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Sample records for multicomponent monooxygenase pseudomonas

  1. Tuning the specificity of the recombinant multicomponent toluene o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain OX1 for the biosynthesis of tyrosol from 2-phenylethanol.

    PubMed

    Notomista, Eugenio; Scognamiglio, Roberta; Troncone, Luca; Donadio, Giuliana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Di Donato, Alberto; Izzo, Viviana

    2011-08-01

    Biocatalysis is today a standard technology for the industrial production of several chemicals, and the number of biotransformation processes running on a commercial scale is constantly increasing. Among biocatalysts, bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs), a diverse group of nonheme diiron enzymes that activate dioxygen, are of primary interest due to their ability to catalyze a variety of complex oxidations, including reactions of mono- and dihydroxylation of phenolic compounds. In recent years, both directed evolution and rational design have been successfully used to identify the molecular determinants responsible for BMM regioselectivity and to improve their activity toward natural and nonnatural substrates. Toluene o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) is a BMM isolated from Pseudomonas sp. strain OX1 which hydroxylates a wide spectrum of aromatic compounds. In this work we investigate the use of recombinant ToMO for the biosynthesis in recombinant cells of Escherichia coli strain JM109 of 4-hydroxyphenylethanol (tyrosol), an antioxidant present in olive oil, from 2-phenylethanol, a cheap and commercially available substrate. We initially found that wild-type ToMO is unable to convert 2-phenylethanol to tyrosol. This was explained by using a computational model which analyzed the interactions between ToMO active-site residues and the substrate. We found that residue F176 is the major steric hindrance for the correct positioning of the reaction intermediate leading to tyrosol production into the active site of the enzyme. Several mutants were designed and prepared, and we found that the combination of different mutations at position F176 with mutation E103G allows ToMO to convert up to 50% of 2-phenylethanol into tyrosol in 2 h.

  2. X-ray structure of a hydroxylase-regulatory protein complex from a hydrocarbon-oxidizing multicomponent monooxygenase, Pseudomonas sp. OX1 phenol hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Sazinsky, Matthew H; Dunten, Pete W; McCormick, Michael S; DiDonato, Alberto; Lippard, Stephen J

    2006-12-26

    Phenol hydroxylase (PH) belongs to a family of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) with carboxylate-bridged diiron active sites. Included are toluene/o-xylene (ToMO) and soluble methane (sMMO) monooxygenase. PH hydroxylates aromatic compounds, but unlike sMMO, it cannot oxidize alkanes despite having a similar dinuclear iron active site. Important for activity is formation of a complex between the hydroxylase and a regulatory protein component. To address how structural features of BMM hydroxylases and their component complexes may facilitate the catalytic mechanism and choice of substrate, we determined X-ray structures of native and SeMet forms of the PH hydroxylase (PHH) in complex with its regulatory protein (PHM) to 2.3 A resolution. PHM binds in a canyon on one side of the (alphabetagamma)2 PHH dimer, contacting alpha-subunit helices A, E, and F approximately 12 A above the diiron core. The structure of the dinuclear iron center in PHH resembles that of mixed-valent MMOH, suggesting an Fe(II)Fe(III) oxidation state. Helix E, which comprises part of the iron-coordinating four-helix bundle, has more pi-helical character than analogous E helices in MMOH and ToMOH lacking a bound regulatory protein. Consequently, conserved active site Thr and Asn residues translocate to the protein surface, and an approximately 6 A pore opens through the four-helix bundle. Of likely functional significance is a specific hydrogen bond formed between this Asn residue and a conserved Ser side chain on PHM. The PHM protein covers a putative docking site on PHH for the PH reductase, which transfers electrons to the PHH diiron center prior to O2 activation, suggesting that the regulatory component may function to block undesired reduction of oxygenated intermediates during the catalytic cycle. A series of hydrophobic cavities through the PHH alpha-subunit, analogous to those in MMOH, may facilitate movement of the substrate to and/or product from the active site pocket

  3. Analysis of the gene cluster encoding toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, G.; Martino, M.; Galli, E.; Barbieri, P.

    1998-10-01

    The toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase cloned from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 displays a very broad range of substrates and a very peculiar regioselectivity, because it is able to hydroxylate more than one position on the aromatic ring of several hydrocarbons and phenols. The nucleotide sequence of the gene cluster coding for this enzymatic system has been determined. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of six open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to other genes clustered in operons coding for multicomponent monooxygenases found in benzene- and toluene-degradative pathways cloned from Pseudomonas strains. Significant similarities were also found with multicomponent monooxygenase systems for phenol, methane, alkene, and dimethyl sulfide cloned from different bacterial strains. The knockout of each ORF and complementation with the wild-type allele indicated that all six ORFs are essential for the full activity of the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase in Escherichia coli. This analysis also shows that despite its activity on both hydrocarbons and phenols, toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase belongs to a toluene multicomponent monooxygenase subfamily rather than to the monooxygenases active on phenols.

  4. Coupling Oxygen Consumption with Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Bacterial Multicomponent Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weixue; Liang, Alexandria D; Lippard, Stephen J

    2015-09-15

    A fundamental goal in catalysis is the coupling of multiple reactions to yield a desired product. Enzymes have evolved elegant approaches to address this grand challenge. A salient example is the biological conversion of methane to methanol catalyzed by soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO), a member of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) superfamily. sMMO is a dynamic protein complex of three components: a hydroxylase, a reductase, and a regulatory protein. The active site, a carboxylate-rich non-heme diiron center, is buried inside the 251 kDa hydroxylase component. The enzyme processes four substrates: O2, protons, electrons, and methane. To couple O2 activation to methane oxidation, timely control of substrate access to the active site is critical. Recent studies of sMMO, as well as its homologues in the BMM superfamily, have begun to unravel the mechanism. The emerging and unifying picture reveals that each substrate gains access to the active site along a specific pathway through the hydroxylase. Electrons and protons are delivered via a three-amino-acid pore located adjacent to the diiron center; O2 migrates via a series of hydrophobic cavities; and hydrocarbon substrates reach the active site through a channel or linked set of cavities. The gating of these pathways mediates entry of each substrate to the diiron active site in a timed sequence and is coordinated by dynamic interactions with the other component proteins. The result is coupling of dioxygen consumption with hydrocarbon oxidation, avoiding unproductive oxidation of the reductant rather than the desired hydrocarbon. To initiate catalysis, the reductase delivers two electrons to the diiron(III) center by binding over the pore of the hydroxylase. The regulatory component then displaces the reductase, docking onto the same surface of the hydroxylase. Formation of the hydroxylase-regulatory component complex (i) induces conformational changes of pore residues that may bring protons to the

  5. Product Repression of Alkane Monooxygenase Expression in Pseudomonas butanovora

    PubMed Central

    Doughty, D. M.; Sayavedra-Soto, L. A.; Arp, D. J.; Bottomley, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological and regulatory mechanisms that allow the alkane-oxidizing bacterium Pseudomonas butanovora to consume C2 to C8 alkane substrates via butane monooxygenase (BMO) were examined. Striking differences were observed in response to even- versus odd-chain-length alkanes. Propionate, the downstream product of propane oxidation and of the oxidation of other odd-chain-length alkanes following β-oxidation, was a potent repressor of BMO expression. The transcriptional activity of the BMO promoter was reduced with as little as 10 μM propionate, even in the presence of appropriate inducers. Propionate accumulated stoichiometrically when 1-propanol and propionaldehyde were added to butane- and ethane-grown cells, indicating that propionate catabolism was inactive during growth on even-chain-length alkanes. In contrast, propionate consumption was induced (about 80 nmol propionate consumed · min−1 · mg protein−1) following growth on the odd-chain-length alkanes, propane and pentane. The induction of propionate consumption could be brought on by the addition of propionate or pentanoate to the growth medium. In a reporter strain of P. butanovora in which the BMO promoter controls β-galactosidase expression, only even-chain-length alcohols (C2 to C8) induced β-galactosidase following growth on acetate or butyrate. In contrast, both even- and odd-chain-length alcohols (C3 to C7) were able to induce β-galactosidase following the induction of propionate consumption by propionate or pentanoate. PMID:16547046

  6. Toluene-4-monooxygenase, a three-component enzyme system that catalyzes the oxidation of toluene to p-cresol in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1.

    PubMed Central

    Whited, G M; Gibson, D T

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 grows on toluene as a sole carbon and energy source. A multicomponent oxygenase was partially purified from toluene-grown cells and separated into three protein components. The reconstituted enzyme system, in the presence of NADH and Fe2+, oxidized toluene to p-cresol as the first detectable product. Experiments with p-deutero-toluene led to the isolation of p-cresol which retained 68% of the deuterium initially present in the parent molecule. When the reconstituted enzyme system was incubated with toluene in the presence of 18O2, the oxygen in p-cresol was shown to be derived from molecular oxygen. The results demonstrate that P. mendocina KR1 initiates degradation of toluene by a multicomponent enzyme system which has been designated toluene-4-monooxygenase. PMID:2019563

  7. Conformational analysis of putative regulatory subunit D of the toluene/o-xylene-monooxygenase complex from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1

    PubMed Central

    Scognamiglio, Roberta; Notomista, Eugenio; Barbieri, Paola; Pucci, Piero; Piaz, Fabrizio Dal; Tramontano, Anna; Di Donato, Alberto

    2001-01-01

    A gene cluster isolated from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 genomic DNA and containing six ORFs codes for toluene/o-xylene-monooxygenase. The putative regulatory D subunit was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Its protein sequence was verified by mass spectrometry mapping and found to be identical to the sequence predicted on the basis of the DNA sequence. The surface topology of subunit D in solution was probed by limited proteolysis carried out under strictly controlled conditions using several proteases as proteolytic probes. The same experiments were carried out on the homologous P2 component of the multicomponent phenol hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida CF600. The proteolytic fragments released from both proteins in their native state were analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry, and the preferential cleavage sites were assessed. The results indicated that despite the relatively high similarity between the sequences of the two proteins, some differences in the distribution of preferential proteolytic cleavages were detected, and a much higher conformational flexibility of subunit D was inferred. Moreover, automatic modeling of subunit D was attempted, based on the known three-dimensional structure of P2. Our results indicate that, at least in this case, standard modeling procedures based on automatic alignment on the structure of P2 fail to produce a model consistent with limited proteolysis experimental data. Thus, it is our opinion that reliable techniques such as limited proteolysis can be employed to test three-dimensional models and highlight problems in automatic model building. PMID:11344317

  8. TCE degradation by toluene/benzene monooxygenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa JI104 and Escherichia coli recombinant

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, Junichi; Kitayama, Atsushi

    1995-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa JI104 incorporates more than three degradation pathways for aromatic compounds such as benzene, toluene, and xylene. A dioxygenase and two monooxygenases were cloned in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue. The dioxygenase yielding cis-toluene dihydrodiol and one of the monooxygenases producing o-cresol from toluene did not exhibit conspicuous activity in trichloroethylene (TCE) oxygenation, although DNA sequencing proved that the former enzyme was an isozyme of toluene dioxygenase of the known TCE decomposer P.putida F1. The other toluene/benzene monooxygenase that could generate o-, m-, and p-cresol simultaneously from toluene showed TCE oxygenation activity resulting in TCE decomposition in E. coli. The activity was inhibited competitively by toluene, ethylbenzene, and o- and m-xylene: their inhibition constants were greater than those of propylbenzene and p-xylene. When the E. coli recombinant harboring the monooxygenase was induced by isopropyl {beta}-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and incubated in the absence of toluene, TCE degradation activity decreased during incubation, compared to that with toluene. Toluene probably controlled the lifetime of the enzyme.

  9. Oxidation of naphthalene by a multicomponent enzyme system from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816.

    PubMed Central

    Ensley, B D; Gibson, D T; Laborde, A L

    1982-01-01

    The initial reactions in the oxidation of naphthalene by Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816 involves the enzymatic incorporation of one molecule of oxygen into the aromatic nucleus to form (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction, naphthalene dioxygenase, was resolved into three protein components, designated A, B, and C, by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Incubation of naphthalene with components A, B, and C in the presence of NADH resulted in the formation of (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. The ratio of oxygen and NADH utilization to product formation was 1:1:1. NADPH also served as an electron donor for naphthalene oxygenation. However, its activity was less than 50% of that observed with NADH. Component A showed NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activity which was stimulated by the addition of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. A similar stimulation was observed when these flavin nucleotides were added to the naphthalene dioxygenase assay system. These preliminary observations indicate that naphthalene dioxygenase has properties in common with both monooxygenase and dioxygenase multicomponent enzyme systems. Images PMID:7037744

  10. Mutational and crystallographic analysis of l-amino acid oxidase/monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813: Interconversion between oxidase and monooxygenase activities.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Daisuke; Im, Do-Hyun; Sugawara, Asami; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Fushinobu, Shinya; Isobe, Kimiyasu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, it was shown for the first time that l-amino acid oxidase of Pseudomonas sp. AIU813, renamed as l-amino acid oxidase/monooxygenase (l-AAO/MOG), exhibits l-lysine 2-monooxygenase as well as oxidase activity. l-Lysine oxidase activity of l-AAO/MOG was increased in a p-chloromercuribenzoate (p-CMB) concentration-dependent manner to a final level that was five fold higher than that of the non-treated enzyme. In order to explain the effects of modification by the sulfhydryl reagent, saturation mutagenesis studies were carried out on five cysteine residues, and we succeeded in identifying l-AAO/MOG C254I mutant enzyme, which showed five-times higher specific activity of oxidase activity than that of wild type. The monooxygenase activity shown by the C254I variant was decreased significantly. Moreover, we also determined a high-resolution three-dimensional structure of l-AAO/MOG to provide a structural basis for its biochemical characteristics. The key residue for the activity conversion of l-AAO/MOG, Cys-254, is located near the aromatic cage (Trp-418, Phe-473, and Trp-516). Although the location of Cys-254 indicates that it is not directly involved in the substrate binding, the chemical modification by p-CMB or C254I mutation would have a significant impact on the substrate binding via the side chain of Trp-516. It is suggested that a slight difference of the binding position of a substrate can dictate the activity of this type of enzyme as oxidase or monooxygenase.

  11. Flavin-Dependent Redox Transfers by the Two-Component Diketocamphane Monooxygenases of Camphor-Grown Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007

    PubMed Central

    Willetts, Andrew; Kelly, David

    2016-01-01

    The progressive titres of key monooxygenases and their requisite native donors of reducing power were used to assess the relative contribution of various camphor plasmid (CAM plasmid)- and chromosome-coded activities to biodegradation of (rac)-camphor at successive stages throughout growth of Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007 on the bicylic monoterpenoid. A number of different flavin reductases (FRs) have the potential to supply reduced flavin mononucleotide to both 2,5- and 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase, the key isoenzymic two-component monooxygenases that delineate respectively the (+)- and (−)-camphor branches of the convergent degradation pathway. Two different constitutive chromosome-coded ferric reductases able to act as FRs can serve such as role throughout all stages of camphor-dependent growth, whereas Fred, a chromosome-coded inducible FR can only play a potentially significant role in the relatively late stages. Putidaredoxin reductase, an inducible CAM plasmid-coded flavoprotein that serves an established role as a redox intermediate for plasmid-coded cytochrome P450 monooxygenase also has the potential to serve as an important FR for both diketocamphane monooxygenases (DKCMOs) throughout most stages of camphor-dependent growth. PMID:27754389

  12. Monooxygenase-mediated 1,2-dichloroethane degradation by Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hage, J.C.; Hartmans, S.

    1999-06-01

    A bacterial strain, designated Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1, was isolated from a 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA)-degrading biofilm. Strain DCA1 utilizes DCA as the sole carbon and energy source and does not require additional organic nutrients, such as vitamins, for optimal growth. The affinity of strain DCA1 for DCA is very high, with a K{sub m} value below the detection limit of 0.5 {micro}M. Instead of a hydrolytic dehalogenation, as in other DCA utilizers, the first step in DCA degradation in strain DCA1 is an oxidation reaction. Oxygen and NAD(P)H are required for this initial step. Propene was converted to 1,2-epoxypropane by DCA-grown cells and competitively inhibited DCA degradation. The authors concluded that a monooxygenase is responsible for the first step in DCA degradation in strain DCA1. Oxidation of DCA probably results in the formation of the unstable intermediate 1,2-dichloroethanol, which spontaneously releases chloride, yielding chloroacetaldehyde. The DCA degradation pathway is strain DCA1 proceeds from chloroacetaldehyde via chloroacetic acid and presumably glycolic acid, which is similar to degradation routes observed in other DCA-utilizing bacteria.

  13. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F.; Lau, Peter C.; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-10-31

    The first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase reveals a different ring orientation of its FMN cofactor compared with other related bacterial luciferase-family enzymes. The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily.

  14. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F.; Lau, Peter C.; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily. PMID:26527149

  15. Cloning, Expression, Characterization, and Biocatalytic Investigation of the 4-Hydroxyacetophenone Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida JD1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rehdorf, Jessica; Zimmer, Christian L.; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.

    2009-01-01

    While the number of available recombinant Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) has grown significantly over the last few years, there is still the demand for other BVMOs to expand the biocatalytic diversity. Most BVMOs that have been described are dedicated to convert efficiently cyclohexanone and related cyclic aliphatic ketones. To cover a broader range of substrate types and enantio- and/or regioselectivities, new BVMOs have to be discovered. The gene encoding a BVMO identified in Pseudomonas putida JD1 converting aromatic ketones (HAPMO; 4-hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase) was amplified from genomic DNA using SiteFinding-PCR, cloned, and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, four other open reading frames could be identified clustered around this HAPMO. It has been suggested that these proteins, including the HAPMO, might be involved in the degradation of 4-hydroxyacetophenone. Substrate specificity studies revealed that a large variety of other arylaliphatic ketones are also converted via Baeyer-Villiger oxidation into the corresponding esters, with preferences for para-substitutions at the aromatic ring. In addition, oxidation of aldehydes and some heteroaromatic compounds was observed. Cycloketones and open-chain ketones were not or poorly accepted, respectively. It was also found that this enzyme oxidizes aromatic ketones such as 3-phenyl-2-butanone with excellent enantioselectivity (E ≫100). PMID:19251889

  16. Oxidation of trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and chloroform by toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.; Wood, T.K.; Barbieri, P.

    1998-08-01

    Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, which oxidizes toluene and o-xylene, was examined for its ability to degrade the environmental pollutants trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE, chloroform, dichloromethane, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorophenol. Escherichia coli JM109 that expressed ToMO from genes on plasmid pBZ1260 under control of the lac promoter degraded TCE, 1,1-DCE, and chloroform at initial rates of 3.1, 3.6, and 1.6 nmol, respectively. Stoichiometric amounts of chloride release were seen, indicating mineralization. Thus, the substrate range of ToMO is extended to include aliphatic chlorinated compounds.

  17. Kinetic characterization of the soluble butane monooxygenase from Thauera butanivorans, formerly 'Pseudomonas butanovora'.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Richard B; Dubbels, Bradley L; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Bottomley, Peter J; Arp, Daniel J

    2009-06-01

    Soluble butane monooxygenase (sBMO), a three-component di-iron monooxygenase complex expressed by the C(2)-C(9) alkane-utilizing bacterium Thauera butanivorans, was kinetically characterized by measuring substrate specificities for C(1)-C(5) alkanes and product inhibition profiles. sBMO has high sequence homology with soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and shares a similar substrate range, including gaseous and liquid alkanes, aromatics, alkenes and halogenated xenobiotics. Results indicated that butane was the preferred substrate (defined by k(cat) : K(m) ratios). Relative rates of oxidation for C(1)-C(5) alkanes differed minimally, implying that substrate specificity is heavily influenced by differences in substrate K(m) values. The low micromolar K(m) for linear C(2)-C(5) alkanes and the millimolar K(m) for methane demonstrate that sBMO is two to three orders of magnitude more specific for physiologically relevant substrates of T. butanivorans. Methanol, the product of methane oxidation and also a substrate itself, was found to have similar K(m) and k(cat) values to those of methane. This inability to kinetically discriminate between the C(1) alkane and C(1) alcohol is observed as a steady-state concentration of methanol during the two-step oxidation of methane to formaldehyde by sBMO. Unlike methanol, alcohols with chain length C(2)-C(5) do not compete effectively with their respective alkane substrates. Results from product inhibition experiments suggest that the geometry of the active site is optimized for linear molecules four to five carbons in length and is influenced by the regulatory protein component B (butane monooxygenase regulatory component; BMOB). The data suggest that alkane oxidation by sBMO is highly specialized for the turnover of C(3)-C(5) alkanes and the release of their respective alcohol products. Additionally, sBMO is particularly efficient at preventing methane oxidation during growth on linear alkanes > or =C(2,) despite its high

  18. Kinetic characterization of the soluble butane monooxygenase from Thauera butanivorans, formerly ‘Pseudomonas butanovora’

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Richard B.; Dubbels, Bradley L.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Arp, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Soluble butane monooxygenase (sBMO), a three-component di-iron monooxygenase complex expressed by the C2–C9 alkane-utilizing bacterium Thauera butanivorans, was kinetically characterized by measuring substrate specificities for C1–C5 alkanes and product inhibition profiles. sBMO has high sequence homology with soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and shares a similar substrate range, including gaseous and liquid alkanes, aromatics, alkenes and halogenated xenobiotics. Results indicated that butane was the preferred substrate (defined by kcat : Km ratios). Relative rates of oxidation for C1–C5 alkanes differed minimally, implying that substrate specificity is heavily influenced by differences in substrate Km values. The low micromolar Km for linear C2–C5 alkanes and the millimolar Km for methane demonstrate that sBMO is two to three orders of magnitude more specific for physiologically relevant substrates of T. butanivorans. Methanol, the product of methane oxidation and also a substrate itself, was found to have similar Km and kcat values to those of methane. This inability to kinetically discriminate between the C1 alkane and C1 alcohol is observed as a steady-state concentration of methanol during the two-step oxidation of methane to formaldehyde by sBMO. Unlike methanol, alcohols with chain length C2–C5 do not compete effectively with their respective alkane substrates. Results from product inhibition experiments suggest that the geometry of the active site is optimized for linear molecules four to five carbons in length and is influenced by the regulatory protein component B (butane monooxygenase regulatory component; BMOB). The data suggest that alkane oxidation by sBMO is highly specialized for the turnover of C3–C5 alkanes and the release of their respective alcohol products. Additionally, sBMO is particularly efficient at preventing methane oxidation during growth on linear alkanes ≥C2, despite its high sequence homology with sMMO. These

  19. Catalytic activity of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-02-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylases (HPAHs) of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase family are attractive enzymes that possess the catalytic potential to synthesize valuable ortho-diphenol compounds from simple monophenol compounds. In this study, we investigated the catalytic activity of HPAH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 toward cinnamic acid derivatives. We prepared Escherichia coli cells expressing the hpaB gene encoding the monooxygenase component and the hpaC gene encoding the oxidoreductase component. E. coli cells expressing HpaBC exhibited no or very low oxidation activity toward cinnamic acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid, whereas they rapidly oxidized p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid. Interestingly, after p-coumaric acid was almost completely consumed, the resulting caffeic acid was further oxidized to 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid. In addition, HpaBC exhibited oxidation activity toward 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, ferulic acid, and coniferaldehyde to produce the corresponding ortho-diphenols. We also investigated a flask-scale production of caffeic acid from p-coumaric acid as the model reaction for HpaBC-catalyzed syntheses of hydroxycinnamic acids. Since the initial concentrations of the substrate p-coumaric acid higher than 40 mM markedly inhibited its HpaBC-catalyzed oxidation, the reaction was carried out by repeatedly adding 20 mM of this substrate to the reaction mixture. Furthermore, by using the HpaBC whole-cell catalyst in the presence of glycerol, our experimental setup achieved the high-yield production of caffeic acid, i.e., 56.6 mM (10.2 g/L) within 24 h. These catalytic activities of HpaBC will provide an easy and environment-friendly synthetic approach to hydroxycinnamic acids.

  20. Suitability of recombinant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida strains for selective biotransformation of m-nitrotoluene by xylene monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Daniel; Witholt, Bernard; Schmid, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Escherichia coli JM101(pSPZ3), containing xylene monooxygenase (XMO) from Pseudomonas putida mt-2, catalyzes specific oxidations and reductions of m-nitrotoluene and derivatives thereof. In addition to reactions catalyzed by XMO, we focused on biotransformations by native enzymes of the E. coli host and their effect on overall biocatalyst performance. While m-nitrotoluene was consecutively oxygenated to m-nitrobenzyl alcohol, m-nitrobenzaldehyde, and m-nitrobenzoic acid by XMO, the oxidation was counteracted by an alcohol dehydrogenase(s) from the E. coli host, which reduced m-nitrobenzaldehyde to m-nitrobenzyl alcohol. Furthermore, the enzymatic background of the host reduced the nitro groups of the reactants resulting in the formation of aromatic amines, which were shown to effectively inhibit XMO in a reversible fashion. Host-intrinsic oxidoreductases and their reaction products had a major effect on the activity of XMO during biocatalysis of m-nitrotoluene. P. putida DOT-T1E and P. putida PpS81 were compared to E. coli JM101 as alternative hosts for XMO. These promising strains contained an additional dehydrogenase that oxidized m-nitrobenzaldehyde to the corresponding acid but catalyzed the formation of XMO-inhibiting aromatic amines at a significantly lower level than E. coli JM101.

  1. Oxidation of biphenyl by a multicomponent enzyme system from Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400.

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, J D; Nadim, L M; Gibson, D T

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of biphenyl to cis-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobiphenyl. Incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen into the substrate was shown with 18O2. The nonlinear relationship between enzyme activity and protein concentration suggested that the enzyme is composed of multiple protein components. Ion-exchange chromatography of the cell extract gave three protein fractions that were required together to restore enzymatic activity. Similarities with other multicomponent aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases indicated that biphenyl dioxygenase may consist of a flavoprotein and iron-sulfur proteins that constitute a short electron transport chain involved in catalyzing the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen into the aromatic ring. Images PMID:8419290

  2. Evidence for Involvement of Copper Ions and Redox State in Regulation of Butane Monooxygenase in Pseudomonas butanovora▿

    PubMed Central

    Doughty, D. M.; Kurth, E. G.; Sayavedra-Soto, L. A.; Arp, D. J.; Bottomley, P. J.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas butanovora possesses an alcohol-inducible alkane monooxygenase, butane monooxygenase (BMO), that initiates growth on C2-C9 alkanes. A lacZ transcriptional reporter strain, P. butanovora bmoX::lacZ, in which the BMO promoter controls the expression of β-galactosidase activity, was used to show that 1-butanol induced the BMO promoter in the presence or absence of O2 when lactate-grown, BMO-repressed cells were washed free of lactate and incubated in NH4Cl-KNa phosphate buffer. In contrast, when lactate-grown cells of the reporter strain were incubated in phosphate buffer containing the mineral salts of standard growth medium, 1-butanol-dependent induction was significantly repressed at low O2 (1 to 2% [vol/vol]) and totally repressed under anoxic conditions. The repressive effect of the mineral salts was traced to its copper content. In cells exposed to 1% (vol/vol) O2, CuSO4 (0.5 μM) repressed 1-butanol-dependent induction of β-galactosidase activity. Under oxic conditions (20% O2 [vol/vol]), significantly higher concentrations of CuSO4 (2 μM) were required for almost complete repression of induction in lactate-grown cells. A combination of the Cu2+ reducing agent Na ascorbate (100 μM) and CuSO4 (0.5 μM) repressed the induction of β-galactosidase activity under oxic conditions to the same extent that 0.5 μM CuSO4 alone repressed it under anoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, 2 μM CuSO4 repressed induction of the BMO promoter less effectively in butyrate-grown cells of the bmoX::lacZ strain and of an R8-bmoX::lacZ mutant reporter strain with a putative BMO regulator, BmoR, inactivated. Under anoxic conditions, CuSO4 repression remained highly effective, regardless of the growth substrate, in both BmoR-positive and -negative reporter strains. PMID:18281403

  3. Recombinant expression of Toluene o-Xylene Monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 in the marine Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125.

    PubMed

    Siani, Loredana; Papa, Rosanna; Di Donato, Alberto; Sannia, Giovanni

    2006-11-10

    The psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125, isolated from Antarctic seawater, was used as recipient for a biodegradative gene of the mesophilic Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1. tou cluster, coding for Toluene o-Xylene Monooxygenase (ToMO), was successfully cloned and expressed into a "cold expression" vector. Apparent catalytic parameters of the recombinant microorganisms on three different substrates were determined and compared with those exhibited by Escherichia coli recombinant cells expressing ToMO. Production of a catalytically efficient TAC/tou microorganism supports the possibility of developing specific degradative capabilities for the bioremediation of chemically contaminated marine environments and of industrial effluents characterised by low temperatures.

  4. Recombinant expression and purification of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase from the camphor metabolizing Pseudomonas putida strain NCIMB 10007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Three different Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) were reported to be involved in the camphor metabolism by Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007. During (+)-camphor degradation, 2,5-diketocamphane is formed serving as substrate for the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase. This enzyme is encoded on the CAM plasmid and depends on the cofactors FMN and NADH and hence belongs to the group of type II BVMOs. We have cloned and recombinantly expressed the oxygenating subunit of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase (2,5-DKCMO) in E. coli followed by His-tag-based affinity purification. A range of compounds representing different BVMO substrate classes were then investigated, but only bicyclic ketones were converted by 2,5-DKCMO used as crude cell extract or after purification. Interestingly, also (-)-camphor was oxidized, but conversion was about 3-fold lower compared to (+)-camphor. Moreover, activity of purified 2,5-DKCMO was observed in the absence of an NADH-dehydrogenase subunit. PMID:21906366

  5. Camphor revisited: involvement of a unique monooxygenase in metabolism of 2-oxo-delta 3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Ougham, H J; Taylor, D G; Trudgill, P W

    1983-01-01

    Previously, Pseudomonas putida was shown to degrade (+)-camphor, and cleavage of the first ring of the bicyclic structure involved two monooxygenases (a hydroxylase and a ring oxygen-inserting enzyme), a dehydrogenase, and spontaneous cleavage of an unstable oxygenation product (lactone). Cleavage of the second ring was not demonstrated but was assumed also to occur by ring oxygen insertion, since the predicted oxygenation product was extracted from whole-cell incubation systems. Our investigation established that metabolism of the first ring cleavage intermediate, 2-oxo-delta 3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid, occurred through the sequential action of two inducible enzymes, a coenzyme A ester synthetase and an oxygenase. The oxygenase was purified to homogeneity and had a molecular weight of 106,000. This enzyme carried a single molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide and consisted of two identical subunits. Iron was not present at a significant level. The oxygenase was specific for NADPH as the electron donor and absolutely specific for the coenzyme A ester of 2-oxo-delta 3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid as the substrate. The reaction stoichiometry was compatible with this enzyme being a monooxygenase, and a mass spectral analysis of the methyl ester of the product confirmed the insertion of a single oxygen atom. The enzyme appeared to be analogous to, although distinct from. 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase in catalyzing a "biological Baeyer-Villiger" reaction with the formation of a lactone. Structural analogy suggested that this lactone, like the first, was also unstable and susceptible to spontaneous ring opening, although this was not experimentally established. Images PMID:6848481

  6. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of FAD-dependent monooxygenase PhzS, a phenazine-modifying enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gohain, Neelakshi; Thomashow, Linda S.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2006-10-01

    PhzS, an FAD-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes a reaction involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa, was cloned, overexpressed and crystallized. Data collection from native and seleno-l-methionine-labelled crystals is reported. The blue chloroform-soluble bacterial metabolite pyocyanin (1-hydroxy-5-methyl-phenazine) contributes to the survival and virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals. Little is known about the two enzymes, designated PhzM and PhzS, that function in the synthesis of pyocyanin from phenazine-1-carboxylic acid. In this study, the FAD-dependent monooxygenase PhzS was purified and crystallized from lithium sulfate/ammonium sulfate/sodium citrate pH 5.5. Native crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 144.2, b = 96.2, c = 71.7 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 110.5°. They contain two monomers of PhzS in the asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Seleno-l-methionine-labelled PhzS also crystallizes in space group C2, but the unit-cell parameters change to a = 70.6, b = 76.2, c = 80.2 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 110.5° and the diffraction limit is 2.7 Å.

  7. Mechanism of the 6-Hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine 3-Monooxygenase Flavoprotein from Pseudomonas putida S16*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao; Hausinger, Robert P.; Tang, Hong-Zhi; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    6-Hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine (HSP) 3-monooxygenase (HspB), a flavoprotein essential to the pyrrolidine pathway of nicotine degradation, catalyzes pyridine-ring β-hydroxylation, resulting in carbon-carbon cleavage and production of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. Here, we generated His6-tagged HspB in Escherichia coli, characterized the properties of the recombinant enzyme, and investigated its mechanism of catalysis. In contrast to conclusions reported previously, the second product of the HspB reaction was shown to be succinate, with isotope labeling experiments providing direct evidence that the newly introduced oxygen atom of succinate is derived from H2O. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that HspB is the most closely related to two p-nitrophenol 4-monooxygenases, and the experimental results exhibit that p-nitrophenol is a substrate of HspB. The reduction of HspB (with maxima at 375 and 460 nm, and a shoulder at 485 nm) by NADH was followed by stopped-flow spectroscopy, and the rate constant for reduction was shown to be stimulated by HSP. Reduced HspB reacts with oxygen to form a C(4a)-(hydro)peroxyflavin intermediate with an absorbance maximum at ∼400 nm within the first few milliseconds before converting to the oxidized flavoenzyme species. The formed C(4a)-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate reacts with HSP to form an intermediate that hydrolyzes to the products 2,5-dihydroxypyridine and succinate. The investigation on the catalytic mechanism of a flavoprotein pyridine-ring β-position hydroxylase provides useful information for the biosynthesis of pyridine derivatives. PMID:25172510

  8. Expression of an alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene and methyl tert-butyl ether co-metabolic oxidation in Pseudomonas citronellolis.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Ana Luisa; Sigala, Juan Carlos; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Morales, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Pseudomonas citronellolis UAM-Ps1 co-metabolically transforms methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) to tert-butyl alcohol with n-pentane (2.6 mM), n-octane (1.5 mM) or dicyclopropylketone (DCPK) (4.4 mM), a gratuitous inducer of alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) activity. The reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify the alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene expression. The alkB gene was expressed in the presence of n-alkanes and DCPK and MTBE oxidation occurred only in cultures when alkB was transcribed. A correlation between the number of alkB transcripts and MTBE consumption was found (ΜΤΒΕ consumption in μmol = 1.44e(-13) x DNA copies, R(2) = 0.99) when MTBE (0.84 mM) was added. Furthermore, alkB was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli and the recombinant AlkB had a molecular weight of 42 kDa. This is the first report where the expression of alkB is related to the co-metabolic oxidation of MTBE.

  9. Expression levels of chaperones influence biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and Pseudomonas putida Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Baek, A-Hyong; Jeon, Eun-Yeong; Lee, Sun-Mee; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated for the first time that the archaeal chaperones (i.e., γ-prefoldin and thermosome) can stabilize enzyme activity in vivo. Ricinoleic acid biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase improved significantly with co-expression of γ-prefoldin or recombinant themosome originating from the deep-sea hyperthermophile archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Furthermore, the degree of enhanced activity was dependent on the expression levels of the chaperones. For example, whole-cell biotransformation activity was highest at 12 µmol/g dry cells/min when γ-prefoldin expression level was approximately 46% of the theoretical maximum. This value was approximately two-fold greater than that in E. coli, where the γ-prefoldin expression level was zero or set to the theoretical maximum. Therefore, it was assumed that the expression levels of chaperones must be optimized to achieve maximum biotransformation activity in whole-cell biocatalysts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  11. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  12. Effects of Dichloroethene Isomers on the Induction and Activity of Butane Monooxygenase in the Alkane-Oxidizing Bacterium “Pseudomonas butanovora”

    PubMed Central

    Doughty, D. M.; Sayavedra-Soto, L. A.; Arp, D. J.; Bottomley, P. J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined cooxidation of three different dichloroethenes (1,1-DCE, 1,2-trans DCE, and 1,2-cis DCE) by butane monooxygenase (BMO) in the butane-utilizing bacterium “Pseudomonas butanovora.” Different organic acids were tested as exogenous reductant sources for this process. In addition, we determined if DCEs could serve as surrogate inducers of BMO gene expression. Lactic acid supported greater rates of oxidation of the three DCEs than the other organic acids tested. The impacts of lactic acid-supported DCE oxidation on BMO activity differed among the isomers. In intact cells, 50% of BMO activity was irreversibly lost after consumption of ∼20 nmol mg protein−1 of 1,1-DCE and 1,2-trans DCE in 0.5 and 5 min, respectively. In contrast, a comparable loss of activity required the oxidation of 120 nmol 1,2-cis DCE mg protein−1. Oxidation of similar amounts of each DCE isomer (∼20 nmol mg protein−1) produced different negative effects on lactic acid-dependent respiration. Despite 1,1-DCE being consumed 10 times faster than 1,2,-trans DCE, respiration declined at similar rates, suggesting that the product(s) of oxidation of 1,2-trans DCE was more toxic to respiration than 1,1-DCE. Lactate-grown “P. butanovora” did not express BMO activity but gained activity after exposure to butane, ethene, 1,2-cis DCE, or 1,2-trans DCE. The products of BMO activity, ethene oxide and 1-butanol, induced lacZ in a reporter strain containing lacZ fused to the BMO promoter, whereas butane, ethene, and 1,2-cis DCE did not. 1,2-trans DCE was unique among the BMO substrates tested in its ability to induce lacZ expression. PMID:16204521

  13. The Combined Structural and Kinetic Characterization of a Bacterial Nitronate Monooxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Establishes NMO Class I and II*

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Francesca; Agniswamy, Johnson; Yuan, Hongling; Vercammen, Ken; Pelicaen, Rudy; Cornelis, Pierre; Spain, Jim C.; Weber, Irene T.; Gadda, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Nitronate monooxygenase (NMO) oxidizes the mitochondrial toxin propionate 3-nitronate (P3N) to malonate semialdehyde. The enzyme has been previously characterized biochemically in fungi, but no structural information is available. Based on amino acid similarity 4,985 genes are annotated in the GenBankTM as NMO. Of these, 4,424 (i.e. 89%) are bacterial genes, including several Pseudomonads that have been shown to use P3N as growth substrate. Here, we have cloned and expressed the gene pa4202 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, purified the resulting protein, and characterized it. The enzyme is active on P3N and other alkyl nitronates, but cannot oxidize nitroalkanes. P3N is the best substrate at pH 7.5 and atmospheric oxygen with kcatapp/Kmapp of 12 × 106 m−1 s−1, kcatapp of 1300 s−1, and Kmapp of 110 μm. Anerobic reduction of the enzyme with P3N yields a flavosemiquinone, which is formed within 7.5 ms, consistent with this species being a catalytic intermediate. Absorption spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and x-ray crystallography demonstrate a tightly, non-covalently bound FMN in the active site of the enzyme. Thus, PA4202 is the first NMO identified and characterized in bacteria. The x-ray crystal structure of the enzyme was solved at 1.44 Å, showing a TIM barrel-fold. Four motifs in common with the biochemically characterized NMO from Cyberlindnera saturnus are identified in the structure of bacterial NMO, defining Class I NMO, which includes bacterial, fungal, and two animal NMOs. Notably, the only other NMO from Neurospora crassa for which biochemical evidence is available lacks the four motifs, defining Class II NMO. PMID:25002579

  14. Cloning, Baeyer-Villiger Biooxidations, and Structures of the Camphor Pathway 2-Oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-Trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-Coenzyme A Monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453

    PubMed Central

    Leisch, Hannes; Shi, Rong; Grosse, Stephan; Morley, Krista; Bergeron, Hélène; Cygler, Miroslaw; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    A dimeric Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) catalyzing the lactonization of 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), a key intermediate in the metabolism of camphor by Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453, had been initially characterized in 1983 by Ougham and coworkers (H. J. Ougham, D. G. Taylor, and P. W. Trudgill, J. Bacteriol. 153:140–152, 1983). Here we cloned and overexpressed the 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA monooxygenase (OTEMO) in Escherichia coli and determined its three-dimensional structure with bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) at a 1.95-Å resolution as well as with bound FAD and NADP+ at a 2.0-Å resolution. OTEMO represents the first homodimeric type 1 BVMO structure bound to FAD/NADP+. A comparison of several crystal forms of OTEMO bound to FAD and NADP+ revealed a conformational plasticity of several loop regions, some of which have been implicated in contributing to the substrate specificity profile of structurally related BVMOs. Substrate specificity studies confirmed that the 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid coenzyme A ester is preferred over the free acid. However, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) favors 2-n-hexyl cyclopentanone (4.3 × 105 M−1 s−1) as a substrate, although its affinity (Km = 32 μM) was lower than that of the CoA-activated substrate (Km = 18 μM). In whole-cell biotransformation experiments, OTEMO showed a unique enantiocomplementarity to the action of the prototypical cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) and appeared to be particularly useful for the oxidation of 4-substituted cyclohexanones. Overall, this work extends our understanding of the molecular structure and mechanistic complexity of the type 1 family of BVMOs and expands the catalytic repertoire of one of its original members. PMID:22267661

  15. Proposed involvement of a soluble methane monooxygenase homologue in the cyclohexane-dependent growth of a new Brachymonas species.

    PubMed

    Brzostowicz, Patricia C; Walters, Dana M; Jackson, Raymond E; Halsey, Kimberly H; Ni, Hao; Rouvière, Pierre E

    2005-02-01

    High-throughput mRNA differential display (DD) was used to identify genes induced by cyclohexane in Brachymonas petroleovorans CHX, a recently isolated beta-proteobacterium that grows on cyclohexane. Two metabolic gene clusters were identified multiple times in independent reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) in the course of this DD experiment. These clusters encode genes believed to be required for cyclohexane metabolism. One gene cluster (8 kb) encodes the subunits of a multicomponent hydroxylase related to the soluble butane of Pseudomonas butanovora and methane monooxygenases (sMMO) of methanotrophs. We propose that this butane monooxygenase homologue carries out the oxidation of cyclohexane into cyclohexanol during growth. A second gene cluster (11 kb) contains almost all the genes required for the oxidation of cyclohexanol to adipic acid. Real-time PCR experiments confirmed that genes from both clusters are induced by cyclohexane. The role of the Baeyer-Villiger cyclohexanone monooxygenase of the second cluster was confirmed by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli.

  16. Camphor Pathway Redux: Functional Recombinant Expression of 2,5- and 3,6-Diketocamphane Monooxygenases of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453 with Their Cognate Flavin Reductase Catalyzing Baeyer-Villiger Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, Hiroaki; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Leisch, Hannes; Morley, Krista; Hasegawa, Yoshie

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the biochemical properties of the monooxygenase components that catalyze the oxidation of 2,5-diketocamphane and 3,6-diketocamphane (2,5-DKCMO and 3,6-DKCMO, respectively) in the initial catabolic steps of (+) and (−) isomeric forms of camphor (CAM) metabolism in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453 are relatively well characterized, the actual identity of the flavin reductase (Fred) component that provides the reduced flavin to the oxygenases has hitherto been ill defined. In this study, a 37-kDa Fred was purified from a camphor-induced culture of P. putida ATCC 17453 and this facilitated cloning and characterization of the requisite protein. The active Fred is a homodimer with a subunit molecular weight of 18,000 that uses NADH as an electron donor (Km = 32 μM), and it catalyzes the reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) (Km = 3.6 μM; kcat = 283 s−1) in preference to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (Km = 19 μM; kcat = 128 s−1). Sequence determination of ∼40 kb of the CAM degradation plasmid revealed the locations of two isofunctional 2,5-DKCMO genes (camE25–1 for 2,5-DKCMO-1 and camE25–2 for 2,5-DKCMO-2) as well as that of a 3,6-DKCMO-encoding gene (camE36). In addition, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the CAM plasmid was established to be linear and ∼533 kb in length. To enable functional assessment of the two-component monooxygenase system in Baeyer-Villiger oxidations, recombinant plasmids expressing Fred in tandem with the respective 2,5-DKCMO- and 3,6-DKCMO-encoding genes in Escherichia coli were constructed. Comparative substrate profiling of the isofunctional 2,5-DCKMOs did not yield obvious differences in Baeyer-Villiger biooxidations, but they are distinct from 3,6-DKCMO in the stereoselective oxygenations with various mono- and bicyclic ketone substrates. PMID:23524667

  17. The role of substrate binding pocket residues phenylalanine 176 and phenylalanine 196 on Pseudomonas sp. OX1 toluene o-xylene monooxygenase activity and regiospecificity.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Burcu; Yanık-Yıldırım, K Cansu; Wood, Thomas K; Vardar-Schara, Gönül

    2014-08-01

    Saturation mutagenesis was used to generate eleven substitutions of toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) at alpha subunit (TouA) positions F176 and F196 among which nine were novel: F176H, F176N, F176S, F176T, F196A, F196L, F196T, F196Y, F196H, F196I, and F196V. By testing the substrates phenol, toluene, and naphthalene, these positions were found to influence ToMO oxidation activity and regiospecificity. Specifically, TouA variant F176H was identified that had 4.7-, 4.3-, and 1.8-fold faster hydroxylation activity towards phenol, toluene, and naphthalene, respectively, compared to native ToMO. The F176H variant also produced the novel product hydroquinone (61%) from phenol, made twofold more 2-naphthol from naphthalene (34% vs. 16% by the wild-type ToMO), and had the regiospecificity of toluene changed from 51% to 73% p-cresol. The TouA F176N variant had the most para-hydroxylation capability, forming p-cresol (92%) from toluene and hydroquinone (82%) from phenol as the major product, whereas native ToMO formed 30% o-cresol, 19% m-cresol, and 51% of p-cresol from toluene and 100% catechol from phenol. For naphthalene oxidation, TouA variant F176S exhibited the largest shift in the product distribution by producing threefold more 2-naphthol. Among the other F196 variants, F196L produced catechol from phenol two times faster than the wild-type enzyme. The TouA F196I variant produced twofold less o-cresol and 19% more p-cresol from toluene, and the TouA F196A variant produced 62% more 2-naphthol from naphthalene compared to wild-type ToMO. Both of these positions have never been studied through the saturation mutagenesis and some of the best substitutions uncovered here have never been predicted and characterized for aromatics hydroxylation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Biochemical Characterization of StyAB from Pseudomonas sp. Strain VLB120 as a Two-Component Flavin-Diffusible Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Katja; Hofstetter, Karin; Röthlisberger, Martina; Witholt, Bernard; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. VLB120 uses styrene as a sole source of carbon and energy. The first step in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by an oxygenase (StyA) and a NADH-flavin oxidoreductase (StyB). Both components have been isolated from wild-type Pseudomonas strain VLB120 as well as from recombinant Escherichia coli. StyA from both sources is a dimer, with a subunit size of 47 kDa, and catalyzes the enantioselective epoxidation of C=C double bonds. Styrene is exclusively converted to S-styrene oxide with a specific activity of 2.1 U mg−1 (kcat = 1.6 s−1) and Km values for styrene of 0.45 ± 0.05 mM (wild type) and 0.38 ± 0.09 mM (recombinant). The epoxidation reaction depends on the presence of a NADH-flavin adenine dinucleotide (NADH-FAD) oxidoreductase for the supply of reduced FAD. StyB is a dimer with a molecular mass of 18 kDa and a NADH oxidation activity of 200 U mg−1 (kcat [NADH] = 60 s−1). Steady-state kinetics determined for StyB indicate a mechanism of sequential binding of NADH and flavin to StyB. This enzyme reduces FAD as well as flavin mononucleotide and riboflavin. The NADH oxidation activity does not depend on the presence of StyA. During the epoxidation reaction, no formation of a complex of StyA and StyB has been observed, suggesting that electron transport between reductase and oxygenase occurs via a diffusing flavin. PMID:15292130

  19. H2-driven biotransformation of n-octane to 1-octanol by a recombinant Pseudomonas putida strain co-synthesizing an O2-tolerant hydrogenase and a P450 monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Thomas H; Lauterbach, Lars; Honda Malca, Sumire; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard; Lenz, Oliver

    2015-11-21

    An in vivo biotransformation system is presented that affords the hydroxylation of n-octane to 1-octanol on the basis of NADH-dependent CYP153A monooxygenase and NAD(+)-reducing hydrogenase heterologously synthesized in a bacterial host. The hydrogenase sustains H2-driven NADH cofactor regeneration even in the presence of O2, the co-substrate of monooxygenase.

  20. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens: substrate-like inhibitors both stimulate flavin reduction and stabilize the flavin-peroxo intermediate yet result in the production of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Crozier-Reabe, Karen R; Phillips, Robert S; Moran, Graham R

    2008-11-25

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a flavin-dependent hydroxylase that catalyzes the conversion of l-kynurenine (l-Kyn) to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKyn) in the pathway for tryptophan catabolism. KMO inhibition has been widely suggested as an early treatment for stroke and other neurological disorders that involve ischemia. We have investigated the reductive and the oxidative half-reactions of a stable form of KMO from Pseudomonas fluorescens (KMO). The binding of l-Kyn by the enzyme is relatively slow and involves at least two reversible steps. The rate constant for reduction of the flavin cofactor by NADPH increases by a factor of approximately 2.5 x 10(3) when l-Kyn is bound. The rate of reduction of the KMO.l-Kyn complex is 160 s(-1), and the K(d) for the NADPH complex is 200 microM with charge-transfer absorption bands for the KMO(RED).l-Kyn.NADP(+) complex accumulating after reduction. The reduction potential of KMO is -188 mV and is unresponsive to the addition of l-Kyn or other inhibitory ligands. KMO inhibitors whose structures are reminiscent of l-Kyn such as m-nitrobenzoylalanine and benzoylalanine also stimulate reduction of flavin by NADPH and, in the presence of dioxygen, result in the stoichiometric liberation of hydrogen peroxide, diminishing the perceived therapeutic potential of inhibitors of this type. In the presence of the native substrate, the oxidative half-reaction exhibits triphasic absorbance data. A spectrum consistent with that of a peroxyflavin species accumulates and then decays to yield the oxidized enzyme. This species then undergoes minor spectral changes that, based on flavin difference spectra defined in the presence of 3OHKyn, can be correlated with product release. The oxidative half-reaction observed in the presence of saturating benzoylalanine or m-nitrobenzoylalanine also shows the accumulation of a peroxyflavin species that then decays to yield hydrogen peroxide without hydroxylation.

  1. The Hybrid Histidine Kinase LadS Forms a Multicomponent Signal Transduction System with the GacS/GacA Two-Component System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Chambonnier, Gaël; Roux, Lorène; Redelberger, David; Fadel, Firas; Filloux, Alain; Sivaneson, Melissa; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Bordi, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    In response to environmental changes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to switch from a planktonic (free swimming) to a sessile (biofilm) lifestyle. The two-component system (TCS) GacS/GacA activates the production of two small non-coding RNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, but four histidine kinases (HKs), RetS, GacS, LadS and PA1611, are instrumental in this process. RetS hybrid HK blocks GacS unorthodox HK autophosphorylation through the formation of a heterodimer. PA1611 hybrid HK, which is structurally related to GacS, interacts with RetS in P. aeruginosa in a very similar manner to GacS. LadS hybrid HK phenotypically antagonizes the function of RetS by a mechanism that has never been investigated. The four sensors are found in most Pseudomonas species but their characteristics and mode of signaling may differ from one species to another. Here, we demonstrated in P. aeruginosa that LadS controls both rsmY and rsmZ gene expression and that this regulation occurs through the GacS/GacA TCS. We additionally evidenced that in contrast to RetS, LadS signals through GacS/GacA without forming heterodimers, either with GacS or with RetS. Instead, we demonstrated that LadS is involved in a genuine phosphorelay, which requires both transmitter and receiver LadS domains. LadS signaling ultimately requires the alternative histidine-phosphotransfer domain of GacS, which is here used as an Hpt relay by the hybrid kinase. LadS HK thus forms, with the GacS/GacA TCS, a multicomponent signal transduction system with an original phosphorelay cascade, i.e. H1LadS→D1LadS→H2GacS→D2GacA. This highlights an original strategy in which a unique output, i.e. the modulation of sRNA levels, is controlled by a complex multi-sensing network to fine-tune an adapted biofilm and virulence response.

  2. The Hybrid Histidine Kinase LadS Forms a Multicomponent Signal Transduction System with the GacS/GacA Two-Component System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Redelberger, David; Fadel, Firas; Filloux, Alain; Sivaneson, Melissa; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Bordi, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental changes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to switch from a planktonic (free swimming) to a sessile (biofilm) lifestyle. The two-component system (TCS) GacS/GacA activates the production of two small non-coding RNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, but four histidine kinases (HKs), RetS, GacS, LadS and PA1611, are instrumental in this process. RetS hybrid HK blocks GacS unorthodox HK autophosphorylation through the formation of a heterodimer. PA1611 hybrid HK, which is structurally related to GacS, interacts with RetS in P. aeruginosa in a very similar manner to GacS. LadS hybrid HK phenotypically antagonizes the function of RetS by a mechanism that has never been investigated. The four sensors are found in most Pseudomonas species but their characteristics and mode of signaling may differ from one species to another. Here, we demonstrated in P. aeruginosa that LadS controls both rsmY and rsmZ gene expression and that this regulation occurs through the GacS/GacA TCS. We additionally evidenced that in contrast to RetS, LadS signals through GacS/GacA without forming heterodimers, either with GacS or with RetS. Instead, we demonstrated that LadS is involved in a genuine phosphorelay, which requires both transmitter and receiver LadS domains. LadS signaling ultimately requires the alternative histidine-phosphotransfer domain of GacS, which is here used as an Hpt relay by the hybrid kinase. LadS HK thus forms, with the GacS/GacA TCS, a multicomponent signal transduction system with an original phosphorelay cascade, i.e. H1LadS→D1LadS→H2GacS→D2GacA. This highlights an original strategy in which a unique output, i.e. the modulation of sRNA levels, is controlled by a complex multi-sensing network to fine-tune an adapted biofilm and virulence response. PMID:27176226

  3. Toluene Monooxygenase-Catalyzed Epoxidation of Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    McClay, Kevin; Fox, Brian G.; Steffan, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Several toluene monooxygenase-producing organisms were tested for their ability to oxidize linear alkenes and chloroalkenes three to eight carbons long. Each of the wild-type organisms degraded all of the alkenes that were tested. Epoxides were produced during the oxidation of butene, butadiene, and pentene but not hexene or octadiene. A strain of Escherichia coli expressing the cloned toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 was able to oxidize butene, butadiene, pentene, and hexene but not octadiene, producing epoxides from all of the substrates that were oxidized. A T4MO-deficient variant of P. mendocina KR1 oxidized alkenes that were five to eight carbons long, but no epoxides were detected, suggesting the presence of multiple alkene-degrading enzymes in this organism. The alkene oxidation rates varied widely (ranging from 0.01 to 0.33 μmol of substrate/min/mg of cell protein) and were specific for each organism-substrate pair. The enantiomeric purity of the epoxide products also varied widely, ranging from 54 to >90% of a single epoxide enantiomer. In the absence of more preferred substrates, such as toluene or alkenes, the epoxides underwent further toluene monooxygenase-catalyzed transformations, forming products that were not identified. PMID:10788354

  4. The Toluene o-Xylene Monooxygenase Enzymatic Activity for the Biosynthesis of Aromatic Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Donadio, Giuliana; Sarcinelli, Carmen; Pizzo, Elio; Notomista, Eugenio; Pezzella, Alessandro; Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lise, Federica; Di Donato, Alberto; Izzo, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Monocyclic phenols and catechols are important antioxidant compounds for the food and pharmaceutic industries; their production through biotransformation of low-added value starting compounds is of major biotechnological interest. The toluene o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas sp. OX1 is a bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) that is able to hydroxylate a wide array of aromatic compounds and has already proven to be a versatile biochemical tool to produce mono- and dihydroxylated derivatives of aromatic compounds. The molecular determinants of its regioselectivity and substrate specificity have been thoroughly investigated, and a computational strategy has been developed which allows designing mutants able to hydroxylate non-natural substrates of this enzyme to obtain high-added value compounds of commercial interest. In this work, we have investigated the use of recombinant ToMO, expressed in cells of Escherichia coli strain JM109, for the biotransformation of non-natural substrates of this enzyme such as 2-phenoxyethanol, phthalan and 2-indanol to produce six hydroxylated derivatives. The hydroxylated products obtained were identified, isolated and their antioxidant potential was assessed both in vitro, using the DPPH assay, and on the rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2. Incubation of H9c2 cells with the hydroxylated compounds obtained from ToMO-catalyzed biotransformation induced a differential protective effect towards a mild oxidative stress induced by the presence of sodium arsenite. The results obtained confirm once again the versatility of the ToMO system for oxyfunctionalization reactions of biotechnological importance. Moreover, the hydroxylated derivatives obtained possess an interesting antioxidant potential that encourages the use of the enzyme for further functionalization reactions and their possible use as scaffolds to design novel bioactive molecules.

  5. The Toluene o-Xylene Monooxygenase Enzymatic Activity for the Biosynthesis of Aromatic Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Pizzo, Elio; Notomista, Eugenio; Pezzella, Alessandro; Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lise, Federica; Di Donato, Alberto; Izzo, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Monocyclic phenols and catechols are important antioxidant compounds for the food and pharmaceutic industries; their production through biotransformation of low-added value starting compounds is of major biotechnological interest. The toluene o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas sp. OX1 is a bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) that is able to hydroxylate a wide array of aromatic compounds and has already proven to be a versatile biochemical tool to produce mono- and dihydroxylated derivatives of aromatic compounds. The molecular determinants of its regioselectivity and substrate specificity have been thoroughly investigated, and a computational strategy has been developed which allows designing mutants able to hydroxylate non-natural substrates of this enzyme to obtain high-added value compounds of commercial interest. In this work, we have investigated the use of recombinant ToMO, expressed in cells of Escherichia coli strain JM109, for the biotransformation of non-natural substrates of this enzyme such as 2-phenoxyethanol, phthalan and 2-indanol to produce six hydroxylated derivatives. The hydroxylated products obtained were identified, isolated and their antioxidant potential was assessed both in vitro, using the DPPH assay, and on the rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2. Incubation of H9c2 cells with the hydroxylated compounds obtained from ToMO-catalyzed biotransformation induced a differential protective effect towards a mild oxidative stress induced by the presence of sodium arsenite. The results obtained confirm once again the versatility of the ToMO system for oxyfunctionalization reactions of biotechnological importance. Moreover, the hydroxylated derivatives obtained possess an interesting antioxidant potential that encourages the use of the enzyme for further functionalization reactions and their possible use as scaffolds to design novel bioactive molecules. PMID:25915063

  6. Functional redundancy in phenol and toluene degradation in Pseudomonas stutzeri strains isolated from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Heinaru, Eeva; Naanuri, Eve; Grünbach, Maarja; Jõesaar, Merike; Heinaru, Ain

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we describe functional redundancy of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (toluene monooxygenase (TMO) and toluene/xylene monooxygenase (XylAM) of TOL pathway) and cooperative genetic regulation at the expression of the respective catabolic operons by touR and xylR encoded regulatory circuits in five phenol- and toluene-degrading Pseudomonas stutzeri strains. In these strains both toluene degradation pathways (TMO and Xyl) are active and induced by toluene and phenol. The whole genome sequence of the representative strain 2A20 revealed the presence of complete TMO- and Xyl-upper pathway operons together with two sets of lower catechol meta pathway operons, as well as phenol-degrading operon in a single 292,430bp contig. The much lower GC content and analysis of the predicted ORFs refer to the plasmid origin of the approximately 130kb region of this contig, containing the xyl, phe and tou genes. The deduced amino acid sequences of the TMO, XylA and the large subunit of phenol monooxygenase (LmPH) show 98-100% identity with the respective gene products of the strain Pseudomonas sp. OX1. In both strains 2A20 and OX1 the meta-cleavage pathways for catechol degradation are coded by two redundant operons (phe and xyl). We show that in the strain 2A20 TouR and XylR are activated by different effector molecules, phenol and toluene, respectively, and they both control transcription of the xyl upper, tou (TMO) and phe catabolic operons. Although the growth parameters of redundant strains did not show advantage at toluene biodegradation, the functional redundancy could provide better flexibility to the bacteria in environmental conditions.

  7. Hydroxylation of methane through component interactions in soluble methane monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-04-01

    Methane hydroxylation through methane monooxygenases (MMOs) is a key aspect due to their control of the carbon cycle in the ecology system and recent applications of methane gas in the field of bioenergy and bioremediation. Methanotropic bacteria perform a specific microbial conversion from methane, one of the most stable carbon compounds, to methanol through elaborate mechanisms. MMOs express particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in most strains and soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) under copper-limited conditions. The mechanisms of MMO have been widely studied from sMMO belonging to the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) superfamily. This enzyme has diiron active sites where different types of hydrocarbons are oxidized through orchestrated hydroxylase, regulatory and reductase components for precise control of hydrocarbons, oxygen, protons, and electrons. Recent advances in biophysical studies, including structural and enzymatic achievements for sMMO, have explained component interactions, substrate pathways, and intermediates of sMMO. In this account, oxidation of methane in sMMO is discussed with recent progress that is critical for understanding the microbial applications of C-H activation in one-carbon substrates.

  8. Diversity in Butane Monooxygenases among Butane-Grown Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Storfa, Ryan T.; Semprini, Lewis; Arp, Daniel J.

    1999-01-01

    Butane monooxygenases of butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5, and an environmental isolate, CF8, were compared at the physiological level. The presence of butane monooxygenases in these bacteria was indicated by the following results. (i) O2 was required for butane degradation. (ii) 1-Butanol was produced during butane degradation. (iii) Acetylene inhibited both butane oxidation and 1-butanol production. The responses to the known monooxygenase inactivator, ethylene, and inhibitor, allyl thiourea (ATU), discriminated butane degradation among the three bacteria. Ethylene irreversibly inactivated butane oxidation by P. butanovora but not by M. vaccae or CF8. In contrast, butane oxidation by only CF8 was strongly inhibited by ATU. In all three strains of butane-grown bacteria, specific polypeptides were labeled in the presence of [14C]acetylene. The [14C]acetylene labeling patterns were different among the three bacteria. Exposure of lactate-grown CF8 and P. butanovora and glucose-grown M. vaccae to butane induced butane oxidation activity as well as the specific acetylene-binding polypeptides. Ammonia was oxidized by all three bacteria. P. butanovora oxidized ammonia to hydroxylamine, while CF8 and M. vaccae produced nitrite. All three bacteria oxidized ethylene to ethylene oxide. Methane oxidation was not detected by any of the bacteria. The results indicate the presence of three distinct butane monooxygenases in butane-grown P. butanovora, M. vaccae, and CF8. PMID:10508093

  9. Two Structures of an N-Hydroxylating Flavoprotein Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Olucha, Jose; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Chilton, Annemarie S.; Lamb, Audrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The ornithine hydroxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PvdA) catalyzes the FAD-dependent hydroxylation of the side chain amine of ornithine, which is subsequently formylated to generate the iron-chelating hydroxamates of the siderophore pyoverdin. PvdA belongs to the class B flavoprotein monooxygenases, which catalyze the oxidation of substrates using NADPH as the electron donor and molecular oxygen. Class B enzymes include the well studied flavin-containing monooxygenases and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases. The first two structures of a class B N-hydroxylating monooxygenase were determined with FAD in oxidized (1.9 Å resolution) and reduced (3.03 Å resolution) states. PvdA has the two expected Rossmann-like dinucleotide-binding domains for FAD and NADPH and also a substrate-binding domain, with the active site at the interface between the three domains. The structures have NADP(H) and (hydroxy)ornithine bound in a solvent-exposed active site, providing structural evidence for substrate and co-substrate specificity and the inability of PvdA to bind FAD tightly. Structural and biochemical evidence indicates that NADP+ remains bound throughout the oxidative half-reaction, which is proposed to shelter the flavin intermediates from solvent and thereby prevent uncoupling of NADPH oxidation from hydroxylated product formation. PMID:21757711

  10. Multicomponent membranes

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  11. Delineation of the Caffeine C-8 Oxidation Pathway in Pseudomonas sp. Strain CBB1 via Characterization of a New Trimethyluric Acid Monooxygenase and Genes Involved in Trimethyluric Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sujit Kumar; Yu, Chi-Li; Das, Shuvendu; Louie, Tai Man; Gakhar, Lokesh

    2012-01-01

    The molecular basis of the ability of bacteria to live on caffeine via the C-8 oxidation pathway is unknown. The first step of this pathway, caffeine to trimethyluric acid (TMU), has been attributed to poorly characterized caffeine oxidases and a novel quinone-dependent caffeine dehydrogenase. Here, we report the detailed characterization of the second enzyme, a novel NADH-dependent trimethyluric acid monooxygenase (TmuM), a flavoprotein that catalyzes the conversion of TMU to 1,3,7-trimethyl-5-hydroxyisourate (TM-HIU). This product spontaneously decomposes to racemic 3,6,8-trimethylallantoin (TMA). TmuM prefers trimethyluric acids and, to a lesser extent, dimethyluric acids as substrates, but it exhibits no activity on uric acid. Homology models of TmuM against uric acid oxidase HpxO (which catalyzes uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate) reveal a much bigger and hydrophobic cavity to accommodate the larger substrates. Genes involved in the caffeine C-8 oxidation pathway are located in a 25.2-kb genomic DNA fragment of CBB1, including cdhABC (coding for caffeine dehydrogenase) and tmuM (coding for TmuM). Comparison of this gene cluster to the uric acid-metabolizing gene cluster and pathway of Klebsiella pneumoniae revealed two major open reading frames coding for the conversion of TM-HIU to S-(+)-trimethylallantoin [S-(+)-TMA]. The first one, designated tmuH, codes for a putative TM-HIU hydrolase, which catalyzes the conversion of TM-HIU to 3,6,8-trimethyl-2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline (TM-OHCU). The second one, designated tmuD, codes for a putative TM-OHCU decarboxylase which catalyzes the conversion of TM-OHCU to S-(+)-TMA. Based on a combination of enzymology and gene-analysis, a new degradative pathway for caffeine has been proposed via TMU, TM-HIU, TM-OHCU to S-(+)-TMA. PMID:22609920

  12. Substrate Specificity and Enantioselectivity of 4-Hydroxyacetophenone Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Kamerbeek, Nanne M.; Olsthoorn, Arjen J. J.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2003-01-01

    The 4-hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase (HAPMO) from Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB catalyzes NADPH- and oxygen-dependent Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 4-hydroxyacetophenone to the corresponding acetate ester. Using the purified enzyme from recombinant Escherichia coli, we found that a broad range of carbonylic compounds that are structurally more or less similar to 4-hydroxyacetophenone are also substrates for this flavin-containing monooxygenase. On the other hand, several carbonyl compounds that are substrates for other Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are not converted by HAPMO. In addition to performing Baeyer-Villiger reactions with aromatic ketones and aldehydes, the enzyme was also able to catalyze sulfoxidation reactions by using aromatic sulfides. Furthermore, several heterocyclic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds were also readily converted by this BVMO. To probe the enantioselectivity of HAPMO, the conversion of bicyclohept-2-en-6-one and two aryl alkyl sulfides was studied. The monooxygenase preferably converted (1R,5S)-bicyclohept-2-en-6-one, with an enantiomeric ratio (E) of 20, thus enabling kinetic resolution to obtain the (1S,5R) enantiomer. Complete conversion of both enantiomers resulted in the accumulation of two regioisomeric lactones with moderate enantiomeric excess (ee) for the two lactones obtained [77% ee for (1S,5R)-2 and 34% ee for (1R,5S)-3]. Using methyl 4-tolyl sulfide and methylphenyl sulfide, we found that HAPMO is efficient and highly selective in the asymmetric formation of the corresponding (S)-sulfoxides (ee > 99%). The biocatalytic properties of HAPMO described here show the potential of this enzyme for biotechnological applications. PMID:12514023

  13. A radiometric kynurenine monooxygenase assay

    SciTech Connect

    Wiseman, J.S.; Nichols, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the oxidation of L-kynurenine to 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. The enzyme requires NADH or NADPH as a cofactor. A discontinuous assay that utilizes L-(3H)kynurenine as substrate is described. The assay offers high precision and a wide range of accessible substrate and cofactor concentrations. The assay was used to measure kinetic isotope effects and the stereospecificity of oxidation of the cofactor. Hydride is transferred from the A-side (pro-R) of NADH and NADPH since primary deuterium isotope effects were observed for both cofactors when they were deuterated on the A-side but not on the B-side. The large isotope effect on Vmax/Km for NADH is sensitive to the concentration of kynurenine, which indicates that NADH can bind before kynurenine.

  14. Characterization and Application of Xylene Monooxygenase for Multistep Biocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Bruno; Witholt, Bernard; Hauer, Bernhard; Schmid, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Xylene monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida mt-2 catalyzes multistep oxidations of one methyl group of toluene and xylenes. Recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the monooxygenase genes xylM and xylA catalyzes the oxygenation of toluene, pseudocumene, the corresponding alcohols, and the corresponding aldehydes, all by a monooxygenation type of reaction (B. Bühler, A. Schmid, B. Hauer, and B. Witholt, J. Biol. Chem. 275:10085-10092, 2000). Using E. coli expressing xylMA, we investigated the kinetics of this one-enzyme three-step biotransformation. We found that unoxidized substrates like toluene and pseudocumene inhibit the second and third oxygenation steps and that the corresponding alcohols inhibit the third oxygenation step. These inhibitions might promote the energetically more favorable alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenations in the wild type. Growth of E. coli was strongly affected by low concentrations of pseudocumene and its products. Toxicity and solubility problems were overcome by the use of a two-liquid-phase system with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate as the carrier solvent, allowing high overall substrate and product concentrations. In a fed-batch-based two-liquid-phase process with pseudocumene as the substrate, we observed the consecutive accumulation of aldehyde, acid, and alcohol. Our results indicate that, depending on the reaction conditions, product formation could be directed to one specific product. PMID:11823191

  15. Multicomponent Syntheses of Macrocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Géraldine; Neuville, Luc; Bughin, Carine; Fayol, Aude; Zhu, Jieping

    How to access efficiently the macrocyclic structure remained to be a challenging synthetic topic. Although many elegant approaches/reactions have been developed, construction of diverse collection of macrocycles is still elusive. This chapter summarized the recently emerged research area dealing with multicomponent synthesis of macrocycles, with particular emphasis on the approach named "multiple multicomponent reaction using two bifunctional building blocks".

  16. Photoinduced Multicomponent Reactions.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, Silvia; Ravelli, Davide; Protti, Stefano; Basso, Andrea

    2016-12-12

    The combination of multicomponent approaches with light-driven processes opens up new scenarios in the area of synthetic organic chemistry, where the need for sustainable, atom- and energy-efficient reactions is increasingly urgent. Photoinduced multicomponent reactions are still in their infancy, but significant developments in this area are expected in the near future.

  17. An improved choline monooxygenase assay

    SciTech Connect

    Lafontaine, P.J.; Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Glycine betaine accumulates in leaves of plants from several angiosperm families in response to drought or salinization. Its synthesis, from the oxidation of choline, is mediated by a two step pathway. In spinach the first enzyme of this pathway is a ferredoxin-dependent choline monooxygenase (CMO). In order to purify this enzyme a sensitive and reliable assay is necessary. Two types of modifications were explored to improve the existing assay. (1) Ferredoxin reduction - one way of providing reduced Fd to CMO is by the addition of isolated spinach thylakoids in the assay mixture. In order to optimize the reduction of Fd two different systems were compared: (a) where only PS is active, by adding DCMU to inhibit electron transport from PS II and DAD as electron donor for PS I; (b) where both PS II and PS I are active. (2) Betaine aldehyde estimation - to simplify this, it is possible to couple the CMO reaction with betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) from E. coli. BADH converts betaine aldehyde to betaine as it is formed in the assay, eliminating the need for a chemical oxidation step.

  18. StyA1 and StyA2B from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP: a Multifunctional Styrene Monooxygenase System▿

    PubMed Central

    Tischler, Dirk; Kermer, René; Gröning, Janosch A. D.; Kaschabek, Stefan R.; van Berkel, Willem J. H.; Schlömann, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Two-component flavoprotein monooxygenases are emerging biocatalysts that generally consist of a monooxygenase and a reductase component. Here we show that Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes a multifunctional enantioselective flavoprotein monooxygenase system composed of a single styrene monooxygenase (SMO) (StyA1) and another styrene monooxygenase fused to an NADH-flavin oxidoreductase (StyA2B). StyA1 and StyA2B convert styrene and chemical analogues to the corresponding epoxides at the expense of FADH2 provided from StyA2B. The StyA1/StyA2B system presents the highest monooxygenase activity in an equimolar ratio of StyA1 and StyA2B, indicating (transient) protein complex formation. StyA1 is also active when FADH2 is supplied by StyB from Pseudomonas sp. VLB120 or PheA2 from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP. However, in both cases the reductase produces an excess of FADH2, resulting in a high waste of NADH. The epoxidation rate of StyA1 heavily depends on the type of reductase. This supports that the FADH2-induced activation of StyA1 requires interprotein communication. We conclude that the StyA1/StyA2B system represents a novel type of multifunctional flavoprotein monooxygenase. Its unique mechanism of cofactor utilization provides new opportunities for biotechnological applications and is highly relevant from a structural and evolutionary point of view. PMID:20675468

  19. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  20. Controlling the regiospecific oxidation of aromatics via active site engineering of toluene para-monooxygenase of Ralstonia pickettii PKO1.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ayelet; Tao, Ying; Rui, Lingyun; Wood, Thomas K

    2005-01-07

    A primary goal of protein engineering is to control catalytic activity. Here we show that through mutagenesis of three active site residues, the catalytic activity of a multicomponent monooxygenase is altered so that it hydroxylates all three positions of toluene as well as both positions of naphthalene. Hence, for the first time, an enzyme has been engineered so that its regiospecific oxidation of a substrate can be controlled. Through the A107G mutation in the alpha-subunit of toluene para-monooxygenase, a variant was formed that hydroxylated toluene primarily at the ortho-position while converting naphthalene to 1-naphthol. Conversely, the A107T variant produced >98% p-cresol and p-nitrophenol from toluene and nitrobenzene, respectively, as well as produced 2-naphthol from naphthalene. The mutation I100S/G103S produced a toluene para-monooxygenase variant that formed 75% m-cresol from toluene and 100% m-nitrophenol from nitrobenzene; thus, for the first time a true meta-hydroxylating toluene monooxygenase was created.

  1. Spatially resolved multicomponent gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Emily R.; Eden, Edward G. B.; McDonald, Tom O.; Adams, Dave J.

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent supramolecular systems could be used to prepare exciting new functional materials, but it is often challenging to control the assembly across multiple length scales. Here we report a simple approach to forming patterned, spatially resolved multicomponent supramolecular hydrogels. A multicomponent gel is first formed from two low-molecular-weight gelators and consists of two types of fibre, each formed by only one gelator. One type of fibre in this ‘self-sorted network’ is then removed selectively by a light-triggered gel-to-sol transition. We show that the remaining network has the same mechanical properties as it would have done if it initially formed alone. The selective irradiation of sections of the gel through a mask leads to the formation of patterned multicomponent networks, in which either one or two networks can be present at a particular position with a high degree of spatial control.

  2. The Origin and Evolution of Baeyer—Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs): An Ancestral Family of Flavin Monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Mascotti, Maria Laura; Lapadula, Walter Jesús; Juri Ayub, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    The Baeyer—Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs) are enzymes belonging to the “Class B” of flavin monooxygenases and are capable of performing exquisite selective oxidations. These enzymes have been studied from a biotechnological perspective, but their physiological substrates and functional roles are widely unknown. Here, we investigated the origin, taxonomic distribution and evolutionary history of the BVMO genes. By using in silico approaches, 98 BVMO encoding genes were detected in the three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. We found evidence for the presence of these genes in Metazoa (Hydra vulgaris, Oikopleura dioica and Adineta vaga) and Haptophyta (Emiliania huxleyi) for the first time. Furthermore, a search for other “Class B” monooxygenases (flavoprotein monooxygenases –FMOs – and N-hydroxylating monooxygenases – NMOs) was conducted. These sequences were also found in the three domains of life. Phylogenetic analyses of all “Class B” monooxygenases revealed that NMOs and BVMOs are monophyletic, whereas FMOs form a paraphyletic group. Based on these results, we propose that BVMO genes were already present in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) and their current taxonomic distribution is the result of differential duplication and loss of paralogous genes. PMID:26161776

  3. The Origin and Evolution of Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs): An Ancestral Family of Flavin Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Mascotti, Maria Laura; Lapadula, Walter Jesús; Juri Ayub, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    The Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs) are enzymes belonging to the "Class B" of flavin monooxygenases and are capable of performing exquisite selective oxidations. These enzymes have been studied from a biotechnological perspective, but their physiological substrates and functional roles are widely unknown. Here, we investigated the origin, taxonomic distribution and evolutionary history of the BVMO genes. By using in silico approaches, 98 BVMO encoding genes were detected in the three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. We found evidence for the presence of these genes in Metazoa (Hydra vulgaris, Oikopleura dioica and Adineta vaga) and Haptophyta (Emiliania huxleyi) for the first time. Furthermore, a search for other "Class B" monooxygenases (flavoprotein monooxygenases--FMOs--and N-hydroxylating monooxygenases--NMOs) was conducted. These sequences were also found in the three domains of life. Phylogenetic analyses of all "Class B" monooxygenases revealed that NMOs and BVMOs are monophyletic, whereas FMOs form a paraphyletic group. Based on these results, we propose that BVMO genes were already present in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) and their current taxonomic distribution is the result of differential duplication and loss of paralogous genes.

  4. Indigo formation by microorganisms expressing styrene monooxygenase activity.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, K E; Dobson, A D; Hartmans, S

    1997-01-01

    The transformation of indole to indigo by microorganisms expressing styrene monooxygenase (SMO) has been studied. Styrene and indole are structurally very similar, and thus we looked at a variety of styrene-degrading strains for indole transformation to indigo. Two strains, Pseudomonas putida S12 and CA-3, gave a blue color on solid media when grown in the presence of indole. Indole induces its own transformation on solid media but is a poor inducer in liquid media. Styrene is the best inducer of indole transformation in both strains. Arginine represses styrene consumption and indigo formation rates in P. putida S12 compared to phenylacetic acid-grown cells, while the opposite effect is seen for P. putida CA-3. Characterization of an SMO- and styrene oxide isomerase (SOI)-negative transposon mutant of P. putida CA-3 and an SOI-negative N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutant of P. putida S12 reveals the involvement of both SMO and SOI in indole transformation to indigo. Both strains stoichiometrically produce high-purity indigo from indole. PMID:9361415

  5. [Advances in biomolecular machine: methane monooxygenases].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jixue; Wang, Shizhen; Fang, Baishan

    2015-07-01

    Methane monooxygenases (MMO), regarded as "an amazing biomolecular machine", catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol under aerobic conditions. MMO catalyze the oxidation of methane elaborately, which is a novel way to catalyze methane to methanol. Furthermore, MMO can inspire the biomolecular machine design. In this review, we introduced MMO including structure, gene and catalytic mechanism. The history and the taxonomy of MMO were also introduced.

  6. Human phenylalanine monooxygenase and thioether metabolism.

    PubMed

    Boonyapiwat, Boontarika; Panaretou, Barry; Forbes, Ben; Mitchell, Stephen C; Steventon, Glyn B

    2009-01-01

    The substrate specificity of wild-type human phenylalanine monooxygenase (wt-hPAH) has been investigated with respect to the mucoactive drug, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and its thioether metabolites. The ability of wt-hPAH to metabolise other S-substituted cysteines was also examined. Direct assays of PAH activity were by HPLC with fluorescence detection; indirect assays involved following disappearance of the cofactor by UV spectroscopy. wt-hPAH catalysed the S-oxygenation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, its decarboxylated metabolite, S-methyl-L-cysteine, and both their corresponding N-acetylated forms. However, thiodiglycolic acid was not a substrate. The enzyme profiles for both phenylalanine and S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine showed allosteric kinetics at low substrate concentrations, with Hill constants of 2.0 and 1.9, respectively, for the substrate-activated wt-hPAH. At higher concentrations, both compounds followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with non-competitive substrate inhibition profiles. The thioether compounds, S-ethyl-L-cysteine, S-propyl-L-cysteine and S-butyl-L-cysteine were all found to be substrates for phenylalanine monooxygenase. Phenylalanine monooxygenase may play a wider role outside intermediary metabolism in the biotransformation of dietary-derived substituted cysteines and other exogenous thioether compounds.

  7. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  8. Multicomponent MR Image Denoising

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Thacker, Neil A.; Lull, Juan J.; Garcia-Martí, Gracian; Martí-Bonmatí, Luís; Robles, Montserrat

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance images are normally corrupted by random noise from the measurement process complicating the automatic feature extraction and analysis of clinical data. It is because of this reason that denoising methods have been traditionally applied to improve MR image quality. Many of these methods use the information of a single image without taking into consideration the intrinsic multicomponent nature of MR images. In this paper we propose a new filter to reduce random noise in multicomponent MR images by spatially averaging similar pixels using information from all available image components to perform the denoising process. The proposed algorithm also uses a local Principal Component Analysis decomposition as a postprocessing step to remove more noise by using information not only in the spatial domain but also in the intercomponent domain dealing in a higher noise reduction without significantly affecting the original image resolution. The proposed method has been compared with similar state-of-art methods over synthetic and real clinical multicomponent MR images showing an improved performance in all cases analyzed. PMID:19888431

  9. Phase coarsening in multicomponent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K. G.; Wang, Gabriel Q.

    2017-02-01

    A theory for phase coarsening in multicomponent systems is developed in which both the multicomponent thermodynamic effect and kinetic effect from a nonzero volume fraction are considered. In contrast to previous theory, a diffusion screening zone for a coarsening particle due to nonzero volume fraction is introduced. The evolution equation for phase coarsening in multicomponent systems is derived in a rigorous way in the framework of the maximum rate of dissipation with the constraints of mass and energy conservation. Existing previous relations are recovered and generalized. Some findings such as the relationship between the maximum particle size and volume fraction and particle size distribution in multicomponent systems are discovered.

  10. Controlling the Regioselectivity of Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases by Mutation of Active-Site Residues.

    PubMed

    Balke, Kathleen; Bäumgen, Marcus; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2017-08-17

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO)-mediated regiodivergent conversions of asymmetric ketones can lead to the formation of "normal" or "abnormal" lactones. In a previous study, we were able to change the regioselectivity of a BVMO by mutation of the active-site residues to smaller amino acids, which thus created more space. In this study, we demonstrate that this method can also be used for other BVMO/substrate combinations. We investigated the regioselectivity of 2-oxo-Δ(3) -4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida (OTEMO) for cis-bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one (1) and trans-dihydrocarvone (2), and we were able to switch the regioselectivity of this enzyme for one of the substrate enantiomers. The OTEMO wild-type enzyme converted (-)-1 into an equal (50:50) mixture of the normal and abnormal products. The F255A/F443V variant produced 90 % of the normal product, whereas the W501V variant formed up to 98 % of the abnormal product. OTEMO F255A exclusively produced the normal lactone from (+)-2, whereas the wild-type enzyme was selective for the production of the abnormal product. The positions of these amino acids were equivalent to those mutated in the cyclohexanone monooxygenases from Arthrobacter sp. and Acinetobacter sp. (CHMOArthro and CHMOAcineto ) to switch their regioselectivity towards (+)-2, which suggests that there are hot spots in the active site of BVMOs that can be targeted with the aim to change the regioselectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  12. Magnetization of multicomponent ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Szalai, I; Dietrich, S

    2011-08-17

    The solution of the mean spherical approximation (MSA) integral equation for isotropic multicomponent dipolar hard sphere fluids without external fields is used to construct a density functional theory (DFT), which includes external fields, in order to obtain an analytical expression for the external field dependence of the magnetization of ferrofluidic mixtures. This DFT is based on a second-order Taylor series expansion of the free energy density functional of the anisotropic system around the corresponding isotropic MSA reference system. The ensuing results for the magnetic properties are in quantitative agreement with our canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation data presented here.

  13. Total degradation of pentachloroethane by an engineered Alcaligenes strain expressing a modified camphor monooxygenase and a hybrid dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, Ryo; Yoshihira, Kunichika; Ngadiman; Futagami, Taiki; Goto, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2004-06-01

    We engineered biphenyl-degrading Alcaligenes sp. strain KF711 for total degradation of pentachloroethane (PCA), which expresses a modified camphor monooxygenase and a hybrid dioxygenase consisting of TodC1 (a large subunit of toluene dioxygenase of Pseudomonas putida F1) and BphA2-BphA3-pbhA4 (a small subunit, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase of biphenyl dioxygenase, respectively, in strain KF707). Modified camphor monooxygenase genes (camCAB) were supplied as a plasmid and the todC1 gene was integrated within the chromosomal bph gene cluster by a single crossover recombination. The resultant strain KF711S-3cam dechlorinated PCA to trichloroethene by the action of the modified camphor monooxygenase under anaerobic conditions. The same strain subsequently degraded trichloroethene formed oxidatively by the action of the Tol-Bph hybrid dioxygenase under aerobic conditions. Thus sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatments of the KF711S-3cam resting cells resulted in efficient and total degradation of PCA.

  14. Genetics of particulate methane monooxygenase in methanotrophs

    SciTech Connect

    Peeples, T.L.; Lebron, J.; Costello, A.Y.

    1995-12-01

    The ability of methanotrophs to co-metabolize halocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) by way of the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) is of interest in the development of bioremediation technologies. The presence and the regulation of expression of soluble (sMMO) and membrane-bound (pMMO) forms is important in the design and optimization of such processing schemes. Because the pMMO is found in all methanotrophic species, this form is relevant to in situ remediation technologies. Recently, multiple copies of genes encoding for pMMO have been identified in several species of methanotrophs. Genes encoding the 45 and 27 kDa subunits of the PMMO have been cloned and sequenced. We will discuss the possible implications of multiple copies of pMMO genes in the regulation of pMMO expression. These data may give insights into how MMO activity in natural environments may be manipulated for increased TCE biodegradation.

  15. Structural diversity of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Forsberg, Zarah; Loose, Jennifer Sm; Bissaro, Bastien; Eijsink, Vincent Gh

    2017-01-10

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds and represent a promising resource for development of industrial enzyme cocktails for biomass processing. LPMOs show high sequence and modular diversity and are known, so far, to cleave insoluble substrates such as cellulose, chitin and starch, as well as hemicelluloses such as beta-glucan, xyloglucan and xylan. All LPMOs share a catalytic histidine brace motif to bind copper, but differ strongly when it comes to the nature and arrangement of residues on the substrate-binding surface. In recent years, the number of available LPMO structures has increased rapidly, including the first structure of an enzyme-substrate complex. The insights gained from these structures is reviewed below.

  16. Structural basis of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Marta; Levy, Colin; Heyes, Derren J.; Lafite, Pierre; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Giorgini, Flaviano; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), an enzyme in the eukaryotic tryptophan catabolic pathway (i.e. kynurenine pathway), leads to amelioration of Huntington’s disease-relevant phenotypes in yeast, fruit fly, and mouse models1–5, as well as a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease3. KMO is a FAD-dependent monooxygenase, and is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane where it converts L-kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Perturbations in the levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites have been linked to the pathogenesis of a spectrum of brain disorders6, as well as cancer7,8, and several peripheral inflammatory conditions9. Despite the importance of KMO as a target for neurodegenerative disease, the molecular basis of KMO inhibition by available lead compounds has remained hitherto unknown. Here we report the first crystal structure of KMO, in the free form and in complex with the tight-binding inhibitor UPF 648. UPF 648 binds close to the FAD cofactor and perturbs the local active site structure, preventing productive binding of the substrate kynurenine. Functional assays and targeted mutagenesis revealed that the active site architecture and UPF 648 binding are essentially identical in human KMO, validating the yeast KMO:UPF 648 structure as a template for structure-based drug design. This will inform the search for new KMO inhibitors that are able to cross the blood-brain barrier in targeted therapies against neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s diseases. PMID:23575632

  17. A Carbonate-Forming Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Youcai; Dietrich, David; Xu, Wei; Patel, Ashay; Thuss, Justin A. J.; Wang, Jingjing; Yin, Wen-Bing; Qiao, Kangjian; Houk, Kendall N.; Vederas, John C.; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Despite the remarkable versatility displayed by flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) in natural product biosynthesis, one notably missing activity is the oxidative generation of carbonate functional groups. We describe a multifunctional Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase CcsB, which catalyzes the formation of an in-line carbonate in the macrocyclic portion of cytochalasin E. This study expands the repertoire of activities of FMOs and provides a possible synthetic strategy for transformation of ketones into carbonates. PMID:24838010

  18. Soluble expression and purification of the oxidoreductase component of toluene 4-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lucas J; Elsen, Nathaniel L; Pierce, Brad S; Fox, Brian G

    2008-01-01

    Toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) is a member of the bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases, an enzyme family that utilizes a soluble diiron hydroxylase to oxidize a variety of hydrocarbons as the initial step in their metabolism. The hydroxylases obtain reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H via an electron transfer chain that is initiated by an oxidoreductase containing an N-terminal ferredoxin domain and C-terminal flavin- and NAD-binding domains. T4moF, the NADH oxidoreductase of T4MO, was expressed as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) from the pUC-derived expression vector pRS205. This vector contains a lac promoter instead of a T7 promoter. A three step purification from the soluble cell lysate yielded approximately 1 mg of T4moF per gram of wet cell paste with greater than 90% purity. The purified protein contained 1 mol of FAD and 2 mol of Fe per mol of T4moF; quantitative EPR spectroscopy showed approximately 1 mol of the S=1/2 signal from the reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster per mol of T4moF. Steady state kinetic analysis of p-cresol formation activity treating T4moF as the variable substrate while all other proteins and substrates were held constant gave apparent K(M-) and apparent k(cat)-values of 0.15 microM and 3.0 s(-1), respectively. This expression system and purification allows for the recovery of the soluble oxidoreductase in yields that facilitate further biochemical and structural characterizations.

  19. The Solidification of Multicomponent Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Boettinger, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Various topics taken from the author’s research portfolio that involve multicomponent alloy solidification are reviewed. Topics include: ternary eutectic solidification and Scheil-Gulliver paths in ternary systems. A case study of the solidification of commercial 2219 aluminum alloy is described. Also described are modifications of the Scheil-Gulliver analysis to treat dendrite tip kinetics and solid diffusion for multicomponent alloys. PMID:28819348

  20. Trichloroethylene degradation using recombinant bacteria expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase from methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, D.; Kim, C.; Wood, T.K.

    1995-12-01

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from M. trichosporium OB3b has the ability to degrade many halogenated aliphatic compounds that are found in contaminated soil and groundwater. For efficient trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation in a foreign host, efforts are being made to improve inconsistent and low sMMO activity of the recombinant strain constructed previously (Pseudomonas putida F1/pSMMO20). Additional smmo-containing recombinant strains have been constructed including various Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Rhizobium strains. Recombinant facultative methylotrophs containing the smmo locus were also constructed through electroporation and tri-parental mating using a new plasmid pSMMO50. TCE degradation by these recombinant strains was examined. The effect of metal ions on in vitro sMMO activity was also discerned to optimize the expression medium. Among the metal ions examined, Cu(I), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) inhibited sMMO purified from trichosporium OB3b, and the effect of the metal ions on each of the components of sMMO will also be discussed. In addition, the post-segregational killing locus (hok/sok) from E. coli plasmid R1 was inserted downstream of the smmo locus to stabilize the recombinant plasmid in these host cells, and chemostat cultures were used to optimize expression of active sMMO by varying the growth rate.

  1. Substrate radical intermediates in soluble methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aimin; Jin, Yi; Zhang, Jingyan; Brazeau, Brian J; Lipscomb, John D

    2005-12-09

    EPR spin-trapping experiments were carried out using the three-component soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO). Spin-traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), alpha-4-pyridyl-1-oxide N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN), and nitrosobenzene (NOB) were used to investigate the possible formation of substrate radical intermediates during catalysis. In contrast to a previous report, the NADH-coupled oxidations of various substrates did not produce any trapped radical species when DMPO or POBN was present. However, radicals were detected by these traps when only the MMO reductase component and NADH were present. DMPO and POBN were found to be weak inhibitors of the MMO reaction. In contrast, NOB is a strong inhibitor for the MMO-catalyzed nitrobenzene oxidation reaction. When NOB was used as a spin-trap in the complete MMO system with or without substrate, EPR signals from an NOB radical were detected. We propose that a molecule of NOB acts simultaneously as a substrate and a spin-trap for MMO, yielding the long-lived radical and supporting a stepwise mechanism for MMO.

  2. A tale of two methane monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Matthew O.

    2017-01-01

    Methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes activate O2 for oxidation of methane. Two distinct MMOs exist in nature, a soluble form that uses a diiron active site (sMMO) and a membrane-bound form with a catalytic copper center (pMMO). Understanding the reaction mechanisms of these enzymes is of fundamental importance to biologists and chemists, and is also relevant to the development of new biocatalysts. The sMMO catalytic cycle has been elucidated in detail, including O2 activation intermediates and the nature of the methane-oxidizing species. By contrast, many aspects of pMMO catalysis remain unclear, most notably the nuclearity and molecular details of the copper active site. Here, we review the current state of knowledge for both enzymes, and consider pMMO O2 activation intermediates suggested by computational and synthetic studies in the context of existing biochemical data. Further work is needed on all fronts, with the ultimate goal of understanding how these two remarkable enzymes catalyze a reaction not readily achieved by any other metalloenzyme or biomimetic compound. PMID:27878395

  3. Pseudomonas chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Sampedro, Inmaculada; Parales, Rebecca E; Krell, Tino; Hill, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonads sense changes in the concentration of chemicals in their environment and exhibit a behavioral response mediated by flagella or pili coupled with a chemosensory system. The two known chemotaxis pathways, a flagella-mediated pathway and a putative pili-mediated system, are described in this review. Pseudomonas shows chemotaxis response toward a wide range of chemicals, and this review includes a summary of them organized by chemical structure. The assays used to measure positive and negative chemotaxis swimming and twitching Pseudomonas as well as improvements to those assays and new assays are also described. This review demonstrates that there is ample research and intellectual space for future investigators to elucidate the role of chemotaxis in important processes such as pathogenesis, bioremediation, and the bioprotection of plants and animals. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  4. Towards practical Baeyer-Villiger-monooxygenases: design of cyclohexanone monooxygenase mutants with enhanced oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Opperman, Diederik J; Reetz, Manfred T

    2010-12-10

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) catalyze the conversion of ketones and cyclic ketones into esters and lactones, respectively. Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) from Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB 9871 is known to show an impressive substrate scope as well as exquisite chemo-, regio-, and enantioselectivity in many cases. Large-scale synthetic applications of CHMO are hampered, however, by the instability of the enzyme. Oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues contributes to this instability. Designed mutations of all the methionine and cysteine residues in the CHMO wild type (WT) showed that the amino acids labile towards oxidation are mostly either surface-exposed or located within the active site, whereas the two methionine residues identified for thermostabilization are buried within the folded protein. Combinatorial mutations gave rise to two stabilized mutants with either oxidative or thermal stability, without compromising the activity or stereoselectivity of the enzyme. The most oxidatively stabilized mutant retained nearly 40 % of its activity after incubation with H(2)O(2) (0.2 M), whereas the wild-type enzyme's activity was completely abolished at concentrations as low as 5 mM H(2)O(2). We propose that oxidation-stable mutants might well be a "prerequisite" for thermostabilization, because laboratory-evolved thermostability in CHMO might be masked by a high degree of oxidation instability.

  5. Electron transfer reactions in the alkene mono-oxygenase complex from Nocardia corallina B-276.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, S C; Cammack, R; Dalton, H

    1999-01-01

    Nocardia corallina B-276 possesses a multi-component enzyme, alkene mono-oxygenase (AMO), that catalyses the stereoselective epoxygenation of alkenes. The reductase component of this system has been shown by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy to contain two prosthetic groups, an FAD centre and a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The role of these centres in the epoxygenation reaction was determined by midpoint potential measurements and electron transfer kinetics. The order of potentials of the prosthetic groups of the reductase were FAD/FAD.=-216 mV, [2Fe-2S]/[2Fe-2S].=-160 mV and FAD./FAD.=-134 mV. Combined, these data implied that the reductase component supplied the energy required for the epoxygenation reaction and allowed a prediction of the mechanism of electron transfer within the AMO complex. The FAD moiety was reduced by bound NADH in a two-electron reaction. The electrons were then transported to the [2Fe-2S] centre one at a time, which in turn reduced the di-iron centre of the epoxygenase. Reduction of the di-iron centre is required for oxygen binding and substrate oxidation. PMID:10085230

  6. Structure and Ligand Binding Properties of the Epoxidase Component of Styrene Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Ukaegbu, Uchechi E.; Kantz, Auric; Beaton, Michelle; Gassner, George T.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-07-23

    Styrene monooxygenase (SMO) is a two-component flavoprotein monooxygenase that transforms styrene to styrene oxide in the first step of the styrene catabolic and detoxification pathway of Pseudomonas putida S12. The crystal structure of the N-terminally histidine-tagged epoxidase component of this system, NSMOA, determined to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, indicates the enzyme exists as a homodimer in which each monomer forms two distinct domains. The overall architecture is most similar to that of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH), although there are some significant differences in secondary structure. Structural comparisons suggest that a large cavity open to the surface forms the FAD binding site. At the base of this pocket is another cavity that likely represents the styrene binding site. Flavin binding and redox equilibria are tightly coupled such that reduced FAD binds apo NSMOA {approx}8000 times more tightly than the oxidized coenzyme. Equilibrium fluorescence and isothermal titration calorimetry data using benzene as a substrate analogue indicate that the oxidized flavin and substrate analogue binding equilibria of NSMOA are linked such that the binding affinity of each is increased by 60-fold when the enzyme is saturated with the other. A much weaker {approx}2-fold positive cooperative interaction is observed for the linked binding equilibria of benzene and reduced FAD. The low affinity of the substrate analogue for the reduced FAD complex of NSMOA is consistent with a preferred reaction order in which flavin reduction and reaction with oxygen precede the binding of styrene, identifying the apoenzyme structure as the key catalytic resting state of NSMOA poised to bind reduced FAD and initiate the oxygen reaction.

  7. Purification and characterization of toluene 2-monooxygenase from Burkholderia cepacia G4.

    PubMed

    Newman, L M; Wackett, L P

    1995-10-31

    Recent in vivo studies indicate that ring monooxygenation is a widespread mechanism by which bacteria metabolize aromatic hydrocarbons and obtain carbon and energy. In this study, toluene 2-monooxygenase from Burkholderia (formerly Pseudomonas) cepacia G4 was purified to homogeneity and found to be a three-component enzyme system. The reconstituted enzyme system oxidized toluene to o-cresol and o-cresol to 3-methylcatechol, an important intermediate for growth of the bacterium on toluene. Steady-state kinetic parameters measured for the water-soluble substrate o-cresol were a Km of 0.8 microM and a Vmax of 131 nmol min-1 (mg of hydroxylase protein)-1. The three protein components were (1) a 40 kDa polypeptide containing one FAD and a [2Fe2S] cluster, (2) a 10.4 kDa polypeptide that contained no identifiable metals or organic cofactors, and (3) a 211 kDa alpha 2 beta 2 gamma 2 component containing five to six iron atoms. The 40 kDa flavo-iron-sulfur protein oxidized NADH and transferred electrons to cytochrome c, dyes, and the alpha 2 beta 2 gamma 2 component. It is analogous to other NADH oxidoreductase components found in a wide range of bacterial mono- and dioxygenases. The 10.4 kDa component, added to the other two components and NADH, increased toluene oxidation rates 10-fold. The alpha 2 beta 2 gamma 2 component was indicated to contain the site for toluene binding and hydroxylation by the following observations: (1) tight binding to a toluene affinity column; (2) oxidation of toluene after reduction of the protein with dithionite and adding O2; (3) H2O2-dependent toluene oxidation and catalase activity; and (4) spectroscopic studies of the iron atoms in the component. The alpha 2 beta 2 gamma 2 component had no significant absorbance in the visible region. EPR spectroscopy yielded a signal at g = 16 upon addition of > 2 equiv of electrons per 2 Fe atoms. Taken with the quantitation of five to six iron atoms, the data suggest that the alpha 2 beta 2 gamma 2

  8. Hydrocarbon monooxygenase in Mycobacterium: recombinant expression of a member of the ammonia monooxygenase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Nicholas V; Le, Nga B; Ly, Mai A; Ogawa, Hitoha E; McCarl, Victoria; Wilson, Neil L; Holmes, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The copper membrane monooxygenases (CuMMOs) are an important group of enzymes in environmental science and biotechnology. Areas of relevance include the development of green chemistry for sustainable exploitation of methane (CH4) reserves, remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination and monitoring human impact in the biogeochemical cycles of CH4 and nitrogen. Challenges for all these applications are that many aspects of the ecology, physiology and structure–function relationships in the CuMMOs are inadequately understood. Here, we describe genetic and physiological characterization of a novel member of the CuMMO family that has an unusual physiological substrate range (C2–C4 alkanes) and a distinctive bacterial host (Mycobacterium). The Mycobacterial CuMMO genes (designated hmoCAB) were amenable to heterologous expression in M. smegmatis—this is the first example of recombinant expression of a complete and highly active CuMMO enzyme. The apparent specific activity of recombinant cells containing hmoCAB ranged from 2 to 3 nmol min–1 per mg protein on ethane, propane and butane as substrates, and the recombinants could also attack ethene, cis-dichloroethene and 1,2-dichloroethane. No detectable activity of recombinants or wild-type strains was seen with methane. The specific inhibitor allylthiourea strongly inhibited growth of wild-type cells on C2–C4 alkanes, and omission of copper from the medium had a similar effect, confirming the physiological role of the CuMMO for growth on alkanes. The hydrocarbon monooxygenase provides a new model for studying this important enzyme family, and the recombinant expression system will enable biochemical and molecular biological experiments (for example, site-directed mutagenesis) that were previously not possible. PMID:21796219

  9. Fusion proteins of an enoate reductase and a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase facilitate the synthesis of chiral lactones.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christin; Rudroff, Florian; Mihovilovic, Marko D; T Bornscheuer, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Nature uses the advantages of fusion proteins for multi-step reactions to facilitate the metabolism in cells as the conversion of substrates through intermediates to the final product can take place more rapidly and with less side-product formation. In a similar fashion, also for enzyme cascade reactions, the fusion of biocatalysts involved can be advantageous. In the present study, we investigated fusion of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), an enoate reductase (ERED) and a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) to enable the synthesis of (chiral) lactones starting from unsaturated alcohols as substrates. The domain order and various linkers were studied to find optimal conditions with respect to expression levels and enzymatic activities. Best results were achieved for the ERED xenobiotic reductase B (XenB) from Pseudomonas putida and the cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) from Acinetobacter sp., whereas none of the ADHs studied could be fused successfully. This fusion protein together with separately supplied ADH resulted in similar reaction rates in in vivo biocatalysis reactions. After 1.5 h we could detect 40% more dihydrocarvone lactone in in vivo reactions with the fusion protein and ADH then with the single enzymes.

  10. Characterization of a tryptophan 2-monooxygenase gene from Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici involved in auxin biosynthesis and rust pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuntao; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R; Hulbert, Scot H

    2014-03-01

    The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is best known as a regulator of plant growth and development but its production can also affect plant-microbe interactions. Microorganisms, including numerous plant-associated bacteria and several fungi, are also capable of producing IAA. The stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici induced wheat plants to accumulate auxin in infected leaf tissue. A gene (Pgt-IaaM) encoding a putative tryptophan 2-monooxygenase, which makes the auxin precursor indole-3-acetamide (IAM), was identified in the P. graminis f. sp. tritici genome and found to be expressed in haustoria cells in infected plant tissue. Transient silencing of the gene in infected wheat plants indicated that it was required for full pathogenicity. Expression of Pgt-IaaM in Arabidopsis caused a typical auxin expression phenotype and promoted susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.

  11. Cloning and expression of three ladA-type alkane monooxygenase genes from an extremely thermophilic alkane-degrading bacterium Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23.

    PubMed

    Boonmak, Chanita; Takahashi, Yasunori; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2014-05-01

    An extremely thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoleovorans B23, is capable of degrading a broad range of alkanes (with carbon chain lengths ranging between C11 and C32) at 70 °C. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that unlike most alkane-degrading bacteria, strain B23 does not possess an alkB-type alkane monooxygenase gene. Instead, it possesses a cluster of three ladA-type genes, ladAαB23, ladAβB23, and ladB B23, on its chromosome, whose protein products share significant amino acid sequence identities, 49.8, 34.4, and 22.7 %, respectively, with that of ladA alkane monooxygenase gene found on a plasmid of Geobacillus thermodetrificans NG 80-2. Each of the three genes, ladAαB23, ladAβB23, and ladB B23, was heterologously expressed individually in an alkB1 deletion mutant strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens KOB2Δ1. It was found that all three genes were functional in P. fluorescens KOB2Δ1, and partially restored alkane degradation activity. In this study, we suggest that G. thermoleovorans B23 utilizes multiple LadA-type alkane monooxygenases for the degradation of a broad range of alkanes.

  12. Kinetic mechanism of phenylacetone monooxygenase from Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Torres Pazmiño, Daniel E; Baas, Bert-Jan; Janssen, Dick B; Fraaije, Marco W

    2008-04-01

    Phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) from Thermobifida fusca is a FAD-containing Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO). To elucidate the mechanism of conversion of phenylacetone by PAMO, we have performed a detailed steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic analysis. In the catalytic cycle ( k cat = 3.1 s (-1)), rapid binding of NADPH ( K d = 0.7 microM) is followed by a transfer of the 4( R)-hydride from NADPH to the FAD cofactor ( k red = 12 s (-1)). The reduced PAMO is rapidly oxygenated by molecular oxygen ( k ox = 870 mM (-1) s (-1)), yielding a C4a-peroxyflavin. The peroxyflavin enzyme intermediate reacts with phenylacetone to form benzylacetate ( k 1 = 73 s (-1)). This latter kinetic event leads to an enzyme intermediate which we could not unequivocally assign and may represent a Criegee intermediate or a C4a-hydroxyflavin form. The relatively slow decay (4.1 s (-1)) of this intermediate yields fully reoxidized PAMO and limits the turnover rate. NADP (+) release is relatively fast and represents the final step of the catalytic cycle. This study shows that kinetic behavior of PAMO is significantly different when compared with that of sequence-related monooxygenases, e.g., cyclohexanone monooxygenase and liver microsomal flavin-containing monooxygenase. Inspection of the crystal structure of PAMO has revealed that residue R337, which is conserved in other BVMOs, is positioned close to the flavin cofactor. The analyzed R337A and R337K mutant enzymes were still able to form and stabilize the C4a-peroxyflavin intermediate. The mutants were unable to convert either phenylacetone or benzyl methyl sulfide. This demonstrates that R337 is crucially involved in assisting PAMO-mediated Baeyer-Villiger and sulfoxidation reactions.

  13. Multi-Component Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-11-01

    We explore multi-component dark matter models where the dark sector consists of multiple stable states with different mass scales, and dark forces coupling these states further enrich the dynamics. The multi-component nature of the dark matter naturally arises in supersymmetric models, where both R parity and an additional symmetry, such as a Z{sub 2}, is preserved. We focus on a particular model where the heavier component of dark matter carries lepton number and annihilates mostly to leptons. The heavier component, which is essentially a sterile neutrino, naturally explains the PAMELA, ATIC and synchrotron signals, without an excess in antiprotons which typically mars other models of weak scale dark matter. The lighter component, which may have a mass from a GeV to a TeV, may explain the DAMA signal, and may be visible in low threshold runs of CDMS and XENON, which search for light dark matter.

  14. Fluctuating multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, D; Sbragaglia, M; Biferale, L; Gross, M; Varnik, F

    2015-02-01

    Current implementations of fluctuating lattice Boltzmann equations (FLBEs) describe single component fluids. In this paper, a model based on the continuum kinetic Boltzmann equation for describing multicomponent fluids is extended to incorporate the effects of thermal fluctuations. The thus obtained fluctuating Boltzmann equation is first linearized to apply the theory of linear fluctuations, and expressions for the noise covariances are determined by invoking the fluctuation-dissipation theorem directly at the kinetic level. Crucial for our analysis is the projection of the Boltzmann equation onto the orthonormal Hermite basis. By integrating in space and time the fluctuating Boltzmann equation with a discrete number of velocities, the FLBE is obtained for both ideal and nonideal multicomponent fluids. Numerical simulations are specialized to the case where mean-field interactions are introduced on the lattice, indicating a proper thermalization of the system.

  15. Reconstitution of {beta}-carotene hydroxylase activity of thermostable CYP175A1 monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Momoi, Kyoko; Hofmann, Ute; Schmid, Rolf D.; Urlacher, Vlada B. . E-mail: itbvkha@po.uni-stuttgart.de

    2006-01-06

    CYP175A1 is a thermostable P450 Monooxygenase from Thermus thermophilus HB27, demonstrating in vivo activity towards {beta}-carotene. Activity of CYP175A1 was reconstituted in vitro using artificial electron transport proteins. First results were obtained in the mixture with a crude Escherichia coli cell extract at 37 {sup o}C. In this system, {beta}-carotene was hydroxylated to {beta}-cryptoxanthin. The result indicated the presence of electron transport enzymes among the E. coli proteins, which are suitable for CYP175A1. However, upon in vitro reconstitution of CYP175A1 activity with purified recombinant flavodoxin and flavodoxin reductase from E. coli, only very low {beta}-cryptoxanthin production was observed. Remarkably, with another artificial electron transport system, putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase from Pseudomonas putida, purified CYP175A1 enzyme hydroxylated {beta}-carotene at 3- and also 3'-positions, resulting in {beta}-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the turnover rate of the enzyme reached 0.23 nmol {beta}-cryptoxanthin produced per nmol P450 per min.

  16. Multicomponent reactions in nucleoside chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Buchowicz, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review covers sixty original publications dealing with the application of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) in the synthesis of novel nucleoside analogs. The reported approaches were employed for modifications of the parent nucleoside core or for de novo construction of a nucleoside scaffold from non-nucleoside substrates. The cited references are grouped according to the usually recognized types of the MCRs. Biochemical properties of the novel nucleoside analogs are also presented (if provided by the authors). PMID:25161730

  17. Characterization and Crystal Structure of a Robust Cyclohexanone Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Romero, Elvira; Castellanos, J Rubén Gómez; Mattevi, Andrea; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-12-19

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) is a promising biocatalyst for industrial reactions owing to its broad substrate spectrum and excellent regio-, chemo-, and enantioselectivity. However, the low stability of many Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases is an obstacle for their exploitation in industry. Characterization and crystal structure determination of a robust CHMO from Thermocrispum municipale is reported. The enzyme efficiently converts a variety of aliphatic, aromatic, and cyclic ketones, as well as prochiral sulfides. A compact substrate-binding cavity explains its preference for small rather than bulky substrates. Small-scale conversions with either purified enzyme or whole cells demonstrated the remarkable properties of this newly discovered CHMO. The exceptional solvent tolerance and thermostability make the enzyme very attractive for biotechnology.

  18. Characterization and Crystal Structure of a Robust Cyclohexanone Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Elvira; Castellanos, J. Rubén Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) is a promising biocatalyst for industrial reactions owing to its broad substrate spectrum and excellent regio‐, chemo‐, and enantioselectivity. However, the low stability of many Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases is an obstacle for their exploitation in industry. Characterization and crystal structure determination of a robust CHMO from Thermocrispum municipale is reported. The enzyme efficiently converts a variety of aliphatic, aromatic, and cyclic ketones, as well as prochiral sulfides. A compact substrate‐binding cavity explains its preference for small rather than bulky substrates. Small‐scale conversions with either purified enzyme or whole cells demonstrated the remarkable properties of this newly discovered CHMO. The exceptional solvent tolerance and thermostability make the enzyme very attractive for biotechnology. PMID:27873437

  19. The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, N.Y.; Jenkins, A.; Chan Kwo Chion, C.K.N.; Leak, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase {alpha}-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase {gamma}-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase {beta}-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with > 60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of {sigma}{sup 5.4} (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase {alpha}-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not.

  20. Alkane Oxidation: Methane Monooxygenases, Related Enzymes, and Their Biomimetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Vincent C-C; Maji, Suman; Chen, Peter P-Y; Lee, Hung Kay; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2017-02-16

    Methane monooxygenases (MMOs) mediate the facile conversion of methane into methanol in methanotrophic bacteria with high efficiency under ambient conditions. Because the selective oxidation of methane is extremely challenging, there is considerable interest in understanding how these enzymes carry out this difficult chemistry. The impetus of these efforts is to learn from the microbes to develop a biomimetic catalyst to accomplish the same chemical transformation. Here, we review the progress made over the past two to three decades toward delineating the structures and functions of the catalytic sites in two MMOs: soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). sMMO is a water-soluble three-component protein complex consisting of a hydroxylase with a nonheme diiron catalytic site; pMMO is a membrane-bound metalloenzyme with a unique tricopper cluster as the site of hydroxylation. The metal cluster in each of these MMOs harnesses O2 to functionalize the C-H bond using different chemistry. We highlight some of the common basic principles that they share. Finally, the development of functional models of the catalytic sites of MMOs is described. These efforts have culminated in the first successful biomimetic catalyst capable of efficient methane oxidation without overoxidation at room temperature.

  1. Inhibition of human squalene monooxygenase by selenium compounds.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nisha; Porter, Todd D

    2002-01-01

    Selenosis in animals is characterized by a variety of neurological abnormalities, but the chemical species of selenium and the molecular targets that mediate this neurotoxicity are unknown. We have previously shown that selenite is a potent inhibitor of squalene monooxygenase, the second enzyme in the committed pathway for cholesterol biosynthesis; inhibition of this enzyme by dimethyltellurium leads to a peripheral demyelinating neuropathy similar to that seen in selenosis. To evaluate the role methylation plays in selenium toxicity, we examined the ability of three methylselenium compounds, methylselenol, dimethylselenide, and trimethylselenonium iodide, to inhibit purified recombinant human squalene monooxygenase. IC(50) values for methylselenol (95 microM) and dimethylselenide (680 microM) were greater than that previously obtained for selenite (37 microM), and inhibition by trimethylselenonium iodide was evident only at concentrations above 3 mM. Inhibition by methylselenol as well as by selenite was slow and irreversible, suggestive of covalent binding to the enzyme, and thiol-containing compounds could prevent and reverse this inhibition, indicating that these compounds were reacting with sulfhydryl groups on the protein. Monothiols such as glutathione and beta-mercaptoethanol provided better protection than did dithiols, suggesting that these selenium compounds bind to only one of the two proposed vicinal cysteines on squalene monooxygenase. Unexpectedly, the inhibition by selenite was significantly enhanced by dithiols, indicating that a more toxic species, possibly selenide, was formed in the presence of these dithiol reductants. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Investigating the coenzyme specificity of phenylacetone monooxygenase from Thermobifida fusca

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Hanna M.; Torres Pazmiño, Daniel E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Gotor, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Type I Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) strongly prefer NADPH over NADH as an electron donor. In order to elucidate the molecular basis for this coenzyme specificity, we have performed a site-directed mutagenesis study on phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) from Thermobifida fusca. Using sequence alignments of type I BVMOs and crystal structures of PAMO and cyclohexanone monooxygenase in complex with NADP+, we identified four residues that could interact with the 2′-phosphate moiety of NADPH in PAMO. The mutagenesis study revealed that the conserved R217 is essential for binding the adenine moiety of the nicotinamide coenzyme while it also contributes to the recognition of the 2′-phosphate moiety of NADPH. The substitution of T218 did not have a strong effect on the coenzyme specificity. The H220N and H220Q mutants exhibited a ~3-fold improvement in the catalytic efficiency with NADH while the catalytic efficiency with NADPH was hardly affected. Mutating K336 did not increase the activity of PAMO with NADH, but it had a significant and beneficial effect on the enantioselectivity of Baeyer–Villiger oxidations and sulfoxidations. In conclusion, our results indicate that the function of NADPH in catalysis cannot be easily replaced by NADH. This finding is in line with the complex catalytic mechanism and the vital role of the coenzyme in BVMOs. PMID:20703875

  3. Investigating the coenzyme specificity of phenylacetone monooxygenase from Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Hanna M; Torres Pazmiño, Daniel E; Rodríguez, Cristina; de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Gotor, Vicente; Fraaije, Marco W

    2010-11-01

    Type I Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) strongly prefer NADPH over NADH as an electron donor. In order to elucidate the molecular basis for this coenzyme specificity, we have performed a site-directed mutagenesis study on phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) from Thermobifida fusca. Using sequence alignments of type I BVMOs and crystal structures of PAMO and cyclohexanone monooxygenase in complex with NADP(+), we identified four residues that could interact with the 2'-phosphate moiety of NADPH in PAMO. The mutagenesis study revealed that the conserved R217 is essential for binding the adenine moiety of the nicotinamide coenzyme while it also contributes to the recognition of the 2'-phosphate moiety of NADPH. The substitution of T218 did not have a strong effect on the coenzyme specificity. The H220N and H220Q mutants exhibited a ~3-fold improvement in the catalytic efficiency with NADH while the catalytic efficiency with NADPH was hardly affected. Mutating K336 did not increase the activity of PAMO with NADH, but it had a significant and beneficial effect on the enantioselectivity of Baeyer-Villiger oxidations and sulfoxidations. In conclusion, our results indicate that the function of NADPH in catalysis cannot be easily replaced by NADH. This finding is in line with the complex catalytic mechanism and the vital role of the coenzyme in BVMOs.

  4. Pseudomonas 2007 Meeting Review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas is an important genus of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the third most common nosocomial pathogen in our society, associated with chronic and eventually fatal lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients, while Pseudomonas syringae species are prominent plant pathogens. The fluorescen...

  5. Pseudomonad Cyclopentadecanone Monooxygenase Displaying an Uncommon Spectrum of Baeyer-Villiger Oxidations of Cyclic Ketones†

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, Hiroaki; Wang, Shaozhao; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Nagahashi, Ayako; Lertvorachon, Jittiwud; Yang, Jianzhong; Konishi, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Lau, Peter C. K.

    2006-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are biocatalysts that offer the prospect of high chemo-, regio-, and enantioselectivity in the organic synthesis of lactones or esters from a variety of ketones. In this study, we have cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli a new BVMO, cyclopentadecanone monooxygenase (CpdB or CPDMO), originally derived from Pseudomonas sp. strain HI-70. The 601-residue primary structure of CpdB revealed only 29% to 50% sequence identity to those of known BVMOs. A new sequence motif, characterized by a cluster of charged residues, was identified in a subset of BVMO sequences that contain an N-terminal extension of ∼60 to 147 amino acids. The 64-kDa CPDMO enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity, providing a specific activity of 3.94 μmol/min/mg protein and a 20% yield. CPDMO is monomeric and NADPH dependent and contains ∼1 mol flavin adenine dinucleotide per mole of protein. A deletion mutant suggested the importance of the N-terminal 54 amino acids to CPDMO activity. In addition, a Ser261Ala substitution in a Rossmann fold motif resulted in an improved stability and increased affinity of the enzyme towards NADPH compared to the wild-type enzyme (Km = 8 μM versus Km = 24 μM). Substrate profiling indicated that CPDMO is unusual among known BVMOs in being able to accommodate and oxidize both large and small ring substrates that include C11 to C15 ketones, methyl-substituted C5 and C6 ketones, and bicyclic ketones, such as decalone and β-tetralone. CPDMO has the highest affinity (Km = 5.8 μM) and the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km ratio of 7.2 × 105 M−1 s−1) toward cyclopentadecanone, hence the Cpd designation. A number of whole-cell biotransformations were carried out, and as a result, CPDMO was found to have an excellent enantioselectivity (E > 200) as well as 99% S-selectivity toward 2-methylcyclohexanone for the production of 7-methyl-2-oxepanone, a potentially valuable chiral building block. Although

  6. X-ray crystal structures of manganese(II)-reconstituted and native toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase reveal rotamer shifts in conserved residues and an enhanced view of the protein interior.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Michael S; Sazinsky, Matthew H; Condon, Karen L; Lippard, Stephen J

    2006-11-29

    We report the X-ray crystal structures of native and manganese(II)-reconstituted toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase (ToMOH) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1 to 1.85 and 2.20 A resolution, respectively. The structures reveal that reduction of the dimetallic active site is accompanied by a carboxylate shift and alteration of the coordination environment for dioxygen binding and activation. A rotamer shift in a strategically placed asparagine 202 accompanies dimetallic center reduction and is proposed to influence protein component interactions. This rotamer shift is conserved between ToMOH and the corresponding residue in methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). Previously unidentified hydrophobic pockets similar to those present in MMOH are assigned.

  7. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  8. A Multicomponent Animal Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Beitzel, Brett; Auguste, Albert J; Dupuis, Alan P; Lindquist, Michael E; Sibley, Samuel D; Kota, Krishna P; Fetterer, David; Eastwood, Gillian; Kimmel, David; Prieto, Karla; Guzman, Hilda; Aliota, Matthew T; Reyes, Daniel; Brueggemann, Ernst E; St John, Lena; Hyeroba, David; Lauck, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Gestole, Marie C; Cazares, Lisa H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Kenny, Tara; White, Bailey; Ward, Michael D; Loaiza, Jose R; Goldberg, Tony L; Weaver, Scott C; Kramer, Laura D; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-09-14

    RNA viruses exhibit a variety of genome organization strategies, including multicomponent genomes in which each segment is packaged separately. Although multicomponent genomes are common among viruses infecting plants and fungi, their prevalence among those infecting animals remains unclear. We characterize a multicomponent RNA virus isolated from mosquitoes, designated Guaico Culex virus (GCXV). GCXV belongs to a diverse clade of segmented viruses (Jingmenvirus) related to the prototypically unsegmented Flaviviridae. The GCXV genome comprises five segments, each of which appears to be separately packaged. The smallest segment is not required for replication, and its presence is variable in natural infections. We also describe a variant of Jingmen tick virus, another Jingmenvirus, sequenced from a Ugandan red colobus monkey, thus expanding the host range of this segmented and likely multicomponent virus group. Collectively, this study provides evidence for the existence of multicomponent animal viruses and their potential relevance for animal and human health.

  9. Ostwald ripening in multicomponent alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Umantsev, A.; Olson, G.B. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-10-15

    The widespread use of second-phase dispersions in materials has stimulated the intensive study of the diffusion processes occurring in them at the last stage of a first-order phase transformation, termed Ostwald ripening or coarsening. As a result of the large surface area, the mixture is not in thermodynamic equilibrium. Relaxation of such a system is characterized by an increase in the scale size of the second phase and a decrease in the total energy. The authors analyze the coarsening process of an ensemble of particles, precipitation from a multicomponent alloy of arbitrary composition. The authors utilize the method of expansion of chemical potentials, which enables us to describe the coarsening rate through partial derivatives of the chemical potential, with respect to the mole fractions of different components. The latter can be easily calculated numerically, with the help of modern computer database programs such as ThermoCalc. The multicomponent interactions for diffusion are not considered, which implies rather special properties of the matrix of mobility coefficients.

  10. Photosensitivity phenomena in multicomponent glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czachor, K.; Jedrzejewski, K.; Stępień, R.

    2005-09-01

    Low cost, high bandwidth, narrowband and multifunctionality are main targets for new optical devices development. Planar optics is probably the best solution for future telecom long distance and access transmission networks but also for metrology sensing devices. Many different materials can be used for this purpose like PECVD silica, multicomponent glasses or even polymers. Bragg grating inscription in such material is another advantage to achieve narrowband spectral characteristic of device, which is essential in modern systems. The main purpose of presented work was the development in technology and measurement techniques of channels formed on the surface of the glass. Planar couplers and structures that are more complicated can also be made in the same technology in the future. Special multicomponent glasses SiO2-GeO2-B2O3-Na2O-SnO2 with up to 6 %mol of Sn were synthetized and thin rectangular polished plates were prepared. The UV 244 nm 100 mW Coherent argon ion frequency doubled laser was used in our experiments. Surface relief structures similar to the compaction-densification/expansion model of photosensitivity were developed on the glass surface. The optical microscope and alpha-step profiler were used for preliminary tests of photoinduced structures on the glass surface. The ability of the writing possibility in function of Sn content and different laser power levels were analyzed.

  11. Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases: The Microbial Power Tool for Lignocellulose Degradation.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2016-11-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-enzymes that catalyze oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds. These enzymes are secreted by many microorganisms to initiate infection and degradation processes. In particular, the concept of fungal degradation of lignocellulose has been revised in the light of this recent finding. LPMOs require a source of electrons for activity, and both enzymatic and plant-derived sources have been identified. Importantly, light-induced electron delivery from light-harvesting pigments can efficiently drive LPMO activity. The possible implications of LPMOs in plant-symbiont and -pathogen interactions are discussed in the context of the very powerful oxidative capacity of these enzymes.

  12. The molecular basis of polysaccharide cleavage by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Kristian E. H.; Simmons, Thomas J.; Dupree, Paul; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Hemsworth, Glyn R.; Ciano, Luisa; Johnston, Esther M.; Tovborg, Morten; Johansen, Katja S.; von Freiesleben, Pernille; Marmuse, Laurence; Fort, Sébastien; Cottaz, Sylvain; Driguez, Hugues; Henrissat, Bernard; Lenfant, Nicolas; Tuna, Floriana; Baldansuren, Amgalanbaatar; Davies, Gideon J.; Leggio, Leila Lo; Walton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-containing enzymes which oxidatively break down recalcitrant polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Since their discovery LPMOs have become integral factors in the industrial utilization of biomass, especially in the sustainable generation of cellulosic bioethanol. We report here the first structural determination of an LPMO–oligosaccharide complex, yielding detailed insights into the mechanism of action of these enzymes. Using a combination of structure and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we reveal the means by which LPMOs interact with saccharide substrates. We further uncover electronic and structural features of the enzyme active site, showing how LPMOs orchestrate the reaction of oxygen with polysaccharide chains. PMID:26928935

  13. Bacterial expression of human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase: solubility, activity, purification.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K; Mole, D J; Binnie, M; Homer, N Z M; Zheng, X; Yard, B A; Iredale, J P; Auer, M; Webster, S P

    2014-03-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an enzyme central to the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism. KMO has been implicated as a therapeutic target in several disease states, including Huntington's disease. Recombinant human KMO protein production is challenging due to the presence of transmembrane domains, which localise KMO to the outer mitochondrial membrane and render KMO insoluble in many in vitro expression systems. Efficient bacterial expression of human KMO would accelerate drug development of KMO inhibitors but until now this has not been achieved. Here we report the first successful bacterial (Escherichia coli) expression of active FLAG™-tagged human KMO enzyme expressed in the soluble fraction and progress towards its purification.

  14. Developing Multicomponent Interventions using Fractional Factorial Designs

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Bibhas; Collins, Linda M.; Strecher, Victor J.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Multicomponent interventions composed of behavioral, delivery, or implementation factors in addition to medications are becoming increasingly common in health sciences. A natural experimental approach to developing and refiing such multicomponent interventions is to start with a large number of potential components and screen out the least active ones. Factorial designs can be used efficiently in this endeavor. We address common criticisms and misconceptions regarding the use of factorial designs in these screening studies. We also provide an operationalization of screening studies. As an example we consider the use of a screening study in the development of a multicomponent smoking cessation intervention. Simulation results are provided to support the discussions. PMID:19575485

  15. Particle Lithography Enables Fabrication of Multicomponent Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-feng; Swartz, Logan A.; Li, Jie-Ren; Liu, Yang; Liu, Gang-yu

    2014-01-01

    Multicomponent nanostructures with individual geometries have attracted much attention because of their potential to carry out multiple functions synergistically. The current work reports a simple method using particle lithography to fabricate multicomponent nanostructures of metals, proteins, and organosiloxane molecules, each with its own geometry. Particle lithography is well-known for its capability to produce arrays of triangular-shaped nanostructures with novel optical properties. This paper extends the capability of particle lithography by combining a particle template in conjunction with surface chemistry to produce multicomponent nanostructures. The advantages and limitations of this approach will also be addressed. PMID:24707328

  16. Multi-component assembly casting

    DOEpatents

    James, Allister W.

    2015-10-13

    Multi-component vane segment and method for forming the same. Assembly includes: positioning a pre-formed airfoil component (12) and a preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) in a mold, wherein the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18) each comprises an interlocking feature (24); preheating the mold; introducing molten structural material (46) into the mold; and solidifying the molten structural material such that it interlocks the pre-formed airfoil component (12) with respect to the preformed shroud heat resistant material (18) and is effective to provide structural support for the shroud heat resistant material (18). Surfaces between the airfoil component (12) and the structural material (46), between the airfoil component (12) and the shroud heat resistant material (18), and between the shroud heat resistant material (18) and the structural material (46) are free of metallurgical bonds.

  17. Enthalpy Diffusion in Multicomponent Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, A W

    2008-11-12

    The enthalpy diffusion flux in the multicomponent energy equation is a well known yet frequently neglected term. It accounts for energy changes, associated with compositional changes, resulting from species diffusion. Enthalpy diffusion is important in flows where significant mixing occurs between species of dissimilar molecular weight. The term plays a critical role in preventing local violations of the entropy condition. In simulations of nonpremixed combustion, omission of the enthalpy flux can lead to anomalous temperature gradients, which may cause mixing regions to exceed ignition conditions. The term can also play a role in generating acoustic noise in turbulent mixing layers. Euler solvers that rely on numerical diffusion to mix fluids cannot accurately predict the temperature in mixed regions. On the other hand, Navier-Stokes solvers that incorporate enthalpy diffusion can provide much more accurate results.

  18. Uphill diffusion in multicomponent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rajamani

    2015-05-21

    Molecular diffusion is an omnipresent phenomena that is important in a wide variety of contexts in chemical, physical, and biological processes. In the majority of cases, the diffusion process can be adequately described by Fick's law that postulates a linear relationship between the flux of any species and its own concentration gradient. Most commonly, a component diffuses down the concentration gradient. The major objective of this review is to highlight a very wide variety of situations that cause the uphill transport of one constituent in the mixture. Uphill diffusion may occur in multicomponent mixtures in which the diffusion flux of any species is strongly coupled to that of its partner species. Such coupling effects often arise from strong thermodynamic non-idealities. For a quantitative description we need to use chemical potential gradients as driving forces. The transport of ionic species in aqueous solutions is coupled with its partner ions because of the electro-neutrality constraints; such constraints may accelerate or decelerate a specific ion. When uphill diffusion occurs, we observe transient overshoots during equilibration; the equilibration process follows serpentine trajectories in composition space. For mixtures of liquids, alloys, ceramics and glasses the serpentine trajectories could cause entry into meta-stable composition zones; such entry could result in phenomena such as spinodal decomposition, spontaneous emulsification, and the Ouzo effect. For distillation of multicomponent mixtures that form azeotropes, uphill diffusion may allow crossing of distillation boundaries that are normally forbidden. For mixture separations with microporous adsorbents, uphill diffusion can cause supra-equilibrium loadings to be achieved during transient uptake within crystals; this allows the possibility of over-riding adsorption equilibrium for achieving difficult separations.

  19. Regulated O2 activation in flavin-dependent monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Rosanne E; Mayfield, Jeffery A; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2011-08-17

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) are involved in important biosynthetic pathways in diverse organisms, including production of the siderophores used for the import and storage of essential iron in serious pathogens. We have shown that the FMO from Aspergillus fumigatus, an ornithine monooxygenase (Af-OMO), is mechanistically similar to its well-studied distant homologues from mammalian liver. The latter are highly promiscuous in their choice of substrates, while Af-OMO is unusually specific. This presents a puzzle: how do Af-OMO and other FMOs of the biosynthetic classes achieve such specificity? We have discovered substantial enhancement in the rate of O(2) activation in Af-OMO in the presence of L-arginine, which acts as a small molecule regulator. Such protein-level regulation could help explain how this and related biosynthetic FMOs manage to couple O(2) activation and substrate hydroxylation to each other and to the appropriate cellular conditions. Given the essentiality of Fe to Af and the avirulence of the Af-OMO gene knock out, inhibitors of Af-OMO are likely to be drug targets against this medically intractable pathogen.

  20. Regulated O2 Activation in Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Rosanne E.; Mayfield, Jeffery A.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) are involved in important biosynthetic pathways in diverse organisms, including production of the siderophores used for the import and storage of essential iron in serious pathogens. We have shown that the FMO from Aspergillus fumigatus, an ornithine monooxygenase (Af-OMO), is mechanistically similar to its well-studied distant homologues from mammalian liver. The latter are highly promiscuous in their choice of substrates, while Af-OMO is unusually specific. This presents a puzzle: how do Af-OMO and other FMOs of the biosynthetic classes achieve such specificity? We have discovered substantial enhancement in the rate of O2 activation in Af-OMO in the presence of l-arginine, which acts as a small molecule regulator. Such protein-level regulation could help explain how this and related biosynthetic FMOs manage to couple O2 activation and substrate hydroxylation to each other and to the appropriate cellular conditions. Given the essentiality of Fe to Af and the avirulence of the Af-OMO gene knock out, inhibitors of Af-OMO are likely to be drug targets against this medically intractable pathogen. PMID:21774554

  1. Engineering Styrene Monooxygenase for Biocatalysis: Reductase-Epoxidase Fusion Proteins.

    PubMed

    Heine, Thomas; Tucker, Kathryn; Okonkwo, Nonye; Assefa, Berhanegebriel; Conrad, Catleen; Scholtissek, Anika; Schlömann, Michael; Gassner, George; Tischler, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The enantioselective epoxidation of styrene and related compounds by two-component styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) has targeted these enzymes for development as biocatalysts. In the present work, we prepare genetically engineered fusion proteins that join the C-terminus of the epoxidase (StyA) to the N-terminus of the reductase (StyB) through a linker peptide and demonstrate their utility as biocatalysts in the synthesis of Tyrain purple and other indigoid dyes. A single-vector expression system offers a simplified platform for transformation and expansion of the catalytic function of styrene monooxygenases, and the resulting fusion proteins are self-regulated and couple efficiently NADH oxidation to styrene epoxidation. We find that the reductase domain proceeds through a sequential ternary-complex mechanism at low FAD concentration and a double-displacement mechanism at higher concentrations of FAD. Single-turnover studies indicate an observed rate constant for FAD-to-FAD hydride transfer of ~8 s(-1). This step is rate limiting in the styrene epoxidation reaction and helps to ensure that flavin reduction and styrene epoxidation reactions proceed without wasteful side reactions. Comparison of the reductase activity of the fusion proteins with the naturally occurring reductase, SMOB, and N-terminally histidine-tagged reductase, NSMOB, suggests that the observed changes in catalytic mechanism are due in part to an increase in flavin-binding affinity associated with the N-terminal extension of the reductase.

  2. Multicomponent fuel vaporization at high pressures.

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, D. J.; O'Rourke, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    We extend our multicomponent fuel model to high pressures using a Peng-Robinson equation of state, and implement the model into KIVA-3V. Phase equilibrium is achieved by equating liquid and vapor fugacities. The latent heat of vaporization and fuel enthalpies are also corrected for at high pressures. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation are performed for single droplets for a diesel fuel surrogate at different pressures.

  3. Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Thomas K [Federal Way, WA; Telschow, Kenneth [Des Moines, WA

    2011-01-25

    Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.

  4. Pseudomonas screening assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.

  5. Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a submission to the list of microorganisms with standing in nomenclature maintained by the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. We wish to have Pseudomonas kuykendallii sp. nov. added to the list as a valid species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. Three str...

  6. Glyceryl ether monooxygenase resembles aromatic amino acid hydroxylases in metal ion and tetrahydrobiopterin dependence.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Keller, Markus A; Hermetter, Albin; Golderer, Georg; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Werner, Ernst R

    2009-01-01

    Glyceryl ether monooxygenase is a tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent membrane-bound enzyme which catalyses the cleavage of lipid ethers into glycerol and the corresponding aldehyde. Despite many different characterisation and purification attempts, so far no gene and primary sequence have been assigned to this enzyme. The seven other tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes can be divided in the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases - comprising phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and the two tryptophan hydroxylases - and into the three nitric oxide synthases. We tested the influences of different metal ions and metal ion chelators on glyceryl ether monooxygenase, phenylalanine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase activity to elucidate the relationship of glyceryl ether monooxygenase to these two families. 1,10-Phenanthroline, an inhibitor of non-heme iron-dependent enzymes, was able to potently block glyceryl ether monooxygenase as well as phenylalanine hydroxylase, but had no effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase. Two tetrahydrobiopterin analogues, N(5)-methyltetrahydrobiopterin and 4-aminotetrahydrobiopterin, had a similar impact on glyceryl ether monooxygenase activity, as has already been shown for phenylalanine hydroxylase. These observations point to a close analogy of the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in glyceryl ether monooxygenase and in aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and suggest that glyceryl ether monooxygenase may require a non-heme iron for catalysis.

  7. Monocyte Profiles in Critically Ill Patients With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Sepsis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-02

    Pseudomonas Infections; Pseudomonas Septicemia; Pseudomonas; Pneumonia; Pseudomonal Bacteraemia; Pseudomonas Urinary Tract Infection; Pseudomonas Gastrointestinal Tract Infection; Sepsis; Sepsis, Severe; Critically Ill

  8. Multicomponent Therapeutics of Berberine Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiaoyang; Yan, Dan; Yang, Meihua; Dong, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2013-01-01

    Although berberine alkaloids (BAs) are reported to be with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antiviral activities, the interactions among BAs have not been elucidated. In the present study, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was chosen as a model organism, and modified broth microdilution was applied for the determination of the fluorescence absorption values to calculate the anti-MRSA activity of BAs. We have initiated four steps to seek the optimal combination of BAs that are (1) determining the anti-MRSA activity of single BA, (2) investigating the two-component combination to clarify the interactions among BAs by checkerboard assay, (3) investigating the multicomponent combination to determine the optimal ratio by quadratic rotation-orthogonal combination design, and (4) in vivo and in vitro validation of the optimal combination. The results showed that the interactions among BAs are related to their concentrations. The synergetic combinations included “berberine and epiberberine,” “jatrorrhizine and palmatine” and “jatrorrhizine and coptisine”; the antagonistic combinations included “coptisine and epiberberine”. The optimal combination was berberine : coptisine : jatrorrhizine : palmatine : epiberberine = 0.702 : 0.863 : 1 : 0.491 : 0.526, and the potency of the optimal combination on cyclophosphamide-immunocompromised mouse model was better than the natural combinations of herbs containing BAs. PMID:23634170

  9. Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Multicomponent Implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, Lila; Viitanen, Petrus; Ashammakhi, Nureddin

    2008-02-01

    Earlier we have reported on developing DS releasing bioabsorbable rods for inhibition of osteolysis [l]. Due to their unsatisfactory drug release profiles we assessed the use of sintering technique of enhancement of drug release in the current study. Melt extruded PLGA 80/20 rods were compounded 8 wt-% DS. Some rods were self reinforced (SR) and some of them were sterilized to get three different components with different drug release profiles. Different rods were sintered together with heat and pressure. Three different specimen groups with different construction were studied. Thermal properties were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Changes of IV were performed with capillary analysis and drug release measurements with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Mechanical strength were measured two weeks, when disintegration occurred. Release rate consisted of 1) sharp jump start peak, 2) second smoother peak, and 3) third smooth peak. Released DS concentrations reached local therapeutic levels and maintained at that stage for 24-36 days. All DS was released during 50-70 days. The drug release from multicomponent implant was more stable and commenced earlier than from initial rods. Such properties were favored ones. Initial shear strength was 82 MPa and it decreased to 15 MPa. The mechanical bonding was sufficient although the components disintegrated relatively fast. By sintering different PLGA/DS components with different release rates it is possible to construct a truly controlled release implant for bone fixation with anti-inflammatory properties.

  10. Crystallization of classical multicomponent plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew

    2010-03-15

    We develop a method for calculating the equilibrium properties of the liquid-solid phase transition in a classical, ideal, multicomponent plasma. Our method is a semianalytic calculation that relies on extending the accurate fitting formulas available for the one-, two-, and three-component plasmas to the case of a plasma with an arbitrary number of components. We compare our results to those of C. J. Horowitz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 75, 066101 (2007)], who used a molecular-dynamics simulation to study the chemical properties of a 17-species mixture relevant to the ocean-crust boundary of an accreting neutron star at the point where half the mixture has solidified. Given the same initial composition as Horowitz et al., we are able to reproduce to good accuracy both the liquid and solid compositions at the half-freezing point; we find abundances for most species within 10% of the simulation values. Our method allows the phase diagram of complex mixtures to be explored more thoroughly than possible with numerical simulations. We briefly discuss the implications for the nature of the liquid-solid boundary in accreting neutron stars.

  11. Dynamics of multicomponent lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camley, Brian Andrew

    We present theoretical and computational descriptions of the dynamics of multicomponent lipid bilayer membranes. These systems are both model systems for "lipid rafts" in cell membranes and interesting physical examples of quasi-two-dimensional fluids. Our chief tool is a continuum simulation that uses a phase field to track the composition of the membrane, and solves the hydrodynamic equations exactly using the appropriate Green's function (Oseen tensor) for the membrane. We apply this simulation to describe the diffusion of domains in phase-separated membranes, the dynamics of domain flickering, and the process of phase separation in lipid membranes. We then derive an analytical theory to describe domain flickering that is consistent with our simulation results, and use this to analyze experimental measurements of membrane domains. Through this method, we measure the membrane viscosity solely from fluorescence microscopy measurements. We study phase separation in quasi-two-dimensional membranes in depth with both simulations and scaling theory, and classify the different scaling regimes and morphologies, which differ from pure two-dimensional fluids. Our results may explain previous inconsistent measurements of the dynamical scaling exponent for phase separation in membranes. We also extend our theory beyond the simplest model, including the possibility that the membrane will be viscoelastic, as well as considering the inertia of the membrane and the fluid surrounding the membrane.

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  13. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases disrupt the cellulose fibers structure.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Moreau, Céline; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Garajova, Sona; Foucat, Loïc; Falourd, Xavier; Saake, Bodo; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Cathala, Bernard

    2017-01-10

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of powerful oxidative enzymes that breakdown recalcitrant polysaccharides such as cellulose. Here we investigate the action of LPMOs on cellulose fibers. After enzymatic treatment and dispersion, LPMO-treated fibers show intense fibrillation. Cellulose structure modifications visualized at different scales indicate that LPMO creates nicking points that trigger the disintegration of the cellulose fibrillar structure with rupture of chains and release of elementary nanofibrils. Investigation of LPMO action using solid-state NMR provides direct evidence of modification of accessible and inaccessible surfaces surrounding the crystalline core of the fibrils. The chains breakage likely induces modifications of the cellulose network and weakens fibers cohesion promoting their disruption. Besides the formation of new initiation sites for conventional cellulases, this work provides the first evidence of the direct oxidative action of LPMOs with the mechanical weakening of the cellulose ultrastructure. LPMOs can be viewed as promising biocatalysts for enzymatic modification or degradation of cellulose fibers.

  14. Substrate and inhibitor specificity of kynurenine monooxygenase from Cytophaga hutchinsonii.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert S; Anderson, Andrew D; Gentry, Harvey G; Güner, Osman F; Bowen, J Phillip

    2017-04-15

    Kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) is a potential drug target for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases. We have evaluated substituted kynurenines as substrates or inhibitors of KMO from Cytophaga hutchinsonii. Kynurenines substituted with a halogen at the 5-position are excellent substrates, with values of kcat and kcat/Km comparable to or higher than kynurenine. However, kynurenines substituted in the 3-position are competitive inhibitors, with KI values lower than the Km for kynurenine. Bromination also enhances inhibition, and 3,5-dibromokynurenine is a potent competitive inhibitor with a KI value of 1.5μM. A pharmacophore model of KMO was developed, and predicted that 3,4-dichlorohippuric acid would be an inhibitor. The KI for this compound was found to be 34μM, thus validating the pharmacophore model. We are using these results and our model to design more potent inhibitors of KMO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases disrupt the cellulose fibers structure

    PubMed Central

    Villares, Ana; Moreau, Céline; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Garajova, Sona; Foucat, Loïc; Falourd, Xavier; Saake, Bodo; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Cathala, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of powerful oxidative enzymes that breakdown recalcitrant polysaccharides such as cellulose. Here we investigate the action of LPMOs on cellulose fibers. After enzymatic treatment and dispersion, LPMO-treated fibers show intense fibrillation. Cellulose structure modifications visualized at different scales indicate that LPMO creates nicking points that trigger the disintegration of the cellulose fibrillar structure with rupture of chains and release of elementary nanofibrils. Investigation of LPMO action using solid-state NMR provides direct evidence of modification of accessible and inaccessible surfaces surrounding the crystalline core of the fibrils. The chains breakage likely induces modifications of the cellulose network and weakens fibers cohesion promoting their disruption. Besides the formation of new initiation sites for conventional cellulases, this work provides the first evidence of the direct oxidative action of LPMOs with the mechanical weakening of the cellulose ultrastructure. LPMOs can be viewed as promising biocatalysts for enzymatic modification or degradation of cellulose fibers. PMID:28071716

  16. The Oxygen Dilemma: A Severe Challenge for the Application of Monooxygenases?

    PubMed Central

    Holtmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Monooxygenases are promising catalysts because they in principle enable the organic chemist to perform highly selective oxyfunctionalisation reactions that are otherwise difficult to achieve. For this, monooxygenases require reducing equivalents, to allow reductive activation of molecular oxygen at the enzymes' active sites. However, these reducing equivalents are often delivered to O2 either directly or via a reduced intermediate (uncoupling), yielding hazardous reactive oxygen species and wasting valuable reducing equivalents. The oxygen dilemma arises from monooxygenases' dependency on O2 and the undesired uncoupling reaction. With this contribution we hope to generate a general awareness of the oxygen dilemma and to discuss its nature and some promising solutions. PMID:27194219

  17. Evolutionary history of a specialized P450 propane monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Fasan, Rudi; Meharenna, Yergalem T.; Snow, Christopher D.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The evolutionary pressures that shaped the specificity and catalytic efficiency of enzymes can only be speculated. While directed evolution experiments show that new functions can be acquired under positive selection with few mutations, the role of negative selection in eliminating undesired activities and achieving high specificity remains unclear. Here we examine intermediates along the ‘lineage’ from a naturally-occurring C12–C20 fatty acid hydroxylase (P450BM3) to a laboratory-evolved P450 propane monooxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substitutions compared to P450BM3. Biochemical, crystallographic and computational analyses show that a minimal perturbation of the P450BM3 fold and substrate binding pocket accompanies a significant broadening of enzyme substrate range and the emergence of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic efficiency for propane oxidation (~9,000-fold increase in kcat/Km) involves profound reshaping and partitioning of the substrate access pathway. Remodeling of the substrate recognition mechanisms ultimately results in remarkable narrowing of the substrate profile around propane and enables the acquisition of a basal iodomethane dehalogenase activity as yet unknown in natural alkane monooxygenases. A highly destabilizing L188P substitution in a region of the enzyme that undergoes a large conformational change during catalysis plays an important role in adaptation to the gaseous alkane. This work demonstrates that positive selection alone is sufficient to completely re-specialize the cytochrome P450 for function on a non-native substrate. PMID:18619466

  18. Evolving P450pyr Monooxygenase for Regio- and Stereoselective Hydroxylations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    P450pyr monooxygenase from Sphingomonas sp. HXN-200 catalysed the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation at a non-activated carbon atom, a useful but challenging reaction in classic chemistry, with unique substrate specificity for a number of alicyclic compounds. New P450pyr mutants were developed by directed evolution with improved catalytic performance, thus significantly extending the application of the P450pyr monooxygenase family in biohydroxylation to prepare useful and valuable chiral alcohols. Directed evolution of P450pyr created new enzymes with improved S-enantioselectivity or R-enantioselectivity for the hydroxylation of N-benzyl pyrrolidine, enhanced regioselectivity for the hydroxylation of N-benzyl pyrrolidinone, and increased enantioselectivity for the hydroxylation of N-benzyl piperidinone, respectively. Directed evolution of P450pyr generated also mutants with fully altered regioselectivity (from terminal to subterminal) and newly created excellent S-enantioselectivity for the biohydroxylation of n-octane and propylbenzene, respectively, providing new opportunities for the regio- and enantioselective alkane functionalization. New P450pyr mutants were engineered as the first catalyst for highly selective terminal hydroxylation of n-butanol to 1,4-butanediol. Several novel, accurate, sensitive, simple, and HTS assays based on colorimetric or MS detection for measuring the enantio- and/or regioselectivity of hydroxylation were developed and proven to be practical in directed evolution. The P450pyr X-ray structure was obtained and used to guide the evolution. In silico modelling and substrate docking provided some insight into the influence of several important amino acid mutations of the engineered P450pyr mutants on the altered or enhanced regio- and enantioselectivity as well as new substrate acceptance. The obtained information and knowledge is useful for further engineering of P450pyr for other hydroxylations and oxidations.

  19. Structure of nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase component B from Mycobacterium thermoresistibile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Edwards, T. E.; Begley, D. W.; Abramov, A.; Thompkins, K. B.; Ferrell, M.; Guo, W. J.; Phan, I.; Olsen, C.; Napuli, A.; Sankaran, B.; Stacy, R.; Van Voorhis, W. C.; Stewart, L. J.; Myler, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis belongs to a large family of soil bacteria which can degrade a remarkably broad range of organic compounds and utilize them as carbon, nitrogen and energy sources. It has been proposed that a variety of mycobacteria can subsist on alternative carbon sources during latency within an infected human host, with the help of enzymes such as nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase (NTA-Mo). NTA-Mo is a member of a class of enzymes which consist of two components: A and B. While component A has monooxygenase activity and is responsible for the oxidation of the substrate, component B consumes cofactor to generate reduced flavin mononucleotide, which is required for component A activity. NTA-MoB from M. thermoresistibile, a rare but infectious close relative of M. tuberculosis which can thrive at elevated temperatures, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The 1.6 Å resolution crystal structure of component B of NTA-Mo presented here is one of the first crystal structures determined from the organism M. thermo­resistibile. The NTA-MoB crystal structure reveals a homodimer with the characteristic split-barrel motif typical of flavin reductases. Surprisingly, NTA-MoB from M. thermoresistibile contains a C-terminal tail that is highly conserved among myco­bacterial orthologs and resides in the active site of the other protomer. Based on the structure, the C-terminal tail may modulate NTA-MoB activity in mycobacteria by blocking the binding of flavins and NADH. PMID:21904057

  20. Novel substrates and inhibitors of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Katopodis, A G; May, S W

    1990-05-15

    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM, EC 1.14.17.3) catalyzes the formation of alpha-amidated peptides from their glycine-extended precursors, thus playing a key role in the processing of peptide neurohormones. We now report that PAM readily catalyzes three alternate monooxygenase reactions--sulfoxidation, amine N-dealkylation, and O-dealkylation. Thus, (4-nitrobenzyl)thioacetic acid is converted to the analogous sulfoxide, N-(4-nitrobenzyl)glycine is converted to 4-nitrobenzylamine and glyoxylate, and [(4-nitrobenzyl)oxy]acetic acid is converted to 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol and glyoxylate. All these new activities display the characteristics expected for the normal PAM-catalyzed reductive oxygenation pathway and produce an equimolar amount of glyoxylate together with the heteroatom-containing dealkylation products. The ester [(4-methoxybenzoyl)oxy]acetic acid is not a PAM substrate, but is instead a good competitive inhibitor (KI = 0.48 mM). In addition, we report that the olefinic substrate analogues trans-benzoylacrylic acid and 4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid are potent time-dependent inactivators of PAM, with inactivation exhibiting the characteristics expected for mechanism-based inhibition. Monoethyl fumarate is also a time-dependent inactivator of PAM. Finally, we introduce several small non-peptide substrates for PAM by demonstrating that PAM catalyzes the transformation of hippuric acid and several ring-substituted derivatives to the corresponding benzamides and glyoxylic acid, with the most facile substrate of this class being 4-nitrohippuric acid. These compounds are the smallest amide substrates yet reported for PAM, and it is thus apparent that only the minimal structure of an acylglycine is required for PAM-catalyzed oxygenative amidation.

  1. Conscientiousness increases efficiency of multicomponent behavior.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-10-27

    Many everyday situations require the flexible interruption and changing of different actions to achieve a goal. Several strategies can be applied to do so, but those requiring high levels of cognitive control seem to confer an efficiency (speed) advantage in situations requiring multi-component behavior. However, it is elusive in how far personality traits affect performance in such situations. Given that top-down control is an important aspect of personality and furthermore correlates with conscientiousness, N = 163 participants completed the NEO-FFI and performed an experimental (stop-change) paradigm assessing multicomponent behavior. Applying mathematical constraints to the behavioral data, we estimated the processing strategy of each individual. The results show that multicomponent behavior is selectively affected by conscientiousness which explained approximately 19% of the measured inter-individual behavioral variance. Conscientiousness should hence be seen as a major personality dimension modulating multicomponent behavior. Highly conscientious people showed a more effective, step-by-step processing strategy of different actions necessary to achieve a goal. In situations with simultaneous requirements, this strategy equipped them with an efficiency (speed) advantage towards individuals with lower conscientiousness. In sum, the results show that strategies and the efficiency with which people cope with situations requiring multicomponent behavior are strongly influenced by their personality.

  2. Conscientiousness increases efficiency of multicomponent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many everyday situations require the flexible interruption and changing of different actions to achieve a goal. Several strategies can be applied to do so, but those requiring high levels of cognitive control seem to confer an efficiency (speed) advantage in situations requiring multi-component behavior. However, it is elusive in how far personality traits affect performance in such situations. Given that top-down control is an important aspect of personality and furthermore correlates with conscientiousness, N = 163 participants completed the NEO-FFI and performed an experimental (stop-change) paradigm assessing multicomponent behavior. Applying mathematical constraints to the behavioral data, we estimated the processing strategy of each individual. The results show that multicomponent behavior is selectively affected by conscientiousness which explained approximately 19% of the measured inter-individual behavioral variance. Conscientiousness should hence be seen as a major personality dimension modulating multicomponent behavior. Highly conscientious people showed a more effective, step-by-step processing strategy of different actions necessary to achieve a goal. In situations with simultaneous requirements, this strategy equipped them with an efficiency (speed) advantage towards individuals with lower conscientiousness. In sum, the results show that strategies and the efficiency with which people cope with situations requiring multicomponent behavior are strongly influenced by their personality. PMID:26503352

  3. Multicomponent liquid ion exchange with chabazite zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Byers, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In spite of the increasing commercial use of zeolites for binary and multicomponent sorption, the understanding of the basic mass-transfer processes associated with multicomponent zeolite ion-exchange systems is quite limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate Na-Ca-Mg-Cs-Sr ion exchange from an aqueous solution using a chabazite zeolite. Mass-transfer coefficients and equilibrium equations were determined from experimental batch-reactor data for single and multicomponent systems. The Langmuir isotherm was used to represent the equilibrium relationship for binary systems, and a modified Dubinin-Polyani model was used for the multicomponent systems. The experimental data indicate that diffusion through the microporous zeolite crystals is the primary diffusional resistance. Macropore diffusion also significantly contributes to the mass-transfer resistance. Various mass-transfer models were compared to the experimental data to determine mass-transfer coefficients. Effective diffusivities were obtained which accurately predicted experimental data using a variety of models. Only the model which accounts for micropore and macropore diffusion occurring in series accurately predicted multicomponent data using single-component diffusivities. Liquid and surface diffusion both contribute to macropore diffusion. Surface and micropore diffusivities were determined to be concentration dependent.

  4. Biocatalytic Conversion of Avermectin to 4"-Oxo-Avermectin: Heterologous Expression of the ema1 Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, István; Hill, D. Steven; Zirkle, Ross; Hammer, Philip E.; Gross, Frank; Buckel, Thomas G.; Jungmann, Volker; Pachlatko, Johannes Paul; Ligon, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase Ema1 from Streptomyces tubercidicus R-922 and its homologs from closely related Streptomyces strains are able to catalyze the regioselective oxidation of avermectin into 4"-oxo-avermectin, a key intermediate in the manufacture of the agriculturally important insecticide emamectin benzoate (V. Jungmann, I. Molnár, P. E. Hammer, D. S. Hill, R. Zirkle, T. G. Buckel, D. Buckel, J. M. Ligon, and J. P. Pachlatko, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:6968-6976, 2005). The gene for Ema1 has been expressed in Streptomyces lividans, Streptomyces avermitilis, and solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida strains using different promoters and vectors to provide biocatalytically competent cells. Replacing the extremely rare TTA codon with the more frequent CTG codon to encode Leu4 in Ema1 increased the biocatalytic activities of S. lividans strains producing this enzyme. Ferredoxins and ferredoxin reductases were also cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor and biocatalytic Streptomyces strains and tested in ema1 coexpression systems to optimize the electron transport towards Ema1. PMID:16269733

  5. Pilot-scale production of (S)-styrene oxide from styrene by recombinant Escherichia coli synthesizing styrene monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Panke, Sven; Held, Martin; Wubbolts, Marcel G; Witholt, Bernard; Schmid, Andreas

    2002-10-05

    Recombinant Escherichia coli JM101(pSPZ10) cells produce the styrene monooxygenase of Pseudomonas sp. strain VLB120, which catalyzes the oxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide at an enantiomeric excess larger than 99%. This biocatalyst was used to produce 388 g of styrene oxide in a two-liquid phase 30-L fed-batch bioconversion. The average overall volumetric activity was 170 U per liter over a period of more than 10 h, equivalent to mass transfer rates of 10.2 mmoles per liter per hour at a phase ratio of 0.5. At this transfer rate, the biotransformation system appeared to be substrate mass-transfer limited. The reactor had an estimated power input in the order of 5 W. L(-1), which is close to values typically obtained with commercially operating units. The product could be easily purified by fractional distillation to a purity in excess of 97%. The process illustrates the feasibility of recombinant whole cell biotransformations in two-liquid phase systems with toxic substrates and products. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 80: 33-41, 2002.

  6. phzO, a Gene for Biosynthesis of 2-Hydroxylated Phenazine Compounds in Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Shannon M.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Bonsall, Robert F.; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2001-01-01

    Certain strains of root-colonizing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. produce phenazines, a class of antifungal metabolites that can provide protection against various soilborne root pathogens. Despite the fact that the phenazine biosynthetic locus is highly conserved among fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., individual strains differ in the range of phenazine compounds they produce. This study focuses on the ability of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 to produce 2-hydroxyphenazine-1-carboxylic acid (2-OH-PCA) and 2-hydroxyphenazine from the common phenazine metabolite phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). P. aureofaciens 30-84 contains a novel gene located downstream from the core phenazine operon that encodes a 55-kDa aromatic monooxygenase responsible for the hydroxylation of PCA to produce 2-OH-PCA. Knowledge of the genes responsible for phenazine product specificity could ultimately reveal ways to manipulate organisms to produce multiple phenazines or novel phenazines not previously described. PMID:11114932

  7. Metabolic conditions determining the composition and catalytic activity of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sanglard, D; Käppeli, O; Fiechter, A

    1984-01-01

    In the microsomal fraction of Candida tropicalis cells, two distinct monooxygenases were detected, depending on the growth conditions. The distinction of the two monooxygenases was evident from: (i) the absorption maxima in the reduced CO difference spectra of the terminal oxidases (cytochromes P-450 and P-448); (ii) the contents of the monooxygenase components (cytochromes P-450/P-448, NADPH-cytochrome c (P-450) reductase, and cytochrome b5) and (iii) the catalytic activity of the complete system (aliphatic hydroxylation and N-demethylation activity). The occurrence of the respective monooxygenases could be related to the carbon source (n-alkanes or glucose). Oxygen limitation led to a significant increase of cytochrome P-450/P-448 content, independent of the carbon source utilized by the cells. An improved method for the isolation of microsomes enabled us to demonstrate the presence of cytochrome P-448 in glucose-grown cells. PMID:6690424

  8. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  9. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  10. Pseudomonas orchitis in puberty.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Ambil S

    2004-10-01

    Acute epididymo-orchitis is a common cause of 'acute scrotum' in adolescence and young adults, and the common causative pathogens are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This is a rare case of acute epididymo-orchitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a pubertal boy with a history of 'ano-receptive' intercourse. On Medline search there are no reports of pseudomonas orchitis in this age group.

  11. Comprehensive Spectroscopic, Steady State, and Transient Kinetic Studies of a Representative Siderophore-associated Flavin Monooxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jeffery A.; Frederick, Rosanne E.; Streit, Bennett R.; Wencewicz, Timothy A.; Ballou, David P.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Many siderophores used for the uptake and intracellular storage of essential iron contain hydroxamate chelating groups. Their biosyntheses are typically initiated by hydroxylation of the primary amine side chains of l-ornithine or l-lysine. This reaction is catalyzed by members of a widespread family of FAD-dependent monooxygenases. Here the kinetic mechanism for a representative family member has been extensively characterized by steady state and transient kinetic methods, using heterologously expressed N5-l-ornithine monooxygenase from the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Spectroscopic data and kinetic analyses suggest a model in which a molecule of hydroxylatable substrate serves as an activator for the reaction of the reduced flavin and O2. The rate acceleration is only ∼5-fold, a mild effect of substrate on formation of the C4a-hydroperoxide that does not influence the overall rate of turnover. The effect is also observed with the bacterial ornithine monooxygenase PvdA. The C4a-hydroperoxide is stabilized in the absence of hydroxylatable substrate by the presence of bound NADP+ (t½ = 33 min, 25 °C, pH 8). NADP+ therefore is a likely regulator of O2 and substrate reactivity in the siderophore-associated monooxygenases. Aside from the activating effect of the hydroxylatable substrate, the siderophore-associated monooxygenases share a kinetic mechanism with the hepatic microsomal flavin monooxygenases and bacterial Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, with which they share only moderate sequence homology and from which they are distinguished by their acute substrate specificity. The remarkable specificity of the N5-l-ornithine monooxygenase-catalyzed reaction suggests added means of reaction control beyond those documented in related well characterized flavoenzymes. PMID:20650894

  12. Cavity residue leucine 95 and channel residues glutamine 204, aspartic acid 211, and phenylalanine 269 of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase influence catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Cansu; Sönmez, Burcu; Vardar, Nurcan; Yanık-Yıldırım, K Cansu; Vardar-Schara, Gönül

    2016-09-01

    Structural analysis of toluene-o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) hydroxylase revealed the presence of three hydrophobic cavities, a channel, and a pore leading from the protein surface to the active site. Here, saturation mutagenesis was used to investigate the catalytic roles of alpha-subunit (TouA) second cavity residue L95 and TouA channel residues Q204, D211, and F269. By testing the substrates toluene, phenol, nitrobenzene, and/or naphthalene, these positions were found to influence the catalytic activity of ToMO. Several regiospecific variants were identified from TouA positions Q204, F269, and L95. For example, TouA variant Q204H had the regiospecificity of nitrobenzene changed significantly from 30 to 61 % p-nitrophenol. Interestingly, a combination of mutations at Q204H and A106V altered the regiospecificity of nitrobenzene back to 27 % p-nitrophenol. TouA variants F269Y, F269P, Q204E, and L95D improved the meta-hydroxylating capability of nitrobenzene by producing 87, 85, 82, and 77 % m-nitrophenol, respectively. For naphthalene oxidation, TouA variants F269V, Q204A, Q204S/S222N, and F269T had the regiospecificity changed from 16 to 9, 10, 23, and 25 % 2-naphthol, respectively. Here, two additional TouA residues, S222 and A106, were also identified that may have important roles in catalysis. Most of the isolated variants from D211 remained active, whereas having a hydrophobic residue at this position appeared to diminish the catalytic activity toward naphthalene. The mutational effects on the ToMO regiospecificity described here suggest that it is possible to further fine tune and engineer the reactivity of multicomponent diiron monooxygenases toward different substrates at positions that are relatively distant from the active site.

  13. Deposition of thin films of multicomponent materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Composite films of multicomponent materials, such as oxides and nitrides, e.g., lead zirconate titanate, are deposited by dc magnetron sputtering, employing a rotating substrate holder, which rotates relative to a plurality of targets, one target for each metal element of the multicomponent material. The sputtering is carried out in a reactive atmosphere. The substrates on which the layers are deposited are at ambient temperature. Following deposition of the composite film, the film is heated to a temperature sufficient to initiate a solid state reaction and form the final product, which is substantially single phase and substantially homogeneous.

  14. Multi-Component Reactions in Heterocyclic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas J. J.; Orru, Romano V. A.; Chebanov, Valentin A.; Sakhno, Yana I.; Saraev, Vyacheslav E.; Muravyova, Elena A.; Andrushchenko, Anastasia Yu.; Desenko, Sergey M.; Akhmetova, V. R.; Khabibullina, G. R.; Rakhimova, E. B.; Vagapov, R. A.; Khairullina, R. R.; Niatshina, Z. T.; Murzakova, N. N.; Maslivets, Andrey N.; Voskressensky, Leonid G.; Danagulyan, Gevorg G.; Murtchyan, Armen D.; Tumanyan, Araksya K.; Banfi, Luca; Basso, Andrea; de Moliner, Fabio; Guanti, Giuseppe; Petricci, Elena; Riva, Renata; Taddei, Maurizio; Naimi-Jamal, M. Reza; Mashkouri, Sara; Sharifi, Ali; Przhevalski, Nikolai M.; Rozhkova, Elena N.; Tokmakov, Gennadii P.; Magedov, Igor V.; Armisheva, M. N.; Rassudihina, N. A.; Vahrin, M. I.; Gein, V. L.; Shaabani, Ahmad; Rezayan, Ali Hossein; Sarvary, Afshin; Heidary, Marjan; Ng, Seik Weng; Beliaev, Nikolai A.; Mokrushin, Vladimir S.; Paramonov, Igor V.; Ilyin, Alexey; Garkushenko, Anna K.; Dushek, Maria A.; Sagitullina, Galina P.; Sagitullin, Reva S.; Kysil, Volodymyr; Khvat, Alexander; Tsirulnikov, Sergey; Tkachenko, Sergey; Ivachtchenko, Alexandre; Gein, Vladimir L.; Panova, Olga S.; Ilyn, Alexey P.; Kravchenko, Dmitri V.; Potapov, Victor V.; Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V.; Vichegjanina, V. N.; Levandovskaya, E. B.; Gein, V. L.; Vahrin, M. I.; Vladimirov, I. N.; Zorina, A. A.; Nosova, N. V.; Gein, V. L.; Fedorova, O. V.; Vahrin, M. I.

    Multi-component and domino reactions are efficient and effective methods in the sustainable and diversity-oriented synthesis of heterocycles. In particular, transition metal-catalyzed multi-component sequences have recently gained considerable interest. Based upon the Sonogashira entry to alkynones, alkenones, and intermediate allenes, we have opened new avenues to the one-pot synthesis of numerous classes of heterocyclic frameworks in an MCR fashion. This methodological approach has now found various applications in one-pot syntheses of functional chromophores, pharmaceutically active compounds, and marine alkaloids and derivatives.

  15. Multiphase, multicomponent phase behavior prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadmohammadi, Younas

    Accurate prediction of phase behavior of fluid mixtures in the chemical industry is essential for designing and operating a multitude of processes. Reliable generalized predictions of phase equilibrium properties, such as pressure, temperature, and phase compositions offer an attractive alternative to costly and time consuming experimental measurements. The main purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of recently generalized activity coefficient models based on binary experimental data to (a) predict binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium systems, and (b) characterize liquid-liquid equilibrium systems. These studies were completed using a diverse binary VLE database consisting of 916 binary and 86 ternary systems involving 140 compounds belonging to 31 chemical classes. Specifically the following tasks were undertaken: First, a comprehensive assessment of the two common approaches (gamma-phi (gamma-ϕ) and phi-phi (ϕ-ϕ)) used for determining the phase behavior of vapor-liquid equilibrium systems is presented. Both the representation and predictive capabilities of these two approaches were examined, as delineated form internal and external consistency tests of 916 binary systems. For the purpose, the universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) model and the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) were used in this assessment. Second, the efficacy of recently developed generalized UNIQUAC and the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) for predicting multicomponent VLE systems were investigated. Third, the abilities of recently modified NRTL model (mNRTL2 and mNRTL1) to characterize liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) phase conditions and attributes, including phase stability, miscibility, and consolute point coordinates, were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the ϕ-ϕ approach represents the binary VLE systems considered within three times the error of the gamma-ϕ approach. A similar trend was observed for the for the generalized model predictions using

  16. Structure and Mechanism of Styrene Monooxygenase Reductase: New Insight into the FAD–Transfer Reaction†

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Eliot; Kantz, Auric; Gassner, George T.; Sazinsky, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    The two–component flavoprotein styrene monooxygenase (SMO) from Pseudomonas putida S12 catalyzes the NADH– and FAD–dependent epoxidation of styrene to styrene oxide. In this study we investigate the mechanism of flavin reduction and transfer from the reductase (SMOB) to epoxidase (NSMOA) component and report our findings in light of the 2.2–Å crystal structure of SMOB. Upon rapidly mixing with NADH, SMOB forms an NADH→FADox charge–transfer intermediate and catalyzes a hydride–transfer reaction from NADH to FAD, with a rate constant of 49.1 ± 1.4 s−1, in a step that is coupled to the rapid dissociation of NAD+. Electrochemical and equilibrium–binding studies indicate that NSMOA binds FADhq ~13–times more tightly than SMOB, which supports a vectoral transfer of FADhq from the reductase to the epoxidase. After binding to NSMOA, FADhq rapidly reacts with molecular oxygen to form a stable C(4a)–hydroperoxide intermediate. The half–life of apoSMOB generated in the FAD–transfer reaction is increased ~21–fold, supporting the model of a protein–protein interaction between apoSMOB and NSMOA with the peroxide intermediate. The mechanisms of FAD–dissociation and transport from SMOB to NSMOA were probed by monitoring the competitive reduction of cytochrome c in the presence and absence of pyridine nucleotides. Based on these studies, we propose a model in which reduced FAD binds to SMOB in equilibrium between an unreactive, sequestered state (S–state) and more reactive, transfer state (T–state). Dissociation of NAD+ after the hydride transfer–reaction transiently populates the T–state, promoting the transfer of FADhq to NSMOA. The binding of pyridine nucleotides to SMOB–FADhq shifts the FADhq–binding equilibrium from the T–state to the S–state. Additionally, the 2.2–Å crystal structure of SMOB–FADox reported in this work is discussed in light of the pyridine nucleotide–gated flavin–transfer and electron

  17. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  18. Multicomponent Synthesis of α-Branched Amides

    PubMed Central

    DeBenedetto, Mikkel V.; Green, Michael E.; Wan, Shuangyi; Park, Jung-Hyun; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    α-Branched amides are prepared by multicomponent reactions in which nitriles undergo hydrozirconation to form metalloimines that react with acyl chlorides. The resulting acylimines react with a variety of π-nucleophiles in the presence of Lewis acids to form the desired amides. PMID:19152262

  19. A soluble form of ammonia monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Gilch, Stefan; Meyer, Ortwin; Schmidt, Ingo

    2009-09-01

    Ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) of Nitrosomonas europaea is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia to hydroxylamine. This study shows that AMO resides in the cytoplasm of the bacteria in addition to its location in the membrane and is distributed approximately equally in both subcellular fractions. AMO in both fractions catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia and binds [(14)C]acetylene, a mechanism-based inhibitor which specifically interacts with catalytically active AMO. Soluble AMO was purified 12-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity with a yield of 8%. AMO has a molecular mass of approximately 283 kDa with subunits of ca. 27 kDa (alpha-subunit, AmoA), ca. 42 kDa (beta-subunit, AmoB), and ca. 24 kDa (gamma-subunit, cytochrome c(1)) in an alpha(3)beta(3)gamma(3) sub-unit structure. Different from the beta-subunit of membrane-bound AMO, AmoB of soluble AMO possesses an N-terminal signal sequence. AMO contains Cu (9.4+/-0.6 mol per mol AMO), Fe (3.9+/-0.3 mol per mol AMO), and Zn (0.5 to 2.6 mol per mol AMO). Upon reduction the visible absorption spectrum of AMO reveals absorption bands characteristic of cytochrome c. Electron para-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of air-oxidized AMO at 50 K shows a paramagnetic signal originating from Cu(2+) and at 10 K a paramagnetic signal characteristic of heme-Fe.

  20. Mechanism of Action of a Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Eswaramoorthy,S.; Bonanno, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Elimination of nonnutritional and insoluble compounds is a critical task for any living organism. Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) attach an oxygen atom to the insoluble nucleophilic compounds to increase solubility and thereby increase excretion. Here we analyze the functional mechanism of FMO from Schizosaccharomyces pombe using the crystal structures of the wild type and protein-cofactor and protein-substrate complexes. The structure of the wild-type FMO revealed that the prosthetic group FAD is an integral part of the protein. FMO needs NADPH as a cofactor in addition to the prosthetic group for its catalytic activity. Structures of the protein-cofactor and protein-substrate complexes provide insights into mechanism of action. We propose that FMOs exist in the cell as a complex with a reduced form of the prosthetic group and NADPH cofactor, readying them to act on substrates. The 4{alpha}-hydroperoxyflavin form of the prosthetic group represents a transient intermediate of the monooxygenation process. The oxygenated and reduced forms of the prosthetic group help stabilize interactions with cofactor and substrate alternately to permit continuous enzyme turnover.

  1. Differential microbial transformation of nitrosamines by an inducible propane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Homme, Carissa L; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2013-07-02

    The toxicity of N-nitrosamines, their presence in drinking and environmental water supplies, and poorly understood recalcitrance collectively necessitate a better understanding of their potential for bioattenuation. Here, we show that the bacterial strain Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 can biotransform N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), and possibly N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) in addition to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Growth of cells on propane as the sole carbon source greatly enhanced degradation rates when contrasted with cells grown on complex organics. Propane-induced rates in order of fastest to slowest were NDMA > NDEA > NDPA > NPYR > NMOR at concentrations <2000 μg/L. Removal rates for linear functional groups scaled inversely with mass and cyclic nitrosamines were more recalcitrant than linear nitrosamines. Controls demonstrated significant NDEA and NDPA losses independent of biomass, suggesting abiotic processes may play a role in attenuation of these two compounds under experimental conditions tested here. In contrast to NDMA, a transition from first to zero order kinetics was not observed for the other nitrosamines included in this study over a concentration range of 20-2000 μg/L. A genetic knockout for the propane monooxygenase enzyme (PrMO) confirmed the role of this enzyme in the biotransformation of NDEA and NPYR. This study furthers our understanding of environmental nitrosamine attenuation by revealing an enzymatic mechanism for the biotransformation of multiple nitrosamines, their relative recalcitrance to transformation, and potential for abiotic loss.

  2. Effects of Zinc on Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Activity and Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Sirajuddin, Sarah; Barupala, Dulmini; Helling, Stefan; Marcus, Katrin; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that oxidizes methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. Zinc is a known inhibitor of pMMO, but the details of zinc binding and the mechanism of inhibition are not understood. Metal binding and activity assays on membrane-bound pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) reveal that zinc inhibits pMMO at two sites that are distinct from the copper active site. The 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of Methylocystis species strain Rockwell pMMO reveals two previously undetected bound lipids, and metal soaking experiments identify likely locations for the two zinc inhibition sites. The first is the crystallographic zinc site in the pmoC subunit, and zinc binding here leads to the ordering of 10 previously unobserved residues. A second zinc site is present on the cytoplasmic side of the pmoC subunit. Parallels between these results and zinc inhibition studies of several respiratory complexes suggest that zinc might inhibit proton transfer in pMMO. PMID:24942740

  3. The yeast Geotrichum candidum encodes functional lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Ladevèze, Simon; Haon, Mireille; Villares, Ana; Cathala, Bernard; Grisel, Sacha; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2017-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are a class of powerful oxidative enzymes that have revolutionized our understanding of lignocellulose degradation. Fungal LPMOs of the AA9 family target cellulose and hemicelluloses. AA9 LPMO-coding genes have been identified across a wide range of fungal saprotrophs (Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, etc.), but so far they have not been found in more basal lineages. Recent genome analysis of the yeast Geotrichum candidum (Saccharomycotina) revealed the presence of several LPMO genes, which belong to the AA9 family. In this study, three AA9 LPMOs from G. candidum were successfully produced and biochemically characterized. The use of native signal peptides was well suited to ensure correct processing and high recombinant production of GcLPMO9A, GcLPMO9B, and GcLPMO9C in Pichia pastoris. We show that GcLPMO9A and GcLPMO9B were both active on cellulose and xyloglucan, releasing a mixture of soluble C1- and C4-oxidized oligosaccharides from cellulose. All three enzymes disrupted cellulose fibers and significantly improved the saccharification of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass upon addition to a commercial cellulase cocktail. The unique enzymatic arsenal of G. candidum compared to other yeasts could be beneficial for plant cell wall decomposition in a saprophytic or pathogenic context. From a biotechnological point of view, G. candidum LPMOs are promising candidates to further enhance enzyme cocktails used in biorefineries such as consolidated bioprocessing.

  4. Engineering Cyclohexanone Monooxygenase for the Production of Methyl Propanoate.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Hugo L; Romero, Elvira; Fraaije, Marco W

    2017-01-20

    A previous study showed that cyclohexanone monooxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (AcCHMO) catalyzes the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 2-butanone, yielding ethyl acetate and methyl propanoate as products. Methyl propanoate is of industrial interest as a precursor of acrylic plastic. Here, various residues near the substrate and NADP(+) binding sites in AcCHMO were subjected to saturation mutagenesis to enhance both the activity on 2-butanone and the regioselectivity toward methyl propanoate. The resulting libraries were screened using whole cell biotransformations, and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify improved AcCHMO variants. This revealed that the I491A AcCHMO mutant exhibits a significant improvement over the wild type enzyme in the desired regioselectivity using 2-butanone as a substrate (40% vs 26% methyl propanoate, respectively). Another interesting mutant is the T56S AcCHMO mutant, which exhibits a higher conversion yield (92%) and kcat (0.5 s(-1)) than wild type AcCHMO (52% and 0.3 s(-1), respectively). Interestingly, the uncoupling rate for the T56S AcCHMO mutant is also significantly lower than that for the wild type enzyme. The T56S/I491A double mutant combined the beneficial effects of both mutations leading to higher conversion and improved regioselectivity. This study shows that even for a relatively small aliphatic substrate (2-butanone), catalytic efficiency and regioselectivity can be tuned by structure-inspired enzyme engineering.

  5. Diversity and evolution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Sello, Mopeli Marshal; Jafta, Norventia; Nelson, David R; Chen, Wanping; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Parvez, Mohammad; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Sitheni Mashele, Samson; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as drug targets against pathogens, as well as in valuable chemical production and bioremediation, has been explored. In this study we performed comprehensive comparative analysis of P450s in 13 newly explored oomycete pathogens. Three hundred and fifty-six P450s were found in oomycetes. These P450s were grouped into 15 P450 families and 84 P450 subfamilies. Among these, nine P450 families and 31 P450 subfamilies were newly found in oomycetes. Research revealed that oomycetes belonging to different orders contain distinct P450 families and subfamilies in their genomes. Evolutionary analysis and sequence homology data revealed P450 family blooms in oomycetes. Tandem arrangement of a large number of P450s belonging to the same family indicated that P450 family blooming is possibly due to its members' duplications. A unique combination of amino acid patterns was observed at EXXR and CXG motifs for the P450 families CYP5014, CYP5015 and CYP5017. A novel P450 fusion protein (CYP5619 family) with an N-terminal P450 domain fused to a heme peroxidase/dioxygenase domain was discovered in Saprolegnia declina. Oomycete P450 patterns suggested host influence in shaping their P450 content. This manuscript serves as reference for future P450 annotations in newly explored oomycetes.

  6. Structural basis for pregnenolone biosynthesis by the mitochondrial monooxygenase system

    SciTech Connect

    Strushkevich, Natallia; MacKenzie, Farrell; Cherkesova, Tatyana; Grabovec, Irina; Usanov, Sergey; Park, Hee-Won

    2011-09-06

    In humans, the precursor to all steroid hormones, pregnenolone, is synthesized from cholesterol by an enzyme complex comprising adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), adrenodoxin (Adx), and a cytochrome P450 (P450scc or CYP11A1). This complex not only plays a key role in steroidogenesis, but also has long been a model to study electron transfer, multistep catalysis, and C-C bond cleavage performed by monooxygenases. Detailed mechanistic understanding of these processes has been hindered by a lack of structural information. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex of human Adx and CYP11A1 - the first of a complex between a eukaryotic CYP and its redox partner. The structures with substrate and a series of reaction intermediates allow us to define the mechanism underlying sequential hydroxylations of the cholesterol and suggest the mechanism of C-C bond cleavage. In the complex the [2Fe-2S] cluster of Adx is positioned 17.4 {angstrom} away from the heme iron of CYP11A1. This structure suggests that after an initial protein-protein association driven by electrostatic forces, the complex adopts an optimized geometry between the redox centers. Conservation of the interaction interface suggests that this mechanism is common for all mitochondrial P450s.

  7. A mechanistic structure-activity relationship for hepatic polysubstrate monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hollebone, B.R.; Davis, D.; Michelin, N.; Purdy, D. . Chemistry Dept.); Brownlee, L.J. )

    1995-01-01

    The polysubstrate monooxygenase (PSMO) system response to hydrophobic xenobiotics is both intensive in oxidizing power and extensive in enzyme quantity. Under in vitro pseudo-first-order rate conditions the extensive properties become irrelevant, and the intensive rate-determining step depends on chemical structure. Xenobiotics react with PSMO either as inducers (adaptation domain) or as substrates (reaction domain) to produce intended hydroxylation, but accidental oxidations may also occur. Both the induction of intensive oxidizing power in the adaptation domain and the efficiency of reaction in the reaction domain depend on the strength of the weakest C-H bond in the xenobiotic, consistent with either a free radical or an ionic S[sub E]2 reaction process. Only the ionic S[sub E]2 mechanism is sensitive to the electrical charge on the carbon atom of the weakest C-H bond. In this study systematic treatment of simple hydrocarbon structures by adjacent polarizing heteroatoms N, Cl, and O inhibited substrate metabolism in direct proportion to their polarizing power. With this evidence of preferential S[sub E]2 behavior, a QSAR is proposed that allows prediction of four types of disease end points. These arise as combination of conditions of intended or accidental oxidations combined with release of metabolites into cytosolic or lipid media.

  8. Versatile biocatalysis of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Pradeepraj; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Yun, Hyungdon

    2016-07-18

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases, the nature's most versatile biological catalysts have unique ability to catalyse regio-, chemo-, and stereospecific oxidation of a wide range of substrates under mild reaction conditions, thereby addressing a significant challenge in chemocatalysis. Though CYP enzymes are ubiquitous in all biological kingdoms, the divergence of CYPs in fungal kingdom is manifold. The CYP enzymes play pivotal roles in various fungal metabolisms starting from housekeeping biochemical reactions, detoxification of chemicals, and adaptation to hostile surroundings. Considering the versatile catalytic potentials, fungal CYPs has gained wide range of attraction among researchers and various remarkable strategies have been accomplished to enhance their biocatalytic properties. Numerous fungal CYPs with multispecialty features have been identified and the number of characterized fungal CYPs is constantly increasing. Literature reveals ample reviews on mammalian, plant and bacterial CYPs, however, modest reports on fungal CYPs urges a comprehensive review highlighting their novel catalytic potentials and functional significances. In this review, we focus on the diversification and functional diversity of fungal CYPs and recapitulate their unique and versatile biocatalytic properties. As such, this review emphasizes the crucial issues of fungal CYP systems, and the factors influencing efficient biocatalysis.

  9. Diversity and evolution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Sello, Mopeli Marshal; Jafta, Norventia; Nelson, David R; Chen, Wanping; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Parvez, Mohammad; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Sitheni Mashele, Samson; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as drug targets against pathogens, as well as in valuable chemical production and bioremediation, has been explored. In this study we performed comprehensive comparative analysis of P450s in 13 newly explored oomycete pathogens. Three hundred and fifty-six P450s were found in oomycetes. These P450s were grouped into 15 P450 families and 84 P450 subfamilies. Among these, nine P450 families and 31 P450 subfamilies were newly found in oomycetes. Research revealed that oomycetes belonging to different orders contain distinct P450 families and subfamilies in their genomes. Evolutionary analysis and sequence homology data revealed P450 family blooms in oomycetes. Tandem arrangement of a large number of P450s belonging to the same family indicated that P450 family blooming is possibly due to its members’ duplications. A unique combination of amino acid patterns was observed at EXXR and CXG motifs for the P450 families CYP5014, CYP5015 and CYP5017. A novel P450 fusion protein (CYP5619 family) with an N-terminal P450 domain fused to a heme peroxidase/dioxygenase domain was discovered in Saprolegnia declina. Oomycete P450 patterns suggested host influence in shaping their P450 content. This manuscript serves as reference for future P450 annotations in newly explored oomycetes. PMID:26129850

  10. Dioxygen activation in methane monooxygenase: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Gherman, Benjamin F; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Lippard, Stephen J; Friesner, Richard A

    2004-03-10

    Using broken-symmetry unrestricted Density Functional Theory, the mechanism of enzymatic dioxygen activation by the hydroxylase component of soluble methane monooxygenase (MMOH) is determined to atomic detail. After a thorough examination of mechanistic alternatives, an optimal pathway was identified. The diiron(II) state H(red) reacts with dioxygen to give a ferromagnetically coupled diiron(II,III) H(superoxo) structure, which undergoes intersystem crossing to the antiferromagnetic surface and affords H(peroxo), a symmetric diiron(III) unit with a nonplanar mu-eta(2):eta(2)-O(2)(2)(-) binding mode. Homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond yields the catalytically competent intermediate Q, which has a di (mu-oxo)diiron(IV) core. A carboxylate shift involving Glu243 is essential to the formation of the symmetric H(peroxo) and Q structures. Both thermodynamic and kinetic features agree well with experimental data, and computed spin-exchange coupling constants are in accord with spectroscopic values. Evidence is presented for pH-independent decay of H(red) and H(peroxo). Key electron-transfer steps that occur in the course of generating Q from H(red) are also detailed and interpreted. In contrast to prior theoretical studies, a requisite large model has been employed, electron spins and couplings have been treated in a quantitative manner, potential energy surfaces have been extensively explored, and quantitative total energies have been determined along the reaction pathway.

  11. Exploring the Structural Basis of Substrate Preferences in Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Stefano; van Beek, Hugo L.; Pennetta, Alessandra; Martinoli, Christian; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Steroid monooxygenase (STMO) from Rhodococcus rhodochrous catalyzes the Baeyer-Villiger conversion of progesterone into progesterone acetate using FAD as prosthetic group and NADPH as reducing cofactor. The enzyme shares high sequence similarity with well characterized Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, including phenylacetone monooxygenase and cyclohexanone monooxygenase. The comparative biochemical and structural analysis of STMO can be particularly insightful with regard to the understanding of the substrate-specificity properties of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases that are emerging as promising tools in biocatalytic applications and as targets for prodrug activation. The crystal structures of STMO in the native, NADP+-bound, and two mutant forms reveal structural details on this microbial steroid-degrading enzyme. The binding of the nicotinamide ring of NADP+ is shifted with respect to the flavin compared with that observed in other monooxygenases of the same class. This finding fully supports the idea that NADP(H) adopts various positions during the catalytic cycle to perform its multiple functions in catalysis. The active site closely resembles that of phenylacetone monooxygenase. This observation led us to discover that STMO is capable of acting also on phenylacetone, which implies an impressive level of substrate promiscuity. The investigation of six mutants that target residues on the surface of the substrate-binding site reveals that enzymatic conversions of both progesterone and phenylacetone are largely insensitive to relatively drastic amino acid changes, with some mutants even displaying enhanced activity on progesterone. These features possibly reflect the fact that these enzymes are continuously evolving to acquire new activities, depending on the emerging availabilities of new compounds in the living environment. PMID:22605340

  12. 4-quinolone signalling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: old molecules, new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Stephen P; Cornelis, Pierre; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel

    2006-04-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, diverse virulence determinants and secondary metabolites are regulated via the action of a hierarchical quorum-sensing system which integrates two chemically distinct classes of signal molecules, the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) and the 4-quinolones (4Qs). Synthesis of the pseudomonas quinolone signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS) depends on the pqsABCDE locus which is responsible for generating multiple 4Qs including 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), the immediate PQS precursor. Exported HHQ is taken up by adjacent bacterial cells and converted into PQS by PqsH, a putative mono-oxygenase. In addition, PQS regulates its own production by driving the expression of pqsABCDE through a direct interaction with PqsR (MvfR). PQS regulates diverse target genes including those coding for elastase, rhamnolipid, the PA-IL lectin and pyocyanin via the action of PqsE as well as influencing biofilm development and impacting on cellular fitness. Furthermore, 4Q signalling is not restricted to P. aeruginosa raising the possibility of cross-talk with other related bacterial species which occupy similar ecological niches.

  13. Polymicrobial ventriculitis involving Pseudomonas fulva.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Paulina A; Vu, Catphuong Cathy L; Carlson, Renee Donahue; Kraft, Colleen S; Anderson, Evan J; Burd, Eileen M

    2014-06-01

    Infections due to Pseudomonas fulva remain a rare but emerging concern. A case of ventriculitis due to Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas fulva following placement of an external ventricular drain is described. Similar to other reports, the organism was initially misidentified as Pseudomonas putida. The infection was successfully treated with levofloxacin.

  14. Phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase and the role of endobiotic metabolism enzymes in xenobiotic biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Glyn B; Mitchell, Stephen C

    2009-10-01

    Phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase is the key enzyme in the sulfoxidation of the thioether drug S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine and its thioether metabolites, S-methyl-l-cysteine, N-acetyl-S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-methyl-l-cysteine in humans, and a number of other mammalian species. The kinetics constants of the sulfoxidation reaction (K(m), V(max) and CL(E)) have been investigated in cytosolic fractions derived from rat and human liver, in cytosolic fractions of HepG2 cells and using both human and mouse cDNA expressed phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase. Differences in K(m), V(max) and CL(E) of S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine have been seen in HepG2 cells and human and mouse cDNA expressed phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase when compared to both rat and human hepatic cytosolic fractions. The association of the genetic polymorphism in the sulfoxidation of S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine is highlighted with particular reference to this biotransformation reaction as being a biomarker of disease susceptibility in Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and motor neurone diseases and in rheumatoid arthritis. The possible underlying molecular genetics of the sulfoxidation polymorphism is also discussed in relation to the known allelic frequencies of phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase. Finally, the new found role phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase plays in xenobiotic metabolism is discussed.

  15. Membrane-associated methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, J A; DiSpirito, A A

    1996-01-01

    An active preparation of the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was isolated by ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography using dodecyl beta-D-maltoside as the detergent. The active preparation consisted of three major polypeptides with molecular masses of 47,000, 27,000, and 25,000 Da. Two of the three polypeptides (those with molecular masses of 47,000 and 27,000 Da) were identified as the polypeptides induced when cells expressing the soluble MMO are switched to culture medium in which the pMMO is expressed. The 27,000-Da polypeptide was identified as the acetylene-binding protein. The active enzyme complex contained 2.5 iron atoms and 14.5 copper atoms per 99,000 Da. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the enzyme showed evidence for a type 2 copper center (g perpendicular = 2.057, g parallel = 2.24, and magnitude of A parallel = 172 G), a weak high-spin iron signal (g = 6.0), and a broad low-field (g = 12.5) signal. Treatment of the pMMO with nitric oxide produced the ferrous-nitric oxide derivative observed in the membrane fraction of cells expressing the pMMO. When duroquinol was used as a reductant, the specific activity of the purified enzyme was 11.1 nmol of propylene oxidized.min-1.mg of protein-1, which accounted for approximately 30% of the cell-free propylene oxidation activity. The activity was stimulated by ferric and cupric metal ions in addition to the cytochrome b-specific inhibitors myxothiazol and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide. PMID:8576034

  16. Discovery and industrial applications of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Katja S

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) has opened up a vast area of research covering several fields of application. The biotech company Novozymes A/S holds patents on the use of these enzymes for the conversion of steam-pre-treated plant residues such as straw to free sugars. These patents predate the correct classification of LPMOs and the striking synergistic effect of fungal LPMOs when combined with canonical cellulases was discovered when fractions of fungal secretomes were evaluated in industrially relevant enzyme performance assays. Today, LPMOs are a central component in the Cellic CTec enzyme products which are used in several large-scale plants for the industrial production of lignocellulosic ethanol. LPMOs are characterized by an N-terminal histidine residue which, together with an internal histidine and a tyrosine residue, co-ordinates a single copper atom in a so-called histidine brace. The mechanism by which oxygen binds to the reduced copper atom has been reported and the general mechanism of copper-oxygen-mediated activation of carbon is being investigated in the light of these discoveries. LPMOs are widespread in both the fungal and the bacterial kingdoms, although the range of action of these enzymes remains to be elucidated. However, based on the high abundance of LPMOs expressed by microbes involved in the decomposition of organic matter, the importance of LPMOs in the natural carbon-cycle is predicted to be significant. In addition, it has been suggested that LPMOs play a role in the pathology of infectious diseases such as cholera and to thus be relevant in the field of medicine. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Targeted Deletion of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Giorgini, Flaviano; Huang, Shao-Yi; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Thomas, Marian A. R.; Tararina, Margarita; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert; Muchowski, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), a pivotal enzyme in the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation, has been suggested to play a major role in physiological and pathological events involving bioactive KP metabolites. To explore this role in greater detail, we generated mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Kmo and present here the first biochemical and neurochemical characterization of these mutant animals. Kmo−/− mice lacked KMO activity but showed no obvious abnormalities in the activity of four additional KP enzymes tested. As expected, Kmo−/− mice showed substantial reductions in the levels of its enzymatic product, 3-hydroxykynurenine, in liver, brain, and plasma. Compared with wild-type animals, the levels of the downstream metabolite quinolinic acid were also greatly decreased in liver and plasma of the mutant mice but surprisingly were only slightly reduced (by ∼20%) in the brain. The levels of three other KP metabolites: kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and anthranilic acid, were substantially, but differentially, elevated in the liver, brain, and plasma of Kmo−/− mice, whereas the liver and brain content of the major end product of the enzymatic cascade, NAD+, did not differ between Kmo−/− and wild-type animals. When assessed by in vivo microdialysis, extracellular kynurenic acid levels were found to be significantly elevated in the brains of Kmo−/− mice. Taken together, these results provide further evidence that KMO plays a key regulatory role in the KP and indicate that Kmo−/− mice will be useful for studying tissue-specific functions of individual KP metabolites in health and disease. PMID:24189070

  18. Degradation of 4-chloro-3-nitrophenol via a novel intermediate, 4-chlororesorcinol by Pseudomonas sp. JHN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, Vijay Pal

    2014-03-01

    A 4-chloro-3-nitrophenol (4C3NP)-mineralizing bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. JHN was isolated from a waste water sample collected from a chemically-contaminated area, India by an enrichment method. Pseudomonas sp. JHN utilized 4C3NP as a sole carbon and energy source and degraded it with the release of stoichiometric amounts of chloride and nitrite ions. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 4-chlororesorcinol as a major metabolite of the 4C3NP degradation pathway. Inhibition studies using 2,2'-dipyridyl showed that 4-chlororesorcinol is a terminal aromatic compound in the degradation pathway of 4C3NP. The activity for 4C3NP-monooxygenase was detected in the crude extracts of the 4C3NP-induced JHN cells that confirmed the formation of 4-chlororesorcinol from 4C3NP. The capillary assay showed that Pseudomonas sp. JHN exhibited chemotaxis toward 4C3NP. The bioremediation capability of Pseudomonas sp. JHN was monitored to carry out the microcosm experiments using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C3NP. Strain JHN degraded 4C3NP in sterile and non-sterile soil with same degradation rates. This is the first report of (i) bacterial degradation and bioremediation of 4C3NP, (ii) formation of 4-chlororesorcinol in the degradation pathway of 4C3NP, (iii) bacterial chemotaxis toward 4C3NP.

  19. Diffusion Of Mass In Evaporating Multicomponent Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    1992-01-01

    Report summarizes study of diffusion of mass and related phenomena occurring in evaporation of dense and dilute clusters of drops of multicomponent liquids intended to represent fuels as oil, kerosene, and gasoline. Cluster represented by simplified mathematical model, including global conservation equations for entire cluster and conditions on boundary between cluster and ambient gas. Differential equations of model integrated numerically. One of series of reports by same authors discussing evaporation and combustion of sprayed liquid fuels.

  20. Diffusion Of Mass In Evaporating Multicomponent Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    1992-01-01

    Report summarizes study of diffusion of mass and related phenomena occurring in evaporation of dense and dilute clusters of drops of multicomponent liquids intended to represent fuels as oil, kerosene, and gasoline. Cluster represented by simplified mathematical model, including global conservation equations for entire cluster and conditions on boundary between cluster and ambient gas. Differential equations of model integrated numerically. One of series of reports by same authors discussing evaporation and combustion of sprayed liquid fuels.

  1. Silver and gold-catalyzed multicomponent reactions

    PubMed Central

    Abbiati, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Silver and gold salts and complexes mainly act as soft and carbophilic Lewis acids even if their use as σ-activators has been rarely reported. Recently, transformations involving Au(I)/Au(III)-redox catalytic systems have been reported in the literature. In this review we highlight all these aspects of silver and gold-mediated processes and their application in multicomponent reactions. PMID:24605168

  2. Novel Reagents for Multi-Component Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanguang; Basso, Andrea; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Gulevich, Anton V.; Krasavin, Mikhail; Bushkova, Ekaterina; Parchinsky, Vladislav; Banfi, Luca; Basso, Andrea; Cerulli, Valentina; Guanti, Giuseppe; Riva, Renata; Rozentsveig, Igor B.; Rozentsveig, Gulnur N.; Popov, Aleksandr V.; Serykh, Valeriy J.; Levkovskaya, Galina G.; Cao, Song; Shen, Li; Liu, Nianjin; Wu, Jingjing; Li, Lina; Qian, Xuhong; Chen, Xiaopeng; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Jinwu; Wang, Yanguang; Lu, Ping; Heravi, Majid M.; Sadjadi, Samaheh; Kazemizadeh, Ali Reza; Ramazani, Ali; Kudyakova, Yulia S.; Goryaeva, Marina V.; Burgart, Yanina V.; Saloutin, Victor I.; Mossetti, Riccardo; Pirali, Tracey; Tron, Gian Cesare; Rozhkova, Yulia S.; Mayorova, Olga A.; Shklyaev, Yuriy V.; Zhdanko, Alexander G.; Nenajdenko, Valentine G.; Stryapunina, Olga G.; Plekhanova, Irina V.; Glushkov, Vladimir A.; Shklyaev, Yurii V.

    Ketenimines are a class of versatile and highly reactive intermediates that can participate in a variety of organic reactions, such as nucleophilic additions, radical additions, [2 + 2] and [2 + 4] cycloadditions, and sigmatropic rearrangements. In this presentation, we report on a series of multi-component reactions that involve a ketenimine intermediate. These reactions could furnish diverse heterocyclic compounds, including functionalized iminocoumarin, iminodihydroqunolines, iminothiochromens, pyrrolines, isoquinolines, pyridines, β-lactams, imino-1,2-dihydrocoumarins, and benzimidazoles.

  3. Suicidal inactivation and labelling of ammonia mono-oxygenase by acetylene.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, M R; Wood, P M

    1985-01-01

    Acetylene brings about a progressive inactivation of ammonia mono-oxygenase, the ammonia-oxidizing enzyme in Nitrosomonas europaea. High NH4+ ion concentrations were protective. The inactivation followed first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of 1.5 min-1 at saturating concentrations of acetylene. If acetylene was added in the absence of O2, the cells remained active until O2 was re-introduced. A protective effect was also demonstrated with thiourea, a reversible non-competitive inhibitor of ammonia oxidation. Incubation of cells with [14C]acetylene was found to cause labelling of a single membrane polypeptide. This ran on dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an Mr value of 28 000. It is concluded that acetylene is a suicide substrate for the mono-oxygenase. The labelling experiment provides the first identification of a constituent polypeptide of ammonia mono-oxygenase. Images Fig. 4. PMID:4004794

  4. Transcriptional Regulation of the Grape Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Gene CYP736B Expression in Response to Xylella fastidiosa Infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are a group of versatile redox proteins that mediate the biosynthesis of lignins, terpenes, alkaloids, and a variety of other secondary compounds which act as plant defense agents. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in defense response to...

  5. Selective Usage of Transcription Initiation and Polyadenylation Sites in Grape Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Gene CYP736B Expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are versatile redox proteins that mediate biosynthesis of lignins, terpenes, alkaloids, and a variety of other secondary compounds as plant defense agents against a range of pathogens and insects. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in the...

  6. Multicomponent gas sorption Joule-Thomson refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Petrick, S. Walter (Inventor); Bard, Steven (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a cryogenic Joule-Thomson refrigeration capable of pumping multicomponent gases with a single stage sorption compressor system. Alternative methods of pumping a multicomponent gas with a single stage compressor are disclosed. In a first embodiment, the sorbent geometry is such that a void is defined near the output of the sorption compressor. When the sorbent is cooled, the sorbent primarily adsorbs the higher boiling point gas such that the lower boiling point gas passes through the sorbent to occupy the void. When the sorbent is heated, the higher boiling point gas is desorbed at high temperature and pressure and thereafter propels the lower boiling point gas out of the sorption compressor. A mixing chamber is provided to remix the constituent gases prior to expansion of the gas through a Joule-Thomson valve. Other methods of pumping a multicomponent gas are disclosed. For example, where the sorbent is porous and the low boiling point gas does not adsorb very well, the pores of the sorbent will act as a void space for the lower boiling point gas. Alternatively, a mixed sorbent may be used where a first sorbent component physically adsorbs the high boiling point gas and where the second sorbent component chemically absorbs the low boiling point gas.

  7. Thermodiffusion in multicomponent n-alkane mixtures.

    PubMed

    Galliero, Guillaume; Bataller, Henri; Bazile, Jean-Patrick; Diaz, Joseph; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Hoang, Hai; Vermorel, Romain; Artola, Pierre-Arnaud; Rousseau, Bernard; Vesovic, Velisa; Bou-Ali, M Mounir; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Ke; Montel, François; Verga, Antonio; Minster, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Compositional grading within a mixture has a strong impact on the evaluation of the pre-exploitation distribution of hydrocarbons in underground layers and sediments. Thermodiffusion, which leads to a partial diffusive separation of species in a mixture due to the geothermal gradient, is thought to play an important role in determining the distribution of species in a reservoir. However, despite recent progress, thermodiffusion is still difficult to measure and model in multicomponent mixtures. In this work, we report on experimental investigations of the thermodiffusion of multicomponent n-alkane mixtures at pressure above 30 MPa. The experiments have been conducted in space onboard the Shi Jian 10 spacecraft so as to isolate the studied phenomena from convection. For the two exploitable cells, containing a ternary liquid mixture and a condensate gas, measurements have shown that the lightest and heaviest species had a tendency to migrate, relatively to the rest of the species, to the hot and cold region, respectively. These trends have been confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. The measured condensate gas data have been used to quantify the influence of thermodiffusion on the initial fluid distribution of an idealised one dimension reservoir. The results obtained indicate that thermodiffusion tends to noticeably counteract the influence of gravitational segregation on the vertical distribution of species, which could result in an unstable fluid column. This confirms that, in oil and gas reservoirs, the availability of thermodiffusion data for multicomponent mixtures is crucial for a correct evaluation of the initial state fluid distribution.

  8. Optimization of trichloroethylene degradation using soluble methane monooxygenase of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b expressed in recombinant bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, D.; Kim, C.S.; Wood, T.K.; Hanson, R.S.

    1996-08-05

    By complementing cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas putida F1/pSMMO20 with purified soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) components of Methylosinus trichospoirium OB3b, the low cloned-gene sMMO activity in the recombinant strain was found to be due to incomplete activity of the hydroxylase component. To address this incomplete activity, additional sMMO-expressing strains were formed by transferring mmo-containing pSMMO20 and pSMMO50 into various bacterial species including pseudomonads and {alpha}-2 subdivision strains such as methanotrophs, methylotrophs, Agrobacterium tumefaciens A114, and Rhizobium meliloti 102F34 (11 new strains screened); sMMO activity was detected in the last two strains. To increase plasmid segregational stability, the hok/sok locus originally from Escherichia coli plasmid R1 was inserted downstream of the mmo locus of pSMMO20 (resulting in pSMMO40) and found to enhance plasmid stability in P. putida F1 and R. meliloti 102F34 (first report of hok/sok in Rhizobium). To further increase sMMO activity, a modified Whittenbury minimal medium was selected from various minimal and complex media based on trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation and growth rates and was improved by removing the sMMO-inhibiting metal ions [Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)] and chloramphenicol from the medium and by supplementing with an iron source (3.6 {micro}M of ferrous ammonium sulfate). Using chemostat-grown P. putida F1/pSMMO40, it was found that sMMO activity was higher for cells grown at higher dilution rates. These optimization efforts resulted in a twofold increase in the extent of TCE degradation and more consistent sMMO activity.

  9. Expression and purification of the recombinant subunits of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase and reconstitution of the active complex.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, Valeria; Scognamiglio, Roberta; Viggiani, Ambra; Izzo, Viviana; Passaro, Irene; Notomista, Eugenio; Piaz, Fabrizio Dal; Amoresano, Angela; Casbarra, Annarita; Pucci, Piero; Di Donato, Alberto

    2002-11-01

    This paper describes the cloning of the genes coding for each component of the complex of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, their expression, purification and characterization. Moreover, the reconstitution of the active complex from the recombinant subunits has been obtained, and the functional role of each component in the electron transfer from the electron donor to molecular oxygen has been determined. The coexpression of subunits B, E and A leads to the formation of a subcomplex, named H, with a quaternary structure (BEA)2, endowed with hydroxylase activity. Tomo F component is an NADH oxidoreductase. The purified enzyme contains about 1 mol of FAD, 2 mol of iron, and 2 mol of acid labile sulfide per mol of protein, as expected for the presence of one [2Fe-2S] cluster, and exhibits a typical flavodoxin absorption spectrum. Interestingly, the sequence of the protein does not correspond to that previously predicted on the basis of DNA sequence. We have shown that this depends on minor errors in the gene sequence that we have corrected. C component is a Rieske-type ferredoxin, whose iron and acid labile sulfide content is in agreement with the presence of one [2Fe-2S] cluster. The cluster is very sensitive to oxygen damage. Mixtures of the subcomplex H and of the subunits F, C and D are able to oxidize p-cresol into 4-methylcathecol, thus demonstrating the full functionality of the recombinant subunits as purified. Finally, experimental evidence is reported which strongly support a model for the electron transfer. Subunit F is the first member of an electron transport chain which transfers electrons from NADH to C, which tunnels them to H subcomplex, and eventually to molecular oxygen.

  10. Intermediate P* from Soluble Methane Monooxygenase Contains a Diferrous Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Rahul; Meier, Katlyn K.; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D.

    2013-01-01

    During a single turnover of the hydroxylase component (MMOH) of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, several discrete intermediates are formed. The diiron cluster of MMOH is first reduced to the FeIIFeII state (Hred). O2 binds rapidly at a site away from the cluster to form the FeIIFeII intermediate O, which converts to an FeIIIFeIII-peroxo intermediate P and finally to the FeIVFeIV intermediate Q. Q binds and reacts with methane to yield methanol and water. The rate constants for these steps are increased by a regulatory protein, MMOB. Previously reported transient kinetic studies have suggested that an intermediate P* forms between O and P in which the g = 16 EPR signal characteristic of the reduced diiron cluster of Hred and O is lost. This was interpreted as signaling oxidation of the cluster, but low accumulation of P* prevented further characterization. In this study, three methods to directly detect and trap P* are applied together to allow its spectroscopic and kinetic characterization. First, the MMOB mutant His33Ala is used to specifically slow the decay of P* without affecting its formation rate, leading to its nearly quantitative accumulation. Second, spectra-kinetic data collection is used to provide a sensitive measure of the formation and decay rate constants of intermediates as well as their optical spectra. Finally, the substrate furan is included to react with Q and quench its strong chromophore. The optical spectrum of P* closely mimics those of Hred and O, but it is distinctly different from that of P. The reaction cycle rate constants allowed prediction of the times for maximal accumulation of the intermediates. Mössbauer spectra of rapid freeze quench samples at these times show that the intermediates are formed at almost exactly the predicted levels. The Mössbauer spectra show that the diiron cluster of P*, quite unexpectedly, is in the FeIIFeII state. Thus, the loss of the g = 16 EPR results from a change of

  11. Intermediate P* from soluble methane monooxygenase contains a diferrous cluster.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rahul; Meier, Katlyn K; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D

    2013-06-25

    During a single turnover of the hydroxylase component (MMOH) of soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, several discrete intermediates are formed. The diiron cluster of MMOH is first reduced to the Fe(II)Fe(II) state (H(red)). O₂ binds rapidly at a site away from the cluster to form the Fe(II)Fe(II) intermediate O, which converts to an Fe(III)Fe(III)-peroxo intermediate P and finally to the Fe(IV)Fe(IV) intermediate Q. Q binds and reacts with methane to yield methanol and water. The rate constants for these steps are increased by a regulatory protein, MMOB. Previously reported transient kinetic studies have suggested that an intermediate P* forms between O and P in which the g = 16 EPR signal characteristic of the reduced diiron cluster of H(red) and O is lost. This was interpreted as signaling oxidation of the cluster, but a low level of accumulation of P* prevented further characterization. In this study, three methods for directly detecting and trapping P* are applied together to allow its spectroscopic and kinetic characterization. First, the MMOB mutant His33Ala is used to specifically slow the decay of P* without affecting its formation rate, leading to its nearly quantitative accumulation. Second, spectra-kinetic data collection is used to provide a sensitive measure of the formation and decay rate constants of intermediates as well as their optical spectra. Finally, the substrate furan is included to react with Q and quench its strong chromophore. The optical spectrum of P* closely mimics those of H(red) and O, but it is distinctly different from that of P. The reaction cycle rate constants allowed prediction of the times for maximal accumulation of the intermediates. Mössbauer spectra of rapid freeze-quench samples at these times show that the intermediates are formed at almost exactly the predicted levels. The Mössbauer spectra show that the diiron cluster of P*, quite unexpectedly, is in the Fe(II)Fe(II) state. Thus, the

  12. A Course in Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell, R. G.; Whitaker, S.

    1978-01-01

    This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)

  13. Nucleotide sequences of the Pseudomonas savastanoi indoleacetic acid genes show homology with Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tetsuji; Palm, Curtis J.; Brooks, Bob; Kosuge, Tsune

    1985-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequences of iaaM and iaaH, the genetic determinants for, respectively, tryptophan 2-monooxygenase and indoleacetamide hydrolase, the enzymes that catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan to indoleacetic acid in the tumor-forming bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi. The sequence analysis indicates that the iaaM locus contains an open reading frame encoding 557 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 61,783; the iaaH locus contains an open reading frame of 455 amino acids that would comprise a protein with a molecular weight of 48,515. Significant amino acid sequence homology was found between the predicted sequence of the tryptophan monooxygenase of P. savastanoi and the deduced product of the T-DNA tms-1 gene of the octopine-type plasmid pTiA6NC from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Strong homology was found in the 25 amino acid sequence in the putative FAD-binding region of tryptophan monooxygenase. Homology was also found in the amino acid sequences representing the central regions of the putative products of iaaH and tms-2 T-DNA. The results suggest a strong similarity in the pathways for indoleacetic acid synthesis encoded by genes in P. savastanoi and in A. tumefaciens T-DNA. Images PMID:16593610

  14. Metabolic pathway involved in 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline degradation by Sphingobium sp. strain MEA3-1 and cloning of the novel flavin-dependent monooxygenase system meaBA.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weiliang; Chen, Qiongzhen; Hou, Ying; Li, Shuhuan; Zhuang, Kai; Huang, Fei; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Zhengguang; Huang, Yan; Wang, Fei; Cui, Zhongli

    2015-12-01

    2-Methyl-6-ethylaniline (MEA) is the main microbial degradation intermediate of the chloroacetanilide herbicides acetochlor and metolachlor. Sphingobium sp. strain MEA3-1 can utilize MEA and various alkyl-substituted aniline and phenol compounds as sole carbon and energy sources for growth. We isolated the mutant strain MEA3-1Mut, which converts MEA only to 2-methyl-6-ethyl-hydroquinone (MEHQ) and 2-methyl-6-ethyl-benzoquinone (MEBQ). MEA may be oxidized by the P450 monooxygenase system to 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-ethylaniline (4-OH-MEA), which can be hydrolytically spontaneously deaminated to MEBQ or MEHQ. The MEA microbial metabolic pathway was reconstituted based on the substrate spectra and identification of the intermediate metabolites in both the wild-type and mutant strains. Plasmidome sequencing indicated that both strains harbored 7 plasmids with sizes ranging from 6,108 bp to 287,745 bp. Among the 7 plasmids, 6 were identical, and pMEA02' in strain MEA3-1Mut lost a 37,000-bp fragment compared to pMEA02 in strain MEA3-1. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and protein mass fingerprinting (PMF) showed that MEA3-1Mut lost the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase (TC-FDM) MeaBA, which was encoded by a gene in the lost fragment of pMEA02. MeaA shared 22% to 25% amino acid sequence identity with oxygenase components of some TC-FDMs, whereas MeaB showed no sequence identity with the reductase components of those TC-FDMs. Complementation with meaBA in MEA3-1Mut and heterologous expression in Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 resulted in the production of an active MEHQ monooxygenase.

  15. Metabolic Pathway Involved in 2-Methyl-6-Ethylaniline Degradation by Sphingobium sp. Strain MEA3-1 and Cloning of the Novel Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase System meaBA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Weiliang; Chen, Qiongzhen; Hou, Ying; Li, Shuhuan; Zhuang, Kai; Huang, Fei; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Zhengguang; Huang, Yan; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    2-Methyl-6-ethylaniline (MEA) is the main microbial degradation intermediate of the chloroacetanilide herbicides acetochlor and metolachlor. Sphingobium sp. strain MEA3-1 can utilize MEA and various alkyl-substituted aniline and phenol compounds as sole carbon and energy sources for growth. We isolated the mutant strain MEA3-1Mut, which converts MEA only to 2-methyl-6-ethyl-hydroquinone (MEHQ) and 2-methyl-6-ethyl-benzoquinone (MEBQ). MEA may be oxidized by the P450 monooxygenase system to 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-ethylaniline (4-OH-MEA), which can be hydrolytically spontaneously deaminated to MEBQ or MEHQ. The MEA microbial metabolic pathway was reconstituted based on the substrate spectra and identification of the intermediate metabolites in both the wild-type and mutant strains. Plasmidome sequencing indicated that both strains harbored 7 plasmids with sizes ranging from 6,108 bp to 287,745 bp. Among the 7 plasmids, 6 were identical, and pMEA02′ in strain MEA3-1Mut lost a 37,000-bp fragment compared to pMEA02 in strain MEA3-1. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and protein mass fingerprinting (PMF) showed that MEA3-1Mut lost the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase (TC-FDM) MeaBA, which was encoded by a gene in the lost fragment of pMEA02. MeaA shared 22% to 25% amino acid sequence identity with oxygenase components of some TC-FDMs, whereas MeaB showed no sequence identity with the reductase components of those TC-FDMs. Complementation with meaBA in MEA3-1Mut and heterologous expression in Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 resulted in the production of an active MEHQ monooxygenase. PMID:26386060

  16. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, DA; Bertolani, SJ; Siegel, JB

    2015-01-01

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  17. Flavoprotein monooxygenases for oxidative biocatalysis: recombinant expression in microbial hosts and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ceccoli, Romina D.; Bianchi, Dario A.; Rial, Daniela V.

    2014-01-01

    External flavoprotein monooxygenases comprise a group of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the insertion of one atom of molecular oxygen into an organic substrate and the second atom is reduced to water. These enzymes are involved in a great number of metabolic pathways both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Flavoprotein monooxygenases have attracted the attention of researchers for several decades and the advent of recombinant DNA technology caused a great progress in the field. These enzymes are subjected to detailed biochemical and structural characterization and some of them are also regarded as appealing oxidative biocatalysts for the production of fine chemicals and valuable intermediates toward active pharmaceutical ingredients due to their high chemo-, stereo-, and regioselectivity. Here, we review the most representative reactions catalyzed both in vivo and in vitro by prototype flavoprotein monooxygenases, highlighting the strategies employed to produce them recombinantly, to enhance the yield of soluble proteins, and to improve cofactor regeneration in order to obtain versatile biocatalysts. Although we describe the most outstanding features of flavoprotein monooxygenases, we mainly focus on enzymes that were cloned, expressed and used for biocatalysis during the last years. PMID:24567729

  18. Flavoprotein monooxygenases for oxidative biocatalysis: recombinant expression in microbial hosts and applications.

    PubMed

    Ceccoli, Romina D; Bianchi, Dario A; Rial, Daniela V

    2014-01-01

    External flavoprotein monooxygenases comprise a group of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the insertion of one atom of molecular oxygen into an organic substrate and the second atom is reduced to water. These enzymes are involved in a great number of metabolic pathways both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Flavoprotein monooxygenases have attracted the attention of researchers for several decades and the advent of recombinant DNA technology caused a great progress in the field. These enzymes are subjected to detailed biochemical and structural characterization and some of them are also regarded as appealing oxidative biocatalysts for the production of fine chemicals and valuable intermediates toward active pharmaceutical ingredients due to their high chemo-, stereo-, and regioselectivity. Here, we review the most representative reactions catalyzed both in vivo and in vitro by prototype flavoprotein monooxygenases, highlighting the strategies employed to produce them recombinantly, to enhance the yield of soluble proteins, and to improve cofactor regeneration in order to obtain versatile biocatalysts. Although we describe the most outstanding features of flavoprotein monooxygenases, we mainly focus on enzymes that were cloned, expressed and used for biocatalysis during the last years.

  19. The discovery of potent and selective kynurenine 3-monooxygenase inhibitors for the treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Liddle, John; Beaufils, Benjamin; Binnie, Margaret; Bouillot, Anne; Denis, Alexis A; Hann, Michael M; Haslam, Carl P; Holmes, Duncan S; Hutchinson, Jon P; Kranz, Michael; McBride, Andrew; Mirguet, Olivier; Mole, Damian J; Mowat, Christopher G; Pal, Sandeep; Rowland, Paul; Trottet, Lionel; Uings, Iain J; Walker, Ann L; Webster, Scott P

    2017-05-01

    A series of potent, competitive and highly selective kynurenine monooxygenase inhibitors have been discovered via a substrate-based approach for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. The lead compound demonstrated good cellular potency and clear pharmacodynamic activity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biocatalytic conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide using an engineered toluene monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Carlin, D A; Bertolani, S J; Siegel, J B

    2015-02-11

    Mutants of toluene o-xylene monooxygenase are demonstrated to oxidize ethylene to ethylene oxide in vivo at yields of >99%. The best mutant increases ethylene oxidation activity by >5500-fold relative to the native enzyme. This is the first report of a recombinant enzyme capable of carrying out this industrially significant chemical conversion.

  1. Simulation of paraequilibrium growth in multicomponent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, G.; Olson, G. B.

    2001-03-01

    A methodology to simulate paraequilibrium (PE) growth in multicomponent systems using the DIC-TRA (Diffusion-Controlled Transformation) software is presented. For any given multicomponent system containing substitutional and interstitial elements, the basic approach is to define a hypothetical element Z, whose thermodynamic and mobility parameters are expressed in terms of the weighted average (with respect to site fraction) of the thermodynamic parameters and mobilities of the substitutional alloying elements. This procedure facilitates the calculation of PE phase diagrams and the PE growth simulations directly in the Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software, respectively. The results of two distinct case studies in multicomponent alloys are presented. In the first example, we simulate the isothermal growth of PE cementite in an Fe-C-Co-Cr-Mo-Ni secondary hardening steel during tempering. This is of practical importance in modeling the carbide precipitation kinetics during secondary hardening. In the second example, we have presented the results of PE ferrite growth during continuous cooling from an intercritical temperature in an Fe-Al-C-Mn-Si low-alloy steel. This is of importance to the design of triple-phase steels containing an austenite that has optimum stability, to facilitate stress-induced transformation under dynamic loading. The results of both simulations are in good accord with experimental results. The model calculations do not consider any resistive or dissipative forces, such as the interfacial energy, strain energy, or solute drag, and, as a result, the interface velocities represent an upper limit under the available chemical driving force.

  2. General Model for Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Marschall, Jochen; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A previous paper (AIAA 94-2042) presented equations and numerical procedures for modeling the thermochemical ablation and pyrolysis of thermal protection materials which contain multiple surface species. This work describes modifications and enhancements to the Multicomponent Ablation Thermochemistry (MAT) theory and code for application to the general case which includes surface area constraints, rate limited surface reactions, and non-thermochemical mass loss (failure). Detailed results and comparisons with data are presented for the Shuttle Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon oxidation protection system which contains a mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), silica (SiO2), silicon carbide (SiC), and carbon (C).

  3. Advances in Directional Multicomponent Induction Borehole Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, T.

    2007-05-01

    New multicomponent EM wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) instruments are changing the way dip is determined and the accuracy of geosteering wells. A new wireline triaxial induction logging tool allows accurate dip and azimuth to be determined along with standard induction logs and the vertical and horizontal resistivities. The new directional LWD resistivity tool allows accurate geosteering within a reasonable formation thickness and indicated whether to steer up or down in real time. Both these instruments are dependent on 3D numerical EM modeling codes for tool design and data interpretation.

  4. Statistical Model of Evaporating Multicomponent Fuel Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, Kenneth; LeClercq, Patrick; Bellan, Josette

    2007-01-01

    An improved statistical model has been developed to describe the chemical composition of an evaporating multicomponent- liquid drop and of the mixture of gases surrounding the drop. The model is intended for use in computational simulations of the evaporation and combustion of sprayed liquid fuels, which are typically mixtures of as many as hundreds of different hydrocarbon compounds. The present statistical model is an approximation designed to afford results that are accurate enough to contribute to understanding of the simulated physical and chemical phenomena, without imposing an unduly large computational burden.

  5. MULTICOMPONENT REACTIONS IN ALKALOID-BASED DRUG DISCOVERY

    PubMed Central

    Magedov, I. V.; Kornienko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions are emerging as a powerful tool in alkaloid-based drug discovery. This Highlight describes several recent (all published in 2011) examples of the employment of multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of biologically active alkaloids and their medicinally relevant analogues. PMID:27917001

  6. Alternative splicing governs sulfation of tyrosine or oligosaccharide on peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yun, H Y; Keutmann, H T; Eipper, B A

    1994-04-08

    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) catalyzes the COOH-terminal alpha-amidation of neuro-endocrine peptides through the sequential action of monooxygenase and lyase domains contained within this bifunctional protein. Alternative splicing leads to the expression of soluble and integral membrane bifunctional PAM proteins as well as a soluble monofunctional monooxygenase. In order to determine how alternative splicing affects post-translational modification of PAM proteins, we investigated the sulfation of PAM proteins expressed in stably transfected hEK-293 cells. Metabolic labeling with [35S]SO4(2-) or [35S]methionine and immunoprecipitation demonstrated that [35S]SO4(2-) was efficiently incorporated into PAM proteins that have the noncatalytic exon A region following the monooxygenase domain (PAM-1 and PAM-4) and into a soluble bifunctional PAM protein (PAM-3). Alkaline hydrolysis, radiosequencing, and deglycosylation experiments demonstrated the presence of a sulfated tyrosine (Tyr965) in the COOH-terminal domain of PAM-3 and multiple sulfated O-glycans in the exon A region of PAM-1 and PAM-4. A mutant PAM-3 protein in which Tyr965 was changed to Ala965 (PAM-3/Y965A) was not sulfated and exhibited monooxygenase and lyase activities similar to those of wild type PAM-3. Pulse-chase and temperature block experiments showed that the PAM-3/Y965A protein exits the trans-Golgi network faster than wild type PAM-3. Thus inclusion of exon A results in the sulfation of O-glycans, while elimination of the transmembrane domain results in the sulfation of Tyr965.

  7. Monooxygenase Levels and Knockdown Resistance (kdr) Allele Frequencies in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Githeko, Andrew K; Githure, John I; Mutunga, James; Zhou, Guofa; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid-treated bed nets and indoor spray are important components of malaria control strategies in Kenya. Information on resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis populations is essential to the selection of appropriate insecticides and the management of insecticide resistance. Monooxygenase activity and knockdown resistance (kdr) allele frequency are biochemical and molecular indicators of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids. This study determined baseline information on monooxygenase activity and kdr allele frequency in anopheline mosquitoes in the western region, the Great Rift Valley-central province region, and the coastal region of Kenya. A total of 1990 field-collected individuals, representing 12 An. gambiae and 22 An. arabiensis populations was analyzed. We found significant among-population variation in monooxygenase activity in An. gambiae and An. arabiensis and substantial variability among individuals within populations. Nine out of 12 An. gambiae populations exhibited significantly higher average monooxygenase activity than the susceptible Kisumu reference strain. The kdr alleles (L1014S) were detected in three An. gambiae populations, and one An. arabiensis population in western Kenya, but not in the Rift Valley-central region and the coastal Kenya region. All genotypes with the kdr alleles were heterozygous, and the conservative estimation of kdr allele frequency was below 1% in these four populations. Information on monooxygenase activity and kdr allele frequency reported in this study provided baseline data for monitoring insecticide resistance changes in Kenya during the era when large-scale insecticide-treated bednet and indoor residual spray campaigns were being implemented. PMID:18402140

  8. Cometabolic degradation of chlorinated alkenes by alkene monooxygenase in a propylene-grown Xanthobacter strain.

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, S A; Hyman, M R; Arp, D J

    1992-01-01

    Propylene-grown Xanthobacter cells (strain Py2) degraded several chlorinated alkenes of environmental concern, including trichloroethylene, 1-chloroethylene (vinyl chloride), cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropylene, and 2,3-dichloropropylene. 1,1-Dichloroethylene was not degraded efficiently, while tetrachloroethylene was not degraded. The role of alkene monooxygenase in catalyzing chlorinated alkene degradations was established by demonstrating that glucose-grown cells which lack alkene monooxygenase and propylene-grown cells in which alkene monooxygenase was selectively inactivated by propyne were unable to degrade the compounds. C2 and C3 chlorinated alkanes were not oxidized by alkene monooxygenase, but a number of these compounds were inhibitors of propylene and ethylene oxidation, suggesting that they compete for binding to the enzyme. A number of metabolites enhanced the rate of degradation of chlorinated alkenes, including propylene oxide, propionaldehyde, and glucose. Propylene stimulated chlorinated alkene oxidation slightly when present at a low concentration but became inhibitory at higher concentrations. Toxic effects associated with chlorinated alkene oxidations were determined by measuring the propylene oxidation and propylene oxide-dependent O2 uptake rates of cells previously incubated with chlorinated alkenes. Compounds which were substrates for alkene monooxygenase exhibited various levels of toxicity, with 1,1-dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene being the most potent inactivators of propylene oxidation and 1,3- and 2,3-dichloropropylene being the most potent inactivators of propylene oxide-dependent O2 uptake. No toxic effects were seen when cells were incubated with chlorinated alkenes anaerobically, indicating that the product(s) of chlorinated alkene oxidation mediates toxicity. PMID:1444418

  9. Improving mechanical properties of desloratadine via multicomponent crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Ainurofiq, Ahmad; Mauludin, Rachmat; Mudhakir, Diky; Umeda, Daiki; Soewandhi, Sundani Nurono; Putra, Okky Dwichandra; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2017-09-27

    We report the first multicomponent crystal of desloratadine, an important anti-histamine drug, with a pharmaceutically acceptable coformer of benzoic acid. The single crystal structure analysis revealed that this novel multicomponent crystal is categorized as salt due to the proton transfer from benzoic acid to the desloratadine molecule. By forming the salt multicomponent crystal, we demonstrated that the tabletability and plasticity of the multicomponent crystal was improved from the parent drug. In addition, neither capping nor lamination tendency was observed in the desloratadine-benzoic acid multicomponent crystal. The existence of a layered structure and slip planes are proposed to be associated with this improvement. The desloratadine-benzoate in this case shows an improved solubility in water and HCl 0.1N media and a better dissolution profile in water. However, the dissolution rate in HCl 0.1N media was found to be essentially indifference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and Catalytic Differences between Two FADH2-Dependent Monooxygenases: 2,4,5-TCP 4-Monooxygenase (TftD) from Burkholderia cepacia AC1100 and 2,4,6-TCP 4-Monooxygenase (TcpA) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Robert P.; Webb, Brian N.; Subramanian, Arun Kumar; Nissen, Mark; Popchock, Andrew; Xun, Luying; Kang, ChulHee

    2012-01-01

    2,4,5-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TftD) and 2,4,6-TCP 4-monooxygenase (TcpA) have been discovered in the biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). TcpA and TftD belong to the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenases and both use 2,4,6-TCP as a substrate; however, the two enzymes produce different end products. TftD catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction, while TcpA catalyzes a typical monooxygenase reaction followed by a hydrolytic dechlorination. We have previously reported the 3D structure of TftD and confirmed the catalytic residue, His289. Here we have determined the crystal structure of TcpA and investigated the apparent differences in specificity and catalysis between these two closely related monooxygenases through structural comparison. Our computational docking results suggest that Ala293 in TcpA (Ile292 in TftD) is possibly responsible for the differences in substrate specificity between the two monooxygenases. We have also identified that Arg101 in TcpA could provide inductive effects/charge stabilization during hydrolytic dechlorination. The collective information provides a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanism and the parameters for substrate specificity. The information may provide guidance for designing bioremediation strategies for polychlorophenols, a major group of environmental pollutants. PMID:22949829

  11. Theory and Simulation of Multicomponent Osmotic Systems.

    PubMed

    Karunaweera, Sadish; Gee, Moon Bae; Weerasinghe, Samantha; Smith, Paul E

    2012-05-28

    Most cellular processes occur in systems containing a variety of components many of which are open to material exchange. However, computer simulations of biological systems are almost exclusively performed in systems closed to material exchange. In principle, the behavior of biomolecules in open and closed systems will be different. Here, we provide a rigorous framework for the analysis of experimental and simulation data concerning open and closed multicomponent systems using the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions. The results are illustrated using computer simulations for various concentrations of the solutes Gly, Gly(2) and Gly(3) in both open and closed systems, and in the absence or presence of NaCl as a cosolvent. In addition, KB theory is used to help rationalize the aggregation properties of the solutes. Here one observes that the picture of solute association described by the KB integrals, which are directly related to the solution thermodynamics, and that provided by more physical clustering approaches are different. It is argued that the combination of KB theory and simulation data provides a simple and powerful tool for the analysis of complex multicomponent open and closed systems.

  12. Lattice Boltzmann algorithm for continuum multicomponent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, I.; Hollis, A. P.; Care, C. M.

    2007-08-01

    We present a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation for continuum fluid mechanics, paying particular attention to the component segregation part of the underlying algorithm. In the principal result of this paper, the dynamics of a component index, or phase field, is obtained for a segregation method after U. D’Ortona [Phys. Rev. E 51, 3718 (1995)], due to Latva-Kokko and Rothman [Phys. Rev. E 71 056702 (2005)]. The said dynamics accord with a simulation designed to address multicomponent flow in the continuum approximation and underwrite improved simulation performance in two main ways: (i) by reducing the interfacial microcurrent activity considerably and (ii) by facilitating simulational access to regimes of flow with a low capillary number and drop Reynolds number [I. Halliday, R. Law, C. M. Care, and A. Hollis, Phys. Rev. E 73, 056708 (2006)]. The component segregation method studied, used in conjunction with Lishchuk’s method [S. V. Lishchuk, C. M. Care, and I. Halliday, Phys. Rev. E 67, 036701 (2003)], produces an interface, which is distributed in terms of its component index; however, the hydrodynamic boundary conditions which emerge are shown to support the notion of a sharp, unstructured, continuum interface.

  13. Mechanics of Turbulence of Multicomponent Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Kolesnichenko, Aleksander V.

    2002-02-01

    Turbulence in multicomponent reacting gas mixtures is an important mechanism underlying numerous natural phenomena closely related to the study of our space environment. This book develops a new mathematical approach for modelling multicomponent gas turbulence that adequately describes the combined processes of dynamics and heat and mass transfer when chemical kinetics and turbulent mixing are equally important. The developed models include the evolutionary transfer equations for the single-point second correlation moments of turbulent fluctuations of thermohydrodynamical parameters. The phenomenological approach to the closure problem in hydrodynamic equations of mean motion at the level of the first order moments is based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and enables defining relationships in a more general form as compared to those conventionally deduced using the mixing path concept. Based on the developed approach, turbulent exchange factors for a planetary upper atmosphere are evaluated, and a turbulent model of a protoplanetary accretion gas-dust disk involving heat and mass transfer and coagulation is also considered. As compared to previously published books on the problem of turbulence, this book deals, for the first time, with the complicated models of reacting gas mixtures. It is intended for graduate and postgraduate students in the fields of fluid gas dynamics, astrophysics, space physics, planetary sciences, and aeronomy, and especially for those dealing with computer modelling of the processes in such natural media. The book may also be of interest to specialists in the relevant fields of ecology, engineering, and material processing.

  14. Theory of margination in confined multicomponent suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriquez Rivera, Rafael; Sinha, Kushal; Graham, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In blood flow, leukocytes and platelets tend to segregate near the vessel walls; this is known as margination. Margination of leukocytes and platelets is important in physiological processes, medical diagnostics and drug delivery. A mechanistic theory is developed to describe flow-induced segregation in confined multicomponent suspensions of deformable particles such as blood. The theory captures the essential features of margination by describing it in terms of two key competing processes in these systems at low Reynolds number: wall-induced migration and hydrodynamic pair collisions. The theory also includes the effect of physical properties of the deformable particles and molecular diffusion. Several regimes of segregation are identified, depending on the value of a ``margination parameter'' M. Moreover, there is a critical value of M below which a sharp ``drainage transition'' occurs: one component is completely depleted from the bulk flow to the vicinity of the walls. Direct hydrodynamic simulations also display this transition in suspensions where the components differ in size or flexibility. The developed mechanistic theory leads to substantial insight into the origins of margination and will help in guiding development of new technologies involving multicomponent suspensions. This work was supported by NSF grant CBET-1436082.

  15. Continuous cyclohexane oxidation to cyclohexanol using a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Acidovorax sp. CHX100 in recombinant P. taiwanensis VLB120 biofilms.

    PubMed

    Karande, Rohan; Debor, Linde; Salamanca, Diego; Bogdahn, Fabian; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich; Buehler, Katja; Schmid, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The applications of biocatalysts in chemical industries are characterized by activity, selectivity, and stability. One key strategy to achieve high biocatalytic activity is the identification of novel enzymes with kinetics optimized for organic synthesis by Nature. The isolation of novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes from Acidovorax sp. CHX100 and their functional expression in recombinant Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120 enabled efficient oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol. Although initial resting cell activities of 20 U gCDW (-1) were achieved, the rapid decrease in catalytic activity due to the toxicity of cyclohexane prevented synthetic applications. Cyclohexane toxicity was reduced and cellular activities stabilized over the reaction time by delivering the toxic substrate through the vapor phase and by balancing the aqueous phase mass transfer with the cellular conversion rate. The potential of this novel CYP enzyme was exploited by transferring the shake flask reaction to an aqueous-air segmented flow biofilm membrane reactor for maximizing productivity. Cyclohexane was continuously delivered via the silicone membrane. This ensured lower reactant toxicity and continuous product formation at an average volumetric productivity of 0.4 g L tube (-1) h(-1) for several days. This highlights the potential of combining a powerful catalyst with a beneficial reactor design to overcome critical issues of cyclohexane oxidation to cyclohexanol. It opens new opportunities for biocatalytic transformations of compounds which are toxic, volatile, and have low solubility in water.

  16. Dioxygen activation at non-heme diiron centers: characterization of intermediates in a mutant form of toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Murray, Leslie J; García-Serres, Ricardo; Naik, Sunil; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Lippard, Stephen J

    2006-06-14

    We report the generation and characterization of an intermediate in a mutant form of the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase component from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1. The reaction of chemically reduced I100W variant in the presence of the coupling protein, ToMOD, with dioxygen was monitored by stopped-flow UV/visible spectroscopy. Rapid-freeze quench (RFQ) samples were also generated for EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy. A transient species is observed in the UV/visible spectrum with an absorption maximum at 500 nm. EPR and Mössbauer spectra of RFQ samples identified this species as a diiron(III,IV) cluster spin-coupled to a neutral W radical. A diamagnetic precursor to the mixed-valent diiron(III,IV) was also observed at an earlier time point, with Mössbauer parameters typical of high-spin FeIII. We have tentatively assigned this antiferromagnetically coupled diiron(III) intermediate as a peroxo-bridged cluster, and this complex has also been observed in preliminary studies of the wild-type hydroxylase.

  17. Structures of the Apo and FAD-Bound Forms of 2-Hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase (HbpA) Locate Activity Hotspots Identified by Using Directed Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Chantel N; Mielke, Tamara; Farrugia, Joseph E; Frank, Annika; Man, Henry; Hart, Sam; Turkenburg, Johan P; Grogan, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    The FAD-dependent monooxygenase HbpA from Pseudomonas azelaica HBP1 catalyses the hydroxylation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP) to 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl (23DHBP). HbpA has been used extensively as a model for studying flavoprotein hydroxylases under process conditions, and has also been subjected to directed-evolution experiments that altered its catalytic properties. The structure of HbpA has been determined in its apo and FAD-complex forms to resolutions of 2.76 and 2.03 Å, respectively. Comparisons of the HbpA structure with those of homologues, in conjunction with a model of the reaction product in the active site, reveal His48 as the most likely acid/base residue to be involved in the hydroxylation mechanism. Mutation of His48 to Ala resulted in an inactive enzyme. The structures of HbpA also provide evidence that mutants achieved by directed evolution that altered activity are comparatively remote from the substrate-binding site. PMID:25737306

  18. Cloning of Toluene 4-Monooxygenase Genes and Application of Two-Phase System to the Production of the Anticancer Agent, Indirubin.

    PubMed

    Wongsaroj, Lampet; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Dubbs, James M; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Loprasert, Suvit

    2015-08-01

    Indirubin is a strong inhibitor of several eukaryotic cell signaling pathways and shows promise as a treatment for myelocytic leukemia and Alzheimer's disease. The tmoABCDEF operon, encoding the components of a novel toluene 4-monooxygenase from the paint factory soil isolate, Pseudomonas sp. M4, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. E. coli::pKSR12 expressing the tmo genes was used to develop a two-phase [dioctyl phthalate (DOP)/aqueous medium] culture system that was optimized to obtain maximal yields of indirubin from the starting substrate, indole. DOP was used as the organic phase to solubilize and sequester the toxic indole substrate, making possible the use of high indole concentrations that would otherwise interfere with growth in aqueous media. A 50 % (v/v) DOP two-phase system using tryptophan medium containing 3 mM cysteine, 5 mM indole, and 1 mM isatin yielded 102.4 mg/L of indirubin with no conversion of indole to the less valuable alternate product, indigo.

  19. Altering toluene 4-monooxygenase by active-site engineering for the synthesis of 3-methoxycatechol, methoxyhydroquinone, and methylhydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ying; Fishman, Ayelet; Bentley, William E; Wood, Thomas K

    2004-07-01

    Wild-type toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 oxidizes toluene to p-cresol (96%) and oxidizes benzene sequentially to phenol, to catechol, and to 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene. In this study T4MO was found to oxidize o-cresol to 3-methylcatechol (91%) and methylhydroquinone (9%), to oxidize m-cresol and p-cresol to 4-methylcatechol (100%), and to oxidize o-methoxyphenol to 4-methoxyresorcinol (87%), 3-methoxycatechol (11%), and methoxyhydroquinone (2%). Apparent Vmax values of 6.6 +/- 0.9 to 10.7 +/- 0.1 nmol/min/ mg of protein were obtained for o-, m-, and p-cresol oxidation by wild-type T4MO, which are comparable to the toluene oxidation rate (15.1 +/- 0.8 nmol/min/mg of protein). After these new reactions were discovered, saturation mutagenesis was performed near the diiron catalytic center at positions I100, G103, and A107 of the alpha subunit of the hydroxylase (TmoA) based on directed evolution of the related toluene o-monooxygenase of Burkholderia cepacia G4 (K. A. Canada, S. Iwashita, H. Shim, and T. K. Wood, J. Bacteriol. 184:344-349, 2002) and a previously reported T4MO G103L regiospecific mutant (K. H. Mitchell, J. M. Studts, and B. G. Fox, Biochemistry 41:3176-3188, 2002). By using o-cresol and o-methoxyphenol as model substrates, regiospecific mutants of T4MO were created; for example, TmoA variant G103A/A107S produced 3-methylcatechol (98%) from o-cresol twofold faster and produced 3-methoxycatechol (82%) from 1 mM o-methoxyphenol seven times faster than the wild-type T4MO (1.5 +/- 0.2 versus 0.21 +/- 0.01 nmol/min/mg of protein). Variant I100L produced 3-methoxycatechol from o-methoxyphenol four times faster than wild-type T4MO, and G103S/A107T produced methylhydroquinone (92%) from o-cresol fourfold faster than wild-type T4MO and there was 10 times more in terms of the percentage of the product. Variant G103S produced 40-fold more methoxyhydroquinone from o-methoxyphenol than the wild-type enzyme produced (80 versus 2%) and

  20. Gauge transformation and symmetries of the commutative multicomponent BKP hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanzhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we defined a new multi-component B type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) hierarchy that takes values in a commutative subalgebra of {gl}(N,{{C}}). After this, we give the gauge transformation of this commutative multicomponent BKP (CMBKP) hierarchy. Meanwhile, we construct a new constrained CMBKP hierarchy that contains some new integrable systems, including coupled KdV equations under a certain reduction. After this, the quantum torus symmetry and quantum torus constraint on the tau function of the commutative multi-component BKP hierarchy will be constructed.

  1. Charge correlations in multicomponent ionic crystalline membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Creighton; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the dissociation state of a polyelectrolyte membrane with charged head groups in solution. This state depends on the salt concentration and pH of the solution, but spatial correlations also highly influence it. Spatial correlations are typically neglected in these systems, as they are difficult to treat analytically, but they can qualitatively alter the results. We numerically incorporate charge correlations on both flat and curved membranes by simulating a multicomponent system on a fluctuating network with electrostatic interactions, using the replica exchange Monte Carlo approach. The salt-induced screening effects are modeled within the Debye-Huckel theory. For weak enough screening, we find a strong suppression of dissociation regardless of pH, and the membrane may exhibit a reentrant structural phase transition as pH is varied.

  2. Chemical-potential route for multicomponent fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Andrés; Rohrmann, René D.

    2013-05-01

    The chemical potentials of multicomponent fluids are derived in terms of the pair correlation functions for arbitrary number of components, interaction potentials, and dimensionality. The formally exact result is particularized to hard-sphere mixtures with zero or positive nonadditivity. As a simple application, the chemical potentials of three-dimensional additive hard-sphere mixtures are derived from the Percus-Yevick theory and the associated equation of state is obtained. This Percus-Yevick chemical-route equation of state is shown to be more accurate than the virial equation of state. An interpolation between the chemical-potential and compressibility routes exhibits a better performance than the well-known Boublík-Mansoori-Carnahan-Starling-Leland equation of state.

  3. Modeling of multicomponent countercurrent gas permeators

    SciTech Connect

    Kovvali, A.S.; Admassu, W. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Vemury, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Modeling of gas permeation in hollow-fiber or spiral wound modules necessitates considering the effect of permeate pressure variation along the module length which could have a significant effect on the prediction of the exit compositions and membrane area requirements depending on the membrane characteristics and module geometry. The transport equations governing the permeator performance are a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. The complexity of the solution procedure for these equations increases with the number of components in the mixture and consideration of pressure variation. Thus, there is a need for simplified solution methodologies which could reduce the computational efforts. This paper presents a solution methodology to solve the multicomponent gas permeator transport equations in a countercurrent flow pattern, taking the permeate pressure variation into consideration. The present method yields analytical expressions for flow rates, permeate pressure, membrane area, and compositions along the length of the permeator.

  4. Determination of Stability from Multicomponent Pesticide Mixes.

    PubMed

    Dorweiler, Kelly J; Gurav, Jagdish N; Walbridge, James S; Ghatge, Vishwas S; Savant, Rahul H

    2016-08-10

    A study was conducted to evaluate the stability of 528 pesticides, metabolites, and contaminants prepared in large multicomponent mixes to enhance laboratory efficiency by allowing maximum use of the useful shelf life of the mixtures. Accelerated aging at 50 °C simulated 6 month, 1 year, and 2 year storage periods at -20 °C. Initial mixture composition was based on the instrument of analysis. After preliminary stability data had been obtained, mixtures were reformulated and re-evaluated. In all, 344 compounds showed satisfactory stability across all treatment groups, 100 compounds showed statistically significant changes between the control and the 6 month simulated storage period (27 with losses >20%), and the remainder showed borderline stability or were tested in one protocol. Stability behavior for organophosphates agreed with the proposed reaction mechanism responsible for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. A small number of compounds increased in response over time, suggesting the occurrence of degradation of precursor pesticides into these respective compounds.

  5. On indirect noise in multicomponent nozzle flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Luca

    2017-10-01

    A one-dimensional, unsteady nozzle flow is modelled to identify the sources of indirect noise in multicomponent gases. First, from non-equilibrium thermodynamics relations, it is shown that a compositional inhomogeneity advected in an accelerating flow is a source of sound induced by inhomogeneities in the mixture (i) chemical potentials and (ii) specific heat capacities. Second, it is shown that the acoustic, entropy and compositional linear perturbations evolve independently from each other and they become coupled through mean-flow gradients and/or at the boundaries. Third, the equations are cast in invariant formulation and a mathematical solution is found by asymptotic expansion of path-ordered integrals with an infinite radius of convergence. Finally, the transfer functions are calculated for a supersonic nozzle with finite spatial extent perturbed by a methane-air compositional inhomogeneity. The proposed framework will help identify and quantify the sources of sound in nozzles with relevance, for example, to aeronautical gas turbines.

  6. Oximetry of retinal capillaries by multicomponent analysis.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hiromitsu; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Shirai, Tomohiro; Ooto, Sotaro; Hangai, Masanori; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2012-08-01

    Retinal oximetry of capillaries was performed for early detection of retinal vascular abnormalities, which are caused predominantly by complications of systemic circulatory diseases. As the conventional method for determining absorbance is not applicable to capillaries, multicomponent analysis was used to estimate the absorbance spectra of the retinal blood vessels. In this analysis, the capillary spectrum was classified as intermediate between those of the retinal arteries and veins, enabling relative estimation of oxygen saturation in the capillaries. This method could be useful for early recognition of disturbances in the peripheral circulation. Furthermore, a spectroscopic ophthalmoscope system based on the proposed method was developed to examine the human retina. A clinical trial of this system demonstrated that oximetry of the retinal capillaries may be an improvement over the present diagnosis for patients of malignant hypertension.

  7. Properties of soluble and membrane bound dopamine-beta-monooxygenase from bovine adrenal medulla cross-linked with dimethyl suberimidate.

    PubMed

    Miras-Portugal, M T; Millaruelo, A; Vara, F

    1980-12-10

    Bovine dopamine-beta-monooxygenase from chromaffin granules in its soluble and membrane-bound forms was cross-linked with the bifunctional reagent dimethyl suberimidate, and its structural and kinetic properties were studied. 1. The cross-linking reaction does not affect the activity of soluble dopamine-beta-monooxygenase; it produces a ten percent inactivation in the membrane-bound enzyme, possibly because the linkage to other membrane proteins hinders its activity. 2. The soluble dopamine-beta-monooxygenase reaction mixture was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, showing appreciable amounts of dimer and tetramer, but only small amounts of trimer. In membrane-bound dopamine-beta-monooxygenase, subjected to the same treatment, appreciable amounts of dimer and higher aggregates were found. 3. The kinetic properties of soluble dopamine-beta-monooxygenase after the crosslinking reaction are the same as those of the native enzyme, with a ping-pong kinetic mechanism and the same real Michaelis constants for tyramine and ascorbate: KmT = 0.36 mM and KmA = 0.32 mM. Membrane-bound dopamine-beta-monooxygenase does not present a ping-pong mechanism before or after cross-linking; its real Michaelis constants are slightly modified by the cross-linking reaction: KmT = 0.4 mM and KMA = 0.4 mM.

  8. Characterization and Optimization Multiscale and Multicomponent Nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Kelly

    2012-10-01

    Materials with new combinations of properties are increasingly needed to meet the requirements of energy, transportation, and medical applications. The use of multi-component systems, with potentially complementary properties, represent a unique path to improve materials properties for a variety of applications. Among the most interesting applications of these materials is in the development of contrast agents in biological imaging and dynamic sensing applications. Although a variety of techniques to characterize these materials exist, noninvasive characterization methods, such as optical-based techniques, are ideal for studying these materials in their native states and for monitoring dynamic changes. The proposition becomes even more attractive when at least one of the components carries an optical signature.The use of optoacoustic (OA) is an emerging technology based on studying optically absorbing nano and microstructures in the sample by recording transit pressure waves generated from laser-induced thermal expansion. More recently OA has been developed as a vibrant technology for medical applications and some growing applications is for material characterization in research and industrial applications. Specifically, OA can assist in the characterization and optimization of composite materials containing nanoparticles when paired with other characterization techniques. The present work illustrates an overview of select hybrid nanomaterials, including their unique optoacoustic signatures utilizing an all optical OA technique. The results of this work show that optical based techniques such as OA, provide a noninvasive, nondestructive means to study multi-material, multi-scale, multi-functional materials are important in the development of novel multi-component nanomaterial schemes and elucidating the structure-function relationship in these materials.

  9. Simulations of Evaporating Multicomponent Fuel Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Le Clercq, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A paper presents additional information on the subject matter of Model of Mixing Layer With Multicomponent Evaporating Drops (NPO-30505), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 55. To recapitulate: A mathematical model of a three-dimensional mixing layer laden with evaporating fuel drops composed of many chemical species has been derived. The model is used to perform direct numerical simulations in continuing studies directed toward understanding the behaviors of sprays of liquid petroleum fuels in furnaces, industrial combustors, and engines. The model includes governing equations formulated in an Eulerian and a Lagrangian reference frame for the gas and drops, respectively, and incorporates a concept of continuous thermodynamics, according to which the chemical composition of a fuel is described by use of a distribution function. In this investigation, the distribution function depends solely on the species molar weight. The present paper reiterates the description of the model and discusses further in-depth analysis of the previous results as well as results of additional numerical simulations assessing the effect of the mass loading. The paper reiterates the conclusions reported in the cited previous article, and states some new conclusions. Some new conclusions are: 1. The slower evaporation and the evaporation/ condensation process for multicomponent-fuel drops resulted in a reduced drop-size polydispersity compared to their single-component counterpart. 2. The inhomogeneity in the spatial distribution of the species in the layer increases with the initial mass loading. 3. As evaporation becomes faster, the assumed invariant form of the molecular- weight distribution during evaporation becomes inaccurate.

  10. [A substrate-type induction of liver microsomal monooxygenases by phenobarbital].

    PubMed

    Tsyrlov, I B; Gromova, O A; Rivkind, N B; Vakulin, G M; Liakhovich, V V

    1977-07-01

    A possibility of step-wise induction of microsomal monooxygenases after injection of phenobarbital in the presence of 3-methylcholanthrene-caused induction was studied. It was found that the ratio of the high- and low-spin types of cytochrome, rather than the position of the CO-peak of its reduced form is a criterion for functional specificity of hemoprotein. Induction by phenobarbital appears possible under conditions when the inductor binding to microsomal hemoprotein is lacking, since cytochrome P-488 has no binding sites for phenobarbital. It is assumed that under microsomal monooxygenases induction by phenobarbital activation of genome and subsequent protein synthesis are operated by the substrate rather than by products of its primary metabolism in microsomes.

  11. Discovery, application and protein engineering of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Balke, Kathleen; Kadow, Maria; Mallin, Hendrik; Sass, Stefan; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2012-08-21

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are useful enzymes for organic synthesis as they enable the direct and highly regio- and stereoselective oxidation of ketones to esters or lactones simply with molecular oxygen. This contribution covers novel concepts such as searching in protein sequence databases using distinct motifs to discover new Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases as well as high-throughput assays to facilitate protein engineering in order to improve BVMOs with respect to substrate range, enantioselectivity, thermostability and other properties. Recent examples for the application of BVMOs in synthetic organic synthesis illustrate the broad potential of these biocatalysts. Furthermore, methods to facilitate the more efficient use of BVMOs in organic synthesis by applying e.g. improved cofactor regeneration, substrate feed and in situ product removal or immobilization are covered in this perspective.

  12. tRNA-modifying MiaE protein from Salmonella typhimurium is a nonheme diiron monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Mathevon, Carole; Pierrel, Fabien; Oddou, Jean-Louis; Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Blondin, Geneviève; Latour, Jean-Marc; Ménage, Stéphane; Gambarelli, Serge; Fontecave, Marc; Atta, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    MiaE catalyzes the posttranscriptional allylic hydroxylation of 2-methylthio-N-6-isopentenyl adenosine in tRNAs. The Salmonella typhimurium enzyme was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme is a monomer with two iron atoms and displays activity in in vitro assays. The type and properties of the iron center were investigated by using a combination of UV-visible absorption, EPR, HYSCORE, and Mössbauer spectroscopies which demonstrated that the MiaE enzyme contains a nonheme dinuclear iron cluster, similar to that found in the hydroxylase component of methane monooxygenase. This is the first example of an enzyme from this important class of diiron monooxygenases to be involved in the hydroxylation of a biological macromolecule and the second example of a redox metalloenzyme participating in tRNA modification. PMID:17679698

  13. Manipulation of neuropeptide biosynthesis through the expression of antisense RNA for peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Mains, R E; Bloomquist, B T; Eipper, B A

    1991-02-01

    Stable cell lines with significantly elevated or diminished levels of a key neuropeptide processing enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), were generated by transfection of a mouse pituitary cell line with expression vectors containing PAM cDNA in the sense or antisense orientation. By evaluating the ability of these cell lines to alpha-amidate endogenous neuropeptides, a rate-limiting role for PAM in neuropeptide alpha-amidation was demonstrated. Overexpression of either the full-length PAM precursor with its trans-membrane domain or a soluble protein containing only the monooxygenase domain of PAM led to increased alpha-amidation of endogenous neuropeptides. Overexpression of the full-length PAM led to an unexpected decrease in the endoproteolytic processing of endogenous prohormone; conversely, underexpression of PAM led to significantly enhanced endoproteolytic processing of endogenous prohormone. These data suggest that PAM may have additional functions in peptide processing.

  14. Oxygen Activation at the Active Site of a Fungal Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, William B; Agarwal, Pratul K; Meilleur, Flora

    2017-01-16

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases have attracted vast attention owing to their abilities to disrupt glycosidic bonds via oxidation instead of hydrolysis and to enhance enzymatic digestion of recalcitrant substrates including chitin and cellulose. We have determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of an enzyme from Neurospora crassa in the resting state and of a copper(II) dioxo intermediate complex formed in the absence of substrate. X-ray crystal structures also revealed "pre-bound" molecular oxygen adjacent to the active site. An examination of protonation states enabled by neutron crystallography and density functional theory calculations identified a role for a conserved histidine in promoting oxygen activation. These results provide a new structural description of oxygen activation by substrate free lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases and provide insights that can be extended to reactivity in the enzyme-substrate complex. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Bacterial degradation of styrene involving a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent styrene monooxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmans, S; van der Werf, M J; de Bont, J A

    1990-01-01

    By using styrene as the sole source of carbon and energy in concentrations of 10 to 500 microM, 14 strains of aerobic bacteria and two strains of fungi were isolated from various soil and water samples. In cell extracts of 11 of the bacterial isolates, a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-requiring styrene monooxygenase activity that oxidized styrene to styrene oxide (phenyl oxirane) was detected. In one bacterial strain (S5), styrene metabolism was studied in more detail. In addition to styrene monooxygenase, cell extracts from strain S5 contained styrene oxide isomerase and phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities. A pathway for styrene degradation via styrene oxide and phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetic acid is proposed. PMID:2339888

  16. Improved homology model of cyclohexanone monooxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus based on multiple templates.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Eduardo; Ventura, Oscar N; Eriksson, Leif A; Saenz-Méndez, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    A new homology model of cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is derived based on multiple templates, and in particular the crystal structure of CHMO from Rhodococcus sp. The derived model was fully evaluated, showing that the quality of the new structure was improved over previous models. Critically, the nicotinamide cofactor is included in the model for the first time. Analysis of several molecular dynamics snapshots of intermediates in the enzymatic mechanism led to a description of key residues for cofactor binding and intermediate stabilization during the reaction, in particular Arg327 and the well known conserved motif (FxGxxxHxxxW) in Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, in excellent agreement with known experimental and computational data.

  17. Biological methane oxidation: regulation, biochemistry, and active site structure of particulate methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Raquel L; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2004-01-01

    Particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) is a three-subunit integral membrane enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of methane to methanol. Although pMMO is the predominant methane oxidation catalyst in nature, it has proved difficult to isolate, and most questions regarding its molecular structure, active site composition, chemical mechanism, and genetic regulation remain unanswered. Copper ions are believed to play a key role in both pMMO regulation and catalysis, and there is some evidence that the enzyme contains iron as well. A number of research groups have solubilized and purified or partially purified pMMO. These preparations have been characterized by biochemical and biophysical methods. In addition, aspects of methane monooxygenase gene regulation and copper accumulation in methanotrophs have been studied. This review summarizes for the first time the often controversial pMMO literature, focusing on recent progress and highlighting unresolved issues.

  18. The mechanism of methane and dioxygen activation in the catalytic cycle of methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Shteinman, A A

    1995-03-27

    The binuclear structure of the active center of methane monooxygenase plays a determining role in dioxygen activation and in selectivity and specificity of alkane oxidation with this enzyme. A new mechanism is suggested for binding and activation of O2, which involves side-on binding of O2-(2) to iron atoms followed by its conversion to the bis-mu-oxo complex considered as an alternative of ferryl in CH4 activation. This mechanism results in the sequence of the cleavage of the O-O bond of peroxide O/O2-instead of the opposite sequence O2-/O, which takes place in the case of heme monooxygenase cytochrome P-450. Therefore, in this case there is no necessity of the charge relay system [N.B. Gerber and S.G. Sligar, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114 (1992) 8742] for the transformation of O2 to an active intermediate. The experiment for checking this hypothesis is suggested.

  19. tRNA-modifying MiaE protein from Salmonella typhimurium is a nonheme diiron monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Mathevon, Carole; Pierrel, Fabien; Oddou, Jean-Louis; Garcia-Serres, Ricardo; Blondin, Geneviève; Latour, Jean-Marc; Ménage, Stéphane; Gambarelli, Serge; Fontecave, Marc; Atta, Mohamed

    2007-08-14

    MiaE catalyzes the posttranscriptional allylic hydroxylation of 2-methylthio-N-6-isopentenyl adenosine in tRNAs. The Salmonella typhimurium enzyme was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme is a monomer with two iron atoms and displays activity in in vitro assays. The type and properties of the iron center were investigated by using a combination of UV-visible absorption, EPR, HYSCORE, and Mössbauer spectroscopies which demonstrated that the MiaE enzyme contains a nonheme dinuclear iron cluster, similar to that found in the hydroxylase component of methane monooxygenase. This is the first example of an enzyme from this important class of diiron monooxygenases to be involved in the hydroxylation of a biological macromolecule and the second example of a redox metalloenzyme participating in tRNA modification.

  20. Factors limiting aliphatic chlorocarbon degradation by Nitrosomonas europaea: Cometabolic inactivation of ammonia monooxygenase and substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Rasche, M.E.; Hyman, M.R.; Arp, D.J. )

    1991-10-01

    The soil nitrifying bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea is capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated hydrocarbons. TCE cometabolism by N. europaea resulted in an irreversible loss of TCE biodegradative capacity, ammonia-oxidizing activity, and ammonia-dependent O{sub 2} uptake by the cells. Inactivation was not observed in the presence of allylthiourea, a specific inhibitor of enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, or under anaerobic conditions, indicating that the TCE-mediated inactivation required ammonia monooxygenase activity. When N. europaea cells were incubated with ({sup 14}C)TCE under conditions which allowed turnover of ammonia monooxygenase, a number of cellular proteins were covalently labeled with {sup 14}C. Treatment of cells with allylthiourea or acetylene prior to incubation with ({sup 14}C)TCE prevented incorporation of {sup 14}C into proteins. The ammonia-oxidizing activity of cells inactivated in the presence of TCE could be recovered through a process requiring de novo protein synthesis. In addition to TCE, a series of chlorinated methanes, ethanes, and other ethylenes were screened as substrates for ammonia monooxygenase and for their ability to inactivate the ammonia-oxidizing system of N. europaea. The chlorocarbons would be divided into three classes depending on their biodegradability and inactivating potential: (1) compounds which were not biodegradable by N. europaea and which had no toxic effect on the cells (2) compounds which were cooxidized by N. europaea and had little or no toxic effect on the cells; and (3) compounds which were cooxidized and produced a turnover-dependent inactivation of ammonia oxidation by N. europaea.

  1. Microbial monooxygenase amperometric biosensor for monitoring of Baeyer-Villiger biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Schenkmayerová, Andrea; Bučko, Marek; Gemeiner, Peter; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2013-12-15

    A whole-cell amperometric biosensor consisting of genetically engineered Escherichia coli immobilised in polyelectrolyte membrane onto a miniaturised oxygen electrode was developed and used for monitoring of biotransformation based on Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation is commonly performed using microorganisms overexpressing Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase enabling the production of enantiopure lactones or esters used in pharmaceutical industry. The biorecognition element, genetically modified E. coli overexpressing either cyclopentanone monooxygenase or cyclohexanone monooxygenase was immobilised in the form of solid polyelectrolyte complex gel membrane made of cellulose sulphate, sodium alginate and poly(methylene-co-guanidine) and attached to the surface of miniaturised oxygen electrode. The time response of the biosensor was 30s, the linear range of the calibration curve (R(2)=0.9993) was 8-130 μM and the sensitivity was 1.8 nA μM(-1) (RSD=5.0%) for substrate of Baeyer-Villiger oxidation (±)-cis-bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one as analyte. The biosensor sensitivity was assessed for two other commercially available substrates, 4-methylcyclohexanone and 3-methylcyclohexanone. No interferences from ampicillin, citric acid, acetic acid, ethanol, methanol, glucose and products of Baeyer-Villiger oxidation (1R, 5S)-3-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-6-en-2-one and (1S, 5R)-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-6-en-3-one were detected. After 1 week of storage at 4°C the biosensor sensitivity was without changes. The biosensor was employed for monitoring of Baeyer-Villiger biotransformation and the results were correlated with gas chromatography. Till now, this is the first described biosensor based on Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase and the first reported application of biosensor for monitoring of biotransformation based on Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 and monooxygenase activity in Tilapia by sediment extract

    SciTech Connect

    Ueng, Y.F.; Ueng, T.H.; Liu, T.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent monooxygenases of fishes are inducible by a variety of environmental pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Induction of fish monoxygenases may serve as a biological monitor for PAH- and PCB-types of environmental chemicals. Many studies have demonstrated environmental induction of fish monooxygenases using various experimental approaches. However, relatively few studies have been conducted using fish treated with contaminated river sediment extracts. Damsui River is the largest river in the north of Taiwan. The lower section of the river in the Taipei Metropolitan area is heavily polluted by industrial and municipal wastes. Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) is one of the few species of fish that occur in the polluted river. Previous field studies showed that the levels of P450 1A1, benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities in tilapia collected at Fu-Ho Bridge, a polluted section of Damsui River, were higher than respective levels in fish collected from an unpolluted section. These results suggested that tilapia caught at the polluted site were exposed to substances similar in action to PAHs and PCBs, because these chemical pollutants are potent inducers of P450 1A1. PAHs and PCBs are persistent compounds that can accumulate in sediment. Tilapia are occasionally associated with the bottom and could ingest chemically contaminated sediment. In the present study, we determined the induction properties of monooxygenases using tilapia treated with extract of sediment collected from a polluted section of Damsui River. The present study demonstrates that Damsui River sediment extract has the ability to induce hepatic P450 1A1 and dependent monooxygenase activities in tilapia. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Biology of Pseudomonas stutzeri

    PubMed Central

    Lalucat, Jorge; Bennasar, Antoni; Bosch, Rafael; García-Valdés, Elena; Palleroni, Norberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is a nonfluorescent denitrifying bacterium widely distributed in the environment, and it has also been isolated as an opportunistic pathogen from humans. Over the past 15 years, much progress has been made in elucidating the taxonomy of this diverse taxonomical group, demonstrating the clonality of its populations. The species has received much attention because of its particular metabolic properties: it has been proposed as a model organism for denitrification studies; many strains have natural transformation properties, making it relevant for study of the transfer of genes in the environment; several strains are able to fix dinitrogen; and others participate in the degradation of pollutants or interact with toxic metals. This review considers the history of the discovery, nomenclatural changes, and early studies, together with the relevant biological and ecological properties, of P. stutzeri. PMID:16760312

  4. Crystal structure of a phenol-coupling P450 monooxygenase involved in teicoplanin biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhi; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G.; Schuler, Mary A.; Nair, Satish K.

    2012-02-08

    The lipoglycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin has proven efficacy against gram-positive pathogens. Teicoplanin is distinguished from the vancomycin-type glycopeptide antibiotics, by the presence of an additional cross-link between the aromatic amino acids 1 and 3 that is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase Orf6* (CYP165D3). As a goal towards understanding the mechanism of this phenol-coupling reaction, we have characterized recombinant Orf6* and determined its crystal structure to 2.2-{angstrom} resolution. Although the structure of Orf6* reveals the core fold common to other P450 monooxygenases, there are subtle differences in the disposition of secondary structure elements near the active site cavity necessary to accommodate its complex heptapeptide substrate. Specifically, the orientation of the F and G helices in Orf6* results in a more closed active site than found in the vancomycin oxidative enzymes OxyB and OxyC. In addition, Met226 in the I helix replaces the more typical Gly/Ala residue that is positioned above the heme porphyrin ring, where it forms a hydrogen bond with a heme iron-bound water molecule. Sequence comparisons with other phenol-coupling P450 monooxygenases suggest that Met226 plays a role in determining the substrate regiospecificity of Orf6*. These features provide further insights into the mechanism of the cross-linking mechanisms that occur during glycopeptide antibiotics biosynthesis.

  5. Cloning and characterization of the Type I Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Leptospira biflexa.

    PubMed

    Ceccoli, Romina D; Bianchi, Dario A; Fink, Michael J; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Rial, Daniela V

    2017-12-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases are recognized by their ability and high selectivity as oxidative biocatalysts for the generation of esters or lactones using ketones as starting materials. These enzymes represent valuable tools for biooxidative syntheses since they can catalyze reactions that otherwise involve strong oxidative reagents. In this work, we present a novel enzyme, the Type I Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Leptospira biflexa. This protein is phylogenetically distant from other well-characterized BVMOs. In order to study this new enzyme, we cloned its gene, expressed it in Escherichia coli and characterized the substrate scope of the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from L. biflexa as a whole-cell biocatalyst. For this purpose, we performed the screening of a collection of ketones with variable structures and sizes, namely acyclic ketones, aromatic ketones, cyclic ketones, and fused ketones. As a result, we observed that this biocatalyst readily oxidized linear- and branched- medium-chain ketones, alkyl levulinates and linear ketones with aromatic substituents with excellent regioselectivity. In addition, this enzyme catalyzed the oxidation of 2-substituted cycloketone derivatives but showed an unusual selection against substituents in positions 3 or 4 of the ring.

  6. Direct inhibitions of the activities of steroidogenic cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase systems by anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, T; Ichikawa, Y

    1997-01-01

    The effects of anticonvulsants on the activities of cytochromes P-450(17alpha,lyase) (CYP17), P-450arom (CYP19), P-450C21 (CYP21), P-450SCC (CYP11A1), and P-450(11beta) (CYP11B1) mono-oxygenase systems were studied using rat testicular microsomes, human placental microsomes, bovine adrenocortical microsomes, bovine adrenocortical mitochondria and purified cytochrome P-450(11beta). Phenytoin, clonazepam and carbamazepine inhibited the steroidogenesis catalysed by these cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase systems and the Ki values for each anticonvulsant were determined. Neither hydantoin nor sodium valproate inhibited the activities of steroidogenic cytochromes P-450. When the activities of cytochromes P-450arom and P-450C21 were measured in the presence of anticonvulsants, the Ki values (0.15 mM) for phenytoin were close to the plasma concentration of phenytoin under therapeutic conditions. Phenytoin, clonazepam and carbamazepine directly inhibited the monooxygenase activities of cytochromes P-450, because they did not affect the activities of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, NADPH-adrenoferredoxin reductase and adrenoferredoxin.

  7. Crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of the Corynebacterium glutamicum nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase component A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Sujin; Lee, Sujin; Kang, Beom Sik; Lee, Heung-Soo; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Myung Hee

    2006-11-01

    The Corynebacterium glutamicum NTA monooxygenase component A protein, which plays the central role in NTA biodegradation, was crystallized. The initial X-ray crystallographic characterization is reported. Safety and environmental concerns have recently dictated the proper disposal of nitrilotriacetate (NTA). Biodegradation of NTA is initiated by NTA monooxygenase, which is composed of two proteins: component A and component B. The NTA monooxygenase component A protein from Corynebacterium glutamicum was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.04, b = 98.51, c = 171.61 Å, β = 101.94°. The asymmetric unit consists of four molecules, corresponding to a packing density of 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. Structure refinement is in progress.

  8. Prospecting Biotechnologically-Relevant Monooxygenases from Cold Sediment Metagenomes: An In Silico Approach.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Matías A; Lozada, Mariana; Rial, Daniela V; Mac Cormack, Walter P; Jansson, Janet K; Sjöling, Sara; Carroll, JoLynn; Dionisi, Hebe M

    2017-04-09

    The goal of this work was to identify sequences encoding monooxygenase biocatalysts with novel features by in silico mining an assembled metagenomic dataset of polar and subpolar marine sediments. The targeted enzyme sequences were Baeyer-Villiger and bacterial cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP153). These enzymes have wide-ranging applications, from the synthesis of steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins and pheromones to the synthesis of monomers for polymerization and anticancer precursors, due to their extraordinary enantio-, regio-, and chemo- selectivity that are valuable features for organic synthesis. Phylogenetic analyses were used to select the most divergent sequences affiliated to these enzyme families among the 264 putative monooxygenases recovered from the ~14 million protein-coding sequences in the assembled metagenome dataset. Three-dimensional structure modeling and docking analysis suggested features useful in biotechnological applications in five metagenomic sequences, such as wide substrate range, novel substrate specificity or regioselectivity. Further analysis revealed structural features associated with psychrophilic enzymes, such as broader substrate accessibility, larger catalytic pockets or low domain interactions, suggesting that they could be applied in biooxidations at room or low temperatures, saving costs inherent to energy consumption. This work allowed the identification of putative enzyme candidates with promising features from metagenomes, providing a suitable starting point for further developments.

  9. A novel chimera: the "truncated hemoglobin-antibiotic monooxygenase" from Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Bonamore, Alessandra; Attili, Andrea; Arenghi, Fabio; Catacchio, Bruno; Chiancone, Emilia; Morea, Veronica; Boffi, Alberto

    2007-08-15

    Novel chimeric proteins made of a globin domain fused with a "cofactor free" monooxygenase domain have been identified within the Streptomyces avermitilis and Frankia sp. genomes by means of bioinformatics methods. Structure based sequence alignments show that the globin domains of both proteins can be unambiguously assigned to the truncated hemoglobin family, in view of the striking similarity to the truncated hemoglobins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Thermobifida fusca and Bacillus subtilis. In turn, the non-heme domains belong to a family of small (about 100 aminoacids) homodimeric proteins annotated as antibiotic biosynthesis monooxygenases, despite the lack of a cofactor (e.g., a metal, a flavin or a heme) necessary for oxygen activation. The chimeric protein from S. avermitilis has been cloned, expressed and characterized. The protein is a stable dimer in solution based on analytical ultracentrifugation experiments. The heme ligand binding properties with oxygen and carbonmonoxide resemble those of other Group II truncated hemoglobins. In addition, an oxygen dependent redox activity has been demonstrated towards easily oxidizable substrates such as menadiol and p-aminophenol. These findings suggest novel functional roles of truncated hemoglobins, which might represent a vast class of multipurpose oxygen activating/scavenging proteins whose catalytic action is mediated by the interaction with cofactor free monooxygenases.

  10. Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases: structure/function, genetic polymorphisms and role in drug metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Sharon K.; Williams, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) oxygenates drugs and xenobiotics containing a “soft-nucleophile”, usually nitrogen or sulfur. FMO, like cytochrome P450 (CYP), is a monooxygenase, utilizing the reducing equivalents of NADPH to reduce 1 atom of molecular oxygen to water, while the other atom is used to oxidize the substrate. FMO and CYP also exhibit similar tissue and cellular location, molecular weight, substrate specificity, and exist as multiple enzymes under developmental control. The human FMO functional gene family is much smaller (5 families each with a single member) than CYP. FMO does not require a reductase to transfer electrons from NADPH and the catalytic cycle of the 2 monooxygenases is strikingly different. Another distinction is the lack of induction of FMOs by xenobiotics. In general, CYP is the major contributor to oxidative xenobiotic metabolism. However, FMO activity may be of significance in a number of cases and should not be overlooked. FMO and CYP have overlapping substrate specificities, but often yield distinct metabolites with potentially significant toxicological/pharmacological consequences. The physiological function(s) of FMO are poorly understood. Three of the 5 expressed human FMO genes, FMO1, FMO2 and FMO3, exhibit genetic polymorphisms. The most studied of these is FMO3 (adult human liver) in which mutant alleles contribute to the disease known as trimethylaminuria. The consequences of these FMO genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism and human health are areas of research requiring further exploration. PMID:15922018

  11. MPH: A library for distributed multi-component environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris H.Q.; He, Yun

    2001-06-01

    Many current large and complex HPC applications are based on semi-independent program components developed by different groups or for different purposes. On distributed memory parallel supercomputers, how to perform component-name registration and initialize communications between independent components are among the first critical steps in establishing a distributed multi-component environment. Here we describe MPH, a multi-component handshaking library that resolves these tasks in a convenient and consistent way. MPH uses MPI for high performance and supports many PVM functionality. It supports two major parallel integration mechanism: multi-component multi-executable (MCME) and multi-component single-executable (MCME). It is a simple, easy-to-use module for developing practical codes, or as basis for larger software tools/frameworks.

  12. Erbium triflate promoted multicomponent synthesis of highly substituted imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Rajaguru, Kandasamy; Suresh, Rajendran; Mariappan, Arumugam; Muthusubramanian, Shanmugam; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai

    2014-02-07

    The synthesis of highly substituted imidazole derivatives has been achieved from various α-azido chalcones, aryl aldehydes, and anilines. This multicomponent protocol employs erbium triflate as a catalyst resulting in excellent yield of the imidazoles.

  13. Multicomponent cascade reactions of unprotected carbohydrates and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Benjamin; Linke, Michael; Mahrwald, Rainer

    2015-06-05

    Herein an operationally simple multicomponent reaction of unprotected carbohydrates with amino acids and isonitriles is presented. By the extension of this Ugi-type reaction to an unprotected disaccharide a novel glycopeptide structure was accessible.

  14. MPH: A library for distributed multi-component environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris H.Q.; He, Yun

    2001-06-01

    Many current large and complex HPC applications are based on semi-independent program components developed by different groups or for different purposes. On distributed memory parallel supercomputers, how to perform component-name registration and initialize communications between independent components are among the first critical steps in establishing a distributed multi-component environment. Here we describe MPH, a multi-component handshaking library that resolves these tasks in a convenient and consistent way. MPH uses MPI for high performance and supports many PVM functionality. It supports two major parallel integration mechanism: multi-component multi-executable (MCME) and multi-component single-executable (MCME). It is a simple, easy-to-use module for developing practical codes, or as basis for larger software tools/frameworks.

  15. MICROWAVE-ACCELERATED MULTICOMPONENT REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FREE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of microwave-accelerated solventless synthetic protocols in multicomponent (MCC) reactions will be exemplified by several condensation and cyclization reactions including the rapid one-pot assembly of valuable heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated intermed...

  16. MICROWAVE-ACCELERATED MULTICOMPONENT REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FREE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of microwave-accelerated solventless synthetic protocols in multicomponent (MCC) reactions will be exemplified by several condensation and cyclization reactions including the rapid one-pot assembly of valuable heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated intermed...

  17. Pseudomonas folliculitis in Arabian baths.

    PubMed

    Molina-Leyva, Alejandro; Ruiz-Ruigomez, Maria

    2013-07-14

    A 35-year-old man presented with a painful cutaneous skin eruption that was localized on the upper trunk. He stated that the previous weekend he had attended an Arabian bath. The physical examination revealed multiple hair follicle-centered papulopustules surrounded by an erythematous halo. A clinical diagnosis of pseudomonas folliculitis was made and treatment was prescribed. Afterwards Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from a pustule culture. Pseudomonas folliculitis is a bacterial infection of the hair follicles. The most common reservoirs include facilities with hot water and complex piping systems that are difficult to clean, such as hot tubs and bathtubs. Despite adequate or high chlorine levels, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow within a biofilm.

  18. A Weibull characterization for tensile fracture of multicomponent brittle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical characterization for multicomponent brittle fibers in presented. The method, which is an extension of usual Weibull distribution procedures, statistically considers the components making up a fiber (e.g., substrate, sheath, and surface) as separate entities and taken together as in a fiber. Tensile data for silicon carbide fiber and for an experimental carbon-boron alloy fiber are evaluated in terms of the proposed multicomponent Weibull characterization.

  19. Multicomponent reactions: A simple and efficient route to heterocyclic phosphonates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are one of the most important processes for the preparation of highly functionalized organic compounds in modern synthetic chemistry. As shown in this review, they play an important role in organophosphorus chemistry where phosphorus reagents are used as substrates for the synthesis of a wide range of phosphorylated heterocycles. In this article, an overview about multicomponent reactions used for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds bearing a phosphonate group on the ring is given. PMID:27559377

  20. Modulated decay in the multi-component Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Enomoto, Seishi; Kohri, Kazunori; Matsuda, Tomohiro E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp

    2013-08-01

    The early Universe after inflation may have oscillations, kinations (nonoscillatory evolution of a field), topological defects, relativistic and non-relativistic particles at the same time. The Universe whose energy density is a sum of those components can be called the multi-component Universe. The components, which may have distinguishable density scalings, may decay modulated. In this paper we study generation of the curvature perturbations caused by the modulated decay in the multi-component Universe.

  1. Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa cervical osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Sujeet Kumar; Jain, Harsh; Tripathy, Laxmi Narayan; Basu, Sunandan

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine and is usually seen in the background of intravenous drug use and immunocompromised state. Very few cases of osteomyelitis of the cervical spine caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa have been reported in otherwise healthy patients. This is a case presentation of a young female, who in the absence of known risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis presented with progressively worsening neurological signs and symptoms. PMID:27891039

  2. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    DOE PAGES

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; ...

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential numbermore » of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.« less

  3. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential number of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.

  4. Single Pass Multi-component Harvester

    SciTech Connect

    Reed Hoskinson; J. Richard Hess

    2004-08-01

    Abstract. In order to meet the U. S. government’s goal of supplementing the energy available from petroleum by increasing the production of energy from renewable resources, increased production of bioenergy has become one of the new goals of the United States government and our society. U.S. Executive Orders and new Federal Legislation have mandated changes in government procedures and caused reorganizations within the government to support these goals. The Biomass Research and Development Initiative is a multi-agency effort to coordinate and accelerate all U.S. Federal biobased products and bioenergy research and development. The Initiative is managed by the National Biomass Coordination Office, which is staffed by both the DOE and the USDA. One of the most readily available sources of biomass from which to produce bioenergy is an agricultural crop residue, of which straw from small grains is the most feasible residue with which to start. For the straw residue to be used its collection must be energy efficient and its removal must not impact the sustainability of the growing environment. In addition, its collection must be economically advantageous to the producer. To do all that, a single pass multi-component harvester system is most desirable. Results from our first prototype suggest that current combines probably do adequate threshing and that a separate chassis can be developed that does additional separation and that is economically feasible.

  5. An evaporation model of multicomponent solution drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2010-11-01

    Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.

  6. Multicomponent Reactions, Union of MCRs and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Zarganes-Tzitzikas, Tryfon; Chandgude, Ajay L; Dömling, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs), which are located between one- and two-component and polymerization reactions, provide a number of valuable conceptual and synthetic advantages over stepwise sequential approaches towards complex and valuable molecules. To address current limitations in the number of MCRs and the resulting scaffolds, the concept of union of MCRs was introduced two decades ago by Dömling and Ugi and is rapidly advancing, as is apparent by several recently published works. MCR technology is now widely recognized for its impact on drug discovery projects and is strongly endorsed by industry in addition to academia. Clearly, novel scaffolds accessible in few steps including MCRs will further enhance the field of applications. Additionally, broad expansion of MCR applications in fields such as imaging, materials science, medical devices, agriculture, or futuristic applications in stem cell therapy and theragnostics or solar energy and superconductivity are predicted. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Multicomponent separations using a continuous annular chromatograph

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    Multicomponent liquid chromatographic separations have been achieved by using a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material. By continuously introducing the feed material to be separated at a stationary point at the top of the bed and eluent everywhere else around the annulus, elution chromatography occurs. The rotation rate of the sorbent bed causes the separated components to appear as helical bands, each of which has a characteristic, stationary exit point; hence, the separation process is truly continuous. The continuous separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt from an ammoniacal leach liquor has been used to evaluate the behavior and capabilities of a variety of continuous annular chromatographs (CACs). The experimental units ranged in diameter from 89 to 445 mm and in annulus width from 6 to 51 mm. The effects of feed rate, feed concentration, rotation rate, eluent and eluent velocity, and column size were experimentally determined and modeled to show how they affect the performance of a CAC system. Use of the described models should allow confident design of new CAC units for performing continuous separations on a preparative scale. With its capability for continuously separating many components using one or a number of eluents, the CAC should make chromatography a competitive process in many industrial applications. 21 tables, 105 figures.

  8. [Multicomponent nature of Halobacterium salinarum flagella].

    PubMed

    Beznosov, S N; Piatibratov, M G; Fedorov, O V

    2007-01-01

    Filaments of the flagellum of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum consist of five flagellins: A1, A2, B1, B2, and B3, which are encoded by five genes localized in tandem in twoflgA and flgB operons. While the role of flagellins A1 and A2 has been determined, the role of the proteins, B operon products, is still unclear. A mutant strain of H. salinarum with deleted A and B flagellin genes (deltaflgAdeltaflgB) has been obtained for the first time. This strain has been used to create and analyze the strains carrying only individual B1 or B3 flagellin genes. Cells of the deltaflgAdeltaflgB strain were shown to have short filamentous formations, 7-8 nm thick, which we have named as X-filaments. It has been shown that X-filaments consist of a protein immunologically related to flagellins A and B. Expression of the B1 and B3 genes is suppressed in the absence of A1, A2, and B2. It has been shown that flagellins B1 and B3 cannot be substituted for flagellin B2 upon the formation of a curved hook-like structure, which serves as a connecting element between the flagellar filament and the motor axis. The multicomponent nature of flagella is discussed in the light of their possible involvement in other cell processes besides providing motility.

  9. mRNA differential display in a microbial enrichment culture: simultaneous identification of three cyclohexanone monooxygenases from three species.

    PubMed

    Brzostowicz, Patricia C; Walters, Dana M; Thomas, Stuart M; Nagarajan, Vasantha; Rouvière, Pierre E

    2003-01-01

    mRNA differential display has been used to identify cyclohexanone oxidation genes in a mixed microbial community derived from a wastewater bioreactor. Thirteen DNA fragments randomly amplified from the total RNA of an enrichment subculture exposed to cyclohexanone corresponded to genes predicted to be involved in the degradation of cyclohexanone. Nine of these DNA fragments are part of genes encoding three distinct Baeyer-Villiger cyclohexanone monooxygenases from three different bacterial species present in the enrichment culture. In Arthrobacter sp. strain BP2 and Rhodococcus sp. strain Phi2, the monooxygenase is part of a gene cluster that includes all the genes required for the degradation of cyclohexanone, while in Rhodococcus sp. strain Phi1 the genes surrounding the monooxygenase are not predicted to be involved in this degradation pathway but rather seem to belong to a biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, in the case of Arthrobacter strain BP2, three other genes flanking the monooxygenase were identified by differential display, demonstrating that the repeated sampling of bacterial operons shown earlier for a pure culture (D. M. Walters, R. Russ, H. Knackmuss, and P. E. Rouvière, Gene 273:305-315, 2001) is also possible for microbial communities. The activity of the three cyclohexanone monooxygenases was confirmed and characterized following their expression in Escherichia coli.

  10. mRNA Differential Display in a Microbial Enrichment Culture: Simultaneous Identification of Three Cyclohexanone Monooxygenases from Three Species

    PubMed Central

    Brzostowicz, Patricia C.; Walters, Dana M.; Thomas, Stuart M.; Nagarajan, Vasantha; Rouvière, Pierre E.

    2003-01-01

    mRNA differential display has been used to identify cyclohexanone oxidation genes in a mixed microbial community derived from a wastewater bioreactor. Thirteen DNA fragments randomly amplified from the total RNA of an enrichment subculture exposed to cyclohexanone corresponded to genes predicted to be involved in the degradation of cyclohexanone. Nine of these DNA fragments are part of genes encoding three distinct Baeyer-Villiger cyclohexanone monooxygenases from three different bacterial species present in the enrichment culture. In Arthrobacter sp. strain BP2 and Rhodococcus sp. strain Phi2, the monooxygenase is part of a gene cluster that includes all the genes required for the degradation of cyclohexanone, while in Rhodococcus sp. strain Phi1 the genes surrounding the monooxygenase are not predicted to be involved in this degradation pathway but rather seem to belong to a biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, in the case of Arthrobacter strain BP2, three other genes flanking the monooxygenase were identified by differential display, demonstrating that the repeated sampling of bacterial operons shown earlier for a pure culture (D. M. Walters, R. Russ, H. Knackmuss, and P. E. Rouvière, Gene 273:305-315, 2001) is also possible for microbial communities. The activity of the three cyclohexanone monooxygenases was confirmed and characterized following their expression in Escherichia coli. PMID:12514013

  11. Antifungal activity of biogenic tellurium nanoparticles against Candida albicans and its effects on squalene monooxygenase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zare, Bijan; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Soltany-Rezaee-Rad, Mohammad; Rezaie, Sassan; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antifungal activity of biogenic tellurium nanoparticles (Te NPs) against Candida albicans (ATCC14053). In addition, the effect of these biogenic NPs on squalene monooxygenase activity and the squalene monooxygenase gene (ERG1) expression level was evaluated. Squalene monooxygenase is an important enzyme involved in the synthesis of ergosterol, cholesterol, and phytosterols. Because of the importance of the noted compound, the squalene monooxygenase gene could be considered a good antifungal target. Results showed that biogenic Te NPs had antifungal effect against C. albicans. The minimal fungicidal concentration-minimal inhibitory concentration ratios of the biogenic Te NPs revealed that these NPs exhibited fungicidal effects against the test strain. The results of an enzyme assay using quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography showed squalene accumulation in C. albicans cells because of enzyme inhibition. Real-time PCR analysis showed an increase in the expression of the ERG1 gene in C. albicans cells, which were treated with Te NPs (0.2 mg/mL). It is conclution that Te NPs can inhibit the squalene monooxygenase enzyme, and, as a result, this inhibition phenomenon can cause an increase in the expression level of the ERG1 gene. This is the first report of the anti-Candida effect of biogenic Te NPs and its possible mechanisms.

  12. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase heterozygosity alters brain copper handling with region specificity.

    PubMed

    Gaier, Eric D; Miller, Megan B; Ralle, Martina; Aryal, Dipendra; Wetsel, William C; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2013-12-01

    Copper (Cu), an essential trace element present throughout the mammalian nervous system, is crucial for normal synaptic function. Neuronal handling of Cu is poorly understood. We studied the localization and expression of Atp7a, the major intracellular Cu transporter in the brain, and its relation to peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential cuproenzyme and regulator of Cu homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells. Based on biochemical fractionation and immunostaining of dissociated neurons, Atp7a was enriched in post-synaptic vesicular fractions. Cu followed a similar pattern, with ~ 20% of total Cu in synaptosomes. A mouse model heterozygous for the Pam gene (PAM+/−) was selectively Cu deficient in the amygdala. As in cortex and hippocampus, Atp7a and PAM expression overlap in the amygdala, with highest expression in interneurons. Messenger RNA levels of Atox-1 and Atp7a, which deliver Cu to the secretory pathway, were reduced in the amygdala but not in the hippocampus in PAM+/− mice, GABAB receptor mRNA levels were similarly affected. Consistent with Cu deficiency, dopamine β-monooxygenase function was impaired as evidenced by elevated dopamine metabolites in the amygdala, but not in the hippocampus, of PAM+/− mice. These alterations in Cu delivery to the secretory pathway in the PAM+/− amygdala may contribute to the physiological and behavioral deficits observed. Atp7a, a Cu-transporting P-type ATPase, is localized to the trans-Golgi network and to vesicles distributed throughout the dendritic arbor. Tissue-specific alterations in Atp7a expression were found in mice heterozygous for peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential neuropeptide-synthesizing cuproenzyme. Atp7a and PAM are highly expressed in amygdalar interneurons. Reduced amygdalar expression of Atox-1 and Atp7a in PAM heterozygous mice may lead to reduced synaptic Cu levels, contributing to the behavioral and neurochemical alterations seen in these mice.

  13. Preferential inhibition of mouse hepatic coumarin 7-hydroxylase by inhibitors of steroid metabolizing monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kojo, A; Honkakoski, P; Järvinen, P; Pelkonen, O; Lang, M

    1989-08-01

    Etomidate, metomidate and metyrapone, all potent inhibitors of steroid metabolizing monooxygenases, inhibit preferentially coumarin 7-hydroxylase (COH) amongst several liver microsomal monooxygenase activities from control and pyrazole-treated D2 mice in vitro. SKF-525A, an inhibitor of phenobarbital-inducible monooxygenase activities has a much weaker effect on COH than the other three drugs, even though COH is a phenobarbital-inducible enzyme. Treatment of mice with eto- and metomidate decreases the microsomal COH also in vivo while the other activities remained unchanged (with the exception of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECDE) in case of metomidate). Despite of the decrease in COH no parallel decrease in the amount of microsomal P450Coh (P450 isoenzyme highly active in the 7-hydroxylation of coumarin) could be found in dot immuno-binding analysis. These data suggest that among several liver microsomal P450 isoenzymes, metyrapone, eto- and metomidate interact preferentially with the P450Coh and that eto- and metomidate may alter selectively the catalytic properties of P450Coh leading to decreased enzyme activity. Two different Ks-values could be found for all three drug in their binding to microsomal cytochrome(s) P450. Based on substrate binding spectra, potassium ferricyanide treatment does not dissociate the complex between reduced P450 and metomidate and does it only partly for etomidate. Furthermore potassium ferricyanide treatment of microsomes does not increase COH after in vivo treatment of mice with eto- and metomidate. These data further suggest that the complex between P450Coh and eto- and metomidate may be particularly strong and independent from the redox state of the haem iron.

  14. Structural and Catalytic Characterization of a Fungal Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Felix Martin; Tolmie, Carmien; Smit, Martha Sophia; Opperman, Diederik Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are biocatalysts that convert ketones to esters. Due to their high regio-, stereo- and enantioselectivity and ability to catalyse these reactions under mild conditions, they have gained interest as alternatives to chemical Baeyer-Villiger catalysts. Despite their widespread occurrence within the fungal kingdom, most of the currently characterized BVMOs are from bacterial origin. Here we report the catalytic and structural characterization of BVMOAFL838 from Aspergillus flavus. BVMOAFL838 converts linear and aryl ketones with high regioselectivity. Steady-state kinetics revealed BVMOAFL838 to show significant substrate inhibition with phenylacetone, which was more pronounced at low pH, enzyme and buffer concentrations. Para substitutions on the phenyl group significantly improved substrate affinity and increased turnover frequencies. Steady-state kinetics revealed BVMOAFL838 to preferentially oxidize aliphatic ketones and aryl ketones when the phenyl group are separated by at least two carbons from the carbonyl group. The X-ray crystal structure, the first of a fungal BVMO, was determined at 1.9 Å and revealed the typical overall fold seen in type I bacterial BVMOs. The active site Arg and Asp are conserved, with the Arg found in the “in” position. Similar to phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO), a two residue insert relative to cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) forms a bulge within the active site. Approximately half of the “variable” loop is folded into a short α-helix and covers part of the active site entry channel in the non-NADPH bound structure. This study adds to the current efforts to rationalize the substrate scope of BVMOs through comparative catalytic and structural investigation of different BVMOs. PMID:27472055

  15. Adaptive and Behavioral Changes in Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Knockout Mice: Relevance to Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Sophie; Pocivavsek, Ana; Repici, Mariaelena; Liu, Xi-Cong; Imbeault, Sophie; Maddison, Daniel C; Thomas, Marian A R; Smalley, Joshua L; Larsson, Markus K; Muchowski, Paul J; Giorgini, Flaviano; Schwarcz, Robert

    2016-12-16

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated adaptive-and possibly regulatory-changes in mice with a targeted deletion of Kmo (Kmo(-/-)) and characterized the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase-deficient mice using six behavioral assays relevant for the study of schizophrenia. Genome-wide differential gene expression analyses in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of these mice identified a network of schizophrenia- and psychosis-related genes, with more pronounced alterations in cerebellar tissue. Kynurenic acid levels were also increased in these brain regions in Kmo(-/-) mice, with significantly higher levels in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. Kmo(-/-) mice exhibited impairments in contextual memory and spent less time than did controls interacting with an unfamiliar mouse in a social interaction paradigm. The mutant animals displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and in a light/dark box. After a D-amphetamine challenge (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), Kmo(-/-) mice showed potentiated horizontal activity in the open field paradigm. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the elimination of Kmo in mice is associated with multiple gene and functional alterations that appear to duplicate aspects of the psychopathology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Micro-/nanostructured multicomponent molecular materials: design, assembly, and functionality.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongpeng

    2015-03-23

    Molecule-based micro-/nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention because their properties can vary greatly from the corresponding macro-sized bulk systems. Recently, the construction of multicomponent molecular solids based on crystal engineering principles has emerged as a promising alternative way to develop micro-/nanomaterials. Unlike single-component materials, the resulting multicomponent systems offer the advantages of tunable composition, and adjustable molecular arrangement, and intermolecular interactions within their solid states. The study of these materials also supplies insight into how the crystal structure, molecular components, and micro-/nanoscale effects can influence the performance of molecular materials. In this review, we describe recent advances and current directions in the assembly and applications of crystalline multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Firstly, the design strategies for multicomponent systems based on molecular recognition and crystal engineering principles are introduced. Attention is then focused on the methods of fabrication of low-dimensional multicomponent micro-/nanostructures. Their new applications are also outlined. Finally, we briefly discuss perspectives for the further development of these molecular crystalline micro-/nanomaterials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Multicomponent seismic noise attenuation with multivariate order statistic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Yun; Wang, Xiaokai; Xun, Chao

    2016-10-01

    The vector relationship between multicomponent seismic data is highly important for multicomponent processing and interpretation, but this vector relationship could be damaged when each component is processed individually. To overcome the drawback of standard component-by-component filtering, multivariate order statistic filters are introduced and extended to attenuate the noise of multicomponent seismic data by treating such dataset as a vector wavefield rather than a set of scalar fields. According to the characteristics of seismic signals, we implement this type of multivariate filtering along local events. First, the optimal local events are recognized according to the similarity between the vector signals which are windowed from neighbouring seismic traces with a sliding time window along each trial trajectory. An efficient strategy is used to reduce the computational cost of similarity measurement for vector signals. Next, one vector sample each from the neighbouring traces are extracted along the optimal local event as the input data for a multivariate filter. Different multivariate filters are optimal for different noise. The multichannel modified trimmed mean (MTM) filter, as one of the multivariate order statistic filters, is applied to synthetic and field multicomponent seismic data to test its performance for attenuating white Gaussian noise. The results indicate that the multichannel MTM filter can attenuate noise while preserving the relative amplitude information of multicomponent seismic data more effectively than a single-channel filter.

  18. Conversion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal and Related Alkylhydroxyquinolines by Rhodococcus sp. Strain BG43

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Niewerth, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, which based on the sequences of its 16S rRNA, gyrB, catA, and qsdA genes, was identified as a Rhodococcus sp. closely related to Rhodococcus erythropolis, was isolated from soil by enrichment on the Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone], a quorum sensing signal employed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolate, termed Rhodococcus sp. strain BG43, cometabolically degraded PQS and its biosynthetic precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone (HHQ) to anthranilic acid. HHQ degradation was accompanied by transient formation of PQS, and HHQ hydroxylation by cell extracts required NADH, indicating that strain BG43 has a HHQ monooxygenase isofunctional to the biosynthetic enzyme PqsH of P. aeruginosa. The enzymes catalyzing HHQ hydroxylation and PQS degradation were inducible by PQS, suggesting a specific pathway. Remarkably, Rhodococcus sp. BG43 is also capable of transforming 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide to PQS. It thus converts an antibacterial secondary metabolite of P. aeruginosa to a quorum sensing signal molecule. PMID:25239889

  19. Conversion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal and Related Alkylhydroxyquinolines by Rhodococcus sp. Strain BG43.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Niewerth, Heiko; Fetzner, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    A bacterial strain, which based on the sequences of its 16S rRNA, gyrB, catA, and qsdA genes, was identified as a Rhodococcus sp. closely related to Rhodococcus erythropolis, was isolated from soil by enrichment on the Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone], a quorum sensing signal employed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolate, termed Rhodococcus sp. strain BG43, cometabolically degraded PQS and its biosynthetic precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone (HHQ) to anthranilic acid. HHQ degradation was accompanied by transient formation of PQS, and HHQ hydroxylation by cell extracts required NADH, indicating that strain BG43 has a HHQ monooxygenase isofunctional to the biosynthetic enzyme PqsH of P. aeruginosa. The enzymes catalyzing HHQ hydroxylation and PQS degradation were inducible by PQS, suggesting a specific pathway. Remarkably, Rhodococcus sp. BG43 is also capable of transforming 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide to PQS. It thus converts an antibacterial secondary metabolite of P. aeruginosa to a quorum sensing signal molecule.

  20. Interaction of the mechanism-based inactivator acetylene with ammonia monooxygenase of Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Gilch, Stefan; Vogel, Manja; Lorenz, Matthias W; Meyer, Ortwin; Schmidt, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    The ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) of Nitrosomonas europaea is a metalloenzyme that catalyses the oxidation of ammonia to hydroxylamine. We have identified histidine 191 of AmoA as the binding site for the oxidized mechanism-based inactivator acetylene. Binding of acetylene changed the molecular mass of His-191 from 155.15 to 197.2 Da (+42.05), providing evidence that acetylene was oxidized to ketene (CH2CO; 42.04 Da) which binds specifically to His-191. It must be assumed that His-191 is part of the acetylene-activating site in AMO or at least directly neighbours this site.

  1. Structure and boosting activity of a starch-degrading lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lo Leggio, Leila; Simmons, Thomas J; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Frandsen, Kristian E H; Hemsworth, Glyn R; Stringer, Mary A; von Freiesleben, Pernille; Tovborg, Morten; Johansen, Katja S; De Maria, Leonardo; Harris, Paul V; Soong, Chee-Leong; Dupree, Paul; Tryfona, Theodora; Lenfant, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H

    2015-01-22

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are recently discovered enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. LPMOs are fundamental in the effective utilization of these substrates by bacteria and fungi; moreover, the enzymes have significant industrial importance. We report here the activity, spectroscopy and three-dimensional structure of a starch-active LPMO, a representative of the new CAZy AA13 family. We demonstrate that these enzymes generate aldonic acid-terminated malto-oligosaccharides from retrograded starch and boost significantly the conversion of this recalcitrant substrate to maltose by β-amylase. The detailed structure of the enzyme's active site yields insights into the mechanism of action of this important class of enzymes.

  2. Terbinafine resistance conferred by multiple copies of the salicylate 1-monooxygenase gene in Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hemelin L; Lang, Elza A S; Segato, Fernando; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M

    2017-06-02

    Resistance to antifungals is a leading concern in the treatment of human mycoses. We demonstrate that the salA gene, encoding salicylate 1-monooxygenase, is involved in resistance of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum to terbinafine, one of the most effective antifungal drugs against dermatophytes. A strain with multiple copies of salA was constructed and exhibited elevated expression of salA and increased terbinafine resistance. This reflects a mechanism not yet reported in a pathogenic fungus. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Fungal secretomics to probe the biological functions of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Berrin, Jean-Guy; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2017-08-07

    Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass is of growing interest for the development of a sustainable bio-based industry. Filamentous fungi, which degrade complex and recalcitrant plant polymers, are proficient secretors of enzymes acting on the lignocellulose composite of plant cell walls in addition to starch, the main carbon storage reservoir. In this review, we focus on the identification of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and their redox partners in fungal secretomes to highlight the biological functions of these remarkable enzyme systems and we discuss future trends related to LPMO-potentiated bioconversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclic Peptidomimetics and Pseudopeptides from Multicomponent Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Rhoden, Cristiano R. B.; Rivera, Daniel G.; Vercillo, Otilie Eichler

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) that provide in the final product amides are suitable to produce peptides and peptide-like moieties. The Passerini and Staudinger reactions provide one amide bond, and the Ugi-four-component reaction generates two amides from three or even four (or more) components, respectively. The Ugi-reaction thus is most important to produce peptides and peptoids while the Passerini reaction is useful to generate depsipeptoid moieties. In order to produce cyclic peptides and pseudopeptides, the linear peptidic MCR products have to be cyclized, usually with the help of bifunctional or activatable building blocks. Orthogonal but cyclizable secondary functionalities that need no protection in isonitrile MCRs commonly include alkenes (for ring closing metathesis), azide/alkyne (for Huisgen click reactions) or dienes and enoates (Diels-Alder) etc. If MCR-reactive groups are to be used also for the cyclisation, monoprotected bifunctional building blocks are used and deprotected after the MCR, e.g. for Ugi reactions as Ugi-Deprotection-Cyclisation (UDC). Alternatively one of the former building blocks or functional groups generated by the MCR can be activated. Most commonly these are activated amides (from so-called convertible isonitriles) which can be used e.g. for Ugi-Activation-Cyclisation (UAC) protocols, or most recently for a simultaneous use of both strategies Ugi-Deprotection/Activation-Cyclisation (UDAC). These methods mostly lead to small, medicinally relevant peptide turn mimics. In an opposing strategy, the MCR is rather used as ring-closing reaction, thereby introducing a (di-)peptide moiety. Most recently these processes have been combined to use MCRs for both, linear precursor synthesis and cyclisation. These multiple MCR approaches allow the most efficient and versatile one pot synthesis of macrocyclic pseudopeptides known to date.

  5. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Arunava; Prevelige, Peter E

    2016-01-04

    The primary goal of the project was to develop protein-templated approaches for the synthesis and directed assembly of semiconductor nanomaterials that are efficient for visible light absorption and hydrogen production. In general, visible-light-driven photocatalysis reactions exhibit low quantum efficiency for solar energy conversion primarily because of materials-related issues and limitations, such as the control of the band gap, band structure, photochemical stability, and available reactive surface area of the photocatalyst. Synthesis of multicomponent hierarchical nano-architectures, consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) with desired optical properties fabricated to maximize spatial proximity for optimum electron and energy transfer represents an attractive route for addressing the problem. Virus capsids are highly symmetrical, self-assembling protein cage nanoparticles that exist in a range of sizes and symmetries. Selective deposition of inorganic, by design, at specific locations on virus capsids affords precise control over the size, spacing, and assembly of nanomaterials, resulting in uniform and reproducible nano-architectures. We utilized the self-assembling capabilities of the 420 subunit, 60 nm icosahedral, P22 virus capsid to direct the nucleation, growth, and proximity of a range of component materials. Controlled fabrication on the exterior of the temperature stable shell was achieved by genetically encoding specific binding peptides into an externally exposed loop which is displayed on each of the 420 coat protein subunits. Localization of complimentary materials to the interior of the particle was achieved through the use “scaffolding-fusion proteins. The scaffolding domain drives coat protein polymerization resulting in a coat protein shell surrounding a core of approximately 300 scaffolding/fusion molecules. The fusion domain comprises a peptide which specifically binds the semiconductor material of interest.

  6. Oxidation of chlorinated olefins by Escherichia coli transformed with dimethyl sulfide monooxygenase genes or cumene dioxygenase genes.

    PubMed

    Takami, Wako; Yoshida, Takako; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu; Omori, Toshio

    1999-04-01

    In the present work, it was shown that the dimethyl sulfide (DMS) monooxygenase and the cumene dioxygenase catalyzed oxidation of various chlorinated ethenes, propenes, and butenes. The specific activities of these oxygenases were determined for C(2) to C(4) chlorinated olefins, and the oxidation rates ranged from 0.19 to 4.18 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) of dry cells by the DMS monooxygenase and from 0.19 to 1.29 nmol.min(-1).mg(-1) of dry cells by the cumene dioxygenase. The oxidation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most chlorinated olefins were monooxygenated by the DMS monooxygenase to yield chlorinated epoxides. In the case of the cumene dioxygenase, the substrates lacking any chlorine atom on double-bond carbon atoms were dioxygenated, and those with chlorine atoms attaching to double-bond carbon atoms were monooxygenated to yield allyl alcohols.

  7. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  8. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was fo...

  9. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was fo...

  10. Engineering of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase-based Escherichia coli biocatalyst for large scale biotransformation of ricinoleic acid into (Z)-11-(heptanoyloxy)undec-9-enoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Hwan-Hee; Jeon, Eun-Yeong; Song, Young-Ha; Shin, Chul-Soo; Park, Jin-Byung

    2016-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are able to catalyze regiospecific Baeyer-Villiger oxygenation of a variety of cyclic and linear ketones to generate the corresponding lactones and esters, respectively. However, the enzymes are usually difficult to express in a functional form in microbial cells and are rather unstable under process conditions hindering their large-scale applications. Thereby, we investigated engineering of the BVMO from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and the gene expression system to improve its activity and stability for large-scale biotransformation of ricinoleic acid (1) into the ester (i.e., (Z)-11-(heptanoyloxy)undec-9-enoic acid) (3), which can be hydrolyzed into 11-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid (5) (i.e., a precursor of polyamide-11) and n-heptanoic acid (4). The polyionic tag-based fusion engineering of the BVMO and the use of a synthetic promoter for constitutive enzyme expression allowed the recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the BVMO and the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase of Micrococcus luteus to produce the ester (3) to 85 mM (26.6 g/L) within 5 h. The 5 L scale biotransformation process was then successfully scaled up to a 70 L bioreactor; 3 was produced to over 70 mM (21.9 g/L) in the culture medium 6 h after biotransformation. This study demonstrated that the BVMO-based whole-cell reactions can be applied for large-scale biotransformations. PMID:27311560

  11. Crystal structure of a Baeyer-Villiger flavin-containing monooxygenase from Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strain MU50.

    PubMed

    Hwang, William C; Xu, Qingping; Wu, Bainan; Godzik, Adam

    2014-08-05

    Flavin-containing Monooxygenase (FMO) catalyzed the oxygenation of broad spectrum of substrates. FMO can also serve as biocatalysts in the Baeyer-Villiger reaction in organic synthesis. Here, we report the high-resolution crystal structure of a Baeyer-Villiger Flavin-containing Monooxygenase (BVFMO) from methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain MU50. The structure of S. aureus FMO should facilitate further development of BVFMO as biocatalysts. A possible role of S. aureus FMO in methicillin and vancomycin resistance is discussed. Proteins 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Thermal response of integral multicomponent composite thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. A.; Leiser, D. B.; Smith, M.; Kolodziej, P.

    1985-01-01

    Integral-multicomponent thermal-protection materials are discussed in terms of their thermal response to an arc-jet airstream. In-depth temperature measurements are compared with predictions from a one-dimensional, finite-difference code using calculated thermal conductivity values derived from an engineering model. The effect of composition, as well as the optical properties of the bonding material between components, on thermal response is discussed. The performance of these integral-multicomponent composite materials is compared with baseline Space Shuttle insulation.

  13. Sensor Arrays from Multicomponent Micropatterned Nanoparticles and Graphene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-10

    tetrahydrate in the presence of ammonia into Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The resultant Fe3O4/Au multicomponent micropatterned-graphene films were found to be highly...alkalization of ferrous chloride tetrahydrate in the presence of ammonia into Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The resultant Fe3O4/Au multicomponent...alkalization reaction of ferrous ions with ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) in the presence of ammonia to form Fe3O4 nanoparticles within the plasma-treated areas

  14. A Weibull characterization for tensile fracture of multicomponent brittle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Necessary to the development and understanding of brittle fiber reinforced composites is a means to statistically describe fiber strength and strain-to-failure behavior. A statistical characterization for multicomponent brittle fibers is presented. The method, which is an extension of usual Weibull distribution procedures, statistically considers the components making up a fiber (e.g., substrate, sheath, and surface) as separate entities and taken together as in a fiber. Tensile data for silicon carbide fiber and for an experimental carbon-boron alloy fiber are evaluated in terms of the proposed multicomponent Weibull characterization.

  15. Rapid correction of electron microprobe data for multicomponent metallic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, K. P.; Sivakumar, R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical relation for the correction of electron microprobe data for multicomponent metallic systems. It evaluates the empirical correction parameter, a for each element in a binary alloy system using a modification of Colby's MAGIC III computer program and outlines a simple and quick way of correcting the probe data. This technique has been tested on a number of multicomponent metallic systems and the agreement with the results using theoretical expressions is found to be excellent. Limitations and suitability of this relation are discussed and a model calculation is also presented in the Appendix.

  16. P450monooxygenases (P450ome) of the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2012-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the model white rot fungus, has been the focus of research for the past about four decades for understanding the mechanisms and processes of biodegradation of the natural aromatic polymer lignin and a broad range of environmental toxic chemicals. The ability to degrade this vast array of xenobiotic compounds was originally attributed to its lignin-degrading enzyme system (LDS), mainly the extracellular peroxidases. However, subsequent physiological, biochemical, and/or genetic studies by us and others identified the involvement of a peroxidase-independent oxidoreductase system, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. The whole genome sequence revealed an extraordinarily large P450 contingent (P450ome) with an estimated 149 P450s in this organism. This review focuses on the current status of understanding on the P450 monooxygenase system of P. chrysosporium in terms of pre-genomic and post-genomic identification, structural and evolutionary analysis, transcriptional regulation, redox partners, and functional characterization for its biodegradative potential. Future research on this catalytically diverse oxidoreductase enzyme system and its major role as a newly emerged player in xenobiotic metabolism/degradation is discussed. PMID:22624627

  17. Biooxidation of n-butane to 1-butanol by engineered P450 monooxygenase under increased pressure.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Bernd A; Scheps, Daniel; Honda Malca, Sumire; Nestl, Bettina M; Breuer, Michael; Wagner, Hans-Günter; Breitscheidel, Boris; Kratz, Detlef; Hauer, Bernhard

    2014-12-10

    In addition to the traditional 1-butanol production by hydroformylation of gaseous propene and by fermentation of biomass, the cytochrome P450-catalyzed direct terminal oxidation of n-butane into the primary alcohol 1-butanol constitutes an alternative route to provide the high demand of this basic chemical. Moreover the use of n-butane offers an unexploited ubiquitous feed stock available in large quantities. Based on protein engineering of CYP153A from Polaromonas sp. JS666 and the improvement of the native redox system, a highly ω-regioselective (>96%) fusion protein variant (CYP153AP.sp.(G254A)-CPRBM3) for the conversion of n-butane into 1-butanol was developed. Maximum yield of 3.12g/L butanol, of which 2.99g/L comprise for 1-butanol, has been obtained after 20h reaction time. Due to the poor solubility of n-butane in an aqueous system, a high pressure reaction assembly was applied to increase the conversion. After optimization a maximum product content of 4.35g/L 1-butanol from a total amount of 4.53g/L butanol catalyzed by the self-sufficient fusion monooxygenase has been obtained at 15bar pressure. In comparison to the CYP153A wild type the 1-butanol concentration was enhanced fivefold using the engineered monooxygenase whole cell system by using the high-pressure reaction assembly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stabilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase by a computationally designed disulfide bond spanning only one residue

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Hugo L.; Wijma, Hein J.; Fromont, Lucie; Janssen, Dick B.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme stability is an important parameter in biocatalytic applications, and there is a strong need for efficient methods to generate robust enzymes. We investigated whether stabilizing disulfide bonds can be computationally designed based on a model structure. In our approach, unlike in previous disulfide engineering studies, short bonds spanning only a few residues were included. We used cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), a Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) from Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB9871 as the target enzyme. This enzyme has been the prototype BVMO for many biocatalytic studies even though it is notoriously labile. After creating a small library of mutant enzymes with introduced cysteine pairs and subsequent screening for improved thermostability, three stabilizing disulfide bonds were identified. The introduced disulfide bonds are all within 12 Å of each other, suggesting this particular region is critical for unfolding. This study shows that stabilizing disulfide bonds do not have to span many residues, as the most stabilizing disulfide bond, L323C–A325C, spans only one residue while it stabilizes the enzyme, as shown by a 6 °C increase in its apparent melting temperature. PMID:24649397

  19. Induced allostery in the directed evolution of an enantioselective Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng; Acevedo, Juan Pablo; Reetz, Manfred T.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular basis of allosteric effects, known to be caused by an effector docking to an enzyme at a site distal from the binding pocket, has been studied recently by applying directed evolution. Here, we utilize laboratory evolution in a different way, namely to induce allostery by introducing appropriate distal mutations that cause domain movements with concomitant reshaping of the binding pocket in the absence of an effector. To test this concept, the thermostable Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase, phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO), was chosen as the enzyme to be employed in asymmetric Baeyer–Villiger reactions of substrates that are not accepted by the wild type. By using the known X-ray structure of PAMO, a decision was made regarding an appropriate site at which saturation mutagenesis is most likely to generate mutants capable of inducing allostery without any effector compound being present. After screening only 400 transformants, a double mutant was discovered that catalyzes the asymmetric oxidative kinetic resolution of a set of structurally different 2-substituted cyclohexanone derivatives as well as the desymmetrization of three different 4-substituted cyclohexanones, all with high enantioselectivity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and covariance maps unveiled the origin of increased substrate scope as being due to allostery. Large domain movements occur that expose and reshape the binding pocket. This type of focused library production, aimed at inducing significant allosteric effects, is a viable alternative to traditional approaches to “designed” directed evolution that address the binding site directly. PMID:20133612

  20. The hydrogen peroxide reactivity of peptidylglycine monooxygenase supports a Cu(II)-superoxo catalytic intermediate.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew T; Yukl, Erik T; Alkevich, Katsiaryna; McCormack, Ashley L; Blackburn, Ninian J

    2006-02-17

    We have investigated the reaction of peptidylglycine monooxygenase with hydrogen peroxide to determine whether Cu(II)-peroxo is a likely intermediate. When the oxidized enzyme was reacted with the dansyl-YVG substrate and H(2)O(2), the alpha-hydroxyglycine product was formed. The reaction was catalytic and did not require the presence of additional reductant. When (18)O-labeled H(2)O(2) was reacted with peptidylglycine monooxygenase and substrate anaerobically, oxygen in the product was labeled with (18)O and must therefore be derived from H(2)O(2). However, when the reaction was carried out with H (16)(2)O(2) in the presence of (18)O(2), 60% of the product contained the (18)O label. Therefore, the reaction must proceed via an intermediate that can react directly with dioxygen and thus scramble the label. Under strictly anaerobic conditions (in the presence of glucose and glucose oxidase, where no oxygen was released into the medium from nonenzymatic peroxide decomposition), product formation and peroxide consumption were tightly coupled, and the rate of product formation was identical to that measured under aerobic conditions. Peroxide reactivity was eliminated by a mutation at the Cu(H) center, which should not be involved in the peroxide shunt. Our data lend support to recent proposals that Cu(II)-superoxide is the active species.

  1. Lactone-bound structures of cyclohexanone monooxygenase provide insight into the stereochemistry of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yachnin, Brahm J; McEvoy, Michelle B; MacCuish, Roderick J D; Morley, Krista L; Lau, Peter C K; Berghuis, Albert M

    2014-12-19

    The Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are microbial enzymes that catalyze the synthetically useful Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction. The available BVMO crystal structures all lack a substrate or product bound in a position that would determine the substrate specificity and stereospecificity of the enzyme. Here, we report two crystal structures of cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) with its product, ε-caprolactone, bound: the CHMO(Tight) and CHMO(Loose) structures. The CHMO(Tight) structure represents the enzyme state in which substrate acceptance and stereospecificity is determined, providing a foundation for engineering BVMOs with altered substrate spectra and/or stereospecificity. The CHMO(Loose) structure is the first structure where the product is solvent accessible. This structure represents the enzyme state upon binding and release of the substrate and product. In addition, the role of the invariant Arg329 in chaperoning the substrate/product during the catalytic cycle is highlighted. Overall, these data provide a structural framework for the engineering of BVMOs with altered substrate spectra and/or stereospecificity.

  2. Stabilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase by a computationally designed disulfide bond spanning only one residue.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Hugo L; Wijma, Hein J; Fromont, Lucie; Janssen, Dick B; Fraaije, Marco W

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme stability is an important parameter in biocatalytic applications, and there is a strong need for efficient methods to generate robust enzymes. We investigated whether stabilizing disulfide bonds can be computationally designed based on a model structure. In our approach, unlike in previous disulfide engineering studies, short bonds spanning only a few residues were included. We used cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) from Acinetobacter sp. NCIMB9871 as the target enzyme. This enzyme has been the prototype BVMO for many biocatalytic studies even though it is notoriously labile. After creating a small library of mutant enzymes with introduced cysteine pairs and subsequent screening for improved thermostability, three stabilizing disulfide bonds were identified. The introduced disulfide bonds are all within 12 Å of each other, suggesting this particular region is critical for unfolding. This study shows that stabilizing disulfide bonds do not have to span many residues, as the most stabilizing disulfide bond, L323C-A325C, spans only one residue while it stabilizes the enzyme, as shown by a 6 °C increase in its apparent melting temperature.

  3. Effects of nutrition and alcohol on the microsomal monooxygenase system (MMS) of rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Ronis, M.; Huang, J.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M.; Badger, T.M. Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Center, Little Rock )

    1991-03-15

    Ethanol is a known inducer of the hepatic cytochrome P450 dependent microsomal monooxygenase system (MMS). As a consequence, ethanol intake affects the clearance and metabolism of many drugs and other xenobiotics including acetaminophen, enflurane, carbon tetrachloride and ethanol itself. The major ethanol inducible cytochrome P450 isozyme in the rat liver, CYP 2E1, has been well characterized. Much less is known concerning extrahepatic effects of ethanol on the monooxygenase system. In the current study, the effects of diet and alcohol were examined on MMS activities and cytochrome P450 expression in the kidneys of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three diets containing no ethanol and two diets containing ethanol at 35% of total calories were studied. Renal MMS activities were measured using enzyme specific substrates and isozyme apoprotein levels were determined by Western blot analysis using antibodies directed against rat hepatic cytochrome P450s CYP 2E1, CYP 2A1 and CYP 3A2. Several diet and alcohol induced effects were observed, including a 5-fold diet-independent ethanol induction of CYP 2E1 cross reactive protein. No diet or ethanol effects were observed in levels of CYP 2A1 or CYP 3A2 cross reactive proteins.

  4. A family of diiron monooxygenases catalyzing amino acid beta-hydroxylation in antibiotic biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Makris, Thomas M; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D

    2010-08-31

    The biosynthesis of chloramphenicol requires a beta-hydroxylation tailoring reaction of the precursor L-p-aminophenylalanine (L-PAPA). Here, it is shown that this reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme CmlA from an operon containing the genes for biosynthesis of L-PAPA and the nonribosomal peptide synthetase CmlP. EPR, Mössbauer, and optical spectroscopies reveal that CmlA contains an oxo-bridged dinuclear iron cluster, a metal center not previously associated with nonribosomal peptide synthetase chemistry. Single-turnover kinetic studies indicate that CmlA is functional in the diferrous state and that its substrate is L-PAPA covalently bound to CmlP. Analytical studies show that the product is hydroxylated L-PAPA and that O(2) is the oxygen source, demonstrating a monooxygenase reaction. The gene sequence of CmlA shows that it utilizes a lactamase fold, suggesting that the diiron cluster is in a protein environment not previously known to effect monooxygenase reactions. Notably, CmlA homologs are widely distributed in natural product biosynthetic pathways, including a variety of pharmaceutically important beta-hydroxylated antibiotics and cytostatics.

  5. Investigation of the enzymology and pharmacology of novel substrates and inhibitors of dopamine beta-monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DBM) was shown to catalyze the selenoxidation of 2-(phenylseleno)ethylamines, selenium-containing analogues of dopamine, by the normal monooxygenase pathway. The compounds 2-(phenylseleno)-ethylamine (PAESe), 2-(4'-hydroxyphenylseleno)ethylamine (pOH PAESe), and 1-(phenylseleno)-2-propylamine (Me PAESe) were synthesized and fully characterized as DBM substrates. Two other classes of compounds were investigated as potential alternate substrates for DBM. The possibility of stereoselective sulfonylation of 2-(phenylsulfenyl)- ethylamine (PAESO) was considered. A unique class of compounds, 2-(phenylthio)ethanols were designed and synthesized as DBM substrates but were found to be a novel class of potent competitive inhibitors of DBM with respect to tyramine. Preliminary experiments were also performed in an effort to demonstrate that the potent antihypertensive and indirect-acting sympathomimetic activity of 2-(phenylthio)ethylamine (PAES) was a result of DBM-oxygenation of this compound in vivo. The specific reserpine-sensitive uptake of (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine into rat brain synaptosomes was demonstrated as was the synaptosomal conversion of (/sup 3/H)-dopamine to (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine.

  6. Mechanism of O2 activation and substrate hydroxylation in noncoupled binuclear copper monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Ryan E.; Tian, Li; Solomon, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and dopamine β-monooxygenase (DβM) are copper-dependent enzymes that are vital for neurotransmitter regulation and hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes feature a unique active site consisting of two spatially separated (by 11 Å in PHM) and magnetically noncoupled copper centers that enables 1e– activation of O2 for hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) of substrate C–H bonds and subsequent hydroxylation. Although the structures of the resting enzymes are known, details of the hydroxylation mechanism and timing of long-range electron transfer (ET) are not clear. This study presents density-functional calculations of the full reaction coordinate, which demonstrate: (i) the importance of the end-on coordination of superoxide to Cu for HAA along the triplet spin surface; (ii) substrate radical rebound to a CuII hydroperoxide favors the proximal, nonprotonated oxygen; and (iii) long-range ET can only occur at a late step with a large driving force, which serves to inhibit deleterious Fenton chemistry. The large inner-sphere reorganization energy at the ET site is used as a control mechanism to arrest premature ET and dictate the correct timing of ET. PMID:27790986

  7. Increased monooxygenase activity associated with resistance to permethrin in Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    González Audino, P; Barrios, S; Vassena, C; Mougabure Cueto, G; Zerba, E; Picollo, M I

    2005-05-01

    We studied the profile of permethrin resistance in populations of head lice infesting children 6-12 yr old in schools and their homes in and around Buenos Aires, Argentina. Five permethrin-resistant populations with different levels of resistance were collected: Hogar Loyola (HL), Republica de Turquia (RT), Hogar Mitre (HM), Guardia de Honor (GH), and Ricardo Guiraldes (RG). One susceptible population, Bandera Argentina (BA), also was collected. Their level of resistance was evaluated, and results showed resistance ratios of 13 for HL, 16 for RT, 22 for HM, 61 for GH, and 69 for RG. To elucidate the possible involvement of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in conferring permethrin resistance, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity was measured in abdomens of individual third instars and adults by using a fluorometric assay. The ECOD activity was lower in the susceptible BA population (4.7 ng per louse) than in the resistant ones (13.7 ng per louse for RG, 12.3 ng per louse for GH, 8.6 ng per louse for RT, and 8.2 ng per louse for HL). ECOD activity was significantly correlated with the level of resistance in the field populations (r = 0.97, P = 0.0009), suggesting a role for cytochrome monooxygenase P450 system in permethrin resistance by head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer.

  8. Untangling the multiple monooxygenases of Mycobacterium chubuense strain NBB4, a versatile hydrocarbon degrader.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Nicholas V; Yau, Sheree; Wilson, Neil L; Nolan, Laura M; Migocki, Margaret D; Ly, Mai-Anh; Crossett, Ben; Holmes, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    Mycobacterium strain NBB4 was isolated on ethene as part of a bioprospecting study searching for novel monooxygenase (MO) enzymes of interest to biocatalysis and bioremediation. Previous work indicated that strain NBB4 contained an unprecedented diversity of MO genes, and we hypothesized that each MO type would support growth on a distinct hydrocarbon substrate. Here, we attempted to untangle the relationships between MO types and hydrocarbon substrates. Strain NBB4 was shown to grow on C2 -C4 alkenes and C2 -C16 alkanes. Complete gene clusters encoding six different monooxygenases were recovered from a fosmid library, including homologues of ethene MO (etnABCD), propene MO (pmoABCD), propane MO (smoABCD), butane MO (smoXYB1C1Z), cytochrome P450 (CYP153; fdx-cyp-fdr) and alkB (alkB-rubA1-rubA2). Catabolic enzymes involved in ethene assimilation (EtnA, EtnC, EtnD, EtnE) and alkane assimilation (alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases) were identified by proteomics, and we showed for the first time that stress response proteins (catalase/peroxidase, chaperonins) were induced by growth on C2 -C5 alkanes and ethene. Surprisingly, none of the identified MO genes could be specifically associated with oxidation of small alkanes, and thus the nature of the gaseous alkane MO in NBB4 remains mysterious.

  9. The Single Pass Multi-component Harvester

    SciTech Connect

    Reed Hoskinson; John R. Hess

    2004-08-01

    collection must be economically advantageous to the producer. To do all that, a single pass multi-component harvester system is most desirable. Results from our first prototype suggest that current combines probably do adequate threshing and that a separate chassis can be developed that does additional separation and that is economically feasible.

  10. Acquisition of a deliberately introduced phenol degradation operon, pheBA, by different indigenous Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Peters, M; Heinaru, E; Talpsep, E; Wand, H; Stottmeister, U; Heinaru, A; Nurk, A

    1997-12-01

    Horizontal transfer of genes of selective value in an environment 6 years after their introduction into a watershed has been observed. Expression of the gene pheA, which encodes phenol monooxygenase and is linked to the pheBA operon (A. Nurk, L. Kasak, and M. Kivisaar, Gene 102:13-18, 1991), allows pseudomonads to use phenol as a growth substrate. Pseudomonas putida strains carrying this operon on a plasmid were used for bioremediation after an accidental fire in the Estonia oil shale mine in Estonia in 1988. The water samples used for studying the fate of the genes introduced were collected in 1994. The same gene cluster was also detected in Pseudomonas strains isolated from water samples of a nearby watershed which has been continuously polluted with phenols due to oil shale industry leachate. Together with the more frequently existing counterparts of the dmp genes (V. Shingler, J. Powlowski, and U. Marklund, J. Bacteriol. 174:711-724, 1992), the pheA gene was also represented in the phenol-degrading strains. The area where the strains containing the pheA gene were found was restricted to the regular route of phenolic leachate to the Baltic Sea. Nine Pseudomonas strains belonging to four different species (P. corrugata, P. fragi, P. stutzeri, and P. fluorescens biotypes B, C, and F) and harboring horizontally transferred pheBA operons were investigated. The phe genes were clustered in the same manner in these nine phe operons and were connected to the same promoter as in the case of the original pheBA operon. One 10.6-kb plasmid carrying a pheBA gene cluster was sequenced, and the structure of the rearranged pheBA operon was described. This data indicates that introduced genetic material could, if it encodes a beneficial capability, enrich the natural genetic variety for biodegradation.

  11. Acquisition of a deliberately introduced phenol degradation operon, pheBA, by different indigenous Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, M; Heinaru, E; Talpsep, E; Wand, H; Stottmeister, U; Heinaru, A; Nurk, A

    1997-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of genes of selective value in an environment 6 years after their introduction into a watershed has been observed. Expression of the gene pheA, which encodes phenol monooxygenase and is linked to the pheBA operon (A. Nurk, L. Kasak, and M. Kivisaar, Gene 102:13-18, 1991), allows pseudomonads to use phenol as a growth substrate. Pseudomonas putida strains carrying this operon on a plasmid were used for bioremediation after an accidental fire in the Estonia oil shale mine in Estonia in 1988. The water samples used for studying the fate of the genes introduced were collected in 1994. The same gene cluster was also detected in Pseudomonas strains isolated from water samples of a nearby watershed which has been continuously polluted with phenols due to oil shale industry leachate. Together with the more frequently existing counterparts of the dmp genes (V. Shingler, J. Powlowski, and U. Marklund, J. Bacteriol. 174:711-724, 1992), the pheA gene was also represented in the phenol-degrading strains. The area where the strains containing the pheA gene were found was restricted to the regular route of phenolic leachate to the Baltic Sea. Nine Pseudomonas strains belonging to four different species (P. corrugata, P. fragi, P. stutzeri, and P. fluorescens biotypes B, C, and F) and harboring horizontally transferred pheBA operons were investigated. The phe genes were clustered in the same manner in these nine phe operons and were connected to the same promoter as in the case of the original pheBA operon. One 10.6-kb plasmid carrying a pheBA gene cluster was sequenced, and the structure of the rearranged pheBA operon was described. This data indicates that introduced genetic material could, if it encodes a beneficial capability, enrich the natural genetic variety for biodegradation. PMID:9406411

  12. Characterization of a Novel Rieske-Type Alkane Monooxygenase System in Pusillimonas sp. Strain T7-7

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The cold-tolerant bacterium Pusillimonas sp. strain T7-7 is able to utilize diesel oils (C5 to C30 alkanes) as a sole carbon and energy source. In the present study, bioinformatics, proteomics, and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR approaches were used to identify the alkane hydroxylation system present in this bacterium. This system is composed of a Rieske-type monooxygenase, a ferredoxin, and an NADH-dependent reductase. The function of the monooxygenase, which consists of one large (46.711 kDa) and one small (15.355 kDa) subunit, was further studied using in vitro biochemical analysis and in vivo heterologous functional complementation tests. The purified large subunit of the monooxygenase was able to oxidize alkanes ranging from pentane (C5) to tetracosane (C24) using NADH as a cofactor, with greatest activity on the C15 substrate. The large subunit also showed activity on several alkane derivatives, including nitromethane and methane sulfonic acid, but it did not act on any aromatic hydrocarbons. The optimal reaction condition of the large subunit is pH 7.5 at 30°C. Fe2+ can enhance the activity of the enzyme evidently. This is the first time that an alkane monooxygenase system belonging to the Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase family has been identified in a bacterium. PMID:23417490

  13. Whole genome co-expression analysis of soybean cytochrome P450 genes identifies nodulation-specific P450 monooxygenases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) catalyze oxidation of various substrates using oxygen and NAD(P)H. Plant P450s are involved in the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites performing diverse biological functions. The recent availability of soybean genome sequence allows us to ident...

  14. Essential Unidimensionality Examination for Multicomponent Scales: An Interrelationship Decomposition Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for examining essential unidimensionality in multicomponent measuring instruments is discussed. The method is based on an application of latent variable modeling and is concerned with the extent to which a common factor for all components of a given scale accounts for their correlations. The approach provides point and interval…

  15. Multicomponent Droplet Evaporation on Chemical Micro-Patterned Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Minghao; Liao, Dong; Qiu, Huihe

    2017-02-01

    The evaporation and dynamics of a multicomponent droplet on a heated chemical patterned surface were presented. Comparing to the evaporation process of a multicomponent droplet on a homogenous surface, it is found that the chemical patterned surface can not only enhance evaporation by elongating the contact line, but also change the evaporation process from three regimes for the homogenous surface including constant contact line (CCL) regime, constant contact angle (CCA) regime and mix mode (MM) to two regimes, i.e. constant contact line (CCL) and moving contact line (MCL) regimes. The mechanism of contact line stepwise movement in MCL regimes in the microscopic range is investigated in detail. In addition, an improved local force model on the contact line was employed for analyzing the critical receding contact angles on homogenous and patterned surfaces. The analysis results agree well for both surfaces, and confirm that the transition from CCL to MCL regimes indicated droplet composition changes from multicomponent to monocomponent, providing an important metric to predict and control the dynamic behavior and composition of a multicomponent droplet using a patterned surface.

  16. MICROWAVE-FACILITATED MULTICOMPONENT REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FREE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of microwave-expedited solvent-free synthetic protocols in multi-component (MCC) reactions will be exemplified by several condensation and cyclization reactions including the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated intermediates. R...

  17. Criteria for Modeling in LES of Multicomponent Fuel Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Selle, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    A report presents a study addressing the question of which large-eddy simulation (LES) equations are appropriate for modeling the flow of evaporating drops of a multicomponent liquid in a gas (e.g., a spray of kerosene or diesel fuel in air). The LES equations are obtained from the direct numerical simulation (DNS) equations in which the solution is computed at all flow length scales, by applying a spatial low-pass filter. Thus, in LES the small scales are removed and replaced by terms that cannot be computed from the LES solution and instead must be modeled to retain the effect of the small scales into the equations. The mathematical form of these models is a subject of contemporary research. For a single-component liquid, there is only one LES formulation, but this study revealed that for a multicomponent liquid, there are two non-equivalent LES formulations for the conservation equations describing the composition of the vapor. Criteria were proposed for selecting the multicomponent LES formulation that gives the best accuracy and increased computational efficiency. These criteria were applied in examination of filtered DNS databases to compute the terms in the LES equations. The DNS databases are from mixing layers of diesel and kerosene fuels. The comparisons resulted in the selection of one of the multicomponent LES formulations as the most promising with respect to all criteria.

  18. Multicomponent Training of Teachers of Students with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Phillip; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the obligation of general and special educators to utilize evidence-based instructional practices has become more prominent. Research increasingly suggests the failure of didactic teacher training alone to ensure implementation with fidelity of these practices by teachers in their classrooms. Multicomponent training (MCT)…

  19. Multicomponent Training of Teachers of Students with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Phillip; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the obligation of general and special educators to utilize evidence-based instructional practices has become more prominent. Research increasingly suggests the failure of didactic teacher training alone to ensure implementation with fidelity of these practices by teachers in their classrooms. Multicomponent training (MCT)…

  20. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  1. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  2. Multicomponent Linguistic Awareness Intervention for At-Risk Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoski, Jennifer L.; Erickson, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of multicomponent linguistic awareness intervention on early literacy skills in at-risk kindergarteners. Seventeen students, including native Spanish-speaking English language learners (n = 10) and native English speakers (n = 7), participated in a 6-week small-group therapy program, for a total of 12…

  3. Multicomponent Droplet Evaporation on Chemical Micro-Patterned Surfaces.

    PubMed

    He, Minghao; Liao, Dong; Qiu, Huihe

    2017-02-03

    The evaporation and dynamics of a multicomponent droplet on a heated chemical patterned surface were presented. Comparing to the evaporation process of a multicomponent droplet on a homogenous surface, it is found that the chemical patterned surface can not only enhance evaporation by elongating the contact line, but also change the evaporation process from three regimes for the homogenous surface including constant contact line (CCL) regime, constant contact angle (CCA) regime and mix mode (MM) to two regimes, i.e. constant contact line (CCL) and moving contact line (MCL) regimes. The mechanism of contact line stepwise movement in MCL regimes in the microscopic range is investigated in detail. In addition, an improved local force model on the contact line was employed for analyzing the critical receding contact angles on homogenous and patterned surfaces. The analysis results agree well for both surfaces, and confirm that the transition from CCL to MCL regimes indicated droplet composition changes from multicomponent to monocomponent, providing an important metric to predict and control the dynamic behavior and composition of a multicomponent droplet using a patterned surface.

  4. Essential Unidimensionality Examination for Multicomponent Scales: An Interrelationship Decomposition Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for examining essential unidimensionality in multicomponent measuring instruments is discussed. The method is based on an application of latent variable modeling and is concerned with the extent to which a common factor for all components of a given scale accounts for their correlations. The approach provides point and interval…

  5. Optimal Multicomponent Analysis Using the Generalized Standard Addition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment on the simultaneous determination of chromium and magnesium by spectophotometry modified to include the Generalized Standard Addition Method computer program, a multivariate calibration method that provides optimal multicomponent analysis in the presence of interference and matrix effects. Provides instructions for…

  6. Consecutive isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions: synthesis of cyclic pentadepsipeptoids

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Angélica de Fátima S; Vercillo, Otilie E; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2014-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of six cyclic depsipeptoids inspired by the natural depsipeptide sansalvamide A is described. An efficient and fast synthetic strategy was developed using a combination of consecutive isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (Ugi and Passerini reactions). This methodology can be used to access a variety of cyclic oligodepsipeptoids. PMID:24991252

  7. Multicomponent Droplet Evaporation on Chemical Micro-Patterned Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    He, Minghao; Liao, Dong; Qiu, Huihe

    2017-01-01

    The evaporation and dynamics of a multicomponent droplet on a heated chemical patterned surface were presented. Comparing to the evaporation process of a multicomponent droplet on a homogenous surface, it is found that the chemical patterned surface can not only enhance evaporation by elongating the contact line, but also change the evaporation process from three regimes for the homogenous surface including constant contact line (CCL) regime, constant contact angle (CCA) regime and mix mode (MM) to two regimes, i.e. constant contact line (CCL) and moving contact line (MCL) regimes. The mechanism of contact line stepwise movement in MCL regimes in the microscopic range is investigated in detail. In addition, an improved local force model on the contact line was employed for analyzing the critical receding contact angles on homogenous and patterned surfaces. The analysis results agree well for both surfaces, and confirm that the transition from CCL to MCL regimes indicated droplet composition changes from multicomponent to monocomponent, providing an important metric to predict and control the dynamic behavior and composition of a multicomponent droplet using a patterned surface. PMID:28157229

  8. Oxidation of nitrotoluenes by toluene dioxygenase: evidence for a monooxygenase reaction.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J B; Spain, J C; Haddock, J D; Gibson, D T

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150 initiate toluene degradation by incorporating molecular oxygen into the aromatic nucleus to form cis-1,2-dihydroxy-3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene. When toluene-grown cells were incubated with 2- and 3-nitrotoluene, the major products identified were 2- and 3-nitrobenzyl alcohol, respectively. The same cells oxidized 4-nitrotoluene to 2-methyl-5-nitrophenol and 3-methyl-6-nitrocatechol. Escherichia coli JM109(pDTG601), which contains the toluene dioxygenase genes from P. putida F1 under the control of the tac promoter, oxidized the isomeric nitrotoluenes to the same metabolites as those formed by P. putida F1 and Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150. These results extend the range of substrates known to be oxidized by this versatile enzyme and demonstrate for the first time that toluene dioxygenase can oxidize an aromatic methyl substituent.

  9. Sequencing and functional analysis of styrene catabolism genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens ST.

    PubMed Central

    Beltrametti, F; Marconi, A M; Bestetti, G; Colombo, C; Galli, E; Ruzzi, M; Zennaro, E

    1997-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the 4,377-bp chromosomal region of Pseudomonas fluorescens ST that codes for the oxidation of styrene to phenylacetic acid was determined. Four open reading frames, named styA, styB, styC, and styD, were identified in this region. Sequence analysis and biotransformation assays, performed with batch and continuous cultures, allowed us to identify the functions of the sequenced genes. styA and styB encode a styrene monooxygenase responsible for the transformation of styrene to epoxystyrene; styC codes for the second enzyme of the pathway, an epoxystyrene isomerase that converts epoxystyrene to phenylacetaldehyde; and the styD gene produces a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase that oxidizes phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetic acid. StyA, 415-amino-acids long, was found to be weakly homologous to p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa and to salicylate hydroxylase from P. putida, suggesting that it might be a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding monooxygenase. StyB was found to be partially homologous to the carboxyterminal part of the 2,4-dichlorophenol-6-monooxygenase encoded by plasmid pJP4, while the styC product did not share significant homology with any known proteins. The fourth open reading frame, styD, could encode a protein of 502 amino acids and was strongly homologous to several eukaryotic and prokaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. The order of the genes corresponds to that of the catabolic steps. The previously suggested presence of the gene for epoxystyrene reductase, which directly converts epoxystyrene to 2-phenylethanol (A.M. Marconi, F. Beltrametti, G. Bestetti, F. Solinas, M. Ruzzi, E. Galli, and E. Zennaro, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:121-127, 1996), has not been confirmed by sequencing and by biotransformation assays performed in continuous cultures. A copy of the insertion sequence ISI162, belonging to the IS21-like family of elements, was identified immediately downstream of the styrene

  10. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-01-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium. PMID:6410989

  11. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-06-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium.

  12. Timing of pathogen adaptation to a multicomponent treatment.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Romain; Chaumont, Loïc; Sapoukhina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sustainable use of multicomponent treatments such as combination therapies, combination vaccines/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how their population-wide deployment affects the speed of the pathogen adaptation. Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of a mutant pathogen and its dynamics in a heterogeneous host population split into various types by the management strategy. Based on a multi-type Markov birth and death process, the model can be used to provide a basic understanding of how the life-cycle parameters of the pathogen population, and the controllable parameters of a management strategy affect the speed at which a pathogen adapts to a multicomponent treatment. Our results reveal the importance of coupling stochastic mutation and migration processes, and illustrate how their stochasticity can alter our view of the principles of managing pathogen adaptive dynamics at the population level. In particular, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to adapt to a multicomponent treatment even if it is deployed on only small proportions of the host. In contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that treatment durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. We show also that associating a multicomponent treatment with defeated monocomponent treatments can be more durable than associating it with intermediate treatments including only some of the components. We conclude that the explicit modelling of stochastic processes underlying evolutionary dynamics could help to elucidate the principles of the sustainable use of multicomponent treatments in population-wide management strategies intended to impede the evolution of harmful populations.

  13. Status of Resistance of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to Neonicotinoids in Iran and Detoxification by Cytochrome P450-Dependent Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Basij, M; Talebi, K; Ghadamyari, M; Hosseininaveh, V; Salami, S A

    2017-02-01

    Nine Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) populations were collected from different regions of Iran. In all nine populations, only one biotype (B biotype) was detected. Susceptibilities of these populations to imidacloprid and acetamiprid were assayed. The lethal concentration 50 values (LC50) for different populations showed a significant discrepancy in the susceptibility of B. tabaci to imidacloprid (3.76 to 772.06 mg l(-1)) and acetamiprid (4.96 to 865 mg l(-1)). The resistance ratio of the populations ranged from 9.72 to 205.20 for imidacloprid and 6.38 to 174.57 for acetamiprid. The synergistic effects of piperonylbutoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) were evaluated for the susceptible (RF) and resistant (JR) populations for the determination of the involvement of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase and carboxylesterase, respectively, in their resistance mechanisms. The results showed that PBO overcame the resistance of the JR population to both imidacloprid and acetamiprid, with synergistic ratios of 72.7 and 106.9, respectively. Carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase were studied biochemically, for the purpose of measuring the activity of the metabolizing enzymes in order to determine which enzymes are directly involved in neonicotinoid resistance. There was an increase in the activity of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase up to 17-fold in the resistant JR population (RR = 205.20). The most plausible activity of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase correlated with the resistances of imidacloprid and acetamiprid, and this suggests that cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase is the only enzyme system responsible for neonicotinoid resistance in the nine populations of B. tabaci.

  14. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, H; EAGON, R G

    1964-07-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25-30. 1964.-Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization.

  15. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Hazel; Eagon, R. G.

    1964-01-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25–30. 1964.—Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization. Images PMID:14197895

  16. Functional Analysis of Genes for Biosynthesis of Pyocyanin and Phenazine-1-Carboxamide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Bonsall, Robert F.; Delaney, Shannon M.; Soule, Marilyn J.; Phillips, Greg; Thomashow, Linda S.

    2001-01-01

    Two seven-gene phenazine biosynthetic loci were cloned from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The operons, designated phzA1B1C1D1E1F1G1 and phzA2B2C2D2E2F2G2, are homologous to previously studied phenazine biosynthetic operons from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. Functional studies of phenazine-nonproducing strains of fluorescent pseudomonads indicated that each of the biosynthetic operons from P. aeruginosa is sufficient for production of a single compound, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). Subsequent conversion of PCA to pyocyanin is mediated in P. aeruginosa by two novel phenazine-modifying genes, phzM and phzS, which encode putative phenazine-specific methyltransferase and flavin-containing monooxygenase, respectively. Expression of phzS alone in Escherichia coli or in enzymes, pyocyanin-nonproducing P. fluorescens resulted in conversion of PCA to 1-hydroxyphenazine. P. aeruginosa with insertionally inactivated phzM or phzS developed pyocyanin-deficient phenotypes. A third phenazine-modifying gene, phzH, which has a homologue in Pseudomonas chlororaphis, also was identified and was shown to control synthesis of phenazine-1-carboxamide from PCA in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Our results suggest that there is a complex pyocyanin biosynthetic pathway in P. aeruginosa consisting of two core loci responsible for synthesis of PCA and three additional genes encoding unique enzymes involved in the conversion of PCA to pyocyanin, 1-hydroxyphenazine, and phenazine-1-carboxamide. PMID:11591691

  17. Alkyl Formate Ester Synthesis by a Fungal Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, Felix Martin; Tolmie, Carmien; Smit, Martha Sophia; Opperman, Diederik Johannes

    2017-03-16

    We investigated Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO)-mediated synthesis of alkyl formate esters, which are important flavor and fragrance products. A recombinant fungal BVMO from Aspergillus flavus was found to transform a selection of aliphatic aldehydes into alkyl formates with high regioselectivity. Near complete conversion of 10 mm octanal was achieved within 8 h with a regiomeric excess of ∼80 %. Substrate concentration was found to affect specific activity and regioselectivity of the BVMO, as well as the rate of product autohydrolysis to the primary alcohol. More than 80 % conversion of 50 mm octanal was reached after 72 h (TTN nearly 20 000). Biotransformation on a 200 mL scale under unoptimized conditions gave a space-time yield (STY) of 4.2 g L(-1)  d(-1) (3.4 g L(-1)  d(-1) extracted product).

  18. Distribution and Diversity of Archaeal Ammonia Monooxygenase Genes Associated with Corals▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Beman, J.Michael; Roberts, Kathryn J.; Wegley, Linda; Rohwer, Forest; Francis, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Corals are known to harbor diverse microbial communities of Bacteria and Archaea, yet the ecological role of these microorganisms remains largely unknown. Here we report putative ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes of archaeal origin associated with corals. Multiple DNA samples drawn from nine coral species and four different reef locations were PCR screened for archaeal and bacterial amoA genes, and archaeal amoA gene sequences were obtained from five different species of coral collected in Bocas del Toro, Panama. The 210 coral-associated archaeal amoA sequences recovered in this study were broadly distributed phylogenetically, with most only distantly related to previously reported sequences from coastal/estuarine sediments and oceanic water columns. In contrast, the bacterial amoA gene could not be amplified from any of these samples. These results offer further evidence for the widespread presence of the archaeal amoA gene in marine ecosystems, including coral reefs. PMID:17586663

  19. Dynamics of Alkane Hydroxylation at the Non-Heme Diiron Center in Methane Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Guallar, Victor; Gherman, Benjamin F.; Lippard, Stephen J.; Friesner, Richard A.

    2002-03-12

    Semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations have been combined with quantum chemistry calculations to provide detailed modeling of the methane and ethane hydroxylation reactions catalyzed by the hydroxylase enzymes of the soluble methane monooxygenase system. The experimental distribution of enantiomeric alcohols in the reaction of ethanes made chiral by the use of hydrogen isotopes is quantitatively reproduced and explained. The reaction dynamics involve a mixture of concerted and bound radical trajectories, and we characterize each of these reactive channels in detail. Diffusion of the bound radical intermediate at the active site core determines the global rate constant. The results also provide a qualitative rationale for the lack of ring-opened products derived from certain radical clock substrate probes and for the relative rate constants and kinetic isotope effects exhibited by a variety of substrates.

  20. Crystal Structure of Dicamba Monooxygenase: A Rieske Nonheme Oxygenase that Catalyzes Oxidative Demethylation

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, Razvan; Jiang, Wen Zhi; Weeks, Donald P.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2009-08-28

    Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is a widely used herbicide that is efficiently degraded by soil microbes. These microbes use a novel Rieske nonheme oxygenase, dicamba monooxygenase (DMO), to catalyze the oxidative demethylation of dicamba to 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid (DCSA) and formaldehyde. We have determined the crystal structures of DMO in the free state, bound to its substrate dicamba, and bound to the product DCSA at 2.10-1.75 {angstrom} resolution. The structures show that the DMO active site uses a combination of extensive hydrogen bonding and steric interactions to correctly orient chlorinated, ortho-substituted benzoic-acid-like substrates for catalysis. Unlike other Rieske aromatic oxygenases, DMO oxygenates the exocyclic methyl group, rather than the aromatic ring, of its substrate. This first crystal structure of a Rieske demethylase shows that the Rieske oxygenase structural scaffold can be co-opted to perform varied types of reactions on xenobiotic substrates.

  1. Xenon and halogenated alkanes track putative substrate binding cavities in the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Whittington, D A; Rosenzweig, A C; Frederick, C A; Lippard, S J

    2001-03-27

    To investigate the role of protein cavities in facilitating movement of the substrates, methane and dioxygen, in the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH), we determined the X-ray structures of MMOH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) cocrystallized with dibromomethane or iodoethane, or by using crystals pressurized with xenon gas. The halogenated alkanes bind in two cavities within the alpha-subunit that extend from one surface of the protein to the buried dinuclear iron active site. Two additional binding sites were located in the beta-subunit. Pressurization of two crystal forms of MMOH with xenon resulted in the identification of six binding sites located exclusively in the alpha-subunit. These results indicate that hydrophobic species bind preferentially in preexisting cavities in MMOH and support the hypothesis that such cavities may play a functional role in sequestering and enhancing the availability of the physiological substrates for reaction at the active site.

  2. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Chigu, Nomathemba Loice; Hirosue, Sinji; Nakamura, Chie; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium were identified by comprehensive screening of both catalytic potentials and transcriptomic profiling. Functional screening of P. chrysosporium P450s (PcCYPs) revealed that 14 PcCYP species catalyze stepwise conversion of anthracene to anthraquinone via intermediate formation of anthrone. Moreover, transcriptomic profiling explored using a complementary DNA microarray system demonstrated that 12 PcCYPs are up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of anthracene. Among the up-regulated PcCYPs, five species showed catalytic activity against anthracene. Based upon both catalytic and transcriptional properties, these five species are most likely to play major roles in anthracene metabolic processes in vivo. Thus, the combination of functional screening and a microarray system may provide a novel strategy for obtaining a thorough understanding of the catalytic functions and biological impacts of PcCYPs.

  3. Structure, dynamics, and function of the monooxygenase P450 BM-3: insights from computer simulations studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccatano, Danilo

    2015-07-01

    The monooxygenase P450 BM-3 is a NADPH-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase enzyme isolated from soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium. As a pivotal member of cytochrome P450 superfamily, it has been intensely studied for the comprehension of structure-dynamics-function relationships in this class of enzymes. In addition, due to its peculiar properties, it is also a promising enzyme for biochemical and biomedical applications. However, despite the efforts, the full understanding of the enzyme structure and dynamics is not yet achieved. Computational studies, particularly molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have importantly contributed to this endeavor by providing new insights at an atomic level regarding the correlations between structure, dynamics, and function of the protein. This topical review summarizes computational studies based on MD simulations of the cytochrome P450 BM-3 and gives an outlook on future directions.

  4. Structural basis for substrate targeting and catalysis by fungal polysaccharide monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Beeson, William T.; Phillips, Christopher M.; Marletta, Michael A.; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The use of cellulases remains a major cost in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Fungi secrete copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) that oxidatively cleave crystalline cellulose and improve the effectiveness of cellulases. However, the means by which PMOs recognize and cleave their substrates in the plant cell wall remain unclear. Here we present structures of Neurospora crassa PMO-2 and PMO-3 at 1.10 Å and 1.37 Å resolution, respectively. In the structures, dioxygen species are found in the active sites, consistent with the proposed cleavage mechanism. Structural and sequence comparisons between PMOs also reveal that the enzyme substrate-binding surfaces contain highly varied aromatic amino acid and glycosylation positions. The structures reported here provide evidence for a wide range of PMO substrate recognition patterns in the plant cell wall, including binding modes that traverse multiple glucan chains. PMID:22578542

  5. Structure and boosting activity of a starch-degrading lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Lo Leggio, Leila; Simmons, Thomas J.; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Frandsen, Kristian E. H.; Hemsworth, Glyn R.; Stringer, Mary A.; von Freiesleben, Pernille; Tovborg, Morten; Johansen, Katja S.; De Maria, Leonardo; Harris, Paul V.; Soong, Chee-Leong; Dupree, Paul; Tryfona, Theodora; Lenfant, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Davies, Gideon J.; Walton, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are recently discovered enzymes that oxidatively deconstruct polysaccharides. LPMOs are fundamental in the effective utilization of these substrates by bacteria and fungi; moreover, the enzymes have significant industrial importance. We report here the activity, spectroscopy and three-dimensional structure of a starch-active LPMO, a representative of the new CAZy AA13 family. We demonstrate that these enzymes generate aldonic acid-terminated malto-oligosaccharides from retrograded starch and boost significantly the conversion of this recalcitrant substrate to maltose by β-amylase. The detailed structure of the enzyme’s active site yields insights into the mechanism of action of this important class of enzymes. PMID:25608804

  6. Toluene 4-Monooxygenase and its Complex with Effector Protein T4moD

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Lucas J.; Fox, Brian G.

    2012-10-16

    Toluene 4-monooxygenase (T4MO) is a multiprotein diiron enzyme complex that catalyzes the regiospecific oxidation of toluene to p-cresol. Catalytic function requires the presence of a small protein, called the effector protein. Effector protein exerts substantial control on the diiron hydroxylase catalytic cycle through protein-protein interactions. High-resolution crystal structures of the stoichometric hydroxylase and effector protein complex described here reveal how protein-protein interactions and reduction of the diiron center produce an active site configuration poised for reaction with O{sub 2}. Further information from crystal structures of mutated isoforms of the hydroxylase and a peroxo adduct is combined with catalytic results to give a fuller picture of the geometry of the enzyme-substrate complex used for the high fidelity oxidation of hydrocarbon substrates.

  7. Supramolecular control of monooxygenase reactivity in a copper(ii) cryptate.

    PubMed

    Chaloner, L; Khomutovskaya, A; Thomas, F; Ottenwaelder, X

    2016-07-05

    We report a detailed investigation of the formation and self-decomposition of Cu(ii)-hydroperoxo intermediates under the influence of second-coordination-sphere features provided by a cryptand. In solution, an equilibrium between two copper complexes with square-planar and square-pyramidal geometries was identified. Upon addition of H2O2/Et3N, two copper(ii)-hydroperoxo intermediates formed at different rates. Their decomposition via self-oxidation was probed by deuterating select positions on the cryptand. This led to a small kinetic isotope effect of 1.5. Mass spectrometry analysis of the demetallated organic products is consistent with a direct oxygen-atom transfer to a tertiary amine on the cryptand, forming an N-oxide, unlike other models of copper mononuclear monooxygenase enzymes.

  8. Structural and mechanistic basis of differentiated inhibitors of the acute pancreatitis target kynurenine-3-monooxygenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Jonathan P.; Rowland, Paul; Taylor, Mark R. D.; Christodoulou, Erica M.; Haslam, Carl; Hobbs, Clare I.; Holmes, Duncan S.; Homes, Paul; Liddle, John; Mole, Damian J.; Uings, Iain; Walker, Ann L.; Webster, Scott P.; Mowat, Christopher G.; Chung, Chun-Wa

    2017-06-01

    Kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a key FAD-dependent enzyme of tryptophan metabolism. In animal models, KMO inhibition has shown benefit in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's and Alzheimer's. Most recently it has been identified as a target for acute pancreatitis multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (AP-MODS); a devastating inflammatory condition with a mortality rate in excess of 20%. Here we report and dissect the molecular mechanism of action of three classes of KMO inhibitors with differentiated binding modes and kinetics. Two novel inhibitor classes trap the catalytic flavin in a previously unobserved tilting conformation. This correlates with picomolar affinities, increased residence times and an absence of the peroxide production seen with previous substrate site inhibitors. These structural and mechanistic insights culminated in GSK065(C1) and GSK366(C2), molecules suitable for preclinical evaluation. Moreover, revising the repertoire of flavin dynamics in this enzyme class offers exciting new opportunities for inhibitor design.

  9. Single-domain flavoenzymes trigger lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases for oxidative degradation of cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Garajova, Sona; Mathieu, Yann; Beccia, Maria Rosa; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Biaso, Frédéric; Fanuel, Mathieu; Ropartz, David; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Record, Eric; Rogniaux, Hélène; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic conversion of plant biomass has been recently revolutionized by the discovery of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) that carry out oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides. These very powerful enzymes are abundant in fungal saprotrophs. LPMOs require activation by electrons that can be provided by cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs), but as some fungi lack CDH-encoding genes, other recycling enzymes must exist. We investigated the ability of AA3_2 flavoenzymes secreted under lignocellulolytic conditions to trigger oxidative cellulose degradation by AA9 LPMOs. Among the flavoenzymes tested, we show that glucose dehydrogenase and aryl-alcohol quinone oxidoreductases are catalytically efficient electron donors for LPMOs. These single-domain flavoenzymes display redox potentials compatible with electron transfer between partners. Our findings extend the array of enzymes which regulate the oxidative degradation of cellulose by lignocellulolytic fungi. PMID:27312718

  10. Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 "2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate monooxygenase" is an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Fukumori, F; Hausinger, R P

    1993-01-01

    The Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 tfdA gene, encoding the enzyme responsible for the first step in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biodegradation, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and several enzymatic properties of the partially purified gene product were examined. Although the tfdA-encoded enzyme is typically referred to as 2,4-D monooxygenase, we were unable to observe any reductant-dependent activity. Rather, we demonstrate that this enzyme is a ferrous ion-dependent dioxygenase that uses alpha-ketoglutarate as a cosubstrate. The alpha-ketoglutarate is converted to succinate concomitant with 2,4-D conversion to 2,4-dichlorophenol. By using [1-14C]alpha-ketoglutarate, we established that carbon dioxide is the second product derived from alpha-ketoglutarate. Finally, we verified the proposal that glyoxylate is the second product derived from 2,4-D. PMID:8458850

  11. Hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in black-crowned night herons (BCNHS) from the Chesapeake basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Rice, C.P.; Hines, R.K.; Eisemann, J.

    1992-01-01

    In a continuation of our studies on the use of hepatic cytochromes P450 as a biomarker for contaminant exposure, BCNH eggs were collected from Baltimore Harbor (BH) (n = 20), Washington National Zoo (WNZ) (n = 13) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (CNWR) (reference location) (n = 20). Eggs were artificially incubated and sacrificed at pipping. Livers were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80?C until assay. Hepatic microsomes were prepared by differential centrifugation of homogenates and assayed for protein, benzyloxy-resorufin-O-dealkylase, (BROD) ethoxyresorufinO-dealkylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD). Monooxygenase assays were run in triplicate using a computer-coupled fluorometric microwell plate scanner. Values for EROD and BROD, but not PROD, from BH and WNZ were significantly greater (approximately double) than those from CNWR. Organochlorine pesticide residues were much higher in carcasses from BH and WNZ as compared to CNWR. Carcasses are presently being analyzed for PCB congeners.

  12. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kato, J; Ito, A; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemotactic response to phosphate regardless of whether the cells were starved for phosphate.

  13. The Contribution of Non-catalytic Carbohydrate Binding Modules to the Activity of Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, Lucy I.; Labourel, Aurore; Walton, Paul H.; Davies, Gideon J.; Gilbert, Harry J.

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable industrial substrate. Copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) contribute to the degradation of lignocellulose and increase the efficiency of biofuel production. LPMOs can contain non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), but their role in the activity of these enzymes is poorly understood. Here we explored the importance of CBMs in LPMO function. The family 2a CBMs of two monooxygenases, CfLPMO10 and TbLPMO10 from Cellulomonas fimi and Thermobispora bispora, respectively, were deleted and/or replaced with CBMs from other proteins. The data showed that the CBMs could potentiate and, surprisingly, inhibit LPMO activity, and that these effects were both enzyme-specific and substrate-specific. Removing the natural CBM or introducing CtCBM3a, from the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome scaffoldin CipA, almost abolished the catalytic activity of the LPMOs against the cellulosic substrates. The deleterious effect of CBM removal likely reflects the importance of prolonged presentation of the enzyme on the surface of the substrate for efficient catalytic activity, as only LPMOs appended to CBMs bound tightly to cellulose. The negative impact of CtCBM3a is in sharp contrast with the capacity of this binding module to potentiate the activity of a range of glycoside hydrolases including cellulases. The deletion of the endogenous CBM from CfLPMO10 or the introduction of a family 10 CBM from Cellvibrio japonicus LPMO10B into TbLPMO10 influenced the quantity of non-oxidized products generated, demonstrating that CBMs can modulate the mode of action of LPMOs. This study demonstrates that engineered LPMO-CBM hybrids can display enhanced industrially relevant oxygenations. PMID:26801613

  14. Escherichia coli Overexpressing a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase from Acinetobacter radioresistens Becomes Resistant to Imipenem

    PubMed Central

    Minerdi, Daniela; Zgrablic, Ivan; Castrignanò, Silvia; Catucci, Gianluca; Medana, Claudio; Terlizzi, Maria Elena; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global issue currently resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people a year worldwide. Data present in the literature illustrate the emergence of many bacterial species that display resistance to known antibiotics; Acinetobacter spp. are a good example of this. We report here that Acinetobacter radioresistens has a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (Ar-BVMO) with 100% amino acid sequence identity to the ethionamide monooxygenase of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. Both enzymes are only distantly phylogenetically related to other canonical bacterial BVMO proteins. Ar-BVMO not only is capable of oxidizing two anticancer drugs metabolized by human FMO3, danusertib and tozasertib, but also can oxidize other synthetic drugs, such as imipenem. The latter is a member of the carbapenems, a clinically important antibiotic family used in the treatment of MDR bacterial infections. Susceptibility tests performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method demonstrate that imipenem-sensitive Escherichia coli BL21 cells overexpressing Ar-BVMO become resistant to this antibiotic. An agar disk diffusion assay proved that when imipenem reacts with Ar-BVMO, it loses its antibiotic property. Moreover, an NADPH consumption assay with the purified Ar-BVMO demonstrates that this antibiotic is indeed a substrate, and its product is identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be a Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation product of the carbonyl moiety of the β-lactam ring. This is the first report of an antibiotic-inactivating BVMO enzyme that, while mediating its usual BV oxidation, also operates by an unprecedented mechanism of carbapenem resistance. PMID:26459905

  15. Escherichia coli Overexpressing a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase from Acinetobacter radioresistens Becomes Resistant to Imipenem.

    PubMed

    Minerdi, Daniela; Zgrablic, Ivan; Castrignanò, Silvia; Catucci, Gianluca; Medana, Claudio; Terlizzi, Maria Elena; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J

    2015-10-12

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global issue currently resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people a year worldwide. Data present in the literature illustrate the emergence of many bacterial species that display resistance to known antibiotics; Acinetobacter spp. are a good example of this. We report here that Acinetobacter radioresistens has a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (Ar-BVMO) with 100% amino acid sequence identity to the ethionamide monooxygenase of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. Both enzymes are only distantly phylogenetically related to other canonical bacterial BVMO proteins. Ar-BVMO not only is capable of oxidizing two anticancer drugs metabolized by human FMO3, danusertib and tozasertib, but also can oxidize other synthetic drugs, such as imipenem. The latter is a member of the carbapenems, a clinically important antibiotic family used in the treatment of MDR bacterial infections. Susceptibility tests performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method demonstrate that imipenem-sensitive Escherichia coli BL21 cells overexpressing Ar-BVMO become resistant to this antibiotic. An agar disk diffusion assay proved that when imipenem reacts with Ar-BVMO, it loses its antibiotic property. Moreover, an NADPH consumption assay with the purified Ar-BVMO demonstrates that this antibiotic is indeed a substrate, and its product is identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be a Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation product of the carbonyl moiety of the β-lactam ring. This is the first report of an antibiotic-inactivating BVMO enzyme that, while mediating its usual BV oxidation, also operates by an unprecedented mechanism of carbapenem resistance.

  16. Identification of a flavin-containing S-oxygenating monooxygenase involved in alliin biosynthesis in garlic.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Naoko; Onuma, Misato; Mizuno, Shinya; Sugino, Yuka; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Imai, Shinsuke; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Sumi, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-09-01

    S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides are cysteine-derived secondary metabolites highly accumulated in the genus Allium. Despite pharmaceutical importance, the enzymes that contribute to the biosynthesis of S-alk-(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in Allium plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a flavin-containing monooxygenase, AsFMO1, in garlic (Allium sativum), which is responsible for the S-oxygenation reaction in the biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin). Recombinant AsFMO1 protein catalyzed the stereoselective S-oxygenation of S-allyl-l-cysteine to nearly exclusively yield (RC SS )-S-allylcysteine sulfoxide, which has identical stereochemistry to the major natural form of alliin in garlic. The S-oxygenation reaction catalyzed by AsFMO1 was dependent on the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), consistent with other known flavin-containing monooxygenases. AsFMO1 preferred S-allyl-l-cysteine to γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine as the S-oxygenation substrate, suggesting that in garlic, the S-oxygenation of alliin biosynthetic intermediates primarily occurs after deglutamylation. The transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins indicated that AsFMO1 is localized in the cytosol. AsFMO1 mRNA was accumulated in storage leaves of pre-emergent nearly sprouting bulbs, and in various tissues of sprouted bulbs with green foliage leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that AsFMO1 functions as an S-allyl-l-cysteine S-oxygenase, and contributes to the production of alliin both through the conversion of stored γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine to alliin in storage leaves during sprouting and through the de novo biosynthesis of alliin in green foliage leaves.

  17. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase lipid metabolites are significant second messengers in the resolution of choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Eiichi; Inafuku, Saori; Mulki, Lama; Okunuki, Yoko; Yanai, Ryoji; Smith, Kaylee E; Kim, Clifford B; Klokman, Garrett; Bielenberg, Diane R; Puli, Narender; Falck, John R; Husain, Deeba; Miller, Joan W; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen; Connor, Kip M

    2017-09-05

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness for individuals age 50 and above in the developed world. Abnormal growth of choroidal blood vessels, or choroidal neovascularization (CNV), is a hallmark of the neovascular (wet) form of advanced AMD and leads to significant vision loss. A growing body of evidence supports a strong link between neovascular disease and inflammation. Metabolites of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase pathway serve as vital second messengers that regulate a number of hormones and growth factors involved in inflammation and vascular function. Using transgenic mice with altered CYP lipid biosynthetic pathways in a mouse model of laser-induced CNV, we characterized the role of these lipid metabolites in regulating neovascular disease. We discovered that the CYP-derived lipid metabolites epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs) and epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs) are vital in dampening CNV severity. Specifically, overexpression of the monooxygenase CYP2C8 or genetic ablation or inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme led to increased levels of EDP and EEQ with attenuated CNV development. In contrast, when we promoted the degradation of these CYP-derived metabolites by transgenic overexpression of sEH, the protective effect against CNV was lost. We found that these molecules work in part through their ability to regulate the expression of key leukocyte adhesion molecules, on both leukocytes and endothelial cells, thereby mediating leukocyte recruitment. These results suggest that CYP lipid signaling molecules and their regulators are potential therapeutic targets in neovascular diseases.

  18. Crystal Structure of Albaflavenone Monooxygenase Containing a Moonlighting Terpene Synthase Active Site*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bin; Lei, Li; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Lin, Xin; Cane, David E.; Kelly, Steven L.; Yuan, Hang; Lamb, David C.; Waterman, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Albaflavenone synthase (CYP170A1) is a monooxygenase catalyzing the final two steps in the biosynthesis of this antibiotic in the soil bacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Interestingly, CYP170A1 shows no stereo selection forming equal amounts of two albaflavenol epimers, each of which is oxidized in turn to albaflavenone. To explore the structural basis of the reaction mechanism, we have studied the crystal structures of both ligand-free CYP170A1 (2.6 Å) and complex of endogenous substrate (epi-isozizaene) with CYP170A1 (3.3 Å). The structure of the complex suggests that the proximal epi-isozizaene molecules may bind to the heme iron in two orientations. In addition, much to our surprise, we have found that albaflavenone synthase also has a second, completely distinct catalytic activity corresponding to the synthesis of farnesene isomers from farnesyl diphosphate. Within the cytochrome P450 α-helical domain both the primary sequence and x-ray structure indicate the presence of a novel terpene synthase active site that is moonlighting on the P450 structure. This includes signature sequences for divalent cation binding and an α-helical barrel. This barrel is unusual because it consists of only four helices rather than six found in all other terpene synthases. Mutagenesis establishes that this barrel is essential for the terpene synthase activity of CYP170A1 but not for the monooxygenase activity. This is the first bifunctional P450 discovered to have another active site moonlighting on it and the first time a terpene synthase active site is found moonlighting on another protein. PMID:19858213

  19. Homology modeling and protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121: in silico insights.

    PubMed

    Jain, Chakresh Kumar; Gupta, Money; Prasad, Yamuna; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of hydrocarbons plays an important role in the eco-balancing of petroleum products, pesticides and other toxic products in the environment. The degradation of hydrocarbons by microbes such as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Burkhulderia, Gordonia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. has been studied intensively in the literature. The present study focused on the in silico protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase (ladA)-a protein involved in the alkane degradation pathway. We demonstrated the improvement in substrate binding energy with engineered ladA in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121. We identified an ortholog of ladA monooxygenase found in B. thailandensis MSMB121, and showed it to be an enzyme involved in an alkane degradation pathway studied extensively in Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. Homology modeling of the three-dimensional structure of ladA was performed with a crystal structure (protein databank ID: 3B9N) as a template in MODELLER 9v11, and further validated using PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D and WHATIF tools. Specific amino acids were substituted in the region corresponding to amino acids 305-370 of ladA protein, resulting in an enhancement of binding energy in different alkane chain molecules as compared to wild protein structures in the docking experiments. The substrate binding energy with the protein was calculated using Vina (Implemented in VEGAZZ). Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamics of different alkane chain molecules inside the binding pockets of wild and mutated ladA. Here, we hypothesize an improvement in binding energies and accessibility of substrates towards engineered ladA enzyme, which could be further facilitated for wet laboratory-based experiments for validation of the alkane degradation pathway in this organism.

  20. Kinetic Mechanism of the Dechlorinating Flavin-dependent Monooxygenase HadA.

    PubMed

    Pimviriyakul, Panu; Thotsaporn, Kittisak; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2017-03-24

    The accumulation of chlorophenols (CPs) in the environment, due to their wide use as agrochemicals, has become a serious environmental problem. These organic halides can be degraded by aerobic microorganisms, where the initial steps of various biodegradation pathways include an oxidative dechlorinating process in which chloride is replaced by a hydroxyl substituent. Harnessing these dechlorinating processes could provide an opportunity for environmental remediation, but detailed catalytic mechanisms for these enzymes are not yet known. To close this gap, we now report transient kinetics and product analysis of the dechlorinating flavin-dependent monooxygenase, HadA, from the aerobic organism Ralstonia pickettii DTP0602, identifying several mechanistic properties that differ from other enzymes in the same class. We first overexpressed and purified HadA to homogeneity. Analyses of the products from single and multiple turnover reactions demonstrated that HadA prefers 4-CP and 2-CP over CPs with multiple substituents. Stopped-flow and rapid-quench flow experiments of HadA with 4-CP show the involvement of specific intermediates (C4a-hydroperoxy-FAD and C4a-hydroxy-FAD) in the reaction, define rate constants and the order of substrate binding, and demonstrate that the hydroxylation step occurs prior to chloride elimination. The data also identify the non-productive and productive paths of the HadA reactions and demonstrate that product formation is the rate-limiting step. This is the first elucidation of the kinetic mechanism of a two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase that can catalyze oxidative dechlorination of various CPs, and as such it will serve as the basis for future investigation of enzyme variants that will be useful for applications in detoxifying chemicals hazardous to human health.

  1. The Biochemical Mechanism of Auxin Biosynthesis by an Arabidopsis YUCCA Flavin-containing Monooxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xinhua; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Chen, Qingguo; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Ojha, Sunil; DuBois, Jennifer; Ballou, David; Zhao, Yunde

    2013-01-01

    Auxin regulates every aspect of plant growth and development. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that YUCCA (YUC) flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) catalyze a rate-limiting step in auxin biosynthesis and that YUCs are essential for many developmental processes. We proposed that YUCs convert indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) to indole-3-acetate (IAA). However, the exact biochemical mechanism of YUCs has remained elusive. Here we present the biochemical characterization of recombinant Arabidopsis YUC6. Expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli, YUC6 contains FAD as a cofactor, which has peaks at 448 nm and 376 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. We show that YUC6 uses NADPH and oxygen to convert IPA to IAA. The first step of the YUC6-catalyzed reaction is the reduction of the FAD cofactor to FADH− by NADPH. Subsequently, FADH− reacts with oxygen to form a flavin-C4a-(hydro)peroxy intermediate, which we show has a maximum absorbance at 381 nm in its UV-visible spectrum. The final chemical step is the reaction of the C4a-intermediate with IPA to produce IAA. Although the sequences of the YUC enzymes are related to those of the mammalian FMOs, which oxygenate nucleophilic substrates, YUC6 oxygenates an electrophilic substrate (IPA). Nevertheless, both classes of enzymes form quasi-stable C4a-(hydro)peroxyl FAD intermediates. The YUC6 intermediate has a half-life of ∼20 s whereas that of some FMOs is >30 min. This work reveals the catalytic mechanism of the first known plant flavin monooxygenase and provides a foundation for further investigating how YUC activities are regulated in plants. PMID:23188833

  2. Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenases as a Detoxification Mechanism in Insects: New Insights from the Arctiids (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G.; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  3. Crystal Structure of Albaflavenone Monooxygenase Containing a Moonlighting Terpene Synthase Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Bin; Lei, Li; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.; Lin, Xin; Cane, David E.; Kelly, Steven L.; Yuan, Hang; Lamb, David C.; Waterman, Michael R.

    2010-01-08

    Albaflavenone synthase (CYP170A1) is a monooxygenase catalyzing the final two steps in the biosynthesis of this antibiotic in the soil bacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Interestingly, CYP170A1 shows no stereo selection forming equal amounts of two albaflavenol epimers, each of which is oxidized in turn to albaflavenone. To explore the structural basis of the reaction mechanism, we have studied the crystal structures of both ligand-free CYP170A1 (2.6 {angstrom}) and complex of endogenous substrate (epi-isozizaene) with CYP170A1 (3.3 {angstrom}). The structure of the complex suggests that the proximal epi-isozizaene molecules may bind to the heme iron in two orientations. In addition, much to our surprise, we have found that albaflavenone synthase also has a second, completely distinct catalytic activity corresponding to the synthesis of farnesene isomers from farnesyl diphosphate. Within the cytochrome P450 {alpha}-helical domain both the primary sequence and x-ray structure indicate the presence of a novel terpene synthase active site that is moonlighting on the P450 structure. This includes signature sequences for divalent cation binding and an {alpha}-helical barrel. This barrel is unusual because it consists of only four helices rather than six found in all other terpene synthases. Mutagenesis establishes that this barrel is essential for the terpene synthase activity of CYP170A1 but not for the monooxygenase activity. This is the first bifunctional P450 discovered to have another active site moonlighting on it and the first time a terpene synthase active site is found moonlighting on another protein.

  4. Inactivation of Toluene 2-Monooxygenase in Burkholderia cepacia G4 by Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, Chris M.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Arp, Daniel J.; Hyman, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of acetylene (10 to 50% [vol/vol] gas phase) were required to inhibit the growth of Burkholderia cepacia G4 on toluene, while 1% (vol/vol) (gas phase) propyne or 1-butyne completely inhibited growth. Low concentrations of longer-chain alkynes (C5 to C10) were also effective inhibitors of toluene-dependent growth, and 2- and 3-alkynes were more potent inhibitors than their 1-alkyne counterparts. Exposure of toluene-grown B. cepacia G4 to alkynes resulted in the irreversible loss of toluene- and o-cresol-dependent O2 uptake activities, while acetate- and 3-methylcatechol-dependent O2 uptake activities were unaffected. Toluene-dependent O2 uptake decreased upon the addition of 1-butyne in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The loss of activity followed first-order kinetics, with apparent rate constants ranging from 0.25 min−1 to 2.45 min−1. Increasing concentrations of toluene afforded protection from the inhibitory effects of 1-butyne. Furthermore, oxygen, supplied as H2O2, was required for inhibition by 1-butyne. These results suggest that alkynes are specific, mechanism-based inactivators of toluene 2-monooxygenase in B. cepacia G4, although the simplest alkyne, acetylene, was relatively ineffective compared to longer alkynes. Alkene analogs of acetylene and propyne—ethylene and propylene—were not inactivators of toluene 2-monooxygenase activity in B. cepacia G4 but were oxidized to their respective epoxides, with apparent Ks and Vmax values of 39.7 μM and 112.3 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 for ethylene and 32.3 μM and 89.2 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 for propylene. PMID:9925593

  5. Methane monooxygenase gene expression mediated by methanobactin in the presence of mineral copper sources

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Charles W.; Fowle, David A.; Kulczycki, Ezra; Roberts, Jennifer A.; Graham, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Methane is a major greenhouse gas linked to global warming; however, patterns of in situ methane oxidation by methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs), nature's main biological mechanism for methane suppression, are often inconsistent with laboratory predictions. For example, one would expect a strong relationship between methanotroph ecology and Cu level because methanotrophs require Cu to sustain particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), the most efficient enzyme for methane oxidation. However, no correlation has been observed in nature, which is surprising because methane monooxygenase (MMO) gene expression has been unequivocally linked to Cu availability. Here we provide a fundamental explanation for this lack of correlation. We propose that MMO expression in nature is largely controlled by solid-phase Cu geochemistry and the relative ability of Cu acquisition systems in methanotrophs, such as methanobactins (mb), to obtain Cu from mineral sources. To test this hypothesis, RT-PCR expression assays were developed for Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b (which produces mb) to quantify pMMO, soluble MMO (the alternate MMO expressed when Cu is “unavailable”), and 16S-rRNA gene expression under progressively more stringent Cu supply conditions. When Cu was provided as CuCl2, pMMO transcript levels increased significantly consistent with laboratory work. However, when Cu was provided as Cu-doped iron oxide, pMMO transcript levels increased only when mb was also present. Finally, when Cu was provided as Cu-doped borosilicate glass, pMMO transcription patterns varied depending on the ambient mb:Cu supply ratio. Cu geochemistry clearly influences MMO expression in terrestrial systems, and, as such, local Cu mineralogy might provide an explanation for methane oxidation patterns in the natural environment. PMID:17615240

  6. Eukaryotic formylglycine-generating enzyme catalyses a monooxygenase type of reaction.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jianhe; Alam, Sarfaraz; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Mariappan, Malaiyalam; Rudolph, Markus Georg; May, Caroline; Dierks, Thomas; von Figura, Kurt; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    C α-formylglycine (FGly) is the catalytic residue of sulfatases in eukaryotes. It is generated by a unique post-translational modification catalysed by the FGly-generating enzyme (FGE) in the endoplasmic reticulum. FGE oxidizes a cysteine residue within the conserved CxPxR sequence motif of nascent sulfatase polypeptides to FGly. Here we show that this oxidation is strictly dependent on molecular oxygen (O2) and consumes 1 mol O2 per mol FGly formed. For maximal activity FGE requires an O2 concentration of 9% (105 μM). Sustained FGE activity further requires the presence of a thiol-based reductant such as DTT. FGly is also formed in the absence of DTT, but its formation ceases rapidly. Thus inactivated FGE accumulates in which the cysteine pair Cys336/Cys341 in the catalytic site is oxidized to form disulfide bridges between either Cys336 and Cys341 or Cys341 and the CxPxR cysteine of the sulfatase. These results strongly suggest that the Cys336/Cys341 pair is directly involved in the O2 -dependent conversion of the CxPxR cysteine to FGly. The available data characterize eukaryotic FGE as a monooxygenase, in which Cys336/Cys341 disulfide bridge formation donates the electrons required to reduce one oxygen atom of O2 to water while the other oxygen atom oxidizes the CxPxR cysteine to FGly. Regeneration of a reduced Cys336/Cys341 pair is accomplished in vivo by a yet unknown reductant of the endoplasmic reticulum or in vitro by DTT. Remarkably, this monooxygenase reaction utilizes O2 without involvement of any activating cofactor.

  7. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Sehlmeyer, Sven; Wang, Linzhu; Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-05-03

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  8. [Pseudomonas folliculitis after spa bath exposure].

    PubMed

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2012-06-25

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect.

  9. Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9, 10-monooxygenase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xanthophyll carotenoids, such as lutein, zeaxanthin and b-cryptoxanthin, may provide potential health benefits against chronic and degenerative diseases. Investigating pathways of xanthophyll metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,150-monooxygenase (CMO1) h...

  10. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOEpatents

    Eastman, J.A.; Rittner, M.N.; Youngdahl, C.J.; Weertman, J.R.

    1998-03-17

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound. 6 figs.

  11. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOEpatents

    Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Rittner, Mindy N.; Youngdahl, Carl J.; Weertman, Julia R.

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound.

  12. Bidirectional macrocyclization of peptides by double multicomponent reactions.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Manuel G; Morales, Fidel E; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Vasilev, Dimitar; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Rivera, Daniel G

    2015-01-14

    Increasing the diversity of peptide cyclization methods is an effective way of accessing new types of macrocyclic chemotypes featuring a wide variety of ring sizes and topologies. Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are processes capable of generating great levels of molecular diversity and complexity at low synthetic cost. In an attempt to further exploit MCRs in the field of cyclopeptides, we describe a bidirectional multicomponent approach for the synthesis of N-alkylated macrocyclic peptides of varied sequences and cross-linking positions. The process relies on the execution of two Ugi reactions between peptide diacids and diisocyanides. Varying the amino component enabled the installation of exocyclic elements of diversity, while skeletal diversity was created through different side chain and backbone cyclizations. This procedure shows prospects for the rapid scanning of the chemical space of macrocyclic peptides for applications in chemical biology and drug discovery.

  13. Efficient Ab initio Modeling of Random Multicomponent Alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Chao; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2016-03-08

    Here, we present in this Letter a novel small set of ordered structures (SSOS) method that allows extremely efficient ab initio modeling of random multi-component alloys. Using inverse II-III spinel oxides and equiatomic quinary bcc (so-called high entropy) alloys as examples, we also demonstrate that a SSOS can achieve the same accuracy as a large supercell or a well-converged cluster expansion, but with significantly reduced computational cost. In particular, because of this efficiency, a large number of quinary alloy compositions can be quickly screened, leading to the identification of several new possible high entropy alloy chemistries. Furthermore, the SSOS methodmore » developed here can be broadly useful for the rapid computational design of multi-component materials, especially those with a large number of alloying elements, a challenging problem for other approaches.« less

  14. Transport equations for multicomponent anisotropic space plasmas - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to present a unified approach to the study of transport phenomena in multicomponent anisotropic space plasmas. In particular, a system of generalized transport equations is presented that can be applied to widely different plasma flow conditions. The generalized transport equations can describe subsonic and supersonic flows, collision-dominated and collisionless flows, plasma flows in rapidly changing magnetic field configurations, multicomponent plasma flows with large temperature differences between the interacting species, and plasma flows that contain anisotropic temperature distributions. In addition, if Maxwell's equations of electricity and magnetism are added to the system of transport equations, they can be used to model electrostatic shocks, double layers, and magnetic merging processes. These transport equations also contain terms which act to regulate both the heat flow and temperature anisotropy, processes which appear to be operating in the solar wind.

  15. Electrostatic twisted modes in multi-component dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, M. K.; Ali, S.; Ikram, M.

    2016-01-15

    Various electrostatic twisted modes are re-investigated with finite orbital angular momentum in an unmagnetized collisionless multi-component dusty plasma, consisting of positive/negative charged dust particles, ions, and electrons. For this purpose, hydrodynamical equations are employed to obtain paraxial equations in terms of density perturbations, while assuming the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam solutions. Specifically, approximated solutions for potential problem are studied by using the paraxial approximation and expressed the electric field components in terms of LG functions. The energy fluxes associated with these modes are computed and corresponding expressions for orbital angular momenta are derived. Numerical analyses reveal that radial/angular mode numbers as well as dust number density and dust charging states strongly modify the LG potential profiles attributed to different electrostatic modes. Our results are important for understanding particle transport and energy transfer due to wave excitations in multi-component dusty plasmas.

  16. Predicting Microstructure and Microsegregation in Multicomponent Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xinyan; Ding, Ling; Chen, ShuangLin; Xie, Fanyou; Chu, M.; Chang, Y. Austin

    Accurate predictions of microstructure and microsegregation in metallic alloys are highly important for applications such as alloy design and process optimization. Restricted assumptions concerning the phase diagram could easily lead to erroneous predictions. The best approach is to couple microsegregation modeling with phase diagram computations. A newly developed numerical model for the prediction of microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent alloys during dendritic solidification was introduced. The micromodel is directly coupled with phase diagram calculations using a user-friendly and robust phase diagram calculation engine-PANDAT. Solid state back diffusion, undercooling and coarsening effects are included in this model, and the experimentally measured cooling curves are used as the inputs to carry out the calculations. This model has been used to predict the microstructure and microsegregation in two multicomponent aluminum alloys, 2219 and 7050. The calculated values were confirmed using results obtained from directional solidification.

  17. Physical aspects of heterogeneities in multi-component lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2014-06-01

    Ever since the raft model for biomembranes has been proposed, the traditional view of biomembranes based on the fluid-mosaic model has been altered. In the raft model, dynamical heterogeneities in multi-component lipid bilayers play an essential role. Focusing on the lateral phase separation of biomembranes and vesicles, we review some of the most relevant research conducted over the last decade. We mainly refer to those experimental works that are based on physical chemistry approach, and to theoretical explanations given in terms of soft matter physics. In the first part, we describe the phase behavior and the conformation of multi-component lipid bilayers. After formulating the hydrodynamics of fluid membranes in the presence of the surrounding solvent, we discuss the domain growth-law and decay rate of concentration fluctuations. Finally, we review several attempts to describe membrane rafts as two-dimensional microemulsion.

  18. Multicomponent delirium prevention: not as effective as NICE suggest?

    PubMed

    Teale, Elizabeth; Young, John

    2015-11-01

    Multicomponent delirium prevention strategies have been shown in intervention studies consistently to reduce the occurrence of delirium. Based on this convincing evidence base, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has advocated the widespread adoption of multicomponent delirium prevention interventions into the routine inpatient care of older people. However, despite successful reductions in incident delirium of about a third, anticipated reductions in mortality or admissions to long-term care--both clinically important endpoints statistically correlated with the occurrence of delirium--have not been conclusively observed. We hypothesise that the reasons for this disconnection are partly methodological, due to difficulties in delirium detection and blinding of study personnel to the intervention, but predominantly due to the underlying relationship between delirium and the abnormal health state of frailty; the interaction between these two geriatric syndromes is currently poorly understood.

  19. Synthesis of Carfentanil Amide Opioids Using the Ugi Multicomponent Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Váradi, András; Palmer, Travis C.; Haselton, Nathan; Afonin, Daniel; Subrath, Joan J.; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Hunkele, Amanda; Pasternak, Gavril W.; Marrone, Gina F.; Borics, Attila; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel approach to synthesize carfentanil amide analogues utilizing the isocyanide-based four-component Ugi multicomponent reaction. A small library of bis-amide analogues of carfentanil was created using N-alkylpiperidones, aniline, propionic acid, and various aliphatic isocyanides. Our lead compound showed high affinity for mu (MOR) and delta opioid receptors (DOR) with no appreciable affinity for kappa (KOR) receptors in radioligand binding assays. The compound was found to be a mixed MOR agonist/partial DOR agonist in [35S]GTPγS functional assays, and it showed moderate analgesic potency in vivo. The compound showed no visible signs of physical dependence or constipation in mice. In addition, it produced less respiratory depression than morphine. Most mixed MOR/DOR opioids reported in the literature are peptides and thereby systemically inactive. Our approach utilizing a multicomponent reaction has the promise to deliver potent and efficacious small-molecule analgesics with potential clinical utility. PMID:26148793

  20. Efficient Ab initio Modeling of Random Multicomponent Alloys.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Uberuaga, Blas P

    2016-03-11

    We present in this Letter a novel small set of ordered structures (SSOS) method that allows extremely efficient ab initio modeling of random multicomponent alloys. Using inverse II-III spinel oxides and equiatomic quinary bcc (so-called high entropy) alloys as examples, we demonstrate that a SSOS can achieve the same accuracy as a large supercell or a well-converged cluster expansion, but with significantly reduced computational cost. In particular, because of this efficiency, a large number of quinary alloy compositions can be quickly screened, leading to the identification of several new possible high-entropy alloy chemistries. The SSOS method developed here can be broadly useful for the rapid computational design of multicomponent materials, especially those with a large number of alloying elements, a challenging problem for other approaches.

  1. Thin multicomponent films for functional enzyme devices and bioreactor particles

    PubMed Central

    Rusling, James F.; Wasalathanthri, Dhanuka P.; Schenkman, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Complex functional films containing enzymes and other biomolecules are easily fabricated in nm-scale thicknesses by using layer-by-layer (LbL) methodologies first popularized by Lvov and Decher. In this review, we highlight the high level functional capabilities possible with LbL films of biomolecules based on our own research experiences. We first describe the basics of enzyme film fabrication by LbL alternate electrostatic adsorption, then discuss how to make functional enzyme-polyion films of remarkably high stability. Focusing on cytochrome P450s, we discuss films developed to electrochemically activate the natural catalytic cycle of these key metabolic enzymes. We then describe multifunctional, multicomponent DNA/enzyme/polyion films on arrays and particle surfaces for high throughput metabolic toxicity screening using electrochemiluminescence and LC-MS/MS. Using multicomponent LbL films, complex functionality for bioanalytical and biochemical purposes can be achieved that is difficult or impossible using conventional approaches. PMID:25209428

  2. Thin multicomponent films for functional enzyme devices and bioreactor particles.

    PubMed

    Rusling, James F; Wasalathanthri, Dhanuka P; Schenkman, John B

    2014-11-07

    Complex functional films containing enzymes and other biomolecules are easily fabricated in nm-scale thicknesses by using layer-by-layer (LbL) methodologies first popularized by Lvov and Decher. In this review, we highlight the high level functional capabilities possible with LbL films of biomolecules based on our own research experiences. We first describe the basics of enzyme film fabrication by LbL alternate electrostatic adsorption, then discuss how to make functional enzyme-polyion films of remarkably high stability. Focusing on cytochrome P450s, we discuss films developed to electrochemically activate the natural catalytic cycle of these key metabolic enzymes. We then describe multifunctional, multicomponent DNA/enzyme/polyion films on arrays and particle surfaces for high throughput metabolic toxicity screening using electrochemiluminescence and LC-MS/MS. Using multicomponent LbL films, complex functionality for bioanalytical and biochemical purposes can be achieved that is difficult or impossible using conventional approaches.

  3. Synthesis of Carfentanil Amide Opioids Using the Ugi Multicomponent Reaction.

    PubMed

    Váradi, András; Palmer, Travis C; Haselton, Nathan; Afonin, Daniel; Subrath, Joan J; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Hunkele, Amanda; Pasternak, Gavril W; Marrone, Gina F; Borics, Attila; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-09-16

    We report a novel approach to synthesize carfentanil amide analogues utilizing the isocyanide-based four-component Ugi multicomponent reaction. A small library of bis-amide analogues of carfentanil was created using N-alkylpiperidones, aniline, propionic acid, and various aliphatic isocyanides. Our lead compound showed high affinity for mu (MOR) and delta opioid receptors (DOR) with no appreciable affinity for kappa (KOR) receptors in radioligand binding assays. The compound was found to be a mixed MOR agonist/partial DOR agonist in [(35)S]GTPγS functional assays, and it showed moderate analgesic potency in vivo. The compound showed no visible signs of physical dependence or constipation in mice. In addition, it produced less respiratory depression than morphine. Most mixed MOR/DOR opioids reported in the literature are peptides and thereby systemically inactive. Our approach utilizing a multicomponent reaction has the promise to deliver potent and efficacious small-molecule analgesics with potential clinical utility.

  4. Generalized statistical model for multicomponent adsorption equilibria on zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Rota, R.; Gamba, G.; Paludetto, R.; Carra, S.; Morbidelli, M. )

    1988-05-01

    The statistical thermodynamic approach to multicomponent adsorption equilibria on zeolites has been extended to nonideal systems, through the correction of cross coefficients characterizing the interaction between unlike molecules. Estimation of the model parameters requires experimental binary equilibrium data. Comparisons with the classical model based on adsorbed solution theory are reported for three nonideal ternary systems. The two approaches provide comparable results in the simulation of binary and ternary adsorption equilibrium data at constant temperature and pressure.

  5. Numerical study of multicomponent droplet vaporization at near critical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Kwang-Chung; Shuen, Jian-Shun; Yang, Vigor

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical analysis of multicomponent droplet vaporization at near critical conditions has been carried out. The model is based on the full time-dependent conservation equations and accommodates various important high-pressure phenomena. As an example, the case involving a two-component (n-pentane and n-octane) fuel droplet in nitrogen gas is studied. The influences of transient effects, surface regression, ambient gas solubility, and phase-equilibrium relations on vaporization mechanisms are examined in detail.

  6. Ab initio calculations for search optimization of multicomponent alloy configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, A. Yu.; Zharmukhambetova, A. M.; Dmitriev, A. I.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents an algorithm for optimization of searching configurations of multicomponent alloys that have a predetermined value of physical and mechanical properties. Values obtained by Exact MT Orbitals (EMTO) were used for calculations. The algorithm efficiency is demonstrated on an example of estimating the bulk modulus of a three-component alloy based on Ti, Nb and Zr. It is shown that the use of the algorithm can in some cases reduce the amount of calculations by 10 times or more.

  7. Gauge-invariant perturbations in multi-component fluid cosmologies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsby, P. K. S.

    A new covariant formalism was introduced to describe the evolution of inhomogeneities in any spacetime. The variables introduced in these papers are gauge-invariant with respect to a Robertson-Walker background spacetime because they vanish identically in such models and have a transparent physical and geometrical meaning. The author briefly discusses how to extend this formalism to systems of multi-component fluids and sketches how the variables are related to those of Bardeen.

  8. Dispersionless and multicomponent BKP hierarchies with quantum torus symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanzhong

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we will construct the additional perturbative quantum torus symmetry of the dispersionless BKP hierarchy based on the W∞ infinite dimensional Lie symmetry. These results show that the complete quantum torus symmetry is broken from the BKP hierarchy to its dispersionless hierarchies. Further a series of additional flows of the multicomponent BKP hierarchy will be defined and these flows constitute an N-folds direct product of the positive half of the quantum torus symmetries.

  9. Multi-component stress history measurements and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.; Larson, D.B.

    1987-08-01

    Piezoresistance foil gages were tested dynamically in multi-component stress-strain experiments in order that the actual shock wave conditions of underground nuclear testing could be more closely simulated. The multi-component stress-strain histories were created in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) by using chemical explosions to generate spherical shock waves. In addition to the resistivity measurements from the foil gages, particle velocity was also measured at several radial positions from the explosion to provide a complete set of data for analysis. The gage interpretation (inverse) problem for multi-component stress-strain fields requires obtaining a sufficient number of independent measurements so that the different stress-strain components influencing the gage response can be uniquely inferred. The piezoresistance measurements provided data from a triple material foil gage and from ytterbium foil gages (bare gages). An analysis shows that the triple material gage containing foils of ytterbium, manganin, and constantan provided three independent resistivity measurements for the gage oriented in a perpendicular direction relative to the radial propagating shock front. An analysis of the ytterbium foil gages, which were tested in both perpendicular (normal) and parallel (tangential) directions relative to the radial shock front, show the resistivity responses from these two orientations are independent measurements. The results from the analyses of the gages compared well with experimental data. This analysis shows clearly that the material properties of the foil, the dimensions of the foil, and the material surrounding the foil greatly influence the total resistivity response of foil gages in a multi-component stress-strain field. 25 refs., 16 figs.

  10. Efficient Isocyanide-less Isocyanide-Based Multicomponent Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Neochoritis, Constantinos G.; Stotani, Silvia; Mishra, Bhupendra; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Isocyanides are the “Jekyll and Hyde” of organic chemistry allowing for extremely interesting transformations that are not only extremely odorous but also noxious. Therefore, an isocyanide-less isocyanide-based multicomponent reaction (IMCR) has been developed, and this protocol is expected to replace many of the old procedures in the future not only in IMCR but in other areas of organic chemistry as well. PMID:25824100

  11. Multicomponent fiber optical biosensor for use in hemodialysis monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Cord; Schubert, Florian; Scheper, Thomas

    1994-07-01

    In clinical chemistry, sensors are needed that can detect small analyte concentrations in complex physiological media. During hemodialysis it is especially important to determine the urea concentration on line in order to monitor the completion of the purification. In this paper we describe a multicomponent fiberoptical biosensor for use in hemodialysis monitoring. Since no substrate flow is required in the sensor head, this technology is especially suited for monitoring in physiological solutions (no electrical contact to the patient is necessary).

  12. IRMA: A tunable infrared multicomponent acquisition system for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpcke, J.; Mechold, L.; Käning, M.; Anders, J.; Wienhold, F. G.; Nelson, D.; Zahniser, M.

    2000-10-01

    A compact and transportable infrared multicomponent acquisition (IRMA) system based on infrared absorption spectroscopy has been developed for plasma diagnostics and control. The IRMA system contains four independent tunable diode lasers which can be temporally multiplexed and directed into plasma reactors or into a multipass cell for exhaust gas detection. Rapid scan software with real-time line shape analysis provides simultaneous measurements of the absolute concentrations of several molecular species.

  13. Characterization of a para-nitrophenol catabolic cluster in Pseudomonas sp. strain NyZ402 and construction of an engineered strain capable of simultaneously mineralizing both para- and ortho-nitrophenols.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Wang, Song-He; Xiao, Yi; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2010-07-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain NyZ402 was isolated for its ability to grow on para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy, and was shown to degrade PNP via an oxidization pathway. This strain was also capable of growing on hydroquinone or catechol. A 15, 818 bp DNA fragment extending from a 800-bp DNA fragment of hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase gene (pnpG) was obtained by genome walking. Sequence analysis indicated that the PNP catabolic gene cluster (pnpABCDEFG) in this fragment shared significant similarities with a recently reported gene cluster responsible for PNP degradation from Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3. PnpA is PNP 4-monooxygenase converting PNP to hydroquinone via benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH, and genetic analysis indicated that pnpA plays a key role in PNP degradation. pnpA1 present in the upstream of the cluster (absent in the cluster from strain WBC-3) encodes a protein sharing as high as 55% identity with PnpA, but was not involved in PNP degradation by either in vitro or in vivo analyses. Furthermore, an engineered strain capable of growing on PNP and ortho-nitrophenol (ONP) was constructed by introducing onpAB (encoding ONP monooxygenase and ortho-benzoquinone reductase which catalyzed the transformation of ONP to catechol) from Alcaligenes sp. strain NyZ215 into strain NyZ402.

  14. A comparison of the substrate and electron-donor specificities of the methane mono-oxygenases from three strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Stirling, D I; Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1979-01-01

    1. Methane mono-oxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium has the same broad substrate specificity as the analogous enzyme from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath); the enzyme from Methylomonas methanica is more specific. 2. Contrary to previous reports, NAD(P)H and not ascorbate is the required electron donor for the enzyme from Methylosinus trichosporium. 3. It is concluded that these three bacteria contain similar methane mono-oxygenases. PMID:106847

  15. [Effectiveness of a multicomponent smoking cessation intervention in primary care].

    PubMed

    Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Alonso-Cardeñoso, Carmen; García-González, Jesús Vicente; Fraile-Cobos, José Miguel; Lobo-Llorente, Natalia; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent program applied by nurses in primary care. A non-experimental pre-post study was carried out in 145 smokers from Area V of Asturias (Spain). The intervention consisted of a multicomponent group treatment program, applied for 7 weeks by primary care nurses. The mean age was 52 years. Men accounted for 39.73% of the study population. The abstinence rate at post-treatment was 51.1% (95% CI: 42.4 to 59.6). At 12 months, the abstinence rate was 41.1% (95% CI: 32.6 to 49.6). The change between the end of the intervention and follow-up at 6 and 12 months was statistically significant at both time points (p = 0.035 and p = 0.013, respectively). Among participants who had stopped smoking, there was a statistically significant decline in daily cigarette consumption. Factors that were statistically significantly associated with continued smoking at 12 months were heavier smoking before the intervention, higher scores on the Fagerström test, and a lower number of sessions attended. The multicomponent treatment program was highly effective. The results suggest the desirability of specific training for health professionals to implement this type of intervention in primary care as an alternative to medical advice for smokers who need it. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Combustion and micro-explosion of multicomponent droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the gasification, combustion, and micro-explosion of droplets of miscible multicomponent fuel mixtures and water/oil emulsions in hot, oxidizing, pressurized environments is described. The experiment involves generating a stream of droplets of uniform and controllable size, spacing, and velocity by the ink-jet printing technique, injecting them into the continuously flowing combustion environment produced by a flat-flame burner, and examining the subsequent combustion processes using high-speed photography. Results show that the gasification mechanism of miscible multicomponent droplets consist of an initial phase of transient adjustment of the droplet surface layer such that it becomes more concentrated with the less volatile component, and a second phase of liquid-phase-diffusion-limited steady-state combustion with the fractional gasification rate of the constituents being equal to their respective initial mass fractions in the mixture. Micro-explosion of miscible multicomponent droplets is found to be favored with an unstable droplet generation mode, with increasing the system pressure, and with light alcohol addition. The internal bubble growth process is a relatively slow one, occupying about 10% of the droplet lifetime. Micro-explosion of water/oil emulsion droplets occurs under both normal and high pressure environments. Results also show that prior to the onset of micro-explosion in the nominally opaque droplet becomes transparent, indicating deterioration of the emulsion structure. Results and insights on the ignition, extinction, and soot formation characteristics are also documented.

  17. Multi-Component Diffusion with Application To Computational Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Kenneth; Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy and complexity of solving multicomponent gaseous diffusion using the detailed multicomponent equations, the Stefan-Maxwell equations, and two commonly used approximate equations have been examined in a two part study. Part I examined the equations in a basic study with specified inputs in which the results are applicable for many applications. Part II addressed the application of the equations in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) computational code for high-speed entries in Earth's atmosphere. The results showed that the presented iterative scheme for solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations is an accurate and effective method as compared with solutions of the detailed equations. In general, good accuracy with the approximate equations cannot be guaranteed for a species or all species in a multi-component mixture. 'Corrected' forms of the approximate equations that ensured the diffusion mass fluxes sum to zero, as required, were more accurate than the uncorrected forms. Good accuracy, as compared with the Stefan- Maxwell results, were obtained with the 'corrected' approximate equations in defining the heating rates for the three Earth entries considered in Part II.

  18. Dynamic simulation of multicomponent reaction transport in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Munavalli, G R; Mohan Kumar, M S M S

    2004-04-01

    Given the presence of nutrients, regrowth of bacteria within a distribution system is possible. The bacterial growth phenomena, which can be studied by developing a multicomponent (substrate, biomass and disinfectant) reaction transport model, is governed by its relationship with the substrate (organic carbon) and disinfectant (chlorine). The multicomponent reaction transport model developed in the present study utilizes the simplified expressions for the basic processes (in bulk flow and at pipe wall) such as bacterial growth and decay, attachment to and detachment from the surface, substrate utilization and disinfectant action involved in the model. The usefulness of the model is further enhanced by the incorporation of an expression for bulk reaction parameter relating it with the organic carbon. The model is validated and applied to study the sensitive behavior of the components using a hypothetical network. The developed model is able to simulate the biodegradable organic carbon threshold in accordance with the values reported in the literature. The spread of contaminant intruded into the system at any location can also be simulated by the model. The multicomponent model developed is useful for water supply authorities in identifying the locations with high substrate concentrations, bacterial growth and lower chlorine residuals.

  19. Hydrodynamic theory of diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Detailed numerical simulations of multicomponent plasmas require tractable expressions for species diffusion fluxes, which must be consistent with the given plasma current density J{sub q} to preserve local charge neutrality. The common situation in which J{sub q} = 0 is referred to as ambipolar diffusion. The use of formal kinetic theory in this context leads to results of formidable complexity. We derive simple tractable approximations for the diffusion fluxes in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas by means of a generalization of the hydrodynamical approach used by Maxwell, Stefan, Furry, and Williams. The resulting diffusion fluxes obey generalized Stefan-Maxwell equations that contain driving forces corresponding to ordinary, forced, pressure, and thermal diffusion. The ordinary diffusion fluxes are driven by gradients in pressure fractions rather than mole fractions. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are systematically exploited and lead to a general expression for the ambipolar electric field in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity. We present a self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation for the diffusion fluxes. This approximation is well suited to numerical implementation and is currently in use in our LAVA computer code for simulating multicomponent thermal plasmas. Applications to date include a successful simulation of demixing effects in an argon-helium plasma jet, for which selected computational results are presented. Generalizations of the diffusion theory to finite electrical conductivity and nonzero magnetic field are currently in progress.

  20. An investigation of the iron-sulphur proteins of benzene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida by electron-spin-resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Geary, P J; Saboowalla, F; Patil, D; Cammack, R

    1984-01-01

    Benzene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida comprises three components, namely a flavoprotein (NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; Mr 81000), an intermediate electron-transfer protein, or ferredoxin (Mr 12000) with a [2Fe-2S] cluster, and a terminal dioxygenase containing two [2Fe-2S] iron-sulphur clusters (Mr 215000), which requires two additional Fe2+ atoms/molecule for oxygenase activity. The ferredoxin and the dioxygenase give e.s.r. signals in the reduced state with rhombic symmetry and average g values of 1.92 and 1.896 respectively. The mid-point redox potentials were determined by e.s.r. titration at pH 7.0 to be -155 mV and -112 mV respectively. The signal from the dioxygenase shows pronounced g anisotropy and most closely resembles those of 4-methoxybenzoate mono-oxygenase from Pseudomonas putida and the [2Fe-2S] 'Rieske' proteins of the quinone-cytochrome c region of electron-transport chains of respiration and photosynthesis. PMID:6324743

  1. Functional Identification of a Novel Gene, moaE, for 3-Succinoylpyridine Degradation in Pseudomonas putida S16

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Tang, Hongzhi; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Microbial degradation of N-heterocyclic compounds, including xanthine, quinoline, nicotinate, and nicotine, frequently requires molybdenum hydroxylases. The intramolecular electron transfer chain of molybdenum hydroxylases consists of a molybdenum cofactor, two distinct [2Fe-2S] clusters, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. 3-Succinoylpyridine monooxygenase (Spm), responsible for the transformation from 3-succinoylpyridine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine, is a crucial enzyme in the pyrrolidine pathway of nicotine degradation in Pseudomonas. Our previous work revealed that the heterotrimeric enzyme (SpmA, SpmB, and SpmC) requires molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide as a cofactor for their activities. In this study, we knocked out four genes, including PPS_1556, PPS_2936, PPS_4063, and PPS_4397, and found that a novel gene, PPS_4397 encoding moaE, is necessary for molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide biosynthesis. Resting cell reactions of the moaE deletion mutant incubated with 3 g l−1 nicotine at 30 °C resulted in accumulation of 3-succinoylpyridine, and the strain complemented by the moaE gene regained the ability to convert 3-succinoylpyridine. In addition, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the transcriptional levels of the genes of moaE, spmA, and spmC of Pseudomonas putida S16 were distinctly higher when grown in nicotine medium than in glycerol medium. PMID:26304596

  2. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  3. Pseudomonas blight discovered on raspberry in Watsonville

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the winter (February) of 2013, a field of raspberries in Watsonville was discovered to be infected with Pseudomonas syringae, the causal agent of Pseudomonas blight disease. This was the first documentation of this disease on raspberry in our region. The infection of raspberry plants is manifeste...

  4. Recent developments for Pseudomonas vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Krause, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a major health problem for immune-compromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis. A vaccine against P. aeruginosa has long been sought after, but is so far not available. Several vaccine candidates have been assessed in experimental animals and humans, which include sub-cellular fractions, capsule components, purified and recombinant proteins. Unique characteristics of the host and the pathogen have complicated the vaccine development. This review summarizes the current state of vaccine development for this ubiquitous pathogen, in particular to provide mucosal immunity against infections of the respiratory tract in susceptible individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:21941090

  5. Transcriptional regulation of the grape cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene CYP736B expression in response to Xylella fastidiosa infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) mediate synthesis and metabolism of many physiologically important primary and secondary compounds that are related to plant defense against a range of pathogenic microbes and insects. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in defense response to Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) infection, we investigated expression and regulatory mechanisms of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP736B gene in both disease resistant and susceptible grapevines. Results Cloning of genomic DNA and cDNA revealed that the CYP736B gene was composed of two exons and one intron with GT as a donor site and AG as an acceptor site. CYP736B transcript was up-regulated in PD-resistant plants and down-regulated in PD-susceptible plants 6 weeks after Xf inoculation. However, CYP736B expression was very low in stem tissues at all evaluated time points. 5'RACE and 3'RACE sequence analyses revealed that there were three candidate transcription start sites (TSS) in the upstream region and three candidate polyadenylation (PolyA) sites in the downstream region of CYP736B. Usage frequencies of each transcription initiation site and each polyadenylation site varied depending on plant genotype, developmental stage, tissue, and treatment. These results demonstrate that expression of CYP736B is regulated developmentally and in response to Xf infection at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Multiple transcription start and polyadenylation sites contribute to regulation of CYP736B expression. Conclusions This report provides evidence that the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP736B gene is involved in defense response at a specific stage of Xf infection in grapevines; multiple transcription initiation and polyadenylation sites exist for CYP736B in grapevine; and coordinative and selective use of transcription initiation and polyadenylation sites play an important role in regulation of CYP736B expression during growth

  6. Role of hepatic monooxygenases in generating estrogenic metabolites from methoxychlor and from its identified contaminants.

    PubMed

    Bulger, W H; Feil, V J; Kupfer, D

    1985-01-01

    Previous investigations demonstrated that methoxychlor [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane] contains estrogenic contaminants and that methoxychlor per se is not an estrogen but is a proestrogen being metabolized in vivo into estrogenic products. The present study examined structurally identified methoxychlor contaminants as to their estrogenic or proestrogenic properties. Also, the estrogenic activity of demethylated metabolites of methoxychlor and of one contaminant was determined. To examine these properties, we utilized an assay developed by us that monitors whether a given compound, incubated with isolated rat uteri, can diminish the uterine cytosolic estrogen receptor and elevate the nuclear estrogen receptor and whether metabolic intervention by hepatic microsomal monooxygenase(s) is required by the respective compound for this cellular redistribution of the receptor. Of the 15 compounds examined which constitute with methoxychlor 99.5% of total technical grade methoxychlor, two compounds, 1,1-dichloro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethene (mono-OH-MDDE) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane (mono-OH-methoxychlor), were active per se and two compounds, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethene (MDDE) and methoxychlor, required metabolic transformation for estrogenic activity to be manifested. Subsequently, it was shown that the mono- and bis-OH metabolites of MDDE and of methoxychlor were active estrogens and that the order of activity, either by the above procedure or in terms of relative binding affinity to rat uterine cytosolic receptor, was as follows: bis-OH-MDDE much greater than bis-OH-methoxychlor greater than mono-OH-MDDE greater than mono-OH-methoxychlor. Following the in vitro observations, the activity of MDDE and bis-OH-MDDE was determined in vivo in immature rats. It appears that both compounds are estrogenic, yielding marked elevation in ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17) levels and moderate

  7. Identification and treatment of heme depletion attributed to overexpression of a lineage of evolved P450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Michener, Joshua K; Nielsen, Jens; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-11-20

    Recent advances in metabolic engineering have demonstrated that microbial biosynthesis can provide a viable alternative to chemical synthesis for the production of bulk and fine chemicals. Introduction of a new biosynthetic pathway typically requires the expression of multiple heterologous enzymes in the production host, which can impose stress on the host cell and, thereby, limit performance of the pathway. Unfortunately, analysis and treatment of the host stress response can be difficult, because there are many sources of stress that may interact in complex ways. We use a systems biological approach to analyze the stress imposed by expressing different enzyme variants from a lineage of soluble P450 monooxygenases, previously evolved for heterologous activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our analysis identifies patterns of stress imposed on the host by heterologous enzyme overexpression that are consistent across the evolutionary lineage, ultimately implicating heme depletion as the major stress. We show that the monooxygenase evolution, starting from conditions of either high or low stress, caused the cellular stress to converge to a common level. Overexpression of rate-limiting enzymes in the endogenous heme biosynthetic pathway alleviates the stress imposed by expression of the P450 monooxygenases and increases the enzymatic activity of the final evolved P450 by an additional 2.3-fold. Heme overexpression also increases the total activity of an endogenous cytosolic heme-containing catalase but not a heterologous P450 that is membrane-associated. This work demonstrates the utility of combining systems and synthetic biology to analyze and optimize heterologous enzyme expression.

  8. Regioselective Versatility of Monooxygenase Reactions Catalyzed by CYP2B6 and CYP3A4: Examples with Single Substrates.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio A; Deo, Anand K; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have broad and overlapping substrate specificity and catalyze a variety of monooxygenase reactions, including aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylations, N-hydroxylations, oxygenations of heteroatoms (N, S, P and I), alkene and arene epoxidations, dehalogenations, dehydrogenations and N-, O- and S-dealkylations. Individual CYP enzymes typically catalyze the oxidative metabolism of a common substrate in a regioselective and stereoselective manner. In addition, different CYP enzymes often utilize different monooxygenase reactions when oxidizing a common substrate. This review examines various oxidative reactions catalyzed by a CYP enzyme acting on a single substrate. In the first example, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a halogenated aromatic environmental contaminant, was oxidatively biotransformed by human CYP2B6. Nine different metabolites of BDE-47 were produced by CYP2B6 via monooxygenase reactions that included aromatic hydroxylation, with and without an NIH-shift, dealkylation and debromination. In the second example, lithocholic acid (3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid), an endogenous bile acid, served as a substrate for human CYP3A4 and yielded five different metabolites via aliphatic hydroxylation and dehydrogenation reactions.

  9. Enzyme distribution in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    CAMPBELL, J J; HOGGLA; STRASDINE, G A

    1962-05-01

    Campbell, J. J. R. (The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada), Loretta A. Hogg, and G. A. Strasdine. Enzyme distribution in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 83:1155-1160. 1962.-Previous studies on the distribution of enzymes in bacteria have indicated that, although individual enzymes were predominantly associated with a particular cellular structure, nevertheless some of the enzyme appeared to be present in all cellular fractions. In the present work with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it was shown that, in general, an enzyme is present in only one cellular component. Hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase, gluconic dehydrogenase, malic dehydrogenase, fumarase, isocitric dehydrogenase, isocitritase, and catalase were detected only in the soluble cytoplasm of the cell. Glucose oxidase and succinic dehydrogenase were detected only in the "ghost" fraction. Diphosphopyridine nucleotide oxidase was present in both "ghost" and ribosomal fractions but was most concentrated in the "ghost". Although adenylic kinase was found to be present in all fractions, it was possible to fractionate cells so that almost all of the activity was associated with the soluble cytoplasm a minor amount being associated with the "ghost." Adenosine triphosphatase was most concentrated in the "ghost" but appreciable activity appeared in the cytoplasm. Polynucleotide phosphorylase appeared to be the only enzyme that was convincingly associated with the ribosomes. However, a small amount of activity was associated with the soluble cytoplasm and with the "ghosts."

  10. Crystal structure of the terminal oxygenase component of cumene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuesong; Fushinobu, Shinya; Fukuda, Eriko; Terada, Tohru; Nakamura, Shugo; Shimizu, Kentaro; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Shoun, Hirofumi; Wakagi, Takayoshi

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structure of the terminal component of the cumene dioxygenase multicomponent enzyme system of Pseudomonas fluorescens IP01 (CumDO) was determined at a resolution of 2.2 A by means of molecular replacement by using the crystal structure of the terminal oxygenase component of naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 (NphDO). The ligation of the two catalytic centers of CumDO (i.e., the nonheme iron and Rieske [2Fe-2S] centers) and the bridging between them in neighboring catalytic subunits by hydrogen bonds through a single amino acid residue, Asp231, are similar to those of NphDO. An unidentified external ligand, possibly dioxygen, was bound at the active site nonheme iron. The entrance to the active site of CumDO is different from the entrance to the active site of NphDO, as the two loops forming the lid exhibit great deviation. On the basis of the complex structure of NphDO, a biphenyl substrate was modeled in the substrate-binding pocket of CumDO. The residues surrounding the modeled biphenyl molecule include residues that have already been shown to be important for its substrate specificity by a number of engineering studies of biphenyl dioxygenases.

  11. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s(-1), respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases.

  12. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s−1, respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases. PMID:26319870

  13. A novel non-hydrolytic protein from Pseudomonas oryzihabitans enhances the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi-Min; Tao, Heng; Liu, You-Yan; Wang, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Jing-Ru; Tang, Ai-Xing

    2013-10-10

    Several kinds of protein such as the expansin, expansin-like proteins and LPMOs (lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases) are known to exert enhancement effects on cellulase activity. In this study, a novel cellulase synergistic protein named POEP1 was purified from the culture filtrate of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans CGMCC 6169, and was homogeneous on SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 60kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that it was an unknown protein without sequence similarity to the expansin and expansin-like proteins. Evaluation of the enzymatic hydrolysis of filter paper revealed that POEP1 had no cellulase activity but displayed high synergistic activity of 364% at a cellulase concentration of 0.1FPU/g of filter paper. When a mixture containing 0.6FPU cellulase and 700μg POEP1 per g of cellulose was evaluated, the maximal sugar yield was achieved, which was 2.2-fold greater than that with the cellulase alone. POEP1 was found to have functional similarity to the expansin and expansin-like proteins, which could decrease both the hydrogen-bond intensity and crystallinity, and cause the filter paper disruption. This study provided evidence for the existence of novel bacterial proteins in nature serving the same function as expansin and expansin-like proteins.

  14. Structural and mechanistic insight into alkane hydroxylation by Pseudomonas putida AlkB.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Hernan; Kleifeld, Oded; Yeheskel, Adva; Ong, Poh C; Liu, Yu C; Stok, Jeanette E; De Voss, James J; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida GPo1 alkane hydroxylase (AlkB) is an integral membrane protein that catalyses the hydroxylation of medium-chain alkanes (C3-C12). 1-Octyne irreversibly inhibits this non-haem di-iron mono-oxygenase under turnover conditions, suggesting that it acts as a mechanism-based inactivator. Upon binding to the active site, 1-octyne is postulated to be oxidized to an oxirene that rapidly rearranges to a reactive ketene which covalently acylates nearby residues, resulting in enzyme inactivation. In analysis of inactivated AlkB by LC-MS/MS, several residues exhibited a mass increase of 126.1 Da, corresponding to the octanoyl moiety derived from oxidative activation of 1-octyne. Mutagenesis studies of conserved acylated residues showed that Lys18 plays a critical role in enzyme function, as a single-point mutation of Lys18 to alanine (K18A) completely abolished enzymatic activity. Finally, we present a computational 3D model structure of the transmembrane domain of AlkB, which revealed the overall packing arrangement of the transmembrane helices within the lipid bilayer and the location of the active site mapped by the 1-octyne modifications.

  15. Metabolism of tryptophan by Pseudomonas aureofaciens and its relationship to pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Salcher, O; Lingens, F

    1980-12-01

    Studies on the metabolism of tryptophan in Pseudomonas aureofaciens ATCC 15926 revealed different metabolic routes for the L- and D-isomer besides the biosynthetic pathway for pyrrolnitrin synthesis. L-Tryptophan catabolism follows the aromatic route via anthranilic acid. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase were induced by L-tryptophan. Kynureninase and anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase were induced by L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine and anthranilic acid. Anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase was absent from a mutant strain of P. aureofaciens ATCC 19526 which produced about 30-fold increased amounts of pyrrolnitrin. The Km values of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and kynureninase did not differ substantially between the two strains. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase, 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase, tryptophanase and indolyl-3-alkane alpha-hydroxylase activities were not detected. D- and L-tryptophan were converted to indole-3-acetic acid. This additional catabolic pathway was well as tryptophan racemase activity was constitutive and present in both strains.

  16. An improved procedure for the purification of catalytically active alkane hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida GPo1.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meng; Alonso, Hernan; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Bacterial alkane hydroxylases are of high interest for bioremediation applications as they allow some bacteria to grow in oil-contaminated environments. Furthermore, they have tremendous biotechnological potential as they catalyse the stereo- and regio-specific hydroxylation of chemically inert alkanes, which can then be used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other high-cost chemicals. Despite their potential, progress on the detailed characterization of these systems has so far been slow mainly due to the lack of a robust procedure to purify its membrane protein component, monooxygenase AlkB, in a stable and active form. This study reports a new method for isolating milligramme amounts of recombinant Pseudomonas putida GPo1 AlkB in a folded, catalytically active form to purity levels above 90%. AlkB solubilised and purified in the detergent lauryldimethylamine oxide was demonstrated to be active in catalysing the epoxidation reaction of 1-octene with an estimated K (m) value of 0.2 mM.

  17. Biotransformation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine by Pseudomonas mendocina KR1▿

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Diane; Hawari, Jalal; Streger, Sheryl H.; McClay, Kevin; Hatzinger, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a potent carcinogen and an emerging contaminant in groundwater and drinking water. The metabolism of NDMA in mammalian cells has been widely studied, but little information is available concerning the microbial transformation of this compound. The objective of this study was to elucidate the pathway(s) of NDMA biotransformation by Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, a strain that possesses toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO). P. mendocina KR1 was observed to initially oxidize NDMA to N-nitrodimethylamine (NTDMA), a novel metabolite. The use of 18O2 and H218O revealed that the oxygen added to NDMA to produce NTDMA was derived from atmospheric O2. Experiments performed with a pseudomonad expressing cloned T4MO confirmed that T4MO catalyzes this initial reaction. The NTDMA produced by P. mendocina KR1 did not accumulate, but rather it was metabolized further to produce N-nitromethylamine (88 to 94% recovery) and a trace amount of formaldehyde (HCHO). Small quantities of methanol (CH3OH) were also detected when the strain was incubated with NDMA but not during incubation with either NTDMA or HCHO. The formation of methanol is hypothesized to occur via a second, minor pathway mediated by an initial α-hydroxylation of the nitrosamine. Strain KR1 did not grow on NDMA or mineralize significant quantities of the compound to carbon dioxide, suggesting that the degradation process is cometabolic. PMID:16950909

  18. Safety assessment of dicamba mono-oxygenases that confer dicamba tolerance to various crops.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cunxi; Glenn, Kevin C; Kessenich, Colton; Bell, Erin; Burzio, Luis A; Koch, Michael S; Li, Bin; Silvanovich, Andre

    2016-11-01

    Dicamba tolerant (DT) soybean, cotton and maize were developed through constitutive expression of dicamba mono-oxygenase (DMO) in chloroplasts. DMO expressed in three DT crops exhibit 91.6-97.1% amino acid sequence identity to wild type DMO. All DMO forms maintain the characteristics of Rieske oxygenases that have a history of safe use. Additionally, they are all functionally similar in vivo since the three DT crops are all tolerant to dicamba treatment. None of these DMO sequences were found to have similarity to any known allergens or toxins. Herein, to further understand the safety of these DMO variants, a weight of evidence approach was employed. Each purified DMO protein was found to be completely deactivated in vitro by heating at temperatures 55 °C and above, and all were completely digested within 30 s or 5 min by pepsin and pancreatin, respectively. Mice orally dosed with each of these DMO proteins showed no adverse effects as evidenced by analysis of body weight gain, food consumption and clinical observations. Therefore, the weight of evidence from all these protein safety studies support the conclusion that the various forms of DMO proteins introduced into DT soybean, cotton and maize are safe for food and feed consumption, and the small amino acid sequence differences outside the active site of DMO do not raise any additional safety concerns.

  19. Phenylalanine monooxygenase and the sulfur oxygenation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine in mice.

    PubMed

    Vandenbossche, Evita; Lucas, Christopher; Mistry, Lata; Garfield, Emma; Mitchell, Stephen C; Steventon, Glyn B

    2016-01-01

    1. The extent of sulfoxidation of the drug, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, has been shown to vary between individuals, with this phenomenon being mooted as a biomarker for certain disease states and susceptibilities. Studies in vitro have indicated that the enzyme responsible for this reaction was phenylalanine monooxygenase but to date no in vivo evidence exists to support this assumption. Using the mouse models of mild hyperphenylalaninamia (enu1 PAH variant) and classical phenylketonuria (enu2 PAH variant), the sulfur oxygenation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine has been investigated. 2. Compared to the wild type (wt/wt) mice, both the heterozygous dominant (wt/enu1 and wt/enu2) mice and the homozygous recessive (enu1/enu1 and enu2/enu2) mice were shown to have significantly increased Cmax, AUC(0-180 min) and AUC(0-∞ min) values (15 - to 20-fold higher). These results were primarily attributable to the significantly reduced clearance of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (13 - to 22-fold lower). 3. Only the wild type mice produced measurable quantities of the parent S-oxide metabolites. Those mice possessing one or more allelic variant showed no evidence of blood SCMC (R/S) S-oxides. These observations support the proposition that differences in phenylalanine hydroxylase activity underlie the variation in S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine sulfoxidation and that no other enzyme is able to undertake this reaction.

  20. Molecular phylogeny, long-term evolution, and functional divergence of flavin-containing monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hao, Da Cheng; Chen, Shi Lin; Mu, Jun; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2009-11-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) metabolize xenobiotic compounds, many of which are clinically important, as well as endogenous substrates as part of a discrete physiological process. The FMO gene family is conserved and ancient with representatives present in all phyla so far examined. However, there is a lack of information regarding the long-term evolution and functional divergence of these proteins. This study represents the first attempt to characterize the long-term evolution followed by the members of this family. Our analysis shows that there is extensive silent divergence at the nucleotide level suggesting that this family has been subject to strong purifying selection at the protein level. Invertebrate FMOs have a polyphyletic origin. The functional divergence of FMOs 1-5 started before the split between amphibians and mammals. The vertebrate FMO5 is more ancestral than other four FMOs. Moreover, the existence of higher levels of codon bias was detected at the N-terminal ends, which can be ascribed to the critical role played by the FAD binding motif in this region. Finally, critical amino acid residues for FMO functional divergence (type I & II) after gene duplication were detected and characterized.

  1. Isolation and functional expression of human pancreatic peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, K; Arakawa, F; Misumi, Y; Treston, A M; Vos, M; Matsuoka, Y

    1994-11-30

    Pancreastatin (PST) is processed from chromogranin A and the C-terminal amide of the peptide is an absolute requirement for biological activities. Human pancreatic carcinoma cells QGP-1 which produce both chromogranin A and PST were used to isolate cDNAs encoding two forms of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM). The two forms are a full length bifunctional enzyme and a variant lacking the transmembrane domain-coding region. When the cDNAs of these two forms were expressed in COS-7 cells, cells transfected with the predicted soluble form released into the culture medium a very much higher amidating activity which converts human chromogranin A-(273-302) to PST-29. The optimal pH for amidating activity was 5.4 and Cu2+, ascorbate and catalase were required as cofactors for the both forms of PAM. Km values for the membrane-bound and the soluble forms of PAM were 15.7 +/- 3.1 microM and 12.4 +/- 1.6 microM, respectively. These results demonstrate that both forms of PAM can function in the posttranslational processing of chromogranin A to PST in the environment of a secretory vesicle.

  2. C. elegans flavin-containing monooxygenase-4 is essential for osmoregulation in hypotonic stress

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Nisha; Westenberg, Marcel; Seed, Paul T.; Petalcorin, Mark I. R.; Dolphin, Colin T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have revealed osmoregulatory systems engaged when worms experience hypertonic conditions, but less is known about measures employed when faced with hypotonic stress. Inactivation of fmo-4, which encodes flavin-containing monooxygenase-4, results in dramatic hypoosmotic hypersensitivity; worms are unable to prevent overwhelming water influx and swell rapidly, finally rupturing due to high internal hydrostatic pressure. fmo-4 is expressed prominently in hypodermis, duct and pore cells but is excluded from the excretory cell. Thus, FMO-4 plays a crucial osmoregulatory role by promoting clearance of excess water that enters during hypotonicity, perhaps by synthesizing an osmolyte that acts to establish an osmotic gradient from excretory cell to duct and pore cells. C. elegans FMO-4 contains a C-terminal extension conserved in all nematode FMO-4s. The coincidently numbered human FMO4 also contains an extended C-terminus with features similar to those of FMO-4. Although these shared sequence characteristics suggest potential orthology, human FMO4 was unable to rescue the fmo-4 osmoregulatory defect. Intriguingly, however, mammalian FMO4 is expressed predominantly in the kidney – an appropriate site if it too is, or once was, involved in osmoregulation. PMID:27010030

  3. Flavin-containing monooxygenase, a new clue of pathological proteins in the rotenone model of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Li, Boyu; Yuan, Yuhe; Zhang, Wanqing; He, Wenbin; Hu, Jinfeng; Chen, Naihong

    2014-04-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc) and accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein in brain areas. Rotenone is a neurotoxin that is routinely used to model PD, thus to help us understand the mechanisms of neural death. Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), usually known as an important hepatic microsomal enzyme like cytochrome P450, was found to play a role in the brain recent years. In our study we aimed to find out the role that FMO might play in PD pathology. Thus we successfully generated rotenone model in primary midbrain dopaminergic neurons and identified the apoptosis of neurons caused by rotenone. We found that in rotenone model of Parkinsonism, the expression/protein level of parkin and FMO1 were decreased accompanied by the activation of caspase 3. Blocking FMO activity by FMO inhibitor methimazole directly caused activation of caspase 3, meanwhile parkin protein level was decreased. Our data indicated that FMO, whose dysfunction could be a reason for the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in rotenone model, might be a new clue of pathological proteins in rotenone model of parkinsonism. Meanwhile, it was suggested that parkin function was compromised in neuro-pathological states, thereby further adding to the cellular survival stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kynurenine-3-monooxygenase inhibition prevents multiple organ failure in rodent models of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mole, Damian J; Webster, Scott P; Uings, Iain; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Binnie, Margaret; Wilson, Kris; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Mirguet, Olivier; Walker, Ann; Beaufils, Benjamin; Ancellin, Nicolas; Trottet, Lionel; Bénéton, Véronique; Mowat, Christopher G; Wilkinson, Martin; Rowland, Paul; Haslam, Carl; McBride, Andrew; Homer, Natalie Z M; Baily, James E; Sharp, Matthew G F; Garden, O James; Hughes, Jeremy; Howie, Sarah E M; Holmes, Duncan S; Liddle, John; Iredale, John P

    2016-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and devastating inflammatory condition of the pancreas that is considered to be a paradigm of sterile inflammation leading to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Acute mortality from AP-MODS exceeds 20% (ref. 3), and the lifespans of those who survive the initial episode are typically shorter than those of the general population. There are no specific therapies available to protect individuals from AP-MODS. Here we show that kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme of tryptophan metabolism, is central to the pathogenesis of AP-MODS. We created a mouse strain that is deficient for Kmo (encoding KMO) and that has a robust biochemical phenotype that protects against extrapancreatic tissue injury to the lung, kidney and liver in experimental AP-MODS. A medicinal chemistry strategy based on modifications of the kynurenine substrate led to the discovery of the oxazolidinone GSK180 as a potent and specific inhibitor of KMO. The binding mode of the inhibitor in the active site was confirmed by X-ray co-crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. Treatment with GSK180 resulted in rapid changes in the levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites in vivo, and it afforded therapeutic protection against MODS in a rat model of AP. Our findings establish KMO inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AP-MODS, and they open up a new area for drug discovery in critical illness.

  5. Kynurenine–3–monooxygenase inhibition prevents multiple organ failure in rodent models of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Damian J; Webster, Scott P; Uings, Iain; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Binnie, Margaret; Wilson, Kris; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Mirguet, Olivier; Walker, Ann; Beaufils, Benjamin; Ancellin, Nicolas; Trottet, Lionel; Bénéton, Véronique; Mowat, Christopher G; Wilkinson, Martin; Rowland, Paul; Haslam, Carl; McBride, Andrew; Homer, Natalie ZM; Baily, James E; Sharp, Matthew GF; Garden, O James; Hughes, Jeremy; Howie, Sarah EM; Holmes, Duncan S; Liddle, John; Iredale, John P

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and devastating inflammatory condition of the pancreas that is considered to be a paradigm of sterile inflammation leading to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death1,2 Acute mortality from AP-MODS exceeds 20%3 and for those who survive the initial episode, their lifespan is typically shorter than the general population4. There are no specific therapies available that protect individuals against AP-MODS. Here, we show that kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme of tryptophan metabolism5, is central to the pathogenesis of AP-MODS. We created a mouse strain deficient for Kmo with a robust biochemical phenotype that protected against extrapancreatic tissue injury to lung, kidney and liver in experimental AP-MODS. A medicinal chemistry strategy based on modifications of the kynurenine substrate led to the discovery of GSK180 as a potent and specific inhibitor of KMO. The binding mode of the inhibitor in the active site was confirmed by X-ray co-crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. Treatment with GSK180 resulted in rapid changes in levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites in vivo and afforded therapeutic protection against AP-MODS in a rat model of AP. Our findings establish KMO inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AP-MODS and open up a new area for drug discovery in critical illness. PMID:26752518

  6. Production of four Neurospora crassa lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in Pichia pastoris monitored by a fluorimetric assay.

    PubMed

    Kittl, Roman; Kracher, Daniel; Burgstaller, Daniel; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-10-26

    Recent studies demonstrate that enzymes from the glycosyl hydrolase family 61 (GH61) show lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (PMO) activity. Together with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) an enzymatic system capable of oxidative cellulose cleavage is formed, which increases the efficiency of cellulases and put PMOs at focus of biofuel research. Large amounts of purified PMOs, which are difficult to obtain from the native fungal producers, are needed to study their reaction kinetics, structure and industrial application. In addition, a fast and robust enzymatic assay is necessary to monitor enzyme production and purification. Four pmo genes from Neurospora crassa were expressed in P. pastoris under control of the AOX1 promoter. High yields were obtained for the glycosylated gene products PMO-01867, PMO-02916 and PMO-08760 (>300 mg L-1), whereas the yield of non-glycosylated PMO-03328 was moderate (~45 mg L-1). The production and purification of all four enzymes was specifically followed by a newly developed, fast assay based on a side reaction of PMO: the production of H2O2 in the presence of reductants. While ascorbate is a suitable reductant for homogeneous PMO preparations, fermentation samples require the specific electron donor CDH. P. pastoris is a high performing expression host for N. crassa PMOs. The pmo genes under control of the native signal sequence are correctly processed and active. The novel CDH-based enzyme assay allows fast determination of PMO activity in fermentation samples and is robust against interfering matrix components.

  7. Localization of genes encoding three distinct flavin-containing monooxygenases to human chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.A.; Fox, M.F.; Povey, S. ); Dolphin, C.T.; Phillips, I.R.; Smith, R. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors have used the polymerase chain reaction to map the gene encoding human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) form II (N. Lomri, Q. Gu, and J. R. Cashman, 1992, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 1685--1689) to chromosome 1. They propose the designation FMO3 for this gene as it is the third FMO gene to be mapped. The two other human FMO genes identified to date, FMO1 and FMO2, are also located on chromosome 1 (C. Dolphin, E. A. Shephard, S. Povey, C. N. A. Palmer, D. M. Ziegler, R. Ayesh, R. L. Smith, and 1. R. Phillips, 1991, J. Biol. Chem. 266: 12379--12385; C. Dolphin, E. A. Shephard, S. F. Povey, R. L. Smith, and I. R. Phillips, 1992, Biochem. J. 286: 261--267). The localization of FMO1, FMO2, and FMO3 has been refined to the long arm of chromosome 1. Analysis of human metaphase chromosomes by in situ hybridization confirmed the mapping of FMO1 and localized this gene more precisely to 1 q23-q25. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Crystal Structures of Cyclohexanone Monooxygenase Reveal Complex Domain Movements and a Sliding Cofactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mirza, I.; Yachnin, B; Wang, S; Grosse, S; Bergeron, H; Imura, A; Iwaki, H; Hasegawa, Y; Lau, P; Berghuis, A

    2009-01-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) is a flavoprotein that carries out the archetypical Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of a variety of cyclic ketones into lactones. Using NADPH and O{sub 2} as cosubstrates, the enzyme inserts one atom of oxygen into the substrate in a complex catalytic mechanism that involves the formation of a flavin-peroxide and Criegee intermediate. We present here the atomic structures of CHMO from an environmental Rhodococcus strain bound with FAD and NADP+ in two distinct states, to resolutions of 2.3 and 2.2 {angstrom}. The two conformations reveal domain shifts around multiple linkers and loop movements, involving conserved arginine 329 and tryptophan 492, which effect a translation of the nicotinamide resulting in a sliding cofactor. Consequently, the cofactor is ideally situated and subsequently repositioned during the catalytic cycle to first reduce the flavin and later stabilize formation of the Criegee intermediate. Concurrent movements of a loop adjacent to the active site demonstrate how this protein can effect large changes in the size and shape of the substrate binding pocket to accommodate a diverse range of substrates. Finally, the previously identified BVMO signature sequence is highlighted for its role in coordinating domain movements. Taken together, these structures provide mechanistic insights into CHMO-catalyzed Baeyer-Villiger oxidation.

  9. Lead discovery for human kynurenine 3-monooxygenase by high-throughput RapidFire mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Denise M; Gee, Michelle; Haslam, Carl; Leavens, Bill; Christodoulou, Erica; Hissey, Paul; Hardwicke, Philip; Argyrou, Argyrides; Webster, Scott P; Mole, Damian J; Wilson, Kris; Binnie, Margaret; Yard, Beverley A; Dean, Tony; Liddle, John; Uings, Iain; Hutchinson, Jonathan P

    2014-04-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a therapeutically important target on the eukaryotic tryptophan catabolic pathway, where it converts L-kynurenine (Kyn) to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK). We have cloned and expressed the human form of this membrane protein as a full-length GST-fusion in a recombinant baculovirus expression system. An enriched membrane preparation was used for a directed screen of approximately 78,000 compounds using a RapidFire mass spectrometry (RF-MS) assay. The RapidFire platform provides an automated solid-phase extraction system that gives a throughput of approximately 7 s per well to the mass spectrometer, where direct measurement of both the substrate and product allowed substrate conversion to be determined. The RF-MS methodology is insensitive to assay interference, other than where compounds have the same nominal mass as Kyn or 3-HK and produce the same mass transition on fragmentation. These instances could be identified by comparison with the product-only data. The screen ran with excellent performance (average Z' value 0.8) and provided several tractable hit series for further investigation.

  10. Emerging Roles of Flavin Monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) in Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Schugar, Rebecca C.; Brown, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remain the largest cause of mortality worldwide. Several recent studies have discovered that metabolism of common nutrients by gut microbes can produce a proatherogenic metabolite called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). The goal of this review is to discuss emerging evidence that the hepatic enzyme that generates TMAO, flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), plays a regulatory role in maintaining whole body cholesterol balance and atherosclerosis development. Recent Findings Several independent studies have recently uncovered a link between either FMO3 itself or its enzymatic product TMAO with atherosclerosis and hepatic insulin resistance. These recent studies show that inhibition of FMO3 stimulates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and protects against atherosclerosis in mice. Summary A growing body of work demonstrates that nutrients present in high fat foods (phosphatidylcholine, choline, and L-carnitine) can be metabolized by the gut microbial enzymes to generate trimethylamine (TMA), which is then further metabolized by the host enzyme FMO3 to produce proatherogenic TMAO. Here we discuss emerging evidence that the TMAO producing enzyme FMO3 is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by regulating cholesterol metabolism and insulin resistance, and how these new insights provide exciting new avenues for CVD therapies. PMID:26218418

  11. Flavin containing monooxygenase 3 exerts broad effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Diana M.; Wang, Zeneng; Lee, Richard; Meng, Yonghong; Che, Nam; Charugundla, Sarada; Qi, Hannah; Wu, Judy; Pan, Calvin; Brown, J. Mark; Vallim, Thomas; Bennett, Brian J.; Graham, Mark; Hazen, Stanley L.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    We performed silencing and overexpression studies of flavin containing monooxygenase (FMO) 3 in hyperlipidemic mouse models to examine its effects on trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels and atherosclerosis. Knockdown of hepatic FMO3 in LDL receptor knockout mice using an antisense oligonucleotide resulted in decreased circulating TMAO levels and atherosclerosis. Surprisingly, we also observed significant decreases in hepatic lipids and in levels of plasma lipids, ketone bodies, glucose, and insulin. FMO3 overexpression in transgenic mice, on the other hand, increased hepatic and plasma lipids. Global gene expression analyses suggested that these effects of FMO3 on lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis may be mediated through the PPARα and Kruppel-like factor 15 pathways. In vivo and in vitro results were consistent with the concept that the effects were mediated directly by FMO3 rather than trimethylamine/TMAO; in particular, overexpression of FMO3 in the human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B, resulted in significantly increased glucose secretion and lipogenesis. Our results indicate a major role for FMO3 in modulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo, and they suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FMO3 to reduce TMAO levels would be confounded by metabolic interactions. PMID:25378658

  12. Characterization of maize cytochrome P450 monooxygenases induced in response to safeners and bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Persans, M W; Wang, J; Schuler, M A

    2001-02-01

    Plants use a diverse array of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in their biosynthetic and detoxification pathways. To determine the extent to which various maize P450s are induced in response to chemical inducers, such as naphthalic anhydride (NA), triasulfuron (T), phenobarbital, and bacterial pathogens (Erwinia stuartii, Acidovorax avenae), we have analyzed the response patterns of seven P450 transcripts after treatment of seedlings with these inducers. Each of these P450 transcripts has distinct developmental, tissue-specific, and chemical cues regulating their expression even when they encode P450s within the same biosynthetic pathway. Most notably, the CYP71C1 and CYP71C3 transcripts, encoding P450s in the DIMBOA biosynthetic pathway, are induced to the same level in response to wounding and NA treatment of younger seedlings and differentially in response to NA/T treatment of younger seedlings and NA and NA/T treatment of older seedlings. NA and T induce expression of both CYP92A1 and CYP72A5 transcripts in older seedling shoots, whereas phenobarbital induces CYP92A1 expression in older seedling shoots and highly induces CYP72A5 expression in young and older seedling roots. Expressed sequence tag (EST) 6c06b11 transcripts, encoding an undefined P450 activity, are highly induced in seedling shoots infected with bacterial pathogens.

  13. Characterization of Maize Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Induced in Response to Safeners and Bacterial Pathogens1

    PubMed Central

    Persans, Michael W.; Wang, Jian; Schuler, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Plants use a diverse array of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in their biosynthetic and detoxification pathways. To determine the extent to which various maize P450s are induced in response to chemical inducers, such as naphthalic anhydride (NA), triasulfuron (T), phenobarbital, and bacterial pathogens (Erwinia stuartii, Acidovorax avenae), we have analyzed the response patterns of seven P450 transcripts after treatment of seedlings with these inducers. Each of these P450 transcripts has distinct developmental, tissue-specific, and chemical cues regulating their expression even when they encode P450s within the same biosynthetic pathway. Most notably, the CYP71C1 and CYP71C3 transcripts, encoding P450s in the DIMBOA biosynthetic pathway, are induced to the same level in response to wounding and NA treatment of younger seedlings and differentially in response to NA/T treatment of younger seedlings and NA and NA/T treatment of older seedlings. NA and T induce expression of both CYP92A1 and CYP72A5 transcripts in older seedling shoots, whereas phenobarbital induces CYP92A1 expression in older seedling shoots and highly induces CYP72A5 expression in young and older seedling roots. Expressed sequence tag (EST) 6c06b11 transcripts, encoding an undefined P450 activity, are highly induced in seedling shoots infected with bacterial pathogens. PMID:11161067

  14. A C4-oxidizing Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Cleaving Both Cellulose and Cello-oligosaccharides*

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Trine; Westereng, Bjørge; Aachmann, Finn L.; Agger, Jane W.; Kracher, Daniel; Kittl, Roman; Ludwig, Roland; Haltrich, Dietmar; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Horn, Svein J.

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that significantly can substitute fossil resources for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials. Efficient saccharification of this biomass to fermentable sugars will be a key technology in future biorefineries. Traditionally, saccharification was thought to be accomplished by mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes. However, recently it has been shown that lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) contribute to this process by catalyzing oxidative cleavage of insoluble polysaccharides utilizing a mechanism involving molecular oxygen and an electron donor. These enzymes thus represent novel tools for the saccharification of plant biomass. Most characterized LPMOs, including all reported bacterial LPMOs, form aldonic acids, i.e., products oxidized in the C1 position of the terminal sugar. Oxidation at other positions has been observed, and there has been some debate concerning the nature of this position (C4 or C6). In this study, we have characterized an LPMO from Neurospora crassa (NcLPMO9C; also known as NCU02916 and NcGH61–3). Remarkably, and in contrast to all previously characterized LPMOs, which are active only on polysaccharides, NcLPMO9C is able to cleave soluble cello-oligosaccharides as short as a tetramer, a property that allowed detailed product analysis. Using mass spectrometry and NMR, we show that the cello-oligosaccharide products released by this enzyme contain a C4 gemdiol/keto group at the nonreducing end. PMID:24324265

  15. Soluble methane monooxygenase component B gene probe for identification of methanotrophs that rapidly degrade trichloroethylene.

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, H C; Hanson, R S

    1992-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Western blot (immunoblot) analysis, and fluorescence-labelled signature probes were used for the characterization of methanotrophic bacteria as well as for the identification of methanotrophs which contained the soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) gene and were able to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE). The gene encoding a soluble MMO component B protein from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was cloned. It contained a 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment. With this cloned component B gene as probe, methanotroph types I, II, and X and environmental and bioreactor samples were screened for the presence of the gene encoding soluble MMO. Fragments produced by digestion of DNA with rare cutting restriction endonucleases were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and transferred to Zeta-Probe membrane (Bio-Rad) for Southern blot analysis. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of soluble MMO by Western blot analysis and the ability to degrade TCE. The physiological groups of methanotrophs in each sample were determined by hybridizing cells with fluorescence-labelled signature probes. Among twelve pure or mixed cultures, DNA fragments of seven methanotrophs hybridized with the soluble MMO B gene probe. When grown in media with limited copper, all of these bacteria degraded TCE. All of them are type II methanotrophs. The soluble MMO component B gene of the type X methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, did not hybridize to the M. trichosporium OB3b soluble MMO component B gene probe, although M. capsulatus Bath also produces a soluble MMO. Images PMID:1349468

  16. Menkes protein contributes to the function of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Steveson, Tami C; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D; Ma, Xin-Ming; Mueller, Gregory P; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2003-01-01

    Menkes protein (ATP7A) is a P-type ATPase involved in copper uptake and homeostasis. Disturbed copper homeostasis occurs in patients with Menkes disease, an X-linked disorder characterized by mental retardation, neurodegeneration, connective tissue disorders, and early childhood death. Mutations in ATP7A result in malfunction of copper-requiring enzymes, such as tyrosinase and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase. The first step of the two-step amidation reaction carried out by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) also requires copper. We used tissue from wild-type rats and mice and an ATP7A-specific antibody to determine that ATP7A is expressed at high levels in tissues expressing high levels of PAM. ATP7A is largely localized to the trans Golgi network in pituitary endocrine cells. The Atp7a mouse, bearing a mutation in the Atp7a gene, is an excellent model system for examining the consequences of ATP7A malfunction. Despite normal levels of PAM protein, levels of several amidated peptides were reduced in pituitary and brain extracts of Atp7a mice, demonstrating that PAM function is compromised when ATP7A is inactive. Based on these results, we conclude that a reduction in the ability of PAM to produce bioactive end-products involved in neuronal growth and development could contribute to many of the biological effects associated with Menkes disease.

  17. Prediction and analysis of the modular structure of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) form a vast and diverse family of highly variable sequences. They catalyze a wide variety of oxidative reactions and are therefore of great relevance in drug development and biotechnological applications. Despite their differences in sequence and substrate specificity, the structures of CYPs are highly similar. Although being in research focus for years, factors mediating selectivity and activity remain vague. Description This systematic comparison of CYPs based on the Cytochrome P450 Engineering Database (CYPED) involved sequence and structure analysis of more than 8000 sequences. 31 structures have been applied to generate a reliable structure-based HMM profile in order to predict structurally conserved regions. Therefore, it was possible to automatically transfer these modules on CYP sequences without any secondary structure information, to analyze substrate interacting residues and to compare interaction sites with redox partners. Conclusions Functionally relevant structural sites of CYPs were predicted. Regions involved in substrate binding were analyzed in all sequences among the CYPED. For all CYPs that require a reductase, two reductase interaction sites were identified and classified according to their length. The newly gained insights promise an improvement of engineered enzyme properties for potential biotechnological application. The annotated sequences are accessible on the current version of the CYPED. The prediction tool can be applied to any CYP sequence via the web interface at http://www.cyped.uni-stuttgart.de/cgi-bin/strpred/dosecpred.pl. PMID:20950472

  18. Catalase improves saccharification of lignocellulose by reducing lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase-associated enzyme inactivation.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian R; Huang, Hong Zhi; Frickman, Jesper; Halvorsen, Rune; Johansen, Katja S

    2016-03-01

    Efficient enzymatic saccharification of plant cell wall material is key to industrial processing of agricultural and forestry waste such as straw and wood chips into fuels and chemicals. Saccharification assays were performed on steam-pretreated wheat straw under ambient and O2-deprived environments and in the absence and presence of a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) and catalase. A kinetic model was used to calculate catalytic rate and first-order inactivation rate constants of the cellulases from reaction progress curves. The addition of a LPMO significantly (P < 0.01, Student's T test) enhanced the rate of glucose release from 2.8 to 6.9 h(-1) under ambient O2 conditions. However, this also significantly (P < 0.01, Student's T test) increased the rate of inactivation of the enzyme mixture, thereby reducing the performance half-life from 65 to 35 h. Decreasing O2 levels or, strikingly, the addition of catalase significantly reduced (P < 0.01, Student's T test) enzyme inactivation and, as a consequence, higher efficiency of the cellulolytic enzyme cocktail was achieved. Oxidative inactivation of commercial cellulase mixtures is a significant factor influencing the overall saccharification efficiency and the addition of catalase can be used to protect these mixtures from inactivation.

  19. Signaling mediated by the cytosolic domain of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Alam, M R; Steveson, T C; Johnson, R C; Bäck, N; Abraham, B; Mains, R E; Eipper, B A

    2001-03-01

    The luminal domains of membrane peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) are essential for peptide alpha-amidation, and the cytosolic domain (CD) is essential for trafficking. Overexpression of membrane PAM in corticotrope tumor cells reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton, shifts endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from mature granules localized at the tips of processes to the TGN region, and blocks regulated secretion. PAM-CD interactor proteins include a protein kinase that phosphorylates PAM (P-CIP2) and Kalirin, a Rho family GDP/GTP exchange factor. We engineered a PAM protein unable to interact with either P-CIP2 or Kalirin (PAM-1/K919R), along with PAM proteins able to interact with Kalirin but not with P-CIP2. AtT-20 cells expressing PAM-1/K919R produce fully active membrane enzyme but still exhibit regulated secretion, with ACTH-containing granules localized to process tips. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrates accumulation of PAM and ACTH in tubular structures at the trans side of the Golgi in AtT-20 cells expressing PAM-1 but not in AtT-20 cells expressing PAM-1/K919R. The ability of PAM to interact with P-CIP2 is critical to its ability to block exit from the Golgi and affect regulated secretion. Consistent with this, mutation of its P-CIP2 phosphorylation site alters the ability of PAM to affect regulated secretion.

  20. Signaling Mediated by the Cytosolic Domain of Peptidylglycine α-Amidating Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. Rashidul; Steveson, Tami C.; Johnson, Richard C.; Bäck, Nils; Abraham, Benjamin; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2001-01-01

    The luminal domains of membrane peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) are essential for peptide α-amidation, and the cytosolic domain (CD) is essential for trafficking. Overexpression of membrane PAM in corticotrope tumor cells reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton, shifts endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from mature granules localized at the tips of processes to the TGN region, and blocks regulated secretion. PAM-CD interactor proteins include a protein kinase that phosphorylates PAM (P-CIP2) and Kalirin, a Rho family GDP/GTP exchange factor. We engineered a PAM protein unable to interact with either P-CIP2 or Kalirin (PAM-1/K919R), along with PAM proteins able to interact with Kalirin but not with P-CIP2. AtT-20 cells expressing PAM-1/K919R produce fully active membrane enzyme but still exhibit regulated secretion, with ACTH-containing granules localized to process tips. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrates accumulation of PAM and ACTH in tubular structures at the trans side of the Golgi in AtT-20 cells expressing PAM-1 but not in AtT-20 cells expressing PAM-1/K919R. The ability of PAM to interact with P-CIP2 is critical to its ability to block exit from the Golgi and affect regulated secretion. Consistent with this, mutation of its P-CIP2 phosphorylation site alters the ability of PAM to affect regulated secretion. PMID:11251076

  1. Localization of integral membrane peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase in neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Milgram, S L; Kho, S T; Martin, G V; Mains, R E; Eipper, B A

    1997-03-01

    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) catalyzes the amidation of glycine-extended peptides in neuroendocrine cells. At steady state, membrane PAM is accumulated in a perinuclear compartment. We examined the distribution of membrane PAM in stably transfected AtT-20 cells and compared its localization to markers for the trans-Golgi network (TGN), endosomes, and lysosomes. At the light microscopic level, the distribution of membrane PAM does not overlap extensively with lysosomal markers but does overlap with TGN38 and with SCAMP, a component of post-Golgi membranes involved in recycling pathways. By immunoelectron microscopy, membrane PAM is present in tubulovesicular structures which constitute the TGN; some of these PAM-containing tubulovesicular structures are more distal to the Golgi stacks and do not contain TGN38. While some POMC-derived peptides are present in tubulovesicular structures like those that contain membrane PAM, the majority of the POMC-derived peptides are present in secretory granules. There is little overlap between the steady state distribution of membrane PAM and internalized FITC-transferrin in the early endosomes. Few of the perinuclear PAM-containing structures are labeled with HRP or WGA-HRP even following long incubations. Therefore, membrane PAM is localized to perinuclear tubulovesicular structures which are partially devoid of TGN38 and are not all endosomal in origin.

  2. Reaction Mechanism of the Bicopper Enzyme Peptidylglycine α-Hydroxylating Monooxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Enrique; Rommel, Judith B.; Kästner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase is a noninteracting bicopper enzyme that stereospecifically hydroxylates the terminal glycine of small peptides for its later amidation. Neuroendocrine messengers, such as oxytocin, rely on the biological activity of this enzyme. Each catalytic turnover requires one oxygen molecule, two protons from the solvent, and two electrons. Despite this enzyme having been widely studied, a consensus on the reaction mechanism has not yet been found. Experiments and theoretical studies favor a pro-S abstraction of a hydrogen atom followed by the rebinding of an OH group. However, several hydrogen-abstracting species have been postulated; because two protons are consumed during the reaction, several protonation states are available. An electron transfer between the copper atoms could play a crucial role for the catalysis as well. This leads to six possible abstracting species. In this study, we compare them on equal footing. We perform quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations, considering the glycine hydrogen abstraction. Our results suggest that the most likely mechanism is a protonation of the abstracting species before the hydrogen abstraction and another protonation as well as a reduction before OH rebinding. PMID:24668808

  3. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation.

  4. Cellulose surface degradation by a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase and its effect on cellulase hydrolytic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eibinger, Manuel; Ganner, Thomas; Bubner, Patricia; Rošker, Stephanie; Kracher, Daniel; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland; Plank, Harald; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2014-12-26

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) represents a unique principle of oxidative degradation of recalcitrant insoluble polysaccharides. Used in combination with hydrolytic enzymes, LPMO appears to constitute a significant factor of the efficiency of enzymatic biomass depolymerization. LPMO activity on different cellulose substrates has been shown from the slow release of oxidized oligosaccharides into solution, but an immediate and direct demonstration of the enzyme action on the cellulose surface is lacking. Specificity of LPMO for degrading ordered crystalline and unordered amorphous cellulose material of the substrate surface is also unknown. We show by fluorescence dye adsorption analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy that a LPMO (from Neurospora crassa) introduces carboxyl groups primarily in surface-exposed crystalline areas of the cellulosic substrate. Using time-resolved in situ atomic force microscopy we further demonstrate that cellulose nano-fibrils exposed on the surface are degraded into shorter and thinner insoluble fragments. Also using atomic force microscopy, we show that prior action of LPMO enables cellulases to attack otherwise highly resistant crystalline substrate areas and that it promotes an overall faster and more complete surface degradation. Overall, this study reveals key characteristics of LPMO action on the cellulose surface and suggests the effects of substrate morphology on the synergy between LPMO and hydrolytic enzymes in cellulose depolymerization. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Membrane-associated forms of peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase activity in rat pituitary. Tissue specificity.

    PubMed

    May, V; Cullen, E I; Braas, K M; Eipper, B A

    1988-06-05

    Membrane-associated peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) activity was investigated in rat anterior and neurointermediate pituitary tissues and in pituitary AtT-20/D-16v and GH3 cell lines. A substantial fraction of total pituitary PAM activity was found to be membrane-associated. Triton X-100, N-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and Zwittergent were effective in solubilizing PAM activity from crude pituitary membranes. The distribution of enzyme activity between soluble and membrane-associated forms was tissue-specific. In the anterior pituitary lobe and pituitary cell lines, 40-60% of total PAM activity was membrane-associated while only 10% of the alpha-amidating activity in the neurointermediate lobe was membrane-associated. Soluble and membrane-associated forms of PAM shared nearly identical characteristics with respect to copper and ascorbate requirements, pH optima, and Km values. Upon subcellular fractionation of anterior and neurointermediate pituitary lobe homogenates on Percoll gradients, 12-18% of total PAM activity was found in the rough endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi fractions and 42-60% was localized to secretory granule fractions. For both tissues, membrane-associated PAM activity was enriched in the rough endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pool, whereas most of the secretory granule-associated enzyme activity was soluble.

  6. Crystal structures of cyclohexanone monooxygenase reveal complex domain movements and a sliding cofactor.

    PubMed

    Mirza, I Ahmad; Yachnin, Brahm J; Wang, Shaozhao; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Imura, Akihiro; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Lau, Peter C K; Berghuis, Albert M

    2009-07-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) is a flavoprotein that carries out the archetypical Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of a variety of cyclic ketones into lactones. Using NADPH and O(2) as cosubstrates, the enzyme inserts one atom of oxygen into the substrate in a complex catalytic mechanism that involves the formation of a flavin-peroxide and Criegee intermediate. We present here the atomic structures of CHMO from an environmental Rhodococcus strain bound with FAD and NADP(+) in two distinct states, to resolutions of 2.3 and 2.2 A. The two conformations reveal domain shifts around multiple linkers and loop movements, involving conserved arginine 329 and tryptophan 492, which effect a translation of the nicotinamide resulting in a sliding cofactor. Consequently, the cofactor is ideally situated and subsequently repositioned during the catalytic cycle to first reduce the flavin and later stabilize formation of the Criegee intermediate. Concurrent movements of a loop adjacent to the active site demonstrate how this protein can effect large changes in the size and shape of the substrate binding pocket to accommodate a diverse range of substrates. Finally, the previously identified BVMO signature sequence is highlighted for its role in coordinating domain movements. Taken together, these structures provide mechanistic insights into CHMO-catalyzed Baeyer-Villiger oxidation.

  7. Switching the Regioselectivity of a Cyclohexanone Monooxygenase toward (+)-trans-Dihydrocarvone by Rational Protein Design.

    PubMed

    Balke, Kathleen; Schmidt, Sandy; Genz, Maika; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2016-01-15

    The regioselectivity of the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase-catalyzed oxidation is governed mostly by electronic effects leading to the migration of the higher substituted residue. However, in some cases, substrate binding occurs in a way that the less substituted residue lies in an antiperiplanar orientation to the peroxy bond in the Criegee intermediate yielding in the formation of the "abnormal" lactone product. We are the first to demonstrate a complete switch in the regioselectivity of the BVMO from Arthrobacter sp. (CHMOArthro) as exemplified for (+)-trans-dihydrocarvone by redesigning the active site of the enzyme. In the designed triple mutant, the substrate binds in an inverted orientation leading to a ratio of 99:1 in favor of the normal lactone instead of exclusive formation of the abnormal lactone in case of the wild type enzyme. In order to validate our computational study, the beneficial mutations were successfully transferred to the CHMO from Acinetobacter sp. (CHMOAcineto), again yielding in a complete switch of regioselectivity.

  8. Absence of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reduces mortality of acute viral myocarditis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hisako; Hoshi, Masato; Mouri, Akihiro; Tashita, Chieko; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Saito, Kuniaki

    2017-01-01

    Infection of the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in mice is an established model for viral myocarditis. Previously, we have demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an L-tryptophan - kynurenine pathway (KP) enzyme, affects acute viral myocarditis. However, the roles of KP metabolites in EMCV infection remain unclear. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is one of the key regulatory enzymes, which metabolizes kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine in the KP. Therefore, we examined the role of KMO in acute viral infection by comparing between KMO(-/-) mice and KMO(+/+) mice. KMO deficiency resulted in suppressed mortality after EMCV infection. The number of infiltrating cells and F4/80(+) cells in KMO(-/-) mice was suppressed compared with those in KMO(+/+) mice. KMO(-/-) mice showed significantly increased levels of serum KP metabolites, and induction of KMO expression upon EMCV infection was involved in its effect on mortality through EMCV suppression. Furthermore, KMO(-/-) mice showed significantly suppression of CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 on day 2 and CXCL1 on day 4 after infection. These results suggest that increased KP metabolites reduced chemokine production, resulting in suppressed mortality upon KMO knockdown in EMCV infection. KP metabolites may thus provide an effective strategy for treating acute viral myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microsomal monooxygenase as a multienzyme system: the role of P450-P450 interactions

    PubMed Central

    Davydov, Dmitri R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence of physical interactions (association) among cytochromes P450 in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Functional consequences of these interactions are often underestimated. Areas covered This article provides a comprehensive overview of available experimental material regarding P450-P450 interactions. Special emphasis is given to the interactions between different P450 species and to the functional consequences of homo- and heterooligomerization. Expert opinion Recent advances provide conclusive evidence for a substantial degree of P450 oligomerization in membranes. Interactions between different P450 species resulting in the formation of mixed oligomers with altered activity and substrate specificity have been demonstrated clearly. There are important indications that oligomerization of cytochromes P450 impedes electron flow to a fraction of the P450 population, which render some P450 species non-functional. Functional consequences of P450-P450 interactions make the integrated properties of the microsomal monooxygenase remarkably different from a simple summation of the properties of the individual P450 species. This complexity compromises the predictive power of the current in vitro models of drug metabolism and warrants an urgent need for development of new model systems that consider the interactions of multiple P450 species. PMID:21395496

  10. Collaborative contribution of six cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes to fenpropathrin resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Zhang, J; Shen, G; Xu, Z; Xu, Q; He, L

    2016-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), as an important family of detoxification enzymes, participate in the metabolism of agrochemicals in almost all agricultural pests and play important roles in the development of insecticide resistance. Two P450 genes (CYP389B1 and CYP392A26) were identified and their expression patterns were investigated in our previous study. In this study, four more P450 gene sequences (CYP391A1, CYP384A1, CYP392D11 and CYP392A28) from the Clan 2, Clan 3 and Clan 4 families were identified and characterized. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that these four P450 genes were highly expressed in a fenpropathrin-resistant (FeR) strain of Tetranychus cinnabarinus. In addition, their expressions were much more sensitive to fenpropathrin induction in the FeR strain than the susceptible strain. Gene-silencing experiments via double-stranded RNA feeding were carried out. The results showed that mRNA levels of these six P450 genes were reduced in the FeR strain and the activities of P450s were decreased. Consequently mite susceptibilities to fenpropathrin were increased. Interestingly, silencing all six P450 genes simultaneously had an even greater effect on resistance than silencing them individually. This study increases our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insecticide detoxification, suggesting that the overexpression of these six P450 genes might play important roles in fenpropathrin resistance in T. cinnabarinus collaboratively. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Identification of selectivity determinants in CYP monooxygenases by modelling and systematic analysis of sequence and structure.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Alexander; Pleiss, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) form a large, ubiquitous enzyme family and are of great interest in red and white biotechnology. To investigate the effect of protein structure on selectivity, the binding of substrate molecules near to the active site was modelled by molecular dynamics simulations. From a comprehensive and systematic comparison of more than 6300 CYP sequences and 31 structures using the Cytochrome P450 Engineering Database (CYPED), residues were identified which are predicted to point close to the heme centre and thus restrict accessibility for substrates. As a result, sequence-structure-function relationships are described that can be used to predict selectivity-determining positions from CYP sequences and structures. Based on this analysis, a minimal library consisting of bacterial CYP102A1 (P450(BM3)) and 24 variants was constructed. All variants were functionally expressed in E. coli, and the library was screened with four terpene substrates. Only 3 variants showed no activity towards all 4 terpenes, while 11 variants demonstrated either a strong shift or improved regio- or stereoselectivity during oxidation of at least one substrate as compared to CYP102A1 wild type. The minimal library also contains variants that show interesting side products which are not generated by the wild type enzyme. By two additional rounds of molecular modelling, diversification, and screening, the selectivity of one of these variants for a new product was optimised with a minimal screening effort. We propose this as a generic approach for other CYP substrates.

  12. Cellulose Surface Degradation by a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase and Its Effect on Cellulase Hydrolytic Efficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Eibinger, Manuel; Ganner, Thomas; Bubner, Patricia; Rošker, Stephanie; Kracher, Daniel; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland; Plank, Harald; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) represents a unique principle of oxidative degradation of recalcitrant insoluble polysaccharides. Used in combination with hydrolytic enzymes, LPMO appears to constitute a significant factor of the efficiency of enzymatic biomass depolymerization. LPMO activity on different cellulose substrates has been shown from the slow release of oxidized oligosaccharides into solution, but an immediate and direct demonstration of the enzyme action on the cellulose surface is lacking. Specificity of LPMO for degrading ordered crystalline and unordered amorphous cellulose material of the substrate surface is also unknown. We show by fluorescence dye adsorption analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy that a LPMO (from Neurospora crassa) introduces carboxyl groups primarily in surface-exposed crystalline areas of the cellulosic substrate. Using time-resolved in situ atomic force microscopy we further demonstrate that cellulose nano-fibrils exposed on the surface are degraded into shorter and thinner insoluble fragments. Also using atomic force microscopy, we show that prior action of LPMO enables cellulases to attack otherwise highly resistant crystalline substrate areas and that it promotes an overall faster and more complete surface degradation. Overall, this study reveals key characteristics of LPMO action on the cellulose surface and suggests the effects of substrate morphology on the synergy between LPMO and hydrolytic enzymes in cellulose depolymerization. PMID:25361767

  13. Carbon Isotope Fractionations Associated with Methanotrophic Growth with the Soluble and Particulate Methane Monooxygenases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Summons, Roger E.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Growth experiments with the RuMP-type methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), have demonstrated that biomass and lipid biomarkers are significantly depleted in C-13 compared to the substrate methane and that the extent of fractionation is dependent on whether cells express the soluble (s) or particulate (p) methane monooxygenase (MMO). The presence or absence of the characteristic sMMO subunits was monitored using SDS-polyacrylamide gels. In M. capsulatus grown with no Cu supplementation, the characteristic sMMO subunits were observed in the soluble fraction throughout the entire growth period and biomass was depleted in C-13 by approximately 14,700 relative to substrate methane. In cells grown with 5uM Cu, no sMMO bands were observed and a greater fractionation of approximately 27,700 in resultant biomass was obtained. Methanol growth experiments with M. capsulatus and with a RuMP methylotroph, Methylophilus methylotrophus, in which biomass measurements yielded depletions in C-13 of 9 and 5%(sub o), respectively, suggest that oxidation of methane is the major fractionation step. Growth of M. capsulatus at a low level of oxygen, approximately 0.5%, had no significant effect on carbon isotope fractionation by either sMMO or pMMO. These observations are significant for identification of molecular biomarkers; and methanotrophic contributions to carbon isotope composition in natural environments.

  14. Oxidation of ultrafast radical clock substrate probes by the soluble methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Valentine, A M; LeTadic-Biadatti, M H; Toy, P H; Newcomb, M; Lippard, S J

    1999-04-16

    Radical clock substrate probes were used to assess the viability of a discrete substrate radical species in the mechanism of hydrocarbon oxidation by the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). New substituted cyclopropane probes were used with very fast ring-opening rate constants and other desirable attributes, such as the ability to discriminate between radical and cationic intermediates. Oxidation of these substrates by a reconstituted sMMO system resulted in no rearranged products, allowing an upper limit of 150 fs to be placed on the lifetime of a putative radical species. This limit strongly suggests that there is no such substrate radical intermediate. The two enantiomers of trans-1-methyl-2-phenyl-cyclopropane were prepared, and the regioselectivity of their oxidation to the corresponding cyclopropylmethanol and cyclopropylphenol products was determined. The results are consistent with selective orientation of the two enantiomeric substrates in the hydrophobic cavity at the active site of sMMO, specific models for which were examined by molecular modeling.

  15. Modulation of MICAL Monooxygenase Activity by its Calponin Homology Domain: Structural and Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Alqassim, Saif S.; Urquiza, Mauricio; Borgnia, Eitan; Nagib, Marc; Amzel, L. Mario; Bianchet, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    MICALs (Molecule Interacting with CasL) are conserved multidomain enzymes essential for cytoskeletal reorganization in nerve development, endocytosis, and apoptosis. In these enzymes, a type-2 calponin homology (CH) domain always follows an N-terminal monooxygenase (MO) domain. Although the CH domain is required for MICAL-1 cellular localization and actin-associated function, its contribution to the modulation of MICAL activity towards actin remains unclear. Here, we present the structure of a fragment of MICAL-1 containing the MO and the CH domains—determined by X-ray crystallography and small angle scattering—as well as kinetics experiments designed to probe the contribution of the CH domain to the actin-modification activity. Our results suggest that the CH domain, which is loosely connected to the MO domain by a flexible linker and is far away from the catalytic site, couples F-actin to the enhancement of redox activity of MICALMO-CH by a cooperative mechanism involving a trans interaction between adjacently bound molecules. Binding cooperativity is also observed in other proteins regulating actin assembly/disassembly dynamics, such as ADF/Cofilins. PMID:26935886

  16. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase with Broad Substrate Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Borisova, Anna S.; Isaksen, Trine; Dimarogona, Maria; Kognole, Abhishek A.; Mathiesen, Geir; Várnai, Anikó; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Payne, Christina M.; Sørlie, Morten; Sandgren, Mats; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.

    2015-01-01

    The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) carry out oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides and are of major importance for efficient processing of biomass. NcLPMO9C from Neurospora crassa acts both on cellulose and on non-cellulose β-glucans, including cellodextrins and xyloglucan. The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of NcLPMO9C revealed an extended, highly polar substrate-binding surface well suited to interact with a variety of sugar substrates. The ability of NcLPMO9C to act on soluble substrates was exploited to study enzyme-substrate interactions. EPR studies demonstrated that the Cu2+ center environment is altered upon substrate binding, whereas isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed binding affinities in the low micromolar range for polymeric substrates that are due in part to the presence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1). Importantly, the novel structure of NcLPMO9C enabled a comparative study, revealing that the oxidative regioselectivity of LPMO9s (C1, C4, or both) correlates with distinct structural features of the copper coordination sphere. In strictly C1-oxidizing LPMO9s, access to the solvent-facing axial coordination position is restricted by a conserved tyrosine residue, whereas access to this same position seems unrestricted in C4-oxidizing LPMO9s. LPMO9s known to produce a mixture of C1- and C4-oxidized products show an intermediate situation. PMID:26178376

  17. Oxygenation of Organoboronic Acids by a Nonheme Iron(II) Complex: Mimicking Boronic Acid Monooxygenase Activity.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sayanti; Paine, Tapan Kanti

    2015-10-19

    Phenolic compounds are important intermediates in the bacterial biodegradation of aromatic compounds in the soil. An Arthrobacter sp. strain has been shown to exhibit boronic acid monooxygenase activity through the conversion of different substituted phenylboronic acids to the corresponding phenols using dioxygen. While a number of methods have been reported to cleave the C-B bonds of organoboronic acids, there is no report on biomimetic iron complex exhibiting this activity using dioxygen as the oxidant. In that direction, we have investigated the reactivity of a nucleophilic iron-oxygen oxidant, generated upon oxidative decarboxylation of an iron(II)-benzilate complex [(Tp(Ph2))Fe(II)(benzilate)] (Tp(Ph2) = hydrotris(3,5-diphenyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate), toward organoboronic acids. The oxidant converts different aryl/alkylboronic acids to the corresponding oxygenated products with the incorporation of one oxygen atom from dioxygen. This method represents an efficient protocol for the oxygenation of boronic acids with dioxygen as the terminal oxidant.

  18. Production of four Neurospora crassa lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in Pichia pastoris monitored by a fluorimetric assay

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies demonstrate that enzymes from the glycosyl hydrolase family 61 (GH61) show lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (PMO) activity. Together with cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) an enzymatic system capable of oxidative cellulose cleavage is formed, which increases the efficiency of cellulases and put PMOs at focus of biofuel research. Large amounts of purified PMOs, which are difficult to obtain from the native fungal producers, are needed to study their reaction kinetics, structure and industrial application. In addition, a fast and robust enzymatic assay is necessary to monitor enzyme production and purification. Results Four pmo genes from Neurospora crassa were expressed in P. pastoris under control of the AOX1 promoter. High yields were obtained for the glycosylated gene products PMO-01867, PMO-02916 and PMO-08760 (>300 mg L-1), whereas the yield of non-glycosylated PMO-03328 was moderate (~45 mg L-1). The production and purification of all four enzymes was specifically followed by a newly developed, fast assay based on a side reaction of PMO: the production of H2O2 in the presence of reductants. While ascorbate is a suitable reductant for homogeneous PMO preparations, fermentation samples require the specific electron donor CDH. Conclusions P. pastoris is a high performing expression host for N. crassa PMOs. The pmo genes under control of the native signal sequence are correctly processed and active. The novel CDH-based enzyme assay allows fast determination of PMO activity in fermentation samples and is robust against interfering matrix components. PMID:23102010

  19. Mechanisms of reduced flavin transfer in the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2014-08-01

    Two-component flavin-dependent enzymes are abundant in nature and are involved in a wide variety of biological reactions. These enzymes consist of a reductase which generates a reduced flavin and a monooxygenase that utilizes the reduced flavin as a substrate for monooxygenation. As reduced flavin is unstable and can be oxidized by oxygen, these enzymes must have a means to efficiently coordinate the transfer of the reduced flavin such that auto-oxidation can be minimized. Various types of experiments and methodologies have been used to probe the mode of reduced flavin transfer. Results from many systems have indicated that the transfer can be achieved by free diffusion and that the presence of one component has no influence on the kinetics of the other component. Contradicting results indicating that the transfer of the reduced flavin may be achieved via protein-protein mediation also exist. Regardless of the mode of reduced flavin transfer, these enzymes have a means to control their overall kinetics such that the reaction rate is slow when the demand for oxygenation is not high.

  20. Kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of the putative monooxygenase domain of human MICAL-1.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Daniela; Caprini, Gianluca; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Vanoni, Maria A

    2011-11-01

    MICALs form a conserved multidomain protein family essential for cytoskeletal rearrangements. To complement structural information available, we produced the FAD-containing monooxygenase-like domain of human MICAL-1 (MICAL-MO) in forms differing for the presence and location of a His-tag, which only influences the protein yields. The K(m) for NADPH of the NADPH oxidase reaction is sensitive to ionic strength and type of ions. The apparent k(cat) (pH 7) is limited by enzyme reduction by NADPH, which occurs without detectable intermediates, as established by anaerobic rapid reaction experiments. The sensitivity to ionic strength and type of ions and the pH dependence of the steady-state kinetic parameters extend MICAL-MO similarity with enzymes of the p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase class at the functional level. The reaction is also sensitive to solvent viscosity, providing a tool to monitor the conformational changes predicted to occur during turnover. Finally, it was confirmed that MICAL-MO promotes actin depolymerization, and it was shown that F-actin, but not G-actin, stimulates NADPH oxidation by increasing k(cat) and k(cat)/K(NADPH) (≈5 and ≈200-fold, respectively) with an apparent K(m) for actin of 4.7μM, under conditions that stabilize F-actin. The time-course of NADPH oxidation shows substrate recycling, indicating the possible reversibility of MICAL effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subclade of Flavin-Monooxygenases Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Ober, James A.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2008-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are amino acid-derived secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities dependent on chemical modifications of the side chain. We previously identified the flavin-monooxygenase FMOGS-OX1 as an enzyme in the biosynthesis of aliphatic GSLs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that catalyzes the S-oxygenation of methylthioalkyl to methylsulfinylalkyl GSLs. Here, we report the fine mapping of a quantitative trait locus for the S-oxygenating activity in Arabidopsis. In this region, there are three FMOs that, together with FMOGS-OX1 and a fifth FMO, form what appears to be a crucifer-specific subclade. We report the identification of these four uncharacterized FMOs, designated FMOGS-OX2 to FMOGS-OX5. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant protein combined with the analysis of GSL content in knockout mutants and overexpression lines show that FMOGS-OX2, FMOGS-OX3, and FMOGS-OX4 have broad substrate specificity and catalyze the conversion from methylthioalkyl GSL to the corresponding methylsulfinylalkyl GSL independent of chain length. In contrast, FMOGS-OX5 shows substrate specificity toward the long-chain 8-methylthiooctyl GSL. Identification of the FMOGS-OX subclade will generate better understanding of the evolution of biosynthetic activities and specificities in secondary metabolism and provides an important tool for breeding plants with improved cancer prevention characteristics as provided by the methylsulfinylalkyl GSL. PMID:18799661

  2. Regulation of Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wade, Dana S; Calfee, M Worth; Rocha, Edson R; Ling, Elizabeth A; Engstrom, Elana; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

    2005-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients and is a major source of nosocomial infections. This bacterium controls many virulence factors by using two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is composed of the LasR regulator protein and its cell-to-cell signal, N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone, and the rhl system is composed of RhlR and the signal N-butyryl homoserine lactone. A third intercellular signal, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone), also regulates numerous virulence factors. PQS synthesis requires the expression of multiple operons, one of which is pqsABCDE. Previous experiments showed that the transcription of this operon, and therefore PQS production, is negatively regulated by the rhl quorum-sensing system and positively regulated by the las quorum-sensing system and PqsR (also known as MvfR), a LysR-type transcriptional regulator protein. With the use of DNA mobility shift assays and beta-galactosidase reporter fusions, we have studied the regulation of pqsR and its relationship to pqsA, lasR, and rhlR. We show that PqsR binds the promoter of pqsA and that this binding increases dramatically in the presence of PQS, implying that PQS acts as a coinducer for PqsR. We have also mapped the transcriptional start site for pqsR and found that the transcription of pqsR is positively regulated by lasR and negatively regulated by rhlR. These results suggest that a regulatory chain occurs where pqsR is under the control of LasR and RhlR and where PqsR in turn controls pqsABCDE, which is required for the production of PQS.

  3. Modeling multicomponent gas separation using hollow-fiber membrane contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, D.T.; Freeman, B.D.; Fleming, G.K.

    1998-06-01

    A model developed for multicomponent gas separation using hollow-fiber contactors permits simulation of cocurrent, countercurrent, and crossflow contacting patterns with permeate purging (or sweep). The numerical approach proposed permits simulation to much higher stage cuts than previously published work and provides rapid and stable solutions for cases with many components, with widely varying permeability coefficients. This new approach also permits the rational and straightforward incorporation of effects such as permeate sweep, pressure-dependent permeability coefficients, and bore side pressure gradients. Simulation results are presented for separation of commercially significant multicomponent gas mixtures using polymer permeation properties similar to those of polysulfone. The effect of permeate purging on separation performance is explored for air separation. The influence of pressure ratio on hydrogen separation performance for a refinery stream is presented. Air is modeled as a four-component mixture of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O and the refinery stream contains five components: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. In air separation, permeate purging with a small fraction of the residue stream provides a very effective method for improving module efficiency for drying but is not efficient for improving nitrogen purity or recovery. In multicomponent mixtures, maxima in the compositions of components of intermediate permeability may be observed as a function of distance along the hollow fiber. This result suggests the use of membrane staging to capture these components at their maximum concentration.

  4. Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions towards cyclic constrained peptidomimetics

    PubMed Central

    Koopmanschap, Gijs; Ruijter, Eelco

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the recent past, the design and synthesis of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics) has received much attention. This because they have shown in many cases enhanced pharmacological properties over their natural peptide analogues. In particular, the incorporation of cyclic constructs into peptides is of high interest as they reduce the flexibility of the peptide enhancing often affinity for a certain receptor. Moreover, these cyclic mimics force the molecule into a well-defined secondary structure. Constraint structural and conformational features are often found in biological active peptides. For the synthesis of cyclic constrained peptidomimetics usually a sequence of multiple reactions has been applied, which makes it difficult to easily introduce structural diversity necessary for fine tuning the biological activity. A promising approach to tackle this problem is the use of multicomponent reactions (MCRs), because they can introduce both structural diversity and molecular complexity in only one step. Among the MCRs, the isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs) are most relevant for the synthesis of peptidomimetics because they provide peptide-like products. However, these IMCRs usually give linear products and in order to obtain cyclic constrained peptidomimetics, the acyclic products have to be cyclized via additional cyclization strategies. This is possible via incorporation of bifunctional substrates into the initial IMCR. Examples of such bifunctional groups are N-protected amino acids, convertible isocyanides or MCR-components that bear an additional alkene, alkyne or azide moiety and can be cyclized via either a deprotection–cyclization strategy, a ring-closing metathesis, a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or even via a sequence of multiple multicomponent reactions. The sequential IMCR-cyclization reactions can afford small cyclic peptide mimics (ranging from four- to seven-membered rings), medium-sized cyclic constructs or peptidic macrocycles

  5. Decoding two-dimensional complex multicomponent separations by autocovariance function.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Nicola; Felinger, Attila; Pasti, Luisa; Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Dondi, Francesco

    2004-06-01

    A new method for decoding two-dimensional (2D) multicomponent separations based on the use of the 2D Autocovariance function (2D-ACVF) has been developed. Theoretical models of single component (SC) spot distributions in 2D separations, both random and structured, are developed as the basis for a nonlinear estimation of both sample and separation system parameters from experimental 2D separations. The number of SCs, the average spot size, the spot capacity, and the saturation factor can be evaluated in the case of random SC spot patterns. The procedure was validated by extensive numerical simulation under conditions close to those usually found in GC x GC or 2D-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis of proteins. The worse precision degree was no greater than 10% in the case of maximum spot density. This imprecision was fully accounted for, and it seems acceptable owing to the intrinsic statistical character of the estimation method. Structured multicomponent 2D separations, where SCs are linked by linear relationships, give rise to specific structured patterns in 2D-ACVF plots from which the parameters (phase and frequency) of the structured SC sequences can be evaluated: the study of 2D-ACVF makes it possible to decode multicomponent 2D separation, that is, to determine the number, relative abundance, and structural similarities of the single components. Pertinent expressions of the theoretical 2D-ACVF were derived for simple cases, and a procedure for decoding cases of structured 2D separations was developed and applied. It was shown that 2D separations containing both random and structured patterns of SC spots give rise to 2D-EACVF, which is the superimposition of the two component parts. This feature allows one, in principle, to decode the two components. The relevance of these results for Giddings sample dimensionality and separation dimensionality and their effective experimental evaluation is discussed.

  6. [Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Vallés, Jordi; Mariscal, Dolors

    2005-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia. It is the most common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia and carries the highest mortality among hospital-acquired infections. P. aeruginosa produces a large number of toxins and surface components that make it especially virulent compared with other microorganisms. These include pili, flagella, membrane bound lipopolysaccharide, and secreted products such as exotoxins A, S and U, elastase, alkaline protease, cytotoxins and phospholipases. The most common mechanism of infection in mechanically ventilated patients is through aspiration of upper respiratory tract secretions previously colonized in the process of routine nursing care or via contaminated hands of hospital personnel. Intravenous therapy with an antipseudomonal regimen should be started immediately when P. aeruginosa pneumonia is suspected or confirmed. Empiric therapy with drugs active against P. aeruginosa should be started, especially in patients who have received previous antibiotics or present late-onset pneumonia.

  7. [Pseudomonas genus bacteria on weeds].

    PubMed

    Gvozdiak, R I; Iakovleva, L M; Pasichnik, L A; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown in the work that the weeds (couch-grass and ryegrass) may be affected by bacterial diseases in natural conditions, Pseudomonas genus bacteria being their agents. The isolated bacteria are highly-aggressive in respect of the host-plant and a wide range of cultivated plants: wheat, rye, oats, barley, apple-tree and pear-tree. In contrast to highly aggressive bacteria isolated from the affected weeds, bacteria-epi phytes isolated from formally healthy plants (common amaranth, orache, flat-leaved spurge, field sow thistle, matricary, common coltsfoot, narrow-leaved vetch) and identified as P. syringae pv. coronafaciens, were characterized by weak aggression. A wide range of ecological niches of bacteria evidently promote their revival and distribution everywhere in nature.

  8. Ice crystallization by Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed

    Cochet, N; Widehem, P

    2000-08-01

    Several bacterial species can serve as biological ice nuclei. The best characterized of these is Pseudomonas syringae, a widely distributed bacterial epiphyte of plants. These biological ice nuclei find various applications in different fields, but an optimized production method was required in order to obtain the highly active cells which may be exploited as ice nucleators. The results presented here show that P. syringae cells reduce supercooling of liquid or solid media and enhance ice crystal formation at sub-zero temperatures, thus leading to a remarkable control of the crystallization phenomenon and a potential for energy savings. Our discussion focuses on recent and future applications of these ice nucleators in freezing operations, spray-ice technology and biotechnological processes.

  9. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  10. Instabilities in rapid solidification of multi-component alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, Anthony L.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2017-10-01

    Rapid solidification of multi-component liquids occurs in many modern applications such as additive manufacturing. In the present work the interface departures from equilibrium consist of the segregation coefficient and liquidus slope depending on front speed, the one-sided, frozen-temperature approximation, and the alloy behaving as the superposition of individual components. Linear-stability theory is applied, showing that the cellular and oscillatory instabilities of the binary case are modified. The addition of components tends to destabilize the interface while the addition of a single large-diffusivity material can entirely suppress the oscillatory mode. Multiple minima in the neutral curve for the cellular mode occur.

  11. Partners in crime: phosphotransfer profiling identifies a multicomponent phosphorelay.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kathleen R

    2006-01-01

    The first multicomponent phosphorelay, regulating stalk biogenesis, has been identified in Caulobacter crescentus using a bioinformatic screen, targeted disruptions of each histidine kinase and response regulator, and a new technique called phosphotransfer profiling, in which a purified histidine kinase or histidine phosphotransferase is simultaneously assayed for the ability to phosphorylate each purified response regulator protein from one organism. This powerful combination of approaches will allow future researchers to map the interactions among all two-component signal transduction proteins in genetically tractable bacteria with sequenced genomes.

  12. Multicomponent fluid of hard spheres near a wall.

    PubMed

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Yuste, Santos B; Santos, Andrés; López de Haro, Mariano

    2007-06-01

    The rational function approximation method, density functional theory, and NVT Monte Carlo simulation are used to obtain the density profiles of multicomponent hard-sphere mixtures near a planar hard wall. Binary mixtures with a size ratio 1:3 in which both components occupy a similar volume are specifically examined. The results indicate that the present version of density functional theory yields an excellent overall performance. A reasonably accurate behavior of the rational function approximation method is also observed, except in the vicinity of the first minimum, where it may even predict unphysical negative values.

  13. Multicomponent Fitness Training Improves Walking Economy in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Giulio; Bonomi, Alberto Giovanni; Westerterp, Klaas Roelof

    2016-07-01

    Walking economy declines with increasing age, possibly leading to mobility limitation in older adults. Multicomponent fitness training could delay the decline in walking economy. This study aimed to determine the effect of multicomponent fitness training on walking economy in older adults. Participants were untrained adults, age 50 to 83 yr (N = 26, 10 males, age = 63 ± 6 yr, BMI = 25.6 ± 2.1 kg·m, mean ± SD). A control group was also recruited (N = 16, 9 males, age = 66 ± 10 yr, BMI = 25.4 ± 3.0 kg·m), matching the intervention group for age, weight, body composition, and fitness. The intervention group followed a multicomponent fitness program of 1 h, twice per week during 1 yr. The control group did not take part in any physical training. Fat-free mass, walking economy, and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were measured in both groups before and after the year. Walking economy was measured with indirect calorimetry as the lowest energy needed to displace 1 kg of body mass for 1 m while walking on a treadmill. The data were compared between the two groups with repeated-measures ANOVA. Thirty-two subjects completed all measurements. There was an interaction between the effects of time and group on V˙O2max (P < 0.05) and walking economy (P < 0.05), whereas fat-free mass did not change significantly (P = 0.06). V˙O2max decreased by 1.8 mL·kg·min in the control group and increased by 1.3 mL·kg·min in the intervention group. The lowest energy needed to walk increased by 0.12 J·kg·m in the control group and decreased in the intervention group by 0.13 J·kg·m. Multicomponent fitness training decreases walking cost in older adults, preserving walking economy. Thus, training programs could delay mobility limitation with increasing age.

  14. Use of piezoelectric multicomponent force measuring devices in fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, A.; Stefan, K.

    1979-01-01

    The characterisitics of piezoelectric multicomponent transducers are discussed, giving attention to the advantages of quartz over other materials. The main advantage of piezoelectric devices in aerodynamic studies is their ability to indicate rapid changes in the values of physical parameters. Problems in the accuracy of measurments by piezoelectric devices can be overcome by suitable design approaches. A practical example is given of how such can be utilized to measure rapid fluctuations of fluid forces exerted on a circular cylinder mounted in a water channel.

  15. Diffusion dominated evaporation in multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessling, Dennis; Xie, Qingguang; Harting, Jens

    2017-02-01

    We present a diffusion dominated evaporation model using the popular pseudopotential multicomponent lattice Boltzmann method introduced by Shan and Chen. With an analytical computation of the diffusion coefficients, we demonstrate that Fick's law is obeyed. We then validate the applicability of our model by demonstrating the agreement of the time evolution of the interface position of an evaporating planar film to the analytical prediction. Furthermore, we study the evaporation of a freely floating droplet and confirm that the effect of Laplace pressure is significant for predicting the time evolution of small droplet radii.

  16. Prediction of release ratios of multicomponent pheromones from rubber septa.

    PubMed

    Heath, R R; Teal, P E; Tumlinson, J H; Mengelkoch, L J

    1986-12-01

    A method has been developed to predict the release ratio of the components of blends of alcohols, acetates, and/or aldehydes from rubber septa. The calculations of predicted release ratios are based on the relative vapor pressures of the components. The relative vapor pressures of the compounds were calculated from their retention indices on a liquid crystal capillary gas chromatographie column. The correlation between the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined ratios was very good. Thus, formulations can be prepared that will release a desired ratio of the components of a multicomponent pheromone blend.

  17. Fluid description of multi-component solar partially ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khomenko, E. Collados, M.; Vitas, N.; Díaz, A.

    2014-09-15

    We derive self-consistent formalism for the description of multi-component partially ionized solar plasma, by means of the coupled equations for the charged and neutral components for an arbitrary number of chemical species, and the radiation field. All approximations and assumptions are carefully considered. Generalized Ohm's law is derived for the single-fluid and two-fluid formalism. Our approach is analytical with some order-of-magnitude support calculations. After general equations are developed, we particularize to some frequently considered cases as for the interaction of matter and radiation.

  18. Sedimentation of multicomponent viruses: evaluation of sedimentation coefficient ratios.

    PubMed

    Larcom, L L; Barnett, O W

    1978-01-01

    Ratios of the sedimentation coefficients for alfalfa mosaic virus components are shown to be independent of the virus concentration and the density of the solvent. Different numbers of components are observed in solvents of different density. This implies that in sedimentation velocity experiments an estimate of the number of components of a multicomponent virus should involve centrifugation in solvents of different density. For some viruses, estimates of the sedimentation coefficients of individual components can be obtained from the coefficient ratios observed in unfractionated solutions and the sedimentation coefficient of the most easily purified component.

  19. A new molecular thermodynamic model for multicomponent Ising lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianyong; Xin, Qin; Sun, Lei; Liu, Honglai; Hu, Ying; Jiang, Jianwen

    2006-10-01

    A new molecular thermodynamic model is developed for multicomponent Ising lattice based on a generalized nonrandom factor from binary system. Predictions of the nonrandom factor and the internal energy of mixing for ternary and quaternary systems match accurately with simulation results. Predictions of liquid-liquid phase equilibrium for ternary systems are in nearly perfect agreement with simulation results, and substantially improved from Flory-Huggins theory and the lattice-cluster theory. The model also satisfactorily correlates the experimental data of real ternary systems. The concise expression and the accuracy of the new model make it well suited for practical engineering applications.

  20. Communication issues in a multicomponent study of semiconductor employees.

    PubMed

    Saiki, C L; Green, R S; Gold, E B; Schenker, M B

    1995-12-01

    A variety of methods were used to address communication problems in the Semiconductor Health Study (SHS). The diverse employee population required investigators to consider language, ethnic, and cultural differences in planning and implementing the study design. Studies of reproductive health in the workplace raise special concerns, including the critical need to preserve confidentiality and privacy of subjects. Notification of results of epidemiological studies reporting workplace hazards requires sensitivity to needs of workers. SHS investigators directly communicated overall results of this multicomponent study to participating employees at all sites and notified subjects of results of individual industrial hygiene monitoring and endocrine hormone assays.

  1. Adsorption of a multicomponent mixture of gases with multisite occupancy.

    PubMed

    Manzi, S; Mas, W; Belardinelli, R; Pereyra, V D

    2004-01-20

    In this paper, we present a study of the adsorption of multicomponent mixtures with multisite occupancy. The transfer-matrix technique is used to analyze the one-dimensional binary mixtures for interacting systems. A general expression for the characteristic polynomial is derived. Extension of the treatment to a higher dimension is also presented by using the mean-field Bragg-Williams approximation, transfer-matrix calculations, and Monte Carlo simulation. Partial and total isotherms are obtained for the dimer-trimer mixture where a different order appears.

  2. Structure-induced microalloying effect in multicomponent alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Gu -Qing; Yang, Liang; Wu, Shi -Yang; Zeng, Qiao -Shi; Sun, Cheng -Jun; Wang, Yin -Gang

    2016-04-28

    In this study, the microalloying effect on glass-forming ability (GFA) has been investigated from the structural aspect, by performing synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction and absorption measurements coupled with simulations in the NiNbZr ternary system. We propose a new parameter which counts the fraction of the fivefold symmetries in all clusters and find it is strongly associated with the GFA. In particular, this structural parameter has the highest value in a composition where the best GFA is achieved. The present work provides an in-depth understanding of microalloying-induced high GFAs in multicomponent alloys.

  3. Decomposition of crystal-growth equations in multicomponent melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudorov, M. V.

    2014-06-01

    Using a variational approach, the macroscopic laws of the growth of a new-phase, multicomponent particle are compared to the physicochemical laws of processes in the “new phase - initial melt” system. A suitable equation-based method has been developed to calculate the growth of a new-phase particle under the conditions of diffusion growth and non-equilibrium solute trapping by the quickly growing front of a new phase. The laws of crystal growth have been studied while annealing the amorphous alloy FINEMET® Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9.

  4. Alfven wave dispersion behavior in single- and multicomponent plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Ullrich, S.; Sauer, K.

    2010-03-15

    Dispersion relations of driven Alfven waves (AWs) are measured in single- and multicomponent plasmas consisting of mixtures of argon, helium, and oxygen in a magnetized linear cylindrical plasma device VINETA [C. Franck, O. Grulke, and T. Klinger, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3254 (2002)]. The decomposition of the measured three-dimensional magnetic field fluctuations and the corresponding parallel current pattern reveals that the wave field is a superposition of L- and R-wave components. The dispersion relation measurements agree well with calculations based on a multifluid Hall-magnetohydrodynamic model if the plasma resistivity is correctly taken into account.

  5. Efficiency in chemistry: from hydrogen autotransfer to multicomponent catalysis.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Francisco; Foubelo, Francisco; González-Gómez, José C; Martínez, Ricardo; Ramón, Diego J; Riente, Paola; Yus, Miguel

    2010-08-01

    A hydrogen autotransfer reaction has been applied to the α-alkylation of ketones, with primary alcohols as the electrophilic component, either under homogeneous (using a Ru complex as catalyst) or under heterogeneous (using Ni nanoparticles) conditions. This process is both very efficient (concerning atom economy) and ecologically friendly (water as the only by-product generated). On the other hand, three multicomponent reactions, namely, the Strecker reaction (without any catalyst), the aza-Sakurai process (catalyzed by ferrite), and the addition of in situ generated Zn enolates to chiral sulfinylimines (catalyzed by Cu), have proven to be very efficient in the generation of a diversity of polyfunctionalized molecules.

  6. Time-derivative preconditioning method for multicomponent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housman, Jeffrey Allen

    A time-derivative preconditioned system of equations suitable for the numerical simulation of single component and multicomponent inviscid flows at all speeds is formulated. The system is shown to be hyperbolic in time and remain well-posed at low Mach numbers, allowing an efficient time marching solution strategy to be utilized from transonic to incompressible flow speeds. For multicomponent flow at low speed, a preconditioned nonconservative discretization scheme is described which preserves pressure and velocity equilibrium across fluid interfaces, handles sharp liquid/gas interfaces with large density ratios, while remaining well-conditioned for time marching methods. The method is then extended to transonic and supersonic flows using a hybrid conservative/nonconservative formulation which retains the pressure/velocity equilibrium property and converges to the correct weak solution when shocks are present. In order to apply the proposed model to complex flow applications, the overset grid methodology is used where the equations are transformed to a nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system and discretized on structured body-fitted curvilinear grids. The multicomponent model and its extension to homogeneous multiphase mixtures is discussed and the hyperbolicity of the governing equations is demonstrated. Low Mach number perturbation analysis is then performed on the system of equations and a local time-derivative preconditioning matrix is derived allowing time marching numerical methods to remain efficient at low speeds. Next, a particular time marching numerical method is presented along with three discretization schemes for the convective terms. These include a conservative preconditioned Roe type method, a nonconservative preconditioned Split Coefficient Matrix (SCM) method, and hybrid formulation which combines the conservative and nonconservative schemes using a simple switching function. A characteristic boundary treatment which includes time

  7. Catalysis of Cascade and Multicomponent Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds and CH Acids by Electricity.

    PubMed

    Elinson, Michail N; Vereshchagin, Anatoly N; Ryzhkov, Fedor V

    2016-08-01

    This review is concerned with modern trends in the use of electrochemically induced chain reactions in cascade and multicomponent electroorganic synthesis. The review summarizes the data on the use of electrochemically induced chain reactions in cascade and multicomponent organic synthesis, which were published mainly in the last decade.

  8. An Evaluation of a Multicomponent Early Literacy Program for Students with Severe Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn; Flowers, Claudia; Baker, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multicomponent early literacy curriculum that included phonics and phonemic awareness in comparison to a sight word approach. A total of 93 students with severe developmental disabilities who were enrolled in Grades K through 4 were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent early literacy curriculum…

  9. (2+1)-dimensional non-isospectral multi-component AKNS equations and its integrable couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yepeng

    2010-03-08

    (2+1)-dimensional non-isospectral multi-component AKNS equations are derived from an arbitrary order matrix spectral problem. As a reduction, (2+1)-dimensional non-isospectral multi-component Schroedinger equations are obtained. Moreover, new (2+1)-dimensional non-isospectral integrable couplings of the resulting AKNS equations are constructed by enlarging the associated matrix spectral problem.

  10. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…

  11. Extraction of lanthanide(III) and yttrium nitrates by trialkylmethylammonium nitrate from multicomponent solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pyartman, A.K.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Puzikov, E.A.

    1995-07-01

    The extraction of lanthanide(III) and yttrium nitrates from multicomponent solutions by trialkylmethylammonium nitrate at 298.15 K and pH 2 is examined. Physicochemical and mathematical models describing the distributions of lanthanide(III) (Pr-Lu) and Y in multicomponent solutions as a function of the total metal concentration in the aqueous phase and concentrate composition are presented.

  12. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…

  13. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  14. Antibiotic Conditioned Growth Medium of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.; Cazeau, Barbara; Joseph, Njeri

    2004-01-01

    A simple method to study the consequences of bacterial antibiosis after interspecific competition between microorganisms is presented. Common microorganisms are used as the test organisms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as the source of the inhibitor agents.

  15. Reductive metabolism of aminoazobenzenes by Pseudomonas cepacia

    SciTech Connect

    Idaka, E.; Ogawa, T.; Horitsu, H.

    1987-07-01

    The authors earlier isolated a few strains of microbes in sludge from the sewage of an azo dye factory which had assimilability to azo dye. Among them, strain 13NA was identified as Pseudomonas cepacia based on Bergey's Manual and was named Pseudomonas cepacia 13NA. A model experiment for continuous treatment of dye waste was also reported. Some strain 13NA specificities for aminoazobenzenes and reductive and acetylating pathways are described in the present study.

  16. Electron paramagnetic studies of the copper and iron containing soluble ammonia monooxygenase from Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Gilch, Stefan; Meyer, Ortwin; Schmidt, Ingo

    2010-08-01

    Soluble ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) from Nitrosomonas europaea was purified to homogeneity and metals in the active sites of the enzyme (Cu, Fe) were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. EPR spectra were obtained for a type 2 Cu(II) site with g(parallel) = 2.24, A(parallel) = 18.4 mT and g(perpendicular) = 2.057 as well as for heme and non heme iron present in purified soluble AMO from N. europaea. A second type 2 Cu(II) EPR signal with g(parallel) = 2.29, A(parallel) = 16.1 mT and g(perpendicular) = 2.03 appeared in the spectrum of the ferricyanide oxidized enzyme and was attributed to oxidation of cuprous sites. Comparison of EPR-detectable Cu(2+) with total copper determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) suggests that there are six paramagnetic Cu(2+) and three diamagnetic Cu(1+) per heterotrimeric soluble AMO (two paramagnetic and one diamagnetic Cu per alphabetagamma-protomer). A trigonal EPR signal at g = 6.01, caused by a high-spin iron, indicative for cytochrome bound iron, and a rhombic signal at g = 4.31, characteristic of specifically bound Fe(3+) was detectable. The binding of nitric oxide in the presence of reductant resulted in a ferrous S = 3/2 signal, characteristic of a ferrous nitrosyl complex. Inactivation of soluble AMO with acetylene did neither diminish the ferrous signal nor the intensity of the Cu(2+)-EPR signal.

  17. A small lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Streptomyces griseus targeting α- and β-chitin.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yuko S; Kudo, Madoka; Loose, Jennifer S M; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Totani, Kazuhide; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav

    2015-03-01

    The lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) have received considerable attention subsequent to their discovery because of their ability to boost the enzymatic conversion of recalcitrant polysaccharides. In the present study, we describe the enzymatic properties of SgLPMO10F, a small (15 kDa) auxilliary activity (AA) family 10 LPMO from Streptomyces griseus belonging to a clade of the phylogenetic tree without any characterized representative. The protein was expressed using a Brevibacillus-based expression system that had not been used previously for LPMO expression and that also ensures correct processing of the N-terminus crucial for LPMO activity. The enzyme was active towards both α- and β-chitin and showed stronger binding and a greater release of soluble oxidized products for the latter allomorph. In chitinase synergy assays, however, SgLPMO10F worked slightly better for α-chitin, increasing chitin solubilization yields by up to 30-fold and 20-fold for α- and β-chitin, respectively. Synergy experiments with various chitinases showed that the addition of SgLPMO10F leads to a substantial increase in the (GlcNAc)2 :GlcNAc product ratio, in reactions with α-chitin only. This underpins the structural differences between the substrates and also shows that, on α-chitin, SgLPMO10F affects the binding mode and/or degree of processivity of the chitinases tested. Variation in the only exposed aromatic residue in the substrate-binding surface of LPMO10s has previously been linked to preferential binding for α-chitin (exposed Trp) or β-chitin (exposed Tyr). Mutation of this residue, Tyr56, in SgLPMO10F to Trp had no detectable effect on substrate-binding preferences but, in synergy experiments, the mutant appeared to be more efficient on α-chitin.

  18. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Ammonia Monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kristen; Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.; Yeager, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is an aerobic nitrifying bacterium that oxidizes ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2−) through the sequential activities of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (HAO). Many alkynes are mechanism-based inactivators of AMO, and here we describe an activity-based protein profiling method for this enzyme using 1,7-octadiyne (17OD) as a probe. Inactivation of NH4+-dependent O2 uptake by N. europaea by 17OD was time- and concentration-dependent. The effects of 17OD were specific for ammonia-oxidizing activity, and de novo protein synthesis was required to reestablish this activity after cells were exposed to 17OD. Cells were reacted with Alexa Fluor 647 azide using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) (click) reaction, solubilized, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and infrared (IR) scanning. A fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was observed for cells previously exposed to 17OD but not for cells treated with either allylthiourea or acetylene prior to exposure to 17OD or for cells not previously exposed to 17OD. The fluorescent polypeptide was membrane associated and aggregated when heated with β-mercaptoethanol and SDS. The fluorescent polypeptide was also detected in cells pretreated with other diynes, but not in cells pretreated with structural homologs containing a single ethynyl functional group. The membrane fraction from 17OD-treated cells was conjugated with biotin-azide and solubilized in SDS. Streptavidin affinity-purified polypeptides were on-bead trypsin-digested, and amino acid sequences of the peptide fragments were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Peptide fragments from AmoA were the predominant peptides detected in 17OD-treated samples. In-gel digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses also confirmed that the fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was AmoA. PMID:26826234

  19. Analyzing Activities of Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases by Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Westereng, Bjørge; Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Agger, Jane Wittrup; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2017-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases perform oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds in various polysaccharides. The majority of LMPOs studied so far possess activity on either cellulose or chitin and analysis of these activities is therefore the main focus of this review. Notably, however, the number of LPMOs that are active on other polysaccharides is increasing. The products generated by LPMOs from cellulose are either oxidized in the downstream end (at C1) or upstream end (at C4), or at both ends. These modifications only result in small structural changes, which makes both chromatographic separation and product identification by mass spectrometry challenging. The changes in physicochemical properties that are associated with oxidation need to be considered when choosing analytical approaches. C1 oxidation leads to a sugar that is no longer reducing but instead has an acidic functionality, whereas C4 oxidation leads to products that are inherently labile at high and low pH and that exist in a keto-gemdiol equilibrium that is strongly shifted toward the gemdiol in aqueous solutions. Partial degradation of C4-oxidized products leads to the formation of native products, which could explain why some authors claim to have observed glycoside hydrolase activity for LPMOs. Notably, apparent glycoside hydrolase activity may also be due to small amounts of contaminating glycoside hydrolases since these normally have much higher catalytic rates than LPMOs. The low catalytic turnover rates of LPMOs necessitate the use of sensitive product detection methods, which limits the analytical possibilities considerably. Modern liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have become essential tools for evaluating LPMO activity, and this chapter provides an overview of available methods together with a few novel tools. The methods described constitute a suite of techniques for analyzing oxidized carbohydrate products, which can be applied to LPMOs as well as other carbohydrate

  20. Flavin-containing monooxygenase S-oxygenation of a series of thioureas and thiones

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Marilyn C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Stevens, J. Fred; Kedzie, Karen; Fang, Wenkui K.; Heidelbaugh, Todd; Nguyen, Phong; Chow, Ken; Garst, Michael; Gil, Daniel; Williams, David E.

    2014-07-15

    Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) is active towards many drugs with a heteroatom having the properties of a soft nucleophile. Thiocarbamides and thiones are S-oxygenated to the sulfenic acid which can either react with glutathione and initiate a redox-cycle or be oxygenated a second time to the unstable sulfinic acid. In this study, we utilized LC–MS/MS to demonstrate that the oxygenation by hFMO of the thioureas under test terminated at the sulfenic acid. With thiones, hFMO catalyzed the second reaction and the sulfinic acid rapidly lost sulfite to form the corresponding imidazole. Thioureas are often pulmonary toxicants in mammals and, as previously reported by our laboratory, are excellent substrates for hFMO2. This isoform is expressed at high levels in the lung of most mammals, including non-human primates. Genotyping to date indicates that individuals of African (up to 49%) or Hispanic (2–7%) ancestry have at least one allele for functional hFMO2 in lung, but not Caucasians nor Asians. In this study the major metabolite formed by hFMO2 with thioureas from Allergan, Inc. was the sulfenic acid that reacted with glutathione. The majority of thiones were poor substrates for hFMO3, the major form in adult human liver. However, hFMO1, the major isoform expressed in infant and neonatal liver and adult kidney and intestine, readily S-oxygenated thiones under test, with K{sub m}s ranging from 7 to 160 μM and turnover numbers of 30–40 min{sup −1}. The product formed was identified by LC–MS/MS as the imidazole. The activities of the mouse and human FMO1 and FMO3 orthologs were in good agreement with the exception of some thiones for which activity was much greater with hFMO1 than mFMO1.