya; Takaki, Minoru; Hayashi, Tamon; Hanamure, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is a relatively rare condition and is mainly seen in children. We report of a 7-year-old girl suffering from AARF after cochlear implantation (CI). Fortunately, early diagnosis based on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) was made, and the patient was cured with conservative therapy. Nontraumatic AARF, which is also known as Grisel's syndrome and occurs subsequent to neck infections or ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery, represents only a small fraction of AARF cases. Two factors are mainly thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of the condition estimated, namely, (i) neck immaturity in children and (ii) infiltration by inflammatory mediators around the upper neck joint, easily permitted by the neck vasculature. AARF should be suspected in case of torticollis developing after ENT surgery. PMID:27340580

  4. Blind binary masking for reverberation suppression in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Hazrati, Oldooz; Lee, Jaewook; Loizou, Philipos C

    2013-03-01

    A monaural binary time-frequency (T-F) masking technique is proposed for suppressing reverberation. The mask is estimated for each T-F unit by extracting a variance-based feature from the reverberant signal and comparing it against an adaptive threshold. Performance of the estimated binary mask is evaluated in three moderate to relatively high reverberant conditions (T60 = 0.3, 0.6, and 0.8 s) using intelligibility listening tests with cochlear implant users. Results indicate that the proposed T-F masking technique yields significant improvements in intelligibility of reverberant speech even in relatively high reverberant conditions (T60 = 0.8 s). The improvement is hypothesized to result from the recovery of the vowel/consonant boundaries, which are severely smeared in reverberation. PMID:23464030

  5. The cochlear implant: Historical aspects and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Adrien A.; Nazarian, Ronen; Telischi, Fred F.; Rajguru, Suhrud M.; Truy, Eric; Gupta, Chhavi

    2016-01-01

    The cochlear implant (CI) is the first effective treatment for deafness and severe losses in hearing. As such, the CI is now widely regarded as one of the great advances in modern medicine. This paper reviews the key events and discoveries that led up to the current CI systems, and we review and present some among the many possibilities for further improvements in device design and performance. The past achievements include: (1) development of reliable devices that can be used over the lifetime of a patient; (2) development of arrays of implanted electrodes that can stimulate more than one site in the cochlea; and (3) progressive and large improvements in sound processing strategies for CIs. In addition, cooperation between research organizations and companies greatly accelerated the widespread availability and use of safe and effective devices. Possibilities for the future include: (1) use of otoprotective drugs; (2) further improvements in electrode designs and placements; (3) further improvements in sound processing strategies; (4) use of stem cells to replace lost sensory hair cells and neural structures in the cochlea; (5) gene therapy; (6) further reductions in the trauma caused by insertions of electrodes and other manipulations during implant surgeries; and (7) optical rather electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Each of these possibilities is the subject of active research. Although great progress has been made to date in the development of the CI, including the first substantial restoration of a human sense, much more progress seems likely and certainly would not be a surprise. PMID:23044644

  6. Speech Perception Results for Children Using Cochlear Implants Who Have Additional Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Shani J.; Fiket, Hayley; Dowell, Richard C.; Charlton, Margaret; Williams, Sarah S.; Tomov, Alexandra M.; Barker, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    Speech perception outcomes in young children with cochlear implants are affected by a number of variables including the age of implantation, duration of implantation, mode of communication, and the presence of a developmental delay or additional disability. The aim of this study is to examine the association between degree of developmental delay…

  7. Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…

  8. How we do it: adaptation of music instruction for pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Fei-Lin; Gfeller, Kate

    2011-11-01

    This paper outlines the skills required for participation in structured music programs and possible adaptations to facilitate successful participation by pediatric cochlear implant recipients. Common curricular components that present the structural features of music and the implications for perceptual and music production skills are discussed. A checklist of practical recommendations for clinicians, educators, and parents is provided to ensure success in integrating cochlear implant recipients into early childhood music programs.

  9. An Analysis of Phonological Process Use in Young Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhler, Helen C.; DeThomasis, Betty; Chute, Pat; DeCora, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Phonological process use was investigated in five children who used Nucleus 24 cochlear implants (CIs). All participants were less than 3 years of age at the time of cochlear implantation and ranged from 4;2 to 4;7 years of age at onset of study. Speech samples obtained from the GFTA-2 were analyzed using the KLPA-2 to evaluate participants'…

  10. Influence of cochleostomy and cochlear implant insertion on drug gradients following intratympanic application in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    King, EB; Hartsock, JJ; O'Leary, SJ; Salt, AN

    2013-01-01

    Locally-applied drugs can protect residual hearing following cochlear implantation. The influence of cochlear implantation on drug levels in scala tympani (ST) after round window application was investigated in guinea pigs using the marker trimethylphenlyammonium (TMPA) measured in real-time with TMPA-selective microelectrodes. TMPA concentration in the upper basal turn of ST rapidly increased during implantation and then declined due to cerebrospinal fluid entering ST at the cochlear aqueduct and exiting at the cochleostomy. The TMPA increase was found to be caused by the cochleostomy drilling, if the burr tip partially entered ST. TMPA distribution in the second turn was less affected by implantation procedures. These findings show that basal turn drug levels may be changed during implantation and the changes may need to be considered in the interpretation of therapeutic effects of drugs in conjunction with implantation. PMID:24008355

  11. Cochlear implantation in the elderly: surgical and hearing outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At the present time, 50 to 60% of the population above 70 years of age suffers from a hearing impairment and from 0.6 to 1.1% has a severe to profound loss, which cannot benefit from an hearing aid. Moreover, it is expected that this prevalence will grow by more than two-fold in the next 40 years. There is strong evidence that hearing loss in older adults is associated with both cognitive load and social isolation, which in turn, are associated with cognitive and physical functioning. Cochlear implant (CI) dramatically improves sound audibility and speech understanding. The aim of this paper was to analyze outcome and complications of CI treatment in elderly patients. Methods A retrospective study on 17 patients, aged at implantation between 65 and 79 years (mean = 70.47 ± 3.94), unilaterally implanted for severe to profound bilateral hearing loss. The following data were statistically evaluated: pre-implant pure-tone threshold and tests of speech recognition, both with hearing aid that without; post-implant threshold and speech perception with CI off and on. Moreover, statistical correlations of PTA improvement between two age groups (65 to 70 and over 70 years) were carried out. Results Mean PTA improved from 111.25 (± 17.51) (pre-implant) to 43.81 (± 9.27) (post-implant); and the mean SRT improved from 90 dB to 65 dB. Moreover there was no statistical difference in PTA improvement between the two age groups (65 to 70 and over 70 years). No severe per- or post-operative surgical complications were noted. Discussion In the elderly, CI is a safe procedure that significantly improves hearing threshold (p < 0.00001) and speech perception (p < 0.01). Support of family and professionals, as well as duration of deafness and pre-implant scores greatly influence the results of rehabilitation and its perceived benefit. CI should not be denied in older individuals who are otherwise in good health. PMID:24267394

  12. Language acquisition after cochlear implantation of congenitally deaf children: Effect of age at implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirsky, Mario; Holt, Rachael

    2005-04-01

    Evidence shows that early implantation of congenitally deaf children is beneficial. However, infants as young as 6 months of age have started to receive cochlear implants (CIs) in the USA. Such early implantation may be associated with higher risks, including anesthetic risk as well as the increased possibility of a false positive in the diagnosis of profound deafness. On the other hand, delaying implantation may be associated with the risk of missing windows of opportunity or sensitive periods for the development of communication skills. In this study, speech perception and language skills in children who received CIs in the first, second, third, or fourth year of life were compared. Participants were tested at regular 6-month intervals after implantation. The effects of several potential confounds were considered. In general, children implanted earlier outperformed those implanted later, with one exception: infants implanted at 6-12 months showed similar outcomes to children implanted at 12-24 months, at least through 2 to 2-1/2 years of age. This preliminary result may be associated with the difficulty of choosing appropriate stimulation parameters for infants, and its potential influence on the quality of the stimulation patterns delivered by the CI.

  13. Perceptually optimized gain function for cochlear implant signal-to-noise ratio based noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Stefan J; Dawson, Pam W; Hersbach, Adam A

    2012-01-01

    Noise reduction in cochlear implants has achieved significant speech perception improvements through spectral subtraction and signal-to-noise ratio based noise reduction techniques. Current methods use gain functions derived through mathematical optimization or motivated by normal listening psychoacoustic experiments. Although these gain functions have been able to improve speech perception, recent studies have indicated that they are not optimal for cochlear implant noise reduction. This study systematically investigates cochlear implant recipients' speech perception and listening preference of noise reduction with a range of gain functions. Results suggest an advantageous gain function and show that gain functions currently used for noise reduction are not optimal for cochlear implant recipients. Using the cochlear implant optimised gain function, a 27% improvement over the current advanced combination encoder (ACE) stimulation strategy in speech weighted noise and a 7% improvement over current noise reduction strategies were observed in babble noise conditions. The optimized gain function was also most preferred by cochlear implant recipients. The CI specific gain function derived from this study can be easily incorporated into existing noise reduction strategies, to further improve listening performance for CI recipients in challenging environments.

  14. Intracochlear assessment of electrode position after cochlear implant surgery by means of multislice computer tomography.

    PubMed

    van Wermeskerken, Gijs K A; Prokop, Mathias; van Olphen, Adriaan F; Albers, Frans W J

    2007-12-01

    The development of electrode arrays, the past years, has focused on modiolus-hugging cochlear implant electrodes. Besides, atraumatic implantation of electrodes is of importance for the use in hearing preservation, in cases of combined electric and acoustic stimulation. Intracochlear positioning of the individual electrodes by means of multislice computer tomography (CT) has not yet been shown. In this study we formulated and tested a CT imaging protocol for postoperative scanning of the temporal bone in cochlear implant subjects. Both a fresh human temporal bone and a fresh human cadaver head were implanted with a cochlear implant. Multislice CT was performed for adequate depiction of the cochlear implant. All scans were analyzed on a viewing workstation. After mid-modiolar reconstruction we were able to identify the intracochlear electrode position relative to the scala tympani and scala vestibuli. This was possible in both the implanted isolated temporal bone and the fresh human cadaver head. The feasibility of imaging the electrode position of the cochlear implant within the intracochlear spaces is shown with multislice CT. An imaging protocol is suggested. PMID:17632730

  15. Perception of Binaural Cues Develops in Children Who Are Deaf through Bilateral Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Karen A.; Deighton, Michael R.; Abbasalipour, Parvaneh; Papsin, Blake C.

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges to restoring binaural hearing to children who have been deaf from an early age. The uncoordinated and poor temporal information available from cochlear implants distorts perception of interaural timing differences normally important for sound localization and listening in noise. Moreover, binaural development can be compromised by bilateral and unilateral auditory deprivation. Here, we studied perception of both interaural level and timing differences in 79 children/adolescents using bilateral cochlear implants and 16 peers with normal hearing. They were asked on which side of their head they heard unilaterally or bilaterally presented click- or electrical pulse- trains. Interaural level cues were identified by most participants including adolescents with long periods of unilateral cochlear implant use and little bilateral implant experience. Interaural timing cues were not detected by new bilateral adolescent users, consistent with previous evidence. Evidence of binaural timing detection was, for the first time, found in children who had much longer implant experience but it was marked by poorer than normal sensitivity and abnormally strong dependence on current level differences between implants. In addition, children with prior unilateral implant use showed a higher proportion of responses to their first implanted sides than children implanted simultaneously. These data indicate that there are functional repercussions of developing binaural hearing through bilateral cochlear implants, particularly when provided sequentially; nonetheless, children have an opportunity to use these devices to hear better in noise and gain spatial hearing. PMID:25531107

  16. Social Media Utilization in the Cochlear Implant Community

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rajeev C.; Lehmann, Ashton E.; Hight, A. Ed; Darrow, Keith; Remenschneider, Aaron; Kozin, Elliott D.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than 200,000 individuals worldwide have received a cochlear implant (CI). Social media Websites may provide a paramedical community for those who possess or are interested in a CI. The utilization patterns of social media by the CI community, however, have not been thoroughly investigated. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate participation of the CI community in social media Websites. Research Design We conducted a systematic survey of online CI-related social media sources. Using standard search engines, the search terms cochlear implant, auditory implant, forum, and blog identified relevant social media platforms and Websites. Social media participation was quantified by indices of membership and posts. Study Sample Social media sources included Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, blogs, and online forums. Each source was assigned one of six functional categories based on its description. Intervention No intervention was performed. Data Collection and Analysis We conducted all online searches in February 2014. Total counts of each CI-related social media source were summed, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results More than 350 sources were identified, including 60 Facebook groups, 36 Facebook pages, 48 Twitter accounts, 121 YouTube videos, 13 forums, and 95 blogs. The most active online communities were Twitter accounts, which totaled 35,577 members, and Facebook groups, which totaled 17,971 members. CI users participated in Facebook groups primarily for general information/support (68%). Online forums were the next most active online communities by membership. The largest forum contained approximately 9,500 topics with roughly 127,000 posts. CI users primarily shared personal stories through blogs (92%), Twitter (71%), and YouTube (62%). Conclusions The CI community engages in the use of a wide range of online social media sources. The CI community uses social media for support, advocacy, rehabilitation information, research

  17. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    PubMed

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  18. Music Perception Ability of Korean Adult Cochlear Implant Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunoak; Lee, Hyo-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although the cochlear implant (CI) is successful for understanding speech in patients with severe to profound hearing loss, listening to music is a challenging task to most CI listeners. The purpose of this study was to assess music perception ability and to provide clinically useful information regarding CI rehabilitation. Methods Ten normal hearing and ten CI listeners with implant experience, ranging 2 to 6 years, participated in the subtests of pitch, rhythm, melody, and instrument. A synthesized piano tone was used as musical stimuli. Participants were asked to discriminate two different tones during the pitch subtest. The rhythm subtest was constructed with sets of five, six, and seven intervals. The melody & instrument subtests assessed recognition of eight familiar melodies and five musical instruments from a closed set, respectively. Results CI listeners performed significantly poorer than normal hearing listeners in pitch, melody, and instrument identification tasks. No significant differences were observed in rhythm recognition between groups. Correlations were not found between music perception ability and word recognition scores. Conclusion The results are consistent with previous studies that have shown that pitch, melody, and instrument identifications are difficult to identify for CI users. Our results can provide fundamental information concerning the development of CI rehabilitation tools. PMID:22701773

  19. Concept Formation Skills in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G.; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e., language, working memory, and executive control). Relative to normally hearing (NH) peers, CI users displayed significantly poorer performance in several specific areas of concept formation, especially when multiple comparisons and relational concepts were components of the task. Differences in concept formation between CI users and NH peers were fully explained by differences in language and inhibition–concentration skills. Language skills were also found to be more strongly related to concept formation in CI users than in NH peers. The present findings suggest that complex relational concepts may be adversely affected by a period of early prelingual deafness followed by access to underspecified and degraded sound patterns and spoken language transmitted by a CI. Investigating a unique clinical population such as early-implanted prelingually deaf children with CIs can provide new insights into foundational brain–behavior relations and developmental processes. PMID:25583706

  20. Concept formation skills in long-term cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Colson, Bethany G; Henning, Shirley C; Ditmars, Allison; Pisoni, David B

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if a period of auditory sensory deprivation followed by degraded auditory input and related language delays affects visual concept formation skills in long-term prelingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users. We also examined if concept formation skills are mediated or moderated by other neurocognitive domains (i.e., language, working memory, and executive control). Relative to normally hearing (NH) peers, CI users displayed significantly poorer performance in several specific areas of concept formation, especially when multiple comparisons and relational concepts were components of the task. Differences in concept formation between CI users and NH peers were fully explained by differences in language and inhibition-concentration skills. Language skills were also found to be more strongly related to concept formation in CI users than in NH peers. The present findings suggest that complex relational concepts may be adversely affected by a period of early prelingual deafness followed by access to underspecified and degraded sound patterns and spoken language transmitted by a CI. Investigating a unique clinical population such as early-implanted prelingually deaf children with CIs can provide new insights into foundational brain-behavior relations and developmental processes.

  1. Speech Perception in Noise by Children With Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Amanda; Nittrouer, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Common wisdom suggests that listening in noise poses disproportionately greater difficulty for listeners with cochlear implants (CIs) than for peers with normal hearing (NH). The purpose of this study was to examine phonological, language, and cognitive skills that might help explain speech-in-noise abilities for children with CIs. Method Three groups of kindergartners (NH, hearing aid wearers, and CI users) were tested on speech recognition in quiet and noise and on tasks thought to underlie the abilities that fit into the domains of phonological awareness, general language, and cognitive skills. These last measures were used as predictor variables in regression analyses with speech-in-noise scores as dependent variables. Results Compared to children with NH, children with CIs did not perform as well on speech recognition in noise or on most other measures, including recognition in quiet. Two surprising results were that (a) noise effects were consistent across groups and (b) scores on other measures did not explain any group differences in speech recognition. Conclusions Limitations of implant processing take their primary toll on recognition in quiet and account for poor speech recognition and language/phonological deficits in children with CIs. Implications are that teachers/clinicians need to teach language/phonology directly and maximize signal-to-noise levels in the classroom. PMID:22744138

  2. Simultaneous Communication and Cochlear Implants in the Classroom?

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Helen C.; Marschark, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential of simultaneous communication (sign and speech together) to support classroom learning by college students who use cochlear implants (CIs). Metacognitive awareness of learning also was evaluated. A within-subjects design involving 40 implant users indicated that the student participants learned significantly more when material was presented via simultaneous communication than spoken language overall, but a statistical interaction indicated that the difference held only with more difficult material. Learning in the speech-only condition was positively related to the students’ spoken language skills, their confidence with spoken language, and their receptive simultaneous communication skills. Learning in that condition was negatively related to the age at which the participants learned to sign. Findings were interpreted to indicate that simultaneous communication can be beneficial for classroom learning by college students with CIs, at least with more complex material or when information redundancy is otherwise important. Further research is needed to determine who is likely to benefit in what settings. PMID:26401119

  3. Sirviendo a los estudiantes sordos que tienen Los implantes cocleares. Hoja de consejos de PEPNet (Serving Deaf Students Who Have Cochlear Implants. PEPNet Tipsheet)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This version of "Serving Deaf Students Who Have Cochlear Implants. PEPNet Tipsheet," written in Spanish, describes how cochlear implants (CIs) work. CIs are complex electronic devices surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear. These devices utilize electrodes placed in the inner ear (the cochlea) to stimulate the auditory nerve of…

  4. Cochlear Implantation in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 and Patients with Vestibular Schwannoma in the Only Hearing Ear

    PubMed Central

    Celis-Aguilar, Erika; Lassaletta, Luis; Gavilán, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implants are a new surgical option in the hearing rehabilitation of patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) in the only hearing ear. Auditory brainstem implant (ABI) has been the standard surgical treatment for these patients. We performed a literature review of patients with NF2 and patients with VS in the only hearing ear. Cochlear implantation (CI) provided some auditory benefit in all patients. Preservation of cochlear nerve integrity is crucial after VS resection. Results ranged from environmental sound awareness to excellent benefit with telephone use. Promontory stimulation is recommended although not crucial. MRI can be performed safely in cochlear implanted patients. PMID:22518152

  5. The Development of the Nucleus® Freedom™ Cochlear Implant System

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, James F.; Busby, Peter A.; Gibson, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear Limited (Cochlear™) released the fourth-generation cochlear implant system, Nucleus® Freedom™, in 2005. Freedom is based on 25 years of experience in cochlear implant research and development and incorporates advances in medicine, implantable materials, electronic technology, and sound coding. This article presents the development of Cochlear's implant systems, with an overview of the first 3 generations, and details of the Freedom system: the CI24RE receiver-stimulator, the Contour Advance™ electrode, the modular Freedom processor, the available speech coding strategies, the input processing options of SmartSound™ to improve the signal before coding as electrical signals, and the programming software. Preliminary results from multicenter studies with the Freedom system are reported, demonstrating better levels of performance compared with the previous systems. The final section presents the most recent implant reliability data, with the early findings at 18 months showing improved reliability of the Freedom implant compared with the earlier Nucleus 3 System. Also reported are some of the findings of Cochlear's collaborative research programs to improve recipient outcomes. Included are studies showing the benefits from bilateral implants, electroacoustic stimulation using an ipsilateral and/or contralateral hearing aid, advanced speech coding, and streamlined speech processor programming. PMID:17172547

  6. Electrically Evoked Auditory Steady State Responses in Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Auditory steady state responses are neural potentials in response to repeated auditory stimuli. This study shows that electrically evoked auditory steady state responses (EASSRs) to low-rate pulse trains can be reliably recorded by electrodes placed on the scalp of a cochlear implant (CI) user and separated from the artifacts generated by the electrical stimulation. Response properties are described, and the predictive value of EASSRs for behaviorally hearing thresholds is analyzed. For six users of a Cochlear Nucleus CI, EASSRs to symmetric biphasic pulse trains with rates between 35 and 47 Hz were recorded with seven scalp electrodes. The influence of various stimulus parameters was assessed: pulse rate, stimulus intensity, monopolar or bipolar stimulation mode, and presentation of either one pulse train on one electrode or interleaved pulse trains with different pulse rates on multiple electrodes. To compensate for the electrical artifacts caused by the stimulus pulses and radio frequency transmission, different methods of artifact reduction were employed. The validity of the recorded responses was confirmed by recording on–off responses, determination of response latency across the measured pulse rates, and comparison of amplitude growth of stimulus artifact and response amplitude. For stimulation in the 40 Hz range, response latencies of 35.6 ms (SD = 5.3 ms) were obtained. Responses to multiple simultaneous stimuli on different electrodes can be evoked, and the electrophysiological thresholds determined from EASSR amplitude growth in the 40 Hz range correlate well with behaviorally determined threshold levels for pulse rates of 41 Hz. PMID:20033246

  7. Multisensory Training Improves Auditory Spatial Processing following Bilateral Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Isaiah, Amal; Vongpaisal, Tara; King, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore hearing to the deaf by directly stimulating the inner ear. In individuals fitted with CIs, lack of auditory experience due to loss of hearing before language acquisition can adversely impact outcomes. For example, adults with early-onset hearing loss generally do not integrate inputs from both ears effectively when fitted with bilateral CIs (BiCIs). Here, we used an animal model to investigate the effects of long-term deafness on auditory localization with BiCIs and approaches for promoting the use of binaural spatial cues. Ferrets were deafened either at the age of hearing onset or as adults. All animals were implanted in adulthood, either unilaterally or bilaterally, and were subsequently assessed for their ability to localize sound in the horizontal plane. The unilaterally implanted animals were unable to perform this task, regardless of the duration of deafness. Among animals with BiCIs, early-onset hearing loss was associated with poor auditory localization performance, compared with late-onset hearing loss. However, performance in the early-deafened group with BiCIs improved significantly after multisensory training with interleaved auditory and visual stimuli. We demonstrate a possible neural substrate for this by showing a training-induced improvement in the responsiveness of auditory cortical neurons and in their sensitivity to interaural level differences, the principal localization cue available to BiCI users. Importantly, our behavioral and physiological evidence demonstrates a facilitative role for vision in restoring auditory spatial processing following potential cross-modal reorganization. These findings support investigation of a similar training paradigm in human CI users. PMID:25122908

  8. Visual Cross-Modal Re-Organization in Children with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual cross-modal re-organization is a neurophysiological process that occurs in deafness. The intact sensory modality of vision recruits cortical areas from the deprived sensory modality of audition. Such compensatory plasticity is documented in deaf adults and animals, and is related to deficits in speech perception performance in cochlear-implanted adults. However, it is unclear whether visual cross-modal re-organization takes place in cochlear-implanted children and whether it may be a source of variability contributing to speech and language outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if visual cross-modal re-organization occurs in cochlear-implanted children, and whether it is related to deficits in speech perception performance. Methods Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded via high-density EEG in 41 normal hearing children and 14 cochlear-implanted children, aged 5–15 years, in response to apparent motion and form change. Comparisons of VEP amplitude and latency, as well as source localization results, were conducted between the groups in order to view evidence of visual cross-modal re-organization. Finally, speech perception in background noise performance was correlated to the visual response in the implanted children. Results Distinct VEP morphological patterns were observed in both the normal hearing and cochlear-implanted children. However, the cochlear-implanted children demonstrated larger VEP amplitudes and earlier latency, concurrent with activation of right temporal cortex including auditory regions, suggestive of visual cross-modal re-organization. The VEP N1 latency was negatively related to speech perception in background noise for children with cochlear implants. Conclusion Our results are among the first to describe cross modal re-organization of auditory cortex by the visual modality in deaf children fitted with cochlear implants. Our findings suggest that, as a group, children with cochlear implants show

  9. Perception of environmental sounds by experienced cochlear implant patients

    PubMed Central

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Gygi, Brian; Cheng, Min-Yu; Vachhani, Jay; Mulvey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Environmental sound perception serves an important ecological function by providing listeners with information about objects and events in their immediate environment. Environmental sounds such as car horns, baby cries or chirping birds can alert listeners to imminent dangers as well as contribute to one's sense of awareness and well being. Perception of environmental sounds as acoustically and semantically complex stimuli, may also involve some factors common to the processing of speech. However, very limited research has investigated the abilities of cochlear implant (CI) patients to identify common environmental sounds, despite patients' general enthusiasm about them. This project (1) investigated the ability of patients with modern-day CIs to perceive environmental sounds, (2) explored associations among speech, environmental sounds and basic auditory abilities, and (3) examined acoustic factors that might be involved in environmental sound perception. Design Seventeen experienced postlingually-deafened CI patients participated in the study. Environmental sound perception was assessed with a large-item test composed of 40 sound sources, each represented by four different tokens. The relationship between speech and environmental sound perception, and the role of working memory and some basic auditory abilities were examined based on patient performance on a battery of speech tests (HINT, CNC, and individual consonant and vowel tests), tests of basic auditory abilities (audiometric thresholds, gap detection, temporal pattern and temporal order for tones tests) and a backward digit recall test. Results The results indicated substantially reduced ability to identify common environmental sounds in CI patients (45.3%). Except for vowels, all speech test scores significantly correlated with the environmental sound test scores: r = 0.73 for HINT in quiet, r = 0.69 for HINT in noise, r = 0.70 for CNC, r = 0.64 for consonants and r = 0.48 for vowels. HINT and

  10. Automatic segmentation of intra-cochlear anatomy in post-implantation CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Fitsum A.; Dawant, Benoit M.; McRackan, Theodore R.; Labadie, Robert F.; Noble, Jack H.

    2013-03-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a neural prosthetic device that restores hearing by directly stimulating the auditory nerve with an electrode array. In CI surgery, the surgeon threads the electrode array into the cochlea, blind to internal structures. We have recently developed algorithms for determining the position of CI electrodes relative to intra-cochlear anatomy using pre- and post-implantation CT. We are currently using this approach to develop a CI programming assistance system that uses knowledge of electrode position to determine a patient-customized CI sound processing strategy. However, this approach cannot be used for the majority of CI users because the cochlea is obscured by image artifacts produced by CI electrodes and acquisition of pre-implantation CT is not universal. In this study we propose an approach that extends our techniques so that intra-cochlear anatomy can be segmented for CI users for which pre-implantation CT was not acquired. The approach achieves automatic segmentation of intra-cochlear anatomy in post-implantation CT by exploiting intra-subject symmetry in cochlear anatomy across ears. We validated our approach on a dataset of 10 ears in which both pre- and post-implantation CTs were available. Our approach results in mean and maximum segmentation errors of 0.27 and 0.62 mm, respectively. This result suggests that our automatic segmentation approach is accurate enough for developing customized CI sound processing strategies for unilateral CI patients based solely on postimplantation CT scans.

  11. Cochlear Implant Microphone Location Affects Speech Recognition in Diffuse Noise

    PubMed Central

    Kolberg, Elizabeth R.; Sheffield, Sterling W.; Davis, Timothy J.; Sunderhaus, Linsey W.; Gifford, René H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite improvements in cochlear implants (CIs), CI recipients continue to experience significant communicative difficulty in background noise. Many potential solutions have been proposed to help increase signal-to-noise ratio in noisy environments, including signal processing and external accessories. To date, however, the effect of microphone location on speech recognition in noise has focused primarily on hearing aid users. Purpose The purpose of this study was to (1) measure physical output for the T-Mic as compared with the integrated behind-the-ear(BTE) processor mic for various source azimuths, and (2) to investigate the effect of CI processor mic location for speech recognition in semi-diffuse noise with speech originating from various source azimuths as encountered in everyday communicative environments. Research Design A repeated-measures, within-participant design was used to compare performance across listening conditions. Study Sample A total of 11 adults with Advanced Bionics CIs were recruited for this study. Data Collection and Analysis Physical acoustic output was measured on a Knowles Experimental Mannequin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) for the T-Mic and BTE mic, with broadband noise presented at 0 and 90° (directed toward the implant processor). In addition to physical acoustic measurements, we also assessed recognition of sentences constructed by researchers at Texas Instruments, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Stanford Research Institute (TIMIT sentences) at 60 dBA for speech source azimuths of 0, 90, and 270°. Sentences were presented in a semi-diffuse restaurant noise originating from the R-SPACE 8-loudspeaker array. Signal-to-noise ratio was determined individually to achieve approximately 50% correct in the unilateral implanted listening condition with speech at 0°. Performance was compared across the T-Mic, 50/50, and the integrated BTE processor mic. Results The integrated BTE mic provided approximately 5

  12. Cochlear Implantation in the Very Young Child: Issues Unique to the Under-1 Population

    PubMed Central

    Cosetti, Maura; Roland, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Since the advent of cochlear implantation, candidacy criteria have slowly broadened to include increasingly younger patients. Spurred by evidence demonstrating both perioperative safety and significantly increased speech and language benefit with early auditory intervention, children younger than 12 months of age are now being successfully implanted at many centers. This review highlights the unique challenges involved in cochlear implantation in the very young child, specifically diagnosis and certainty of testing, anesthetic risk, surgical technique, intraoperative testing and postoperative programming, long-term safety, development of receptive and expressive language, and outcomes of speech perception. Overall, the current body of literature indicates that cochlear implantation prior to 1 year of age is both safe and efficacious. PMID:20483813

  13. The Responses of Preschoolers with Cochlear Implants to Musical Activities: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraer-Joiner, Lyn E.; Chen-Hafteck, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the musical experiences of preschool cochlear implant users. Research objectives were to examine: (1) musical, social and emotional responses to activities; and (2) whether length of experience with the implant influenced responses. Participants were three prelingually deafened children, age 4,…

  14. Children's Development of Intonation during the First Year of Cochlear Implant Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the longitudinal development of intonation in 18 deaf children who received cochlear implants (CIs) before the age of 3 years and 12 infants with typical development (TD) who served as controls. At the time their implants were activated, the children with CIs ranged in age from 9 to 36 months. Cross-group comparisons were…

  15. Reading and Spelling Abilities of Deaf Adolescents with Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Margaret; Terlektsi, Emmanouela

    2011-01-01

    A total of 86 deaf children aged between 12 and 16 years were recruited from schools for the deaf, specialist units attached to a school, and mainstream schools. Approximately one-third used hearing aids, one-third had received a cochlear implant before 42 months, and one-third had been implanted later. The 3 subgroups were matched for age and…

  16. The Development of Falling Intonation in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of intonation in 12 cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In a previously reported study of the first year of CI use, children who were implanted late (after 24 months) acquired intonation more rapidly than the younger participants. The older children's advantage is plausibly owing to their greater maturity.…

  17. Great Expectations: Perspectives on Cochlear Implantation of Deaf Children in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonsen, Eva; Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Hyde, Mervyn B.; Hjulstad, Oddvar

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the use of cochlear implants with deaf children in Norway and examine how this intervention has raised new expectations and some tensions concerning the future of education for deaf students. They report on two studies of communication within school learning environments of young children with implants in Norwegian preschools…

  18. Characteristics of the Transition to Spoken Words in Two Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Inniger, Kelli J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation addressed two main questions: (a) How do toddlers' spoken utterances change during the first year of cochlear implant (CI) use? and (b) How do the time-courses for reaching spoken word milestones after implant activation compare with those reported for typically developing children? These questions were explored to…

  19. Expected Test Scores for Preschoolers with a Cochlear Implant Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; Geers, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The major purpose of this study was to provide information about expected spoken language skills of preschool-age children who are deaf and who use a cochlear implant. A goal was to provide "benchmarks" against which those skills could be compared, for a given age at implantation. We also examined whether parent-completed checklists of…

  20. Mothers' Stress and Expectations as a Function of Time since Child's Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisel, Amatzia; Most, Tova; Michael, Rinat

    2007-01-01

    This study examined stress, attitudes, and expectations among mothers of deaf children who underwent cochlear implantation (CI), as related to time elapsed since surgery. Participants were 64 mothers of such children at different points in the implantation process: candidates, 0-3 years postimplantation, and more than 3 years later. Expectations…

  1. Children with Cochlear Implants and Complex Needs: A Review of Outcome Research and Psychological Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lindsay C.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the number of children receiving cochlear implants who have significant disabilities in addition to their deafness has increased substantially. However, in comparison with the extensive literature on speech, language, and communication outcomes following pediatric implantation in children without complex needs, the available…

  2. Peer Relationships of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Predictors of Peer Entry and Peer Interaction Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daniela; Bat-Chava, Yael; Lalwani, Anil; Waltzman, Susan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that affect the development of positive peer relationships among deaf children with cochlear implants. Ten 5- to 6-year-old deaf children with implants were observed under conditions varying peer context difficulty in a Peer Entry task. Results revealed better outcomes for deaf children interacting in one-on-one…

  3. Influence of early linguistic experience on regional dialect categorization by an adult cochlear implant user: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tamati, Terrin N; Gilbert, Jaimie L; Pisoni, David B

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the ability of a cochlear implant user to categorize talkers by region of origin and examine the influence of prior linguistic experience on the perception of regional dialect variation. A postlingually deafened adult cochlear implant user from the Southern region of the United States completed a six-alternative forced-choice dialect categorization task. The cochlear implant user was most accurate at categorizing unfamiliar talkers from his own region and another familiar dialect region, and least accurate at categorizing talkers from less familiar regions. Although the dialect-specific information made available by a cochlear implant may be degraded compared with information available to normal-hearing listeners, this experienced cochlear implant user was able to reliably categorize unfamiliar talkers by region of origin. The participant made use of dialect-specific acoustic-phonetic information in the speech signal and previously stored knowledge of regional dialect differences from early exposure before implantation despite an early hearing loss.

  4. EEG frontal asymmetry related to pleasantness of music perception in healthy children and cochlear implanted users.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, G; Maglione, A G; Scorpecci, A; Malerba, P; Marsella, P; Di Francesco, G; Vitiello, S; Colosimo, A; Babiloni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Interestingly, the international debate about the quality of music fruition for cochlear implanted users does not take into account the hypothesis that bilateral users could perceive music in a more pleasant way with respect to monolateral users. In this scenario, the aim of the present study was to investigate if cerebral signs of pleasantness during music perception in healthy child are similar to those observed in monolateral and in bilateral cochlear implanted users. In fact, previous observations in literature on healthy subjects have indicated that variations of the frontal EEG alpha activity are correlated with the perceived pleasantness of the sensory stimulation received (approach-withdrawal theory). In particular, here we described differences between cortical activities estimated in the alpha frequency band for a healthy child and in patients having a monolateral or a bilateral cochlear implant during the fruition of a musical cartoon. The results of the present analysis showed that the alpha EEG asymmetry patterns observed in a healthy child and that of a bilateral cochlear implanted patient are congruent with the approach-withdrawal theory. Conversely, the scalp topographic distribution of EEG power spectra in the alpha band resulting from the monolateral cochlear user presents a different EEG pattern from the normal and bilateral implanted patients. Such differences could be explained at the light of the approach-withdrawal theory. In fact, the present findings support the hypothesis that a monolateral cochlear implanted user could perceive the music in a less pleasant way when compared to a healthy subject or to a bilateral cochlear user. PMID:23366987

  5. EEG frontal asymmetry related to pleasantness of music perception in healthy children and cochlear implanted users.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, G; Maglione, A G; Scorpecci, A; Malerba, P; Marsella, P; Di Francesco, G; Vitiello, S; Colosimo, A; Babiloni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Interestingly, the international debate about the quality of music fruition for cochlear implanted users does not take into account the hypothesis that bilateral users could perceive music in a more pleasant way with respect to monolateral users. In this scenario, the aim of the present study was to investigate if cerebral signs of pleasantness during music perception in healthy child are similar to those observed in monolateral and in bilateral cochlear implanted users. In fact, previous observations in literature on healthy subjects have indicated that variations of the frontal EEG alpha activity are correlated with the perceived pleasantness of the sensory stimulation received (approach-withdrawal theory). In particular, here we described differences between cortical activities estimated in the alpha frequency band for a healthy child and in patients having a monolateral or a bilateral cochlear implant during the fruition of a musical cartoon. The results of the present analysis showed that the alpha EEG asymmetry patterns observed in a healthy child and that of a bilateral cochlear implanted patient are congruent with the approach-withdrawal theory. Conversely, the scalp topographic distribution of EEG power spectra in the alpha band resulting from the monolateral cochlear user presents a different EEG pattern from the normal and bilateral implanted patients. Such differences could be explained at the light of the approach-withdrawal theory. In fact, the present findings support the hypothesis that a monolateral cochlear implanted user could perceive the music in a less pleasant way when compared to a healthy subject or to a bilateral cochlear user.

  6. Improving cochlear implant properties through conductive hydrogel coatings.

    PubMed

    Hassarati, Rachelle T; Dueck, Wolfram F; Tasche, Claudia; Carter, Paul M; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Green, Rylie A

    2014-03-01

    Conductive hydrogel (CH) coatings for biomedical electrodes have shown considerable promise in improving electrode mechanical and charge transfer properties. While they have desirable properties as a bulk material, there is limited understanding of how these properties translate to a microelectrode array. This study evaluated the performance of CH coatings applied to Nucleus Contour Advance cochlear electrode arrays. Cyclic voltammetry and biphasic stimulation were carried out to determine electrical properties of the coated arrays. Electrical testing demonstrated that CH coatings supported up to 24 times increase in charge injection limit. Reduced impedance was also maintained for over 1 billion stimulations without evidence of delamination or degradation. Mechanical studies performed showed negligible effect of the coating on the pre-curl structure of the Contour Advance arrays. Testing the coating in a model human scala tympani confirmed that adequate contact was maintained across the lateral wall. CH coatings are a viable, stable coating for improving electrical properties of the platinum arrays while imparting a softer material interface to reduce mechanical mismatch. Ultimately, these coatings may act to minimize scar tissue formation and fluid accumulation around electrodes and thus improve the electrical performance of neural implants.

  7. MUSIC APPRECIATION AND TRAINING FOR COCHLEAR IMPLANT RECIPIENTS: A REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Looi, Valerie; Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in music perception of cochlear implant (CI) recipients, and a growing body of research conducted in this area. The majority of these studies have examined perceptual accuracy for pitch, rhythm, and timbre. Another important, but less commonly studied aspect of music listening is appreciation, or appraisal. Despite the ongoing research into potential technological improvements that may improve music perception for recipients, both perceptual accuracy and appreciation generally remain poor for most recipients. Whilst perceptual accuracy for music is important, appreciation and enjoyment also warrants research as it also contributes to clinical outcomes and perceived benefits. Music training is being shown to offer excellent potential for improving music perception and appreciation for recipients.Therefore, the primary topics of this review are music appreciation and training. However, a brief overview of the psychoacoustic, technical, and physiological factors associated with a recipient's perception of music is provided, as these are important factors in understanding the listening experience for CI recipients. The purpose of this review is to summarize key papers that have investigated these issues, in order to demonstrate that i) music enjoyment and appraisal is an important and valid consideration in evaluating music outcomes for recipients, and ii) that music training can improve music listening for many recipients, and is something that can be offered to persons using current technology. PMID:23459244

  8. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed.

  9. Sparse Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Strategy for Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongmei; Lutman, Mark E; Ewert, Stephan D; Li, Guoping; Bleeck, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Current cochlear implant (CI) strategies carry speech information via the waveform envelope in frequency subbands. CIs require efficient speech processing to maximize information transfer to the brain, especially in background noise, where the speech envelope is not robust to noise interference. In such conditions, the envelope, after decomposition into frequency bands, may be enhanced by sparse transformations, such as nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Here, a novel CI processing algorithm is described, which works by applying NMF to the envelope matrix (envelopogram) of 22 frequency channels in order to improve performance in noisy environments. It is evaluated for speech in eight-talker babble noise. The critical sparsity constraint parameter was first tuned using objective measures and then evaluated with subjective speech perception experiments for both normal hearing and CI subjects. Results from vocoder simulations with 10 normal hearing subjects showed that the algorithm significantly enhances speech intelligibility with the selected sparsity constraints. Results from eight CI subjects showed no significant overall improvement compared with the standard advanced combination encoder algorithm, but a trend toward improvement of word identification of about 10 percentage points at +15 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was observed in the eight CI subjects. Additionally, a considerable reduction of the spread of speech perception performance from 40% to 93% for advanced combination encoder to 80% to 100% for the suggested NMF coding strategy was observed. PMID:26721919

  10. Telephone Usage and Cochlear Implant: Auditory Training Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Aline Faria de; Carvalho, Ana Claudia Martinho de; Couto, Maria Ines Vieira; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Matas, Carla Gentile; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties with telephone use by adult users of cochlear implants (CIs) are reported as a limitation in daily life. Studies to improve the speech understanding of CI users on the telephone are scarce in the Brazilian scientific literature. Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a training program of auditory abilities on the telephone for an adult CI user. Resumed Report The subject was a 55-year-old woman with a degree in accounting who used a CI for 24 months. The program consisted of three stages: pretraining evaluation, eight sessions of advanced auditory abilities training, and post-training evaluation. Auditory abilities with CI were evaluated before and after training in three conditions: sound field, telephone with the speech processor in the microphone function, and telephone with the speech processor in the telecoil function. Speech recognition was assessed by three different lists: one with monosyllabic and dissyllabic words, another with nonsense syllables, and another one with sentences. The Client Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI) was used to assess whether the needs established by the CI user in everyday telephone use situations improved after training. The auditory abilities training resulted in a relevant improvement in the percentage of correct answers in speech tests both in the telephone use conditions and in the sound field condition. Conclusion The results obtained with the COSI inventory indicated a performance improvement in all situations presented at the beginning of the program. PMID:26157504

  11. Binaural interference in bilateral cochlear-implant listeners.

    PubMed

    Best, Virginia; Laback, Bernhard; Majdak, Piotr

    2011-11-01

    This work was aimed at determining whether binaural interference occurs in electric hearing, and if so, whether it occurs as a consequence of perceptual grouping (central explanation) or if it is related to the spread of excitation in the cochlea (peripheral explanation). Six bilateral cochlear-implant listeners completed a series of experiments in which they judged the lateral position of a target pulse train, lateralized via interaural time or level differences, in the presence of an interfering diotic pulse train. The target and interferer were presented at widely separated electrode pairs (one basal and one apical). The results are broadly similar to those reported for acoustic hearing. All listeners but one showed significant binaural interference in at least one of the stimulus conditions. In all cases of interference, a robust recovery was observed when the interferer was presented as part of an ongoing stream of identical pulse trains, suggesting that the interference was at least partly centrally mediated. Overall, the results suggest that both simultaneous and sequential grouping mechanisms operate in electric hearing, at least for stimuli with a wide tonotopic separation. PMID:22087922

  12. Sparse Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Strategy for Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Lutman, Mark E.; Ewert, Stephan D.; Li, Guoping; Bleeck, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Current cochlear implant (CI) strategies carry speech information via the waveform envelope in frequency subbands. CIs require efficient speech processing to maximize information transfer to the brain, especially in background noise, where the speech envelope is not robust to noise interference. In such conditions, the envelope, after decomposition into frequency bands, may be enhanced by sparse transformations, such as nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Here, a novel CI processing algorithm is described, which works by applying NMF to the envelope matrix (envelopogram) of 22 frequency channels in order to improve performance in noisy environments. It is evaluated for speech in eight-talker babble noise. The critical sparsity constraint parameter was first tuned using objective measures and then evaluated with subjective speech perception experiments for both normal hearing and CI subjects. Results from vocoder simulations with 10 normal hearing subjects showed that the algorithm significantly enhances speech intelligibility with the selected sparsity constraints. Results from eight CI subjects showed no significant overall improvement compared with the standard advanced combination encoder algorithm, but a trend toward improvement of word identification of about 10 percentage points at +15 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was observed in the eight CI subjects. Additionally, a considerable reduction of the spread of speech perception performance from 40% to 93% for advanced combination encoder to 80% to 100% for the suggested NMF coding strategy was observed. PMID:26721919

  13. Phonetic context effects in adult listeners with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravamudhan, Radhika; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    From previous studies it is known that normal-hearing (NH) listeners have the ability to compensate for the acoustic variability present in speech through context-dependent perception of speech sounds. One question of practical and theoretical interest is whether listeners with cochlear implants (CI) also show context-dependent speech perception. Because of the lack of spectral resolution in the input, the representation of speech for CI listeners may differ from NH listeners, which may interfere with perceptual compensation. In a test of this prediction, adult postlingually deafened CI listeners did not demonstrate the contrastive context effects elicited from NH listeners for either /da/-/ga/ targets and /al/-/ar/ contexts or V targets and /b-b/-/d-d/ contexts. In contrast, as predicted by the good temporal resolution of the CI signal, CI listeners showed normal effects of vowel length on preceding glide-stop categorization. CI simulations with NH listeners were also performed for some of these context effects. The results support the view that spectral content of contexts largely determines their effect on target sounds, and that phonetic content does not play an essential role. In addition, the findings predict that CI listeners will have particular difficulty with heavily coarticulated speech. [Work sponsored by NIH and NSF.

  14. Comparison of Interaural Electrode Pairing Methods for Bilateral Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongmei; Dietz, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    In patients with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs), pairing matched interaural electrodes and stimulating them with the same frequency band is expected to facilitate binaural functions such as binaural fusion, localization, and spatial release from masking. Because clinical procedures typically do not include patient-specific interaural electrode pairing, it remains the case that each electrode is allocated to a generic frequency range, based simply on the electrode number. Two psychoacoustic techniques for determining interaurally paired electrodes have been demonstrated in several studies: interaural pitch comparison and interaural time difference (ITD) sensitivity. However, these two methods are rarely, if ever, compared directly. A third, more objective method is to assess the amplitude of the binaural interaction component (BIC) derived from electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses for different electrode pairings; a method has been demonstrated to be a potential candidate for bilateral CI users. Here, we tested all three measures in the same eight CI users. We found good correspondence between the electrode pair producing the largest BIC and the electrode pair producing the maximum ITD sensitivity. The correspondence between the pairs producing the largest BIC and the pitch-matched electrode pairs was considerably weaker, supporting the previously proposed hypothesis that whilst place pitch might adapt over time to accommodate mismatched inputs, sensitivity to ITDs does not adapt to the same degree.

  15. Musical FAVORS: Reintroducing music to adult cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Plant, Geoff

    2015-09-01

    Music represents a considerable challenge for many adult users of cochlear implants (CIs). Around half of adult CI users report that they do not find music enjoyable, and, in some cases, despite enhanced speech perception skills, this leads to considerable frustration and disappointment for the CI user. This paper presents suggestions to improve the musical experiences of deafened adults with CIs. Interviews with a number of adult CI users revealed that there were a number of factors which could lead to enhanced music experiences. The acronym FAVORS (familiar music, auditory-visual access, open-mindedness, and simple arrangements) summarizes the factors that have been identified, which can help CI users in their early music listening experiences. Each of these factors is discussed in detail, along with suggestions for how they can be used in therapy sessions. The use of a group approach (music focus groups) is also discussed and an overview of the approach and exercises used is presented. The importance of live music experiences is also discussed. PMID:26561887

  16. Preliminary investigation of CTH:YAG laser for cochlear implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Udayan K.; Pawel, Bruce R.; Potsic, William P.

    2000-05-01

    Cochlear implantation is a treatment for deafness that requires the surgical placement of electrodes within the cochlea, using a high-speed drill. While the drill is effective, the tip of the drill or the drill shaft may damage critical adjacent structures, such as the facial nerve. In addition, the narrow working spaces involved in this surgery make the drill a relatively cumbersome tool for such delicate work. The use of a flexible fiber to deliver the laser energy may make the surgery easier by allowing a more maneuverable instrument to access the region, while reducing the risk of injuring adjacent structures. We report our preliminary investigation of fiber delivery of CTH:YAG energy ((lambda) equals 2091 nm) for the purpose of bony ablation. A 550 micron diameter low-OH silica fiber was used to drill through up to 2.5 mm thick human temporal bone specimens. An average of 14 pulses was required for 1 mm thick bones, and an average of 33 pulses required to ablate 2 mm of bone. The holes drilled were precise, and showed limited adjacent tissue effect by gross and histopathologic evaluation. This work demonstrates the effective fiberoptic delivery of CTH:YAG energy for bone ablation. Further work is warranted to explore the clinical possibilities offered by this technique for precise bony ablation with limited adjacent tissue effect.

  17. MUSIC APPRECIATION AND TRAINING FOR COCHLEAR IMPLANT RECIPIENTS: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Looi, Valerie; Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in music perception of cochlear implant (CI) recipients, and a growing body of research conducted in this area. The majority of these studies have examined perceptual accuracy for pitch, rhythm, and timbre. Another important, but less commonly studied aspect of music listening is appreciation, or appraisal. Despite the ongoing research into potential technological improvements that may improve music perception for recipients, both perceptual accuracy and appreciation generally remain poor for most recipients. Whilst perceptual accuracy for music is important, appreciation and enjoyment also warrants research as it also contributes to clinical outcomes and perceived benefits. Music training is being shown to offer excellent potential for improving music perception and appreciation for recipients. Therefore, the primary topics of this review are music appreciation and training. However, a brief overview of the psychoacoustic, technical, and physiological factors associated with a recipient’s perception of music is provided, as these are important factors in understanding the listening experience for CI recipients. The purpose of this review is to summarize key papers that have investigated these issues, in order to demonstrate that i) music enjoyment and appraisal is an important and valid consideration in evaluating music outcomes for recipients, and ii) that music training can improve music listening for many recipients, and is something that can be offered to persons using current technology. PMID:23459244

  18. Comparison of Interaural Electrode Pairing Methods for Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    In patients with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs), pairing matched interaural electrodes and stimulating them with the same frequency band is expected to facilitate binaural functions such as binaural fusion, localization, and spatial release from masking. Because clinical procedures typically do not include patient-specific interaural electrode pairing, it remains the case that each electrode is allocated to a generic frequency range, based simply on the electrode number. Two psychoacoustic techniques for determining interaurally paired electrodes have been demonstrated in several studies: interaural pitch comparison and interaural time difference (ITD) sensitivity. However, these two methods are rarely, if ever, compared directly. A third, more objective method is to assess the amplitude of the binaural interaction component (BIC) derived from electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses for different electrode pairings; a method has been demonstrated to be a potential candidate for bilateral CI users. Here, we tested all three measures in the same eight CI users. We found good correspondence between the electrode pair producing the largest BIC and the electrode pair producing the maximum ITD sensitivity. The correspondence between the pairs producing the largest BIC and the pitch-matched electrode pairs was considerably weaker, supporting the previously proposed hypothesis that whilst place pitch might adapt over time to accommodate mismatched inputs, sensitivity to ITDs does not adapt to the same degree. PMID:26631108

  19. Sparse Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Strategy for Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongmei; Lutman, Mark E; Ewert, Stephan D; Li, Guoping; Bleeck, Stefan

    2015-12-30

    Current cochlear implant (CI) strategies carry speech information via the waveform envelope in frequency subbands. CIs require efficient speech processing to maximize information transfer to the brain, especially in background noise, where the speech envelope is not robust to noise interference. In such conditions, the envelope, after decomposition into frequency bands, may be enhanced by sparse transformations, such as nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Here, a novel CI processing algorithm is described, which works by applying NMF to the envelope matrix (envelopogram) of 22 frequency channels in order to improve performance in noisy environments. It is evaluated for speech in eight-talker babble noise. The critical sparsity constraint parameter was first tuned using objective measures and then evaluated with subjective speech perception experiments for both normal hearing and CI subjects. Results from vocoder simulations with 10 normal hearing subjects showed that the algorithm significantly enhances speech intelligibility with the selected sparsity constraints. Results from eight CI subjects showed no significant overall improvement compared with the standard advanced combination encoder algorithm, but a trend toward improvement of word identification of about 10 percentage points at +15 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was observed in the eight CI subjects. Additionally, a considerable reduction of the spread of speech perception performance from 40% to 93% for advanced combination encoder to 80% to 100% for the suggested NMF coding strategy was observed.

  20. Emotional Perception of Music in Children with Unilateral Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Shirvani, Sareh; Jafari, Zahra; Sheibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cochlear implantation (CI) improves language skills among children with hearing loss. However, children with CIs still fall short of fulfilling some other needs, including musical perception. This is often attributed to the biological, technological, and acoustic limitations of CIs. Emotions play a key role in the understanding and enjoyment of music. The present study aimed to investigate the emotional perception of music in children with bilaterally severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children with congenital severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs and 30 children with normal hearing participated in the study. The children’s emotional perceptions of music, as defined by Peretz (1998), were measured. Children were instructed to indicate happy or sad feelings fostered in them by the music by pointing to pictures of faces showing these emotions. Results: Children with CI obtained significantly lower scores than children with normal hearing, for both happy and sad items of music as well as in overall test scores (P<0.001). Furthermore, both in CI group (P=0.49) and the control one (P<0.001), the happy items were more often recognized correctly than the sad items. Conclusion: Hearing-impaired children with CIs had poorer emotional perception of music than their normal peers. Due to the importance of music in the development of language, cognitive and social interaction skills, aural rehabilitation programs for children with CIs should focus particularly on music. Furthermore, it is essential to enhance the quality of musical perception by improving the quality of implant prostheses. PMID:25320700

  1. Auditory Speech Perception Tests in Relation to the Coding Strategy in Cochlear Implant

    PubMed Central

    Bazon, Aline Cristine; Mantello, Erika Barioni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Isaac, Myriam de Lima; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo; Reis, Ana Cláudia Mirândola Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The objective of the evaluation of auditory perception of cochlear implant users is to determine how the acoustic signal is processed, leading to the recognition and understanding of sound. Objective  To investigate the differences in the process of auditory speech perception in individuals with postlingual hearing loss wearing a cochlear implant, using two different speech coding strategies, and to analyze speech perception and handicap perception in relation to the strategy used. Methods  This study is prospective cross-sectional cohort study of a descriptive character. We selected ten cochlear implant users that were characterized by hearing threshold by the application of speech perception tests and of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults. Results  There was no significant difference when comparing the variables subject age, age at acquisition of hearing loss, etiology, time of hearing deprivation, time of cochlear implant use and mean hearing threshold with the cochlear implant with the shift in speech coding strategy. There was no relationship between lack of handicap perception and improvement in speech perception in both speech coding strategies used. Conclusion  There was no significant difference between the strategies evaluated and no relation was observed between them and the variables studied. PMID:27413409

  2. Evidence of across-channel processing for spectral-ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Ho; Jones, Gary L; Drennan, Ward R; Jameyson, Elyse M; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2011-10-01

    Spectral-ripple discrimination has been used widely for psychoacoustical studies in normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and cochlear implant listeners. The present study investigated the perceptual mechanism for spectral-ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners. The main goal of this study was to determine whether cochlear implant listeners use a local intensity cue or global spectral shape for spectral-ripple discrimination. The effect of electrode separation on spectral-ripple discrimination was also evaluated. Results showed that it is highly unlikely that cochlear implant listeners depend on a local intensity cue for spectral-ripple discrimination. A phenomenological model of spectral-ripple discrimination, as an "ideal observer," showed that a perceptual mechanism based on discrimination of a single intensity difference cannot account for performance of cochlear implant listeners. Spectral modulation depth and electrode separation were found to significantly affect spectral-ripple discrimination. The evidence supports the hypothesis that spectral-ripple discrimination involves integrating information from multiple channels.

  3. Effects of a Word-Learning Training on Children With Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children with hearing loss who use cochlear implants demonstrate vocabulary delays when compared to their peers without hearing loss. These delays may be a result of deficient word-learning abilities; children with cochlear implants perform more poorly on rapid word-learning tasks than children with normal hearing. This study explored the malleability of rapid word learning of preschoolers with cochlear implants by evaluating the effects of a word-learning training on rapid word learning. A single-subject, multiple probe design across participants measured the impact of the training on children’s rapid word-learning performance. Participants included 5 preschool children with cochlear implants who had an expressive lexicon of less than 150 words. An investigator guided children to identify, repeat, and learn about unknown sets of words in 2-weekly sessions across 10 weeks. The probe measure, a rapid word-learning task with a different set of words than those taught during training, was collected in the baseline, training, and maintenance conditions. All participants improved their receptive rapid word-learning performance in the training condition. The functional relation indicates that the receptive rapid word-learning performance of children with cochlear implants is malleable. PMID:23981321

  4. Phonological systems of pediatric cochlear implant users: The acquisition of voicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Steven B.; Oglesbee, Eric N.; Kirk, Andrew K.; Krug, Joseph E.

    2005-04-01

    Although cochlear implants are primarily auditory prostheses, they have also demonstrated their usefulness as aids to speech production and the acquisition of spoken language in children. This presentation reports on research currently being conducted at the Indiana University Medical Center on the development of phonological systems by children with five or more years of cochlear implant use in English-speaking environments. Characteristics of the feature [voice] will be examined in children with cochlear implants and in two comparison groups: adults with normal hearing and children with normal hearing. Specific aspects of voicing to be discussed include characteristic error patterns, phonetic implementation of the voicing contrast, and phonetic implementation of neutralization of the voicing contrast. Much of the evidence obtained thus far indicates that voicing acquisition in children with cochlear implants is not radically different from that of children with normal hearing. Many differences between the systems of children with cochlear implants and the ambient system thus appear to reflect the children's age as much as their hearing status. [Work supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health to Indiana University: R01DC005594 and R03DC003852.

  5. Technological, biological, and acoustical constraints to music perception in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Limb, Charles J; Roy, Alexis T

    2014-02-01

    Despite advances in technology, the ability to perceive music remains limited for many cochlear implant users. This paper reviews the technological, biological, and acoustical constraints that make music an especially challenging stimulus for cochlear implant users, while highlighting recent research efforts to overcome these shortcomings. The limitations of cochlear implant devices, which have been optimized for speech comprehension, become evident when applied to music, particularly with regards to inadequate spectral, fine-temporal, and dynamic range representation. Beyond the impoverished information transmitted by the device itself, both peripheral and central auditory nervous system deficits are seen in the presence of sensorineural hearing loss, such as auditory nerve degeneration and abnormal auditory cortex activation. These technological and biological constraints to effective music perception are further compounded by the complexity of the acoustical features of music itself that require the perceptual integration of varying rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and timbral elements of sound. Cochlear implant users not only have difficulty perceiving spectral components individually (leading to fundamental disruptions in perception of pitch, melody, and harmony) but also display deficits with higher perceptual integration tasks required for music perception, such as auditory stream segregation. Despite these current limitations, focused musical training programs, new assessment methods, and improvements in the representation and transmission of the complex acoustical features of music through technological innovation offer the potential for significant advancements in cochlear implant-mediated music perception.

  6. Cochlear implant insertion forces in microdissected human cochlea to evaluate a prototype array.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Yann; Miroir, Mathieu; Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Sutter, Jasmine; Bensidhoum, Morad; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implant array insertion forces are potentially related to cochlear trauma. We compared these forces between a standard (Digisonic SP; Neurelec, Vallauris, France) and an array prototype (Neurelec) with a smaller diameter. The arrays were inserted by a mechatronic tool in 23 dissected human cochlea specimens exposing the basilar membrane. The array progression under the basilar membrane was filmed together with dynamic force measurements. Insertion force profiles and depth of insertion were compared. The recordings showed lower insertion forces beyond 270° of insertion and deeper insertions with the thin prototype array. This will potentially allow larger cochlear coverage with less trauma.

  7. The Development and Piloting of a Decision Aid for Parents Considering Sequential Bilateral Cochlear Implantation for Their Child with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Cyne; Smith, Andree Durieux; O'Connor, Annette; Benzies, Karen; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Angus, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    A decision aid for parents considering sequential bilateral cochlear implantation for their children with severe-to-profound hearing loss was developed using local and published evidence. Eight parents of children currently using one cochlear implant, who faced a decision regarding a second cochlear implant, and five clinicians involved in the…

  8. Insertion trauma and recovery of function after cochlear implantation: Evidence from objective functional measures.

    PubMed

    Pfingst, Bryan E; Hughes, Aaron P; Colesa, Deborah J; Watts, Melissa M; Strahl, Stefan B; Raphael, Yehoash

    2015-12-01

    Partial loss and subsequent recovery of cochlear implant function in the first few weeks following cochlear implant surgery has been observed in previous studies using psychophysical detection thresholds. In the current study, we explored this putative manifestation of insertion trauma using objective functional measures: electrically-evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude-growth functions (ECAP amplitude as a function of stimulus level). In guinea pigs implanted in a hearing ear with good post-implant hearing and good spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) survival, consistent patterns of ECAP functions were observed. The slopes of ECAP growth functions were moderately steep on the day of implant insertion, decreased to low levels over the first few days after implantation and then increased slowly over several weeks to reach a relatively stable level. In parallel, ECAP thresholds increased over time after implantation and then recovered, although more quickly, to a relatively stable low level as did thresholds for eliciting a facial twitch. Similar results were obtained in animals deafened but treated with an adenovirus with a neurotrophin gene insert that resulted in good SGN preservation. In contrast, in animals implanted in deaf ears that had relatively poor SGN survival, ECAP slopes reached low levels within a few days after implantation and remained low. These results are consistent with the idea that steep ECAP growth functions require a healthy population of auditory nerve fibers and that cochlear implant insertion trauma can temporarily impair the function of a healthy SGN population.

  9. Insertion trauma and recovery of function after cochlear implantation: Evidence from objective functional measures.

    PubMed

    Pfingst, Bryan E; Hughes, Aaron P; Colesa, Deborah J; Watts, Melissa M; Strahl, Stefan B; Raphael, Yehoash

    2015-12-01

    Partial loss and subsequent recovery of cochlear implant function in the first few weeks following cochlear implant surgery has been observed in previous studies using psychophysical detection thresholds. In the current study, we explored this putative manifestation of insertion trauma using objective functional measures: electrically-evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude-growth functions (ECAP amplitude as a function of stimulus level). In guinea pigs implanted in a hearing ear with good post-implant hearing and good spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) survival, consistent patterns of ECAP functions were observed. The slopes of ECAP growth functions were moderately steep on the day of implant insertion, decreased to low levels over the first few days after implantation and then increased slowly over several weeks to reach a relatively stable level. In parallel, ECAP thresholds increased over time after implantation and then recovered, although more quickly, to a relatively stable low level as did thresholds for eliciting a facial twitch. Similar results were obtained in animals deafened but treated with an adenovirus with a neurotrophin gene insert that resulted in good SGN preservation. In contrast, in animals implanted in deaf ears that had relatively poor SGN survival, ECAP slopes reached low levels within a few days after implantation and remained low. These results are consistent with the idea that steep ECAP growth functions require a healthy population of auditory nerve fibers and that cochlear implant insertion trauma can temporarily impair the function of a healthy SGN population. PMID:26209185

  10. Benefit of Wearing a Hearing Aid on the Unimplanted Ear in Adult Users of a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Camille C.; Tyler, Richard S.; Witt, Shelley A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to document performance of participants wearing a cochlear implant and hearing aid in opposite ears on speech-perception and localization tests. Twelve individuals who wore a cochlear implant and a hearing aid on contralateral ears were tested on their abilities to understand words in quiet and sentences in…

  11. Cochlear Implants. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement (May 4, 1988). Volume 7, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This paper reports the results of a Consensus Development Conference on Cochlear Implants sponsored by the National Institutes of Health to improve the hearing of children and adults with hearing impairments. The following questions are addressed: (1) Who is a suitable candidate for a cochlear implant? (2) What are the advantages and disadvantages…

  12. Exploring the Discourse on Communication Modality after Cochlear Implantation: A Foucauldian Analysis of Parents' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has…

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compatibility of the Polymer-based Cochlear Implant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Ho; Min, Kyou Sik; An, Soon Kwan; Jeong, Joon Soo; Jun, Sang Beom; Cho, Min Hyoung; Son, Young-Don; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we compared the magnetic resonance (MR) image artifacts caused by a conventional metal-based cochlear implant and a newly developed liquid crystal polymer (LCP)-based device. Methods The metal-based cochlear implant system (Nurobiosys Co.) was attached to side of the head of a subject and the LCP-based device was attached to opposite side. In both devices, alignment magnets were removed for safety. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a widely used 3.0 T and an ultra-high 7.0 T MRI machine. 3.0 and 7.0 T MR images were acquired using T1- and T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences, respectively. Results In the 3.0 T images, the metal-based device on the left side generated the significant amount of artifacts. The MR images in the proximity of the metal package were obscured by the artifacts in both axial and sagittal views. On the other hand, the MR images near the LCP-based device were relatively free from the artifacts and clearly showed the brain structures. 7.0 T MR images showed the more severe distortion in the both sides but the metal-based cochlear implant system caused a much larger obscure area than the LCP-based system. Conclusion The novel LCP-based cochlear implant provides a good MRI compatibility beyond present-day cochlear implants. Thus, MR images can be obtained from the subjects even with the implanted LCP-based neural prosthetic systems providing useful diagnostic information. Furthermore, it will be also useful for functional MRI studies of the auditory perception mechanism after cochlear implantations as well as for positron emission tomography-MRI hybrid imaging. PMID:22701769

  14. Perspectives of adults with cochlear implants on current CI services and daily life.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zheng Yen; Lamb, Brian; Harrigan, Suzanne; Archbold, Sue; Athalye, Sheetal; Allen, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on a survey and interviews carried out with adults who have gone through the cochlear implantation pathway. It explores their experiences of current services, the assessment process for implantation, and the impact on their daily lives, including views and experiences on communication, independence and confidence. It also explores, in today's financially challenging climate, their awareness of current funding issues and the value of their implant to them.

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Personal Digital Assistant-based Research Platform for Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hussnain; Lobo, Arthur P.; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, development, features, and clinical evaluation of a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based platform for cochlear implant research. This highly versatile and portable research platform allows researchers to design and perform complex experiments with cochlear implants manufactured by Cochlear Corporation with great ease and flexibility. The research platform includes a portable processor for implementing and evaluating novel speech processing algorithms, a stimulator unit which can be used for electrical stimulation and neurophysio-logic studies with animals, and a recording unit for collecting electroencephalogram/evoked potentials from human subjects. The design of the platform for real time and offline stimulation modes is discussed for electric-only and electric plus acoustic stimulation followed by results from an acute study with implant users for speech intelligibility in quiet and noisy conditions. The results are comparable with users’ clinical processor and very promising for undertaking chronic studies. PMID:23674422

  16. Relationships between speech production and speech perception skills in young cochlear-implant users.

    PubMed

    Tye-Murray, N; Spencer, L; Gilbert-Bedia, E

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between young cochlear-implant users' abilities to produce the speech features of nasality, voicing, duration, frication, and place of articulation and their abilities to utilize the features in three different perceptual conditions: audition-only, vision-only, and audition-plus-vision. Subjects were 23 prelingually deafened children who had at least 2 years of experience with a Cochlear Corporation Nucleus cochlear implant, and an average of 34 months. They completed both the production and perception version of the Children's Audio--visual Feature Test, which is comprised of ten consonant--vowel syllables. An information transmission analysis performed on the confusion matrices revealed that children produced the place of articulation fairly accurately and voicing, duration, and frication less accurately. Acoustic analysis indicated that voiced sounds were not distinguished from unvoiced sounds on the basis of voice onset time or syllabic duration. Subjects who were more likely to produce the place feature correctly were likely to have worn their cochlear implants for a greater length of time. Pearson correlations revealed that subjects who were most likely to hear the place of articulation, nasality, and voicing features in an audition-only condition were also most likely to speak these features correctly. Comparisons of test results collected longitudinally also revealed improvements in production of the features, probably as a result of cochlear-implant experience and/or maturation.

  17. Development and evaluation of the Nurotron 26-electrode cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Rebscher, Stephen J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Hongbin; Sun, Xiaoan; Yin, Li; Ping, Lichuan; Feng, Haihong; Yang, Shiming; Gong, Shusheng; Yang, Beibei; Kang, Hou-Yong; Gao, Na; Chi, Fanglu

    2015-04-01

    Although the cochlear implant has been widely acknowledged as the most successful neural prosthesis, only a fraction of hearing-impaired people who can potentially benefit from a cochlear implant have actually received one due to its limited awareness, accessibility, and affordability. To help overcome these limitations, a 26-electrode cochlear implant has been developed to receive China's Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approval in 2011 and Conformité Européenne (CE) Marking in 2012. The present article describes design philosophy, system specification, and technical verification of the Nurotron device, which includes advanced digital signal processing and 4 current sources with multiple amplitude resolutions that not only are compatible with perceptual capability but also allow interleaved or simultaneous stimulation. The article also presents 3-year longitudinal evaluation data from 60 human subjects who have received the Nurotron device. The objective measures show that electrode impedance decreased within the first month of device use, but was stable until a slight increase at the end of two years. The subjective loudness measures show that electric stimulation threshold was stable while the maximal comfort level increased over the 3 years. Mandarin sentence recognition increased from the pre-surgical 0%-correct score to a plateau of about 80% correct with 6-month use of the device. Both indirect and direct comparisons indicate indistinguishable performance differences between the Nurotron system and other commercially available devices. The present 26-electrode cochlear implant has already helped to lower the price of cochlear implantation in China and will likely contribute to increased cochlear implant access and success in the rest of the world. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .

  18. Development and evaluation of the Nurotron 26-electrode cochlear implant system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Rebscher, Stephen J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Hongbin; Sun, Xiaoan; Yin, Li; Ping, Lichuan; Feng, Haihong; Yang, Shiming; Gong, Shusheng; Yang, Beibei; Kang, Hou-Yong; Gao, Na; Chi, Fanglu

    2015-04-01

    Although the cochlear implant has been widely acknowledged as the most successful neural prosthesis, only a fraction of hearing-impaired people who can potentially benefit from a cochlear implant have actually received one due to its limited awareness, accessibility, and affordability. To help overcome these limitations, a 26-electrode cochlear implant has been developed to receive China's Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approval in 2011 and Conformité Européenne (CE) Marking in 2012. The present article describes design philosophy, system specification, and technical verification of the Nurotron device, which includes advanced digital signal processing and 4 current sources with multiple amplitude resolutions that not only are compatible with perceptual capability but also allow interleaved or simultaneous stimulation. The article also presents 3-year longitudinal evaluation data from 60 human subjects who have received the Nurotron device. The objective measures show that electrode impedance decreased within the first month of device use, but was stable until a slight increase at the end of two years. The subjective loudness measures show that electric stimulation threshold was stable while the maximal comfort level increased over the 3 years. Mandarin sentence recognition increased from the pre-surgical 0%-correct score to a plateau of about 80% correct with 6-month use of the device. Both indirect and direct comparisons indicate indistinguishable performance differences between the Nurotron system and other commercially available devices. The present 26-electrode cochlear implant has already helped to lower the price of cochlear implantation in China and will likely contribute to increased cochlear implant access and success in the rest of the world. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25281795

  19. OPA1-related auditory neuropathy: site of lesion and outcome of cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Roberta; Scimemi, Pietro; Cama, Elona; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Caporali, Leonardo; Liguori, Rocco; Magnavita, Vincenzo; Monteleone, Anna; Biscaro, Ariella; Arslan, Edoardo; Carelli, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Hearing impairment is the second most prevalent clinical feature after optic atrophy in dominant optic atrophy associated with mutations in the OPA1 gene. In this study we characterized the hearing dysfunction in OPA1-linked disorders and provided effective rehabilitative options to improve speech perception. We studied two groups of OPA1 subjects, one comprising 11 patients (seven males; age range 13–79 years) carrying OPA1 mutations inducing haploinsufficiency, the other, 10 subjects (three males; age range 5–58 years) carrying OPA1 missense mutations. Both groups underwent audiometric assessment with pure tone and speech perception evaluation, and otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem response recording. Cochlear potentials were recorded through transtympanic electrocochleography from the group of patients harbouring OPA1 missense mutations and were compared to recordings obtained from 20 control subjects with normal hearing and from 19 subjects with cochlear hearing loss. Eight patients carrying OPA1 missense mutations underwent cochlear implantation. Speech perception measures and electrically-evoked auditory nerve and brainstem responses were obtained after 1 year of cochlear implant use. Nine of 11 patients carrying OPA1 mutations inducing haploinsufficiency had normal hearing function. In contrast, all but one subject harbouring OPA1 missense mutations displayed impaired speech perception, abnormal brainstem responses and presence of otoacoustic emissions consistent with auditory neuropathy. In electrocochleography recordings, cochlear microphonic had enhanced amplitudes while summating potential showed normal latency and peak amplitude consistent with preservation of both outer and inner hair cell activities. After cancelling the cochlear microphonic, the synchronized neural response seen in both normally-hearing controls and subjects with cochlear hearing loss was replaced by a prolonged, low-amplitude negative potential that decreased in both

  20. OPA1-related auditory neuropathy: site of lesion and outcome of cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Rosamaria; Rossi, Roberta; Scimemi, Pietro; Cama, Elona; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Caporali, Leonardo; Liguori, Rocco; Magnavita, Vincenzo; Monteleone, Anna; Biscaro, Ariella; Arslan, Edoardo; Carelli, Valerio

    2015-03-01

    Hearing impairment is the second most prevalent clinical feature after optic atrophy in dominant optic atrophy associated with mutations in the OPA1 gene. In this study we characterized the hearing dysfunction in OPA1-linked disorders and provided effective rehabilitative options to improve speech perception. We studied two groups of OPA1 subjects, one comprising 11 patients (seven males; age range 13-79 years) carrying OPA1 mutations inducing haploinsufficiency, the other, 10 subjects (three males; age range 5-58 years) carrying OPA1 missense mutations. Both groups underwent audiometric assessment with pure tone and speech perception evaluation, and otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem response recording. Cochlear potentials were recorded through transtympanic electrocochleography from the group of patients harbouring OPA1 missense mutations and were compared to recordings obtained from 20 control subjects with normal hearing and from 19 subjects with cochlear hearing loss. Eight patients carrying OPA1 missense mutations underwent cochlear implantation. Speech perception measures and electrically-evoked auditory nerve and brainstem responses were obtained after 1 year of cochlear implant use. Nine of 11 patients carrying OPA1 mutations inducing haploinsufficiency had normal hearing function. In contrast, all but one subject harbouring OPA1 missense mutations displayed impaired speech perception, abnormal brainstem responses and presence of otoacoustic emissions consistent with auditory neuropathy. In electrocochleography recordings, cochlear microphonic had enhanced amplitudes while summating potential showed normal latency and peak amplitude consistent with preservation of both outer and inner hair cell activities. After cancelling the cochlear microphonic, the synchronized neural response seen in both normally-hearing controls and subjects with cochlear hearing loss was replaced by a prolonged, low-amplitude negative potential that decreased in both

  1. Gender categorization is abnormal in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christina D; Gaudrain, Etienne; Clarke, Jeanne N; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Free, Rolien H; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    In normal hearing (NH), the perception of the gender of a speaker is strongly affected by two anatomically related vocal characteristics: the fundamental frequency (F0), related to vocal pitch, and the vocal tract length (VTL), related to the height of the speaker. Previous studies on gender categorization in cochlear implant (CI) users found that performance was variable, with few CI users performing at the level of NH listeners. Data collected with recorded speech produced by multiple talkers suggests that CI users might rely more on F0 and less on VTL than NH listeners. However, because VTL cannot be accurately estimated from recordings, it is difficult to know how VTL contributes to gender categorization. In the present study, speech was synthesized to systematically vary F0, VTL, or both. Gender categorization was measured in CI users, as well as in NH participants listening to unprocessed (only synthesized) and vocoded (and synthesized) speech. Perceptual weights for F0 and VTL were derived from the performance data. With unprocessed speech, NH listeners used both cues (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 3.76, VTL = 5.56). With vocoded speech, NH listeners still made use of both cues but less efficiently (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 1.68, VTL = 0.63). CI users relied almost exclusively on F0 while VTL perception was profoundly impaired (normalized perceptual weight: F0 = 6.88, VTL = 0.59). As a result, CI users' gender categorization was abnormal compared to NH listeners. Future CI signal processing should aim to improve the transmission of both F0 cues and VTL cues, as a normal gender categorization may benefit speech understanding in competing talker situations.

  2. Musical training software for children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, W; Schinaia, L; Anzivino, R; De Corso, E; Ciacciarelli, A; Paludetti, G

    2015-10-01

    Although the voice in a free field has an excellent recruitment by a cochlear implant (CI), the situation is different for music because it is a much more complex process, where perceiving the pitch discrimination becomes important to appreciate it. The aim of this study is to determine the music perception abilities among children with Cis and to verify the benefit of a training period for specific musical frequency discrimination. Our main goals were to prepare a computer tool for pitch discrimination training and to assess musical improvements. Ten children, aged between 5 and 12 years, with optimal phoneme recognition in quiet and with no disabilities associated with deafness, were selected to join the training. Each patient received, before training period, two types of exams: a pitch discrimination test, consisting of discovering if two notes were different or not; and a music test consisting of two identification tasks (melodic and full version) of one music-item among 5 popular childhood songs. After assessment, a music training software was designed and utilised individually at home for a period of six months. The results following complete training showed significantly higher performance in the task of frequency discrimination. After a proper musical training identification, frequency discrimination performance was significantly higher (p < 0.001). The same considerations can be made in the identification of the songs presented in their melodic (p = 0.0151) and full songs version (p = 0.0071). Cases where children did not reach the most difficult level may be due to insufficient time devoted to training (ideal time estimated at 2-3 hours per week). In conclusion, this study shows that is possible to assess musical enhancement and to achieve improvements in frequency discrimination, following pitch discrimination training.

  3. Musical training software for children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, W; Schinaia, L; Anzivino, R; De Corso, E; Ciacciarelli, A; Paludetti, G

    2015-10-01

    Although the voice in a free field has an excellent recruitment by a cochlear implant (CI), the situation is different for music because it is a much more complex process, where perceiving the pitch discrimination becomes important to appreciate it. The aim of this study is to determine the music perception abilities among children with Cis and to verify the benefit of a training period for specific musical frequency discrimination. Our main goals were to prepare a computer tool for pitch discrimination training and to assess musical improvements. Ten children, aged between 5 and 12 years, with optimal phoneme recognition in quiet and with no disabilities associated with deafness, were selected to join the training. Each patient received, before training period, two types of exams: a pitch discrimination test, consisting of discovering if two notes were different or not; and a music test consisting of two identification tasks (melodic and full version) of one music-item among 5 popular childhood songs. After assessment, a music training software was designed and utilised individually at home for a period of six months. The results following complete training showed significantly higher performance in the task of frequency discrimination. After a proper musical training identification, frequency discrimination performance was significantly higher (p < 0.001). The same considerations can be made in the identification of the songs presented in their melodic (p = 0.0151) and full songs version (p = 0.0071). Cases where children did not reach the most difficult level may be due to insufficient time devoted to training (ideal time estimated at 2-3 hours per week). In conclusion, this study shows that is possible to assess musical enhancement and to achieve improvements in frequency discrimination, following pitch discrimination training. PMID:26824211

  4. Real-time implementation of cochlear implant speech processing pipeline on smartphones.

    PubMed

    Parris, Shane; Torlak, Murat; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the real-time implementation of an adaptive speech processing pipeline for cochlear implants on the smartphone platform. The pipeline is capable of real-time classification of background noise environment and automated tuning of a noise suppression component based upon the detected background noise environment. This pipeline was previously implemented on the FDA-approved PDA platform for cochlear implant studies. The paper discusses the steps taken to achieve the real-time implementation of the pipeline on the smartphone platform. In addition, it includes the real-time timing as well as the noise suppression results when the entire pipeline was run on the smartphone platform.

  5. Phonological awareness and early reading skills in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Day, Julia; Cupples, Linda

    2014-05-01

    This paper summarizes findings from a population study on outcomes of children with hearing loss in Australia, the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment ( http://www.outcomes.nal.gov.au ) study. Children were evaluated at several intervals using standardized tests, and the relationship between a range of predictors and the outcomes was examined. This paper reports the performance of children with cochlear implants at 5 years of age together with factors predicting word reading ability. Earlier age at cochlear implantation was significantly associated with better word reading ability, after controlling for the effects of language, receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and device configuration.

  6. Outcomes in cochlear implantation: variables affecting performance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Waltzman, Susan B

    2012-02-01

    This article highlights variables that affect cochlear implant performance, emerging factors warranting consideration, and variables shown not to affect performance. Research on the outcomes following cochlear implantation has identified a wide spectrum of variables known to affect pos0timplantation performance. These variables relate to the device itself as well as individual patient characteristics. Factors believed to affect spiral ganglion cell survival and function have been shown to influence postoperative performance. Binaural hearing affects performance. Social and educational factors also affect postoperative performance. Novel variables capable of affecting performance continue to emerge with increased understanding of auditory pathway development and neural plasticity. PMID:22115688

  7. The Vienna Cochlear Implant in patients with obliteration of the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Kürsten, R; Cozzarini, W; Eisenwort, B; Denk, D M; Zrunek, M; Burian, K

    1994-01-01

    Twelve deaf patients with obliterated or ossified cochleas received the extracochlear version of the Vienna Cochlear Implant. Four patients, 1 of them a child, developed open speech comprehension. Obliteration of the cochlea could not always be predicted by conventional tomography of the temporal bone. Short duration of deafness, wide dynamic range, and good ability of time resolution (small temporal difference limen [TDL]) are predictors for good postoperative results. Obliteration or ossification of the cochlea per se is no contraindication to cochlear implantation. PMID:8295460

  8. Do Fourteenth Amendment considerations outweigh a potential state interest in mandating cochlear implantation for deaf children?

    PubMed

    Bender, Denise G

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the decision concerning pediatric cochlear implantation for children remains a personal choice for parents to make. Economic factors, educational outcomes, and societal attitudes concerning deafness could result in an increased governmental interest in this choice. This article examines case law related to the issue of parental autonomy to determine whether the state, acting in the role of parens patriae, could use economic and social reasons to mandate the provision of cochlear implants for all eligible children. The author uses previous cases as a framework to develop an opinion on whether a constitutional protection for parents may exist. PMID:15304405

  9. Nonverbal cognition in deaf children following cochlear implantation: motor sequencing disturbances mediate language delays.

    PubMed

    Conway, Christopher M; Karpicke, Jennifer; Anaya, Esperanza M; Henning, Shirley C; Kronenberger, William G; Pisoni, David B

    2011-01-01

    We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 4th Edition (CELF-4). These findings suggest that a period of auditory deprivation before cochlear implantation affects motor sequencing skills, which in turn may mediate the language delays displayed by some deaf children with CIs. PMID:21347923

  10. Developmental dysgraphia with profound hearing impairment: intervention by auditory methods enabled by cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kawasaki, Akihiro; Nagayasu, Rie; Kunisue, Kazuya; Maeda, Yukihide; Kariya, Shin; Kataoka, Yuko; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2008-06-01

    Learning disability combined with hearing impairment (LDHI) is a poor prognostic factor for the language development of hearing impaired children after educational intervention. A typical example of a child with LDHI and effective interventions provided by cochlear implants are presented in this report. A case of congenital cytomegaloviral infection that showed dysgraphia as well as profound deafness was reported and an underlying visual processing problem diagnosed in the present case caused the patient's dysgraphia. The dysgraphia could be circumvented by the use of auditory memory fairly established by a cochlear implant. PMID:18082987

  11. Cochlear Implant Stimulation of a Hearing Ear Generates Separate Electrophonic and Electroneural Responses

    PubMed Central

    Baumhoff, Peter; Kral, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Electroacoustic stimulation in subjects with residual hearing is becoming more widely used in clinical practice. However, little is known about the properties of electrically induced responses in the hearing cochlea. In the present study, normal-hearing guinea pig cochleae underwent cochlear implantation through a cochleostomy without significant loss of hearing. Using recordings of unit activity in the midbrain, we were able to investigate the excitation patterns throughout the tonotopic field determined by acoustic stimulation. With the cochlear implant and the midbrain multielectrode arrays left in place, the ears were pharmacologically deafened and electrical stimulation was repeated in the deafened condition. The results demonstrate that, in addition to direct neuronal (electroneuronal) stimulation, in the hearing cochlea excitation of the hair cells occurs (“electrophonic responses”) at the cochlear site corresponding to the dominant temporal frequency components of the electrical stimulus, provided these are < 12 kHz. The slope of the rate–level functions of the neurons in the deafened condition was steeper and the firing rate was higher than in the hearing condition at those sites that were activated in the two conditions. Finally, in a monopolar stimulation configuration, the differences between hearing status conditions were smaller than in the narrower (bipolar) configurations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stimulation with cochlear implants and hearing aids is becoming more widely clinically used in subjects with residual hearing. The neurophysiological characteristics underlying electroacoustic stimulation and the mechanism of its benefit remain unclear. The present study directly demonstrates that cochlear implantation does not interfere with the normal mechanical and physiological function of the cochlea. For the first time, it double-dissociates the electrical responses of hair cells (electrophonic responses) from responses of the auditory nerve

  12. [The cochlear implant--evolution of hearing and language with an artificial inner ear].

    PubMed

    Vischer, M; Kompis, M; Seifert, E; Häusler, R

    2004-01-01

    One of the most spectacular progresses in modern medicine is the possibility to replace a deaf ear, a sensory organ in total by an implantable electronic prosthesis, a so-called cochlear implant (CI). The CI stimulates the auditory nerve by electrical pulses and thus generates the sensation of hearing along the auditory pathway. One of the most impressive aspects of cochlear implantation is the fact that small children with profound deafness who were able a few years ago to learn spoken language only to very limited extent may achieve nowadays an almost normal language development. Duration and intensity of the training of listening and spoken language vary considerably as a function of etiology and time of deafness. Most important for the development of language is sufficient stimulation of the auditory pathway during early childhood. Early diagnosis of a severe to profound deafness is most important in order to fit hearing aids or a cochlear implant without a time delay. Affected children need intensive training by professionals specialized in education and speech therapy. Adults and adolescents who lost their hearing when language acquisition was established may understand spoken language only a few weeks after receiving a cochlear implant. Several individuals are able to use the telephone. Preliminary results after bilateral cochlear implantation of children and adults show advantages. Not only do these subjects report "better hearing with two CI as compared to hearing with one CI," but some of them developed directional hearing in a rather short time lag after fitting the second implant. And in addition they achieve better speech discrimination in environmental noise. PMID:14998001

  13. Visual activity predicts auditory recovery from deafness after adult cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Strelnikov, Kuzma; Rouger, Julien; Demonet, Jean-François; Lagleyre, Sebastien; Fraysse, Bernard; Deguine, Olivier; Barone, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Modern cochlear implantation technologies allow deaf patients to understand auditory speech; however, the implants deliver only a coarse auditory input and patients must use long-term adaptive processes to achieve coherent percepts. In adults with post-lingual deafness, the high progress of speech recovery is observed during the first year after cochlear implantation, but there is a large range of variability in the level of cochlear implant outcomes and the temporal evolution of recovery. It has been proposed that when profoundly deaf subjects receive a cochlear implant, the visual cross-modal reorganization of the brain is deleterious for auditory speech recovery. We tested this hypothesis in post-lingually deaf adults by analysing whether brain activity shortly after implantation correlated with the level of auditory recovery 6 months later. Based on brain activity induced by a speech-processing task, we found strong positive correlations in areas outside the auditory cortex. The highest positive correlations were found in the occipital cortex involved in visual processing, as well as in the posterior-temporal cortex known for audio-visual integration. The other area, which positively correlated with auditory speech recovery, was localized in the left inferior frontal area known for speech processing. Our results demonstrate that the visual modality's functional level is related to the proficiency level of auditory recovery. Based on the positive correlation of visual activity with auditory speech recovery, we suggest that visual modality may facilitate the perception of the word's auditory counterpart in communicative situations. The link demonstrated between visual activity and auditory speech perception indicates that visuoauditory synergy is crucial for cross-modal plasticity and fostering speech-comprehension recovery in adult cochlear-implanted deaf patients. PMID:24136826

  14. The Development of Intonation in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: A Preliminary Study of the Influence of Age at Implantation and Length of Implant Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David; Ertmer, David

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the development of emerging intonation in six children who had received a cochlear implant (CI) before the age of 3 years. At the time their implant was activated, the children ranged in age from 11-37 months. Spontaneous longitudinal speech samples were recorded from 30-minute sessions in which the child interacted with his…

  15. Cochlear implant artifact attenuation in late auditory evoked potentials: a single channel approach.

    PubMed

    Mc Laughlin, Myles; Lopez Valdes, Alejandro; Reilly, Richard B; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that late auditory evoked potentials (LAEP) provide a useful objective metric of performance in cochlear implant (CI) subjects. However, the CI produces a large electrical artifact that contaminates LAEP recordings and confounds their interpretation. Independent component analysis (ICA) has been used in combination with multi-channel recordings to effectively remove the artifact. The applicability of the ICA approach is limited when only single channel data are needed or available, as is often the case in both clinical and research settings. Here we developed a single-channel, high sample rate (125 kHz), and high bandwidth (0-100 kHz) acquisition system to reduce the CI stimulation artifact. We identified two different artifacts in the recording: 1) a high frequency artifact reflecting the stimulation pulse rate, and 2) a direct current (DC, or pedestal) artifact that showed a non-linear time varying relationship to pulse amplitude. This relationship was well described by a bivariate polynomial. The high frequency artifact was completely attenuated by a 35 Hz low-pass filter for all subjects (n = 22). The DC artifact could be caused by an impedance mismatch. For 27% of subjects tested, no DC artifact was observed when electrode impedances were balanced to within 1 kΩ. For the remaining 73% of subjects, the pulse amplitude was used to estimate and then attenuate the DC artifact. Where measurements of pulse amplitude were not available (as with standard low sample rate systems), the DC artifact could be estimated from the stimulus envelope. The present artifact removal approach allows accurate measurement of LAEPs from CI subjects from single channel recordings, increasing their feasibility and utility as an accessible objective measure of CI function.

  16. Understanding speech in modulated interference: Cochlear implant users and normal-hearing listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peggy B.; Jin, Su-Hyun; Carney, Arlene Earley; Nelson, David A.

    2003-02-01

    Many competing noises in real environments are modulated or fluctuating in level. Listeners with normal hearing are able to take advantage of temporal gaps in fluctuating maskers. Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss show less benefit from modulated maskers. Cochlear implant users may be more adversely affected by modulated maskers because of their limited spectral resolution and by their reliance on envelope-based signal-processing strategies of implant processors. The current study evaluated cochlear implant users' ability to understand sentences in the presence of modulated speech-shaped noise. Normal-hearing listeners served as a comparison group. Listeners repeated IEEE sentences in quiet, steady noise, and modulated noise maskers. Maskers were presented at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at six modulation rates varying from 1 to 32 Hz. Results suggested that normal-hearing listeners obtain significant release from masking from modulated maskers, especially at 8-Hz masker modulation frequency. In contrast, cochlear implant users experience very little release from masking from modulated maskers. The data suggest, in fact, that they may show negative effects of modulated maskers at syllabic modulation rates (2-4 Hz). Similar patterns of results were obtained from implant listeners using three different devices with different speech-processor strategies. The lack of release from masking occurs in implant listeners independent of their device characteristics, and may be attributable to the nature of implant processing strategies and/or the lack of spectral detail in processed stimuli.

  17. Simultaneous Translabyrinthine Tumor Removal and Cochlear Implantation in Vestibular Schwannoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Won; Han, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Jin Woong

    2016-01-01

    Refinement of surgical techniques has allowed hearing preservation after tumor resection to be prioritized. Moreover, restoration of hearing after tumor removal can be attempted in patients with bilateral vestibular schwannomas or those with a schwannoma in the only-hearing ear. Cochlear implantation (CI) has emerged as a proper method of acoustic rehabilitation, provided that the cochlear nerve remains intact. Studies of electrical promontory stimulation in patients after vestibular schwannoma resection have demonstrated favorable results. We describe herein two cases of hearing rehabilitation via CI implemented at the time of vestibular schwannoma resection. Tumors were totally removed, and cochlear implant electrodes were successfully inserted in both cases. Also, post operative CI-aided hearing showed improved results. PMID:27593888

  18. Simultaneous Translabyrinthine Tumor Removal and Cochlear Implantation in Vestibular Schwannoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Won; Han, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Jin Woong; Moon, In Seok

    2016-11-01

    Refinement of surgical techniques has allowed hearing preservation after tumor resection to be prioritized. Moreover, restoration of hearing after tumor removal can be attempted in patients with bilateral vestibular schwannomas or those with a schwannoma in the only-hearing ear. Cochlear implantation (CI) has emerged as a proper method of acoustic rehabilitation, provided that the cochlear nerve remains intact. Studies of electrical promontory stimulation in patients after vestibular schwannoma resection have demonstrated favorable results. We describe herein two cases of hearing rehabilitation via CI implemented at the time of vestibular schwannoma resection. Tumors were totally removed, and cochlear implant electrodes were successfully inserted in both cases. Also, post operative CI-aided hearing showed improved results. PMID:27593888

  19. Vestibulo-ocular and vestibulospinal function before and after cochlear implant surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Lilly, D. J.; Peterka, R. J.; Fowler, L. P.; Simmons, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Vestibular function in cochlear implant candidates varies from normal to total absence of function. In patients with intact vestibular function preoperatively, invasion of the otic capsule places residual vestibular function at risk. Speech-processing strategies that result in large amplitude electrical transients or strategies that employ high amplitude broad frequency carrier signals have the potential for disrupting vestibular function. Five patients were tested with and without electrical stimulation via cochlear electrodes. Two patients experienced subjective vestibular effects that were quickly resolved. No long-term vestibular effects were noted for the two types of second generation cochlear implants evaluated. Histopathological findings from another patient, who had electrically generated vestibular reflex responses to intramodiolar electrodes, indicated that responses elicited were a function of several variables including electrode location, stimulus intensity, stimulus amplitude, and stimulus frequency. Differential auditory, vestibulocolic, and vestibulospinal reflexes were demonstrated from the same electrode as a function of stimulus amplitude, frequency, and duration.

  20. A speech processing study using an acoustic model of a multiple-channel cochlear implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying

    1998-10-01

    A cochlear implant is an electronic device designed to provide sound information for adults and children who have bilateral profound hearing loss. The task of representing speech signals as electrical stimuli is central to the design and performance of cochlear implants. Studies have shown that the current speech- processing strategies provide significant benefits to cochlear implant users. However, the evaluation and development of speech-processing strategies have been complicated by hardware limitations and large variability in user performance. To alleviate these problems, an acoustic model of a cochlear implant with the SPEAK strategy is implemented in this study, in which a set of acoustic stimuli whose psychophysical characteristics are as close as possible to those produced by a cochlear implant are presented on normal-hearing subjects. To test the effectiveness and feasibility of this acoustic model, a psychophysical experiment was conducted to match the performance of a normal-hearing listener using model- processed signals to that of a cochlear implant user. Good agreement was found between an implanted patient and an age-matched normal-hearing subject in a dynamic signal discrimination experiment, indicating that this acoustic model is a reasonably good approximation of a cochlear implant with the SPEAK strategy. The acoustic model was then used to examine the potential of the SPEAK strategy in terms of its temporal and frequency encoding of speech. It was hypothesized that better temporal and frequency encoding of speech can be accomplished by higher stimulation rates and a larger number of activated channels. Vowel and consonant recognition tests were conducted on normal-hearing subjects using speech tokens processed by the acoustic model, with different combinations of stimulation rate and number of activated channels. The results showed that vowel recognition was best at 600 pps and 8 activated channels, but further increases in stimulation rate and

  1. Effect of cochlear implantation on nasality in post-lingually deafened adults.

    PubMed

    Langereis, M C; Dejonckere, P H; van Olphen, A F; Smoorenburg, G F

    1997-01-01

    The present study addresses the effect of cochlear implantation on nasality in 21 post-lingually deafened Dutch subjects. All subjects received the Nucleus 22 implant (MSP version). Speech recordings were made pre-implantation and 3 and 12 months post-implantation with the implant switched on and off. Nasality measurements were performed on a standard text and on two sentences without nasal phonemes. The results show that post-lingual deafness in individuals can result in a deviant degree of nasality in speech production. However, the nasalance value of 86% of the subjects of our study fell within the normative range defined as the mean +/- 2 standard deviations of the normal population. After implantation we found no statistically significant effect of implant use. However, individual nasality values outside the normative range may improve. Furthermore, 12 months post-implantation we found a significant decrease in the variability of the nasalance values obtained for two sentences without nasal phonemes. PMID:9415736

  2. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family1

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Sheila de Souza; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Ferreira, Noeli Marchioro Liston Andrade; Dupas, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Objective to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child. Method qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants). Results knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant. Conclusion deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention. PMID:25029052

  3. Peer relationships of deaf children with cochlear implants: predictors of peer entry and peer interaction success.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniela; Bat-Chava, Yael; Lalwani, Anil; Waltzman, Susan B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that affect the development of positive peer relationships among deaf children with cochlear implants. Ten 5- to 6-year-old deaf children with implants were observed under conditions varying peer context difficulty in a Peer Entry task. Results revealed better outcomes for deaf children interacting in one-on-one situations compared to interactions including two other hearing children and better performance among girls than boys. In addition, longer duration of implant use and higher self-esteem were associated with better performance on the Peer Task, which was in turn related to parental reports of children's social functioning outside the experimental situation. These findings contribute to the growing literature describing the benefits of cochlear implantation in the areas of communication and socialization, while pointing to interventions that may enhance deaf children's social competence.

  4. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…

  5. Nonword Repetition by Children with Cochlear Implants: Accuracy Ratings from Normal-Hearing Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; Burkholder, Rose A.; Cleary, Miranda; Pisoni, David B.

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-six children with cochlear implants completed a nonword repetition task. The children were presented with 20 nonword auditory patterns over a loudspeaker and were asked to repeat them aloud to the experimenter. The children's responses were recorded on digital audiotape and then played back to normal-hearing adult listeners to obtain…

  6. Phonological Abilities of Hearing-Impaired Cantonese-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Zoe W. Y.; So, Lydia K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article examined the phonological skills of 2 groups of Cantonese-speaking children with prelingual, profound bilateral hearing loss. The phonological abilities of 7 children fitted with hearing aids were compared with the abilities of 7 children who wore cochlear implants. Method: Participants in each group ranged in age from 5;1…

  7. Nonword Repetition with Spectrally Reduced Speech: Some Developmental and Clinical Findings from Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder-Juhasz, Rose A.; Levi, Susannah V.; Dillon, Caitlin M.; Pisoni, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Nonword repetition skills were examined in 24 pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users and 18 normal-hearing (NH) adult listeners listening through a CI simulator. Two separate groups of NH adult listeners assigned accuracy ratings to the nonword responses of the pediatric CI users and the NH adult speakers. Overall, the nonword repetitions of…

  8. Benefits of Music Training in Mandarin-Speaking Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J., III; Wang, Xiaosong; Wu, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess young (5- to 10-year-old) Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users' musical pitch perception and to assess the benefits of computer-based home training on performance. Method: Melodic contour identification (MCI) was used to assess musical pitch perception in 14 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI…

  9. Music Perception of Cochlear Implant Recipients with Implications for Music Instruction: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Feilin; Gfeller, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This review of the literature presents a systematic analysis of the capabilities and limitations of cochlear implant (CI) recipients with regard to music perception. Specifically, it (a) analyzes individual components of music (e.g., rhythm, timbre, and pitch) as they interface with the technical characteristics of CIs and the perceptual abilities…

  10. Transcribing the Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants: Clinical Application of Narrow Phonetic Transcriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teoh, Amy P.; Chin, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The phonological systems of children with cochlear implants may include segment inventories that contain both target and nontarget speech sounds. These children may not consistently follow phonological rules of the target language. These issues present a challenge for the clinical speech-language pathologist who uses phonetic…

  11. Talker and Lexical Effects on Audiovisual Word Recognition by Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Adam R.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Lachs, Lorin; Pisoni, David B.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined how 20 adults with postlingual deafness with cochlear implants combined visual information from lip reading with auditory cues in an open-set word recognition task. Word recognition performance was highest for audiovisual presentation followed by auditory-only and then visual-only stimulus presentation, and for single-talker…

  12. Long-term results of the transattical approach: an alternative technique for cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Auxiliadora; Polo, Rubén; Alonso, Antonio; Álvarez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implantation through the standard posterior tympanotomy approach may sometimes be challenging. In cases with complicated anatomy or malformations, an alternative surgical technique may be chosen. The transattical approach is a simple technique based on a mastoidectomy and a transmeatal cochleostomy. The electrode is driven to the middle ear through the attic. This way it overcomes some of the standard technique's drawbacks. Our aim is to assess the value of this alternative approach in cochlear implant surgery. We conducted a comparative retrospective study; we included 74 patients operated by transattical approach and 59 patients operated with the standard technique. Auditory performance and complications at long term follow-up were compared. The consequences of the different trajectory of the electrode in the transattical approach were also studied. No significant differences were found between both groups regarding complication rates and cochlear implant performance. The electrode's integrity was not significantly affected by its different position and angles, when compared to the standard approach. We conclude that transattical approach is a safe technique for cochlear implantation. It may be considered as an alternative to the posterior tympanotomy approach for those cases where this cannot be performed. PMID:24292213

  13. Maternal Involvement in the Home Literacy Environment: Supporting Literacy Skills in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DesJardin, Jean L.; Ambrose, Sophie E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the home literacy environment in a group of mothers and their early-school-age children with cochlear implants (N = 16). The goals of this investigation are to (a) describe the characteristics of the home literacy environment and (b) study the relationships between home literacy factors and children's reading skills. Mothers…

  14. The Effect of Technology and Testing Environment on Speech Perception Using Telehealth with Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.; Valente, Daniel L.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Diaz, Gina R.; Sanford, Todd; Harpster, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of remote system and acoustic environment on speech perception via telehealth with cochlear implant recipients. Method: Speech perception was measured in quiet and in noise. Systems evaluated were Polycom visual concert (PVC) and a hybrid presentation system (HPS). Each system was evaluated…

  15. Theory-of-Mind Development in Oral Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants or Conventional Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the context of the established finding that theory-of-mind (ToM) growth is seriously delayed in late-signing deaf children, and some evidence of equivalent delays in those learning speech with conventional hearing aids, this study's novel contribution was to explore ToM development in deaf children with cochlear implants. Implants…

  16. Affective Properties of Mothers' Speech to Infants with Hearing Impairment and Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Xu, Huiping; Kitamura, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The affective properties of infant-directed speech influence the attention of infants with normal hearing to speech sounds. This study explored the affective quality of maternal speech to infants with hearing impairment (HI) during the 1st year after cochlear implantation as compared to speech to infants with normal hearing. Method:…

  17. Investigation of Balance Function Using Dynamic Posturography under Electrical-Acoustic Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Schwab, B; Durisin, M; Kontorinis, G

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI patients by using the EquiTest and to help answer the question of whether electrically stimulating the inner ear using a cochlear implant influences the balance system in any way. Material and Methods. A test population (n = 50) was selected at random from among the cochlear implant recipients. Dynamic posturography (using the EquiTest) was performed with the device switched off an switched on. Results. In summary, it can be said that an activated cochlear implant affects the function of the vestibular system and may, to an extent, even lead to a stabilization of balance function under the static conditions of dynamic posturography, but nevertheless also to a significant destabilization. Significant improvements in vestibular function were seen mainly in equilibrium scores under conditions 4 and 5, the composite equilibrium score, and the vestibular components as revealed by sensory analysis. Conclusions. Only under the static conditions are significantly poorer scores achieved when stimulation is applied. It may be that the explanation for any symptoms of dizziness lies precisely in the fact that they occur in supposedly noncritical situations, since, when the cochlear implant makes increased demands on the balance system, induced disturbances can be centrally suppressed. PMID:20671908

  18. Investigation of Balance Function Using Dynamic Posturography under Electrical-Acoustic Stimulation in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, B.; Durisin, M.; Kontorinis, G.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of electrical-acoustic stimulation on vestibular function in CI patients by using the EquiTest and to help answer the question of whether electrically stimulating the inner ear using a cochlear implant influences the balance system in any way. Material and Methods. A test population (n = 50) was selected at random from among the cochlear implant recipients. Dynamic posturography (using the EquiTest) was performed with the device switched off an switched on. Results. In summary, it can be said that an activated cochlear implant affects the function of the vestibular system and may, to an extent, even lead to a stabilization of balance function under the static conditions of dynamic posturography, but nevertheless also to a significant destabilization. Significant improvements in vestibular function were seen mainly in equilibrium scores under conditions 4 and 5, the composite equilibrium score, and the vestibular components as revealed by sensory analysis. Conclusions. Only under the static conditions are significantly poorer scores achieved when stimulation is applied. It may be that the explanation for any symptoms of dizziness lies precisely in the fact that they occur in supposedly noncritical situations, since, when the cochlear implant makes increased demands on the balance system, induced disturbances can be centrally suppressed. PMID:20671908

  19. Cochlear implants and the claims of culture? A response to Lane and Grodin.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    1997-09-01

    Because I reject the notion that physical characteristics constitute cultural membership, I argue that, even if the claim were persuasive that deafness is a culture rather than a disability, there is no reason to fault hearing parents who choose cochlear implants for their deaf children.

  20. Negative Intraoral Air Pressures of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Physiology, Phonology, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Maureen B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of four children with deafness who had cochlear implants investigated the use of negative intraoral air pressure in articulation, from both the physiological and phonological perspectives. The study showed that the children used speech-production strategies that were different from hearing children and that deviant speech behaviors should…

  1. The Use of Voice Cues for Speaker Gender Recognition in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Hartmut; Fürsen, Katrin; Streicher, Barbara; Lang-Roth, Ruth; Walger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The focus of this study was to examine the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and vocal tract length (VTL) modifications on speaker gender recognition in cochlear implant (CI) recipients for different stimulus types. Method: Single words and sentences were manipulated using isolated or combined F0 and VTL cues. Using an 11-point…

  2. A Cochlear Implant Signal Processing Lab: Exploration of a Problem-Based Learning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, P. T.; McClellan, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory signal processing laboratory and examines this laboratory exercise in the context of problem-based learning (PBL). Centered in a real-world application, a cochlear implant, the exercise challenged students to demonstrate a working software-based signal processor. Partnering in groups of two or three, second-year…

  3. Relations among Linguistic and Cognitive Skills and Spoken Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene Earley

    2004-01-01

    This study examined spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants (CIs) to determine the extent to which linguistic and cognitive abilities predict variability in speech-perception performance. Both a traditional consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC)-repetition measure and a gated-word recognition measure (F. Grosjean, 1996) were used.…

  4. Verbal Processing Speed and Executive Functioning in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AuBuchon, Angela M.; Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report how "verbal rehearsal speed" (VRS), a form of covert speech used to maintain verbal information in working memory, and another verbal processing speed measure, perceptual encoding speed, are related to 3 domains of executive function (EF) at risk in cochlear implant (CI) users: verbal…

  5. On the Structure of Phoneme Categories in Listeners with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan; Denny, Margaret; Guenther, Frank H.; Hanson, Helen M.; Marrone, Nicole; Matthies, Melanie L.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stockmann, Ellen; Tiede, Mark; Vick, Jennell; Zandipour, Majid

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe cochlear implant users' phoneme labeling, discrimination, and prototypes for a vowel and a sibilant contrast, and to assess the effects of 1 year's experience with prosthetic hearing. Method: Based on naturally produced clear examples of "boot," "beet," "said," and "shed" by 1 male and 1 female speaker, continua with 13…

  6. Deaf Parents and Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: An Exploration of the Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardonk, Stefan; Daniels, Sarah; Desnerck, Greetje; Loots, Gerrit; Van Hove, Geert; Van Kerschaver, Erwin; Sigurjonsdottir, Hanna Bjorg; Vanroelen, Christophe; Louckx, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The study examined factors in deaf parents' decision between cochlear implantation (CI) and traditional hearing aids for their child. The subjects were 6 Flemish children ages 5-9 years with severe/profound congenital hearing loss, with at least 1 deaf parent. The researchers, who conducted thematic content analysis of qualitative data collected…

  7. Expressive Vocabulary, Morphology, Syntax and Narrative Skills in Profoundly Deaf Children after Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience and research reveal generic spoken language benefits after cochlear implantation. However, systematic research on specific language domains and error analyses are required to probe sub-skills. Moreover, the effect of predictive factors on distinct language domains is unknown. In this study, outcomes of 70 school-aged children…

  8. Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: A Qualitative Study of Parental Decision-Making Processes in Flanders, Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardonk, Stefan; Bosteels, Sigrid; Desnerck, Greetje; Loots, Gerrit; Van Hove, Geert; Van Kerschaver, Erwin; Vanroelen, Christophe; Louckx, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Factors contributing to parents' decision when they choose between cochlear implantation (CI) and traditional hearing aids for their child were examined. The subjects were children with severe/profound hearing loss, born 1999-2001, registered in the universal neonatal hearing screening program in the Flanders region of Belgium. Qualitative data…

  9. Perception of Suprasegmental Features of Speech by Children with Cochlear Implants and Children with Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Most, Tova; Peled, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed perception of suprasegmental features of speech by 30 prelingual children with sensorineural hearing loss. Ten children had cochlear implants (CIs), and 20 children wore hearing aids (HA): 10 with severe hearing loss and 10 with profound hearing loss. Perception of intonation, syllable stress, word emphasis, and word pattern…

  10. Cochlear Implant in the Second Year of Life: Lexical and Grammatical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caselli, Maria Cristina; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Varuzza, Cristiana; Giuliani, Anna; Burdo, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors studied the effect of the cochlear implant (CI) on language comprehension and production in deaf children who had received a CI in the 2nd year of life. Method: The authors evaluated lexical and morphosyntactic skills in comprehension and production in 17 Italian children who are deaf (M = 54 months of age) with a CI and in 2…

  11. Perception of Speech Features by French-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouton, Sophie; Serniclaes, Willy; Bertoncini, Josiane; Cole, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates the perception of phonological features in French-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) compared with normal-hearing (NH) children matched for listening age. Method: Scores for discrimination and identification of minimal pairs for all features defining consonants (e.g., place, voicing, manner,…

  12. The Effect of Temporal Gap Identification on Speech Perception by Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi, Elad; Kaiser, Adam R.; Meyer, Ted A.; Svirsky, Mario A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the ability of listeners using cochlear implants (CIs) and listeners with normal hearing (NH) to identify silent gaps of different duration and the relation of this ability to speech understanding in CI users. Method: Sixteen NH adults and 11 postlingually deafened adults with CIs identified synthetic vowel-like…

  13. Central Auditory Development: Evidence from CAEP Measurements in Children Fit with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Michael F.; Sharma, Anu; Gilley, Phillip; Martin, Kathryn; Roland, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In normal-hearing children the latency of the P1 component of the cortical evoked response to sound varies as a function of age and, thus, can be used as a biomarker for maturation of central auditory pathways. We assessed P1 latency in 245 congenitally deaf children fit with cochlear implants following various periods of auditory deprivation. If…

  14. Speech Perception with Music Maskers by Cochlear Implant Users and Normal-Hearing Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Elizabeth N.; Galvin, John J., III; Aronoff, Justin M.; Li, Tianhao; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate how the spectral and temporal properties in background music may interfere with cochlear implant (CI) and normal-hearing listeners' (NH) speech understanding. Method: Speech-recognition thresholds (SRTs) were adaptively measured in 11 CI and 9 NH subjects. CI subjects were tested while using their…

  15. Long-Term Trajectories of the Development of Speech Sound Production in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Lu, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study characterized the development of speech sound production in prelingually deaf children with a minimum of 8 years of cochlear implant (CI) experience. Method: Twenty-seven pediatric CI recipients' spontaneous speech samples from annual evaluation sessions were phonemically transcribed. Accuracy for these speech samples was…

  16. Speech Intelligibility of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients with 7 Years of Device Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Shu-Chen; Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Speech intelligibility of 24 prelingually deaf pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients with 84 months of device experience was investigated. Each CI participant's speech samples were judged by a panel of 3 listeners. Intelligibility scores were calculated as the average of the 3 listeners' responses. The average write-down intelligibility score…

  17. Morpho-Syntactic Reading Comprehension in Children with Early and Late Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Higes, Ramón; Gallego, Carlos; Martín-Aragoneses, María Teresa; Melle, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This study explores morpho-syntactic reading comprehension in 19 Spanish children who received a cochlear implant (CI) before 24 months of age (early CI [e-CI]) and 19 Spanish children who received a CI after 24 months (late CI [l-CI]). They all were in primary school and were compared to a hearing control (HC) group of 19 children. Tests of…

  18. Deaf Children with Complex Needs: Parental Experience of Access to Cochlear Implants and Ongoing Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Wendy; Turner, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the experiences of parents of deaf children with additional complex needs (ACN) in accessing cochlear implant (CI) services and achieving ongoing support. Of a total study group of fifty-one children with ACN, twelve had been fitted with a CI. The parental accounts provide a rich and varied picture of service access. For some…

  19. An Investigation of Weak Syllable Processing in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titterington, Jill; Henry, Alison; Kramer, Martin; Toner, Joe G.; Stevenson, Mike

    2006-01-01

    In this study the influence of prosodic foot structure on the processing of weak syllables in children with cochlear implants (CI) was investigated. A battery of tests investigating processing of weak syllables in single and multiword utterances was carried out on four groups of children: 15 children with CI developing spoken language as expected…

  20. Simulation of CIS speech signal processing strategy based on electrical stimulating model of cochlear implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zheng; Yu, Dan

    2006-11-01

    During the operating course of Cochlear implant, the speech signal processing strategy converts original speech signal into dim current signal. And then this signal will be transmitted into the embedded electrode to stimulate the remnant auditory nerve to restore the audition of patient. It could be shown that the speech processing strategy is the key part to realize the performance of cochlear implant, but its evaluation method for validity is always lacking. In this paper, the electrical stimulating model of cochlear implant is established at first, and then the acoustic simulation of Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS) strategy could be finished on this model. The synthesizing signal simulates the speech signal which could be heard by the deaf with cochlear implant. Therefore, the identification ability of CIS strategy could be estimated by delivering this synthesizing signal to normal audition people. Further more, some detailed analyses for every step of this acoustic simulation could be considered in order to improve the performance and parameters selection of CIS strategy. This work will be helpful for the deaf to enhance their perception and understanding during the speech identification course.

  1. Word Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Effects of Early Auditory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this…

  2. Imitative Production of Rising Speech Intonation in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Shu-Chen; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Spencer, Linda J.; Hurtig, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the acoustic characteristics of pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients' imitative production of rising speech intonation, in relation to the perceptual judgments by listeners with normal hearing (NH). Method: Recordings of a yes-no interrogative utterance imitated by 24 prelingually deafened children with a CI…

  3. Working Memory Training for Children with Cochlear Implants: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Henning, Shirley C.; Colson, Bethany G.; Hazzard, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the feasibility and efficacy of a working memory training program for improving memory and language skills in a sample of 9 children who are deaf (age 7-15 years) with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: All children completed the Cogmed Working Memory Training program on a home computer over a 5-week period.…

  4. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  5. Validation of the Common Objects Token (COT) Test for Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ilona; Martin, Jane; Costa, Anne; Jamieson, Lyn; Bailey, Elspeth; Plant, Geoff; Pitterl, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Changes in selection criteria have meant that children are being provided with cochlear implants (CI) at increasingly younger ages. However, there is a paucity of measures that are appropriate for testing complex listening skills--most tests are too cognitively complex for such young children. The Common Objects Token (COT) Test was developed as a…

  6. Synaptic plasticity in the medial superior olive of hearing, deaf, and cochlear-implanted cats.

    PubMed

    Tirko, Natasha N; Ryugo, David K

    2012-07-01

    The medial superior olive (MSO) is a key auditory brainstem structure that receives binaural inputs and is implicated in processing interaural time disparities used for sound localization. The deaf white cat, a proven model of congenital deafness, was used to examine how deafness and cochlear implantation affected the synaptic organization at this binaural center in the ascending auditory pathway. The patterns of axosomatic and axodendritic organization were determined for principal neurons from the MSO of hearing, deaf, and deaf cats with cochlear implants. The nature of the synapses was evaluated through electron microscopy, ultrastructure analysis of the synaptic vesicles, and immunohistochemistry. The results show that the proportion of inhibitory axosomatic terminals was significantly smaller in deaf animals when compared with hearing animals. However, after a period of electrical stimulation via cochlear implants the proportion of inhibitory inputs resembled that of hearing animals. Additionally, the excitatory axodendritic boutons of hearing cats were found to be significantly larger than those of deaf cats. Boutons of stimulated cats were significantly larger than the boutons in deaf cats, although not as large as in the hearing cats, indicating a partial recovery of excitatory inputs to MSO dendrites after stimulation. These results exemplify dynamic plasticity in the auditory brainstem and reveal that electrical stimulation through cochlear implants has a restorative effect on synaptic organization in the MSO. PMID:22237661

  7. Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Children with Cochlear Implants Using Electronic Storybooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Jane; Wood, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The present intervention study explored the word learning of 18 children with cochlear implants in response to E-book instruction. Capitalizing on the multimedia options available in electronic storybooks, the intervention incorporated videos and definitions to provide a vocabulary intervention that includes evidence-based teaching strategies. The…

  8. Sequential Bimodal Bilingual Acquisition: Mediation Using a Cochlear Implant as a Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramér-Wolrath, Emelie

    2013-01-01

    Most deaf children are born to hearing families. During the last twenty years deaf children, in increasing numbers and at an early age, receive a cochlear implant, a highly technological hearing device. The aim of this qualitative, longitudinal, single-case study was to explore and describe critical changes in naturalistic, video-observed…

  9. Different Perception of Musical Stimuli in Patients with Monolateral and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Anton Giulio; Leone, Carlo Antonio; Grassia, Rosa; Mosca, Franco; Colosimo, Alfredo; Malerba, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to measure the perceived pleasantness during the observation of a musical video clip in a group of cochlear implanted adult patients when compared to a group of normal hearing subjects. This comparison was performed by using the imbalance of the EEG power spectra in alpha band over frontal areas as a metric for the perceived pleasantness. Subjects were asked to watch a musical video clip in three different experimental conditions: with the original audio included (Norm), with a distorted version of the audio (Dist), and without the audio (Mute). The frontal EEG imbalance between the estimated power spectra for the left and right prefrontal areas has been calculated to investigate the differences among the two populations. Results suggested that the perceived pleasantness of the musical video clip in the normal hearing population and in the bilateral cochlear implanted populations has similar range of variation across the different stimulations (Norm, Dist, and Mute), when compared to the range of variation of video clip's pleasantness for the monolateral cochlear implanted population. A similarity exists in the trends of the perceived pleasantness across the different experimental conditions in the mono- and bilaterally cochlear implanted patients. PMID:25180046

  10. Changing Realities in the Classroom for Hearing-Impaired Children with Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Anneke; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Snik, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Auditory perception with cochlear implants (CIs) enables the majority of deaf children with normal learning potential to develop (near) age-appropriate spoken language. As a consequence, a large proportion of children now attend mainstream education from an early stage. The acoustical environment in kindergartens and schools, however, might be…

  11. Deaf Parents of Cochlear-Implanted Children: Beliefs on Bimodal Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchiner, Julie Cantrell

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated 17 Deaf families in North America with cochlear-implanted children about their attitudes, beliefs, and practices on bimodal bilingualism (defined as using both a visual/manual language and an aural/oral language) in American Sign Language (ASL) and English. A survey and follow-up interviews with 8 families were conducted.…

  12. Actor Vocal Training for the Habilitation of Speech in Adolescent Users of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Colleen M.; Dowell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes to speech production in adolescents with hearing impairment following a period of actor vocal training. In addition to vocal parameters, the study also investigated changes to psychosocial factors such as confidence, self-esteem, and anxiety. The group were adolescent users of cochlear implants (mean age at commencement…

  13. Lexical and Grammatical Development in a Child with Cochlear Implant and Attention Deficit: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Torres, Santiago; Santana, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to explore lexical and grammatical development in a deaf child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive sub-type (ADHDI). The child, whose family language was Spanish, was fitted with a cochlear implant (CI) when she was 18 months old. ADHDI, for which she was prescribed medication, was diagnosed…

  14. Do Fourteenth Amendment Considerations Outweigh a Potential State Interest in Mandating Cochlear Implantation for Deaf Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Denise G.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the decision concerning pediatric cochlear implantation for children remains a personal choice for parents to make. Economic factors, educational outcomes, and societal attitudes concerning deafness could result in an increased governmental interest in this choice. This article examines case law related to the issue of parental autonomy…

  15. Transcribing the Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants: Clinical Application of Narrow Phonetic Transcriptions

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Amy; Chin, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The phonological systems of children with cochlear implants may include segment inventories that contain both target and non-target speech sounds. These children may not consistently follow phonological rules of the target language. These issues present a challenge for the clinical speech-language pathologist who uses phonetic transcriptions to evaluate speech production skills and to develop a plan of care. The purposes of this tutorial are (1) to identify issues associated with phonetic transcriptions of the speech of children with cochlear implants and (2) to discuss implications for assessment. Method Narrow transcription data from an ongoing, longitudinal research study were catalogued and reviewed. Study participants had at least 5 years of cochlear implant experience and used spoken American English as a primary means of communication. In this tutorial, selected phonetic symbols and phonetic phenomena are reviewed. Conclusions A set of principles for phonetic transcriptions is proposed. Narrow phonetic transcriptions that include all segment possibilities in the International Phonetic Alphabet and extensions for disordered speech are needed to capture the subtleties of the speech of children with cochlear implants. Narrow transcriptions also may play a key role in planning treatment. PMID:19880945

  16. [Cochlear implant in a patient with dilatation of the endolymphatic sac and vestibular aqueduct].

    PubMed

    Clarós, P; Sanz, J J; Clavería, M A; Costa, C; Clarós, A

    2005-03-01

    We present an 8 years patient old with a giant dilatation of the vestibular aqueduct associated with profound and progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The patient received a cochlear implant and during the surgery a pulsatile clear fluid via the cochleostomy was observed, without gusher. We present all the problems, and offer some advices for this kind of surgery.

  17. Use of Telehealth for Research and Clinical Measures in Cochlear Implant Recipients: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michelle L.; Goehring, Jenny L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.; Diaz, Gina R.; Sanford, Todd; Harpster, Roger; Valente, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to compare clinical and research-based cochlear implant (CI) measures using telehealth versus traditional methods. Method: This prospective study used an ABA design (A = laboratory, B = remote site). All measures were made twice per visit for the purpose of assessing within-session variability. Twenty-nine adult…

  18. A comparison of speech recognition training programs for cochlear implant users: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Marie E.; Chiu, C.-Y. Peter

    2003-10-01

    The present simulaton study compared two training programs with very different design features to explore how each might improve the ability of listeners with normal hearing to recognize speech generated by a cochlear implant simulator. The first program, which focused training on specific areas of difficulty for individual patients across multiple levels of linguistic content (e.g., vowels, consonants, words, and sentences), was modeled after a standard program prescribed by one of the US manufacturers of cochlear implants. The second program consisted of exposure to multiple sentences with feedback regardless of subjects' performance level, and had been used in previous studies from this laboratory. All speech materials were reduced spectrally to simulate an 8-channel CIS cochlear implant processor with a ``6mm frequency upshift'' [Fu and Shannon, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1889 (1999)]. Test sessions were administered to all subjects to assess recognition of sentences, consonants (/aCa/), and vowels (in /hVd/ and /bVt/ contexts) pre- and post-training. In a subset of subjects, a crossover design, in which subjects were trained first with one program and then with the other, was employed. Results will be discussed both in terms of theory and practice of therapeutic programs for cochlear implant users.

  19. Sentence Production after Listener and Echoic Training by Prelingual Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golfeto, Raquel M.; de Souza, Deisy G.

    2015-01-01

    Three children with neurosensory deafness who used cochlear implants were taught to match video clips to dictated sentences. We used matrix training with overlapping components and tested for recombinative generalization. Two 3?×?3 matrices generated 18 sentences. For each matrix, we taught 6 sentences and evaluated generalization with the…

  20. Picture-Elicited Written Narratives, Process and Product, in 18 Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asker-Arnason, Lena; Ibertsson, Tina; Wass, Malin; Wengelin, Asa; Sahlen, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the narrative writing of 18 children, ages 11 to 19, with severe and profound hearing impairment who had cochlear implants (CI), compared with the performance of hearing children. Nine of the 18 children had prelingual deafness and 9 children had postlingual deafness. The hearing impairment was progressive…

  1. Deciding to Have a Cochlear Implant and Subsequent After-Care: Parental Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbold, Sue; Sach, Tracey; O/Neill, Ciaran; Lutman, Mark; Gregory, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implantation provides a means of hearing to profoundly deaf children. As it is an elective procedure, parents must make the decision to proceed with this option if their child is suitable. The processes involved are complex and stressful, involving hope and expectation on the one hand, and doubts and caution on the other. This study…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  3. Acoustic Analysis of the Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liker, Marko; Mildner, Vesna; Sindija, Branka

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the speech of the children with cochlear implants, and compare it with the speech of hearing controls. We focused on three categories of Croatian sounds: vowels (F1 and F2 frequencies), fricatives (noise frequencies of /s/ and /[esh]/ ), and affricates (total duration and the pattern of stop-fricative components…

  4. Profiles of Verbal Working Memory Growth Predict Speech and Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.; Harris, Michael S.; Hoen, Helena M.; Xu, Huiping; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Verbal short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) skills predict speech and language outcomes in children with cochlear implants (CIs) even after conventional demographic, device, and medical factors are taken into account. However, prior research has focused on single end point outcomes as opposed to the longitudinal process of…

  5. Fortition and Lenition Patterns in the Acquisition of Obstruents by Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungsun; Chin, Steven B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates patterns of error production in 10 children who use cochlear implants, focusing specifically on the acquisition of obstruents. Two broad patterns of production errors are investigated, fortition (or strengthening) errors and lenition (or weakening) errors. It is proposed that fortition error patterns tend to be related to…

  6. The Emergence of Productive Speech and Language in Spanish-Learning Paediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Torres, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that cochlear implant users may develop robust categorical perception skills, but that they show limited precision in perception. This article explores if a parallel contrast is observable in production, and if, despite acquiring typical linguistic representations, their early words are inconsistent. The participants were…

  7. Efficacy of Multiple-Talker Phonetic Identification Training in Postlingually Deafened Cochlear Implant Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sharon E.; Zhang, Yang; Nelson, Peggy B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study implemented a pretest-intervention-posttest design to examine whether multiple-talker identification training enhanced phonetic perception of the /ba/-/da/ and /wa/-/ja/ contrasts in adult listeners who were deafened postlingually and have cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Nine CI recipients completed 8 hours of identification…

  8. Genetic Predisposition and Sensory Experience in Language Development: Evidence from Cochlear-Implanted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coene, Martine; Schauwers, Karen; Gillis, Steven; Rooryck, Johan; Govaerts, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent neurobiological studies have advanced the hypothesis that language development is not continuously plastic but is governed by biological constraints that may be modified by experience within a particular time window. This hypothesis is tested based on spontaneous speech data from deaf cochlear-implanted (CI) children with access to…

  9. Vocabulary Knowledge of Children with Cochlear Implants: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This article employs meta-analysis procedures to evaluate whether children with cochlear implants demonstrate lower spoken-language vocabulary knowledge than peers with normal hearing. Of the 754 articles screened and 52 articles coded, 12 articles met predetermined inclusion criteria (with an additional 5 included for one analysis). Effect sizes…

  10. Coming to a Decision about Cochlear Implantation: Parents Making Choices for their Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Merv; Punch, Renee; Komesaroff, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This study combined quantitative and qualitative methods in a sequential approach to investigate the experiences of parents making decisions about cochlear implants for their deaf children. Quantitative findings from a survey instrument completed by 247 parents were extended and elaborated by qualitative findings from in-depth interviews with 27…

  11. Consonant Production Accuracy in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients: Developmental Sound Classes and Word Position Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Kloiber, Diana True; Jung, Jongmin; Kirleis, Katie Connell; Bradford, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare young cochlear implant (CI) recipients' consonant production accuracy with that of age- and gender-matched peers who were typically developing (TD). In addition to examining initial consonants, the authors compiled new data regarding the accuracy of final consonants and the order of consonant acquisition. Methods: Eleven young…

  12. Long-Term Predictors of Narrative Skill in Children with Early Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Kelsey E.; Wie, Ona Bø

    2015-01-01

    Narratives require the integration of many different linguistic skills and can be used as an ecologically valid measure of child language development. This study investigated the narrative skills of 18 six- to seven-year-old prelingually deaf children who received simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants (CI) between 5 and 18 months of age. No…

  13. Language Development in a Hearing and a Deaf Twin with Simultaneous Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggirello, Caterina; Mayer, Connie

    2010-01-01

    This case study is an examination of the language development of a single pair of fraternal twins--one with a profound, sensorineural hearing loss who received simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants at 1 year of age and the other with normal hearing. The purpose of the study was to compare the twins' language development over time from 6 months…

  14. Some Ethical Dimensions of Cochlear Implantation for Deaf Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Merv; Power, Des

    2006-01-01

    A major source of controversy between Deaf people and those who support a "social/cultural" view of Deafness as "a life to be lived" and those who see deafness within a "medical model" as a "condition to be cured" has been over the cochlear implantation of young deaf children. Recent research has shown that there are noticeable inequities in…

  15. Executive Functioning and Speech-Language Skills Following Long-Term Use of Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronenberger, William G.; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocognitive processes such as executive functioning (EF) may influence the development of speech-language skills in deaf children after cochlear implantation in ways that differ from normal-hearing, typically developing children. Conversely, spoken language abilities and experiences may also exert reciprocal effects on the development of EF.…

  16. Feasibility of a Recasting and Auditory Bombardment Treatment with Young Cochlear Implant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Encinas, Danielle; Plante, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There is little to guide clinicians in terms of evidence-based interventions for children with cochlear implants who demonstrate morpheme errors. This feasibility study tested the utility of a treatment targeting grammatical morpheme errors. Method: Three children (ages 4-5 years) received Enhanced Conversational Recast treatment, a…

  17. Acquisition of Tense Marking in English-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of tense markers (e.g., past tense -ed) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) over a 3-year span. Nine children who received CIs before 30 months of age participated in this study at three, four, and five years postimplantation. Nine typical 3-, 4-, and 5-year- olds served as control groups. All children…

  18. Song Recognition by Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Comparison between Unilateral, Bilateral, and Bimodal Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartov, Tamar; Most, Tova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine song identification by preschoolers with normal hearing (NH) versus preschoolers with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Participants included 45 children ages 3;8-7;3 (years;months): 12 with NH and 33 with CIs, including 10 with unilateral CI, 14 with bilateral CIs, and 9 bimodal users (CI-HA) with unilateral CI and…

  19. Discrimination of Stochastic Frequency Modulation by Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley; Cheng, Min-Yu; Shafiro, Valeriy

    2015-01-01

    Background Past work has shown that low-rate frequency modulation (FM) may help preserve signal coherence, aid segmentation at word and syllable boundaries, and benefit speech intelligibility in the presence of a masker. Purpose This study evaluated whether difficulties in speech perception by cochlear implant (CI) users relate to a deficit in the ability to discriminate among stochastic low-rate patterns of FM. Research Design This is a correlational study assessing the association between the ability to discriminate stochastic patterns of low-rate FM and the intelligibility of speech in noise. Study Sample Thirteen postlingually deafened adult CI users participated in this study. Data Collection and Analysis Using modulators derived from 5-Hz lowpass noise applied to a 1-kHz carrier, thresholds were measured in terms of frequency excursion both inquiet and with a speech-babble masker present, stimulus duration, and signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of a speech-babble masker. Speech perception ability was assessed in the presence of the same speech-babble masker. Relationships were evaluated with Pearson product–moment correlation analysis with correction for family-wise error, and commonality analysis to determine the unique and common contributions across psychoacoustic variables to the association with speech ability. Results Significant correlations were obtained between masked speech intelligibility and three metrics of FM discrimination involving either signal-to-noise ratio or stimulus duration, with shared variance among the three measures accounting for much of the effect. Compared to past results from young normal-hearing adults and older adults with either normal hearing or a mild-to-moderate hearing loss, mean FM discrimination thresholds obtained from CI users were higher in all conditions. Conclusions The ability to process the pattern of frequency excursions of stochastic FM may, in part, have a common basis with speech perception in noise

  20. Successful Hearing Preservation After Reimplantation of a Failed Hybrid Cochlear Implant.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Camille C; Etler, Christine; Hansen, Marlan; Gantz, Bruce J

    2015-12-01

    Objective: The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate hearing preservation of a subject who was implanted with a 10-mm short electrode cochlear implant that was determined to be malfunctioning at 6 months postimplantation and was explanted and reimplanted with a 16-mm short electrode device.Study Design: Single-subject case study.Setting: Research hospital.Patient: A 60-year old female with a history of gradual progressive bilateral steeply sloping sensorineural hearing loss.Intervention: Rehabilitative.Main Outcome Measure(s): Audiometric data and speech perception in quiet and in noise were collected pre- and postoperatively at 3 and 6 months with the 10-mm short electrode device and pre-explantation and postoperatively at 3, 6, and 12 months with the 16-mm short electrode device.Results: Functional hearing preservation was accomplished following surgical implantation of both short electrode devices. Overall, the subject had a 22 dB HL total shift in pure-tone-average (0.125–1 kHz) after two cochlear implant surgeries. Speech perception growth was limited over the 6 months the subject was implanted with the 10-mm short electrode device. After 3 months of experience with the 16-mm short electrode device, the subject experienced significant improvements in both speech perception in quiet and in noise.Conclusions: The inner ear might be more robust than once thought, as was determined through preservation of residual hearing after implantation of two hearing preservation cochlear implants and one device explantation. Furthermore, it is important that hearing professionals remain cognizant of unusual speech perception patterns associated with the cochlear implant. Key Words: Hearing preservation—Residual hearing—Short electode. [Corrected

  1. Evaluation of the Relationship between the NRT-Ratio, Cochlear Anatomy, and Insertions Depth of Perimodiolar Cochlear Implant Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Mittmann, Philipp; Rademacher, Grit; Mutze, Sven; Hassepass, Frederike; Ernst, Arneborg; Todt, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The position of the cochlear implant electrode array within the scala tympani is essential for an optimal postoperative hearing benefit. If the electrode array changes in between the scalae intracochlearly (i.e., from scala tympani to scala vestibuli), a reduced auditory performance can be assumed. We established a neural response telemetry-ratio (NRT-ratio) which corresponds with the scalar position of the electrodes but shows within its limits a variability. The aim of this study was to determine if insertion depth angle or cochlea size influences the NRT-ratio. The intraoperative electrophysiological NRT data of 26 patients were evaluated. Using a flat panel tomography system, the position of the electrode array was evaluated radiologically. The insertion depth angle of the electrode, the cochlea size, and the NRT-ratio were calculated postoperatively. The radiological results were compared with the intraoperatively obtained electrophysiological data (NRT-ratio) and statistically evaluated. In all patients the NRT-ratio, the insertion depth angle, and the cochlea size could be determined. A significant correlation between insertional depth, cochlear size, and the NRT-ratio was not found. The NRT-ratio is a reliable electrophysiological tool to determine the scalar position of a perimodiolar electrode array. The NRT-ratio can be applied independent from insertion depth and cochlear size. PMID:26839885

  2. Auditory input modulates sleep: an intra-cochlear-implanted human model.

    PubMed

    Velluti, Ricardo A; Pedemonte, Marisa; Suárez, Hámlet; Bentancor, Claudia; Rodríguez-Servetti, Zulma

    2010-12-01

    To properly demonstrate the effect of auditory input on sleep of intra-cochlear-implanted patients, the following approach was developed. Four implanted deaf patients were recorded during four nights: two nights with the implant OFF, with no auditory input, and two nights with the implant ON, that is, with normal auditory input, being only the common night sounds present, without any additional auditory stimuli delivered. The sleep patterns of another five deaf people were used as controls, exhibiting normal sleep organization. Moreover, the four experimental patients with intra-cochlear devices and the implant OFF also showed normal sleep patterns. On comparison of the night recordings with the implant ON and OFF, a new sleep organization was observed for the recordings with the implant ON, suggesting that brain plasticity may produce changes in the sleep stage percentages while maintaining the ultradian rhythm. During sleep with the implant ON, the analysis of the electroencephalographic delta, theta and alpha bands in the frequency domain, using the Fast Fourier Transform, revealed a diversity of changes in the power originated in the contralateral cortical temporal region. Different power shifts were observed, perhaps related to the exact position of the implant inside the cochlea and the scalp electrode location. In conclusion, this pilot study shows that the auditory input in humans can introduce changes in central nervous system activity leading to shifts in sleep characteristics, as previously demonstrated in guinea pigs. We are postulating that an intra-cochlear-implanted deaf patient may have a better recovery if the implant is maintained ON during the night, that is, during sleep. PMID:20408927

  3. The Safety of MR Conditional Cochlear Implant at 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Ogura, Akio; Hayashi, Norio; Seino, Shinya; Kawai, Ryosuke; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Tsukasa; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the patients with the cochlear implant, only limited data have a mention for safety information in the instruction manual supplied by the manufacturers. Therefore, imaging operators require more detailed safety information for implant device. We conducted detailed examination about displacement force, torque, and demagnetizing of the cochlear implant magnet based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard using the PULSAR and CONCERTO (MED-EL) with 1.5 tesla MRI system. As a result, the displacement force and the torque of the implant magnet were less than the numerical values descried in the manual. Therefore, these have almost no effect on the body under the condition described in a manual. In addition, the demagnetizing factor of the cochlear implant magnet occurred by a change magnetic field. The demagnetization depended on the direction of a line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field and the implant magnet. In conclusion, the operator must warn the position of the patients on inducing in the magnet room. PMID:27546081

  4. The use of subtotal petrosectomy in cochlear implant candidates with chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    Szymański, Marcin; Ataide, Andre; Linder, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) candidates with chronic otitis media require special attention and management. The need of opening of the inner ear creates potential routes of spread of infection to subarachnoid spaces and lead to meningitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the technique and complications of subtotal petrosectomy (SP) in cochlear implant candidates with chronic otitis media at three different CI centres. A retrospective study was carried out in three Territory Referral Hospitals. The centres follow Fisch's philosophy and surgical techniques of SP. The study group consisted of 19 patients, 4 men and 15 women, aged 12-82 years. All patients underwent SP with either primary or staged CI implantation. Indications for single or a staged management, difficulties during surgery and complications were analysed. Skin and muscle flap design in primary and revision cases as well as imaging follow-up strategy are discussed. In 14 patients implantation was performed in a single stage and in 5 cases in two stages. Follow-up ranged from 8 months to 10 years. All the patients use their implants and there were no major nor minor complications. The use of subtotal petrosectomy with cochlear implants is a safe and efficient technique when strict surgical steps and rules are applied. Closure of the external ear canal after previous meatoplasty can be challenging and extreme care dissecting the skin flaps is required. In patients with extensive cholesteatoma, active discharge from the ear with resistant bacteria or an "unstable" situation, the procedure can be staged.

  5. The Safety of MR Conditional Cochlear Implant at 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Ogura, Akio; Hayashi, Norio; Seino, Shinya; Kawai, Ryosuke; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Tsukasa; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the patients with the cochlear implant, only limited data have a mention for safety information in the instruction manual supplied by the manufacturers. Therefore, imaging operators require more detailed safety information for implant device. We conducted detailed examination about displacement force, torque, and demagnetizing of the cochlear implant magnet based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard using the PULSAR and CONCERTO (MED-EL) with 1.5 tesla MRI system. As a result, the displacement force and the torque of the implant magnet were less than the numerical values descried in the manual. Therefore, these have almost no effect on the body under the condition described in a manual. In addition, the demagnetizing factor of the cochlear implant magnet occurred by a change magnetic field. The demagnetization depended on the direction of a line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field and the implant magnet. In conclusion, the operator must warn the position of the patients on inducing in the magnet room.

  6. 3D optical coherence tomography image registration for guiding cochlear implant insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Gyeong-Woo; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Chalasani, Preetham; Chien, Wade W.; Iordachita, Iulian; Taylor, Russell; Niparko, John; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-03-01

    In cochlear implant surgery, an electrode array is inserted into the cochlear canal to restore hearing to a person who is profoundly deaf or significantly hearing impaired. One critical part of the procedure is the insertion of the electrode array, which looks like a thin wire, into the cochlear canal. Although X-ray or computed tomography (CT) could be used as a reference to evaluate the pathway of the whole electrode array, there is no way to depict the intra-cochlear canal and basal turn intra-operatively to help guide insertion of the electrode array. Optical coherent tomography (OCT) is a highly effective way of visualizing internal structures of cochlea. Swept source OCT (SSOCT) having center wavelength of 1.3 micron and 2D Galvonometer mirrors was used to achieve 7-mm depth 3-D imaging. Graphics processing unit (GPU), OpenGL, C++ and C# were integrated for real-time volumetric rendering simultaneously. The 3D volume images taken by the OCT system were assembled and registered which could be used to guide a cochlear implant. We performed a feasibility study using both dry and wet temporal bones and the result is presented.

  7. Cochlear implants and bacterial meningitis: A speech recognition study in paired samples

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Rubens; Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria; Magalhães, Ana Tereza; Samuel, Paola; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Cochlear implants may guarantee sound perception and the ability to detect speech at a close-to-normal hearing intensity; however, differences have been observed among implantees in terms of performance on discrimination tests and speech recognition. Objective: To identify whether patients with post-meningitis deafness perform similarly to patients with hearing loss due to other causes. Method: A retrospective clinical study involving post-lingual patients who had been using Nucleus-22 or Nucleus-24 cochlear implants for at least 1 year. These patients were matched with respect to age (± 2 years), time since the onset of deafness (± 1 year), and the duration of implant use with implant users who had hearing loss due to other causes. Speech perception was assessed using the Portuguese version of the Latin-American Protocol for the Evaluation of Cochlear Implants. Results: The sample consisted of 52 individuals (26 in each of the 2 groups). The post-meningitic group had a median of 18.5 active electrodes. The group with hearing loss due to other causes had a median of 21, but no significant statistical difference was observed (p = 0.07). The results of closed- and open-set speech recognition tests showed great variability in speech recognition between the studied groups. These differences were more pronounced for the most difficult listening tasks, such as the medial consonant task (in the vowel-consonant-vowel format). Conclusion: Cochlear implant recipients with hearing loss due to bacterial meningitis, who had been using the device for 1 year performed more poorly on closed- and open-set speech recognition tests than did implant recipients with hearing loss due to other causes. PMID:25991995

  8. Technology developments to initiate a next generation of cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Volckaerts, B; Corless, A R; Mercanzini, A; Silmon, A M; Bertsch, A; Van Himbeeck, C; Wasikiewicz, J; Vanden Bulcke, M; Vadgama, P; Renaud, P

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the EU-supported research project Healthy Aims, we developed a range of novel electrode arrays and related technologies for use in hearing prosthesis. This paper summarizes our ongoing research activities on alternative electrode manufacturing routes, functional electrode interfaces and smart intra-cochlear and intra-modiolus electrode arrays.

  9. Design of a Tool Integrating Force Sensing With Automated Insertion in Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Schurzig, Daniel; Labadie, Robert F.; Hussong, Andreas; Rau, Thomas S.; Webster, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of hearing restored to a deaf patient by a cochlear implant in hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery (and possibly also in routine cochlear implant surgery) is believed to depend on preserving delicate cochlear membranes while accurately inserting an electrode array deep into the spiral cochlea. Membrane rupture forces, and possibly, other indicators of suboptimal placement, are below the threshold detectable by human hands, motivating a force sensing insertion tool. Furthermore, recent studies have shown significant variability in manual insertion forces and velocities that may explain some instances of imperfect placement. Toward addressing this, an automated insertion tool was recently developed by Hussong et al. By following the same insertion tool concept, in this paper, we present mechanical enhancements that improve the surgeon’s interface with the device and make it smaller and lighter. We also present electomechanical design of new components enabling integrated force sensing. The tool is designed to be sufficiently compact and light that it can be mounted to a microstereotactic frame for accurate image-guided preinsertion positioning. The new integrated force sensing system is capable of resolving forces as small as 0.005 N, and we provide experimental illustration of using forces to detect errors in electrode insertion. PMID:23482414

  10. Neurocognitive testing and cochlear implantation: insights into performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cosetti, Maura K; Pinkston, James B; Flores, Jose M; Friedmann, David R; Jones, Callie B; Roland, J Thomas; Waltzman, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this case series was to assess the impact of auditory rehabilitation with cochlear implantation on the cognitive function of elderly patients over time. Design This is a longitudinal case series of prospective data assessing neurocognitive function and speech perception in an elderly cohort pre- and post-implantation. Setting University cochlear implant center. Participants The patients were post-lingually deafened elderly female (mean, 73.6 years; SD, 5.82; range, 67–81 years) cochlear implant recipients (n=7). Measurements A neurocognitive battery of 20 tests assessing intellectual function, learning, short- and long-term memory, verbal fluency, attention, mental flexibility, and processing speed was performed prior to and 2–4.1 years (mean, 3.7) after cochlear implant (CI). Speech perception testing using Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant words was performed prior to implantation and at regular intervals postoperatively. Individual and aggregate differences in cognitive function pre- and post-CI were estimated. Logistic regression with cluster adjustment was used to estimate the association (%improvement or %decline) between speech understanding and years from implantation at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-CI. Results Improvements after CI were observed in 14 (70%) of all subtests administered. Declines occurred in five (25%) subtests. In 55 individual tests (43%), post-CI performance improved compared to a patient’s own performance before implantation. Of these, nine (45%) showed moderate or pronounced improvement. Overall, improvements were largest in the verbal and memory domains. Logistic regression demonstrated a significant relationship between speech perception and cognitive function over time. Five neurocognitive tests were predictive of improved speech perception following implantation. Conclusion Comprehensive neurocognitive testing of elderly women demonstrated areas of improvement in cognitive function and auditory

  11. Non-penetrating round window electrode stimulation for tinnitus therapy followed by cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Gentiana I; Sarnes, Petra; Warnecke, Athanasia; Stöver, Timo; Jäger, Burkard; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Lenarz, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    One main theory behind the origin of tinnitus is based on the idea that alterations of the spontaneous electrical activity within the auditory system lead to abnormal firing patterns in the affected nervous structures [1]. A possible therapeutic option is the use of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve for the recovery or at least limitation of the abnormal firing pattern to a level that can be easily tolerated by the patient. The Tinnelec Implant consists of a single non-penetrating stimulation electrode connected to a Neurelec cochlear implant system. As a first feasibility study, before starting implantations in hearing patients, we thought to assess the potential of the Tinnelec stimulation to treat tinnitus in unilateral deaf patients, analysing hereby its effectivity and risks. Three patients suffering from unilateral tinnitus resistant to pharmacological treatment and ipsilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss/deafness were implanted with a Tinnelec system between September 2007 and July 2008, at the ENT Department of Hannover Medical School. The stimulation strategy was chosen to induce alleviation of the tinnitus through suppression, masking and/or habituation and the response of each patient on the treatment was monitored using a visual analogue scale (VAS) on loudness and annoyance of tinnitus, mood of the patient, as well as the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI). All patients had a benefit from the electrical stimulation for their tinnitus (THI-score improvement of 20-70), however, not all participants profited from the Tinnelec system in same way and degree. In one patient, despite good results, the device had to be replaced with a conventional cochlear implant because of Tinnelec-independent increase in hearing loss on the contralateral ear. Additionally, due to the extension of cochlear implant indications, the devices of the other two patients have been meanwhile replaced with a conventional cochlear implant to benefit

  12. Non-penetrating round window electrode stimulation for tinnitus therapy followed by cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Gentiana I; Sarnes, Petra; Warnecke, Athanasia; Stöver, Timo; Jäger, Burkard; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Lenarz, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    One main theory behind the origin of tinnitus is based on the idea that alterations of the spontaneous electrical activity within the auditory system lead to abnormal firing patterns in the affected nervous structures [1]. A possible therapeutic option is the use of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve for the recovery or at least limitation of the abnormal firing pattern to a level that can be easily tolerated by the patient. The Tinnelec Implant consists of a single non-penetrating stimulation electrode connected to a Neurelec cochlear implant system. As a first feasibility study, before starting implantations in hearing patients, we thought to assess the potential of the Tinnelec stimulation to treat tinnitus in unilateral deaf patients, analysing hereby its effectivity and risks. Three patients suffering from unilateral tinnitus resistant to pharmacological treatment and ipsilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss/deafness were implanted with a Tinnelec system between September 2007 and July 2008, at the ENT Department of Hannover Medical School. The stimulation strategy was chosen to induce alleviation of the tinnitus through suppression, masking and/or habituation and the response of each patient on the treatment was monitored using a visual analogue scale (VAS) on loudness and annoyance of tinnitus, mood of the patient, as well as the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI). All patients had a benefit from the electrical stimulation for their tinnitus (THI-score improvement of 20-70), however, not all participants profited from the Tinnelec system in same way and degree. In one patient, despite good results, the device had to be replaced with a conventional cochlear implant because of Tinnelec-independent increase in hearing loss on the contralateral ear. Additionally, due to the extension of cochlear implant indications, the devices of the other two patients have been meanwhile replaced with a conventional cochlear implant to benefit

  13. Cochlear implant users move in time to the beat of drum music.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Toiviainen, Petri; Gosselin, Nathalie; Turgeon, Christine; Lepore, Franco; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Cochlear implant users show a profile of residual, yet poorly understood, musical abilities. An ability that has received little to no attention in this population is entrainment to a musical beat. We show for the first time that a heterogeneous group of cochlear implant users is able to find the beat and move their bodies in time to Latin Merengue music, especially when the music is presented in unpitched drum tones. These findings not only reveal a hidden capacity for feeling musical rhythm through the body in the deaf and hearing impaired population, but illuminate promising avenues for designing early childhood musical training that can engage implanted children in social musical activities with benefits potentially extending to non-musical domains.

  14. Spectral subtraction-based speech enhancement for cochlear implant patients in background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2005-03-01

    A single-channel speech enhancement algorithm utilizing speech pause detection and nonlinear spectral subtraction is proposed for cochlear implant patients in the present study. The spectral subtraction algorithm estimates the short-time spectral magnitude of speech by subtracting the estimated noise spectral magnitude from the noisy speech spectral magnitude. The artifacts produced by spectral subtraction (such as ``musical noise'') were significantly reduced by combining variance-reduced gain function and spectral flooring. Sentence recognition by seven cochlear implant subjects was tested under different noisy listening conditions (speech-shaped noise and 6-talker speech babble at +9, +6, +3, and 0 dB SNR) with and without the speech enhancement algorithm. For speech-shaped noise, performance for all subjects at all SNRs was significantly improved by the speech enhancement algorithm; for speech babble, performance was only modestly improved. The results suggest that the proposed speech enhancement algorithm may be beneficial for implant users in noisy listening. .

  15. Deficits of non-verbal auditory perception in postlingually deaf humans using cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Szelag, E; Kolodziejczyk, I; Kanabus, M; Szuchnik, J; Senderski, A

    2004-01-23

    Temporal integration in the time domain of a few seconds was investigated with a subjective accentuation paradigm in 11 monochannel cochlear implant users, who showed auditory comprehension deficits. While listening to metronome beats generated at various frequencies, patients were asked to accentuate mentally every n-th beat and create an individual rhythmic pattern. The extent of temporal integration was defined as the duration of perceptual units consisting of subjectively grouped beats at particular metronome frequencies. The results indicate that there is reduced capacity for temporal integration in implant recipients, particularly for lower metronome frequencies, in comparison to normally hearing. These observations point to the coincidence of specific temporal processing disorders and deficits in auditory comprehension after cochlear implantation. PMID:14729232

  16. Cochlear implant users move in time to the beat of drum music.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Toiviainen, Petri; Gosselin, Nathalie; Turgeon, Christine; Lepore, Franco; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Cochlear implant users show a profile of residual, yet poorly understood, musical abilities. An ability that has received little to no attention in this population is entrainment to a musical beat. We show for the first time that a heterogeneous group of cochlear implant users is able to find the beat and move their bodies in time to Latin Merengue music, especially when the music is presented in unpitched drum tones. These findings not only reveal a hidden capacity for feeling musical rhythm through the body in the deaf and hearing impaired population, but illuminate promising avenues for designing early childhood musical training that can engage implanted children in social musical activities with benefits potentially extending to non-musical domains. PMID:25575604

  17. Vocabulary Knowledge of Children With Cochlear Implants: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lund, Emily

    2016-04-01

    This article employs meta-analysis procedures to evaluate whether children with cochlear implants demonstrate lower spoken-language vocabulary knowledge than peers with normal hearing. Of the 754 articles screened and 52 articles coded, 12 articles met predetermined inclusion criteria (with an additional 5 included for one analysis). Effect sizes were calculated for relevant studies and forest plots were used to compare differences between groups of children with normal hearing and children with cochlear implants. Weighted effect size averages for expressive vocabulary measures (g = -11.99; p < .001) and for receptive vocabulary measures (g = -20.33; p < .001) indicated that children with cochlear implants demonstrate lower vocabulary knowledge than children with normal hearing. Additional analyses confirmed the value of comparing vocabulary knowledge of children with hearing loss to a tightly matched (e.g., socioeconomic status-matched) sample. Age of implantation, duration of implantation, and chronological age at testing were not significantly related to magnitude of weighted effect size. Findings from this analysis represent a first step toward resolving discrepancies in the vocabulary knowledge literature.

  18. Comparisons of Auditory Performance and Speech Intelligibility after Cochlear Implant Reimplantation in Mandarin-Speaking Users

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chung-Feng; Ko, Hui-Chen; Tsou, Yung-Ting; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Fang, Hsuan-Yeh; Wu, Che-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the causes, hearing, and speech performance before and after cochlear implant reimplantation in Mandarin-speaking users. Methods. In total, 589 patients who underwent cochlear implantation in our medical center between 1999 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Data related to demographics, etiologies, implant-related information, complications, and hearing and speech performance were collected. Results. In total, 22 (3.74%) cases were found to have major complications. Infection (n = 12) and hard failure of the device (n = 8) were the most common major complications. Among them, 13 were reimplanted in our hospital. The mean scores of the Categorical Auditory Performance (CAP) and the Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) obtained before and after reimplantation were 5.5 versus 5.8 and 3.7 versus 4.3, respectively. The SIR score after reimplantation was significantly better than preoperation. Conclusions. Cochlear implantation is a safe procedure with low rates of postsurgical revisions and device failures. The Mandarin-speaking patients in this study who received reimplantation had restored auditory performance and speech intelligibility after surgery. Device soft failure was rare in our series, calling attention to Mandarin-speaking CI users requiring revision of their implants due to undesirable symptoms or decreasing performance of uncertain cause. PMID:27413753

  19. Performance of 3M/house cochlear implant users on tests of speech perception.

    PubMed

    Danhauer, J L; Ghadialy, F B; Eskwitt, D L; Mendel, L L

    1990-10-01

    This report documents both closed- and open-set speech recognition performance for 18 adult experienced users of the 3M/House single-channel cochlear implant. The stimuli included tape-recorded, standard word and sentence recognition tests, an environmental-sound test, nonsense syllables, and sentences presented in auditory (implant-only), visual, and auditory-visual modes. All subjects were tested individually in a single session using their own cochlear implants, set to typical comfort use settings for running speech. Subjects' oral responses to the stimuli were transcribed by the experimenters and scored for percent correct. The results revealed considerable individual differences among the subjects and their performance on different tests. All subjects scored better than chance on the closed-set tests. Although they performed considerably poorer on the open-set tests, approximately half of these subjects demonstrated at least some open-set word recognition, a finding not previously reported in the literature for this device. All subjects performed better on the auditory-visual sentences than on either the auditory or visual conditions alone. These results contribute to the database on speech perception by cochlear implant users and show that open-set word recognition performance was somewhat better for these subjects using this implant than would have been predicted from the literature.

  20. A cochlear implant fabricated using a bulk silicon-surface micromachining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Tracy Elizabeth

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation presents the design and fabrication of two generations of a silicon microelectrode array for use in a cochlear implant. A cochlear implant is a device that is inserted into the inner ear and uses electrical stimulation to provide sound sensations to the profoundly deaf. The first-generation silicon cochlear implant is a passive device fabricated using silicon microprobe technology developed at the University of Michigan. It contains twenty-two iridium oxide (IrO) stimulating sites that are 250 mum in diameter and spaced at 750 mum intervals. In-vivo recordings were made in guinea pig auditory cortex in response to electrical stimulation with this device, verifying its ability to electrically evoke an auditory response. Auditory thresholds as low as 78 muA were recorded. The second-generation implant is a thirty-two site, four-channel device with on-chip CMOS site-selection circuitry and integrated position sensing. It was fabricated using a novel bulk silicon surface micromachining process which was developed as a part of this dissertation work. While the use of semiconductor technology offers many advantages in fabricating cochlear implants over the methods currently used, it was felt that even further advantages could be gained by developing a new micromachining process which would allow circuitry to be distributed along the full length of the cochlear implant substrate. The new process uses electropolishing of an n+ bulk silicon sacrificial layer to undercut and release n- epitaxial silicon structures from the wafer. An extremely abrupt etch-stop between the n+ and n- silicon is obtained, with no electropolishing taking place in the n-type silicon that is doped lower than 1 x 1017 cm-3 in concentration. Lateral electropolishing rates of up to 50 mum/min were measured using this technique, allowing one millimeter-wide structures to be fully undercut in as little as 10 minutes. The new micromachining process was integrated with a standard p