Science.gov

Sample records for multidisciplinary study design

  1. The multi-disciplinary design study. A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Duran, J. M.; Kauffman, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) is investigated as a comprehensive design criterion for two major interrelated spacecraft subsystems, Controls and Structures. A Multi-Disciplinary Design Tool (MDDT) is developed to evaluate the sensitivity of LCC to subsystem design parameters. Major costs addressed are: non-recurring; launch; ground support; maintenance; expendables; and software. Examples and results from the MDDT are described, including a structural optimization study between different truss designs; a solar array feathering trade for a minimal drag configuration during umbra; and the cost of active control of a flexible structure is compared against the cost of passive damping using visco-elastic material.

  2. Multidisciplinary design and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1992-01-01

    Mutual couplings among the mathematical models of physical phenomena and parts of a system such as an aircraft complicate the design process because each contemplated design change may have a far reaching consequence throughout the system. This paper outlines techniques for computing these influences as system design derivatives useful to both judgmental and formal optimization purposes. The techniques facilitate decomposition of the design process into smaller, more manageable tasks and they form a methodology that can easily fit into existing engineering optimizations and incorporate their design tools.

  3. Multidisciplinary Approach to Aerospike Nozzle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Salas, A. O.; Dunn, H. J.; Alexandrov, N. M.; Follett, W. W.; Orient, G. E.; Hadid, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a linear aerospike rocket nozzle that consists of coupled aerodynamic and structural analyses has been developed. A nonlinear computational fluid dynamics code is used to calculate the aerodynamic thrust, and a three-dimensional finite-element model is used to determine the structural response and weight. The model will be used to demonstrate multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) capabilities for relevant engine concepts, assess performance of various MDO approaches, and provide a guide for future application development. In this study, the MDO problem is formulated using the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) strategy. The results for the MDF formulation are presented with comparisons against separate aerodynamic and structural optimized designs. Significant improvements are demonstrated by using a multidisciplinary approach in comparison with the single-discipline design strategy.

  4. Advanced transport design using multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnum, Jennifer; Bathras, Curt; Beene, Kirk; Bush, Michael; Kaupin, Glenn; Lowe, Steve; Sobieski, Ian; Tingen, Kelly; Wells, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the first implementation of multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) techniques by undergraduates ina design course. The objective of the work was to design a civilian transport aircraft of the Boeing 777 class. The first half of the two semester design course consisted of application of traditional sizing methods and techniques to form a baseline aircraft. MDO techniques were then applied to this baseline design. This paper describes the evolution of the design with special emphasis on the application of MDO techniques, and presents the results of four iterations through the design space. Minimization of take-off gross weight was the goal of the optimization process. The resultant aircraft derived from the MDO procedure weighed approximately 13,382 lbs (2.57 percent) less than the baseline aircraft.

  5. Winglet design using multidisciplinary design optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elham, Ali; van Tooren, Michel J. L.

    2014-10-01

    A quasi-three-dimensional aerodynamic solver is integrated with a semi-analytical structural weight estimation method inside a multidisciplinary design optimization framework to design and optimize a winglet for a passenger aircraft. The winglet is optimized for minimum drag and minimum structural weight. The Pareto front between those two objective functions is found applying a genetic algorithm. The aircraft minimum take-off weight and the aircraft minimum direct operating cost are used to select the best winglets among those on the Pareto front.

  6. Designing Multidisciplinary Integrated Curriculum Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Marla; Hagan, Jill; Ho, Pier Sun; Hudis, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    The term "integrated curriculum" has many different, sometimes conflicting, meanings to educators. In this manual, integrated curriculum refers to the materials and pedagogical strategies used by "multidisciplinary" teams of teachers to organize their instruction so that students are encouraged to make meaningful connections…

  7. Multidisciplinary design optimization using response surface analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1992-01-01

    Aerospace conceptual vehicle design is a complex process which involves multidisciplinary studies of configuration and technology options considering many parameters at many values. NASA Langley's Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) has detailed computerized analysis capabilities in most of the key disciplines required by advanced vehicle design. Given a configuration, the capability exists to quickly determine its performance and lifecycle cost. The next step in vehicle design is to determine the best settings of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics. Typical approach to design optimization is experience based, trial and error variation of many parameters one at a time where possible combinations usually number in the thousands. However, this approach can either lead to a very long and expensive design process or to a premature termination of the design process due to budget and/or schedule pressures. Furthermore, one variable at a time approach can not account for the interactions that occur among parts of systems and among disciplines. As a result, vehicle design may be far from optimal. Advanced multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods are needed to direct the search in an efficient and intelligent manner in order to drastically reduce the number of candidate designs to be evaluated. The payoffs in terms of enhanced performance and reduced cost are significant. A literature review yields two such advanced MDO methods used in aerospace design optimization; Taguchi methods and response surface methods. Taguchi methods provide a systematic and efficient method for design optimization for performance and cost. However, response surface method (RSM) leads to a better, more accurate exploration of the parameter space and to estimated optimum conditions with a small expenditure on experimental data. These two methods are described.

  8. Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Russell M.; Freeman, H. JoAnne

    1999-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design and analysis (MDA) has become the normal mode of operation within most aerospace companies, but the impact of these changes have largely not been reflected at many universities. On an effort to determine if the emergence of multidisciplinary design concepts should influence engineering curricula, NASA has asked several universities (Virginia Tech, Georgia Tech, Clemson, BYU, and Cal Poly) to investigate the practicality of introducing MDA concepts within their undergraduate curricula. A multidisciplinary team of faculty, students, and industry partners evaluated the aeronautical engineering curriculum at Cal Poly. A variety of ways were found to introduce MDA themes into the curriculum without adding courses or units to the existing program. Both analytic and educational tools for multidisciplinary design of aircraft have been developed and implemented.

  9. Multidisciplinary Concurrent Design Optimization via the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Kelkar, Atul G.; Koganti, Gopichand

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is presented which uses commercial design and analysis software and the Internet to perform concurrent multidisciplinary optimization. The methodology provides a means to develop multidisciplinary designs without requiring that all software be accessible from the same local network. The procedures are amenable to design and development teams whose members, expertise and respective software are not geographically located together. This methodology facilitates multidisciplinary teams working concurrently on a design problem of common interest. Partition of design software to different machines allows each constituent software to be used on the machine that provides the most economy and efficiency. The methodology is demonstrated on the concurrent design of a spacecraft structure and attitude control system. Results are compared to those derived from performing the design with an autonomous FORTRAN program.

  10. The multi-disciplinary design study: A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Pichi, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The approach and results of a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Subsystem (SDPS) including gimbal pointing and power output performance are documented. The Multi-Discipline Design Tool (MDDT) computer program developed during the 1986 study has been modified to include the design, performance, and cost algorithms for the SDPS as described. As with the Space Station structural and control subsystems, the LCC of the SDPS can be computed within the MDDT program as a function of the engineering design variables. Two simple examples of MDDT's capability to evaluate cost sensitivity and design based on LCC are included. MDDT was designed to accept NASA's IMAT computer program data as input so that IMAT's detailed structural and controls design capability can be assessed with expected system LCC as computed by MDDT. No changes to IMAT were required. Detailed knowledge of IMAT is not required to perform the LCC analyses as the interface with IMAT is noninteractive.

  11. Initial Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozoroski, L. P.; Geiselhart, K. A.; Padula, S. L.; Li, W.; Olson, E. D.; Campbell, R. L.; Shields, E. W.; Berton, J. J.; Gray, J. S.; Jones, S. M.; Naiman, C. G.; Seidel, J. A.; Moore, K. T.; Naylor, B. A.; Townsend, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the Supersonics (SUP) Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), an initial multidisciplinary design & analysis framework has been developed. A set of low- and intermediate-fidelity discipline design and analysis codes were integrated within a multidisciplinary design and analysis framework and demonstrated on two challenging test cases. The first test case demonstrates an initial capability to design for low boom and performance. The second test case demonstrates rapid assessment of a well-characterized design. The current system has been shown to greatly increase the design and analysis speed and capability, and many future areas for development were identified. This work has established a state-of-the-art capability for immediate use by supersonic concept designers and systems analysts at NASA, while also providing a strong base to build upon for future releases as more multifidelity capabilities are developed and integrated.

  12. Transforming Multidisciplinary Customer Requirements to Product Design Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao-Jie; Ding, Guo-Fu; Qin, Sheng-Feng; Li, Rong; Yan, Kai-Yin; Xiao, Shou-Ne; Yang, Guang-Wu

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing of complexity of complex mechatronic products, it is necessary to involve multidisciplinary design teams, thus, the traditional customer requirements modeling for a single discipline team becomes difficult to be applied in a multidisciplinary team and project since team members with various disciplinary backgrounds may have different interpretations of the customers' requirements. A new synthesized multidisciplinary customer requirements modeling method is provided for obtaining and describing the common understanding of customer requirements (CRs) and more importantly transferring them into a detailed and accurate product design specifications (PDS) to interact with different team members effectively. A case study of designing a high speed train verifies the rationality and feasibility of the proposed multidisciplinary requirement modeling method for complex mechatronic product development. This proposed research offersthe instruction to realize the customer-driven personalized customization of complex mechatronic product.

  13. Designing multidisciplinary longitudinal studies of human development: analyzing past research to inform methodology.

    PubMed

    Shulruf, Boaz; Morton, Susan; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; O'Loughlin, Claire; Dixon, Robyn

    2007-09-01

    This review identifies key issues associated with the design of future longitudinal studies of human development. Sixteen international studies were compared for initial response and retention rate, sample size, type of data collected, and sampling frames. The studies had little information about the influences of fathers, extended family members, childcare, and educational institutions; the effects of peers; children's use of time; the needs of disabled children; urban versus rural environments; or the influence of genetic factors. A contemporary longitudinal study should include measures of physical and mental health, cognitive capacity, educational attainment, social adjustment, conduct and behavior, resiliency, and risk-taking behaviors. It needs to address genetic and intergenerational factors, cultural identity, and the influences of neighborhood, community, and wider social and political environments and to encompass outcomes at all life stages to systematically determine the role each factor plays in individuals' lives, including interactions within and across variables.

  14. Experiences of Multidisciplinary Development Team Members During User-Centered Design of Telecare Products and Services: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background User-centered design (UCD) methodologies can help take the needs and requirements of potential end-users into account during the development of innovative telecare products and services. Understanding how members of multidisciplinary development teams experience the UCD process might help to gain insight into factors that members with different backgrounds consider critical during the development of telecare products and services. Objective The primary objective of this study was to explore how members of multidisciplinary development teams experienced the UCD process of telecare products and services. The secondary objective was to identify differences and similarities in the barriers and facilitators they experienced. Methods Twenty-five members of multidisciplinary development teams of four Research and Development (R&D) projects participated in this study. The R&D projects aimed to develop telecare products and services that can support self-management in elderly people or patients with chronic conditions. Seven participants were representatives of end-users (elderly persons or patients with chronic conditions), three were professional end-users (geriatrician and nurses), five were engineers, four were managers (of R&D companies or engineering teams), and six were researchers. All participants were interviewed by a researcher who was not part of their own development team. The following topics were discussed during the interviews: (1) aim of the project, (2) role of the participant, (3) experiences during the development process, (4) points of improvement, and (5) what the project meant to the participant. Results Experiences of participants related to the following themes: (1) creating a development team, (2) expectations regarding responsibilities and roles, (3) translating user requirements into technical requirements, (4) technical challenges, (5) evaluation of developed products and services, and (6) valorization. Multidisciplinary team members

  15. Experiences of multidisciplinary development team members during user-centered design of telecare products and services: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Joan; Verwey, Renée; Hochstenbach, Laura M J; van der Weegen, Sanne; Man, Yan Ping; de Witte, Luc P

    2014-05-19

    User-centered design (UCD) methodologies can help take the needs and requirements of potential end-users into account during the development of innovative telecare products and services. Understanding how members of multidisciplinary development teams experience the UCD process might help to gain insight into factors that members with different backgrounds consider critical during the development of telecare products and services. The primary objective of this study was to explore how members of multidisciplinary development teams experienced the UCD process of telecare products and services. The secondary objective was to identify differences and similarities in the barriers and facilitators they experienced. Twenty-five members of multidisciplinary development teams of four Research and Development (R&D) projects participated in this study. The R&D projects aimed to develop telecare products and services that can support self-management in elderly people or patients with chronic conditions. Seven participants were representatives of end-users (elderly persons or patients with chronic conditions), three were professional end-users (geriatrician and nurses), five were engineers, four were managers (of R&D companies or engineering teams), and six were researchers. All participants were interviewed by a researcher who was not part of their own development team. The following topics were discussed during the interviews: (1) aim of the project, (2) role of the participant, (3) experiences during the development process, (4) points of improvement, and (5) what the project meant to the participant. Experiences of participants related to the following themes: (1) creating a development team, (2) expectations regarding responsibilities and roles, (3) translating user requirements into technical requirements, (4) technical challenges, (5) evaluation of developed products and services, and (6) valorization. Multidisciplinary team members from different backgrounds often

  16. Multidisciplinary design optimization using genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1994-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the conceptual design and evaluation of launch vehicles since it can have a significant impact on performance and life cycle cost. The objective is to search the system design space to determine values of design variables that optimize the performance characteristic subject to system constraints. Gradient-based optimization routines have been used extensively for aerospace design optimization. However, one limitation of gradient based optimizers is their need for gradient information. Therefore, design problems which include discrete variables can not be studied. Such problems are common in launch vehicle design. For example, the number of engines and material choices must be integer values or assume only a few discrete values. In this study, genetic algorithms are investigated as an approach to MDO problems involving discrete variables and discontinuous domains. Optimization by genetic algorithms (GA) uses a search procedure which is fundamentally different from those gradient based methods. Genetic algorithms seek to find good solutions in an efficient and timely manner rather than finding the best solution. GA are designed to mimic evolutionary selection. A population of candidate designs is evaluated at each iteration, and each individual's probability of reproduction (existence in the next generation) depends on its fitness value (related to the value of the objective function). Progress toward the optimum is achieved by the crossover and mutation operations. GA is attractive since it uses only objective function values in the search process, so gradient calculations are avoided. Hence, GA are able to deal with discrete variables. Studies report success in the use of GA for aircraft design optimization studies, trajectory analysis, space structure design and control systems design. In these studies reliable convergence was achieved, but the number of function evaluations was large compared

  17. Using a life-cycle-cost criterion for multi-disciplinary design studies for the Manned Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. W.; Dunning, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A life-cycle-cost measure for the Manned Space Station is suggested which considers the mass, initial cost, aerodynamic drag, electrical power, moment, required ground support, and expected life of subsystems or components. It is proposed that this life-cycle-cost measure be considered as a criterion for design trade-off studies involving controls and structures. Calculating the related sensitivities in the optimization process is discussed and then applied to specific examples. In the first example, the reaction control system is analyzed with regard to the design of its supporting structure and selection of rocket type. Values of support beam length, structural material selection, and rocket propellant selection are determined which minimize life-cycle-cost. In the second example, the alignment of solar arrays are analyzed for efficiency with regard to generating power, their drag, and their aerodynamic moment. Alignment angles are determined which again minimize life cycle cost. It seems clear from these and other examples that the proposed criterion has value for multi-disciplinary design studies for the Manned Space Station.

  18. Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Aircraft Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroo, Ilan; Altus, Steve; Braun, Robert; Gage, Peter; Sobieski, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a research program aimed at improved methods for multidisciplinary design and optimization of large-scale aeronautical systems. The research involves new approaches to system decomposition, interdisciplinary communication, and methods of exploiting coarse-grained parallelism for analysis and optimization. A new architecture, that involves a tight coupling between optimization and analysis, is intended to improve efficiency while simplifying the structure of multidisciplinary, computation-intensive design problems involving many analysis disciplines and perhaps hundreds of design variables. Work in two areas is described here: system decomposition using compatibility constraints to simplify the analysis structure and take advantage of coarse-grained parallelism; and collaborative optimization, a decomposition of the optimization process to permit parallel design and to simplify interdisciplinary communication requirements.

  19. Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Using WAVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Keith

    2000-01-01

    The current preliminary design tools lack the product performance, quality and cost prediction fidelity required to design Six Sigma products. They are also frequently incompatible with the tools used in detailed design, leading to a great deal of rework and lost or discarded data in the transition from preliminary to detailed design. Thus, enhanced preliminary design tools are needed in order to produce adequate financial returns to the business. To achieve this goal, GEAE has focused on building the preliminary design system around the same geometric 3D solid model that will be used in detailed design. With this approach, the preliminary designer will no longer convert a flowpath sketch into an engine cross section but rather, automatically create 3D solid geometry for structural integrity, life, weight, cost, complexity, producibility, and maintainability assessments. Likewise, both the preliminary design and the detailed design can benefit from the use of the same preliminary part sizing routines. The design analysis tools will also be integrated with the 3D solid model to eliminate manual transfer of data between programs. GEAE has aggressively pursued the computerized control of engineering knowledge for many years. Through its study and validation of 3D CAD programs and processes, GEAE concluded that total system control was not feasible at that time. Prior CAD tools focused exclusively on detail part geometry and Knowledge Based Engineering systems concentrated on rules input and data output. A system was needed to bridge the gap between the two to capture the total system. With the introduction of WAVE Engineering from UGS, the possibilities of an engineering system control device began to formulate. GEAE decided to investigate the new WAVE functionality to accomplish this task. NASA joined GEAE in funding this validation project through Task Order No. 1. With the validation project complete, the second phase under Task Order No. 2 was established to

  20. ASTROS: A multidisciplinary automated structural design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neill, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    ASTROS (Automated Structural Optimization System) is a finite-element-based multidisciplinary structural optimization procedure developed under Air Force sponsorship to perform automated preliminary structural design. The design task is the determination of the structural sizes that provide an optimal structure while satisfying numerous constraints from many disciplines. In addition to its automated design features, ASTROS provides a general transient and frequency response capability, as well as a special feature to perform a transient analysis of a vehicle subjected to a nuclear blast. The motivation for the development of a single multidisciplinary design tool is that such a tool can provide improved structural designs in less time than is currently needed. The role of such a tool is even more apparent as modern materials come into widespread use. Balancing conflicting requirements for the structure's strength and stiffness while exploiting the benefits of material anisotropy is perhaps an impossible task without assistance from an automated design tool. Finally, the use of a single tool can bring the design task into better focus among design team members, thereby improving their insight into the overall task.

  1. Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Weston, R. P.; Zang, T. A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) methodology and two applications of this methodology to the preliminary design phase are presented. These applications are being undertaken to improve, develop, validate and demonstrate MDO methods. Each is presented to illustrate different aspects of this methodology. The first application is an MDO preliminary design problem for defining the geometry and structure of an aerospike nozzle of a linear aerospike rocket engine. The second application demonstrates the use of the Framework for Interdisciplinary Design Optimization (FIDO), which is a computational environment system, by solving a preliminary design problem for a High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The two sample problems illustrate the advantages to performing preliminary design with an MDO process.

  2. Multidisciplinary design optimization using multiobjective formulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Pagaldipti, Narayanan S.

    1995-01-01

    This report addresses the development of a multidisciplinary optimization procedure using an efficient semi-analytical sensitivity analysis technique and multilevel decomposition for the design of aerospace vehicles. A semi-analytical sensitivity analysis procedure is developed for calculating computational grid sensitivities and aerodynamic design sensitivities. Accuracy and efficiency of the sensitivity analysis procedure is established through comparison of the results with those obtained using a finite difference technique. The developed sensitivity analysis technique are then used within a multidisciplinary optimization procedure for designing aerospace vehicles. The optimization problem, with the integration of aerodynamics and structures, is decomposed into two levels. Optimization is performed for improved aerodynamic performance at the first level and improved structural performance at the second level. Aerodynamic analysis is performed by solving the three-dimensional parabolized Navier Stokes equations. A nonlinear programming technique and an approximate analysis procedure are used for optimization. The proceduredeveloped is applied to design the wing of a high speed aircraft. Results obtained show significant improvements in the aircraft aerodynamic and structural performance when compared to a reference or baseline configuration. The use of the semi-analytical sensitivity technique provides significant computational savings.

  3. A multidisciplinary intervention to facilitate return to work in cancer patients: intervention protocol and design of a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Angela G E M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Returning to work can be problematic for cancer survivors due to suboptimal workplace support, a heavy workload, decreased physical functioning and fatigue. The timely and permanent return to work (RtW) of cancer patients favourably influences quality of life and economic independence. Multidisciplinary interventions aimed at timely and enduring RtW are lacking. The objectives of this article are (1) to describe the protocol of an intervention aimed at RtW of cancer patients, comprising of counselling by an oncological occupational physician and supervised physical exercise in a clinical setting during treatment and (2) to present the design of the study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of this intervention. Methods and analysis The intervention comprises three counselling sessions with an oncological occupational physician and a 12-week moderate-to-high intensity physical exercise programme, starting at the onset of chemotherapy. The intervention is aimed at cancer patients treated with curative intent, aged 18–60 years, employed and on sick leave. It will take place in two large medical centres in the Netherlands. The feasibility of the intervention will be evaluated as follows: the number of sessions, topics discussed and exercises executed will be registered by care providers; patients' and care providers' opinions will be assessed by questionnaires and interviews, respectively; and the proportion of invited patients that participated will be calculated. Ethics and dissemination The study results will be used for optimising the intervention content and may serve as a foundation for future implementation. The Medical Ethics Committees of the Academic Medical Center and the participating medical centres approved the study protocol. PMID:22786950

  4. NASA Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, D. P.; Craig, J. I.; Mavris, D. N.; Hale, M. A.; DeLaurentis, D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a multi-year training grant for the development and implementation of a Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis (MDA) Fellowship Program at Georgia Tech. The Program funded the creation of graduate MS and PhD degree programs in aerospace systems design, analysis and integration. It also provided prestigious Fellowships with associated Industry Internships for outstanding engineering students. The graduate program has become the foundation for a vigorous and productive research effort and has produced: 20 MS degrees, 7 Ph.D. degrees, and has contributed to 9 ongoing Ph.D. students. The results of the research are documented in 32 publications (23 of which are included on a companion CDROM) and 4 annual student design reports (included on a companion CDROM). The legacy of this critical funding is the Center for Aerospace Systems Analysis at Georgia Tech which is continuing the graduate program, the research, and the industry internships established by this grant.

  5. Multidisciplinary design integration system for a supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dovi, A. R.; Wrenn, G. A.; Barthelemy, J.-F. M.; Coen, P. G.; Hall, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    An aircraft preliminary design system which provides the multidisciplinary communications and couplings between several engineering disciplines is described. A primary benefit of this system is to demonstrate advanced technology multidisciplinary design integration methodologies. The current version includes the disciplines of aerodynamics and structures. Contributing engineering disciplines are coupled using the Global Sensitivity Equation approach to influence the global design optimization problem. A high speed civil transport configuration is used for configuration trade studies. Forty four independent design variables are used to control the cross-sectional areas of wing rib and spar caps and the thicknesses of wingskincover panels. A total of 300 stress, strain, buckling and displacement behavioral constraints and minimum gages on the design variables were used to optimize the idealized wing structure. The goal of the designs to resize the wing cover panels and internal structure for minimum mass.

  6. NASA Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report is a Year 1 interim report of the progress on the NASA multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Fellowship Program covering the period, January 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. It summarizes progress in establishing the MDA Fellowship Program at Georgia Tech during the initial year. Progress in the advertisement of the program, recruiting results for the 1995-96 academic year, placement of the Fellows in industry during Summer 1995, program development at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels, and collaboration and dissemination of results are summarized in this report. Further details of the first year's progress will be included in the report from the Year 1 Workshop to be held at NASA Langley on December 7-8, 1995.

  7. Design Environment for Multifidelity and Multidisciplinary Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges when developing propulsion systems is predicting the interacting effects between the fluid loads, thermal loads, and structural deflection. The interactions between technical disciplines often are not fully analyzed, and the analysis in one discipline often uses a simplified representation of other disciplines as an input or boundary condition. For example, the fluid forces in an engine generate static and dynamic rotor deflection, but the forces themselves are dependent on the rotor position and its orbit. It is important to consider the interaction between the physical phenomena where the outcome of each analysis is heavily dependent on the inputs (e.g., changes in flow due to deflection, changes in deflection due to fluid forces). A rigid design process also lacks the flexibility to employ multiple levels of fidelity in the analysis of each of the components. This project developed and validated an innovative design environment that has the flexibility to simultaneously analyze multiple disciplines and multiple components with multiple levels of model fidelity. Using NASA's open-source multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization (OpenMDAO) framework, this multifaceted system will provide substantially superior capabilities to current design tools.

  8. Communication and Sense-Making in Intensive Care: An Observation Study of Multi-Disciplinary Rounds to Design Computerized Supporting Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Danny; Xiao, Yan; Vaidya, Vinay; Hu, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Multi-disciplinary rounds are a forum for communication and sense-making, and they play a critical role in intensive care to ensure care coordination across specialties and providers. Increased availability of clinical information through computers has made it possible to provide support during rounds. We conducted an observation study to determine ways in which computers may be used during rounds, when users are under time pressure in accessing and manipulating clinical data. A total of fifteen hours of rounds in a pediatric intensive care unit for 47 patients were observed. Factors influencing information transfer during rounds were characterized in three areas: physical, social and cognitive, and supporting artifacts. Based on these factors we developed a set of design guidelines for computerized supporting tools. An example guideline suggests digital capture of handwritten notes. These guidelines developed may help guide future systems development, thus leveraging the power of computing during the critical moments of multi-disciplinary rounds. PMID:18693852

  9. Automation enhancements in multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wujek, Brett Alan

    The process of designing complex systems has necessarily evolved into one which includes the contributions and interactions of multiple disciplines. To date, the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) process has been addressed mainly from the standpoint of algorithm development, with the primary concerns being effective and efficient coordination of disciplinary activities, modification of conventional optimization methods, and the utility of approximation techniques toward this goal. The focus of this dissertation is on improving the efficiency of MDO algorithms through the automation of common procedures and the development of improved methods to carry out these procedures. In this research, automation enhancements are made to the MDO process in three different areas: execution, sensitivity analysis and utility, and design variable move-limit management. A framework is developed along with a graphical user interface called NDOPT to automate the setup and execution of MDO algorithms in a research environment. The technology of automatic differentiation (AD) is utilized within various modules of MDO algorithms for fast and accurate sensitivity calculation, allowing for the frequent use of updated sensitivity information. With the use of AD, efficiency improvements are observed in the convergence of system analyses and in certain optimization procedures since gradient-based methods, traditionally considered cost-prohibitive, can be employed at a more reasonable expense. Finally, a method is developed to automatically monitor and adjust design variable move-limits for the approximate optimization process commonly used in MDO algorithms. With its basis in the well established and probably convergent trust region approach, the Trust region Ratio Approximation method (TRAM) developed in this research accounts for approximation accuracy and the sensitivity of the model error to the design space in providing a flexible move-limit adjustment factor. Favorable results

  10. An uncertain multidisciplinary design optimization method using interval convex models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangyi; Luo, Zhen; Sun, Guangyong; Zhang, Nong

    2013-06-01

    This article proposes an uncertain multi-objective multidisciplinary design optimization methodology, which employs the interval model to represent the uncertainties of uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The interval number programming method is applied to transform each uncertain objective function into two deterministic objective functions, and a satisfaction degree of intervals is used to convert both the uncertain inequality and equality constraints to deterministic inequality constraints. In doing so, an unconstrained deterministic optimization problem will be constructed in association with the penalty function method. The design will be finally formulated as a nested three-loop optimization, a class of highly challenging problems in the area of engineering design optimization. An advanced hierarchical optimization scheme is developed to solve the proposed optimization problem based on the multidisciplinary feasible strategy, which is a well-studied method able to reduce the dimensions of multidisciplinary design optimization problems by using the design variables as independent optimization variables. In the hierarchical optimization system, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II, sequential quadratic programming method and Gauss-Seidel iterative approach are applied to the outer, middle and inner loops of the optimization problem, respectively. Typical numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  11. MDO can help resolve the designer's dilemma. [multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Tulinius, Jan R.

    1991-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is presented as a rapidly growing body of methods, algorithms, and techniques that will provide a quantum jump in the effectiveness and efficiency of the quantitative side of design, and will turn that side into an environment in which the qualitative side can thrive. MDO borrows from CAD/CAM for graphic visualization of geometrical and numerical data, data base technology, and in computer software and hardware. Expected benefits from this methodology are a rational, mathematically consistent approach to hypersonic aircraft designs, designs pushed closer to the optimum, and a design process either shortened or leaving time available for different concepts to be explored.

  12. MDO can help resolve the designer's dilemma. [Multidisciplinary design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Sobieszczanski-sobieski, Jaroslaw; Tulinius, J.R. Rockwell International Corp., El Segundo, CA )

    1991-09-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is presented as a rapidly growing body of methods, algorithms, and techniques that will provide a quantum jump in the effectiveness and efficiency of the quantitative side of design, and will turn that side into an environment in which the qualitative side can thrive. MDO borrows from CAD/CAM for graphic visualization of geometrical and numerical data, data base technology, and in computer software and hardware. Expected benefits from this methodology are a rational, mathematically consistent approach to hypersonic aircraft designs, designs pushed closer to the optimum, and a design process either shortened or leaving time available for different concepts to be explored.

  13. MDO can help resolve the designer's dilemma. [multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Tulinius, Jan R.

    1991-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is presented as a rapidly growing body of methods, algorithms, and techniques that will provide a quantum jump in the effectiveness and efficiency of the quantitative side of design, and will turn that side into an environment in which the qualitative side can thrive. MDO borrows from CAD/CAM for graphic visualization of geometrical and numerical data, data base technology, and in computer software and hardware. Expected benefits from this methodology are a rational, mathematically consistent approach to hypersonic aircraft designs, designs pushed closer to the optimum, and a design process either shortened or leaving time available for different concepts to be explored.

  14. Response Surface Model Building and Multidisciplinary Optimization Using D-Optimal Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Lepsch, Roger A.; McMillin, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses response surface methods for approximation model building and multidisciplinary design optimization. The response surface methods discussed are central composite designs, Bayesian methods and D-optimal designs. An over-determined D-optimal design is applied to a configuration design and optimization study of a wing-body, launch vehicle. Results suggest that over determined D-optimal designs may provide an efficient approach for approximation model building and for multidisciplinary design optimization.

  15. NASA Aeronautics Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Guerdal, Z.; Haftka, R. T.; Kapania, R. K.; Mason, W. H.; Mook, D. T.

    1998-01-01

    For a number of years, Virginia Tech had been on the forefront of research in the area of multidisciplinary analysis and design. In June of 1994, faculty members from aerospace and ocean engineering, engineering science and mechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, at Virginia Tech joined together to form the Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design (MAD) Center for Advanced Vehicles. The center was established with the single goal: to perform research that is relevant to the needs of the US industry and to foster collaboration between the university, government and industry. In October of 1994, the center was chosen by NASA headquarters as one of the five university centers to establish a fellowship program to develop a graduate program in multidisciplinary analysis and design. The fellowship program provides full stipend and tuition support for seven U. S. students per year during their graduate studies. To advise us regarding the problems faced by the industry, an industrial advisory board has been formed consisting of representatives from industry as well as government laboratories. The function of the advisory board is to channel information from its member companies to faculty members concerning problems that need research attention in the general area of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). The faculty and their graduate students make proposals to the board on how to address these problems. At the annual board meeting in Blacksburg, the board discusses the proposals and suggests which students get funded under the NASA fellowship program. All students participating in the program are required to spend 3-6 months in industry working on their research projects. We are completing the third year of the fellowship program and have had three advisory board meetings in Blacksburg.

  16. Multidisciplinary design optimization: An emerging new engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1993-01-01

    This paper defines the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) as a new field of research endeavor and as an aid in the design of engineering systems. It examines the MDO conceptual components in relation to each other and defines their functions.

  17. RoboCup: Multi-disciplinary Senior Design Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Kevin Lee

    A cross-college team of educators has developed a collaborative, multi-disciplinary senior design course at Ohio University. This course offers an attractive opportunity for students from a variety of disciplines to work together in a learning community to accomplish a challenging task. It provides a novel multi-disciplinary learning environment…

  18. Evaluation of Methods for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodiyalam, Srinivas

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Langley Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) method evaluation study seeks to arrive at a set of guidelines for using promising MDO methods by accumulating and analyzing computational data for such methods. The data are collected by conducting a series of reproducible experiments. This report documents all computational experiments conducted in Phase I of the study. This report is a companion to the paper titled Initial Results of an MDO Method Evaluation Study by N. M. Alexandrov and S. Kodiyalam (AIAA-98-4884).

  19. Multidisciplinary design optimization - An emerging new engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1993-01-01

    A definition of the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is introduced, and functionality and relationship of the MDO conceptual components are examined. The latter include design-oriented analysis, approximation concepts, mathematical system modeling, design space search, an optimization procedure, and a humane interface.

  20. An information driven strategy to support multidisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rangan, Ravi M.; Fulton, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    The design of complex engineering systems such as aircraft, automobiles, and computers is primarily a cooperative multidisciplinary design process involving interactions between several design agents. The common thread underlying this multidisciplinary design activity is the information exchange between the various groups and disciplines. The integrating component in such environments is the common data and the dependencies that exist between such data. This may be contrasted to classical multidisciplinary analyses problems where there is coupling between distinct design parameters. For example, they may be expressed as mathematically coupled relationships between aerodynamic and structural interactions in aircraft structures, between thermal and structural interactions in nuclear plants, and between control considerations and structural interactions in flexible robots. These relationships provide analytical based frameworks leading to optimization problem formulations. However, in multidisciplinary design problems, information based interactions become more critical. Many times, the relationships between different design parameters are not amenable to analytical characterization. Under such circumstances, information based interactions will provide the best integration paradigm, i.e., there is a need to model the data entities and their dependencies between design parameters originating from different design agents. The modeling of such data interactions and dependencies forms the basis for integrating the various design agents.

  1. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization on Conceptual Design of Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhan-xue; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain better integrated performance of aero-engine during the conceptual design stage, multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, weight, and aircraft mission are required. Unfortunately, the couplings between these disciplines make it difficult to model or solve by conventional method. MDO (Multidisciplinary Design Optimization) methodology which can well deal with couplings of disciplines is considered to solve this coupled problem. Approximation method, optimization method, coordination method, and modeling method for MDO framework are deeply analyzed. For obtaining the more efficient MDO framework, an improved CSSO (Concurrent Subspace Optimization) strategy which is based on DOE (Design Of Experiment) and RSM (Response Surface Model) methods is proposed in this paper; and an improved DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm is recommended to solve the system-level and discipline-level optimization problems in MDO framework. The improved CSSO strategy and DE algorithm are evaluated by utilizing the numerical test problem. The result shows that the efficiency of improved methods proposed by this paper is significantly increased. The coupled problem of VCE (Variable Cycle Engine) conceptual design is solved by utilizing improved CSSO strategy, and the design parameter given by improved CSSO strategy is better than the original one. The integrated performance of VCE is significantly improved.

  2. Progress in multidisciplinary design optimization at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary Design Optimization refers to some combination of disciplinary analyses, sensitivity analysis, and optimization techniques used to design complex engineering systems. The ultimate objective of this research at NASA Langley Research Center is to help the US industry reduce the costs associated with development, manufacturing, and maintenance of aerospace vehicles while improving system performance. This report reviews progress towards this objective and highlights topics for future research. Aerospace design problems selected from the author's research illustrate strengths and weaknesses in existing multidisciplinary optimization techniques. The techniques discussed include multiobjective optimization, global sensitivity equations and sequential linear programming.

  3. Chicano Studies: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.; And Others

    One in a series on bilingual education, this book contains 15 chapters organized under the following subject headings: Chicano studies; Chicano history, social structure, and politics; literature and folklore; and education. Carlos Munoz, Jr., traces the history of Chicano studies and its impact on access to higher education. Albert Camarillo…

  4. Chicano Studies: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Eugene E., Ed.; And Others

    One in a series on bilingual education, this book contains 15 chapters organized under the following subject headings: Chicano studies; Chicano history, social structure, and politics; literature and folklore; and education. Carlos Munoz, Jr., traces the history of Chicano studies and its impact on access to higher education. Albert Camarillo…

  5. A multidisciplinary Amazon Shelf Sediment Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AmasSeds Research Group

    A new research program is taking a comprehensive look at the continental shelf at the mouth of the Amazon, the world's largest river. This paper describes the objectives, the design, some preliminary results, and the future plans of the program, which is called A Multidisciplinary Amazon Shelf Sediment Study (AmasSeds). The participants in the program's research group are listed at the end of this article.Among the initial findings from AmasSeds are observations of mammoth pulses of water (and sediment) discharge on weekly time scales from the Amazon, and documentation of the advection of this material over 1000 km over a couple of weeks. The study has also measured suspended sediment concentrations that affect seawater density and biological productivity, and revealed shoreline erosion even while billions of tons of sediment are being supplied. In addition, iron and manganese cycling has been found to be so extensive that it controls seabed chemistry. Finally, the project has identified a major environmental change that occurred several hundred years ago.

  6. Design of the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) to evaluate primary glomerular nephropathy by a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Gipson, Debbie S; Holzman, Lawrence B; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Song, Peter X K; Barisoni, Laura; Sampson, Matthew G; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Lemley, Kevin V; Nelson, Peter J; Lienczewski, Chrysta C; Adler, Sharon G; Appel, Gerald B; Cattran, Daniel C; Choi, Michael J; Contreras, Gabriel; Dell, Katherine M; Fervenza, Fernando C; Gibson, Keisha L; Greenbaum, Larry A; Hernandez, Joel D; Hewitt, Stephen M; Hingorani, Sangeeta R; Hladunewich, Michelle; Hogan, Marie C; Hogan, Susan L; Kaskel, Frederick J; Lieske, John C; Meyers, Kevin E C; Nachman, Patrick H; Nast, Cynthia C; Neu, Alicia M; Reich, Heather N; Sedor, John R; Sethna, Christine B; Trachtman, Howard; Tuttle, Katherine R; Zhdanova, Olga; Zilleruelo, Gastòn E; Kretzler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    The Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) is a North American multicenter collaborative consortium established to develop a translational research infrastructure for nephrotic syndrome. This includes a longitudinal observational cohort study, a pilot and ancillary study program, a training program, and a patient contact registry. NEPTUNE will enroll 450 adults and children with minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy for detailed clinical, histopathological, and molecular phenotyping at the time of clinically indicated renal biopsy. Initial visits will include an extensive clinical history, physical examination, collection of urine, blood and renal tissue samples, and assessments of quality of life and patient-reported outcomes. Follow-up history, physical measures, urine and blood samples, and questionnaires will be obtained every 4 months in the first year and biannually, thereafter. Molecular profiles and gene expression data will be linked to phenotypic, genetic, and digitalized histological data for comprehensive analyses using systems biology approaches. Analytical strategies were designed to transform descriptive information to mechanistic disease classification for nephrotic syndrome and to identify clinical, histological, and genomic disease predictors. Thus, understanding the complexity of the disease pathogenesis will guide further investigation for targeted therapeutic strategies.

  7. Aircraft design optimization with multidisciplinary performance criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Stephen; Kroo, Ilan

    1989-01-01

    The method described here for aircraft design optimization with dynamic response considerations provides an inexpensive means of integrating dynamics into aircraft preliminary design. By defining a dynamic performance index that can be added to a conventional objective function, a designer can investigate the trade-off between performance and handling (as measured by the vehicle's unforced response). The procedure is formulated to permit the use of control system gains as design variables, but does not require full-state feedback. The examples discussed here show how such an approach can lead to significant improvements in the design as compared with the more common sequential design of system and control law.

  8. Multidisciplinary optimization in aircraft design using analytic technology models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Brett; Mason, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to multidisciplinary optimization is presented which combines the Global Sensitivity Equation method, parametric optimization, and analytic technology models. The result is a powerful yet simple procedure for identifying key design issues. It can be used both to investigate technology integration issues very early in the design cycle, and to establish the information flow framework between disciplines for use in multidisciplinary optimization projects using much more computational intense representations of each technology. To illustrate the approach, an examination of the optimization of a short takeoff heavy transport aircraft is presented for numerous combinations of performance and technology constraints.

  9. TECNOB: study design of a randomized controlled trial of a multidisciplinary telecare intervention for obese patients with type-2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity is one of the most important medical and public health problems of our time: it increases the risk of many health complications such as hypertension, coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, needs long-lasting treatment for effective results and involves high public and private costs. Therefore, it is imperative that enduring and low-cost clinical programs for obesity and related co-morbidities are developed and evaluated. Methods/Design TECNOB (TEChnology for OBesity) is a comprehensive two-phase stepped down program enhanced by telemedicine for the long-term treatment of obese people with type 2 diabetes seeking intervention for weight loss. Its core features are the hospital-based intensive treatment (1-month), that consists of diet therapy, physical training and psychological counseling, and the continuity of care at home using new information and communication technologies (ICT) such as internet and mobile phones. The effectiveness of the TECNOB program compared with usual care (hospital-based treatment only) will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms. Secondary outcome measures are energy expenditure measured using an electronic armband, glycated hemoglobin, binge eating, self-efficacy in eating and weight control, body satisfaction, healthy habit formation, disordered eating-related behaviors and cognitions, psychopathological symptoms and weight-related quality of life. Furthermore, the study will explore what behavioral and psychological variables are predictive of treatment success among those we have considered. Discussion The TECNOB study aims to inform the evidence-based knowledge of how telemedicine may enhance the effectiveness of clinical interventions for weight loss and related type-2 diabetes, and which type of obese patients may benefit the most from such interventions. Broadly, the study aims also to have a effect on the theoretical model

  10. An integrated risk analysis methodology in a multidisciplinary design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, Katrina Renee

    Design of complex, one-of-a-kind systems, such as space transportation systems, is characterized by high uncertainty and, consequently, high risk. It is necessary to account for these uncertainties in the design process to produce systems that are more reliable. Systems designed by including uncertainties and managing them, as well, are more robust and less prone to poor operations as a result of parameter variability. The quantification, analysis and mitigation of uncertainties are challenging tasks as many systems lack historical data. In such an environment, risk or uncertainty quantification becomes subjective because input data is based on professional judgment. Additionally, there are uncertainties associated with the analysis tools and models. Both the input data and the model uncertainties must be considered for a multi disciplinary systems level risk analysis. This research synthesizes an integrated approach for developing a method for risk analysis. Expert judgment methodology is employed to quantify external risk. This methodology is then combined with a Latin Hypercube Sampling - Monte Carlo simulation to propagate uncertainties across a multidisciplinary environment for the overall system. Finally, a robust design strategy is employed to mitigate risk during the optimization process. This type of approach to risk analysis is conducive to the examination of quantitative risk factors. The core of this research methodology is the theoretical framework for uncertainty propagation. The research is divided into three stages or modules. The first two modules include the identification/quantification and propagation of uncertainties. The third module involves the management of uncertainties or response optimization. This final module also incorporates the integration of risk into program decision-making. The risk analysis methodology, is applied to a launch vehicle conceptual design study at NASA Langley Research Center. The launch vehicle multidisciplinary

  11. NASA Aeronautics Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Kapania, R. K.; Mason, W. H.; Schetz, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    This program began as a grant from NASA Headquarters, NGT-10025, which was in effect from 10/l/93 until 10/31/96. The remaining funding for this effort was transferred from NASA Headquarters to NASA Langley and a new grant NGT-1-52155 was issued covering the period II/l/96 to 5/15/99. This report serves as the final report of NGT-1-52155. For a number of years, Virginia Tech had been on the forefront of research in the area of multidisciplinary analysis and design. In June of 1994, faculty members from aerospace and ocean engineering, engineering science and mechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, at Virginia Tech joined together to form the Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design (MAD) Center for Advanced Vehicles. The center was established with the single goal: to perform research that is relevant to the needs of the US industry and to foster collaboration between the university, government and industry. In October of 1994, the center was chosen by NASA headquarters as one of the five university centers to establish a fellowship program to develop a graduate program in multidisciplinary analysis and design. The fellowship program provides full stipend and tuition support for seven U. S. students per year during their graduate studies. The grant is currently being administered by the NMO Branch of NASA Langley. To advise us regarding the problems faced by the industry, an industrial advisory board has been formed consisting of representatives from industry as well as government laboratories. The present membership includes major aerospace companies: Aurora Flight Sciences, Boeing: Philadelphia, Boeing: Long Beach, Boeing: Seattle, Boeing: St. Louis, Cessna, Ford, General Electric, Hughes, Lockheed-Martin: Palo Alto, Northrop-Grumman, Sikorsky, smaller, aerospace software companies: Aerosoft, Phoenix Integration and Proteus Engineering, along with representatives from government agencies, including: NASA Ames

  12. NASA Aeronautics Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Gurdal, Z.; Kapania, R. K.; Mason, W. H.; Schetz, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    This program began as a grant from NASA Headquarters, NGT-10025, which was in effect from 10/l/93 until 10/31/96. The remaining funding for this effort was transferred from NASA Headquarters to NASA Langley and a new grant NGT-1-52155 was issued covering the period II/l/96 to 5/15/99. This report serves as the final report of NGT-1-52155. For a number of years, Virginia Tech had been on the forefront of research in the area of multidisciplinary analysis and design. In June of 1994, faculty members from aerospace and ocean engineering, engineering science and mechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, mathematics and computer sciences, at Virginia Tech joined together to form the Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design (MAD) Center for Advanced Vehicles. The center was established with the single goal: to perform research that is relevant to the needs of the US industry and to foster collaboration between the university, government and industry. In October of 1994, the center was chosen by NASA headquarters as one of the five university centers to establish a fellowship program to develop a graduate program in multidisciplinary analysis and design. The fellowship program provides full stipend and tuition support for seven U. S. students per year during their graduate studies. The grant is currently being administered by the NMO Branch of NASA Langley. To advise us regarding the problems faced by the industry, an industrial advisory board has been formed consisting of representatives from industry as well as government laboratories. The present membership includes major aerospace companies: Aurora Flight Sciences, Boeing: Philadelphia, Boeing: Long Beach, Boeing: Seattle, Boeing: St. Louis, Cessna, Ford, General Electric, Hughes, Lockheed-Martin: Palo Alto, Northrop-Grumman, Sikorsky, smaller, aerospace software companies: Aerosoft, Phoenix Integration and Proteus Engineering, along with representatives from government agencies, including: NASA Ames

  13. Integrating principles and multidisciplinary projects in design education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The critical need to improve engineering design education in the U.S. is presented and a number of actions to achieve that end are discussed. The importance of teaching undergraduates the latest methods and principles through the means of team design in multidisciplinary projects leading to a testable product is emphasized. Desirable training for design instructors is described and techniques for selecting and managing projects that teach effectively are discussed.

  14. Integrating principles and multidisciplinary projects in design education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The critical need to improve engineering design education in the U.S. is presented and a number of actions to achieve that end are discussed. The importance of teaching undergraduates the latest methods and principles through the means of team design in multidisciplinary projects leading to a testable product is emphasized. Desirable training for design instructors is described and techniques for selecting and managing projects that teach effectively are discussed.

  15. Hypersonic drone vehicle design: A multidisciplinary experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    UCLA's Advanced Aeronautic Design group focussed their efforts on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necesary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: (1) to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and (2) to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. The group concentrated on three areas of great concern to NASP design: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed toward design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A 70 deg swept double-delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at the NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based on flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 pounds and an overall length of 85 feet.

  16. Aesthetic design preservation in multidisciplinary therapy: philosophy and clinical execution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ernesto A; Jun, Sang K

    2002-09-01

    Complex perio-prosthetic cases that require multidisciplinary therapy often result in compromised aesthetics. Traditional treatment planning philosophies, as well as existing interdisciplinary relational patterns, do not promote the achievement of predictable aesthetic results. Implementation of a restorative-driven approach requires the development of an aesthetic blueprint that will serve as a guide through treatment. This article illustrates the clinical techniques and sequence for an outcome-based protocol that enhances therapeutic cohesiveness and ensures the sequential transfer of design objectives for the preservation of aesthetics in multidisciplinary therapy.

  17. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The optimization formulation is described in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  18. Integrated multidisciplinary design optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA/Army research plan for developing the logic elements for helicopter rotor design optimization by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines is discussed. The paper describes the optimization formulation in terms of the objective function, design variables, and constraints. The analysis aspects are discussed, and an initial effort at defining the interdisciplinary coupling is summarized. Results are presented on the achievements made in the rotor aerodynamic performance optimization for minimum hover horsepower, rotor dynamic optimization for vibration reduction, rotor structural optimization for minimum weight, and integrated aerodynamic load/dynamics optimization for minimum vibration and weight.

  19. Multi-disciplinary coupling for integrated design of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions for determining the true response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-discipline coupling effects via (1) coupled multi-discipline tailoring, (2) an integrated system of multidisciplinary simulators, (3) coupled material-behavior/fabrication-process tailoring, (4) sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator, and (5) coupled materials/structures/fracture/probabilistic behavior simulator. The results show that the best designs can be determined if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated interactive multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.

  20. Hypersonic drone design: A multidisciplinary experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Efforts were focused on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necessary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. Three areas of great concern to NASP design were examined: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed towards design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A seventy degree swept double delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air-launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based upon the flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 lb. and an overall length of 85 feet.

  1. Multidisciplinary design optimization for sonic boom mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcer, Isik A.

    product design. The simulation tools are used to optimize three geometries for sonic boom mitigation. The first is a simple axisymmetric shape to be used as a generic nose component, the second is a delta wing with lift, and the third is a real aircraft with nose and wing optimization. The objectives are to minimize the pressure impulse or the peak pressure in the sonic boom signal, while keeping the drag penalty under feasible limits. The design parameters for the meridian profile of the nose shape are the lengths and the half-cone angles of the linear segments that make up the profile. The design parameters for the lifting wing are the dihedral angle, angle of attack, non-linear span-wise twist and camber distribution. The test-bed aircraft is the modified F-5E aircraft built by Northrop Grumman, designated the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstrator. This aircraft is fitted with an optimized axisymmetric nose, and the wings are optimized to demonstrate optimization for sonic boom mitigation for a real aircraft. The final results predict 42% reduction in bow shock strength, 17% reduction in peak Deltap, 22% reduction in pressure impulse, 10% reduction in foot print size, 24% reduction in inviscid drag, and no loss in lift for the optimized aircraft. Optimization is carried out using response surface methodology, and the design matrices are determined using standard DoE techniques for quadratic response modeling.

  2. Multidisciplinary design optimization of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuping; McPhee, John

    2005-05-01

    A multidisciplinary optimization method is applied to the design of mechatronic vehicles with active suspensions. The method is implemented in a GA-A'GEM-MATLAB simulation environment in such a way that the linear mechanical vehicle model is designed in a multibody dynamics software package, i.e. A'GEM, the controllers and estimators are constructed using linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method, and Kalman filter algorithm in Matlab, then the combined mechanical and control model is optimized simultaneously using a genetic algorithm (GA). The design variables include passive parameters and control parameters. In the numerical optimizations, both random and deterministic road inputs and both perfect measurement of full state variables and estimated limited state variables are considered. Optimization results show that the active suspension systems based on the multidisciplinary optimization method have better overall performance than those derived using conventional design methods with the LQG algorithm.

  3. Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimal Design: As Easy as it Sounds?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Greg; Chainyk, Mike; Schiermeier, John

    2004-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation examines optimal design for precision, large aperture structures. Discussion focuses on aspects of design optimization, code architecture and current capabilities, and planned activities and collaborative area suggestions. The discussion of design optimization examines design sensitivity analysis; practical considerations; and new analytical environments including finite element-based capability for high-fidelity multidisciplinary analysis, design sensitivity, and optimization. The discussion of code architecture and current capabilities includes basic thermal and structural elements, nonlinear heat transfer solutions and process, and optical modes generation.

  4. A Web-Based Monitoring System for Multidisciplinary Design Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.; Salas, Andrea O.; Weston, Robert P.

    1998-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, both industry and government agencies are under pressure to reduce the time and cost of multidisciplinary design projects. New tools have been introduced to assist in this process by facilitating the integration of and communication among diverse disciplinary codes. One such tool, a framework for multidisciplinary computational environments, is defined as a hardware and software architecture that enables integration, execution, and communication among diverse disciplinary processes. An examination of current frameworks reveals weaknesses in various areas, such as sequencing, displaying, monitoring, and controlling the design process. The objective of this research is to explore how Web technology, integrated with an existing framework, can improve these areas of weakness. This paper describes a Web-based system that optimizes and controls the execution sequence of design processes; and monitors the project status and results. The three-stage evolution of the system with increasingly complex problems demonstrates the feasibility of this approach.

  5. Clean wing airframe noise modeling for multidisciplinary design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosder, Serhat

    transport wing at realistic approach conditions. The twist distribution of the baseline wing was changed to obtain a modified wing which was used to investigate the effect of the twist on the trailing edge noise. An example study with NACA 0012 and NACA 0009 airfoils demonstrated a reduction in the trailing edge noise by decreasing the thickness ratio and the lift coefficient, while increasing the chord length to keep the same lift at a constant speed. Both two- and three-dimensional studies demonstrated that the trailing edge noise remains almost constant at low lift coefficients and gets larger at higher lift values. The increase in the noise metric can be dramatic when there is separation on the wing. Three-dimensional effects observed in the wing cases indicate the importance of calculating the noise metric with a characteristic velocity and length scale that vary along the span. The twist change does not have a significant effect on the noise at low lift coefficients, however it may give significant noise reduction at higher lift values. The results obtained in this study show the importance of the lift coefficient, CL, on the airframe noise of a clean wing and favors having a larger wing area to reduce the CL for minimizing the noise. The results also point to the fact that the noise reduction studies should be performed in a multidisciplinary design and optimization framework, since many of the parameters that change the trailing edge noise also affect the other aircraft design requirements. It's hoped that the noise metric developed here can aid in such multidisciplinary design and optimization studies.

  6. Integrating Multibody Simulation and CFD: toward Complex Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, Stefano; Poloni, Carlo; Mühlmeier, Martin

    This paper describes the use of integrated multidisciplinary analysis and optimization of a race car model on a predefined circuit. The objective is the definition of the most efficient geometric configuration that can guarantee the lowest lap time. In order to carry out this study it has been necessary to interface the design optimization software modeFRONTIER with the following softwares: CATIA v5, a three dimensional CAD software, used for the definition of the parametric geometry; A.D.A.M.S./Motorsport, a multi-body dynamic simulation software; IcemCFD, a mesh generator, for the automatic generation of the CFD grid; CFX, a Navier-Stokes code, for the fluid-dynamic forces prediction. The process integration gives the possibility to compute, for each geometrical configuration, a set of aerodynamic coefficients that are then used in the multiboby simulation for the computation of the lap time. Finally an automatic optimization procedure is started and the lap-time minimized. The whole process is executed on a Linux cluster running CFD simulations in parallel.

  7. New Approaches to HSCT Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, D. P.; Craig, J. I.; Fulton, R. E.; Mistree, F.

    1996-01-01

    The successful development of a capable and economically viable high speed civil transport (HSCT) is perhaps one of the most challenging tasks in aeronautics for the next two decades. At its heart it is fundamentally the design of a complex engineered system that has significant societal, environmental and political impacts. As such it presents a formidable challenge to all areas of aeronautics, and it is therefore a particularly appropriate subject for research in multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO). In fact, it is starkly clear that without the availability of powerful and versatile multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization methods, the design, construction and operation of im HSCT simply cannot be achieved. The present research project is focused on the development and evaluation of MDO methods that, while broader and more general in scope, are particularly appropriate to the HSCT design problem. The research aims to not only develop the basic methods but also to apply them to relevant examples from the NASA HSCT R&D effort. The research involves a three year effort aimed first at the HSCT MDO problem description, next the development of the problem, and finally a solution to a significant portion of the problem.

  8. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Mixer-Ejector Analysis and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric, S.; Seidel, Jonathan, A.

    2012-01-01

    The design of an engine for a civil supersonic aircraft presents a difficult multidisciplinary problem to propulsion system engineers. There are numerous competing requirements for the engine, such as to be efficient during cruise while yet quiet enough at takeoff to meet airport noise regulations. The use of mixer-ejector nozzles presents one possible solution to this challenge. However, designing a mixer-ejector which will successfully address both of these concerns is a difficult proposition. Presented in this paper is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the analysis and design of these systems. A process that uses several low-fidelity tools to evaluate both the performance and acoustics of mixer-ejectors nozzles is described. This process is further expanded to include system-level modeling of engines and aircraft to determine the effects on mission performance and noise near airports. The overall process is developed in the OpenMDAO framework currently being developed by NASA. From the developed process, sample results are given for a notional mixer-ejector design, thereby demonstrating the capabilities of the method.

  9. A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambe, Andrew Borean

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation. motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and

  10. A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambe, Andrew Borean

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an approach to engineering design that exploits the coupling between components or knowledge disciplines in a complex system to improve the final product. In aircraft design, MDO methods can be used to simultaneously design the outer shape of the aircraft and the internal structure, taking into account the complex interaction between the aerodynamic forces and the structural flexibility. Efficient strategies are needed to solve such design optimization problems and guarantee convergence to an optimal design. This work begins with a comprehensive review of MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms. First, a fundamental MDO problem formulation is defined from which other formulations may be obtained through simple transformations. Using these fundamental problem formulations, decomposition methods from the literature are reviewed and classified. All MDO methods are presented in a unified mathematical notation to facilitate greater understanding. In addition, a novel set of diagrams, called extended design structure matrices, are used to simultaneously visualize both data communication and process flow between the many software components of each method. For aerostructural design optimization, modern decomposition-based MDO methods cannot efficiently handle the tight coupling between the aerodynamic and structural states. This fact motivates the exploration of methods that can reduce the computational cost. A particular structure in the direct and adjoint methods for gradient computation motivates the idea of a matrix-free optimization method. A simple matrix-free optimizer is developed based on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. This new matrix-free optimizer is tested on two structural optimization problems and one aerostructural optimization problem. The results indicate that the matrix-free optimizer is able to efficiently solve structural and multidisciplinary design problems with thousands of variables and

  11. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  12. Execution of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Approaches on Common Test Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balling, R. J.; Wilkinson, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    A class of synthetic problems for testing multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) approaches is presented. These test problems are easy to reproduce because all functions are given as closed-form mathematical expressions. They are constructed in such a way that the optimal value of all variables and the objective is unity. The test problems involve three disciplines and allow the user to specify the number of design variables, state variables, coupling functions, design constraints, controlling design constraints, and the strength of coupling. Several MDO approaches were executed on two sample synthetic test problems. These approaches included single-level optimization approaches, collaborative optimization approaches, and concurrent subspace optimization approaches. Execution results are presented, and the robustness and efficiency of these approaches an evaluated for these sample problems.

  13. Multidisciplinary Multiobjective Optimal Design for Turbomachinery Using Evolutionary Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes Dr. Lian s efforts toward developing a robust and efficient tool for multidisciplinary and multi-objective optimal design for turbomachinery using evolutionary algorithms. This work consisted of two stages. The first stage (from July 2003 to June 2004) Dr. Lian focused on building essential capabilities required for the project. More specifically, Dr. Lian worked on two subjects: an enhanced genetic algorithm (GA) and an integrated optimization system with a GA and a surrogate model. The second stage (from July 2004 to February 2005) Dr. Lian formulated aerodynamic optimization and structural optimization into a multi-objective optimization problem and performed multidisciplinary and multi-objective optimizations on a transonic compressor blade based on the proposed model. Dr. Lian s numerical results showed that the proposed approach can effectively reduce the blade weight and increase the stage pressure ratio in an efficient manner. In addition, the new design was structurally safer than the original design. Five conference papers and three journal papers were published on this topic by Dr. Lian.

  14. National Combustion Code: A Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Robert M.; Liu, Nan-Suey

    1997-01-01

    The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division conducts both basic research and technology, and system technology research for aerospace propulsion systems components. The research within the division, which is both computational and experimental, is aimed at improving fundamental understanding of flow physics in inlets, ducts, nozzles, turbomachinery, and combustors. This article and the following three articles highlight some of the work accomplished in 1996. A multidisciplinary combustor design system is critical for optimizing the combustor design process. Such a system should include sophisticated computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, modern postprocessing tools, and parallel processing. The goal of the present effort is to develop some of the enabling technologies and to demonstrate their overall performance in an integrated system called the National Combustion Code.

  15. A grid generation system for multi-disciplinary design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William T.; Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1995-01-01

    A general multi-block three-dimensional volume grid generator is presented which is suitable for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization. The code is timely, robust, highly automated, and written in ANSI 'C' for platform independence. Algebraic techniques are used to generate and/or modify block face and volume grids to reflect geometric changes resulting from design optimization. Volume grids are generated/modified in a batch environment and controlled via an ASCII user input deck. This allows the code to be incorporated directly into the design loop. Generated volume grids are presented for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Wing/Body geometry as well a complex HSCT configuration including horizontal and vertical tails, engine nacelles and pylons, and canard surfaces.

  16. New Approaches to HSCT Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Daniel P.; Craig, James I.; Fulton, Robert E.; Mistree, Farrokh

    1999-01-01

    New approaches to MDO have been developed and demonstrated during this project on a particularly challenging aeronautics problem- HSCT Aeroelastic Wing Design. To tackle this problem required the integration of resources and collaboration from three Georgia Tech laboratories: ASDL, SDL, and PPRL, along with close coordination and participation from industry. Its success can also be contributed to the close interaction and involvement of fellows from the NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MAO) program, which was going on in parallel, and provided additional resources to work the very complex, multidisciplinary problem, along with the methods being developed. The development of the Integrated Design Engineering Simulator (IDES) and its initial demonstration is a necessary first step in transitioning the methods and tools developed to larger industrial sized problems of interest. It also provides a framework for the implementation and demonstration of the methodology. Attachment: Appendix A - List of publications. Appendix B - Year 1 report. Appendix C - Year 2 report. Appendix D - Year 3 report. Appendix E - accompanying CDROM.

  17. New Approaches to HSCT Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Daniel P.; Craig, James I.; Fulton, Robert E.; Mistree, Farrokh

    1999-01-01

    New approaches to MDO have been developed and demonstrated during this project on a particularly challenging aeronautics problem- HSCT Aeroelastic Wing Design. To tackle this problem required the integration of resources and collaboration from three Georgia Tech laboratories: ASDL, SDL, and PPRL, along with close coordination and participation from industry. Its success can also be contributed to the close interaction and involvement of fellows from the NASA Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MAO) program, which was going on in parallel, and provided additional resources to work the very complex, multidisciplinary problem, along with the methods being developed. The development of the Integrated Design Engineering Simulator (IDES) and its initial demonstration is a necessary first step in transitioning the methods and tools developed to larger industrial sized problems of interest. It also provides a framework for the implementation and demonstration of the methodology. Attachment: Appendix A - List of publications. Appendix B - Year 1 report. Appendix C - Year 2 report. Appendix D - Year 3 report. Appendix E - accompanying CDROM.

  18. Lessons Learned During Solutions of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Suna N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Optimization research at NASA Glenn Research Center has addressed the design of structures, aircraft and airbreathing propulsion engines. During solution of the multidisciplinary problems several issues were encountered. This paper lists four issues and discusses the strategies adapted for their resolution: (1) The optimization process can lead to an inefficient local solution. This deficiency was encountered during design of an engine component. The limitation was overcome through an augmentation of animation into optimization. (2) Optimum solutions obtained were infeasible for aircraft and air-breathing propulsion engine problems. Alleviation of this deficiency required a cascading of multiple algorithms. (3) Profile optimization of a beam produced an irregular shape. Engineering intuition restored the regular shape for the beam. (4) The solution obtained for a cylindrical shell by a subproblem strategy converged to a design that can be difficult to manufacture. Resolution of this issue remains a challenge. The issues and resolutions are illustrated through six problems: (1) design of an engine component, (2) synthesis of a subsonic aircraft, (3) operation optimization of a supersonic engine, (4) design of a wave-rotor-topping device, (5) profile optimization of a cantilever beam, and (6) design of a cvlindrical shell. The combined effort of designers and researchers can bring the optimization method from academia to industry.

  19. An Extensible, Interchangeable and Sharable Database Model for Improving Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Risheng; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2003-01-01

    Crucial to an efficient aircraft simulation-based design is a robust data modeling methodology for both recording the information and providing data transfer readily and reliably. To meet this goal, data modeling issues involved in the aircraft multidisciplinary design are first analyzed in this study. Next, an XML-based. extensible data object model for multidisciplinary aircraft design is constructed and implemented. The implementation of the model through aircraft databinding allows the design applications to access and manipulate any disciplinary data with a lightweight and easy-to-use API. In addition, language independent representation of aircraft disciplinary data in the model fosters interoperability amongst heterogeneous systems thereby facilitating data sharing and exchange between various design tools and systems.

  20. Multidisciplinary aerospace design optimization: Survey of recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1995-01-01

    The increasing complexity of engineering systems has sparked increasing interest in multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). This paper presents a survey of recent publications in the field of aerospace where interest in MDO has been particularly intense. The two main challenges of MDO are computational expense and organizational complexity. Accordingly the survey is focussed on various ways different researchers use to deal with these challenges. The survey is organized by a breakdown of MDO into its conceptual components. Accordingly, the survey includes sections on Mathematical Modeling, Design-oriented Analysis, Approximation Concepts, Optimization Procedures, System Sensitivity, and Human Interface. With the authors' main expertise being in the structures area, the bulk of the references focus on the interaction of the structures discipline with other disciplines. In particular, two sections at the end focus on two such interactions that have recently been pursued with a particular vigor: Simultaneous Optimization of Structures and Aerodynamics, and Simultaneous Optimization of Structures Combined With Active Control.

  1. Evaluation of Methods for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodiyalam, Srinivas; Yuan, Charles; Sobieski, Jaroslaw (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new MDO method, BLISS, and two different variants of the method, BLISS/RS and BLISS/S, have been implemented using iSIGHT's scripting language and evaluated in this report on multidisciplinary problems. All of these methods are based on decomposing a modular system optimization system into several subtasks optimization, that may be executed concurrently, and the system optimization that coordinates the subtasks optimization. The BLISS method and its variants are well suited for exploiting the concurrent processing capabilities in a multiprocessor machine. Several steps, including the local sensitivity analysis, local optimization, response surfaces construction and updates are all ideally suited for concurrent processing. Needless to mention, such algorithms that can effectively exploit the concurrent processing capabilities of the compute servers will be a key requirement for solving large-scale industrial design problems, such as the automotive vehicle problem detailed in Section 3.4.

  2. PAYCOS: A new multidisciplinary analysis program for hypersonic vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbe, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Payload Conceptual Sizing Code (PAYCOS), a new multidisciplinary computer program for use in the conceptual development phase of hypersonic lifting vehicles (HV's), is described. The program allows engineers to rapidly determine the feasibility of an HV concept and then improve upon the concept by means of optimization theory. The code contains analysis modules for aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mass properties, flight stability, controls, loads, structures, and packaging. Motivation for the code lies with the increased complexity of HV's over their body-of-revolution ballistic predecessors. With these new shapes, the need to rapidly screen out poor concepts and actively develop new and better concepts is an even more crucial part of the early design process. Preliminary results are given which demonstrate the optimization capabilities of the code.

  3. PAYCOS: A new multidisciplinary analysis program for hypersonic vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbe, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Payload Conceptual Sizing Code (PAYCOS), a new multidisciplinary computer program for use in the conceptual development phase of hypersonic lifting vehicles (HV's), is described. The program allows engineers to rapidly determine the feasibility of an HV concept and then improve upon the concept by means of optimization theory. The code contains analysis modules for aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mass properties, flight stability, controls, loads, structures, and packaging. Motivation for the code lies with the increased complexity of HV's over their body-of-revolution ballistic predecessors. With these new shapes, the need to rapidly screen out poor concepts and actively develop new and better concepts is an even more crucial part of the early design process. Preliminary results are given which demonstrate the optimization capabilities of the code.

  4. Multidisciplinary Expert-aided Analysis and Design (MEAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummel, Thomas C.; Taylor, James

    1989-01-01

    The MEAD Computer Program (MCP) is being developed under the Multidisciplinary Expert-Aided Analysis and Design (MEAD) Project as a CAD environment in which integrated flight, propulsion, and structural control systems can be designed and analyzed. The MCP has several embedded computer-aided control engineering (CACE) packages, a user interface (UI), a supervisor, a data-base manager (DBM), and an expert system (ES). The supervisor monitors and coordinates the operation of the CACE packages, the DBM; the ES, and the UI. The DBM tracks the control design process. Models created or installed by the MCP are tracked by date and version, and results are associated with the specific model version with which they were generated. The ES is used to relieve the control engineer from tedious and cumbersome tasks in the iterative design process. The UI provides the capability for a novice as well as an expert to utilize the MCP easily and effectively. The MCP version 2(MCP-2.0) is fully developed for flight control system design and analysis. Propulsion system modeling, analysis, and simulation is also supported; the same is true for structural models represented in state-space form. The ultimate goal is to cover the integration of flight, propulsion, and structural control engineering, including all discipline-specific functionality and interfaces. The current MCP-2.0 components and functionality are discussed.

  5. NCC: A Multidisciplinary Design/Analysis Tool for Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Quealy, Angela

    1999-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary design/analysis tool for combustion systems is critical for optimizing the low-emission, high-performance combustor design process. Based on discussions between NASA Lewis Research Center and the jet engine companies, an industry-government team was formed in early 1995 to develop the National Combustion Code (NCC), which is an integrated system of computer codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. NCC has advanced features that address the need to meet designer's requirements such as "assured accuracy", "fast turnaround", and "acceptable cost". The NCC development team is comprised of Allison Engine Company (Allison), CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This development team operates under the guidance of the NCC steering committee. The "unstructured mesh" capability and "parallel computing" are fundamental features of NCC from its inception. The NCC system is composed of a set of "elements" which includes grid generator, main flow solver, turbulence module, turbulence and chemistry interaction module, chemistry module, spray module, radiation heat transfer module, data visualization module, and a post-processor for evaluating engine performance parameters. Each element may have contributions from several team members. Such a multi-source multi-element system needs to be integrated in a way that facilitates inter-module data communication, flexibility in module selection, and ease of integration.

  6. NCC: A Multidisciplinary Design/Analysis Tool for Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Quealy, Angela

    1999-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary design/analysis tool for combustion systems is critical for optimizing the low-emission, high-performance combustor design process. Based on discussions between NASA Lewis Research Center and the jet engine companies, an industry-government team was formed in early 1995 to develop the National Combustion Code (NCC), which is an integrated system of computer codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. NCC has advanced features that address the need to meet designer's requirements such as "assured accuracy", "fast turnaround", and "acceptable cost". The NCC development team is comprised of Allison Engine Company (Allison), CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This development team operates under the guidance of the NCC steering committee. The "unstructured mesh" capability and "parallel computing" are fundamental features of NCC from its inception. The NCC system is composed of a set of "elements" which includes grid generator, main flow solver, turbulence module, turbulence and chemistry interaction module, chemistry module, spray module, radiation heat transfer module, data visualization module, and a post-processor for evaluating engine performance parameters. Each element may have contributions from several team members. Such a multi-source multi-element system needs to be integrated in a way that facilitates inter-module data communication, flexibility in module selection, and ease of integration.

  7. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.; Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P.

    1992-12-31

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  8. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A. ); Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P. . Langley Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  9. Reduced Design Load Basis for Ultimate Blade Loads Estimation in Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Larsen, Torben J.; Kim, Taeseong; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    The aim is to provide a fast and reliable approach to estimate ultimate blade loads for a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. For blade design purposes, the standards require a large amount of computationally expensive simulations, which cannot be efficiently run each cost function evaluation of an MDO process. This work describes a method that allows integrating the calculation of the blade load envelopes inside an MDO loop. Ultimate blade load envelopes are calculated for a baseline design and a design obtained after an iteration of an MDO. These envelopes are computed for a full standard design load basis (DLB) and a deterministic reduced DLB. Ultimate loads extracted from the two DLBs with the two blade designs each are compared and analyzed. Although the reduced DLB supplies ultimate loads of different magnitude, the shape of the estimated envelopes are similar to the one computed using the full DLB. This observation is used to propose a scheme that is computationally cheap, and that can be integrated inside an MDO framework, providing a sufficiently reliable estimation of the blade ultimate loading. The latter aspect is of key importance when design variables implementing passive control methodologies are included in the formulation of the optimization problem. An MDO of a 10 MW wind turbine blade is presented as an applied case study to show the efficacy of the reduced DLB concept.

  10. Discovering a one-dimensional active subspace to quantify multidisciplinary uncertainty in satellite system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingzhi; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Chen, Xiaoqian; Seshadri, Pranay

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification has recently been receiving much attention from aerospace engineering community. With ever-increasing requirements for robustness and reliability, it is crucial to quantify multidisciplinary uncertainty in satellite system design which dominates overall design direction and cost. However, coupled multi-disciplines and cross propagation hamper the efficiency and accuracy of high-dimensional uncertainty analysis. In this study, an uncertainty quantification methodology based on active subspaces is established for satellite conceptual design. The active subspace effectively reduces the dimension and measures the contributions of input uncertainties. A comprehensive characterization of associated uncertain factors is made and all subsystem models are built for uncertainty propagation. By integrating a system decoupling strategy, the multidisciplinary uncertainty effect is efficiently represented by a one-dimensional active subspace for each design. The identified active subspace is checked by bootstrap resampling for confidence intervals and verified by Monte Carlo propagation for the accuracy. To show the performance of active subspaces, 18 uncertainty parameters of an Earth observation small satellite are exemplified and then another 5 design uncertainties are incorporated. The uncertainties that contribute the most to satellite mass and total cost are ranked, and the quantification of high-dimensional uncertainty is achieved by a relatively small number of support samples. The methodology with considerably less cost exhibits high accuracy and strong adaptability, which provides a potential template to tackle multidisciplinary uncertainty in practical satellite systems.

  11. Surrogate assisted multidisciplinary design optimization for an all-electric GEO satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Renhe; Liu, Li; Long, Teng; Liu, Jian; Yuan, Bin

    2017-09-01

    State-of-the-art all-electric geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites use electric thrusters to execute all propulsive duties, which significantly differ from the traditional all-chemical ones in orbit-raising, station-keeping, radiation damage protection, and power budget, etc. Design optimization task of an all-electric GEO satellite is therefore a complex multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problem involving unique design considerations. However, solving the all-electric GEO satellite MDO problem faces big challenges in disciplinary modeling techniques and efficient optimization strategy. To address these challenges, we presents a surrogate assisted MDO framework consisting of several modules, i.e., MDO problem definition, multidisciplinary modeling, multidisciplinary analysis (MDA), and surrogate assisted optimizer. Based on the proposed framework, the all-electric GEO satellite MDO problem is formulated to minimize the total mass of the satellite system under a number of practical constraints. Then considerable efforts are spent on multidisciplinary modeling involving geosynchronous transfer, GEO station-keeping, power, thermal control, attitude control, and structure disciplines. Since orbit dynamics models and finite element structural model are computationally expensive, an adaptive response surface surrogate based optimizer is incorporated in the proposed framework to solve the satellite MDO problem with moderate computational cost, where a response surface surrogate is gradually refined to represent the computationally expensive MDA process. After optimization, the total mass of the studied GEO satellite is decreased by 185.3 kg (i.e., 7.3% of the total mass). Finally, the optimal design is further discussed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework to cope with the all-electric GEO satellite system design optimization problems. This proposed surrogate assisted MDO framework can also provide valuable references for other all

  12. Collaborative Design Processes: An Active and Reflective Learning Course in Multidisciplinary Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, William J.; Soibelman, Lucio; Elvin, George

    2003-01-01

    In a capstone course, graduate students from two universities participated in collaborative design in the architectural, engineering, and construction industries in multidisciplinary teams via the Internet. Students also developed process designs to integrate technology into multidisciplinary teamwork, combining active and reflective learning.…

  13. Collaborative Design Processes: An Active and Reflective Learning Course in Multidisciplinary Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, William J.; Soibelman, Lucio; Elvin, George

    2003-01-01

    In a capstone course, graduate students from two universities participated in collaborative design in the architectural, engineering, and construction industries in multidisciplinary teams via the Internet. Students also developed process designs to integrate technology into multidisciplinary teamwork, combining active and reflective learning.…

  14. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of A Highly Flexible Aeroservoelastic Wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighat, Sohrab

    A multidisciplinary design optimization framework is developed that integrates control system design with aerostructural design for a highly-deformable wing. The objective of this framework is to surpass the existing aircraft endurance limits through the use of an active load alleviation system designed concurrently with the rest of the aircraft. The novelty of this work is two fold. First, a unified dynamics framework is developed to represent the full six-degree-of-freedom rigid-body along with the structural dynamics. It allows for an integrated control design to account for both manoeuvrability (flying quality) and aeroelasticity criteria simultaneously. Secondly, by synthesizing the aircraft control system along with the structural sizing and aerodynamic shape design, the final design has the potential to exploit synergies among the three disciplines and yield higher performing aircraft. A co-rotational structural framework featuring Euler--Bernoulli beam elements is developed to capture the wing's nonlinear deformations under the effect of aerodynamic and inertial loadings. In this work, a three-dimensional aerodynamic panel code, capable of calculating both steady and unsteady loadings is used. Two different control methods, a model predictive controller (MPC) and a 2-DOF mixed-norm robust controller, are considered in this work to control a highly flexible aircraft. Both control techniques offer unique advantages that make them promising for controlling a highly flexible aircraft. The control system works towards executing time-dependent manoeuvres along with performing gust/manoeuvre load alleviation. The developed framework is investigated for demonstration in two design cases: one in which the control system simply worked towards achieving or maintaining a target altitude, and another where the control system is also performing load alleviation. The use of the active load alleviation system results in a significant improvement in the aircraft performance

  15. Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development Using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the preliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challenges in large-scale, real-world application. This report describes current approaches, recent results, and challenges for multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization as demonstrated by experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.!

  16. Multidisciplinary Design Techniques Applied to Conceptual Aerospace Vehicle Design. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John Robert; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an emerging discipline within aerospace engineering. Its goal is to bring structure and efficiency to the complex design process associated with advanced aerospace launch vehicles. Aerospace vehicles generally require input from a variety of traditional aerospace disciplines - aerodynamics, structures, performance, etc. As such, traditional optimization methods cannot always be applied. Several multidisciplinary techniques and methods were proposed as potentially applicable to this class of design problem. Among the candidate options are calculus-based (or gradient-based) optimization schemes and parametric schemes based on design of experiments theory. A brief overview of several applicable multidisciplinary design optimization methods is included. Methods from the calculus-based class and the parametric class are reviewed, but the research application reported focuses on methods from the parametric class. A vehicle of current interest was chosen as a test application for this research. The rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle combines elements of rocket and airbreathing propulsion in an attempt to produce an attractive option for launching medium sized payloads into low earth orbit. The RBCC SSTO presents a particularly difficult problem for traditional one-variable-at-a-time optimization methods because of the lack of an adequate experience base and the highly coupled nature of the design variables. MDO, however, with it's structured approach to design, is well suited to this problem. The result of the application of Taguchi methods, central composite designs, and response surface methods to the design optimization of the RBCC SSTO are presented. Attention is given to the aspect of Taguchi methods that attempts to locate a 'robust' design - that is, a design that is least sensitive to uncontrollable influences on the design. Near-optimum minimum dry weight solutions are

  17. Complex multidisciplinary system composition for aerospace vehicle conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Lex

    Although, there exists a vast amount of work concerning the analysis, design, integration of aerospace vehicle systems, there is no standard for how this data and knowledge should be combined in order to create a synthesis system. Each institution creating a synthesis system has in house vehicle and hardware components they are attempting to model and proprietary methods with which to model them. This leads to the fact that synthesis systems begin as one-off creations meant to answer a specific problem. As the scope of the synthesis system grows to encompass more and more problems, so does its size and complexity; in order for a single synthesis system to answer multiple questions the number of methods and method interface must increase. As a means to curtail the requirement that the increase of an aircraft synthesis systems capability leads to an increase in its size and complexity, this research effort focuses on the idea that each problem in aerospace requires its own analysis framework. By focusing on the creation of a methodology which centers on the matching of an analysis framework towards the problem being solved, the complexity of the analysis framework is decoupled from the complexity of the system that creates it. The derived methodology allows for the composition of complex multi-disciplinary systems (CMDS) through the automatic creation and implementation of system and disciplinary method interfaces. The CMDS Composition process follows a four step methodology meant to take a problem definition and progress towards the creation of an analysis framework meant to answer said problem. The unique implementation of the CMDS Composition process take user selected disciplinary analysis methods and automatically integrates them, together in order to create a syntactically composable analysis framework. As a means of assessing the validity of the CMDS Composition process a prototype system (AVDDBMS) has been developed. AVD DBMS has been used to model the

  18. Development and implementation of rotorcraft preliminary design methodology using multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Adeel Syed

    Rotorcraft's evolution has lagged behind that of fixed-wing aircraft. One of the reasons for this gap is the absence of a formal methodology to accomplish a complete conceptual and preliminary design. Traditional rotorcraft methodologies are not only time consuming and expensive but also yield sub-optimal designs. Rotorcraft design is an excellent example of a multidisciplinary complex environment where several interdependent disciplines are involved. A formal framework is developed and implemented in this research for preliminary rotorcraft design using IPPD methodology. The design methodology consists of the product and process development cycles. In the product development loop, all the technical aspects of design are considered including the vehicle engineering, dynamic analysis, stability and control, aerodynamic performance, propulsion, transmission design, weight and balance, noise analysis and economic analysis. The design loop starts with a detailed analysis of requirements. A baseline is selected and upgrade targets are identified depending on the mission requirements. An Overall Evaluation Criterion (OEC) is developed that is used to measure the goodness of the design or to compare the design with competitors. The requirements analysis and baseline upgrade targets lead to the initial sizing and performance estimation of the new design. The digital information is then passed to disciplinary experts. This is where the detailed disciplinary analyses are performed. Information is transferred from one discipline to another as the design loop is iterated. To coordinate all the disciplines in the product development cycle, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) techniques e.g. All At Once (AAO) and Collaborative Optimization (CO) are suggested. The methodology is implemented on a Light Turbine Training Helicopter (LTTH) design. Detailed disciplinary analyses are integrated through a common platform for efficient and centralized transfer of design

  19. Human pathogens on plants: designing a multidisciplinary strategy for research.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  20. Discourses of Conflict: A Multidisciplinary Study of Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Anne M.; Barlow, Constance; Myrick, Florence; Rogers, Gayla; Sawa, Russell

    2003-01-01

    A 3-year study will examine conflict in professional field education. Stage 1 will collect narratives about critical incidents from student-field instructor-faculty member triads in the fields of education, medicine, nursing, and social work. Stage 2 will focus on analysis of narratives. Stage 3 will include multidisciplinary conversations among…

  1. Discourses of Conflict: A Multidisciplinary Study of Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Anne M.; Barlow, Constance; Myrick, Florence; Rogers, Gayla; Sawa, Russell

    2003-01-01

    A 3-year study will examine conflict in professional field education. Stage 1 will collect narratives about critical incidents from student-field instructor-faculty member triads in the fields of education, medicine, nursing, and social work. Stage 2 will focus on analysis of narratives. Stage 3 will include multidisciplinary conversations among…

  2. Multidisciplinary Studies of Integrated Neural Network Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    high and low frequencies ........... 12 c. Cellular mechanisms of intensity processing in nucleus angularis ............... 12 D. Publications...Intelligent robotic control systems have been constructed with a hierarchical and modular organization, us- ing antagonistic actuation mechanisms and multi...terrestrial animal studied thus far [ 12]. Considerable progress has been made in determining the acoustic and neural bases of the head saccade (see

  3. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  4. A multidisciplinary study of DPRK nuclear tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materni, Valerio; Bignami, Christian; Giuntini, Alessandra; Chiappini, Stefano; Carluccio, Roberto; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Pignatelli, Alessandro; Stramondo, Salvatore; Console, Rodolfo; Chiappini, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    The Democratic People Republic of Korea announced two underground nuclear tests carried out in their territory respectively on October 9th, 2006 and May 25th, 2009. The scarce information on the precise location and the size of those explosions has stimulated various kinds of studies, mostly based on seismological observations, by several National Agencies concerned with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification. We analysed the available seismological data collected through a global high quality network for the two tests. After picking up the arrival times at the various stations, a standard location program has been applied to the observed data. If we use all the available data for each single event, due to the different magnitude and different number of available stations, the locations appear quite different. On the contrary, if we use only the common stations, they happen to be only few km apart from each other and within their respective error ellipses. A more accurate relative location has been carried out by the application of algorithms such as Double Difference Joint Hypocenter Determination (DDJHD) and waveform alignment. The epicentral distance between the two events obtained by these methods is 2 km, with the 2006 event shifted to the ESE with respect to that of 2009. We then used a dataset of VHR TerraSAR-X satellite images to detect possible surface effects of the underground tests. This is the first ever case where these highly performing SAR data have been used to such aim. We applied InSAR processing technique to fully exploit the capabilities of SAR data to measure very short displacements over large areas. Two interferograms have been computed, one co-event and one post-event, to remove possible residual topographic signals. A clear displacement pattern has been highlighted over a mountainous area within the investigated region, measuring a maximum displacement of about 45 mm overall the relief. Hypothesizing that the 2009 nuclear test had been

  5. The LUSI LAB project: a platform for multidisciplinary experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Svensen, Henrik; Hensen, Christian; Scholz, Florian; Romeo, Giovanni; Hadi, Soffian; Husein, Alwi; Planke, Sverre; Akhmanov, Grigorii; Krueger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Lusi is a spectacular mud eruption that started in northeast Java the 29 of May 2006 following a 6.3 M earthquake. Nearly eight years later Lusi is still active. The Lusi Lab is an ERC-funded project to perform multidisciplinary studies using Lusi as a natural laboratory. This represents an unprecedented opportunity to study an ongoing active high-temperature mud eruption and to evaluate the role of seismicity, local faulting and the neighbouring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex on the long-lasting mud eruption. A multipurpose hexacopter has been designed and constructed to access and monitor the otherwise inaccessible Lusi crater and its mud-filled outskirts. The "Lusi drone" showed to be a powerful monitoring and sampling tool duringteh fieldwork in Dec. 2013. Videos and photogrammetry were acquired with various cameras. Designed tools allow the drone to measure and log temperature and to complete remote-controlled sampling of mud, water and gas from the erupting crater. A collection of evenly spaced mud samples has been taken along a transect that extends for 1100 m outside the crater. The incubation of these will be used for geomicrobiological studies and will help to shed light on the type of the ongoing hydrocarbon generation and degradation. A network of temperature loggers deployed around the crater aims to investigate a correlation between seismic activity and temperature variation of the erupted mud. Geochemical analyses indicate that the geochemistry of the crater water represents a geochemical anomaly when comparing with both basinal brines and volcano-hosted hot springs. A combination of high temperatures in the source region and fluid-rock interactions with silicates and carbonate-rich lithologies can explain the geochemistry. This is consistent with the result of gas analyses and with a deep-seated (>4 km) source region, possibly related to the presence of hot igneous intrusions from the volcanic arc.

  6. Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space A dministration Dryden Flight Research Center to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools such as NASTRAN, ZAERO a nd CFD codes to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the pr eliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypers onic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challe nges in large-scale, real-world application. This paper describes cur rent approaches, recent results, and challenges for MDAO as demonstr ated by our experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.

  7. Framework for Multidisciplinary Analysis, Design, and Optimization with High-Fidelity Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Stanley A.; Narducci, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    A plan is presented for the development of a high fidelity multidisciplinary optimization process for rotorcraft. The plan formulates individual disciplinary design problems, identifies practical high-fidelity tools and processes that can be incorporated in an automated optimization environment, and establishes statements of the multidisciplinary design problem including objectives, constraints, design variables, and cross-disciplinary dependencies. Five key disciplinary areas are selected in the development plan. These are rotor aerodynamics, rotor structures and dynamics, fuselage aerodynamics, fuselage structures, and propulsion / drive system. Flying qualities and noise are included as ancillary areas. Consistency across engineering disciplines is maintained with a central geometry engine that supports all multidisciplinary analysis. The multidisciplinary optimization process targets the preliminary design cycle where gross elements of the helicopter have been defined. These might include number of rotors and rotor configuration (tandem, coaxial, etc.). It is at this stage that sufficient configuration information is defined to perform high-fidelity analysis. At the same time there is enough design freedom to influence a design. The rotorcraft multidisciplinary optimization tool is built and substantiated throughout its development cycle in a staged approach by incorporating disciplines sequentially.

  8. Cooling vest for improving surgeons' thermal comfort: a multidisciplinary design project.

    PubMed

    Langø, Thomas; Nesbakken, Ragnhild; Faerevik, Hilde; Holbø, Kristine; Reitan, Jarl; Yavuz, Yunus; Mårvik, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A laparoscopic surgeon sometimes experiences heat-related discomfort even though the temperature situation is moderate. The aim of this project was to design a cooling vest using a phase change material to increase thermal comfort for the surgeon. The project focused on the design process to reveal the most important parameters for the design of a cooling vest that could be demonstrated in a clinical setting. We performed an entire design process, from problem analysis, situation observations, concept for a prototype, temperature measurements, and a final design based on clinical testing. The project was conducted by a multidisciplinary team consisting of product designers, engineers, physiologists, and surgeons. We carried out four physiological demonstrations of one surgeon's skin temperatures and heart rate during different laparoscopic procedures. A commercially available cooling vest for firemen and two proof-of-concept prototypes were tested alongside a reference operation without cooling. To aid the final design, one person went through a climate chamber test with two different set-ups of cooling elements. The final design was found to improve the conditions of our test subject. It was found that whole trunk cooling was more effective than only upper trunk cooling. A final design was proposed based on the design process and the findings in the operating room and in the laboratory. Although the experiences using the vest seemed positive, further studies on several operators and more surgical procedures are needed to determine the true benefits for the operator.

  9. Research station to aid multidisciplinary study of Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakato, Tatsuaki

    IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering (formerly Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research) of the University of Iowa's College of Engineering is establishing a Mississippi Riverside Environmental Research Station (MRERS) to provide opportunities for researchers and educators around the world to study river ecosystems in a multidisciplinary setting. MRERS will provide state-of-the-art facilities to study diverse facets of the upper Mississippi River to better understand river ecosystems and their response to natural events and human activities. It will also provide students at all levels with hands-on experience as well as opportunities for public education. In light of recent flooding in the region last spring, establishment of MRERS is timely MRERS will bring a truly multidisciplinary approach to understanding and planning for one of the country's most important natural resources: the mighty Mississippi.

  10. Multi-disciplinary coupling effects for integrated design of propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Singhal, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effective computational simulation procedures are described for modeling the inherent multi-disciplinary interactions which govern the accurate response of propulsion systems. Results are presented for propulsion system responses including multi-disciplinary coupling effects using coupled multi-discipline thermal, structural, and acoustic tailoring; an integrated system of multi-disciplinary simulators; coupled material behavior/fabrication process tailoring; sensitivities using a probabilistic simulator; and coupled materials, structures, fracture, and probabilistic behavior simulator. The results demonstrate that superior designs can be achieved if the analysis/tailoring methods account for the multi-disciplinary coupling effects. The coupling across disciplines can be used to develop an integrated coupled multi-discipline numerical propulsion system simulator.

  11. Application of advanced multidisciplinary analysis and optimization methods to vehicle design synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consoli, Robert David; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1990-01-01

    Advanced multidisciplinary analysis and optimization methods, namely system sensitivity analysis and non-hierarchical system decomposition, are applied to reduce the cost and improve the visibility of an automated vehicle design synthesis process. This process is inherently complex due to the large number of functional disciplines and associated interdisciplinary couplings. Recent developments in system sensitivity analysis as applied to complex non-hierarchic multidisciplinary design optimization problems enable the decomposition of these complex interactions into sub-processes that can be evaluated in parallel. The application of these techniques results in significant cost, accuracy, and visibility benefits for the entire design synthesis process.

  12. Experimental characterization and multidisciplinary conceptual design optimization of a bendable load stiffened unmanned air vehicle wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdale, Vijay Narayan

    Demand for deployable MAVs and UAVs with wings designed to reduce aircraft storage volume led to the development of a bendable wing concept at the University of Florida (UF). The wing shows an ability to load stiffen in the flight load direction, still remaining compliant in the opposite direction, enabling UAV storage inside smaller packing volumes. From the design prospective, when the wing shape parameters are treated as design variables, the performance requirements : high aerodynamic efficiency, structural stability under aggressive flight loads and desired compliant nature to prevent breaking while stored, in general conflict with each other. Creep deformation induced by long term storage and its effect on the wing flight characteristics are additional considerations. Experimental characterization of candidate bendable UAV wings is performed in order to demonstrate and understand aerodynamic and structural behavior of the bendable load stiffened wing under flight loads and while the wings are stored inside a canister for long duration, in the process identifying some important wing shape parameters. A multidisciplinary, multiobjective design optimization approach is utilized for conceptual design of a 24 inch span and 7 inch root chord bendable wing. Aerodynamic performance of the wing is studied using an extended vortex lattice method based Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) program. An arc length method based nonlinear FEA routine in ABAQUS is used to evaluate the structural performance of the wing and to determine maximum flying velocity that the wing can withstand without buckling or failing under aggressive flight loads. An analytical approach is used to study the stresses developed in the composite wing during storage and Tsai-Wu criterion is used to check failure of the composite wing due to the rolling stresses to determine minimum safe storage diameter. Multidisciplinary wing shape and layup optimization is performed using an elitist non-dominated sorting

  13. OpenMDAO: Framework for Flexible Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Gray, Justin S.

    2012-01-01

    The OpenMDAO project is underway at NASA to develop a framework which simplifies the implementation of state-of-the-art tools and methods for multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization. Foremost, OpenMDAO has been designed to handle variable problem formulations, encourage reconfigurability, and promote model reuse. This work demonstrates the concept of iteration hierarchies in OpenMDAO to achieve a flexible environment for supporting advanced optimization methods which include adaptive sampling and surrogate modeling techniques. In this effort, two efficient global optimization methods were applied to solve a constrained, single-objective and constrained, multiobjective version of a joint aircraft/engine sizing problem. The aircraft model, NASA's nextgeneration advanced single-aisle civil transport, is being studied as part of the Subsonic Fixed Wing project to help meet simultaneous program goals for reduced fuel burn, emissions, and noise. This analysis serves as a realistic test problem to demonstrate the flexibility and reconfigurability offered by OpenMDAO.

  14. Baseball Stadium Design: Teaching Engineering Economics and Technical Communication in a Multi-Disciplinary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin; Newell, James

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a course at Rowan University, based on the economic design of a baseball stadium, that offers an introduction to multidisciplinary engineering design linked with formal training in technical communication. Addresses four pedagogical goals: (1) developing public speaking skills in a realistic, business setting; (2) giving students…

  15. Development and Testing of Assessment Instruments for Multidisciplinary Engineering Capstone Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlick, Robert Edward

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this manuscript was focused on the development of assessments for engineering design outcomes. The primary goal was to support efforts by the Transferrable Integrated Design Engineering Education (TIDEE) consortium in developing assessment instruments for multidisciplinary engineering capstone courses. Research conducted…

  16. Development and Evaluation of an Undergraduate Multidisciplinary Project Activity in Engineering and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Cole, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The School of Engineering and Design Multidisciplinary Project (MDP) at Brunel University is a one week long project based activity involving first year undergraduate students from across the School subject areas of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering and Design. This paper describes the main aims of the…

  17. Development and Testing of Assessment Instruments for Multidisciplinary Engineering Capstone Design Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlick, Robert Edward

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this manuscript was focused on the development of assessments for engineering design outcomes. The primary goal was to support efforts by the Transferrable Integrated Design Engineering Education (TIDEE) consortium in developing assessment instruments for multidisciplinary engineering capstone courses. Research conducted…

  18. Baseball Stadium Design: Teaching Engineering Economics and Technical Communication in a Multi-Disciplinary Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin; Newell, James

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a course at Rowan University, based on the economic design of a baseball stadium, that offers an introduction to multidisciplinary engineering design linked with formal training in technical communication. Addresses four pedagogical goals: (1) developing public speaking skills in a realistic, business setting; (2) giving students…

  19. Development and Application of the Collaborative Optimization Architecture in a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R. D.; Kroo, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    Collaborative optimization is a design architecture applicable in any multidisciplinary analysis environment but specifically intended for large-scale distributed analysis applications. In this approach, a complex problem is hierarchically de- composed along disciplinary boundaries into a number of subproblems which are brought into multidisciplinary agreement by a system-level coordination process. When applied to problems in a multidisciplinary design environment, this scheme has several advantages over traditional solution strategies. These advantageous features include reducing the amount of information transferred between disciplines, the removal of large iteration-loops, allowing the use of different subspace optimizers among the various analysis groups, an analysis framework which is easily parallelized and can operate on heterogenous equipment, and a structural framework that is well-suited for conventional disciplinary organizations. In this article, the collaborative architecture is developed and its mathematical foundation is presented. An example application is also presented which highlights the potential of this method for use in large-scale design applications.

  20. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Techniques: Implications and Opportunities for Fluid Dynamics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Green, Lawrence L.

    1999-01-01

    A challenge for the fluid dynamics community is to adapt to and exploit the trend towards greater multidisciplinary focus in research and technology. The past decade has witnessed substantial growth in the research field of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). MDO is a methodology for the design of complex engineering systems and subsystems that coherently exploits the synergism of mutually interacting phenomena. As evidenced by the papers, which appear in the biannual AIAA/USAF/NASA/ISSMO Symposia on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, the MDO technical community focuses on vehicle and system design issues. This paper provides an overview of the MDO technology field from a fluid dynamics perspective, giving emphasis to suggestions of specific applications of recent MDO technologies that can enhance fluid dynamics research itself across the spectrum, from basic flow physics to full configuration aerodynamics.

  1. A Web Centric Architecture for Deploying Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Design Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woyak, Scott; Kim, Hongman; Mullins, James; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2004-01-01

    There are continuous needs for engineering organizations to improve their design process. Current state of the art techniques use computational simulations to predict design performance, and optimize it through advanced design methods. These tools have been used mostly by individual engineers. This paper presents an architecture for achieving results at an organization level beyond individual level. The next set of gains in process improvement will come from improving the effective use of computers and software within a whole organization, not just for an individual. The architecture takes advantage of state of the art capabilities to produce a Web based system to carry engineering design into the future. To illustrate deployment of the architecture, a case study for implementing advanced multidisciplinary design optimization processes such as Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis is discussed. Another example for rolling-out a design process for Design for Six Sigma is also described. Each example explains how an organization can effectively infuse engineering practice with new design methods and retain the knowledge over time.

  2. The art of spacecraft design: A multidisciplinary challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdi, F.; Ide, H.; Levine, M.; Austel, L.

    1989-01-01

    Actual design turn-around time has become shorter due to the use of optimization techniques which have been introduced into the design process. It seems that what, how and when to use these optimization techniques may be the key factor for future aircraft engineering operations. Another important aspect of this technique is that complex physical phenomena can be modeled by a simple mathematical equation. The new powerful multilevel methodology reduces time-consuming analysis significantly while maintaining the coupling effects. This simultaneous analysis method stems from the implicit function theorem and system sensitivity derivatives of input variables. Use of the Taylor's series expansion and finite differencing technique for sensitivity derivatives in each discipline makes this approach unique for screening dominant variables from nondominant variables. In this study, the current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic and sensitivity derivative/optimization techniques are applied for a simple cone-type forebody of a high-speed vehicle configuration to understand basic aerodynamic/structure interaction in a hypersonic flight condition.

  3. Multidisciplinary collaboration reporting child abuse: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Fetzer, Susan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Lily; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2010-12-01

    The complexity of reporting child abuse requires multidisciplinary collaboration. The dynamics of a mulidisciplinary team in reporting child abuse which begins the process of child protection remains unclear. To explore the experiences and perspectives of professionals working with other disciplines when reporting child abuse. A qualitative study with grounded theory was used. Participants were recruited from hospitals, the Department of Child Welfare, and schools in Taiwan. Twenty-one professionals from four disciplines agreed to participate. The purposive sample included 5 physicians, 5 nurses, 6 social workers, and 5 teachers. Individual interviews were conducted to explore the experiences in reporting child abuse of a purposive sample of 21 professionals including physicians, nurses, social workers, and teachers. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Categorical themes were developed that reflected reporters' experiences and perspectives in reporting child abuse. The professionals involved in reported child abuse are described as participants in a relay race. Four themes emerged from the interviews: running the relay race of child protection; reporters as runners with expectations of runners' characteristics and the order of runners; carrying the baton of a mandatory report described using baton characteristics while running in space and time; and team chemistry including trust of and communication with teammates. Systems that encourage and promote team building and collaboration among child abuse reporters are needed. Success in the race to report child abuse across professional disciplines includes runners' skills, speed, a light and easy to carry baton, and team chemistry. As a team of child abuse reporters, when performance is enhanced by practice, the team's success will be measured as victories in child protection. The paradigm of individual disciplines developing their own goals, designing their own training, and practicing within

  4. Knowledge Discovery in Multidisciplinary Design Space for Regional-Jet Wings Using Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Kazuhisa; Jeong, Shinkyu; Obayashi, Shigeru

    Data mining is an important facet of solving multi-objective optimization problems. In the present study, two data mining techniques were applied to a large-scale, real-world multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) problem to provide knowledge regarding the design space. The use of MDO in the aerodynamics, structure, and aeroelasticity of a regional-jet wing was carried out using high-fidelity evaluation models with an adaptive range multi-objective genetic algorithm. As a result, nine non-dominated solutions were generated and used for tradeoff analysis of three objectives. All solutions evaluated during the evolution were analyzed for the influence of design variables using a self-organizing map (SOM) and a functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) to extract key features of the design space. As SOM and ANOVA compensate for respective disadvantages, the design knowledge could be obtained more clearly by combinating them. Although the MDO results showed inverted gull-wings as non-dominated solutions, one of the key features found by data mining was a non-gull wing geometry. When this knowledge was applied to one optimum solution, the resulting design was found to have better performance compared with the original geometry designed in the conventional manner.

  5. Knowledge Discovery for Transonic Regional-Jet Wing through Multidisciplinary Design Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Kazuhisa; Obayashi, Shigeru; Morino, Hiroyuki

    Data mining is an important facet of solving multi-objective optimization problem. Because it is one of the effective manner to discover the design knowledge in the multi-objective optimization problem which obtains large data. In the present study, data mining has been performed for a large-scale and real-world multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) to provide knowledge regarding the design space. The MDO among aerodynamics, structures, and aeroelasticity of the regional-jet wing was carried out using high-fidelity evaluation models on the adaptive range multi-objective genetic algorithm. As a result, nine non-dominated solutions were generated and used for tradeoff analysis among three objectives. All solutions evaluated during the evolution were analyzed for the tradeoffs and influence of design variables using a self-organizing map to extract key features of the design space. Although the MDO results showed the inverted gull-wings as non-dominated solutions, one of the key features found by data mining was the non-gull wing geometry. When this knowledge was applied to one optimum solution, the resulting design was found to have better performance compared with the original geometry designed in the conventional manner.

  6. Multidisciplinary design using artificial neural networks for discipline coordination and system optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellar, Richard S.

    The design of multidisciplinary systems typically involves performing analyses of the system which are iterative in nature. Because the analysis of a system is composed of many parts, each potentially expensive and time-consuming, analyzing the entire system is a significant task which can only be accomplished a limited number of times during the design process. The motivation for this research is the development of a method by which the number of system analyses performed in the identification of an improved system design is reduced compared to current methods. A framework, Concurrent Discipline Design (CDD), which addresses issues associated with obtaining improved system designs in a multidisciplinary environment is presented. Concurrency in the discipline design process is achieved by constructing approximations to discipline analyses. These approximations are used to replace iteration in the analysis of the system. The framework developed in this work allows designers in various disciplines to solve approximate system design problems concurrently, using the techniques and tools with which they are experts. Solution of multidisciplinary design problems in this research is facilitated through the use of artificial neural network response surface approximations. A discussion of the capability and applicability of these approximations is presented with particular consideration given to issues regarding the potential form of the neural network approximation, scaling of neural network training data, and methods by which local gradient information can be included into neural network function approximations. Implementation of a solution strategy for multidisciplinary design problems requires the formulation of an analysis problem as a design problem. A method for casting a generic system analysis/design problem in a form which is amenable to the CDD algorithm is presented. This decomposition of the design problem into a CDD format is intended to be a flexible process

  7. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1999-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to a sensitivity based Concurrent Subspace Optimization (CSSO) NMO algorithm; the development of a neural network response surface based CSSO-MDO algorithm; and the integration of distributed computing and process scheduling into the MDO environment. This report overviews research efforts in each of these focus. A complete bibliography of research produced with support of this grant is attached.

  8. Salvage ablative therapy in prostate cancer: international multidisciplinary consensus on trial design.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Willemien; Muller, Berrend G; de Bruin, Daniel M; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Chaussy, Christian; Coleman, Jonathan A; Finelli, Antonio; Gill, Inderbir S; Gross, Mitchell E; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F M; Kahmann, Frank; Laguna-Pes, M Pilar; Rastinehad, Ardeshir R; Simmons, Lucy A; Sulser, Tullio; Villers, Arnauld; Ward, John F; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

    2015-11-01

    Salvage ablative therapy (SAT) has been developed as a form of localized treatment for localized recurrence of prostate cancers following radiation therapy. To better address the utility of SAT, prospective clinical trials must address the aspects of accepted standards in the initial evaluation, treatment, follow-up, and outcomes in the oncology community. We undertook this study to achieve consensus on uniform standardized trial design for SAT trials. A literature search was performed and an international multidisciplinary group of experts was identified. A questionnaire was constructed and sent out to 71 participants in 3 consecutive rounds according to the Delphi method. The project was concluded with a face-to-face meeting in which the results were reviewed and conclusions were formulated. Patients with recurrent disease after radiation therapy were considered candidates for a SAT trial using any ablation scenario performed with cryotherapy or high-intensity focused ultrasound. It is feasible to compare different sources of energy or to compare with historical data on salvage radical prostatectomy outcomes. The primary objective should be to assess the efficacy of the treatment for negative biopsy rate at 12 months. Secondary objectives should include safety parameters and quality-of-life assessment. Exclusion criteria should include evidence of local or distant metastases. The optimal biopsy strategy is image-guided targeted biopsies. Follow-up includes multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, prostate-specific antigen level, and quality of life for at least 5 years. A multidisciplinary board from international experts reached consensus on trial design for SAT in prostate cancer and provides a standard for designing a feasible SAT trial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Response Surface Models for Rapid Analysis and Multidisciplinary Optimization of Launch Vehicle Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1999-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the design and evaluation of launch vehicles, since it has a significant impact on performance and lifecycle cost. The objective in MDO is to search the design space to determine the values of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics subject to system constraints. Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at NASA Langley Research Center has computerized analysis tools in many of the disciplines required for the design and analysis of launch vehicles. Vehicle performance characteristics can be determined by the use of these computerized analysis tools. The next step is to optimize the system performance characteristics subject to multidisciplinary constraints. However, most of the complex sizing and performance evaluation codes used for launch vehicle design are stand-alone tools, operated by disciplinary experts. They are, in general, difficult to integrate and use directly for MDO.

  10. Development of Response Surface Models for Rapid Analysis and Multidisciplinary Optimization of Launch Vehicle Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1999-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the design and evaluation of launch vehicles, since it has a significant impact on performance and lifecycle cost. The objective in MDO is to search the design space to determine the values of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics subject to system constraints. Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at NASA Langley Research Center has computerized analysis tools in many of the disciplines required for the design and analysis of launch vehicles. Vehicle performance characteristics can be determined by the use of these computerized analysis tools. The next step is to optimize the system performance characteristics subject to multidisciplinary constraints. However, most of the complex sizing and performance evaluation codes used for launch vehicle design are stand-alone tools, operated by disciplinary experts. They are, in general, difficult to integrate and use directly for MDO.

  11. Interaction prediction optimization in multidisciplinary design optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Meng, Debiao; Zhang, Xiaoling; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Wang, Zhonglai; Xu, Huanwei

    2014-01-01

    The distributed strategy of Collaborative Optimization (CO) is suitable for large-scale engineering systems. However, it is hard for CO to converge when there is a high level coupled dimension. Furthermore, the discipline objectives cannot be considered in each discipline optimization problem. In this paper, one large-scale systems control strategy, the interaction prediction method (IPM), is introduced to enhance CO. IPM is utilized for controlling subsystems and coordinating the produce process in large-scale systems originally. We combine the strategy of IPM with CO and propose the Interaction Prediction Optimization (IPO) method to solve MDO problems. As a hierarchical strategy, there are a system level and a subsystem level in IPO. The interaction design variables (including shared design variables and linking design variables) are operated at the system level and assigned to the subsystem level as design parameters. Each discipline objective is considered and optimized at the subsystem level simultaneously. The values of design variables are transported between system level and subsystem level. The compatibility constraints are replaced with the enhanced compatibility constraints to reduce the dimension of design variables in compatibility constraints. Two examples are presented to show the potential application of IPO for MDO.

  12. Multifidelity, Multidisciplinary Design Under Uncertainty with Non-Intrusive Polynomial Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Thomas K., IV; Gumbert, Clyde

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to develop an approach for multifidelity uncertainty quantification and to lay the framework for future design under uncertainty efforts. In this study, multifidelity is used to describe both the fidelity of the modeling of the physical systems, as well as the difference in the uncertainty in each of the models. For computational efficiency, a multifidelity surrogate modeling approach based on non-intrusive polynomial chaos using the point-collocation technique is developed for the treatment of both multifidelity modeling and multifidelity uncertainty modeling. Two stochastic model problems are used to demonstrate the developed methodologies: a transonic airfoil model and multidisciplinary aircraft analysis model. The results of both showed the multifidelity modeling approach was able to predict the output uncertainty predicted by the high-fidelity model as a significant reduction in computational cost.

  13. National Combustion Code, a Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System, Will Be Transferred to the Commercial Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and Flow Parametrics will enter into an agreement to commercialize the National Combustion Code (NCC). This multidisciplinary combustor design system utilizes computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, modern postprocessing tools, and parallel processing. This integrated system can facilitate and enhance various phases of the design and analysis process.

  14. The potential application of the blackboard model of problem solving to multidisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The potential application of the blackboard model of problem solving to multidisciplinary design is discussed. Multidisciplinary design problems are complex, poorly structured, and lack a predetermined decision path from the initial starting point to the final solution. The final solution is achieved using data from different engineering disciplines. Ideally, for the final solution to be the optimum solution, there must be a significant amount of communication among the different disciplines plus intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary optimization. In reality, this is not what happens in today's sequential approach to multidisciplinary design. Therefore it is highly unlikely that the final solution is the true optimum solution from an interdisciplinary optimization standpoint. A multilevel decomposition approach is suggested as a technique to overcome the problems associated with the sequential approach, but no tool currently exists with which to fully implement this technique. A system based on the blackboard model of problem solving appears to be an ideal tool for implementing this technique because it offers an incremental problem solving approach that requires no a priori determined reasoning path. Thus it has the potential of finding a more optimum solution for the multidisciplinary design problems found in today's aerospace industries.

  15. Grid Generation for Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization of an Aerospace Vehicle: Issues and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss grid generation issues and to challenge the grid generation community to develop tools suitable for automated multidisciplinary analysis and design optimization of aerospace vehicles. Special attention is given to the grid generation issues of computational fluid dynamics and computational structural mechanics disciplines.

  16. Toward a More Flexible Web-Based Framework for Multidisciplinary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.; Salas, A. O.

    1999-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, both industry and government agencies are under pressure to reduce the time and cost of multidisciplinary design projects. New tools have been introduced to assist in this process by facilitating the integration of and communication among diverse disciplinary codes. One such tool, a framework for multidisciplinary design, is defined as a hardware-software architecture that enables integration, execution, and communication among diverse disciplinary processes. An examination of current frameworks reveals weaknesses in various areas, such as sequencing, monitoring, controlling, and displaying the design process. The objective of this research is to explore how Web technology can improve these areas of weakness and lead toward a more flexible framework. This article describes a Web-based system that optimizes and controls the execution sequence of design processes in addition to monitoring the project status and displaying the design results.

  17. Multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) methodology for the aircraft conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Liaquat Ullah

    achieving better designs with reduced risk in lesser time and cost. The approach is shown to eliminate the traditional boundary between the conceptual and the preliminary design stages, combining the two into one consolidated preliminary design phase. Several examples for the validation and utilization of the Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) Tool are presented using missions for the Medium and High Altitude Long Range/Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).

  18. Process Cost Modeling for Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Freeman, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This report outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are costed according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this report is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool. In successive sections, the report addresses the issues of cost modeling as follows. First, an introduction is presented to provide the background for the research work. Next, a quick review of cost estimation techniques is made with the intention to

  19. Multidisciplinary design optimization with collaboration pursuing and domain decomposition: Application to aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng

    Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) has emerged as a new technology dealing with the design of complex systems. This thesis focuses on development of an effective and efficient collaboration mechanism for coordinating coupled disciplines, as couplings are dominant issues in MDO. In this thesis, an innovative collaboration model is developed to handle these couplings. Based on this newly proposed collaboration model, two novel methods are developed for solving MDO problems. The first method is named the Boundary Search and Simplex Decomposition Method (BSSDM). It proposes a new methodology to geometrically depict the coupling information. Difficulties encountered with the couplings are alleviated through the obtained geometric information by the BSSDM. The second method is named the Collaboration Pursuing Method (CPM). It is a sampling-based MDO method, which aims to deal with relatively large-scale MDO problems. Both new methods are successfully tested. A conceptual aircraft design is implemented with the CPM and the results show that the CPM is competitively efficient as compared with other MDO methods. Limitations of the newly proposed MDO methods are discussed, along with suggestions for future work.

  20. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Under Uncertainty: An Information Model Approach (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    and c ∈ R, which is easily solved using the MatLab function fmincon. The reader is cautioned not to optimize over (t, p, c). Our approach requires a...would have to be expanded. The fifteen formulas can serve as the basis for numerical simulations, an easy task using MatLab . 5.3 Simulation of the higher...Design 130, 2008, 081402-1 – 081402-12. [32] M. Loève, ” Fonctions aléatoires du second ordre,” Suplement to P. Lévy, Pro- cessus Stochastiques et

  1. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  2. IDEAS: A multidisciplinary computer-aided conceptual design system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    During the conceptual development of advanced aerospace vehicles, many compromises must be considered to balance economy and performance of the total system. Subsystem tradeoffs may need to be made in order to satisfy system-sensitive attributes. Due to the increasingly complex nature of aerospace systems, these trade studies have become more difficult and time-consuming to complete and involve interactions of ever-larger numbers of subsystems, components, and performance parameters. The current advances of computer-aided synthesis, modeling and analysis techniques have greatly helped in the evaluation of competing design concepts. Langley Research Center's Space Systems Division is currently engaged in trade studies for a variety of systems which include advanced ground-launched space transportation systems, space-based orbital transfer vehicles, large space antenna concepts and space stations. The need for engineering analysis tools to aid in the rapid synthesis and evaluation of spacecraft has led to the development of the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design system. The ADEAS system has been used to perform trade studies of competing technologies and requirements in order to pinpoint possible beneficial areas for research and development. IDEAS is presented as a multidisciplinary tool for the analysis of advanced space systems. Capabilities range from model generation and structural and thermal analysis to subsystem synthesis and performance analysis.

  3. Multidisciplinary design optimization of vehicle instrument panel based on multi-objective genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Wu, Guangqiang

    2013-03-01

    Typical multidisciplinary design optimization(MDO) has gradually been proposed to balance performances of lightweight, noise, vibration and harshness(NVH) and safety for instrument panel(IP) structure in the automotive development. Nevertheless, plastic constitutive relation of Polypropylene(PP) under different strain rates, has not been taken into consideration in current reliability-based and collaborative IP MDO design. In this paper, based on tensile test under different strain rates, the constitutive relation of Polypropylene material is studied. Impact simulation tests for head and knee bolster are carried out to meet the regulation of FMVSS 201 and FMVSS 208, respectively. NVH analysis is performed to obtain mainly the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes, while the crashworthiness analysis is employed to examine the crash behavior of IP structure. With the consideration of lightweight, NVH, head and knee bolster impact performance, design of experiment(DOE), response surface model(RSM), and collaborative optimization(CO) are applied to realize the determined and reliability-based optimizations, respectively. Furthermore, based on multi-objective genetic algorithm(MOGA), the optimal Pareto sets are completed to solve the multi-objective optimization(MOO) problem. The proposed research ensures the smoothness of Pareto set, enhances the ability of engineers to make a comprehensive decision about multi-objectives and choose the optimal design, and improves the quality and efficiency of MDO.

  4. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1998-01-01

    The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate a radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behavior by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms, the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should be now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

  5. Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in the Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1999-01-01

    The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate. A radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behaviour by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms; the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should begin now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

  6. Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in the Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1999-01-01

    The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate. A radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behaviour by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms; the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should begin now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

  7. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) Methods: Their Synergy with Computer Technology in Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1998-01-01

    The paper identifies speed, agility, human interface, generation of sensitivity information, task decomposition, and data transmission (including storage) as important attributes for a computer environment to have in order to support engineering design effectively. It is argued that when examined in terms of these attributes the presently available environment can be shown to be inadequate a radical improvement is needed, and it may be achieved by combining new methods that have recently emerged from multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) with massively parallel processing computer technology. The caveat is that, for successful use of that technology in engineering computing, new paradigms for computing will have to be developed - specifically, innovative algorithms that are intrinsically parallel so that their performance scales up linearly with the number of processors. It may be speculated that the idea of simulating a complex behavior by interaction of a large number of very simple models may be an inspiration for the above algorithms, the cellular automata are an example. Because of the long lead time needed to develop and mature new paradigms, development should be now, even though the widespread availability of massively parallel processing is still a few years away.

  8. Multidisciplinary Design Technology Development: A Comparative Investigation of Integrated Aerospace Vehicle Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Batill, Stephen M.; Brockman, Jay B.

    1998-01-01

    This research effort is a joint program between the Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Notre Dame. Three Principal Investigators; Drs. Renaud, Brockman and Batill directed this effort. During the four and a half year grant period, six Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student received full or partial support, while four Computer Science and Engineering Ph.D. students and one Masters student were supported. During each of the summers up to four undergraduate students were involved in related research activities. The purpose of the project was to develop a framework and systematic methodology to facilitate the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (N4DO) to a diverse class of system design problems. For all practical aerospace systems, the design of a systems is a complex sequence of events which integrates the activities of a variety of discipline "experts" and their associated "tools". The development, archiving and exchange of information between these individual experts is central to the design task and it is this information which provides the basis for these experts to make coordinated design decisions (i.e., compromises and trade-offs) - resulting in the final product design. Grant efforts focused on developing and evaluating frameworks for effective design coordination within a MDO environment. Central to these research efforts was the concept that the individual discipline "expert", using the most appropriate "tools" available and the most complete description of the system should be empowered to have the greatest impact on the design decisions and final design. This means that the overall process must be highly interactive and efficiently conducted if the resulting design is to be developed in a manner consistent with cost and time requirements. The methods developed as part of this research effort include; extensions to

  9. Hospital without dyspnea: rationale and design of a multidisciplinary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vicent, Lourdes; Olarte, Juan Manuel Nuñez; Puente-Maestu, Luis; Artajona, Esther; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Dyspnea is a common and disabling symptom of respiratory and heart diseases, which is growing in incidence. During hospital admission, breathlessness is under-diagnosed and under-treated, although there are treatments available for controlling the symptom. We have developed a tailored implementation strategy directed to medical staff to promote the application of these pharmacological and non-pharmacological tools in dealing with dyspnea. The primary aim is to decrease the rate of patients that do not receive an adequate relief of dyspnea. This is a four-stage quasi-experimental study. The intervention consists in two teaching talks that will be taught in Cardiology and Respiratory Medicine Departments. The contents will be prepared by Palliative Care specialists, based on available tools for management of dyspnea and patients' needs. A cross-sectional study of dyspnea in hospitalized patients will be performed before and after the intervention to ascertain an improvement in dyspnea intensity due to changes in medical practices. The last phase consists in the creation of consensus protocols for dyspnea management based in our experience. The results of this study are expected to be of great value and may change clinical practice in the near future and promote a changing for the better of dyspnea care. PMID:27605944

  10. Recent experience with multidisciplinary analysis and optimization in advanced aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1990-01-01

    The task of modern aircraft design has always been complicated due to the number of intertwined technical factors from the various engineering disciplines. Furthermore, this complexity has been rapidly increasing by the development of such technologies as aeroelasticity tailored materials and structures, active control systems, integrated propulsion/airframe controls, thrust vectoring, and so on. Successful designs that achieve maximum advantage from these new technologies require a thorough understanding of the physical phenomena and the interactions among these phenomena. A study commissioned by the Aeronautical Sciences and Evaluation Board of the National Research Council has gone so far as to identify technology integration as a new discipline from which many future aeronautical advancements will arise. Regardless of whether one considers integration as a new discipline or not, it is clear to all engineers involved in aircraft design and analysis that better methods are required. In the past, designers conducted parametric studies in which a relatively small number of principal characteristics were varied to determine the effect on design requirements which were themselves often diverse and contradictory. Once a design was chosen, it then passed through the various engineers' disciplines whose principal task was to make the chosen design workable. Working in a limited design space, the discipline expert sometimes improved the concept, but more often than not, the result was in the form of a penalty to make the original concept workable. If an insurmountable problem was encountered, the process began over. Most design systems that attempt to account for disciplinary interactions have large empirical elements and reliance on past experience is a poor guide in obtaining maximum utilizations of new technologies. Further compounding the difficulty of design is that as the aeronautical sciences have matured, the discipline specialist's area of research has generally

  11. Recent experience with multidisciplinary analysis and optimization in advanced aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1990-01-01

    The task of modern aircraft design has always been complicated due to the number of intertwined technical factors from the various engineering disciplines. Furthermore, this complexity has been rapidly increasing by the development of such technologies as aeroelasticity tailored materials and structures, active control systems, integrated propulsion/airframe controls, thrust vectoring, and so on. Successful designs that achieve maximum advantage from these new technologies require a thorough understanding of the physical phenomena and the interactions among these phenomena. A study commissioned by the Aeronautical Sciences and Evaluation Board of the National Research Council has gone so far as to identify technology integration as a new discipline from which many future aeronautical advancements will arise. Regardless of whether one considers integration as a new discipline or not, it is clear to all engineers involved in aircraft design and analysis that better methods are required. In the past, designers conducted parametric studies in which a relatively small number of principal characteristics were varied to determine the effect on design requirements which were themselves often diverse and contradictory. Once a design was chosen, it then passed through the various engineers' disciplines whose principal task was to make the chosen design workable. Working in a limited design space, the discipline expert sometimes improved the concept, but more often than not, the result was in the form of a penalty to make the original concept workable. If an insurmountable problem was encountered, the process began over. Most design systems that attempt to account for disciplinary interactions have large empirical elements and reliance on past experience is a poor guide in obtaining maximum utilizations of new technologies. Further compounding the difficulty of design is that as the aeronautical sciences have matured, the discipline specialist's area of research has generally

  12. Complex multidisciplinary systems decomposition for aerospace vehicle conceptual design and technology acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omoragbon, Amen

    Although, the Aerospace and Defense (A&D) industry is a significant contributor to the United States' economy, national prestige and national security, it experiences significant cost and schedule overruns. This problem is related to the differences between technology acquisition assessments and aerospace vehicle conceptual design. Acquisition assessments evaluate broad sets of alternatives with mostly qualitative techniques, while conceptual design tools evaluate narrow set of alternatives with multidisciplinary tools. In order for these two fields to communicate effectively, a common platform for both concerns is desired. This research is an original contribution to a three-part solution to this problem. It discusses the decomposition step of an innovation technology and sizing tool generation framework. It identifies complex multidisciplinary system definitions as a bridge between acquisition and conceptual design. It establishes complex multidisciplinary building blocks that can be used to build synthesis systems as well as technology portfolios. It also describes a Graphical User Interface Designed to aid in decomposition process. Finally, it demonstrates an application of the methodology to a relevant acquisition and conceptual design problem posed by the US Air Force.

  13. Distributed Parallel Processing and Dynamic Load Balancing Techniques for Multidisciplinary High Speed Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasteva, Denitza T.

    1998-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) for large-scale engineering problems poses many challenges (e.g., the design of an efficient concurrent paradigm for global optimization based on disciplinary analyses, expensive computations over vast data sets, etc.) This work focuses on the application of distributed schemes for massively parallel architectures to MDO problems, as a tool for reducing computation time and solving larger problems. The specific problem considered here is configuration optimization of a high speed civil transport (HSCT), and the efficient parallelization of the embedded paradigm for reasonable design space identification. Two distributed dynamic load balancing techniques (random polling and global round robin with message combining) and two necessary termination detection schemes (global task count and token passing) were implemented and evaluated in terms of effectiveness and scalability to large problem sizes and a thousand processors. The effect of certain parameters on execution time was also inspected. Empirical results demonstrated stable performance and effectiveness for all schemes, and the parametric study showed that the selected algorithmic parameters have a negligible effect on performance.

  14. Multidisciplinary study of Hewett Field, Zechstein Kalk Formation

    SciTech Connect

    West, K.L. )

    1994-04-01

    New technology and a multidisciplinary team approach were effectively used by Phillips Petroleum for optimum reservoir development in the Hewett field, North Sea. Near-horizontal drilling technology and depositional environment and fracture studies were used by engineering and geology. Geophysics contributed structure and porosity trend maps and used new technology developed by Phillips called Incremental Pay Thickness modeling. IPT modeling enhances the integration of well-log data and seismic wiggle traces so porosity and pay thickness can be estimated directly from seismic data. Seismic amplitude values were mapped and processed into estimated porosity thickness using the IPT mathematical relationship. This interpretation aided in locating three successful development wells in areas of predicted high porosity, which increased production by 67 MMCF/D and optimized recovery.

  15. The Other Side of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: Accommodating a Multiobjective, Uncertain and Non-Deterministic World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Kemper; Mistree, Farrokh

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) over the past several years has been one of rapid expansion and development. In this paper, the evolution of MDO as a field is investigated as well as the evolution of its individual linguistic components: multidisciplinary, design, and optimization. The theory and application of each component have indeed evolved on their own, but the true net gain for MDO is how these piecewise evolutions coalesce to form the basis for MDO, present and future. Originating in structural applications, MDO technology has also branched out into diverse fields and application arenas. The evolution and diversification of MDO as a discipline is explored but details are left to the references cited.

  16. Selection of a turbine cooling system applying multi-disciplinary design considerations.

    PubMed

    Glezer, B

    2001-05-01

    The presented paper describes a multi-disciplinary cooling selection approach applied to major gas turbine engine hot section components, including turbine nozzles, blades, discs, combustors and support structures, which maintain blade tip clearances. The paper demonstrates benefits of close interaction between participating disciplines starting from early phases of the hot section development. The approach targets advancements in engine performance and cost by optimizing the design process, often requiring compromises within individual disciplines.

  17. Needs and Opportunities for Uncertainty-Based Multidisciplinary Design Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Kenny, Sean P; Luckring, James M.; Maghami, Peiman; Padula, Sharon L.; Stroud, W. Jefferson

    2002-01-01

    This report consists of a survey of the state of the art in uncertainty-based design together with recommendations for a Base research activity in this area for the NASA Langley Research Center. This report identifies the needs and opportunities for computational and experimental methods that provide accurate, efficient solutions to nondeterministic multidisciplinary aerospace vehicle design problems. Barriers to the adoption of uncertainty-based design methods are identified. and the benefits of the use of such methods are explained. Particular research needs are listed.

  18. The potential application of the blackboard model of problem solving to multidisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Problems associated with the sequential approach to multidisciplinary design are discussed. A blackboard model is suggested as a potential tool for implementing the multilevel decomposition approach to overcome these problems. The blackboard model serves as a global database for the solution with each discipline acting as a knowledge source for updating the solution. With this approach, it is possible for engineers to improve the coordination, communication, and cooperation in the conceptual design process, allowing them to achieve a more optimal design from an interdisciplinary standpoint.

  19. Propagating and mitigating uncertainty in the design of complex multidisciplinary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thunnissen, Daniel P.

    2005-12-01

    As humanity has developed increasingly ingenious and complicated systems, it has not been able to accurately predict the performance, development time, reliability, or cost of such systems. This inability to accurately predict parameters of interest in the design of complex multidisciplinary systems such as automobiles, aircraft, or spacecraft is due in great part to uncertainty. Uncertainty in complex multidisciplinary system design is currently mitigated through the use of heuristic margins. The use of these heuristic margins can result in a system being overdesigned during development or failing during operation. This thesis proposes a formal method to propagate and mitigate uncertainty in the design of complex multidisciplinary systems. Specifically, applying the proposed method produces a rigorous foundation for determining design margins. The method comprises five distinct steps: identifying tradable parameters; generating analysis models; classifying and addressing uncertainties; quantifying interaction uncertainty; and determining margins, analyzing the design, and trading parameters. The five steps of the proposed method are defined in detail. Margins are now a function of risk tolerance and are measured relative to mean expected system performance, not variations in design parameters measured relative to heuristic values. As an example, the proposed method is applied to the preliminary design of a spacecraft attitude determination and control system. In particular, the design of the attitude control system on the Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft cruise stage is used. Use of the proposed method for the example presented yields significant differences between the calculated design margins and the values assumed by the Mars Exploration Rover project. In addition to providing a formal and rigorous method for determining design margins, this thesis provides three other principal contributions. The first is an uncertainty taxonomy for use in the design of

  20. Multidisciplinary optimization of a controlled space structure using 150 design variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Benjamin B.

    1993-01-01

    A controls-structures interaction design method is presented. The method coordinates standard finite-element structural analysis, multivariable controls, and nonlinear programming codes and allows simultaneous optimization of the structure and control system of a spacecraft. Global sensitivity equations are used to account for coupling between the disciplines. Use of global sensitivity equations helps solve optimization problems that have a large number of design variables and a high degree of coupling between disciplines. The preliminary design of a generic geostationary platform is used to demonstrate the multidisciplinary optimization method. Design problems using 15, 63, and 150 design variables to optimize truss member sizes and feedback gain values are solved and the results are presented. The goal is to reduce the total mass of the structure and the vibration control system while satisfying constraints on vibration decay rate. Incorporation of the nonnegligible mass of actuators causes an essential coupling between structural design variables and control design variables.

  1. Impact of structural optimization with aeroelastic/multidisciplinary constraints on helicopter rotor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the field of structural optimization when applied to vibration reduction of helicopters in forward flight with aeroelastic and multidisciplinary constraints. It emphasizes the application of the modern approach where the optimization is formulated as a mathematical programming problem and the objective function consists of the vibration levels at the hub and behavior constraints are imposed on the blade frequencies, aeroelastic stability margins as well as on a number of additional ingredients which can have a significant effect on the overall performance and flight mechanics of the helicopter. It is shown that the integrated multidisciplinary optimization of rotorcraft offers the potential for substantial improvements which can be achieved by careful preliminary design and analysis without requiring additional hardware such as rotor vibration absorbers or isolation systems.

  2. Development of multidisciplinary design optimization procedures for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Ratneshwar

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) procedures have been developed for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades. The analysis and optimization methods used are computationally efficient and sufficiently rigorous. Therefore, the developed MDO procedures are well suited for actual design applications. The optimization procedure for the conceptual design of composite aircraft wings with surface bonded piezoelectric actuators involves the coupling of structural mechanics, aeroelasticity, aerodynamics and controls. The load carrying member of the wing is represented as a single-celled composite box beam. Each wall of the box beam is analyzed as a composite laminate using a refined higher-order displacement field to account for the variations in transverse shear stresses through the thickness. Therefore, the model is applicable for the analysis of composite wings of arbitrary thickness. Detailed structural modeling issues associated with piezoelectric actuation of composite structures are considered. The governing equations of motion are solved using the finite element method to analyze practical wing geometries. Three-dimensional aerodynamic computations are performed using a panel code based on the constant-pressure lifting surface method to obtain steady and unsteady forces. The Laplace domain method of aeroelastic analysis produces root-loci of the system which gives an insight into the physical phenomena leading to flutter/divergence and can be efficiently integrated within an optimization procedure. The significance of the refined higher-order displacement field on the aeroelastic stability of composite wings has been established. The effect of composite ply orientations on flutter and divergence speeds has been studied. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (K-S) function approach is used to efficiently integrate the objective functions and constraints into a single envelope function. The resulting unconstrained optimization problem is solved using the

  3. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  4. An efficient and flexible web services-based multidisciplinary design optimisation framework for complex engineering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liansheng; Liu, Jihong

    2012-08-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) involves multiple disciplines, multiple coupled relationships and multiple processes, which is implemented by different specialists dispersed geographically on heterogeneous platforms with different analysis and optimisation tools. The product design data integration and data sharing among the participants hampers the development and applications of MDO in enterprises seriously. Therefore, a multi-hierarchical integrated product design data model (MH-iPDM) supporting the MDO in the web environment and a web services-based multidisciplinary design optimisation (Web-MDO) framework are proposed in this article. Based on the enabling technologies including web services, ontology, workflow, agent, XML and evidence theory, the proposed framework enables the designers geographically dispersed to work collaboratively in the MDO environment. The ontology-based workflow enables the logical reasoning of MDO to be processed dynamically. The evidence theory-based uncertainty reasoning and analysis supports the quantification, aggregation and analysis of the conflicting epistemic uncertainty from multiple sources, which improves the quality of product. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype system is developed using J2EE and an example of supersonic business jet is demonstrated to verify the autonomous execution of MDO strategies and the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. The multidisciplinary design optimization of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yan-Yee Andy

    The purpose of this study is to examine the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a distributed propulsion blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft. The BWB is a hybrid shape resembling a flying wing, placing the payload in the inboard sections of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept involves replacing a small number of large engines with many smaller engines. The distributed propulsion concept considered here ducts part of the engine exhaust to exit out along the trailing edge of the wing. The distributed propulsion concept affects almost every aspect of the BWB design. Methods to model these effects and integrate them into an MDO framework were developed. The most important effect modeled is the impact on the propulsive efficiency. There has been conjecture that there will be an increase in propulsive efficiency when there is blowing out of the trailing edge of a wing. A mathematical formulation was derived to explain this. The formulation showed that the jet 'fills in' the wake behind the body, improving the overall aerodynamic/propulsion system, resulting in an increased propulsive efficiency. The distributed propulsion concept also replaces the conventional elevons with a vectored thrust system for longitudinal control. An extension of Spence's Jet Flap theory was developed to estimate the effects of this vectored thrust system on the aircraft longitudinal control. It was found to provide a reasonable estimate of the control capability of the aircraft. An MDO framework was developed, integrating all the distributed propulsion effects modeled. Using a gradient based optimization algorithm, the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft was optimized and compared with a similarly optimized conventional BWB design. Both designs are for an 800 passenger, 0.85 cruise Mach number and 7000 nmi mission. The MDO results found that the distributed propulsion BWB aircraft has a 4% takeoff gross weight and a 2% fuel weight. Both designs have similar planform shapes

  6. Postdoctoral study in a multidisciplinary research center: an alternative to more traditional nurse fellowships.

    PubMed

    Blank, D M

    1993-01-01

    This article examines postdoctoral study in a multidisciplinary research setting. The author describes the offerings of one particular multidisciplinary center, the Monell Chemical Senses Center, and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of a fellowship in such a setting. The relevance of this option for nursing is discussed.

  7. Design for manufacturing: application of collaborative multidisciplinary decision-making methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, A.; Seepersad, C. C.; Allen, J. K.; Rosen, D. W.; Mistree, F.

    2007-06-01

    Design for manufacturing is often difficult for mechanical parts, since significant manufacturing knowledge is required to adjust part designs for manufacturability. The traditional trial-and-error approach usually leads to expensive iterations and compromises the quality of the final design. The authors believe the appropriate way to handle product design for manufacturing problems is not to formulate a large design problem that exhaustively incorporates design and manufacturing issues, but to separate the design and manufacturing activities and provide support for collaboration between engineering teams. In this article, the Collaborative Multidisciplinary Decision-making Methodology is used to solve a product design and manufacturing problem. First, the compromise Decision Support Problem is used as a mathematical model of each engineering teams' design decisions and as a medium for information exchange. Second, game-theoretic principles are employed to resolve couplings or interactions between the teams' decisions. Third, design-capability indices are used to maintain design freedom at the early stages of product realization in order to accommodate unexpected downstream design changes. A plastic robot-arm design and manufacturing scenario is presented to demonstrate the application of this methodology and its effectiveness for solving a complex design for manufacturing problem in a streamlined manner, with minimal expensive iterations.

  8. On Developing a Taxonomy for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: A Decision-Based Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Kemper; Mistree, Farrokh

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we approach MDO from a Decision-Based Design (DBD) perspective and explore classification schemes for designing complex systems and processes. Specifically, we focus on decisions, which are only a small portion of the Decision Support Problem (DSP) Technique, our implementation of DBD. We map coupled nonhierarchical and hierarchical representations from the DSP Technique into the Balling-Sobieski (B-S) framework (Balling and Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, 1994), and integrate domain-independent linguistic terms to complete our taxonomy. Application of DSPs to the design of complex, multidisciplinary systems include passenger aircraft, ships, damage tolerant structural and mechanical systems, and thermal energy systems. In this paper we show that Balling-Sobieski framework is consistent with that of the Decision Support Problem Technique through the use of linguistic entities to describe the same type of formulations. We show that the underlying linguistics of the solution approaches are the same and can be coalesced into a homogeneous framework with which to base the research, application, and technology MDO upon. We introduce, in the Balling-Sobieski framework, examples of multidisciplinary design, namely, aircraft, damage tolerant structural and mechanical systems, and thermal energy systems.

  9. On Developing a Taxonomy for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: A Decision-Based Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Kemper; Mistree, Farrokh

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we approach MDO from a Decision-Based Design (DBD) perspective and explore classification schemes for designing complex systems and processes. Specifically, we focus on decisions, which are only a small portion of the Decision Support Problem (DSP) Technique, our implementation of DBD. We map coupled nonhierarchical and hierarchical representations from the DSP Technique into the Balling-Sobieski (B-S) framework (Balling and Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, 1994), and integrate domain-independent linguistic terms to complete our taxonomy. Application of DSPs to the design of complex, multidisciplinary systems include passenger aircraft, ships, damage tolerant structural and mechanical systems, and thermal energy systems. In this paper we show that Balling-Sobieski framework is consistent with that of the Decision Support Problem Technique through the use of linguistic entities to describe the same type of formulations. We show that the underlying linguistics of the solution approaches are the same and can be coalesced into a homogeneous framework with which to base the research, application, and technology MDO upon. We introduce, in the Balling-Sobieski framework, examples of multidisciplinary design, namely, aircraft, damage tolerant structural and mechanical systems, and thermal energy systems.

  10. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    surrogate model, which captures the relationships between input variables and responses into regression equations. Depending on the dimensionality of the problem and the fidelity of the code for which a surrogate model is being created, the initial DOE can itself be computationally prohibitive to run. Cokriging, a modeling approach from the field of geostatistics, provides a desirable compromise between computational expense and fidelity. To do this, cokriging leverages a large body of data generated by a low fidelity analysis, combines it with a smaller set of data from a higher fidelity analysis, and creates a kriging surrogate model with prediction fidelity approaching that of the higher fidelity analysis. When integrated into a multidisciplinary environment, a disciplinary analysis module employing cokriging can raise the analysis fidelity without drastically impacting the expense of design iterations. This is demonstrated through the creation of an aerodynamics analysis module in NASA s OpenMDAO framework. Aerodynamic analyses including Missile DATCOM, APAS, and USM3D are leveraged to create high fidelity aerodynamics decks for parametric vehicle geometries, which are created in NASA s Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). Several trade studies are performed to examine the achieved level of model fidelity, and the overall impact to vehicle design is quantified.

  11. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: A Multidisciplinary Design System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze ma or propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of design process and to provide the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a multidisciplinary system of analysis tools that is focussed on extending the simulation capability from components to the full system. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  12. Roadmap to the multidisciplinary design analysis and optimisation of wind energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Moreno, S. Sanchez; Zaaijer, M. B.; Bottasso, C. L.; Dykes, K.; Merz, K. O.; Rethore, P-E; Zahle, F.

    2016-10-03

    Here, a research agenda is described to further encourage the application of Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimisation (MDAO) methodologies to wind energy systems. As a group of researchers closely collaborating within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 37 for Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated Research, Design and Development, we have identified challenges that will be encountered by users building an MDAO framework. This roadmap comprises 17 research questions and activities recognised to belong to three research directions: model fidelity, system scope and workflow architecture. It is foreseen that sensible answers to all these questions will enable to more easily apply MDAO in the wind energy domain. Beyond the agenda, this work also promotes the use of systems engineering to design, analyse and optimise wind turbines and wind farms, to complement existing compartmentalised research and design paradigms.

  13. Roadmap to the multidisciplinary design analysis and optimisation of wind energy systems

    DOE PAGES

    Perez-Moreno, S. Sanchez; Zaaijer, M. B.; Bottasso, C. L.; ...

    2016-10-03

    Here, a research agenda is described to further encourage the application of Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimisation (MDAO) methodologies to wind energy systems. As a group of researchers closely collaborating within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 37 for Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated Research, Design and Development, we have identified challenges that will be encountered by users building an MDAO framework. This roadmap comprises 17 research questions and activities recognised to belong to three research directions: model fidelity, system scope and workflow architecture. It is foreseen that sensible answers to all these questions will enable to more easilymore » apply MDAO in the wind energy domain. Beyond the agenda, this work also promotes the use of systems engineering to design, analyse and optimise wind turbines and wind farms, to complement existing compartmentalised research and design paradigms.« less

  14. Roadmap to the multidisciplinary design analysis and optimisation of wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Perez-Moreno, S.; Zaaijer, M. B.; Bottasso, C. L.; Dykes, K.; Merz, K. O.; Réthoré, P.-E.; Zahle, F.

    2016-09-01

    A research agenda is described to further encourage the application of Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimisation (MDAO) methodologies to wind energy systems. As a group of researchers closely collaborating within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 37 for Wind Energy Systems Engineering: Integrated Research, Design and Development, we have identified challenges that will be encountered by users building an MDAO framework. This roadmap comprises 17 research questions and activities recognised to belong to three research directions: model fidelity, system scope and workflow architecture. It is foreseen that sensible answers to all these questions will enable to more easily apply MDAO in the wind energy domain. Beyond the agenda, this work also promotes the use of systems engineering to design, analyse and optimise wind turbines and wind farms, to complement existing compartmentalised research and design paradigms.

  15. A General-Purpose Optimization Engine for Multi-Disciplinary Design Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Berke, Laszlo

    1996-01-01

    A general purpose optimization tool for multidisciplinary applications, which in the literature is known as COMETBOARDS, is being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center. The modular organization of COMETBOARDS includes several analyzers and state-of-the-art optimization algorithms along with their cascading strategy. The code structure allows quick integration of new analyzers and optimizers. The COMETBOARDS code reads input information from a number of data files, formulates a design as a set of multidisciplinary nonlinear programming problems, and then solves the resulting problems. COMETBOARDS can be used to solve a large problem which can be defined through multiple disciplines, each of which can be further broken down into several subproblems. Alternatively, a small portion of a large problem can be optimized in an effort to improve an existing system. Some of the other unique features of COMETBOARDS include design variable formulation, constraint formulation, subproblem coupling strategy, global scaling technique, analysis approximation, use of either sequential or parallel computational modes, and so forth. The special features and unique strengths of COMETBOARDS assist convergence and reduce the amount of CPU time used to solve the difficult optimization problems of aerospace industries. COMETBOARDS has been successfully used to solve a number of problems, including structural design of space station components, design of nozzle components of an air-breathing engine, configuration design of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, mixed flow turbofan engines, wave rotor topped engines, and so forth. This paper introduces the COMETBOARDS design tool and its versatility, which is illustrated by citing examples from structures, aircraft design, and air-breathing propulsion engine design.

  16. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Full Vehicle with High Performance Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, R. J.; Gu, L.; Tho, C. H.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2001-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of a full vehicle under the constraints of crashworthiness, NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), durability, and other performance attributes is one of the imperative goals for automotive industry. However, it is often infeasible due to the lack of computational resources, robust simulation capabilities, and efficient optimization methodologies. This paper intends to move closer towards that goal by using parallel computers for the intensive computation and combining different approximations for dissimilar analyses in the MDO process. The MDO process presented in this paper is an extension of the previous work reported by Sobieski et al. In addition to the roof crush, two full vehicle crash modes are added: full frontal impact and 50% frontal offset crash. Instead of using an adaptive polynomial response surface method, this paper employs a DOE/RSM method for exploring the design space and constructing highly nonlinear crash functions. Two NMO strategies are used and results are compared. This paper demonstrates that with high performance computing, a conventionally intractable real world full vehicle multidisciplinary optimization problem considering all performance attributes with large number of design variables become feasible.

  17. Comparison of Two Multidisciplinary Optimization Strategies for Launch-Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R. D.; Powell, R. W.; Lepsch, R. A.; Stanley, D. O.; Kroo, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation focuses on development of a rapid multidisciplinary analysis and optimization capability for launch-vehicle design. Two multidisciplinary optimization strategies in which the analyses are integrated in different manners are implemented and evaluated for solution of a single-stage-to-orbit launch-vehicle design problem. Weights and sizing, propulsion, and trajectory issues are directly addressed in each optimization process. Additionally, the need to maintain a consistent vehicle model across the disciplines is discussed. Both solution strategies were shown to obtain similar solutions from two different starting points. These solutions suggests that a dual-fuel, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle with a dry weight of approximately 1.927 x 10(exp 5)lb, gross liftoff weight of 2.165 x 10(exp 6)lb, and length of 181 ft is attainable. A comparison of the two approaches demonstrates that treatment or disciplinary coupling has a direct effect on optimization convergence and the required computational effort. In comparison with the first solution strategy, which is of the general form typically used within the launch vehicle design community at present, the second optimization approach is shown to he 3-4 times more computationally efficient.

  18. A Web-Based System for Monitoring and Controlling Multidisciplinary Design Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Andrea O.; Rogers, James L.

    1997-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, both industry and government agencies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of multidisciplinary design projects. A number of frameworks have been introduced to assist in this process by facilitating the integration of and communication among diverse disciplinary codes. An examination of current frameworks reveals weaknesses in various areas such as sequencing, displaying, monitoring, and controlling the design process. The objective of this research is to explore how Web technology, in conjunction with an existing framework, can improve these areas of weakness. This paper describes a system that executes a sequence of programs, monitors and controls the design process through a Web-based interface, and visualizes intermediate and final results through the use of Java(Tm) applets. A small sample problem, which includes nine processes with two analysis programs that are coupled to an optimizer, is used to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  19. The Component Packaging Problem: A Vehicle for the Development of Multidisciplinary Design and Analysis Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, Georges; Bridgewood, Michael; Figliola, Richard; Greenstein, Joel; Kostreva, Michael; Nowaczyk, Ronald; Stevenson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes academic research which has resulted in an increased appreciation for multidisciplinary efforts among our students, colleagues and administrators. It has also generated a number of research ideas that emerged from the interaction between disciplines. Overall, 17 undergraduate students and 16 graduate students benefited directly from the NASA grant: an additional 11 graduate students were impacted and participated without financial support from NASA. The work resulted in 16 theses (with 7 to be completed in the near future), 67 papers or reports mostly published in 8 journals and/or presented at various conferences (a total of 83 papers, presentations and reports published based on NASA inspired or supported work). In addition, the faculty and students presented related work at many meetings, and continuing work has been proposed to NSF, the Army, Industry and other state and federal institutions to continue efforts in the direction of multidisciplinary and recently multi-objective design and analysis. The specific problem addressed is component packing which was solved as a multi-objective problem using iterative genetic algorithms and decomposition. Further testing and refinement of the methodology developed is presently under investigation. Teaming issues research and classes resulted in the publication of a web site, (http://design.eng.clemson.edu/psych4991) which provides pointers and techniques to interested parties. Specific advantages of using iterative genetic algorithms, hurdles faced and resolved, and institutional difficulties associated with multi-discipline teaming are described in some detail.

  20. Development of Response Surface Models for Rapid Analysis & Multidisciplinary Optimization of Launch Vehicle Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1999-01-01

    Multdisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is an important step in the design and evaluation of launch vehicles, since it has a significant impact on performance and lifecycle cost. The objective in MDO is to search the design space to determine the values of design parameters that optimize the performance characteristics subject to system constraints. Vehicle Analysis Branch (VAB) at NASA Langley Research Center has computerized analysis tools in many of the disciplines required for the design and analysis of launch vehicles. Vehicle performance characteristics can be determined by the use of these computerized analysis tools. The next step is to optimize the system performance characteristics subject to multidisciplinary constraints. However, most of the complex sizing and performance evaluation codes used for launch vehicle design are stand-alone tools, operated by disciplinary experts. They are, in general, difficult to integrate and use directly for MDO. An alternative has been to utilize response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain polynomial models that approximate the functional relationships between performance characteristics and design variables. These approximation models, called response surface models, are then used to integrate the disciplines using mathematical programming methods for efficient system level design analysis, MDO and fast sensitivity simulations. A second-order response surface model of the form given has been commonly used in RSM since in many cases it can provide an adequate approximation especially if the region of interest is sufficiently limited.

  1. Structural Model Tuning Capability in an Object-Oriented Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Shun-fat; Pak, Chan-gi

    2008-01-01

    Updating the finite element model using measured data is a challenging problem in the area of structural dynamics. The model updating process requires not only satisfactory correlations between analytical and experimental results, but also the retention of dynamic properties of structures. Accurate rigid body dynamics are important for flight control system design and aeroelastic trim analysis. Minimizing the difference between analytical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. In this research, a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool is introduced to optimize the objective function and constraints such that the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes are matched to the target data as well as the mass matrix being orthogonalized.

  2. Structural Model Tuning Capability in an Object-Oriented Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Shun-fat; Pak, Chan-gi

    2008-01-01

    Updating the finite element model using measured data is a challenging problem in the area of structural dynamics. The model updating process requires not only satisfactory correlations between analytical and experimental results, but also the retention of dynamic properties of structures. Accurate rigid body dynamics are important for flight control system design and aeroelastic trim analysis. Minimizing the difference between analytical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. In this research, a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization (MDAO) tool is introduced to optimize the objective function and constraints such that the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes are matched to the target data as well as the mass matrix being orthogonalized.

  3. Comparison of Response Surface and Kriging Models in the Multidisciplinary Design of an Aerospike Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Timothy W.

    1998-01-01

    The use of response surface models and kriging models are compared for approximating non-random, deterministic computer analyses. After discussing the traditional response surface approach for constructing polynomial models for approximation, kriging is presented as an alternative statistical-based approximation method for the design and analysis of computer experiments. Both approximation methods are applied to the multidisciplinary design and analysis of an aerospike nozzle which consists of a computational fluid dynamics model and a finite element analysis model. Error analysis of the response surface and kriging models is performed along with a graphical comparison of the approximations. Four optimization problems are formulated and solved using both approximation models. While neither approximation technique consistently outperforms the other in this example, the kriging models using only a constant for the underlying global model and a Gaussian correlation function perform as well as the second order polynomial response surface models.

  4. Comparison of Response Surface and Kriging Models for Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Timothy W.; Korte, John J.; Mauery, Timothy M.; Mistree, Farrokh

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we compare and contrast the use of second-order response surface models and kriging models for approximating non-random, deterministic computer analyses. After reviewing the response surface method for constructing polynomial approximations, kriging is presented as an alternative approximation method for the design and analysis of computer experiments. Both methods are applied to the multidisciplinary design of an aerospike nozzle which consists of a computational fluid dynamics model and a finite-element model. Error analysis of the response surface and kriging models is performed along with a graphical comparison of the approximations, and four optimization problems m formulated and solved using both sets of approximation models. The second-order response surface models and kriging models-using a constant underlying global model and a Gaussian correlation function-yield comparable results.

  5. Multidisciplinary Optimization Approach for Design and Operation of Constrained and Complex-shaped Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae Young

    The design of a small satellite is challenging since they are constrained by mass, volume, and power. To mitigate these constraint effects, designers adopt deployable configurations on the spacecraft that result in an interesting and difficult optimization problem. The resulting optimization problem is challenging due to the computational complexity caused by the large number of design variables and the model complexity created by the deployables. Adding to these complexities, there is a lack of integration of the design optimization systems into operational optimization, and the utility maximization of spacecraft in orbit. The developed methodology enables satellite Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) that is extendable to on-orbit operation. Optimization of on-orbit operations is possible with MDO since the model predictive controller developed in this dissertation guarantees the achievement of the on-ground design behavior in orbit. To enable the design optimization of highly constrained and complex-shaped space systems, the spherical coordinate analysis technique, called the "Attitude Sphere", is extended and merged with an additional engineering tools like OpenGL. OpenGL's graphic acceleration facilitates the accurate estimation of the shadow-degraded photovoltaic cell area. This technique is applied to the design optimization of the satellite Electric Power System (EPS) and the design result shows that the amount of photovoltaic power generation can be increased more than 9%. Based on this initial methodology, the goal of this effort is extended from Single Discipline Optimization to Multidisciplinary Optimization, which includes the design and also operation of the EPS, Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS), and communication system. The geometry optimization satisfies the conditions of the ground development phase; however, the operation optimization may not be as successful as expected in orbit due to disturbances. To address this issue

  6. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  7. A user-interactive, response surface approximation-based framework for multidisciplinary design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmack, Marc Andrew

    Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) focuses on reducing the time and cost required to design complex engineering systems. One goal of MDO is to develop systematic approaches to design which are effective and reliable in achieving desired performance improvements. Also, the analysis of engineering systems is potentially expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, enhancing the efficiency of current design methods, in terms of the number of designs that must be evaluated, is desirable. A design framework, Concurrent Subspace Design (CSD), is proposed to address some issues that are prevalent in practical design settings. Previously considered methods of system approximation and optimization were extended to accommodate both discrete and continuous design variables. Additionally, the transition from one application to another was made to be as straightforward as possible in developing the associated software. Engineering design generally requires the expertise of numerous individuals, whose efforts must be focused on and coordinated in accordance with a consistent set of design goals. In CSD, system approximations in the form of artificial neural networks provide information pertaining to system performance characteristics. This information provides the basis for design decisions. The approximations enable different designers to operate concurrently and assess the impact of their decisions on the system design goals. The proposed framework was implemented to minimize the weight of an aircraft brake assembly. An existing industrial analysis tool was used to provide design information in that application. CSD was implemented in a user-interactive fashion that permitted human judgement to influence the design process and required minimal modifications to the analysis and design software. The implications of problem formulation and the role of human design experts in automated industrial design processes were explored in the context of that application. In the most

  8. Multidisciplinary design optimisation of a recurve bow based on applications of the autogenetic design theory and distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Matthias; Kittel, Konstantin; Blankenburg, Alexander; Vajna, Sándor

    2012-08-01

    The focus of this paper is to present a method of multidisciplinary design optimisation based on the autogenetic design theory (ADT) that provides methods, which are partially implemented in the optimisation software described here. The main thesis of the ADT is that biological evolution and the process of developing products are mainly similar, i.e. procedures from biological evolution can be transferred into product development. In order to fulfil requirements and boundary conditions of any kind (that may change at any time), both biological evolution and product development look for appropriate solution possibilities in a certain area, and try to optimise those that are actually promising by varying parameters and combinations of these solutions. As the time necessary for multidisciplinary design optimisations is a critical aspect in product development, ways to distribute the optimisation process with the effective use of unused calculating capacity, can reduce the optimisation time drastically. Finally, a practical example shows how ADT methods and distributed optimising are applied to improve a product.

  9. A Multidisciplinary Osteoporosis Service-Based Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Dean; Keast, John; Montgomery, Val; Hayman, Sue

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an existing Trust-based osteoporosis service's preventative activity, determine any issues and problems and use this data to reorganise the service, as part of a National Health Service Executive/Regional Office-commissioned and funded study. Setting: A UK Hospital Trust's Osteoporosis Service. Design & Method: A…

  10. A Multidisciplinary Osteoporosis Service-Based Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Dean; Keast, John; Montgomery, Val; Hayman, Sue

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an existing Trust-based osteoporosis service's preventative activity, determine any issues and problems and use this data to reorganise the service, as part of a National Health Service Executive/Regional Office-commissioned and funded study. Setting: A UK Hospital Trust's Osteoporosis Service. Design & Method: A…

  11. A case study on development of an integrated, multidisciplinary dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Nadershahi, Nader A; Bender, Daniel J; Beck, Lynn; Alexander, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Calls for fundamental reform of dental education were made twice in the twentieth century. More recently, spurred by the work of the American Dental Education Association's Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (ADEA CCI), North American dental educators have again begun advocating for major curriculum reform in order to develop in students the higher order thinking skills required for the contemporary practice of dentistry. This case study describes the process of curricular reform at one school designed to move from a traditional siloed curriculum to one that uses case-based, integrated multidisciplinary courses to improve teaching and learning. The process was broad-based and comprehensive and included a schoolwide values clarification exercise and agreement on desired characteristics of an ideal graduate. Stakeholders agreed that the reform curriculum should incorporate inter- and multidisciplinary courses, case-based and active learning strategies, and concepts from adult learning theory. The new curriculum model is comprised of five unique but related curriculum "strands," each managed by a small group of interdisciplinary faculty content experts. Challenges in the development and implementation of the reform curriculum are discussed, and an assessment plan is presented.

  12. Multidisciplinary optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, J.; Lewis, R.M.; Cramer, E.J.; Frank, P.M.; Shubin, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    This talk will use aeroelastic design and reservoir characterization as examples to introduce some approaches to MDO, or Multidisciplinary Optimization. This problem arises especially in engineering design, where it is considered of paramount importance in today`s competitive global business climate. It is interesting to an optimizer because the constraints involve coupled dissimilar systems of parameterized partial differential equations each arising from a different discipline, like structural analysis, computational fluid dynamics, etc. Usually, these constraints are accessible only through pde solvers rather than through algebraic residual calculations as we are used to having. Thus, just finding a multidisciplinary feasible point is a daunting task. Many such problems have discrete variable disciplines, multiple objectives, and other challenging features. After discussing some interesting practical features of the design problem, we will give some standard ways to formulate the problem as well as some novel ways that lend themselves to divide-and-conquer parallelism.

  13. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Morphing Wingtip Concept with Multiple Morphing Stages at Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Michael

    Morphing an aircraft wingtip can provide substantial performance improvement. Most civil transport aircraft are optimized for range but for other flight conditions such as take-off and climb they are used as constraints. These constraints could potentially reduce the performance of an aircraft at cruise. By altering the shape of the wingtip, we can force the load distribution to adapt to the required flight condition to improve performance. Using a Variable Geometry Truss Mechanism (VGTM) concept to morph the wingtip of an aircraft with a Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) framework, the current work will attempt to find an optimal wing and wingtip shape to minimize fuel consumption for multiple morphing stages during cruise. This optimization routine was conducted with a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm using different fidelity tools to analyze the aerodynamic and structural disciplines.

  14. Designing eHealth that Matters via a Multidisciplinary Requirements Development Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wentzel, Jobke; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia EWC

    2013-01-01

    Background Requirements development is a crucial part of eHealth design. It entails all the activities devoted to requirements identification, the communication of requirements to other developers, and their evaluation. Currently, a requirements development approach geared towards the specifics of the eHealth domain is lacking. This is likely to result in a mismatch between the developed technology and end user characteristics, physical surroundings, and the organizational context of use. It also makes it hard to judge the quality of eHealth design, since it makes it difficult to gear evaluations of eHealth to the main goals it is supposed to serve. Objective In order to facilitate the creation of eHealth that matters, we present a practical, multidisciplinary requirements development approach which is embedded in a holistic design approach for eHealth (the Center for eHealth Research roadmap) that incorporates both human-centered design and business modeling. Methods Our requirements development approach consists of five phases. In the first, preparatory, phase the project team is composed and the overall goal(s) of the eHealth intervention are decided upon. Second, primary end users and other stakeholders are identified by means of audience segmentation techniques and our stakeholder identification method. Third, the designated context of use is mapped and end users are profiled by means of requirements elicitation methods (eg, interviews, focus groups, or observations). Fourth, stakeholder values and eHealth intervention requirements are distilled from data transcripts, which leads to phase five, in which requirements are communicated to other developers using a requirements notation template we developed specifically for the context of eHealth technologies. Results The end result of our requirements development approach for eHealth interventions is a design document which includes functional and non-functional requirements, a list of stakeholder values, and end

  15. Designing eHealth that Matters via a Multidisciplinary Requirements Development Approach.

    PubMed

    Van Velsen, Lex; Wentzel, Jobke; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2013-06-24

    Requirements development is a crucial part of eHealth design. It entails all the activities devoted to requirements identification, the communication of requirements to other developers, and their evaluation. Currently, a requirements development approach geared towards the specifics of the eHealth domain is lacking. This is likely to result in a mismatch between the developed technology and end user characteristics, physical surroundings, and the organizational context of use. It also makes it hard to judge the quality of eHealth design, since it makes it difficult to gear evaluations of eHealth to the main goals it is supposed to serve. In order to facilitate the creation of eHealth that matters, we present a practical, multidisciplinary requirements development approach which is embedded in a holistic design approach for eHealth (the Center for eHealth Research roadmap) that incorporates both human-centered design and business modeling. Our requirements development approach consists of five phases. In the first, preparatory, phase the project team is composed and the overall goal(s) of the eHealth intervention are decided upon. Second, primary end users and other stakeholders are identified by means of audience segmentation techniques and our stakeholder identification method. Third, the designated context of use is mapped and end users are profiled by means of requirements elicitation methods (eg, interviews, focus groups, or observations). Fourth, stakeholder values and eHealth intervention requirements are distilled from data transcripts, which leads to phase five, in which requirements are communicated to other developers using a requirements notation template we developed specifically for the context of eHealth technologies. The end result of our requirements development approach for eHealth interventions is a design document which includes functional and non-functional requirements, a list of stakeholder values, and end user profiles in the form of

  16. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  17. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  18. Application of the multi-disciplinary thematic seminar method in two homecare cases - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Scandurra, Isabella; Hägglund, Maria; Koch, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    A significant problem with current health information technologies is that they poorly support collaborative work of healthcare professionals, sometimes leading to a fragmentation of workflow and disruption of healthcare processes. This paper presents two homecare cases, both applying multi-disciplinary thematic seminars (MdTS) as a collaborative method for user needs elicitation and requirements specification. This study describes the MdTS application to elicit user needs from different perspectives to coincide with collaborative professions' work practices in two cases. Despite different objectives, the two cases validated that MdTS emphasized the "points of intersection" in cooperative work. Different user groups with similar, yet distinct needs reached a common understanding of the entire work process, agreed upon requirements and participated in the design of prototypes supporting cooperative work. MdTS was applicable in both exploratory and normative studies aiming to elicit the specific requirements in a cooperative environment.

  19. In Absentia: An Exploratory Study of How Patients Are Considered in Multidisciplinary Cancer Team Meetings.

    PubMed

    Hahlweg, Pola; Hoffmann, Jana; Härter, Martin; Frosch, Dominick L; Elwyn, Glyn; Scholl, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team meetings and shared decision-making are potential means of delivering patient-centred care. Not much is known about how those two paradigms fit together in cancer care. This study aimed to investigate how decisions are made in multidisciplinary team meetings and whether patient perspectives are incorporated in these decisions. A qualitative study was conducted using non-participant observation at multidisciplinary team meetings (also called tumor boards) at the University Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. Two researchers recorded structured field notes from a total of N = 15 multidisciplinary team meetings. Data were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics. Physicians mainly exchanged medical information and based their decision-making on this information. Individual patient characteristics or their treatment preferences were rarely considered or discussed. In the few cases where patient preferences were raised as a topic, this information did not seem to be taken into account in decision-making processes about treatment recommendations. The processes in multidisciplinary team meetings we observed did not exhibit shared decision-making. Patient perspectives were absent. If multidisciplinary team meetings wish to become more patient-centred they will have to modify their processes and find a way to include patient preferences into the decision-making process.

  20. Multidisciplinary design optimization of a human occupied vehicle based on Bi-Level integrated system collaborative optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Min; Cui, Wei-cheng; Li, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The design of Human Occupied Vehicle (HOV) is a typical multidisciplinary problem, but heavily dependent on the experience of naval architects at present engineering design. In order to relieve the experience dependence and improve the design, a new Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) method "Bi-Level Integrated System Collaborative Optimization (BLISCO)" is applied to the conceptual design of an HOV, which consists of hull module, resistance module, energy module, structure module, weight module, and the stability module. This design problem is defined by 21 design variables and 23 constraints, and its objective is to maximize the ratio of payload to weight. The results show that the general performance of the HOV can be greatly improved by BLISCO.

  1. Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS), A database-driven multidisciplinary design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Bolukbasi, A. O.

    1989-01-01

    The Computerized Design Synthesis (CDS) system under development at McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company (MDHC) is targeted to make revolutionary improvements in both response time and resource efficiency in the conceptual and preliminary design of rotorcraft systems. It makes the accumulated design database and supporting technology analysis results readily available to designers and analysts of technology, systems, and production, and makes powerful design synthesis software available in a user friendly format.

  2. Object-Oriented Multi-Disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi

    2011-01-01

    An Object-Oriented Optimization (O3) tool was developed that leverages existing tools and practices, and allows the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. At the heart of the O3 tool is the Central Executive Module (CEM), which can integrate disparate software packages in a cross platform network environment so as to quickly perform optimization and design tasks in a cohesive, streamlined manner. This object-oriented framework can integrate the analysis codes for multiple disciplines instead of relying on one code to perform the analysis for all disciplines. The CEM was written in FORTRAN and the script commands for each performance index were submitted through the use of the FORTRAN Call System command. In this CEM, the user chooses an optimization methodology, defines objective and constraint functions from performance indices, and provides starting and side constraints for continuous as well as discrete design variables. The structural analysis modules such as computations of the structural weight, stress, deflection, buckling, and flutter and divergence speeds have been developed and incorporated into the O3 tool to build an object-oriented Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization (MDAO) tool.

  3. Product design engineering - a global education trend in multidisciplinary training for creative product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-03-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering training. Product design engineering (PDE) is a new interdisciplinary programme combining the strengths of the industrial design and engineering. This paper examines the emergence of PDE in an environment of critique of conventional engineering education and exemplifies the current spread of programmes endorsing a hybrid programme of design and engineering skills. The paper exemplifies PDE with the analysis of the programme offered at Swinburne University of Technology (Australia), showing how the teaching of 'designerly' thinking to engineers produces a new graduate particularly suited to the current and future environment of produce design practice. The paper concludes with reflections on the significance of this innovative curriculum model for the field of product design and for engineering design in general.

  4. Multi-disciplinary design optimization of subsonic fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles projected through 2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, John Frederick, IV

    Through this research, a robust aircraft design methodology is developed for analysis and optimization of the Air Vehicle (AV) segment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems. The analysis functionality of the AV design is integrated with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to form an integrated Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) methodology for optimal AV design synthesis. This research fills the gap in integrated subsonic fixed-wing UAV AV MDO methods. No known single methodology captures all of the phenomena of interest over the wide range of UAV families considered here. Key advancements include: (1) parametric Low Reynolds Number (LRN) airfoil aerodynamics formulation, (2) UAV systems mass properties definition, (3) wing structural weight methods, (4) self-optimizing flight performance model, (5) automated geometry algorithms, and (6) optimizer integration. Multiple methods are provided for many disciplines to enable flexibility in functionality, level of detail, computational expediency, and accuracy. The AV design methods are calibrated against the High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) Global Hawk, Medium-Altitude Endurance (MAE) Predator, and Tactical Shadow 200 classes, which exhibit significant variations in mission performance requirements and scale from one another. All three UAV families show significant design gross weight reductions as technology improves. The overall technology synergy experienced 10--11 years after the initial technology year is 6.68% for Global Hawk, 7.09% for Predator, and 4.22% for the Shadow 200, which means that the technology trends interact favorably in all cases. The Global Hawk and Shadow 200 families exhibited niche behavior, where some vehicles attained higher aerodynamic performance while others attained lower structural mass fractions. The high aerodynamic performance Global Hawk vehicles had high aspect ratio wings with sweep, while the low structural mass fraction vehicles had straight, relatively low aspect ratios and

  5. Design of a Model for a Professional Development Programme for a Multidisciplinary Science Subject in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes the design of a generic model for a professional…

  6. Design of a Model for a Professional Development Programme for a Multidisciplinary Science Subject in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Talitha C.; Coenders, Fer G. M.; Terlouw, Cees; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes the design of a generic model for a professional…

  7. A Systematic Approach for Quantitative Analysis of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangho; Park, Jungkeun; Lee, Jeong-Oog; Lee, Jae-Woo

    An efficient Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) framework for an aerospace engineering system should use and integrate distributed resources such as various analysis codes, optimization codes, Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, Data Base Management Systems (DBMS), etc. in a heterogeneous environment, and need to provide user-friendly graphical user interfaces. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach for determining a reference MDO framework and for evaluating MDO frameworks. The proposed approach incorporates two well-known methods, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD), in order to provide a quantitative analysis of the qualitative criteria of MDO frameworks. Identification and hierarchy of the framework requirements and the corresponding solutions for the reference MDO frameworks, the general one and the aircraft oriented one were carefully investigated. The reference frameworks were also quantitatively identified using AHP and QFD. An assessment of three in-house frameworks was then performed. The results produced clear and useful guidelines for improvement of the in-house MDO frameworks and showed the feasibility of the proposed approach for evaluating an MDO framework without a human interference.

  8. Review of uncertainty-based multidisciplinary design optimization methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqian; Luo, Wencai; van Tooren, Michel; Guo, Jian

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of Uncertainty-Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (UMDO) theory and the state of the art in UMDO methods for aerospace vehicles. UMDO has been widely acknowledged as an advanced methodology to address competing objectives of aerospace vehicle design, such as performance, cost, reliability and robustness. However the major challenges of UMDO, namely the computational complexity and organizational complexity caused by both time-consuming disciplinary analysis models and UMDO algorithms, still greatly hamper its application in aerospace engineering. In recent years there is a surge of research in this field aiming at solving these problems. The purpose of this paper is to review these existing approaches systematically, highlight research challenges and opportunities, and help guide future efforts. Firstly, the UMDO theory preliminaries are introduced to clarify the basic UMDO concepts and mathematical formulations, as well as provide a panoramic view of the general UMDO solving process. Then following the UMDO solving process, research progress of each key step is separately surveyed and discussed, specifically including uncertainty modeling, uncertainty propagation and analysis, optimization under uncertainty, and UMDO procedure. Finally some conclusions are given, and future research trends and prospects are discussed.

  9. The suitability of selected multidisciplinary design and optimization techniques to conceptual aerospace vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Four methods for preliminary aerospace vehicle design are reviewed. The first three methods (classical optimization, system decomposition, and system sensitivity analysis (SSA)) employ numerical optimization techniques and numerical gradients to feed back changes in the design variables. The optimum solution is determined by stepping through a series of designs toward a final solution. Of these three, SSA is argued to be the most applicable to a large-scale highly coupled vehicle design where an accurate minimum of an objective function is required. With SSA, several tasks can be performed in parallel. The techniques of classical optimization and decomposition can be included in SSA, resulting in a very powerful design method. The Taguchi method is more of a 'smart' parametric design method that analyzes variable trends and interactions over designer specified ranges with a minimum of experimental analysis runs. Its advantages are its relative ease of use, ability to handle discrete variables, and ability to characterize the entire design space with a minimum of analysis runs.

  10. Engineering Overview of a Multidisciplinary HSCT Design Framework Using Medium-Fidelity Analysis Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, R. P.; Green, L. L.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Townsend, J. C.; Walsh, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    An objective of the HPCC Program at NASA Langley has been to promote the use of advanced computing techniques to more rapidly solve the problem of multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic transport configuration. As a result, a software system has been designed and is being implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them CPU-intensive, into a distributed computational framework for the design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration. The proposed paper will describe the engineering aspects of integrating these analysis codes and additional interface codes into an automated design system. The objective of the design problem is to optimize the aircraft weight for given mission conditions, range, and payload requirements, subject to aerodynamic, structural, and performance constraints. The design variables include both thicknesses of structural elements and geometric parameters that define the external aircraft shape. An optimization model has been adopted that uses the multidisciplinary analysis results and the derivatives of the solution with respect to the design variables to formulate a linearized model that provides input to the CONMIN optimization code, which outputs new values for the design variables. The analysis process begins by deriving the updated geometries and grids from the baseline geometries and grids using the new values for the design variables. This free-form deformation approach provides internal FEM (finite element method) grids that are consistent with aerodynamic surface grids. The next step involves using the derived FEM and section properties in a weights process to calculate detailed weights and the center of gravity location for specified flight conditions. The weights process computes the as-built weight, weight distribution, and weight sensitivities for given aircraft configurations at various mass cases. Currently, two mass cases are considered: cruise and gross take-off weight (GTOW

  11. Engineering Overview of a Multidisciplinary HSCT Design Framework Using Medium-Fidelity Analysis Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, R. P.; Green, L. L.; Salas, A. O.; Samareh, J. A.; Townsend, J. C.; Walsh, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    An objective of the HPCC Program at NASA Langley has been to promote the use of advanced computing techniques to more rapidly solve the problem of multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic transport configuration. As a result, a software system has been designed and is being implemented to integrate a set of existing discipline analysis codes, some of them CPU-intensive, into a distributed computational framework for the design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration. The proposed paper will describe the engineering aspects of integrating these analysis codes and additional interface codes into an automated design system. The objective of the design problem is to optimize the aircraft weight for given mission conditions, range, and payload requirements, subject to aerodynamic, structural, and performance constraints. The design variables include both thicknesses of structural elements and geometric parameters that define the external aircraft shape. An optimization model has been adopted that uses the multidisciplinary analysis results and the derivatives of the solution with respect to the design variables to formulate a linearized model that provides input to the CONMIN optimization code, which outputs new values for the design variables. The analysis process begins by deriving the updated geometries and grids from the baseline geometries and grids using the new values for the design variables. This free-form deformation approach provides internal FEM (finite element method) grids that are consistent with aerodynamic surface grids. The next step involves using the derived FEM and section properties in a weights process to calculate detailed weights and the center of gravity location for specified flight conditions. The weights process computes the as-built weight, weight distribution, and weight sensitivities for given aircraft configurations at various mass cases. Currently, two mass cases are considered: cruise and gross take-off weight (GTOW

  12. Multidisciplinary Modeling Software for Analysis, Design, and Optimization of HRRLS Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, Lawrence W.; Lohner, Rainald; Hunt, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The concept for Highly Reliable Reusable Launch Systems (HRRLS) under the NASA Hypersonics project is a two-stage-to-orbit, horizontal-take-off / horizontal-landing, (HTHL) architecture with an air-breathing first stage. The first stage vehicle is a slender body with an air-breathing propulsion system that is highly integrated with the airframe. The light weight slender body will deflect significantly during flight. This global deflection affects the flow over the vehicle and into the engine and thus the loads and moments on the vehicle. High-fidelity multi-disciplinary analyses that accounts for these fluid-structures-thermal interactions are required to accurately predict the vehicle loads and resultant response. These predictions of vehicle response to multi physics loads, calculated with fluid-structural-thermal interaction, are required in order to optimize the vehicle design over its full operating range. This contract with ResearchSouth addresses one of the primary objectives of the Vehicle Technology Integration (VTI) discipline: the development of high-fidelity multi-disciplinary analysis and optimization methods and tools for HRRLS vehicles. The primary goal of this effort is the development of an integrated software system that can be used for full-vehicle optimization. This goal was accomplished by: 1) integrating the master code, FEMAP, into the multidiscipline software network to direct the coupling to assure accurate fluid-structure-thermal interaction solutions; 2) loosely-coupling the Euler flow solver FEFLO to the available and proven aeroelasticity and large deformation (FEAP) code; 3) providing a coupled Euler-boundary layer capability for rapid viscous flow simulation; 4) developing and implementing improved Euler/RANS algorithms into the FEFLO CFD code to provide accurate shock capturing, skin friction, and heat-transfer predictions for HRRLS vehicles in hypersonic flow, 5) performing a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computation on an HRRLS

  13. A comparative study: do "clickers" increase student engagement in multidisciplinary clinical microbiology teaching?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Niall T; McDermott, Hélène; Boland, Fiona; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Humphreys, Hilary

    2017-04-08

    Audience response devices, or "clickers", have been used in the education of future healthcare professionals for several years with varying success. They have been reported to improve the learning experience by promoting engagement and knowledge retention. In 2014, our department evaluated the use of "clickers" in a newly introduced multidisciplinary approach to teaching large groups of third year medical students clinical cases developed around a microbiology theme. Six multidisciplinary teaching sessions covering community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, infective endocarditis, peritonitis, bloodstream infection with pyelonephritis and bacterial meningitis were included in the study. Three involved the use of the "clickers" and three did not. Consenting undergraduate students attended the designated classes and afterwards answered a short online quiz relating to the session. Students also answered a short questionnaire about the "clickers" to gauge their attitudes on the use of these devices. Of 310 students, 294 (94.8%) agreed to participate in the study. Interestingly, the grades of online quizzes after a session where a "clicker" was used were slightly lower. Looking only at the grades of students who engaged completely with the process (n = 19), there was no statistical difference to suggest that the devices had a positive or negative impact on knowledge retention. However, student attitudes to using the devices were positive overall. Fifty-five percent strongly agreed and 27% agreed that teaching sessions where the "clickers" were used were more engaging. Thirty-four percent strongly agreed and 36% agreed that the "clickers" made important concepts more memorable and 54% felt the device enhanced their understanding of the topic being covered. Overall, it appears that "clickers" help in improving student engagement in large classroom environments, enhance the learning experience, and are received positively by medical students but their impact on

  14. Efficient Multidisciplinary Analysis Approach for Conceptual Design of Aircraft with Large Shape Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chwalowski, Pawel; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Horta, Lucas G.; Piatak, David J.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.

    2009-01-01

    The conceptual and preliminary design processes for aircraft with large shape changes are generally difficult and time-consuming, and the processes are often customized for a specific shape change concept to streamline the vehicle design effort. Accordingly, several existing reports show excellent results of assessing a particular shape change concept or perturbations of a concept. The goal of the current effort was to develop a multidisciplinary analysis tool and process that would enable an aircraft designer to assess several very different morphing concepts early in the design phase and yet obtain second-order performance results so that design decisions can be made with better confidence. The approach uses an efficient parametric model formulation that allows automatic model generation for systems undergoing radical shape changes as a function of aerodynamic parameters, geometry parameters, and shape change parameters. In contrast to other more self-contained approaches, the approach utilizes off-the-shelf analysis modules to reduce development time and to make it accessible to many users. Because the analysis is loosely coupled, discipline modules like a multibody code can be easily swapped for other modules with similar capabilities. One of the advantages of this loosely coupled system is the ability to use the medium- to high-fidelity tools early in the design stages when the information can significantly influence and improve overall vehicle design. Data transfer among the analysis modules are based on an accurate and automated general purpose data transfer tool. In general, setup time for the integrated system presented in this paper is 2-4 days for simple shape change concepts and 1-2 weeks for more mechanically complicated concepts. Some of the key elements briefly described in the paper include parametric model development, aerodynamic database generation, multibody analysis, and the required software modules as well as examples for a telescoping wing

  15. Implementing Universal Design Strategies in Municipalities - A Multidisciplinary Approach to Universal Design and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Based on a national program, the regional authorities stimulated each of the 18 municipalities in Telemark 2012-15 to plan and build promenades with universal design. The cooperation between different disciplines was an important factor for good results. The project continues from 2016.

  16. Establishment of the National Centre for Multidisciplinary Studies of Back Pain. An historical overview.

    PubMed

    Giles, L G; Walker, B F

    1996-11-01

    Spinal pain of mechanical origin, with or without referred pain, is a serious health problem suffered by many Australians. In order to help patients with this ailment, and to investigate this costly and debilitating condition, the National Centre for Multidisciplinary Studies of Back Pain was established at Townsville General Hospital as a joint venture between James Cook University of North Queensland and the Northern Regional Health Authority. The Centre has a multidisciplinary clinical team including a chiropractor. The Centre functions successfully, contributes to the public health of the community and shows that a multidisciplinary clinical team which includes a chiropractor can work harmoniously in an Australian hospital setting. The need for such a centre is demonstrated by an ever increasing demand for its professional services in Townsville as indicated by a review of the number of new patients and overall patient visits. The Centre could act as a model for the inclusion of chiropractic into the Australian hospital setting.

  17. Multidisciplinary Case Study on Higher Education: An Innovative Experience in the Business Management Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Cañas, Ricardo; del Pozo-Rubio, Raúl; Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is constantly changing and looking for innovative educational solutions in order to increase the level of the student's knowledge and skills. As an important part of this set of educational policies, a new process is emerging for the ideation, planning and implementation of multidisciplinary case studies for students with the aim…

  18. Cancer patients' perspectives on multidisciplinary team working: an exploratory focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Shah, Sujay; Brown, Katrina; Allchorne, Paula; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, focus-group study explores what patients understand about the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in cancer care. Participants were positive towards MDT working, and by strengthening the role of nurses in MDT decision-making, the representation of patients' interests can be improved.

  19. A Day at the Beach: A Multidisciplinary Business Law Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymsza, Leonard; Saunders, Kurt; Baum, Paul; Tontz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This case study, written for use in a multidisciplinary course, exposes students to concepts in business law, economics, and statistics. The case is based upon a hypothetical scenario involving a young woman who, having spent a relaxing day at the beach, heads for home. On the drive home, a flip-flop she is wearing becomes lodged under the gas…

  20. A Day at the Beach: A Multidisciplinary Business Law Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymsza, Leonard; Saunders, Kurt; Baum, Paul; Tontz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This case study, written for use in a multidisciplinary course, exposes students to concepts in business law, economics, and statistics. The case is based upon a hypothetical scenario involving a young woman who, having spent a relaxing day at the beach, heads for home. On the drive home, a flip-flop she is wearing becomes lodged under the gas…

  1. Effects of multidisciplinary team working on breast cancer survival: retrospective, comparative, interventional cohort study of 13 722 women

    PubMed Central

    Allardice, Gwen M; George, W David; Burns, Harry J G; Morrison, David S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the effect of multidisciplinary care on survival in women treated for breast cancer. Design Retrospective, comparative, non-randomised, interventional cohort study. Setting NHS hospitals, health boards in the west of Scotland, UK. Participants 14 358 patients diagnosed with symptomatic invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 2000, residing in health board areas in the west of Scotland. 13 722 (95.6%) patients were eligible (excluding 16 diagnoses of inflammatory cancers and 620 diagnoses of breast cancer at death). Intervention In 1995, multidisciplinary team working was introduced in hospitals throughout one health board area (Greater Glasgow; intervention area), but not in other health board areas in the west of Scotland (non-intervention area). Main outcome measures Breast cancer specific mortality and all cause mortality. Results Before the introduction of multidisciplinary care (analysed time period January 1990 to September 1995), breast cancer mortality was 11% higher in the intervention area than in the non-intervention area (hazard ratio adjusted for year of incidence, age at diagnosis, and deprivation, 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.20). After multidisciplinary care was introduced (time period October 1995 to December 2000), breast cancer mortality was 18% lower in the intervention area than in the non-intervention area (0.82, 0.74 to 0.91). All cause mortality did not differ significantly between populations in the earlier period, but was 11% lower in the intervention area than in the non-interventional area in the later period (0.89, 0.82 to 0.97). Interrupted time series analyses showed a significant improvement in breast cancer survival in the intervention area in 1996, compared with the expected survival in the same year had the pre-intervention trend continued (P=0.004). This improvement was maintained after the intervention was introduced. Conclusion Introduction of multidisciplinary care was associated with

  2. Multidisciplinary Procedures for Designing Housing Adaptations for People with Mobility Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Sukkay, Sasicha

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 2013 statistic published by Thai with Disability foundation, five percent of Thailand's population are disabled people. Six hundred thousand of them have mobility disability, and the number is increasing every year. To support them, the Thai government has implemented a number of disability laws and policies. One of the policies is to better disabled people's quality of life by adapting their houses to facilitate their activities. However, the policy has not been fully realized yet-there is still no specific guideline for housing adaptation for people with disabilities. This study is an attempt to address the lack of standardized criteria for such adaptation by developing a number of effective ones. Our development had 3 objectives: first, to identify the body functioning of a group of people with mobility disability according to the international classification functioning concept (ICF); second, to perform post-occupancy evaluation of this group and their houses; and third, with the collected data, to have a group of multidisciplinary experts cooperatively develop criteria for housing adaptation. The major findings were that room dimensions and furniture materials really had an impact on accessibility and toilet as well as bed room were the most difficult areas to access.

  3. Improving post-stroke dysphagia outcomes through a standardized and multidisciplinary protocol: an exploratory cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Smania, Nicola; Bisoffi, Giulia; Squaquara, Teresa; Zuccher, Paola; Mazzucco, Sara

    2014-12-01

    Stroke is a major cause of dysphagia. Few studies to date have reported on standardized multidisciplinary protocolized approaches to the management of post-stroke dysphagia. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of a standardized multidisciplinary protocol on clinical outcomes in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. We performed retrospective chart reviews of patients with post-stroke dysphagia admitted to the neurological ward of Verona University Hospital from 2004 to 2008. Outcomes after usual treatment for dysphagia (T- group) were compared versus outcomes after treatment under a standardized diagnostic and rehabilitative multidisciplinary protocol (T+ group). Outcome measures were death, pneumonia on X-ray, need for respiratory support, and proportion of patients on tube feeding at discharge. Of the 378 patients admitted with stroke, 84 had dysphagia and were enrolled in the study. A significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio [OR] 0.20 [0.53-0.78]), pneumonia (OR 0.33 [0.10-1.03]), need for respiratory support (OR 0.48 [0.14-1.66]), and tube feeding at discharge (OR 0.30 [0.09-0.91]) was recorded for the T+ group (N = 39) as compared to the T- group (N = 45). The adjusted OR showed no difference between the two groups for in-hospital death and tube feeding at discharge. Use of a standardized multidisciplinary protocolized approach to the management of post-stroke dysphagia may significantly reduce rates of aspiration pneumonia, in-hospital mortality, and tube feeding in dysphagic stroke survivors. Consistent with the study's exploratory purposes, our findings suggest that the multidisciplinary protocol applied in this study offers an effective model of management of post-stroke dysphagia.

  4. Barriers and facilitators to implement shared decision making in multidisciplinary sciatica care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dutch multidisciplinary sciatica guideline recommends that the team of professionals involved in sciatica care and the patient together decide on surgical or prolonged conservative treatment (shared decision making [SDM]). Despite this recommendation, SDM is not yet integrated in sciatica care. Existing literature concerning barriers and facilitators to SDM implementation mainly focuses on one discipline only, whereas multidisciplinary care may involve other barriers and facilitators, or make these more complex for both professionals and patients. Therefore, this qualitative study aims to identify barriers and facilitators perceived by patients and professionals for SDM implementation in multidisciplinary sciatica care. Methods We conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with professionals involved in sciatica care (general practitioners, physical therapists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and orthopedic surgeons) and three focus groups among patients (six to eight per group). The interviews and focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed in full. Reported barriers and facilitators were classified according to the framework of Grol and Wensing. The software package Atlas.ti 7.0 was used for analysis. Results Professionals reported 53 barriers and 5 facilitators, and patients 35 barriers and 18 facilitators for SDM in sciatica care. Professionals perceived most barriers at the level of the organizational context, and facilitators at the level of the individual professional. Patients reported most barriers and facilitators at the level of the individual professional. Several barriers and facilitators correspond with barriers and facilitators found in the literature (e.g., lack of time, motivation) but also new barriers and facilitators were identified. Many of these new barriers mentioned by both professionals and patients were related to the multidisciplinary setting, such as lack of visibility, lack of trust in expertise of other disciplines, and lack

  5. The Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research. Final Report, Part IV; The Utilization of Sociological Ideas in Organizational Planning: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.

    This document, the fourth in the final report on the Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research, is a qualitative case study designed to show the form of sociological contributions to and the role of sociologists in policy formulation at an American Educational Research Association (AERA) colloquium. Discussions at the conference…

  6. Predictors of outcome of multidisciplinary treatment in chronic widespread pain: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of multidisciplinary treatment in chronic widespread pain (CWP) is limited. The considerable heterogeneity among patients is a likely explanation. Knowledge on predictors of the outcome of multidisciplinary treatment can help to optimize treatment effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of multidisciplinary treatment outcome in patients with CWP. Methods Data were used from baseline and 6 months follow-up measurements of a prospective cohort study of 120 CWP. Regression models were used to assess whether baseline variables predicted treatment outcome. Outcome domains included: pain, pain interference, depression, and global perceived effect (GPE). Potential predictors included: psychological distress, illness and self-efficacy beliefs, fear-avoidance beliefs and behaviour, symptoms, disability, and socio-demographic factors. Results Greater improvement in pain was predicted by more pain at baseline and male gender. Greater improvement in interference of pain in daily life was predicted by more interference of pain in daily life at baseline, lower levels of anxiety, a stronger belief in personal control, less belief in consequences, male gender, and a higher level of education. Greater improvement in depression was predicted by higher baseline values of depression, stronger beliefs in personal control, and a higher level of education. Better outcome on GPE was predicted by less pain, less fatigue, and a higher level of education. Conclusion Less anxiety, stronger beliefs in personal control, less belief in consequences, less pain, less fatigue, higher level of education, and male gender are predictors of better outcome of multidisciplinary treatment in CWP. Tailoring treatment to these specific patient characteristics or selecting eligible patients for multidisciplinary treatment may further improve treatment outcome. PMID:23577981

  7. Antithrombotic stewardship: a multidisciplinary team approach towards improving antithrombotic therapy outcomes during and after hospitalisation: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dreijer, Albert R; Kruip, Marieke J H A; Diepstraten, Jeroen; Polinder, Suzanne; Brouwer, Rolf; Leebeek, Frank W G; Vulto, Arnold G; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antithrombotic therapy carries high risks for patient safety. Antithrombotics belong to the top 5 medications involved in potentially preventable hospital admissions related to medication. To provide a standard for antithrombotic therapy and stress the importance of providing optimal care to patients on antithrombotic therapy, the Landelijke Standaard Ketenzorg Antistolling (LSKA; Dutch guideline on integrated antithrombotic care) was drafted. However, the mere publication of this guideline does not guarantee its implementation. This may require a multidisciplinary team effort. Therefore, we designed a study aiming to determine the influence of hospital-based antithrombotic stewardship on the effect and safety of antithrombotic therapy outcomes during and after hospitalisation. Methods and analysis In this study, the effect of the implementation of a multidisciplinary antithrombotic team is compared with usual care using a pre-post study design. The study is performed at the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam and the Reinier de Graaf Hospital Delft. Patients who are or will be treated with antithrombotics are included in the study. We aim to include 1900 patients, 950 in each hospital. Primary outcome is the proportion of patients with a composite end point consisting of ≥1 bleeding or ≥1 thrombotic event from the beginning of antithrombotic therapy (or hospitalisation) until 3 months after hospitalisation. Bleeding is defined according to the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) classification. A thrombotic event is defined as any objectively confirmed arterial or venous thrombosis, including acute myocardial infarction or stroke for arterial thrombosis and deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism or venous thrombosis. An economic evaluation is performed to determine whether the implementation of the multidisciplinary antithrombotic team will be cost-effective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was

  8. Collaboration in a Multidisciplinary, Distributed Research Organization: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duysburgh, Pieter; Naessens, Kris; Konings, Wim; Jacobs, An

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration has become a main characteristic of academic research today. New forms of research organizations, colaboratories, have come to the fore, with distributed research centres as their most complex example. In this study, we aim to provide some insight into the collaboration strategies of researchers in their daily researching activities…

  9. The Multi-Disciplinary Approach in History and Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Sandor

    1980-01-01

    Considers the fractionalization of the social science disciplines indicating that this clear delineation of intellectual territory is important to research, but that in information assimilation and dissemination an interdisciplinary approach is more appropriate. Recommends two approaches to interdisciplinary studies based around history and ethnic…

  10. Collaboration in a Multidisciplinary, Distributed Research Organization: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duysburgh, Pieter; Naessens, Kris; Konings, Wim; Jacobs, An

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration has become a main characteristic of academic research today. New forms of research organizations, colaboratories, have come to the fore, with distributed research centres as their most complex example. In this study, we aim to provide some insight into the collaboration strategies of researchers in their daily researching activities…

  11. A multidisciplinary study on Palaeozoic rocks of southern Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, G.; Howard, J.; Le Heron, D. P.; Morton, A.; Abutarruma, Y.; Elgadry, M.; Phillips, R. J.; Strogen, D.; Thusu, B.; Whitham, A.

    2009-04-01

    Southern Libya is dominated by the intracratonic Murzuq and Kufra basins, separated by the Tibesti Massif. The Murzuq Basin, located in southwest Libya, extends into northwestern Chad, northern Niger and eastern Algeria and has been the focus of great interest for gas and oil exploration in recent years since the discovery of the El Sharara and the NC-174 (Elephant) fields in the western Murzuq Basin. Based on these discoveries, recent focus has shifted to the Kufra Basin, in southeast Libya, which extends into northern Chad, northwestern Sudan and straddles the border with Egypt. Although, the centre of the Murzuq Basin has been relatively well investigated by drilling and seismic profiles, the basin margins, however, lack a detailed geological investigation. In comparison, the Kufra Basin is underexplored with few boreholes drilled. Our studies focus on the eastern margin of the Murzuq Basin and the northern, eastern and western flanks of the Kufra Basin. Siliciclastic sediments of Infracambrian to Carboniferous age dominate the studied areas. Our objectives were to characterise the Infracambrian-Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy, deduce the structural evolution of each study area, and to collect samples for follow-up analyses including provenance studies and biostratigraphy. In addition to outcrop-based fieldwork shallow boreholes up to 50 m depth were successfully drilled in the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation: a major hydrocarbon source rock unit in North Africa. The unweathered mudstones retrieved from one of the boreholes are rich in organic matter and have been used for biostratigraphical and geochemical investigations. The provenance study of the sandstone succession with heavy mineral analysis together with U-Pb zircon dating provides, for the first time, an understanding of the ancient source areas. Moreover, it is a useful test of the stratigraphic framework where biostratigraphic data are scarce. New data from this study are expected to lead to new

  12. Web Search Studies: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Web Search Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Michael

    Perhaps the most significant tool of our internet age is the web search engine, providing a powerful interface for accessing the vast amount of information available on the world wide web and beyond. While still in its infancy compared to the knowledge tools that precede it - such as the dictionary or encyclopedia - the impact of web search engines on society and culture has already received considerable attention from a variety of academic disciplines and perspectives. This article aims to organize a meta-discipline of “web search studies,” centered around a nucleus of major research on web search engines from five key perspectives: technical foundations and evaluations; transaction log analyses; user studies; political, ethical, and cultural critiques; and legal and policy analyses.

  13. Ecological and sociological considerations of wind energy: A multidisciplinary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicknell, Lucas John

    Wind energy is quickly becoming a critical technology for providing Americans with renewable energy, and rapid construction of wind facilities may have impacts on both wildlife and human communities. Understanding both the social and ecological issues related to wind energy development could provide a framework for effectively meeting human energy needs while conserving species biodiversity. In this research I looked at two aspects of wind energy development: public attitudes toward wind energy development and wind facility impacts on local bat populations. These papers present aspects of wind energy development that have been the subject of increasing study. This preliminary research is intended to demonstrate the responsibility we have to making well-informed decisions as we continue to expand wind energy development. Additionally, I hope to generate interest in interdisciplinary study as a means to broaden the scope of research by making use of the diverse tools available within different disciplines.

  14. Multidisciplinary benefits from biomonitoring studies of cooling reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Therefore, biomonitoring studies of once-through cooling reservoirs for nuclear reactors not only provide field and laboratory information for environmental compliance, but also offer results which benefit lake and reservoir management constructs and limnetic community ecology. Biomonitoring programs have been performed at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site to provide information fro compliance with Section 316a of the Clean Water Act. On Par Pond and Pond B comprehensive field efforts monitored nutrient chemistry, plankton populations, fisheries, benthic assemblages, and littoral zone biota from 1983 through 1985. A similar effort, begun in 1985 and continuing through 1992, is in progress on L Lake. Results have indicated that nonplanned whole-basin manipulations and the comprehensive intensity of monitoring studies offer new insights into how limnetic communities function.

  15. Multidisciplinary benefits from biomonitoring studies of cooling reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Gladden, J.B.

    1990-12-31

    Therefore, biomonitoring studies of once-through cooling reservoirs for nuclear reactors not only provide field and laboratory information for environmental compliance, but also offer results which benefit lake and reservoir management constructs and limnetic community ecology. Biomonitoring programs have been performed at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site to provide information fro compliance with Section 316a of the Clean Water Act. On Par Pond and Pond B comprehensive field efforts monitored nutrient chemistry, plankton populations, fisheries, benthic assemblages, and littoral zone biota from 1983 through 1985. A similar effort, begun in 1985 and continuing through 1992, is in progress on L Lake. Results have indicated that nonplanned whole-basin manipulations and the comprehensive intensity of monitoring studies offer new insights into how limnetic communities function.

  16. Intrapopulational relationships in ancient societies: a multidisciplinary study.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M; Hengst, S; Broghammer, M; Pusch, C M

    2001-01-01

    Kinship determination is one of the major challenges for the anthropologist studying graveyard populations. Traditional techniques based on morphological comparisons of bone remains are limited. However, recent methods which generate and characterise DNA sequences derived from bones bear the possibility for a more accurate analysis. Extraction and characterisation of authentic nucleic acids was performed on a number of individuals from the early Medieval graveyard of Neresheim, South Germany. From this cemetery a total of 38 skeletal remains of individuals buried between 450 and 700 AD were examined using PCR-based methods. Comparisons were made using four human-specific short tandem repeat loci and the X/Y-specific amelogenin sex test. Twenty-eight of the approximately 1,500-year-old individuals yielded alleles in at least one of the polymorphic nuclear loci HumCD4, HumFES, HumTH01, HumVWA, and the sex test. These along with a 96 bp DNA variant previously unknown in recent CD4 contexts, and supporting evidence from anthropology and archaeology were used for defining one parental and one filial generation in each of three multiple burials (Ne 2, Ne 9 and Ne 78) in the cemetery.

  17. A Multidisciplinary Study of the DPRK Nuclear Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carluccio, R.; Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Chiappini, S.; Bignami, C.; D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Pignatelli, A.; Stramondo, S.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.

    2014-03-01

    The Democratic People Republic of Korea announced two underground nuclear tests carried out in their territory respectively on October 9th, 2006 and May 25th, 2009. The scarce information on the precise location and the size of those explosions has stimulated various kinds of studies, mostly based on seismological observations, by several national agencies concerned with the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification. We analysed the available seismological data collected through a global high-quality network for the two tests. After picking up the arrival times at the various stations, a standard location program has been applied to the observed data. If we use all the available data for each single event, due to the different magnitude and different number of available stations, the locations appear quite different. On the contrary, if we use only the common stations, they happen to be only few km apart from each other and within their respective error ellipses. A more accurate relative location has been carried out by the application of algorithms such as double difference joint hypocenter determination (DDJHD) and waveform alignment. The epicentral distance between the two events obtained by these methods is 2 km, with the 2006 event shifted to the ESE with respect to that of 2009. We then used a dataset of VHR TerraSAR-X satellite images to detect possible surface effects of the underground tests. This is the first ever case where these highly performing SAR data have been used to such aim. We applied InSAR processing technique to fully exploit the capabilities of SAR data to measure very short displacements over large areas. Two interferograms have been computed, one co-event and one post-event, to remove possible residual topographic signals. A clear displacement pattern has been highlighted over a mountainous area within the investigated region, measuring a maximum displacement of about 45 mm overall the relief. Hypothesizing that the 2009 nuclear test had been

  18. A retrospective study of the effectiveness of physical rehabilitation on low back pain patients in a multidisciplinary setting

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Rocco C; Rajwani, Moez; Gray, Edward; Platnick, Howard; Da Re, Roberta; Dodsworth, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical rehabilitation of low back pain patients in a multidisciplinary setting. Design: A retrospective study profiled and analysed objective data from patients seen through a rehabilitation program in a private multidisciplinary facility. Patients: 147 patients with low back pain were analysed. Population: The sample consisted mainly of patients with motor vehicle accident-related or work-related injuries to the lower back. They ranged from acute to chronic in nature. Main outcome measures: The primary measures were the Oswestry Pain Disability Index (ODI) and the Pain Visual Analogue Scale. Secondary measures included SLR, sit and reach test, grip strength, leg lift strength and ranges of motion. Results: The outcome measures used in the study showed statistical significance (p < 0.05). Positive clinical trends were shown in pain VAS, ODI, leg lift and sit and reach tests. Ninety percent of patients were cleared to return to work upon discharge from the program. Conclusions: Further studies of active physical rehabilitation should employ a prospective randomized controlled trial design. The study should also follow up patients to confirm that they have continued to work following discharge from the program. As indicated by the statistical analysis provided by this study, a minimum sample size of 53 subjects per intervention group would be required.

  19. Computational study of engine external aerodynamics as a part of multidisciplinary optimization procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, Andrey; Anisimov, Kirill; Kazhan, Egor; Kursakov, Innocentiy; Lysenkov, Alexandr

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to the development of methodology to optimize external aerodynamics of the engine. Optimization procedure is based on numerical solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. As a method of optimization the surrogate based method is used. As a test problem optimal shape design of turbofan nacelle is considered. The results of the first stage, which investigates classic airplane configuration with engine located under the wing, are presented. Described optimization procedure is considered in the context of multidisciplinary optimization of the 3rd generation, developed in the project AGILE.

  20. Multidisciplinary audit of digoxin.

    PubMed

    Keys, P W; DeSantis, D; Duffy, M G

    1978-08-01

    Use review of digoxin as part of a medical care evaluation study in a hospital is described. This drug audit within the hospital's quality assurance program used a multidisciplinary approach. The study was designed to measure the incidence of digoxin toxicity, evaluate monitoring practices for digoxin use and evaluate the adequacy of digoxin dosing patterns. Forty-eight patients were involved. Results indicated that some patients were not adequately assessed in regard to renal function and digoxin serum level. Further, there was a 17% incidence of digoxin toxicity. Studies such as this give pharmacists an opportunity to use their knowledge of proper drug use through a structured hospital program.

  1. Patients’ experiences of a multidisciplinary team-led community case management programme: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gowing, Alice; Dickinson, Claire; Gorman, Tom; Robinson, Louise; Duncan, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the views and experiences of patients on the care they have received while enrolled on the Northumberland High Risk Patient Programme (NHRPP). This programme involved case finding of frail patients using a multidisciplinary team (MDT)-led community case management programme, and support of patients through care planning and regular reviews using primary, community, secondary and social care professionals. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews, which were digitally recorded, transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Setting Community patients receiving primary care in the county of Northumberland, England. Participants 23 participants took part, of which 16 were patients enrolled on the NHRPP, and 7 carers. GP practices were selected purposively by size, deprivation and location, and patients identified and invited by General Practitioners to participate. Results 4 main themes emerged from the data: awareness and understanding of the NHRPP, confidence in the primary healthcare team, limitations of home care and the active role of being a patient. Despite having a low level of awareness of the details of the NHRPP, participants did think that its broad aim made sense. Participants discussed their high level of satisfaction with their care and access to team members. However, some limitations of alternatives to hospital care were identified, including the need to consider psychological as well as medical needs, the importance of overnight care and the needs of those without informal carers. Finally, participants discussed the active nature of being a patient under the NHRPP if they were to contribute fully to planning and managing their own care. Conclusions This study has identified that a programme of MDT-led case management was generally very well received by patients and their families. However, a number of factors were identified that could improve the implementation of the programme and further research needs to be

  2. Inside multi-disciplinary design in medical informatics: experiences from the use of an argumentative design method.

    PubMed

    Sjøberg, C; Timpka, T

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study using an argumentation-based design method (Argumentative Design) in the development of clinical software systems. The method, which requires visualization of the underlying design goals, the specific needs-for-change, and the probable consequences of the alternative design measures, caused previously implicit argument structures to be exposed and discussed. This uncovering of hidden agendas also revealed previously implicit coalitions and organizational influences on the design process. Implications for software development practices in medical informatics are discussed.

  3. Multidisciplinary team decision-making in cancer and the absent patient: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D W; Heaven, B; Thomson, R G; Wilson, J A; Exley, C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To critically examine the process of multidisciplinary team (MDT) decision-making with a particular focus on patient involvement. Design Ethnographic study using direct non-participant observation of 35 MDT meetings and 37 MDT clinics, informal interviews and formal, semistructured interviews with 20 patients and 9 MDT staff members. Setting Three head and neck cancer centres in the north of England. Participants Patients with a diagnosis of new or recurrent head and neck cancer and staff members who attend the head and neck cancer MDT. Results Individual members of the MDT often have a clear view of which treatment they consider to be ‘best’ in any clinical situation. When disagreement occurs, the MDT has to manage how it presents this difference of opinion to the patient. First, this is because the MDT members recognise that the clinician selected to present the treatment choice to the patient may ‘frame’ their description of the treatment options to fit their own view of best. Second, many MDT members feel that any disagreement and difference of opinion in the MDT meeting should be concealed from the patient. This leads to much of the work of decision-making occurring in the MDT meeting, thus excluding the patient. MDT members seek to counteract this by introducing increasing amounts of information about the patient into the MDT meeting, thus creating an ‘evidential patient’. Often, only highly selected or very limited information of this type can be available or known and it can easily be selectively reported in order to steer the discussion in a particular direction. Conclusions The process of MDT decision-making presents significant barriers to effective patient involvement. If patients are to be effectively involved in cancer decision-making, the process of MDT decision-making needs substantial review. PMID:27443554

  4. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary care program on recovery and return to work of patients after gynaecological surgery; design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Return to work after gynaecological surgery takes much longer than expected, irrespective of the level of invasiveness. In order to empower patients in recovery and return to work, a multidisciplinary care program consisting of an e-health intervention and integrated care management including participatory workplace intervention was developed. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of the multidisciplinary care program on full sustainable return to work in patients after gynaecological surgery, compared to usual clinical care. Two hundred twelve women (18-65 years old) undergoing hysterectomy and/or laparoscopic adnexal surgery on benign indication in one of the 7 participating (university) hospitals in the Netherlands are expected to take part in this study at baseline. The primary outcome measure is sick leave duration until full sustainable return to work and is measured by a monthly calendar of sickness absence during 26 weeks after surgery. Secondary outcome measures are the effect of the care program on general recovery, quality of life, pain intensity and complications, and are assessed using questionnaires at baseline, 2, 6, 12 and 26 weeks after surgery. Discussion The discrepancy between expected physical recovery and actual return to work after gynaecological surgery contributes to the relevance of this study. There is strong evidence that long periods of sick leave can result in work disability, poorer general health and increased risk of mental health problems. We expect that this multidisciplinary care program will improve peri-operative care, contribute to a faster return to work of patients after gynaecological surgery and, as a consequence, will reduce societal costs considerably. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2087 PMID:22296950

  5. MOSAiC - Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M.; Persson, O. P.; Tjernstrom, M. K.; Dethloff, K.

    2012-12-01

    The climate in the Arctic is changing faster than in other regions of the Earth, with near surface temperatures rising more than twice as fast as the global average and the perennial sea-ice cover shrinking fast, especially in summer. The Arctic is transitioning towards a new climate regime dominated by first year sea-ice. At the same time, the scientific understanding of processes and feedbacks causing this rapid change is poor and climate modeling in the Arctic remains problematic. Furthermore, the key physical processes and process-interactions in this new emerging Arctic system are likely different from those in the old system that was dominated by multi-year ice. Our understanding of this complex climate system, and ability to improve climate and weather models, is limited by the lack of observations in the extreme and remote central Arctic. Multi-year, detailed and comprehensive measurements, extending from the atmosphere through the sea-ice and into the ocean in the central Arctic Basin are needed to provide process-level understanding of the central Arctic climate system. To address this need, a manned, international drifting station will be installed in the young sea-ice of the western Arctic and follow the evolution of the ice pack as it proceeds through the transpolar drift towards the Fram Strait over the course of 1-2 years. The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC), proposed to start in autumn 2017, will be guided by the broad theme: What are the causes and consequences of diminished Arctic sea-ice coverage? To address this theme requires a number of interdisciplinary investigations that target more specific science questions. *How do ongoing changes in the Arctic ice-ocean-atmosphere system drive heat and mass transfers of importance to climate and ecosystems? *What are the processes and feedbacks affecting sea ice cover, atmosphere-ocean stratification and energy budget in the Arctic? *Will an ice reduced

  6. Unstructured Finite Volume Computational Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Method for Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Schallhorn, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a finite volume computational thermo-fluid dynamics method to solve for Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with energy equation and thermodynamic equation of state in an unstructured coordinate system. The system of equations have been solved by a simultaneous Newton-Raphson method and compared with several benchmark solutions. Excellent agreements have been obtained in each case and the method has been found to be significantly faster than conventional Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods and therefore has the potential for implementation in Multi-Disciplinary analysis and design optimization in fluid and thermal systems. The paper also describes an algorithm of design optimization based on Newton-Raphson method which has been recently tested in a turbomachinery application.

  7. A Simple Tool for the Design and Analysis of Multiple-reflector Antennas in a Multi-disciplinary Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel, S.; Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    The process of designing and analyzing a multiple-reflector system has traditionally been time-intensive, requiring large amounts of both computational and human time. At many frequencies, a discrete approximation of the radiation integral may be used to model the system. The code which implements this physical optics (PO) algorithm was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It analyzes systems of antennas in pairs, and for each pair, the analysis can be computationally time-consuming. Additionally, the antennas must be described using a local coordinate system for each antenna, which makes it difficult to integrate the design into a multi-disciplinary framework in which there is traditionally one global coordinate system, even before considering deforming the antenna as prescribed by external structural and/or thermal factors. Finally, setting up the code to correctly analyze all the antenna pairs in the system can take a fair amount of time, and introduces possible human error.

  8. Observations on computational methodologies for use in large-scale, gradient-based, multidisciplinary design incorporating advanced CFD codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Jones, H. E.; Taylor, A. C., III; Korivi, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    How a combination of various computational methodologies could reduce the enormous computational costs envisioned in using advanced CFD codes in gradient based optimized multidisciplinary design (MdD) procedures is briefly outlined. Implications of these MdD requirements upon advanced CFD codes are somewhat different than those imposed by a single discipline design. A means for satisfying these MdD requirements for gradient information is presented which appear to permit: (1) some leeway in the CFD solution algorithms which can be used; (2) an extension to 3-D problems; and (3) straightforward use of other computational methodologies. Many of these observations have previously been discussed as possibilities for doing parts of the problem more efficiently; the contribution here is observing how they fit together in a mutually beneficial way.

  9. Case Study: Managing Undergraduate Interns in the Context of Multidisciplinary Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebke, J. P.; Gentry, D.

    2016-12-01

    Internship opportunities can be immensely beneficial to both the students who pursue them and the labs that employ them. However, optimal results for all stakeholders can be uncertain. Several factors compound this issue. In this case study, the highly multidisciplinary nature of the BioEngineering Instrumentation Group at NASA Ames Research Center has made productively integrating short-term summer interns challenging. In general, taking on more undergraduate interns during a given time period can lead to diminishing returns, particularly if those interns are primarily short-time interns with few long-term senior students present. Introducing a level of industry-style project management processes can help. On the one hand, extreme formality can reduce the enthusiasm that students can bring; also, time constraints on internships make extensive training in formal process an investment with comparatively little return. On the other hand, lack of process can result in many forms of wastage. A moderate, "lightweight" level of process - i.e., simple processes with high payoff to time invested ratios, including processes to effectively handle multidisciplinary issues - can yield both a far more efficient lab, and a richer educational experience for the interns. In this case study, we implemented simple processes such as brief weekly stand-up meetings, a standard action item / bug tracking process, and deadline-based scheduling with prudent reserves and critical path tracking. To evaluate these steps, several parameters were considered: the number of projects the lab could successfully pursue, the number of interns that could be successfully integrated onto each project, diversity of student intern educational backgrounds, student satisfaction, student understanding of expectations, and student preparation for industry-standard work. Generally, outcomes were enhanced across the board, even with imperfectly implemented processes. "Lightweight" process implementation is

  10. A Simple Tool for the Design and Analysis of Multiple-Reflector Antennas in a Multi-Disciplinary Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.; Borgioli, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    The process of designing and analyzing a multiple-reflector system has traditionally been time-intensive, requiring large amounts of both computational and human time. At many frequencies, a discrete approximation of the radiation integral may be used to model the system. The code which implements this physical optics (PO) algorithm was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It analyzes systems of antennas in pairs, and for each pair, the analysis can be computationally time-consuming. Additionally, the antennas must be described using a local coordinate system for each antenna, which makes it difficult to integrate the design into a multi-disciplinary framework in which there is traditionally one global coordinate system, even before considering deforming the antenna as prescribed by external structural and/or thermal factors. Finally, setting up the code to correctly analyze all the antenna pairs in the system can take a fair amount of time, and introduces possible human error. The use of parallel computing to reduce the computational time required for the analysis of a given pair of antennas has been previously discussed. This paper focuses on the other problems mentioned above. It will present a methodology and examples of use of an automated tool that performs the analysis of a complete multiple-reflector system in an integrated multi-disciplinary environment (including CAD modeling, and structural and thermal analysis) at the click of a button. This tool, named MOD Tool (Millimeter-wave Optics Design Tool), has been designed and implemented as a distributed tool, with a client that runs almost identically on Unix, Mac, and Windows platforms, and a server that runs primarily on a Unix workstation and can interact with parallel supercomputers with simple instruction from the user interacting with the client.

  11. A Framework for Multi-Scale, Multi-Disciplinary Arctic Terrestrial Field Research Design, Nomenclature and Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charsley-Groffman, L.; Killeffer, T.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Wilson, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE Arctic, project aims to improve the representation of arctic terrestrial processes and properties in Earth System Models, ESMs, through coordinated multi-disciplinary field-based observations and experiments. NGEE involves nearly one hundred research staff, post docs and students from multiple DOE laboratories and universities who deploy a wide range of in-situ and remote field observation techniques to quantify and understand interactions between the climate system and surface and subsurface coupled thermal-hydrologic, biogeochemical and vegetation processes. Careful attention was given to the design and management of co-located long-term and one off data collection efforts, as well as their data streams. Field research sites at the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow AK and on the Seward Peninsula were designed around the concept of "ecotypes" which co-evolved with readily identified and classified hydro-geomorphic features characteristic of arctic landscapes. NGEE sub-teams focused on 5 unique science questions collaborated to design field sites and develop naming conventions for locations and data types to develop coherent data sets to parameterize, initialize and test a range of site-specific process resolving models to ESMs. Multi-layer mapping products were a critical means of developing a coordinated and coherent observation design, and a centralized data portal and data reporting framework was critical to ensuring meaningful data products for NGEE modelers and Arctic scientific community at large. We present examples of what works and lessons learned for a large multi-disciplinary terrestrial observational research project in the Arctic.

  12. Multidisciplinary design and analytic approaches to advance prospective research on the multilevel determinants of child health.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sara B; Little, Todd D; Masyn, Katherine; Mehta, Paras D; Ghazarian, Sharon R

    2017-06-01

    Characterizing the determinants of child health and development over time, and identifying the mechanisms by which these determinants operate, is a research priority. The growth of precision medicine has increased awareness and refinement of conceptual frameworks, data management systems, and analytic methods for multilevel data. This article reviews key methodological challenges in cohort studies designed to investigate multilevel influences on child health and strategies to address them. We review and summarize methodological challenges that could undermine prospective studies of the multilevel determinants of child health and ways to address them, borrowing approaches from the social and behavioral sciences. Nested data, variation in intervals of data collection and assessment, missing data, construct measurement across development and reporters, and unobserved population heterogeneity pose challenges in prospective multilevel cohort studies with children. We discuss innovations in missing data, innovations in person-oriented analyses, and innovations in multilevel modeling to address these challenges. Study design and analytic approaches that facilitate the integration across multiple levels, and that account for changes in people and the multiple, dynamic, nested systems in which they participate over time, are crucial to fully realize the promise of precision medicine for children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multidisciplinary Study of the Precambrian Biosphere and Surficial Oxygenation, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: The Agouron Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Beukes, N. J.; Evans, D. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Knoll, A. H.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2004-12-01

    The Campbellrand-Kuruman carbonate-iron formation stratigraphic succession, which drapes the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, provides a unique opportunity to study the latest Archean/Earliest Proterozoic time interval in a multidisciplinary fashion, for four principal reasons: 1) The >1 km-thick succession of carbonates, cherts, shales, and associated iron formations is a storehouse of various geochemical and paleoclimatic proxy records, 2) the carbonate platform has never been significantly buried and contains abundant limestone, thus offering strong potential for preservation of organic biomarkers, 3) the occurrence of early chert and abundant early sea-floor carbonate crusts provide good potential for the preservation of microfossils and magnetofossils, and 4) much of the stratigraphic succession has not been significantly deformed and we have estabilshed a chronostratigraphic framework in which shallow water facies can be traced down the ancient paleoslope into facies deposited at water depths > 250 meters within a sequence stratigraphic context, supplemented with correlation of three impact spherule layers. The geologic framework provided by this sequence of rock offers an unparalleled opportunity to study the structure and composition of the Archean ocean and to merge this information with co-existing paleontological and geochemical records. With support from the Agouron Institute, two separate cores, each ~ 1.5 km in length, were drilled through the margin of the carbonate platform, spaced so as to intercept the transitional facies at two paleodepths. The holes were deviated slightly from vertical so that a ball-mark system could be used to obtain absolute orientation. To enhance the utility for paleomagnetic investigations, core barrels and bits were demagnetized routinely with a portable mu-metal shielded coil assembly to reduce remagnetization problems, and all core slicing was done with non-magnetic blades. To minimize contamination problems for

  14. Assessing Students' Understanding of Human Behavior: A Multidisciplinary Outcomes Based Approach for the Design and Assessment of an Academic Program Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Bruce; Meese, Michael J.; Efflandt, Scott; Malinowski, Jon C.; LeBoeuf, Joseph; Gallagher, Martha; Hurley, John; Green, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Presents a strategy for the curricular design and assessment of one multidisciplinary program goal: understanding human behavior. Discusses how to assess a desired outcome based on four specific areas: (1) organizational context; (2) articulation of a learning model; (3) program design and implementation; and (4) outcomes assessment. (Author/KDR)

  15. Assessing Students' Understanding of Human Behavior: A Multidisciplinary Outcomes Based Approach for the Design and Assessment of an Academic Program Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Bruce; Meese, Michael J.; Efflandt, Scott; Malinowski, Jon C.; LeBoeuf, Joseph; Gallagher, Martha; Hurley, John; Green, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Presents a strategy for the curricular design and assessment of one multidisciplinary program goal: understanding human behavior. Discusses how to assess a desired outcome based on four specific areas: (1) organizational context; (2) articulation of a learning model; (3) program design and implementation; and (4) outcomes assessment. (Author/KDR)

  16. Multidisciplinary optimization for the design and control of uncertain dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Srikanth

    This dissertation considers an integrated approach to system design and controller design based on analyzing limits of system performance. Historically, plant design methodologies have not incorporated control relevant considerations. Such an approach could result in a system that might not meet its specifications (or one that requires a complex control architecture to do so). System and controller designers often go through several iterations in order to converge to an acceptable plant and controller design. The focus of this dissertation is on the design and control an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle using such an integrated system-control design framework. The goal is to reduce the number of system-control design iterations (by explicitly incorporate control considerations in the system design process), as well as to influence the guidance/trajectory specifications for the system. Due to the high computational costs associated with obtaining a dynamic model for each plant configuration considered, approximations to the system dynamics are used in the control design process. By formulating the control design problem using bilinear and polynomial matrix inequalities, several common control and system design constraints can be simultaneously incorporated into a vehicle design optimization. Several design problems are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach (and to compare the computational burden of this methodology against more traditional approaches).

  17. Multidisciplinary research in public health: a case study of research on access to green space.

    PubMed

    Kessel, A; Green, J; Pinder, R; Wilkinson, P; Grundy, C; Lachowycz, K

    2009-01-01

    perceptions and understandings of what is being accessed and how it should be used. This study has also illustrated the ways in which multiple methods can be integrated in public health research, and the merits of different approaches to undertaking multidisciplinary work of this type.

  18. The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommerfeld, Anja; Rex, Markus; Shupe, Matthew; Dethloff, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) is an international initiative under the umbrella of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) designed by an international consortium of leading polar research institutes. Rapid changes in the Arctic lead to an urgent need for reliable information about the state and evolution of the Arctic climate system. This requires more observations and improved modelling over various spatial and temporal scales, and across a wide variety of disciplines. MOSAiC will be the first year-around expedition into the central Arctic exploring the coupled climate system. The research vessel Polarstern will drift with the sea ice across the central Arctic during the years 2019 to 2020. The drift starts in the Siberian sector of the Arctic in thin sea ice conditions in late summer. A distributed regional network of observational sites will be established on the sea ice in an area of up to 50 km distance from Polarstern, representing a grid cell of climate models. The ship and the surrounding network will drift with the natural sea ice drift across the polar cap towards the Atlantic, while the sea ice thickens during the winter. The focus of MOSAiC lies on in-situ observations of the climate processes that couple atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, bio-geochemistry and ecosystem. These measurements will be supported by weather and sea ice predictions and remote sensing operations to make the expedition successful. The expedition includes aircraft operations and cruises by icebreakers from MOSAiC partners. All these observations will be used for the main scientific goals of MOSAiC, enhancing the understanding of the regional consequences of Arctic climate change and sea ice loss and improve weather forecast and climate models. More precisely, the results are needed to advance the data assimilation for numerical weather prediction models, sea ice forecasts and climate models and ground truth for satellite

  19. Engagement and learning: an exploratory study of situated practice in multi-disciplinary stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Horton, Simon; Howell, Alison; Humby, Kate; Ross, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Active participation is considered to be a key factor in stroke rehabilitation. Patient engagement in learning is an important part of this process. This study sets out to explore how active participation and engagement are 'produced' in the course of day-to-day multi-disciplinary stroke rehabilitation. Ethnographic observation, analytic concepts drawn from discourse analysis (DA) and the perspective and methods of conversation analysis (CA) were applied to videotaped data from three sessions of rehabilitation therapy each for two patients with communication impairments (dysarthria, aphasia). Engagement was facilitated (and hindered) through the interactional work of patients and healthcare professionals. An institutional ethos of 'right practice' was evidenced in the working practices of therapists and aligned with or resisted by patients; therapeutic activity type (impairment, activity or functional focus) impacted on the ways in which patient engagement was developed and sustained. This exploration of multi-disciplinary rehabilitation practice adds a new dimension to our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to patient engagement in the learning process and provides scope for further research. Harmonising the rehabilitation process across disciplines through more focused attention to ways in which patient participation is enhanced may help improve the consistency and quality of patient engagement.

  20. Methodology for Sensitivity Analysis, Approximate Analysis, and Design Optimization in CFD for Multidisciplinary Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1996-01-01

    An incremental iterative formulation together with the well-known spatially split approximate-factorization algorithm, is presented for solving the large, sparse systems of linear equations that are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. This formulation is also known as the 'delta' or 'correction' form. For the smaller two dimensional problems, a direct method can be applied to solve these linear equations in either the standard or the incremental form, in which case the two are equivalent. However, iterative methods are needed for larger two-dimensional and three dimensional applications because direct methods require more computer memory than is currently available. Iterative methods for solving these equations in the standard form are generally unsatisfactory due to an ill-conditioned coefficient matrix; this problem is overcome when these equations are cast in the incremental form. The methodology is successfully implemented and tested using an upwind cell-centered finite-volume formulation applied in two dimensions to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations for external flow over an airfoil. In three dimensions this methodology is demonstrated with a marching-solution algorithm for the Euler equations to calculate supersonic flow over the High-Speed Civil Transport configuration (HSCT 24E). The sensitivity derivatives obtained with the incremental iterative method from a marching Euler code are used in a design-improvement study of the HSCT configuration that involves thickness. camber, and planform design variables.

  1. Multidisciplinary and Multiobjective Optimization in Conceptual Design for Mixed-Stream Turbofan Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    AFIT/GAE/ENY/96D-6 Abstract Despite major advances in design tools such as engine cycle analysis software and computer-aided design, conceptual gas...Ratio of specific heat for turbine flow etaAB = =iAB Efficiency of afterburner etab = 1lb = Efficiency of burner etacprime = l, = Efficiency of fan...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Despite major advances in design tools such as engine cycle analysis software and computer-aided design, conceptual gas

  2. Managing Increasing Complexity in Undergraduate Digital Media Design Education: The Impact and Benefits of Multidisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Katja; Daniel, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing complexity is one of the most pertinent issues when discussing the role and future of design, designers and their education. The evolving nature of digital media technology has resulted in a profession in a state of flux with increasingly complex communication and design problems. The ability to collaborate and interact with other…

  3. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem; Mehr, Ali Farhang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a two-level multidisciplinary design approach is described to optimize the effectiveness of ISHM s. At the top level, the overall safety of the mission consists of system-level variables, parameters, objectives, and constraints that are shared throughout the system and by all subsystems. Each subsystem level will then comprise of these shared values in addition to subsystem-specific variables, parameters, objectives and constraints. A hierarchical structure will be established to pass up or down shared values between the two levels with system-level and subsystem-level optimization routines.

  4. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Aeropropulsion Engines and Solid Modeling/Animation via the Integrated Forced Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The grant closure report is organized in the following four chapters: Chapter describes the two research areas Design optimization and Solid mechanics. Ten journal publications are listed in the second chapter. Five highlights is the subject matter of chapter three. CHAPTER 1. The Design Optimization Test Bed CometBoards. CHAPTER 2. Solid Mechanics: Integrated Force Method of Analysis. CHAPTER 3. Five Highlights: Neural Network and Regression Methods Demonstrated in the Design Optimization of a Subsonic Aircraft. Neural Network and Regression Soft Model Extended for PX-300 Aircraft Engine. Engine with Regression and Neural Network Approximators Designed. Cascade Optimization Strategy with Neural network and Regression Approximations Demonstrated on a Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design. Neural Network and Regression Approximations Used in Aircraft Design.

  5. Application of multidisciplinary optimization methods to the design of a supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, J.-F. M.; Coen, P. G.; Wrenn, Gregory A.; Riley, M. F.; Dovi, Augustine R.; Hall, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    An optimization design method is discussed. This method is based on integrating existing disciplinary analysis and sensitivity analysis techniques by means of generalized sensitivity equations. A generic design system implementing this method is described. The system is being used to design the configuration and internal structure of a supersonic transport wing for optimum performance. This problem combines the disciplines of linear aerodynamics, structures, and performance. Initial results which include the disciplines of aerodynamics and structures in a conventional minimum weight design under static aeroelastic constraints are presented.

  6. Application of multidisciplinary optimization methods to the design of a supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, J.-F. M.; Coen, P. G.; Wrenn, G. A.; Riley, M. F.; Dovi, A. R.; Hall, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    A new optimization based design method is discussed. This method is based on integrating existing disciplinary analysis and sensitivity analysis techniques by means of generalized sensitivity equations. A generic design system implementing this method is described. The system is being used to design the configuration and internal structure of a supersonic transport wing for optimum performance. This problem combines the disciplines of linear aerodynamics, structures, and performance. Initial results which include the disciplines of aerodynamics and structures in a conventional minimum weight design under static aeroelastic constraints are presented.

  7. Multi-fidelity and multi-disciplinary design optimization of supersonic business jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seongim

    Supersonic jets have been drawing great attention after the end of service for the Concorde was announced on April of 2003. It is believed, however, that civilian supersonic aircraft may make a viable return in the business jet market. This thesis focuses on the design optimization of feasible supersonic business jet configurations. Preliminary design techniques for mitigation of ground sonic boom are investigated while ensuring that all relevant disciplinary constraints are satisfied (including aerodynamic performance, propulsion, stability & control and structures.) In order to achieve reasonable confidence in the resulting designs, high-fidelity simulations are required, making the entire design process both expensive and complex. In order to minimize the computational cost, surrogate/approximate models are constructed using a hierarchy of different fidelity analysis tools including PASS, A502/Panair and Euler/NS codes. Direct search methods such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and a nonlinear SIMPLEX are employed to designs in searches of large and noisy design spaces. A local gradient-based search method can be combined with these global search methods for small modifications of candidate optimum designs. The Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) method can also be used to explore the design space using a solution-adaptive grid refinement approach. These hybrid approaches, both in search methodology and surrogate model construction, are shown to result in designs with reductions in sonic boom and improved aerodynamic performance.

  8. A multidisciplinary study on gas emission and volcanic tremor characteristics of Mt. Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behncke, B.; Falsaperla, S. M.; Giammanco, S.; Langer, H. K.; Neri, M.; Salerno, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    The 2008-2009 eruption of Mt. Etna was heralded by episodes of paroxysmal summit activity, with strong Strombolian activity and spectacular lava fountains and flows, starting from spring 2007. In this study, we present analyses of a three-month period (from February to April, 2007) which led to the first paroxysm. In doing so, we merge volcanic tremor data and gas measurements of SO2 and Radon. This multidisciplinary study allows characterizing a stage during which the volcano feeder was affected by fluid recharge, producing repeated episodes of temporary increases in volcanic tremor amplitude, without any visible phenomenon at the surface. We investigate on these spurious changes in tremor characteristics and their relationship to gas emission. Ruling out other exogenous sources, we hypothesize that certain changes represented aborted eruptions, where the magma failed to reach the surface.

  9. A Case Study of a Co-Instructed Multidisciplinary Senior Capstone Project in Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jinny; Oyamot, Clifton; Parent, David; Speer, Leslie; Basu, Anuradha; Gerston, Larry

    2014-01-01

    As societal challenges involving sustainable development increase, the need to effectively integrate this inherently multidisciplinary topic into existing curricula becomes more pressing. Multidisciplinary, team-taught, project-based instruction has shown effectiveness in teaching teamwork, communication, and life-long learning skills, and…

  10. Requirements for multidisciplinary design of aerospace vehicles on high performance computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Robert G.

    1989-01-01

    The design of aerospace vehicles is becoming increasingly complex as the various contributing disciplines and physical components become more tightly coupled. This coupling leads to computational problems that will be tractable only if significant advances in high performance computing systems are made. Some of the modeling, algorithmic and software requirements generated by the design problem are discussed.

  11. Program design by a multidisciplinary team. [for structural finite element analysis on STAR-100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of software engineering aids in the design of a structural finite-element analysis computer program for the STAR-100 computer is described. Nested functional diagrams to aid in communication among design team members were used, and a standardized specification format to describe modules designed by various members was adopted. This is a report of current work in which use of the functional diagrams provided continuity and helped resolve some of the problems arising in this long-running part-time project.

  12. Program design by a multidisciplinary team. [for structural finite element analysis on STAR-100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S.

    1975-01-01

    The use of software engineering aids in the design of a structural finite-element analysis computer program for the STAR-100 computer is described. Nested functional diagrams to aid in communication among design team members were used, and a standardized specification format to describe modules designed by various members was adopted. This is a report of current work in which use of the functional diagrams provided continuity and helped resolve some of the problems arising in this long-running part-time project.

  13. Multidisciplinary optimization of a controlled space structure using 150 design variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Benjamin B.

    1992-01-01

    A general optimization-based method for the design of large space platforms through integration of the disciplines of structural dynamics and control is presented. The method uses the global sensitivity equations approach and is especially appropriate for preliminary design problems in which the structural and control analyses are tightly coupled. The method is capable of coordinating general purpose structural analysis, multivariable control, and optimization codes, and thus, can be adapted to a variety of controls-structures integrated design projects. The method is used to minimize the total weight of a space platform while maintaining a specified vibration decay rate after slewing maneuvers.

  14. A General Multidisciplinary Turbomachinery Design Optimization system Applied to a Transonic Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemnem, Ahmed Mohamed Farid

    The blade geometry design process is integral to the development and advancement of compressors and turbines in gas generators or aeroengines. A new airfoil section design capability has been added to an open source parametric 3D blade design tool. Curvature of the meanline is controlled using B-splines to create the airfoils. The curvature is analytically integrated to derive the angles and the meanline is obtained by integrating the angles. A smooth thickness distribution is then added to the airfoil to guarantee a smooth shape while maintaining a prescribed thickness distribution. A leading edge B-spline definition has also been implemented to achieve customized airfoil leading edges which guarantees smoothness with parametric eccentricity and droop. An automated turbomachinery design and optimization system has been created. An existing splittered transonic fan is used as a test and reference case. This design was more general than a conventional design to have access to the other design methodology. The whole mechanical and aerodynamic design loops are automated for the optimization process. The flow path and the geometrical properties of the rotor are initially created using the axi-symmetric design and analysis code (T-AXI). The main and splitter blades are parametrically designed with the created geometry builder (3DBGB) using the new added features (curvature technique). The solid model creation of the rotor sector with a periodic boundaries combining the main blade and splitter is done using MATLAB code directly connected to SolidWorks including the hub, fillets and tip clearance. A mechanical optimization is performed with DAKOTA (developed by DOE) to reduce the mass of the blades while keeping maximum stress as a constraint with a safety factor. A Genetic algorithm followed by Numerical Gradient optimization strategies are used in the mechanical optimization. The splittered transonic fan blades mass is reduced by 2.6% while constraining the maximum

  15. Work stress and well-being in oncology settings: a multidisciplinary study of health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Jones, Martyn C; Wells, Mary; Gao, Chuan; Cassidy, Bernadette; Davie, Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Staff working in oncology report high levels of work-related stress. This arises partly from the nature of clinical work, including practitioner perceptions of high demand and low control or high effort and low reward. This comparative study investigated the correlates of work stress in a multidisciplinary group of staff and the associations between staff perceptions of the work environment, emotional distress, job satisfaction and work-based social support. This questionnaire study combined quantitative and qualitative assessment in a cohort sample of multidisciplinary staff (N = 85) working in a cancer centre in North East Scotland. Ethical approval was granted by the local Research Ethics Committee. This paper reports on the quantitative element of the study, Response rate was 50.6% (N = 85). Older, female and nursing and support staff were more likely to participate. Support staff reported the lowest perceptions of control, job satisfaction and managerial support. Radiographers reported the highest levels of job satisfaction, co-worker and managerial support. Nurses perceived lower decision control and job satisfaction than allied health professionals or doctors. In general, perceptions of decisional control and reward were protective of job satisfaction, particularly when work demands were high. Co-worker support was associated with perceptions of reduced effort, greater reward and increased satisfaction. Managerial support was also associated with greater control beliefs. Overall, sickness absence exceeded the 5% rates seen in other National Health Service surveys, whereas turnover intention rates were similar. The development and introduction of multilevel strategies to reduce demand, improve control and support perceptions are warranted, particularly for support staff. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Manufacturing and Cost Considerations in Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design (Research on Mathematical Modeling of Manufacturability Factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1996-01-01

    The identification of airframe Manufacturability Factors/Cost Drivers (MFCD) and the method by which the relationships between MFCD and designer-controlled parameters could be properly modeled are described.

  17. Integration of Multifidelity Multidisciplinary Computer Codes for Design and Analysis of Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.; Ozoroski, Lori P.; Fenbert, James W.; Shields, Elwood W.; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents the development of a conceptual level integrated process for design and analysis of efficient and environmentally acceptable supersonic aircraft. To overcome the technical challenges to achieve this goal, a conceptual design capability which provides users with the ability to examine the integrated solution between all disciplines and facilitates the application of multidiscipline design, analysis, and optimization on a scale greater than previously achieved, is needed. The described capability is both an interactive design environment as well as a high powered optimization system with a unique blend of low, mixed and high-fidelity engineering tools combined together in the software integration framework, ModelCenter. The various modules are described and capabilities of the system are demonstrated. The current limitations and proposed future enhancements are also discussed.

  18. Sensitivity analysis and multidisciplinary optimization for aircraft design - Recent advances and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    Optimization by decomposition, complex system sensitivity analysis, and a rapid growth of disciplinary sensitivity analysis are some of the recent developments that hold promise of a quantum jump in the support engineers receive from computers in the quantitative aspects of design. Review of the salient points of these techniques is given and illustrated by examples from aircraft design as a process that combines the best of human intellect and computer power to manipulate data.

  19. Sensitivity analysis and multidisciplinary optimization for aircraft design: Recent advances and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    Optimization by decomposition, complex system sensitivity analysis, and a rapid growth of disciplinary sensitivity analysis are some of the recent developments that hold promise of a quantum jump in the support engineers receive from computers in the quantitative aspects of design. Review of the salient points of these techniques is given and illustrated by examples from aircraft design as a process that combines the best of human intellect and computer power to manipulate data.

  20. Historical desertification of the Mu Us Desert, Northern China: A multidisciplinary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yinzhou; Wang, Nai-ang; He, Tonghui; Chen, Hongyi; Zhao, Liqiang

    2009-09-01

    The problem of historical desertification of the Mu Us desert, northern China has been paid considerable attention during the past several decades. Through the analysis of stratigraphic evidence, historical records and archaeological discoveries, this paper studied the problem using a multidisciplinary approach. The results show that two phases of serious desertification occurred during the last two millennia, one is during the mid-to-late Tang dynasty (about A.D. 800) and the other during the late Ming dynasty (about A.D. 1500-1600). Further investigation of the cause of each phase of desertification demonstrates that the former phase of desertification is closely related to abrupt climate change occurring in the mid-eighth century, but the latter, which started during the Ming dynasty and stopped at late 1980s, is not consistent with climatic causation. Therefore, we suggest that human activities contributed to the development of the latter phase of desertification.

  1. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of mutilating electrical injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lipový, B; Rihová, H; Kaloudová, Y; Suchánek, I; Gregorová, N; Hokynková, A; Jelínková, Z; Agalarev, V

    2010-01-01

    Electrical burns are not ranked among the most frequent type of injuries, but they have the most devastating potential of all thermal injuries and often cause lifelong stigmatization. Those primarily affected are young males: work injuries predominate. An electrical burn is a specific nosological unit that has multiple acute and chronic abnormal manifestations. In this study we describe the case of a young man who suffered an electrical injury after contact with a high-voltage line (22,000 volts) while paragliding. This contact was followed by a 10 m fall. In our work we present the need for multidisciplinary cooperation along with the opportunities, problems and risks that accompany the treatment of this type of injury.

  2. [Permanent health education based on research with professionals of a multidisciplinary residency program: case study].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cristiane Trivisiol; Terra, Marlene Gomes; Camponogara, Silviamar; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce; Rosoe, Camila Castro; Xavier, Mariane da Silva

    2014-09-01

    This research aims to identify the perception of professional members ofa multi-professional residency program on Permanent Health Education. It is a case study research using a qualitative approach, with sixteen members of a multi-professional residency program. The data were collected from January to May 2012, through semi-structured interviews, document analysis and systematic observation, and analyzed according to Thematic Content Analysis. Two categories were identified: Permanent Health Education establishing collective spaces of reflection of practices and Permanent Health Education that promotes integration between disciplines. The members of the multiprofessional residencyteam were found to be aware that permanent education permeates theirtraining and enables reflection on their clinical practices and multidisciplinary action as producers of health actions.

  3. Routine multidisciplinary cerebrovascular meetings do not reduce aneurysm clipping case load: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brendan W; Stuart, Michael J; Jayapratap, Pravitha; Hall, Bruce I

    2016-07-01

    Structured multidisciplinary care is an increasingly popular tool in the management of many complex disease processes; however, there is little published data regarding the effects of such a process on management of intracranial aneurysms and neurosurgical case loads. There is some resistance in the neurosurgical community to routine involvement of interventional neuroradiologists in the care of patients with intracranial aneurysms due to concerns regarding maintenance of neurosurgical case loads and training capabilities. At our tertiary Australian hospital, we have implemented a weekly multidisciplinary cerebrovascular meeting (MDCVM) facilitating routine discussion of these cases between neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiologists. This study identified management modalities for ruptured and unruptured cerebral aneurysms diagnosed at our centre for a 2-year period before and after the implementation of MDCVM culminating in a 4-year retrospective cohort study. The pre- and post-MDCVM cohorts were well matched for demographics with 162 and 224 patients, respectively. There is no significant difference in percentage or absolute numbers of endovascular or surgical cases in the pre-MDCVM (103; 73.0% versus 38; 27.0%, respectively) or post-MDCVM cohorts (105; 79.5% versus 27; 20.5%, respectively), reflecting a maintained surgical case load after the implementation of MDCVM (P = 0.21). There were no significant differences in any confounding variables including age, sex, aneurysm size/location, Fisher or World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade. Implementation of MDCVM did not impact on active management case loads with consistent numbers and percentages for both endovascular and microsurgical management. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. The Role of Guidance, Navigation, and Control in Hypersonic Vehicle Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzts, Peter J.; Soloway, Donald I.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Wolpert, David H.; Benavides, Jose Victor

    2009-01-01

    Airbreathing hypersonic systems offer distinct performance advantages over rocket-based systems for space access vehicles. However, these performance advantages are dependent upon advances in current state-of-the-art technologies in many areas such as ram/scramjet propulsion integration, high temperature materials, aero-elastic structures, thermal protection systems, transition to hypersonics and hypersonic control elements within the framework of complex physics and new design methods. The complex interactions between elements of an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle represent a new paradigm in vehicle design to achieve the optimal performance necessary to meet space access mission objectives. In the past, guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) analysis often follows completion of the vehicle conceptual design process. Individual component groups design subsystems which are then integrated into a vehicle configuration. GNC is presented the task of developing control approaches to meet vehicle performance objectives given that configuration. This approach may be sufficient for vehicles where significant performance margins exist. However, for higher performance vehicles engaging the GNC discipline too late in the design cycle has been costly. For example, the X-29 experimental flight vehicle was built as a technology demonstrator. One of the many technologies to be demonstrated was the use of light-weight material composites for structural components. The use of light-weight materials increased the flexibility of the X- 29 beyond that of conventional metal alloy constructed aircraft. This effect was not considered when the vehicle control system was designed and built. The impact of this is that the control system did not have enough control authority to compensate for the effects of the first fundamental structural mode of the vehicle. As a result, the resulting pitch rate response of the vehicle was below specification and no post-design changes could recover the

  5. Multidisciplinary Graduate Training in Social Research Methodology and Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis: A Hands-On/Hands-Off Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Claude Julie; Bourdon, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of training graduate students and researchers in qualitative and mixed-methods analysis since the mid-1990s, the authors reflect on the evolution of a multidisciplinary graduate course developed in a Canadian university since 2007. The hands-on/hands-off course design based on the use of NVivo was developed in parallel…

  6. Predictors of Treatment Decisions in Multidisciplinary Oncology Meetings: A Quantitative Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Tayana; Lamb, Benjamin W; Sarkar, Somita; Arora, Sonal; Shah, Sujay; Darzi, Ara; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick

    2016-12-01

    In many healthcare systems, treatment recommendations for cancer patients are formulated by multidisciplinary tumor boards (MTBs). Evidence suggests that interdisciplinary contributions to case reviews in the meetings are unequal and information-sharing suboptimal, with biomedical information dominating over information on patient comorbidities and psychosocial factors. This study aimed to evaluate how different elements of the decision process affect the teams' ability to reach a decision on first case review. This was an observational quantitative assessment of 1045 case reviews from 2010 to 2014 in cancer MTBs using a validated tool, the Metric for the Observation of Decision-making. This tool allows evaluation of the quality of information presentation (case history, radiological, pathological, and psychosocial information, comorbidities, and patient views), and contribution to discussion by individual core specialties (surgeons, oncologists, radiologists, pathologists, and specialist cancer nurses). The teams' ability to reach a decision was a dichotomous outcome variable (yes/no). Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the significant positive predictors of the teams' ability to reach a decision were patient psychosocial information (odds ratio [OR] 1.35) and the inputs of surgeons (OR 1.62), radiologists (OR 1.48), pathologists (OR 1.23), and oncologists (OR 1.13). The significant negative predictors were patient comorbidity information (OR 0.83) and nursing inputs (OR 0.87). Multidisciplinary inputs into case reviews and patient psychosocial information stimulate decision making, thereby reinforcing the role of MTBs in cancer care in processing such information. Information on patients' comorbidities, as well as nursing inputs, make decision making harder, possibly indicating that a case is complex and requires more detailed review. Research should further define case complexity and determine ways to better integrate patient psychosocial

  7. The effects of multidisciplinary rehabilitation: RePCa—a randomised study among primary prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Dieperink, K B; Johansen, C; Hansen, S; Wagner, L; Andersen, K K; Minet, L R; Hansen, O

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation on treatment-related adverse effects after completed radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: In a single-centre oncology unit in Odense, Denmark, 161 PCa patients treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy were randomly assigned to either a programme of two nursing counselling sessions and two instructive sessions with a physical therapist (n=79) or to usual care (n=82). Primary outcome was Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC-26) urinary irritative sum-score. Before radiotherapy, pre-intervention 4 weeks after radiotherapy, and after a 20-week intervention, measurements included self-reported disease-specific quality of life (QoL; EPIC-26, including urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal symptoms), general QoL (Short-form-12, SF-12), pelvic floor muscle strength (Modified Oxford Scale), and pelvic floor electromyography. Intension-to-treat analyses were made with adjusted linear regression. Results: The intervention improved, as compared with controls, urinary irritative sum-score 5.8 point (Cohen's d=0.40; P=0.011), urinary sum-score (d=0.34; P=0.023), hormonal sum-score (d=0.19; P=0.018), and the SF-12 Physical Component Summary, d=0.35; P=0.002. Patients with more severe impairment gained most. Pelvic floor muscle strength measured by electromyography declined in both groups, P=0.0001. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary rehabilitation in irradiated PCa patients improved urinary and hormonal symptoms, and SF-12 physical QoL. PMID:24169342

  8. Implementing Entrepreneurial Assignments in a Multidisciplinary, Sophomore-Level Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahm, Kevin; Riddell, William; Merrill, Thomas; Harvey, Roberta; Weiss, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Many engineering programs stress the importance of technological innovation by offering entrepreneurship electives and programs. Integration of entrepreneurship into the required engineering curriculum has predominantly focused on senior capstone design courses. This paper describes a strategy for integrating entrepreneurship into a…

  9. Collaborative Multidisciplinary Sciences for Analysis and Design of Aerospace Vehicles. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    Sensitivity Analysis, Sensitivity of Nonlinear Gust Response, Slotted Antenna, Aeroelastic Shape Sensitivity, Flight test of a Joined-Wing Model, Topology...Multifunctional Structures, Model-Form and Parametric Uncertainty, Structural- Acoustic Analysis, MDO Space Exploration with Additive Manufacturing...and Rapid Prototyping, Multi-fidelity Design Analysis, Leveraging Multi-Physics Models for Flexible wing Systems, nonlinear control strategies for

  10. Multidisciplinary Approach to Linear Aerospike Nozzle Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Salas, A. O.; Dunn, H. J.; Alexandrov, N. M.; Follett, W. W.; Orient, G. E.; Hadid, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    A model of a linear aerospike rocket nozzle that consists of coupled aerodynamic and structural analyses has been developed. A nonlinear computational fluid dynamics code is used to calculate the aerodynamic thrust, and a three-dimensional fink-element model is used to determine the structural response and weight. The model will be used to demonstrate multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) capabilities for relevant engine concepts, assess performance of various MDO approaches, and provide a guide for future application development. In this study, the MDO problem is formulated using the multidisciplinary feasible (MDF) strategy. The results for the MDF formulation are presented with comparisons against sequential aerodynamic and structural optimized designs. Significant improvements are demonstrated by using a multidisciplinary approach in comparison with the single- discipline design strategy.

  11. Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, Klaus; Rex, Markus; Shupe, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) is an international initiative under the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) umbrella that aims to improve numerical model representations of sea ice, weather, and climate processes through coupled system observations and modeling activities that link the central Arctic atmosphere, sea ice, ocean, and the ecosystem. Observations of many critical parameters such as cloud properties, surface energy fluxes, atmospheric aerosols, small-scale sea-ice and oceanic processes, biological feedbacks with the sea-ice ice and ocean, and others have never been made in the central Arctic in all seasons, and certainly not in a coupled system fashion. The primary objective of MOSAiC is to develop a better understanding of these important coupled-system processes so they can be more accurately represented in regional- and global-scale weather- and climate models. Such enhancements will contribute to improved modeling of global climate and weather, and Arctic sea-ice predictive capabilities. The MOSAiC observations are an important opportunity to gather the high quality and comprehensive observations needed to improve numerical modeling of critical, scale-dependent processes impacting Arctic predictability given diminished sea ice coverage and increased model complexity. Model improvements are needed to understand the effects of a changing Arctic on mid-latitude weather and climate. MOSAiC is specifically designed to provide the multi-parameter, coordinated observations needed to improve sub-grid scale model parameterizations especially with respect to thinner ice conditions. To facilitate, evaluate, and develop the needed model improvements, MOSAiC will employ a hierarchy of modeling approaches ranging from process model studies, to regional climate model intercomparisons, to operational forecasts and assimilation of real-time observations. Model evaluations prior to the field program will

  12. Does gender influence outcomes from a multidisciplinary intervention for quality of life designed for patients with advanced cancer?

    PubMed

    Lapid, Maria I; Atherton, Pamela J; Kung, Simon; Cheville, Andrea L; McNiven, Molly; Sloan, Jeff A; Clark, Matthew M; Rummans, Teresa A

    2013-09-01

    Cancer treatment can profoundly impact the patient's quality of life (QOL). It has been well documented that there are gender differences in the symptoms associated with cancer treatment. This study explores the impact of gender on QOL for patients with newly diagnosed advanced cancer. A randomized, controlled clinical trial in patients receiving radiotherapy for advanced cancer demonstrated maintenance of QOL with a six session multidisciplinary structured intervention compared to controls. This current study reports the gender differences in that trial. Outcome measures included the functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G), linear analog self-assessment (LASA), and profile of mood states (POMS) at baseline and weeks 4, 27, and 52. Kruskal-Wallis was used to compare QOL scores. One hundred thirty-one patients (45 women and 86 men, mean age 58.7) participated in the clinical trial. At week 4 postintervention, women in the intervention group had statistically significant improvement in their FACT-G score, FACT-G physical well-being subscale, LASA fatigue, POMS total score, POMS fatigue-inertia subscale, and POMS confusion-bewilderment subscale (p < 0.05). Men receiving the intervention had a smaller decrease in FACT-G score compared to controls (p = 0.048) and also worsened on the LASA financial (p = 0.02). At week 27, the only gender difference was that intervention group men had more POMS anger-hostility (p = 0.009). By week 52, there were no statistically significant gender differences in any of the QOL measures. Gender-based differences appear to play a role in the early, but not late, response to a multidisciplinary intervention to improve QOL for patients with advanced cancer, suggesting that early interventions can be tailored for each gender.

  13. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Educational Research: Case Studies from Europe and the Developing World. Routledge Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Sadaf, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an original perspective on a range of controversial issues in educational and social research through case studies of multi-disciplinary and mixed-method research involving children, teachers, schools and communities in Europe and the developing world. These case studies from researchers "across continents" and…

  14. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Educational Research: Case Studies from Europe and the Developing World. Routledge Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Sadaf, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an original perspective on a range of controversial issues in educational and social research through case studies of multi-disciplinary and mixed-method research involving children, teachers, schools and communities in Europe and the developing world. These case studies from researchers "across continents" and…

  15. Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Tang, Zhili; Sheng, Jianda

    2016-06-01

    A 2D hypersonic vehicle shape with an idealized scramjet is designed at a cruise regime: Mach number (Ma) = 8.0, Angle of attack (AOA) = 0 deg and altitude (H) = 30kms. Then a multi-objective design optimization of the 2D vehicle is carried out by using a Pareto Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). In the optimization process, the flow around the air-breathing vehicle is simulated by inviscid Euler equations using FLUENT software and the combustion in the combustor is modeled by a methodology based on the well known combination effects of area-varying pipe flow and heat transfer pipe flow. Optimization results reveal tradeoffs among total pressure recovery coefficient of forebody, lift to drag ratio of vehicle, specific impulse of scramjet engine and the maximum temperature on the surface of vehicle.

  16. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  17. The reablement team's voice: a qualitative study of how an integrated multidisciplinary team experiences participation in reablement.

    PubMed

    Hjelle, Kari Margrete; Skutle, Olbjørg; Førland, Oddvar; Alvsvåg, Herdis

    2016-01-01

    Reablement is an early and time-limited home-based rehabilitation intervention that emphasizes intensive, goal-oriented, and multidisciplinary assistance for people experiencing functional decline. Few empirical studies to date have examined the experiences of the integrated multidisciplinary teams involved in reablement. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to explore and describe how an integrated multidisciplinary team in Norway experienced participation in reablement. An integrated multidisciplinary team consisting of health care professionals with a bachelor's degree (including a physiotherapist, a social educator, occupational therapists, and nurses) and home-based care personnel without a bachelor's degree (auxiliary nurses and nursing assistants) participated in focus group discussions. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the resulting data. Three main themes emerged from the participants' experiences with participating in reablement, including "the older adult's goals are crucial", "a different way of thinking and acting - a shift in work culture", and "a better framework for cooperation and application of professional expertise and judgment". The integrated multidisciplinary team and the older adults collaborated and worked in the same direction to achieve the person's valued goals. The team supported the older adults in performing activities themselves rather than completing tasks for them. To facilitate cooperation and application of professional expertise and judgment, common meeting times and meeting places for communication and supervision were necessary. Structural factors that promote integrated multidisciplinary professional decisions include providing common meeting times and meeting places as well as sufficient time to apply professional knowledge when supervising and supporting older persons in everyday activities. These findings have implications for practice and suggest future directions for improving health care services. The

  18. The reablement team’s voice: a qualitative study of how an integrated multidisciplinary team experiences participation in reablement

    PubMed Central

    Hjelle, Kari Margrete; Skutle, Olbjørg; Førland, Oddvar; Alvsvåg, Herdis

    2016-01-01

    Background Reablement is an early and time-limited home-based rehabilitation intervention that emphasizes intensive, goal-oriented, and multidisciplinary assistance for people experiencing functional decline. Few empirical studies to date have examined the experiences of the integrated multidisciplinary teams involved in reablement. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to explore and describe how an integrated multidisciplinary team in Norway experienced participation in reablement. Methods An integrated multidisciplinary team consisting of health care professionals with a bachelor’s degree (including a physiotherapist, a social educator, occupational therapists, and nurses) and home-based care personnel without a bachelor’s degree (auxiliary nurses and nursing assistants) participated in focus group discussions. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the resulting data. Results Three main themes emerged from the participants’ experiences with participating in reablement, including “the older adult’s goals are crucial”, “a different way of thinking and acting – a shift in work culture”, and “a better framework for cooperation and application of professional expertise and judgment”. The integrated multidisciplinary team and the older adults collaborated and worked in the same direction to achieve the person’s valued goals. The team supported the older adults in performing activities themselves rather than completing tasks for them. To facilitate cooperation and application of professional expertise and judgment, common meeting times and meeting places for communication and supervision were necessary. Conclusion Structural factors that promote integrated multidisciplinary professional decisions include providing common meeting times and meeting places as well as sufficient time to apply professional knowledge when supervising and supporting older persons in everyday activities. These findings have implications for practice and

  19. Designing Water Rockets as a Multi-disciplinary Project for Physics, Calculus, and Engineering Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Paul; Craig, David; Hunt, Emily; Lockwood, Pamela

    2007-10-01

    We report the development of a cross-disciplinary activity for strengthening and relating student understanding of concepts from introductory physics, calculus, and engineering courses. Students, most simultaneously enrolled in all three classes, used material from physics and calculus to design rockets built from soda water bottles. They then constructed these rockets and a launcher in their engineering class and concluded the project with a public launch. Topics addressed include kinematics, dynamics, and fluid dynamics.

  20. A Multidisciplinary Algorithm for the 3-D Design Optimization of Transonic Axial Compressor Blades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    1, pp. 49-54, 1995 19. Puterbaugh, S. L., W. W. Copenhaver , C. Hah, and A. J. Wennerstrom, A Three- Dimensional Shock Loss Model Applied to an...Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit - Reno, Nevada, January 2002 23. Chung, J., J. Shim, and K. D. Lee, Design of 3-D Transonic Compressor Blades...Using Numerical Optimization, AIAA Paper 2000-0227, Presented at the 38th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit – Reno, Nevada, January 2000 24

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy for the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline for nonspecific low back pain: design of a stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Suman, Arnela; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Elders, Petra J M; van Tulder, Maurits W; Anema, Johannes R

    2015-05-31

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent and expensive health care problems in industrialised countries. LBP leads to high health care utility and productivity losses; leaving the individual, the employer, and society with substantial costs. To improve the care for LBP patients and reduce the high societal and financial burden of LBP, in 2010 the 'Multidisciplinary care guideline for nonspecific low back pain' was developed in the Netherlands. The current paper describes the design of a study aiming to evaluate the (cost-) effectiveness of a multifaceted strategy to implement this guideline. In a cluster-randomised controlled trial, the (cost-) effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy will be compared to passive guideline dissemination. Using a stepped-wedge approach, participating general practitioners, physiotherapists, and occupational physicians are allocated into clusters and will attend a multidisciplinary continuing medical education training session. The timing these clusters receive the training is the unit of randomisation. LBP patients visiting the participating health care providers are invited to participate in the trial and will receive access to a multimedia intervention aimed at improving beliefs, cognitions, and self-management. The primary outcome measure of this study is patient back beliefs. Secondary outcome measures on patient level include pain, functional status, quality of life, health care utility, and productivity losses. Outcome measures on professional level include knowledge and attitude towards the guideline, and guideline adherence. A process evaluation for the implementation strategy will be performed among the health care providers and the patients. Furthermore, a qualitative subgroup analysis among patients with various ethnic backgrounds will be performed. This study will give insight into the (cost-) effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy for the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline for non

  2. Optimal Design of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) Systems for improving safety in NASA's Exploration Vehicles: A Two-Level Multidisciplinary Design Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehr, Ali Farhang; Tumer, Irem; Barszcz, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (ISHM) systems are used to detect, assess, and isolate functional failures in order to improve safety of space systems such as Orbital Space Planes (OSPs). An ISHM system, as a whole, consists of several subsystems that monitor different components of an OSP including: Spacecraft, Launch Vehicle, Ground Control, and the International Space Station. In this research, therefore, we propose a new methodology to design and optimize ISHM as a distributed system with multiple disciplines (that correspond to different subsystems of OSP safety). A paramount amount of interest has been given in the literature to the multidisciplinary design optimization of problems with such architecture (as will be reviewed in the full paper).

  3. Design and development of the HELL User Station for multi-disciplinary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grittani, Gabriele Maria; Levato, Tadzio; Korn, Georg

    2017-05-01

    HELL is the high energy electron beamline under development at ELI-Beamlines, which is expected to produce GeV electrons at high repetition rate. The aim of HELL is dual: to improve the performances of the laser electron accelerator, and to deliver stable beams for external users. In this work, we present the recent developments towards the delivery of stable and calibrated beams for external users. The design of the HELL User Station will be presented and discussed along with simulations and experimental data collected in different facilities.

  4. A Cascade Optimization Strategy for Solution of Difficult Multidisciplinary Design Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Berke, Laszlo

    1996-01-01

    A research project to comparatively evaluate 10 nonlinear optimization algorithms was recently completed. A conclusion was that no single optimizer could successfully solve all 40 problems in the test bed, even though most optimizers successfully solved at least one-third of the problems. We realized that improved search directions and step lengths, available in the 10 optimizers compared, were not likely to alleviate the convergence difficulties. For the solution of those difficult problems we have devised an alternative approach called cascade optimization strategy. The cascade strategy uses several optimizers, one followed by another in a specified sequence, to solve a problem. A pseudorandom scheme perturbs design variables between the optimizers. The cascade strategy has been tested successfully in the design of supersonic and subsonic aircraft configurations and air-breathing engines for high-speed civil transport applications. These problems could not be successfully solved by an individual optimizer. The cascade optimization strategy, however, generated feasible optimum solutions for both aircraft and engine problems. This paper presents the cascade strategy and solutions to a number of these problems.

  5. Flexible Wing Model for Structural Sizing and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Strut-Braced Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank H.; Naghshineh, Amir H.; Sulaeman, Erwin; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a structural and aeroelastic model for wing sizing and weight calculation of a strut-braced wing. The wing weight is calculated using a newly developed structural weight analysis module considering the special nature of strut-braced wings. A specially developed aeroelastic model enables one to consider wing flexibility and spanload redistribution during in-flight maneuvers. The structural model uses a hexagonal wing-box featuring skin panels, stringers, and spar caps, whereas the aerodynamics part employs a linearized transonic vortex lattice method. Thus, the wing weight may be calculated from the rigid or flexible wing spanload. The calculations reveal the significant influence of the strut on the bending material weight of the wing. The use of a strut enables one to design a wing with thin airfoils without weight penalty. The strut also influences wing spanload and deformations. Weight savings are not only possible by calculation and iterative resizing of the wing structure according to the actual design loads. Moreover, as an advantage over the cantilever wing, employment of the strut twist moment for further load alleviation leads to increased savings in structural weight.

  6. Pan-Britain, mixed-methods study of multidisciplinary teams teaching parents to manage children's long-term kidney conditions at home: Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Care of children and young people (children) with long-term kidney conditions is usually managed by multidisciplinary teams. Published guidance recommends that whenever possible children with long-term conditions remain at home, meaning parents may be responsible for performing the majority of clinical care-giving. Multidisciplinary team members, therefore, spend considerable time promoting parents' learning about care-delivery and monitoring care-giving. However, this parent-educative aspect of clinicians' role is rarely articulated in the literature so little evidence exists to inform professionals' parent-teaching interventions. Methods/Design This ongoing study addresses this issue using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods involving the twelve children's kidney units in England, Scotland and Wales. Phase I involves a survey of multidisciplinary team members' parent-teaching interventions using: i) A telephone-administered questionnaire to determine: the numbers of professionals from different disciplines in each team, the information/skills individual professionals relay to parents and the teaching strategies/interventions they use. Data will be managed using SPSS to produce descriptive statistics ii) Digitally-recorded, qualitative group or individual interviews with multidisciplinary team members to explore their accounts of the parent-teaching component of their role. Interviews will be transcribed anonymously and analysed using Framework Technique. Sampling criteria will be derived from analysis to identify one/two unit(s) for subsequent in-depth study Phase II involves six prospective, ethnographic case-studies of professional-parent interactions during parent-teaching encounters. Parents of six children with a long-term kidney condition will be purposively sampled according to their child's age, diagnosis, ethnicity and the clinical care-giving required; snowball sampling will identify the professionals involved in each case-study

  7. The Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research. Final Report, Part V; The Frame of Reference Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.

    This "Frame of Reference Study" consists of the fifth section of the final report of the Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research of the University of Pittsburgh. The term, "frames of reference," is used to mean the context of assumptions, procedures, rules, cognitive models, and conceptions of the nature of…

  8. Integrating Multidisciplinary Engineering Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Karin; Luckett, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to design two distinct engineering qualification levels for an existing University of Technology programme, empirical evidence based on the current diploma is necessary to illuminate the nature of and the relationship between the "contextual" and "conceptual" elements underpinning a multidisciplinary engineering…

  9. Methodology for sensitivity analysis, approximate analysis, and design optimization in CFD for multidisciplinary applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1994-01-01

    The straightforward automatic-differentiation and the hand-differentiated incremental iterative methods are interwoven to produce a hybrid scheme that captures some of the strengths of each strategy. With this compromise, discrete aerodynamic sensitivity derivatives are calculated with the efficient incremental iterative solution algorithm of the original flow code. Moreover, the principal advantage of automatic differentiation is retained (i.e., all complicated source code for the derivative calculations is constructed quickly with accuracy). The basic equations for second-order sensitivity derivatives are presented; four methods are compared. Each scheme requires that large systems are solved first for the first-order derivatives and, in all but one method, for the first-order adjoint variables. Of these latter three schemes, two require no solutions of large systems thereafter. For the other two for which additional systems are solved, the equations and solution procedures are analogous to those for the first order derivatives. From a practical viewpoint, implementation of the second-order methods is feasible only with software tools such as automatic differentiation, because of the extreme complexity and large number of terms. First- and second-order sensitivities are calculated accurately for two airfoil problems, including a turbulent flow example; both geometric-shape and flow-condition design variables are considered. Several methods are tested; results are compared on the basis of accuracy, computational time, and computer memory. For first-order derivatives, the hybrid incremental iterative scheme obtained with automatic differentiation is competitive with the best hand-differentiated method; for six independent variables, it is at least two to four times faster than central finite differences and requires only 60 percent more memory than the original code; the performance is expected to improve further in the future.

  10. History and future of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).

    PubMed

    Emerson, Amy; Ponté, Linnae; Jerome, Lisa; Doblin, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the teenage vision of the founder of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) that humanity's future would be aided by the therapeutic and spiritual potential of psychedelic substances. The article traces the trajectory of MAPS from inception in 1986 to its present, noting future goals with respect to research, outreach, and harm reduction. MAPS was created as a non-profit psychedelic pharmaceutical company in response to the 1985 scheduling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Overcoming many hurdles, MAPS developed the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and plans for FDA prescription approval in 2021. MAPS' program of research expanded to include a trial of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety when facing life-threatening illness, observational studies of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction, and studies of MDMA for social anxiety in people with autism spectrum disorders. MAPS meets the challenges of drug development through a clinical research team led by a former Novartis drug development professional experienced in the conduct, monitoring, and analysis of clinical trials. MAPS' harm-reduction efforts are intended to avoid backlash and build a post-prohibition world by assisting non-medical users to transform difficult psychedelic experiences into opportunities for growth.

  11. Consensus on a multidisciplinary treatment guideline for de Quervain disease: results from the European HANDGUIDE study.

    PubMed

    Huisstede, Bionka M A; Coert, J Henk; Fridén, Jan; Hoogvliet, Peter

    2014-08-01

    De Quervain disease is a common pathology resulting in pain caused by resisted gliding of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the fibro-osseous canal. In a situation of wavering assumptions and expanding medical knowledge, a treatment guideline is useful because it can aid in implementation of best practices, the education of health care professionals, and the identification of gaps in existing knowledge. The aim of this study was to achieve consensus on a multidisciplinary treatment guideline for de Quervain disease. A Delphi consensus strategy was used. A European Delphi consensus strategy was initiated. A systematic review reporting on the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical interventions was conducted and published and was used as an evidence-based starting point for this study. In total, 35 experts (hand therapists and hand surgeons selected by the national member associations of their European federations and physical medicine and rehabilitation physicians) participated in the Delphi consensus strategy. Each Delphi round consisted of a questionnaire, an analysis, and a feedback report. Consensus was achieved on the description, symptoms, and diagnosis of de Quervain disease. The experts agreed that patients with this disorder should always receive instructions and that these instructions should be combined with another form of treatment and should not be used as a sole treatment. Instructions combined with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), splinting, NSAIDs plus splinting, corticosteroid injection, corticosteroid injections plus splinting, or surgery were considered suitable treatment options. Details on the use of instructions, NSAIDs, splinting, corticosteroid injections, and surgery were described. Main factors for selecting one of these treatment options (ie, severity and duration of the disorder, previous treatments given) were identified. A relationship between the severity and duration of the disorder

  12. Impact of Structured Rounding Tools on Time Allocation During Multidisciplinary Rounds: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kannampallil, Thomas G; Patel, Vimla L; Patel, Bela; Almoosa, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown evidence of disproportionate time allocation for patient communication during multidisciplinary rounds (MDRs). Studies have shown that patients discussed later during rounds receive lesser time. Objective The aim of our study was to investigate whether disproportionate time allocation effects persist with the use of structured rounding tools. Methods Using audio recordings of rounds (N=82 patients), we compared time allocation and communication breakdowns between a problem-based Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan (SOAP) and a system-based Handoff Intervention Tool (HAND-IT) rounding tools. Results We found no significant linear dependence of the order of patient presentation on the time spent or on communication breakdowns for both structured tools. However, for the problem-based tool, there was a significant linear relationship between the time spent on discussing a patient and the number of communication breakdowns (P<.05)––with an average of 1.04 additional breakdowns with every 120 seconds in discussion. Conclusions The use of structured rounding tools potentially mitigates disproportionate time allocation and communication breakdowns during rounds, with the more structured HAND-IT, almost completely eliminating such effects. These results have potential implications for planning, prioritization, and training for time management during MDRs. PMID:27940423

  13. Impact of Structured Rounding Tools on Time Allocation During Multidisciplinary Rounds: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Joanna; Kannampallil, Thomas G; Patel, Vimla L; Patel, Bela; Almoosa, Khalid F

    2016-12-09

    Recent research has shown evidence of disproportionate time allocation for patient communication during multidisciplinary rounds (MDRs). Studies have shown that patients discussed later during rounds receive lesser time. The aim of our study was to investigate whether disproportionate time allocation effects persist with the use of structured rounding tools. Using audio recordings of rounds (N=82 patients), we compared time allocation and communication breakdowns between a problem-based Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan (SOAP) and a system-based Handoff Intervention Tool (HAND-IT) rounding tools. We found no significant linear dependence of the order of patient presentation on the time spent or on communication breakdowns for both structured tools. However, for the problem-based tool, there was a significant linear relationship between the time spent on discussing a patient and the number of communication breakdowns (P<.05)--with an average of 1.04 additional breakdowns with every 120 seconds in discussion. The use of structured rounding tools potentially mitigates disproportionate time allocation and communication breakdowns during rounds, with the more structured HAND-IT, almost completely eliminating such effects. These results have potential implications for planning, prioritization, and training for time management during MDRs.

  14. Multidisciplinary studies of disease burden in the Diseases of the Most Impoverished Programme.

    PubMed

    Deen, Jacqueline L; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John D

    2004-09-01

    With limited healthcare resources, rational prioritization of healthcare interventions requires knowledge and analysis of disease burden. In the absence of actual disease-burden data from less-developed countries, various types of morbidity and mortality estimates have been made. Besides having questionable reliability, these estimates do not capture the full burden of a disease since they provide only the number of cases and deaths. The modelling methods that include disability are more comprehensive but are difficult to understand, and their reliability is affected by baseline approximations. To provide policy-makers with information needed for rational decision-making, the Diseases of the Most Impoverished (DOMI) Programme of the International Vaccine Institute has used a multidisciplinary approach to describe the burden of disease due to typhoid fever, shigellosis, and cholera. Recognizing the relative advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies, the programme employs passive clinic-based surveillance in defined communities to provide prospective data. The prospective data are complemented with retrospectively-collected information from existing sources, frequently less accurate and complete but readily available for the whole population over extended periods. To create a more complete picture, economic and qualitative studies specific to each disease are incorporated in these prospective studies. The goal is to achieve a more complete and realistic picture by combining the results of these various methodologies, acknowledging the strengths and limitations of each. These projects also build in-country capacity in terms of treatment, diagnosis, epidemiology, and data management.

  15. Multidisciplinary collaborative gross tumour volume definition for lung cancer radiotherapy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hollingdale, Abigail E; Roques, Tom W; Curtin, John; Martin, W M Craig; Horan, Gail; Barrett, Ann

    2011-12-07

    Variability in gross tumour volume (GTV) definition is a major source of systematic error in conformal radiotherapy. This prospective study assesses the role of multidisciplinary collaboration between oncologists and radiologists in defining lung cancer volumes. Twenty patients with non-small cell lung cancer due to receive three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy formed the study population. GTVs were defined by a radiologist (GTVrad) and an oncologist (GTVonc) using available clinical information and imaging. A collaborative meeting was then held to agree on a final, common GTV (GTVfin) to be used for treatment planning, and differences analysed. The collaboration changed the GTV in 19/20 patients with a total of 50 regions being edited. Changes made were categorized as (a) differentiation of tumour from atelectasis or ground glass shadowing, (b) separation of tumour from vasculature, and (c) defining mediastinal extent of tumour. Oncologists were more confident in the GTVfin than the GTVonc. The radiologist took longer to define the GTV than the oncologist. Real-time collaborative GTV definition by a radiologist and oncologist is practical and feasible. This approach allows specific areas of uncertainty to be categorized and focussed on, reducing systematic error in GTV definition. The physician's approach to risk and decision making for each patient may also play a role.

  16. Multidisciplinary Design Investigation of Truss-Braced Wing Aircraft. Phase 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Kapania, R. K.; Mason, W. H.; Schetz, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject grant was in effect from 7/l/99 to 10/31/99. The objective of this grant was to complete a strut-braced wing study which began, which was in effect from 6/27/96 until 9/15/99. While the initial grant was on-going, we were also under subcontract to Lockheed-Martin, Aerospace Systems Division, Marietta, GA to do additional studies related to the strut-braced wing grant "A Structural and Aerodynamic Investigation of a Strut-Braced Wing Transonic Aircraft Concept", 4/l/98-11/15/98. Lockheed-Martin was under contract to NASA Langley. Finally the research under this grant has led to a joint proposal from NASA Langley, Locheed-Martin, Virginia Tech and NASA Dryden to develop a transonic strut-braced wing demonstration aircraft in response to Flight Research for Revolutionary Aeronautical Concepts (REVCON). This final report summarizes the research done, augmented by the additional concommitant research projects mentioned above.

  17. Prospective study of cost of care at multidisciplinary ALS centers adhering to American Academy of Neurology (AAN) ALS practice parameters.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Kevin; Levine, Todd; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Lyon, Mary; Maginnis, Kimberly; Callas, Peter; Gaspari, Celeste; Tandan, Rup

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary care in ALS is associated with longer survival, improved quality of life, and reduced hospital admissions, but there are no published data on institutional costs associated with multidisciplinary ALS care at U.S. centers. We prospectively examined institutional costs, adherence to AAN Practice Parameters and patient satisfaction in multidisciplinary ALS clinics at 18 U.S. ALS centers. Centers reported patient volumes; direct costs for staff salary/benefits, supplies and equipment; and institutional non-salary and overhead costs over a three-month period. In 1117 patients seen during this period, mean age was 61.5 years (range 25-91 years), 56% were male, and mean ALSFRS-R score was 29. Mean total salary/benefit cost per clinic day for all providers was $2964 (range $1692-$5236 across centers). Mean salary/benefit cost per patient per clinic was $507 (range $258-$806 across centers). Differences among centers in reporting non-salary costs prevented meaningful analysis. Practice parameter adherence and patient satisfaction were high. This prospective collaborative study demonstrates the direct financial burden of evidence-based multidisciplinary ALS care in the U.S.; more refined non-salary and overhead cost data are needed to evaluate the full cost impact of care. These data may be useful in supporting evidence-based models of patient centered care for ALS.

  18. Methodology for sensitivity analysis, approximate analysis, and design optimization in CFD for multidisciplinary applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1993-01-01

    In this study involving advanced fluid flow codes, an incremental iterative formulation (also known as the delta or correction form) together with the well-known spatially-split approximate factorization algorithm, is presented for solving the very large sparse systems of linear equations which are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. For smaller 2D problems, a direct method can be applied to solve these linear equations in either the standard or the incremental form, in which case the two are equivalent. Iterative methods are needed for larger 2D and future 3D applications, however, because direct methods require much more computer memory than is currently available. Iterative methods for solving these equations in the standard form are generally unsatisfactory due to an ill-conditioning of the coefficient matrix; this problem can be overcome when these equations are cast in the incremental form. These and other benefits are discussed. The methodology is successfully implemented and tested in 2D using an upwind, cell-centered, finite volume formulation applied to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for two sample airfoil problems: (1) subsonic low Reynolds number laminar flow; and (2) transonic high Reynolds number turbulent flow.

  19. Effects of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme on participation of the visually impaired elderly: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alma, Manna A; Groothoff, Johan W; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M; Post, Marcel W M; Suurmeijer, Theo P B M; van der Mei, Sijrike F

    2012-01-01

    To pilot test the newly developed multidisciplinary group rehabilitation programme Visually Impaired elderly Persons Participating (VIPP). A single group pretest-posttest design pilot study included 29 visually impaired persons (≥ 55 years). The intervention (20 weekly meetings) consisted of four components (practical training; education, social interaction, counselling and training of problem-solving skills; individual and group goal setting; home-based exercise programme). Participation was assessed with the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (USER-P) and the Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) questionnaire at baseline, immediately and 6 months after the intervention. At scale level, no statistical significant changes over time were found whereas the effect size indicated small effects for restrictions and satisfaction with participation, and a medium effect for autonomy outdoors. At item level, improvements tended to occur in frequency of housekeeping, in restrictions in housekeeping and outdoor activities and in satisfaction with the partner relationship. Satisfaction with leisure indoors and autonomy regarding using leisure time tended to increase as well. The tentative conclusion of this small-scale pilot study is that the VIPP programme modestly benefits perceived restrictions in participation, satisfaction with participation and autonomy outdoors of the visually impaired elderly. These preliminary findings warrant further investigation.

  20. Multi-disciplinary clinical study of Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion 17p11.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, F.; Lewis, R.A.; Potocki, L.

    1996-03-29

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly, mental retardation (MCA/MR) syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. As part of a multi-disciplinary clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular approach to SMS, detailed clinical studies including radiographic neurologic, developmental, ophthalmologic, otolaryngologic, and audiologic evaluations were performed on 27 SMS patients. Significant findings include otolaryngologic abnormalities in 94%, eye abnormalities in 85%, sleep abnormalities (especially reduced REM sleep) in 75%, hearing impairment in 68% (approximately 65% conductive and 35% sensorineural), scoliosis in 65% brain abnormalities (predominantly ventriculomegaly) in 52%, cardiac abnormalities in at least 37%, renal anomalies (especially duplication of the collecting system) in 35%, low thyroxine levels in 29%, low immunoglobulin levels in 23%, and forearm abnormalities in 16%. The measured IQ ranged between 20-78, most patients falling in the moderate range of mental retardation at 40-54, although several patients scored in the mild or borderline range. The frequency of these many abnormalities in SMS suggests that patients should be evaluated thoroughly for associated complications both at the time of diagnosis and at least annually thereafter. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Multidisciplinary decision making in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma: A hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Zaky, Saad; Makhlouf, Nahed A; Abdel Malek, Mohamed O; Bakheet, Ahmed A; Seif, Hany M A; Hamza, Hesham M; Sabry, Abeer M M

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the short-term outcome of the decision taken by the Hepatoma Board for the treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This was a prospective descriptive study involving 74 patients with HCC diagnosed by the known criteria. The decisions taken by the Hepatoma Board for the 74 patients were as follows: 1- surgical resection (7 patients), 2- local ablative therapy (LAT) (22 patients), 3- conventional transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) (24 patients), and 4- palliative supportive care (21 patients). The short-term mortality rate was 25.7% of the total patients. The success rate was nearly equal in LAT (68.2%) and surgery (71.4%), whereas the success rate was approximately 33.3% in TACE. There was no difference in the mean total bilirubin level before and after LAT, surgery, or TACE (p>0.05 for each). There was a significant decrease in the mean serum albumin level after TACE (p=0.000). There was a decrease in the mean alpha fetoprotein level after surgery and LAT (p=0.033) for surgery and (p=0.048) for LAT. The management of HCC is better performed through a multidisciplinary team decision. Surgery has comparable outcome to LAT but is more invasive. According to our local experience, conventional TACE has a success rate of 33.3%.

  2. Work-related stress and reward: an Australian study of multidisciplinary pediatric oncology healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Bowden, M J; Mukherjee, S; Williams, L K; DeGraves, S; Jackson, M; McCarthy, M C

    2015-11-01

    Managing staff stress and preventing long-term burnout in oncology staff are highly important for both staff and patient well-being. Research addressing work-related stress in adult oncology is well documented; however, less is known about this topic in the pediatric context. This study examined sources of work-related stress and reward specific to multidisciplinary staff working in pediatric oncology in Australia. Participants were 107 pediatric oncology clinicians, including medical, nursing, and allied health staff from two Australian pediatric oncology centers. Participants completed an online survey using two newly developed measures: the work stressors scale-pediatric oncology and the work rewards scale-pediatric oncology. The most commonly reported sources of both stress and reward are related to patient care and interactions with children. Results indicated that levels of work-related stress and reward were similar between the professional disciplines and between the two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed no demographic or organizational factors that were associated with either stress or reward. Work-related stress and reward are not mutually exclusive; particular situations and events can be simultaneously stressful and rewarding for healthcare providers. Although patient care and interactions with children was found to be the most stressful aspect of working in this speciality, it was also the greatest source of reward. Results are discussed in relation to workplace approaches to staff well-being and stress reduction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A Qualitative Study of Multidisciplinary ALS Clinic Use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Helen E; Young, Jared; Felgoise, Stephanie H; Simmons, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) has become the standard of care for individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the United States, yet many patients choose not to receive care at MDCs. We undertook a qualitative study of individuals with ALS to explore patients' perceptions of this form of service delivery. Participants completed an online survey that posed open-ended questions about their attitudes and behaviors surrounding MCDs. Qualitative analysis was performed whereby response data was evaluated and grouped into themes. The unique aspect of MDCs most commonly cited by patients was integrated care. Other reasons for attending MDC included those common to specialist centers, such as expertise, access to clinical trials, and participation in research. Perceived disadvantages unique to the MDC model were long and tiring visits. In common with many specialist centers, long travel times were cited as a disadvantage of MDCs. This information provides a foundation for improving ALS care. For those able to travel, the MDC model has much to offer, but patients' time should be respected. For those patients who cannot travel, alternative models of care should be devised to provide integrated care, clinical expertise, and access to research.

  4. Does amblyopia have a functional impact? Findings from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Graham A; Welch, David

    2013-03-01

    Existing data on the functional impact of amblyopia are conflicting. The functional impact of amblyopia is a critical component of the viability and effectiveness of childhood vision screening programmes and treatment regimes. Prospective longitudinal birth cohort (the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study). One thousand thirty-seven children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1972 and March 1973, assessed from ages 3 to 32 years. Comparison of study members with no amblyopia, recovered amblyopia, possible amblyopia or amblyopia according to both classic (6/12 visual acuity or worse in at least one eye, or a two-line or greater differential between the visual acuity in both eyes) and modern (6/9 visual acuity or worse in at least one eye) definitions of amblyopia. Childhood motor development, teenage self-esteem and adult socioeconomic status (assessed by occupation, education, reading ability and income). There was no evidence of poorer motor development, lower self-esteem or reduced adult socioeconomic status in study members with amblyopia or recovered amblyopia when compared with those with no amblyopia. Amblyopia or having recovered amblyopia does not functionally impact on childhood motor development, teenage self-esteem or adult socioeconomic status within this cohort. The wide range of visual deficits and adaptations that are known to occur in amblyopic vision do not translate into important 'real life' outcomes for the study members with amblyopia or recovered amblyopia. The age-related cumulative lifetime risk of bilateral visual impairment in amblyopia will be assessed in future studies. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Jaime; Esmail, Rosmin; Karjalainen, Kaija; Malmivaara, Antti; Irvin, Emma; Bombardier, Claire

    2001-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation on clinically relevant outcomes in patients with chronic low back pain. Design Systematic literature review of randomised controlled trials. Participants A total of 1964 patients with disabling low back pain for more than three months. Main outcome measures Pain, function, employment, quality of life, and global assessments. Results Ten trials reported on a total of 12 randomised comparisons of multidisciplinary treatment and a control condition. There was strong evidence that intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation with functional restoration improves function when compared with inpatient or outpatient non-multidisciplinary treatments. There was moderate evidence that intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation with functional restoration reduces pain when compared with outpatient non-multidisciplinary rehabilitation or usual care. There was contradictory evidence regarding vocational outcomes of intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial intervention. Some trials reported improvements in work readiness, but others showed no significant reduction in sickness leaves. Less intensive outpatient psychophysical treatments did not improve pain, function, or vocational outcomes when compared with non-multidisciplinary outpatient therapy or usual care. Few trials reported effects on quality of life or global assessments. Conclusions The reviewed trials provide evidence that intensive multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation with functional restoration reduces pain and improves function in patients with chronic low back pain. Less intensive interventions did not show improvements in clinically relevant outcomes. What is already known on this topicDisabling chronic pain is regarded as the result of interrelating physical, psychological, and social or occupational factors requiring multidisciplinary interventionTwo previous systematic reviews of

  6. A prospective, multi-method, multi-disciplinary, multi-level, collaborative, social-organisational design for researching health sector accreditation [LP0560737

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Westbrook, Johanna; Pawsey, Marjorie; Greenfield, David; Naylor, Justine; Iedema, Rick; Runciman, Bill; Redman, Sally; Jorm, Christine; Robinson, Maureen; Nathan, Sally; Gibberd, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background Accreditation has become ubiquitous across the international health care landscape. Award of full accreditation status in health care is viewed, as it is in other sectors, as a valid indicator of high quality organisational performance. However, few studies have empirically demonstrated this assertion. The value of accreditation, therefore, remains uncertain, and this persists as a central legitimacy problem for accreditation providers, policymakers and researchers. The question arises as to how best to research the validity, impact and value of accreditation processes in health care. Most health care organisations participate in some sort of accreditation process and thus it is not possible to study its merits using a randomised controlled strategy. Further, tools and processes for accreditation and organisational performance are multifaceted. Methods/design To understand the relationship between them a multi-method research approach is required which incorporates both quantitative and qualitative data. The generic nature of accreditation standard development and inspection within different sectors enhances the extent to which the findings of in-depth study of accreditation process in one industry can be generalised to other industries. This paper presents a research design which comprises a prospective, multi-method, multi-level, multi-disciplinary approach to assess the validity, impact and value of accreditation. Discussion The accreditation program which assesses over 1,000 health services in Australia is used as an exemplar for testing this design. The paper proposes this design as a framework suitable for application to future international research into accreditation. Our aim is to stimulate debate on the role of accreditation and how to research it. PMID:16968552

  7. Multidisciplinary studies of the diversity and evolution in river-weeds.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    The moss-like river-weeds or Podostemaceae offer a special opportunity to study the diversity and evolution of plants that are adapted to extreme environments. This paper reviews multidisciplinary studies on this subject. Based on field work in the four continents, we discovered many species and several genera that are new components of biodiversity, and revealed the Podostemaceae floras of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia. The historical biogeography of the family, i.e., the change in distribution in space and time, is characterized by a few dispersals between continents, followed by diversification within each continent. Local species may be derived from parts of separated populations of parental species, which consequently are paraphyletic. The remarkable morphological adaptations of Podostemaceae include the development of the horizontal axis in plant body, with which the plants adhere to rock surfaces under violent current. The vertical axis is reduced or lost and the horizontal axis develops in the embryo and seedling. We also found saltational organ-level variation, such as presence or absence of shoot, shoot apical meristem, root, and root cap; the form of shoot and root; the mode of root branching and leaf production; and the number of cotyledons. Morphological evolution may not be always adaptive to the habitats, which are rocks periodically submerged across the distribution range. Analyses of shoot regulatory gene expression found that, in contrast to the expression pattern in primitive species with ordinary shoots, which is comparable with Arabidopsis, the unique pattern in derived species may result in 'fuzzy' morphology of the shoot and leaf. Finally, problems for future study are pointed out.

  8. Insights from early experience of a Rare Disease Genomic Medicine Multidisciplinary Team: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Mackley, Michael P; Blair, Edward; Craft, Jude; Knight, Julian C; Taylor, John; Taylor, Jenny C; Wilkie, Andrew Om; Watkins, Hugh

    2017-06-01

    Whole-exome/whole-genome sequencing (WES/WGS) has the potential to enhance genetic diagnosis of rare disease, and is increasingly becoming part of routine clinical care in mainstream medicine. Effective translation will require ongoing efforts in a number of areas including: selection of appropriate patients, provision of effective consent, pre- and post-test genetic counselling, improving variant interpretation algorithms and practices, and management of secondary findings including those found incidentally and those actively sought. Allied to this is the need for an effective education programme for all members of clinical teams involved in care of patients with rare disease, as well as to maintain public confidence in the use of these technologies. We established a Genomic Medicine Multidisciplinary Team (GM-MDT) in 2014 to build on the experiences of earlier successful research-based WES/WGS studies, to address these needs and to review results including pertinent and secondary findings. Here we report on a qualitative study of decision-making in the GM-MDT combined with analysis of semi-structured interviews with GM-MDT members. Study findings show that members appreciate the clinical and scientific diversity of the GM-MDT and value it for education and oversight. To date, discussions have focussed on case selection including the extent and interpretation of clinical and family history information required to establish likely monogenic aetiology and inheritance model. Achieving a balance between effective use of WES/WGS - prioritising cases in a diverse and highly complex patient population where WES/WGS will be tractable - and meeting the recruitment targets of a large project is considered challenging.

  9. Multidisciplinary teamwork improves use of the operating room: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    van Veen-Berkx, Elizabeth; Bitter, Justin; Kazemier, Geert; Scheffer, Gert J; Gooszen, Hein G

    2015-06-01

    Poor inter-professional collaboration might negatively influence adequate planning of operative procedures. Interventions capable of improving inter-professional collaboration will positively impact professional practice and health care outcomes. Radboud University Medical Center (UMC) redesigned their operating room (OR) scheduling method by implementing cross-functional teams (CFTs). In this center, positive effects of CFTs were already demonstrated in a mono-center study. This study aims to confirm these effects by comparing the Radboud data with data from 6 other similar centers using a nationwide OR benchmark collaborative. The effect of CFTs was measured by the performance indicator "raw utilization." The Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was applied to compare OR performance among all 7 centers. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to determine differences in OR performance between Radboud UMC and the control group. Operating room performance differed significantly among all 7 centers (p<0.0005). Radboud UMC demonstrated the highest median raw utilization of 94% vs 85% in the control group (p<0.0005). Box-and-whisker plots validated the reduced variation during the years, indicating an organizational learning effect. Therefore, not only a better performance than the control group, but also a gradual improvement of this performance during the years. This study shows that multidisciplinary collaboration in CFTs during the perioperative phase has a positive influence on OR scheduling and use of OR time. Other national databases considering mortality rates also support the idea that introducing CFTs is not only an important condition for improving OR performance, but also for improving quality of care. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Engaging Students in Climate Change Science and Communication through a Multi-disciplinary Study Abroad Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, L. A.; Polk, J.; Strenecky, B.

    2014-12-01

    The implications of the climate change phenomenon are far-reaching, and will impact every person on Earth. These problems will be complex, and will require leaders well-versed in interdisciplinary learning and international understanding. To employ a multi-disciplinary approach to studying the impact climate change is having in the world in which we live, a team of 57 Western Kentucky University (WKU) faculty, staff, and students participated in a study abroad program to seven ports in the North Sea and North Atlantic, including three ports in Iceland, onboard the Semester at Sea ship, MV Explorer. This program combined interdisciplinary learning, service learning, and international understanding toward the goal of preparing the leaders of tomorrow with the skills to address climate change challenges. Together, the group learned how climate change affects the world from varied academic perspectives, and how more often than not these perspectives are closely interrelated. Courses taught during the experience related to climate change science and communication, economics, future trends, and K-12 education. Each student also participated in a The $100 Solution™ service-learning course. While in port, each class engaged in a discipline-specific activities related to the climate change topic, while at sea students participated in class lectures, engaged in shipboard lectures by international experts in their respective fields, and participated in conversations with lifelong learners onboard the ship. A culminating point of the study abroad experience was a presentation by the WKU students to over 100 persons from the University of Akureyri in Akureyri, Iceland, representatives of neighboring Icelandic communities, environmental agencies, and tourism bureaus about what they had learned about climate change during their travels. By forging this relationship, students were able to share their knowledge, which in turn gave them a deeper understanding of the issues they

  11. Multi-disciplinary team meetings in stroke rehabilitation: an observation study and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Tyson, S F; Burton, L; McGovern, A

    2014-12-01

    To explore how multi-disciplinary team meetings operate in stroke rehabilitation. Non-participant observation of multi-disciplinary team meetings and semi-structured interviews with attending staff. Twelve meetings were observed (at least one at each site) and 18 staff (one psychologist, one social worker; four nurses; four physiotherapists four occupational therapists, two speech and language therapists, one stroke co-ordinator and one stroke ward manager) were interviewed in eight in-patient stroke rehabilitation units. Multi-disciplinary team meetings in stroke rehabilitation were complex, demanding and highly varied. A model emerged which identified the main inputs to influence conduct of the meetings were personal contributions of the members and structure and format of the meetings. These were mediated by the team climate and leadership skills of the chair. The desired outputs; clinical decisions and the attributes of apparently effective meetings were identified by the staff. A notable difference between the meetings that staff considered effective and those that were not, was their structure and format. Successful meetings tended to feature a set agenda, structured documentation; formal use of measurement tools; pre-meeting preparation and skilled chairing. These features were often absent in meetings perceived to be ineffective. The main features of operation of multi-disciplinary team meetings have been identified which will enable assessment tools and interventions to improve effectiveness to be developed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Whale Multi-Disciplinary Studies: A Marine Education Infusion Unit. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This multidisciplinary unit deals with whales, whaling lore and history, and the interaction of the whale with the complex marine ecosystem. It seeks to teach adaptation of marine organisms. It portrays the concept that man is part of the marine ecosystem and man's activities can deplete and degrade marine ecosystems, endangering the survival of…

  13. The GRASP project - a multidisciplinary study of hydrology and biogeochemistry in a periglacial catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Emma; Lindborg, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic region is sensitive to global warming, and permafrost thaw and release of old carbon are examples of processes that may have a positive feedback effect to the global climate system. Quantification and assumptions on future change are often based on model predictions. Such models require cross-disciplinary data of high quality that often is lacking. Biogeochemical processes in the landscape are highly influenced by the hydrology, which in turn is intimately related to permafrost processes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach is needed when collecting data and setting up field experiments aiming at increase the understanding of these processes. Here we summarize and present data collected in the GRASP, Greenland Analogue Surface Project. GRASP is a catchment-scale field study of the periglacial area in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, focusing on hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. The site investigations were initiated in 2010 and have since then resulted in three separate data sets published in ESSD (Earth system and Science Data) each one focusing on i) meteorological data and hydrology, ii) biogeochemistry and iii) geometries of sediments and the active layer. The three data-sets, which are freely available via the PANGAEA data base, enable conceptual and coupled numerical modeling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes. An important strength with the GRASP data is that all data is collected within the same, relatively small, catchment area. This implies that measurements are more easily linked to the right source area or process. Despite the small catchment area it includes the major units of the periglacial hydrological system; a lake, a talik, a supra- and subpermafrost aquifer and, consequently, biogeochemical processes in each of these units may be studied. The new data from GRASP is both used with the aim to increase the knowledge of present day periglacial hydrology and biogeochemistry but also in order to

  14. The effectiveness of an improved multidisciplinary pain management programme: a 6- and 12-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Dysvik, Elin; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2012-05-01

      This article is a report of a Norwegian-revised study on the effectiveness of a follow-up multidisciplinary management programme for chronic pain to investigate the change processes associated with treatment.   Substantial evidence supports the use of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy approaches to chronic pain. As relapse is often reported, follow-up sessions should be included.   A follow-up quasi-experimental design was performed, and a previous control group was used. The study initially included 117 participants, and 104 of the sample completed the 6- and 12-month follow-up programme. The 6-month follow-up consisted of therapeutic dialogue and education combined with physical activity. At the 12-month follow-up, a telephonic consultation was conducted. The data collection period was between September 2006 and January 2008. The statistical and clinical significance were considered.   Findings suggest that this follow-up programme can potentially maintain the positive results of the basic programme in terms of reduced pain perception, improved health-related quality of life, and movement towards self-management.   These results are consistent with the ultimate goal of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy approaches, which is to help patients with chronic pain to cope more effectively and to improve their health-related quality of life and functioning. To maintain treatment improvements and advance nursing, there is a clear need for research that tests the efficacy of follow-up interventions that are designed to prevent drop out and relapse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The evaluating self-management and educational support in severely obese patients awaiting multidisciplinary bariatric care (EVOLUTION) trial: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, demand for multidisciplinary bariatric (obesity) care far outstrips capacity. Consequently, prolonged wait times exist and contribute to substantial health impairments. A supportive, educational intervention (with in-person and web-based versions) designed to enhance the self-management skills of patients wait-listed for multidisciplinary bariatric medical and surgical care has been variably implemented across Alberta, Canada. However, its effectiveness has not been evaluated. Our objectives were: 1. To determine if this program improves clinical and humanistic outcomes and is cost-effective compared to a control intervention; and 2. To compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of in-person group-based versus web-based care. We hypothesize that both the web-based and in-person programs will reduce body weight and improve outcomes compared to the control group. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the in-person version will be more effective but more costly than the web-based version. Methods/Design This pragmatic, prospective controlled trial will enrol 660 wait-listed subjects (220 per study arm) from regional bariatric programs in Alberta and randomly assign them to: 1. an in-person, group-based intervention (9 modules delivered over 10 sessions); 2. a web-based intervention (13 modules); and 3. controls who will receive mailed literature. Subjects will have three months to review the content assigned to them (the intervention period) after which they will immediately enter the weight management clinic. Data will be collected at baseline and every 3 months for 9 months (study end), including: 1. Clinical [5% weight loss responders (primary outcome), absolute and % weight losses, changes in obesity-related comorbidities]; 2. Humanistic (health related quality of life, patient satisfaction, depression, and self-efficacy); and 3. Economic (incremental costs and utilities and cost per change in BMI assessed from the third party health care

  16. Multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTM) in detection of Alzheimer's disease: data from the IDEM study.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Y; Tavassoli, N; Gillette-Guyonnet, S; Perrin, A; Hermabessière, S; Ousset, P-J; Nourhashemi, F; Cestac, P; Vellas, B

    2013-02-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom, the Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWIG) in Germany and the Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) in France have recently set out guidelines on prescription of anti-dementia medication. The HAS proposes in particular that continuation of these drugs for longer than one year should be decided in multidisciplinary team meetings (MDTM). To assess the feasibility of MDTM and the satisfaction of coordinating physicians from institutions for the dependent elderly (nursing home, NH) and expert physicians from memory clinics who have participated in the meetings. Survey carried out among physicians who had participated in the MDTM held as part of the IDEM study (Interest of systematic tracking of dementia cases in NH: analysing the contribution of MDTM in Alzheimer's disease and related diseases; PHRC National 2009, Code 0910701). The survey evaluated the organization of MDTM and the physicians' opinion of these meetings. The cases of 574 patients were discussed in MDTM involving 133 healthcare professionals (32 coordinating physicians, 48 expert physicians, 4 general practitioners and 49 other health professionals). The mean number of participants was 4.2±1.6. About 16 minutes were spent discussing the case of each resident. About 90% of physicians considered that the meetings were useful. Overall assessment of their efficacy was 11.5/20 for the coordinating physicians and 14.1/20 for the expert physicians. The benefits of MDTM in relation to the work entailed were considered important by 60% of expert physicians and 33% of coordinating physicians. Our survey confirmed the feasibility of MDTM in the field of Alzheimer's disease. The overall benefit/workload ratio of the meetings was considered to be favorable for the expert physicians. The benefits of MDTM were turned out to be less appreciated by the coordinating physicians according to high workload

  17. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary heart failure disease management programme on 1-year mortality: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Laborde-Castérot, Hervé; Agrinier, Nelly; Zannad, Faiez; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Rossignol, Patrick; Girerd, Nicolas; Alla, François; Thilly, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    We performed a multicenter prospective observational cohort study (Epidémiologie et Pronostic de l'Insuffisance Cardiaque Aiguë en Lorraine, Epidemiology and Prognosis of Acute Heart Failure in Lorraine [EPICAL2]) to evaluate the effectiveness on mortality of a community-based multidisciplinary disease management programme (DMP) for heart failure (HF) patients.Between October 2011 and October 2012, 1816 patients, who were hospitalized for acute HF or who developed acute HF during a hospitalization, were included from 21 hospitals in a northeast region of France. At hospital admission, their mean age was 77.3 (standard deviation [SD] 11.6) years and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.0 (SD 16.0)%. A subset of patients were enrolled in a multidimensional DMP for HF (n = 312, 17.2%), based on structured patient education, home monitoring visits by HF-trained nurses, and automatic alerts triggered by significant clinical and biological changes to the patient. The DMP involved general practitioners, nurses, and cardiologists collaborating via an individual web-based medical electronic record. The outcome was all-cause mortality from the 3rd to the 12th month after discharge. During the follow-up, a total of 377 (20.8%) patients died: 321 (21.3%) in the control group and 56 (17.9%) in the DMP group. In a propensity score analysis, DMP was associated with lower 1-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.92). Instrumental variable analysis gave similar results (hazard ratio 0.56, 0.27-1.16).In a real world setting, a multidimensional DMP for HF with structured patient education, home nurse monitoring, and appropriate physician alerts may improve survival when implemented after discharge from hospitalization due to worsening HF.

  18. A prospective, multi-method, multi-disciplinary, multi-level, collaborative, social-organisational design for researching health sector accreditation [LP0560737].

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Westbrook, Johanna; Pawsey, Marjorie; Greenfield, David; Naylor, Justine; Iedema, Rick; Runciman, Bill; Redman, Sally; Jorm, Christine; Robinson, Maureen; Nathan, Sally; Gibberd, Robert

    2006-09-12

    Accreditation has become ubiquitous across the international health care landscape. Award of full accreditation status in health care is viewed, as it is in other sectors, as a valid indicator of high quality organisational performance. However, few studies have empirically demonstrated this assertion. The value of accreditation, therefore, remains uncertain, and this persists as a central legitimacy problem for accreditation providers, policymakers and researchers. The question arises as to how best to research the validity, impact and value of accreditation processes in health care. Most health care organisations participate in some sort of accreditation process and thus it is not possible to study its merits using a randomised controlled strategy. Further, tools and processes for accreditation and organisational performance are multifaceted. To understand the relationship between them a multi-method research approach is required which incorporates both quantitative and qualitative data. The generic nature of accreditation standard development and inspection within different sectors enhances the extent to which the findings of in-depth study of accreditation process in one industry can be generalised to other industries. This paper presents a research design which comprises a prospective, multi-method, multi-level, multi-disciplinary approach to assess the validity, impact and value of accreditation. The accreditation program which assesses over 1,000 health services in Australia is used as an exemplar for testing this design. The paper proposes this design as a framework suitable for application to future international research into accreditation. Our aim is to stimulate debate on the role of accreditation and how to research it.

  19. Does a joint development and dissemination of multidisciplinary guidelines improve prescribing behaviour: a pre/post study with concurrent control group and a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Jody D; Winkens, Ron AG; van der Weijden, Trudy; de Bruyn, Daisy; Severens, Johan L

    2006-01-01

    Background It is difficult to keep control over prescribing behaviour in general practices. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a dissemination strategy of multidisciplinary guidelines on the volume of drug prescribing. Methods The study included two designs, a quasi-experimental pre/post study with concurrent control group and a random sample of GPs within the intervention group. The intervention area with 53 GPs was compared with a control group of 54 randomly selected GPs in the south and centre of the Netherlands. Additionally, a randomisation was executed in the intervention group to create two arms with 27 GPs who were more intensively involved in the development of the guideline and 26 GPs in the control group. A multidisciplinary committee developed prescription guidelines. Subsequently these guidelines were disseminated to all GPs in the intervention region. Additional effects were studied in the subgroup trial in which GPs were invited to be more intensively involved in the guideline development procedure. The guidelines contained 14 recommendations on antibiotics, asthma/COPD drugs and cholesterol drugs The main outcome measures were prescription data of a three-year period (one year before and 2 years after guideline dissemination) and proportion of change according to recommendations. Results Significant short-term improvements were seen for one recommendation: mupirocin. Long-term changes were found for cholesterol drug prescriptions. No additional changes were seen for the randomised controlled study in the subgroup. GPs did not take up the invitation for involvement. Conclusion Disseminating multidisciplinary guidelines that were developed within a region, has no clear effect on prescribing behaviour even though GPs and specialists were involved more intensively in their development. Apparently, more effort is needed to bring about change. PMID:17081285

  20. Diagnosis of fetal osteogenesis imperfecta by multidisciplinary assessment: a retrospective study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qichang; Wang, Wenbo; Cao, Lin; Sun, Li; Xu, Yasong; Zhong, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    To describe our 2 year experience in diagnosing prenatal-onset osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) by multidisciplinary assessment. We retrospectively analyzed 10 cases of fetal OI by using prenatal ultrasound evaluation, postnatal radiographic diagnosis, and molecular genetic testing of COL1A1/2. By postnatal radiographic examination, five patients were diagnosed with type II OI and five were diagnosed with type III OI. A causative variant in the COL1A1 gene was found in four cases of type II and one case of type III OI; a causative variant in the COL1A2 gene was found in two cases of type III OI. The definitive diagnosis of fetal OI should be accomplished using a multidisciplinary assessment, which is paramount for proper genetic counseling. With the discovery of COL1A1/2 gene variants as a cause of OI, sequence analysis of these genes will add to the diagnostic process.

  1. Norwegian GPs' participation in multidisciplinary meetings: a register-based study from 2007.

    PubMed

    Hetlevik, Øystein; Gjesdal, Sturla

    2010-11-15

    An increasing number of patients with chronic disorders and a more complex health service demand greater interdisciplinary collaboration in Primary Health Care. The aim of this study was therefore to identify factors related to general practitioners (GPs), their list populations and practice municipalities associated with a high rate of GP participation in multidisciplinary meetings (MDMs). A national cross-sectional register-based study of Norwegian general practice was conducted, including data on all GPs in the Regular GP Scheme in 2007 (N = 3179). GPs were grouped into quartiles based on the annual number of MDMs per patient on their list, and the groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse associations between high rates of participation and characteristics of the GP, their list population and practice municipality. On average, GPs attended 30 MDMs per year. The majority of the meetings concerned patients in the age groups 20-59 years. Psychological disorders were the motivation for 53% of the meetings. In a multivariate logistic regression model, the following characteristics predicted a high rate of MDM attendance: younger age of the GP, with an OR of 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.1) for GPs < 45 years, a short patient list, with an OR of 4.9 (3.2-7.5) for list sizes below 800 compared to lists ≥ 1600, higher proportion of psychological diagnosis in consultations (OR3.4 (2.6-4.4)) and a high MDM proportion with elderly patients (OR 4.1 (3.3-5.4)). Practising in municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants (OR 3.7 (2.8-4.9)) and a high proportion of disability pensioners (OR 1.6 (1.2-2.2)) or patients receiving social assistance (OR 2.2 (1.7-2.8)) also predicted high rates of meetings. Psychological problems including substance addiction gave grounds for the majority of MDMs. GPs with a high proportion of consultations with such problems also participated more frequently in MDMs. List size was negatively

  2. The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, M.; Rex, M.; Dethloff, K.; Shupe, M.; Sommerfeld, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) is a key international flagship initiative under the auspices of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). The main aim of MOSAiC is to improve our understanding of the functioning of the Arctic coupled system with a complex interplay between processes in the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and ecosystem coupled through bio-geochemical interactions. The main objective of MOSAiC is to develop a better understanding of these important coupled-system processes so they can be more accurately represented in regional- and global-scale weather- and climate models. Observations covering a full annual cycle over the Arctic Ocean of many critical parameters such as cloud properties, surface energy fluxes, atmospheric aerosols, small-scale sea-ice and oceanic processes, biological feedbacks with the sea-ice ice and ocean, and others have never been made in the central Arctic in all seasons, and certainly not in a coupled system fashion. The main scientific goals focus on data assimilation for numerical weather prediction models, improved sea ice forecasts and climate models, ground truth for satellite remote sensing, energy budget and fluxes through interfaces, sources, sinks and cycles of chemical species, boundary layer processes, habitat conditions and primary productivity and stakeholder services. The MOSAiC Observatory will be deployed in, and drift with, the Arctic sea-ice pack for a full annual cycle, starting in fall 2019 and ending in fall 2020. Initial drift plans are to start in the newly forming fall sea-ice in the East Siberian Sea and follow the Transpolar Drift. The German Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research will made a huge contribution with the icebreaker Polarstern to serve as the central drifting observatory for this year long drift, and the US Department of Energy has committed a comprehensive atmospheric measurement suite. Many other

  3. Serious gaming during multidisciplinary rehabilitation for patients with complex chronic pain or fatigue complaints: study protocol for a controlled trial and process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vugts, Miel A P; Joosen, Margot C W; Mert, Agali; Zedlitz, Aglaia; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2017-06-08

    Many individuals suffer from chronic pain or functional somatic syndromes and face boundaries for diminishing functional limitations by means of biopsychosocial interventions. Serious gaming could complement multidisciplinary interventions through enjoyment and independent accessibility. A study protocol is presented for studying whether, how, for which patients and under what circumstances, serious gaming improves patient health outcomes during regular multidisciplinary rehabilitation. A mixed-methods design is described that prioritises a two-armed naturalistic quasi-experiment. An experimental group is composed of patients who follow serious gaming during an outpatient multidisciplinary programme at two sites of a Dutch rehabilitation centre. Control group patients follow the same programme without serious gaming in two similar sites. Multivariate mixed-modelling analysis is planned for assessing how much variance in 250 patient records of routinely monitored pain intensity, pain coping and cognition, fatigue and psychopathology outcomes is attributable to serious gaming. Embedded qualitative methods include unobtrusive collection and analyses of stakeholder focus group interviews, participant feedback and semistructured patient interviews. Process analyses are carried out by a systematic approach of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods at various stages of the research. The Ethics Committee of the Tilburg School of Social and Behavioural Sciences approved the research after reviewing the protocol for the protection of patients' interests in conformity to the letter and rationale of the applicable laws and research practice (EC 2016.25t). Findings will be presented in research articles and international scientific conferences. A prospective research protocol for the naturalistic quasi-experimental outcome evaluation was entered in the Dutch trial register (registration number: NTR6020; Pre-results). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  4. Fibromyalgia with severe forms of progression in a multidisciplinary therapy setting with emphasis on hyperthermia therapy – a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Romeyke, Tobias; Scheuer, Hans Christoph; Stummer, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a multi-factorial disease involving physiological as well as psychological factors. The aim of the study was to investigate a multidisciplinary inpatient treatment with emphasis on hyperthermia therapy by patients with widespread pain. Materials and methods The study involved 104 patients suffering from severely progressive FMS. A convenience sample and a prospective cohort design were used. The patients were treated in an acute hospital focusing on rheumatologic pain therapy and multidisciplinary complementary medicine. One patient group was treated with inclusion of hyperthermia therapy and the other group without. The therapy density (number of performed therapies per patient) was determined for every patient. Functional capacity measured by the Hannover functional status questionnaire (Funktionsfragebogen Hannover) and symptoms (von Zerssen complaint list) were analyzed for both groups on admission and on discharge. Results On admission, no significant difference could be established between control group (CG; multimodal without hyperthermia) and hyperthermia group (HG; multimodal with hyperthermia) (functional capacity, P=0.936). Functional capacity improved for the CG and the HG. On discharge, there was a significant difference between the two groups (functional capacity, P=0.039). There were no significant differences in fibromyalgia symptoms between CG (mean 41.8) and HG (mean 41.8) on their admission to hospital (P=0.988). On discharge, there was a significant difference (P=0.024) between the two groups (HG, mean 30.6; CG, mean 36.6). The inpatient therapy of patients with severely progressive fibromyalgia is characterized by a high frequency of therapy input. Conclusion FMS, especially with severe progression and a high degree of chronification, demands a multidisciplinary approach. In addition to the use of complementary medical procedures, integration of hyperthermia in the treatment process is a useful option

  5. Multidisciplinary studies of the social, economic and political impact resulting from recent advances in satellite meteorology, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The multidisciplinary studies explore and evaluate the impact of the meteorological satellite and the concomitant impact of the data derived from it on various user groups. As expected, the primary impact related to those who would use satellite data for weather prediction and related purposes. A secondary impact was in the area of international concerns where GARP and other international meteorological activities were affected and international law was developed. A tertiary impact was exemplified by satellite photographs utilized in advertisements and related materials. The case studies, supporting studies, and independent studies all emphasize the potential of the meteorological satellite.

  6. Benefits of multidisciplinary collaboration for earthquake casualty estimation models: recent case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, E.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake casualty loss estimation, which depends primarily on building-specific casualty rates, has long suffered from a lack of cross-disciplinary collaboration in post-earthquake data gathering. An increase in our understanding of what contributes to casualties in earthquakes involve coordinated data-gathering efforts amongst disciplines; these are essential for improved global casualty estimation models. It is evident from examining past casualty loss models and reviewing field data collected from recent events, that generalized casualty rates cannot be applied globally for different building types, even within individual countries. For a particular structure type, regional and topographic building design effects, combined with variable material and workmanship quality all contribute to this multi-variant outcome. In addition, social factors affect building-specific casualty rates, including social status and education levels, and human behaviors in general, in that they modify egress and survivability rates. Without considering complex physical pathways, loss models purely based on historic casualty data, or even worse, rates derived from other countries, will be of very limited value. What’s more, as the world’s population, housing stock, and living and cultural environments change, methods of loss modeling must accommodate these variables, especially when considering casualties. To truly take advantage of observed earthquake losses, not only do damage surveys need better coordination of international and national reconnaissance teams, but these teams must integrate difference areas of expertise including engineering, public health and medicine. Research is needed to find methods to achieve consistent and practical ways of collecting and modeling casualties in earthquakes. International collaboration will also be necessary to transfer such expertise and resources to the communities in the cities which most need it. Coupling the theories and findings from

  7. Study Design Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jeff; Likis, Frances E

    2015-10-01

    To aid authors in correctly naming their study design, to assist readers and reviewers who must decide what the design was for some published studies, and to provide consistency in evaluating the design of published studies, especially for those conducting systematic reviews and evidence synthesis. An annotated algorithm method is used to prompt serial questions and analysis to identify a single study design. The algorithm begins with a research article. Primary clinical research is divided into experimental and observational studies. Key determinants include identifying the study question and the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome. Experimental therapy and prognosis studies are subdivided into 4 design types. Observational therapy and prognosis studies are subdivided into 7 design types. Experimental diagnosis and screening studies are subdivided into 2 types. Observational diagnosis and screening studies are subdivided into 5 types. An annotated algorithm may be used by authors, readers, and reviewers to consistently determine the design of clinical research studies.

  8. A prospective cohort study of treatment decision-making for prostate cancer following participation in a multidisciplinary clinic.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Lauren M; Cullen, Jennifer; Elsamanoudi, Sally; Kim, Daniel J; Hudak, Jane; Colston, Maryellen; Travis, Judith; Kuo, Huai-Ching; Porter, Christopher R; Rosner, Inger L

    2016-05-01

    Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) are presented with several treatment options of similar efficacy but varying side effects. Understanding how and why patients make their treatment decisions, as well as the effect of treatment choice on long-term outcomes, is critical to ensuring effective, patient-centered care. This study examined treatment decision-making in a racially diverse, equal-access, contemporary cohort of patients with PCa counseled on treatment options at a multidisciplinary clinic. A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (formerly Walter Reed Army Medical Center) in 2006. Newly diagnosed patients with PCa were enrolled before attending a multidisciplinary clinic. Patients completed surveys preclinic and postclinic to assess treatment preferences, reasons for treatment choice, and decisional regret. As of January 2014, 925 patients with PCa enrolled in this study. Surgery (54%), external radiation (20%), and active surveillance (12%) were the most common primary treatments for patients with low- and intermediate-risk PCa, whereas patients with high-risk PCa chose surgery (34%) or external radiation with neoadjuvant hormones (57%). Treatment choice differed by age at diagnosis, race, comorbidity status, and calendar year in both univariable and multivariable analyses. Patients preferred to play an active role in the decision-making process and cited doctors at the clinic as the most helpful source of treatment-related information. Almost all patients reported satisfaction with their decision. This is one of the first prospective cohort studies to examine treatment decision-making in an equal-access, multidisciplinary clinic setting. Studies of this cohort would aid in understanding and improving the PCa decision-making process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Multidisciplinary validation study of the da Vinci Skills Simulator: educational tool and assessment device.

    PubMed

    Foell, Kirsten; Furse, Alexander; Honey, R John D'A; Pace, Kenneth T; Lee, Jason Y

    2013-12-01

    Despite the increased dexterity and precision of robotic surgery, like any new surgical technology it is still associated with a learning curve that can impact patient outcomes. The use of surgical simulators outside of the operating room, in a low-stakes environment, has been shown to shorten such learning curves. We present a multidisciplinary validation study of a robotic surgery simulator, the da Vinci(®) Skills Simulator (dVSS). Trainees and attending faculty from the University of Toronto, Departments of Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynecology (ObGyn), were recruited to participate in this validation study. All participants completed seven different exercises on the dVSS (Camera Targeting 1, Peg Board 1, Peg Board 2, Ring Walk 2, Match Board 1, Thread the Rings, Suture Sponge 1) and, using the da Vinci S Robot (dVR), completed two standardized skill tasks (Ring Transfer, Needle Passing). Participants were categorized as novice robotic surgeon (NRS) and experienced robotic surgeon (ERS) based on the number of robotic cases performed. Statistical analysis was conducted using independent T test and non-parametric Spearman's correlation. A total of 53 participants were included in the study: 27 urology, 13 ObGyn, and 13 thoracic surgery (Table 1). Most participants (89 %) either had no prior console experience or had performed <10 robotic cases, while one (2 %) had performed 10-20 cases and five (9 %) had performed ≥20 robotic surgeries. The dVSS demonstrated excellent face and content validity and 97 and 86 % of participants agreed that it was useful for residency training and post-graduate training, respectively. The dVSS also demonstrated construct validity, with NRS performing significantly worse than ERS on most exercises with respect to overall score, time to completion, economy of motion, and errors (Table 2). Excellent concurrent validity was also demonstrated as dVSS scores for most exercises correlated with performance of the two standardized

  10. The LUSI LAB project: a multidisciplinary study of focussed fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.

    2012-12-01

    The 29th of May 2006 several gas and mud eruption sites suddenly appeared along a fault in the NE of Java, Indonesia. Within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. To date Lusi is still active. This disaster has forced 50.000 people to be evacuated and an area of more than 7 km2 is covered by mud. The social impact of the eruption and its spectacular dimensions still attract the attention of international media reporting on the "largest mud eruption site on Earth". Our investigations revealed that the Watukosek fault system reactivated after the 27-05-2006 Yogyakarta earthquake allowing the release of overpressured fluids along the fault planes. Sampling results indicate that the main source of clay and fluids was traced from the overpressured units located at ~1500 m depth. Further, analyses and modelling indicate that Lusi gas was generated at high temperatures (>220°C) with maturity and isotopic characteristics corresponding to the oil-prone Eocene, Ngimbang shales situated at 4,400 m. Hydrocarbon, CO2 and helium analyses are consistent with a scenario of deep sited (>4000 m) magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal fluids responsible for the enhanced heat that altered source rocks and/or gas reservoirs. The neighbouring magmatic Arjuno complex and its fluid-pressure system combined with high seismic activity could have played a key role in the Lusi genesis and evolution. Despite the work done, still many unanswered questions remain. What lies beneath Lusi? If Lusi is not a mud volcano, how large is the connected hydrothermal system? How do the frequent seismic activity and the neighbouring Arjuno Welirang volcanic complex effect pulsating Lusi behaviour? What are the mechanisms triggering the eruption? How long will the eruption last? Are more eruptions like this one likely to occur? LUSI LAB is an ambitious project that aims to answer these questions and to perform a multidisciplinary study using

  11. What constitutes an excellent allied health care professional? A multidisciplinary focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Paans, Wolter; Wijkamp, Inge; Wiltens, Egbert; Wolfensberger, Marca V

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining what constitutes an excellent allied health care professional (AHCP) is important, since this is what will guide the development of curricula for training future physical therapists, oral hygienists, speech therapists, diagnostic radiographers, and dietitians. This also determines the quality of care. Aim To describe perspectives of AHCPs on which characteristics are commonly associated with an excellent AHCP. Methods AHCPs’ perspectives were derived from three focus group discussions. Twenty-one health care professionals participated. The final analysis of the focus group discussions produced eight domains, in which content validity was obtained through a Delphi panel survey of 27 contributing experts. Results According to the survey, a combination of the following characteristics defines an excellent AHCP: (1) cognizance, to obtain and to apply knowledge in a broad multidisciplinary health care field; (2) cooperativity, to effectively work with others in a multidisciplinary context; (3) communicative, to communicate effectively at different levels in complex situations; (4) initiative, to initiate new ideas, to act proactively, and to follow them through; (5) innovative, to devise new ideas and to implement alternatives beyond current practices; (6) introspective, to self-examine and to reflect; (7) broad perspective, to capture the big picture; and (8) evidence-driven, to find and to use scientific evidence to guide one’s decisions. Conclusion The AHCPs perspectives can be used as a reference for personal improvement for supervisors and professionals in clinical practice and for educational purposes. These perspectives may serve as a guide against which talented students can evaluate themselves. PMID:24049449

  12. A Study of the Association Between Multidisciplinary Home Care and Home Death Among Thai Palliative Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Nagaviroj, Kittiphon; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2017-06-01

    Many terminally ill patients would prefer to stay and die in their own homes, but unfortunately, some may not be able to do so. Although there are many factors associated with successful home deaths, receiving palliative home visits from the multidisciplinary care teams is one of the key factors that enable patients to die at home. Our study was aimed to find whether there was any association between our palliative home care program and home death. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Family Medicine at Ramathibodi Hospital between January 2012 and May 2014. All of the patients who were referred to multidisciplinary palliative care teams were included. The data set comprised of patient's profile, disease status, functional status, patient's symptoms, preferred place of death, frequency of home visits, types of team interventions, and patient's actual place of death. Multiple logistic regression was applied in order to determine the association between the variables and the probability of dying at home. A total of 142 patients were included into the study. At the end of the study, 50 (35.2%) patients died at home and 92 (64.8%) patients died in the hospital. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a strong association between multidisciplinary home care and home death (odds ratio 6.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.48-17.38). Palliative home care was a significant factor enabling patients who want to die at home. We encourage health policy makers to promote the development of community-based palliative care programs in Thailand.

  13. Multi-disciplinary approach in volcanic areas: case study of Kamchatka, Far East of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    overlooked (Kuznetsova et al., 2012). Of particular importance in understanding the thermal behavior of frozen soils is a knowledge of their unfrozen water content. In the glacier interlayers the unfrozen water between ice and particles can work as lubricants to modify the stress transfer at the contacts between ice-particle and particle-particle through indirect influence on relaxing the interaction between particles and ice (Moore, 2014). The paper discusses the application of multidisciplinary research on volcanic material covering permafrost and glaciers in volcanic areas. In cold environments, volcanic ash is widely used in different science disciplines in process-based studies examining paleoclimate reconstruction; the influence of permafrost aggradation and degradation; influence of tephra on snow and ice ablation; glacier fluctuations, volcanic glass weathering and new minerals formation (e.g. allophane, palagonite). The special properties of volcanic ash are critically reviewed particularly in relation to recent research in Kamchatka in the Far East of Russia. Of particular importance are the thermal properties and the unfrozen water contents of ash layers and the rate at which the weathering of volcanic glass takes place.

  14. Multidisciplinary assessment of post-Ebola sequelae in Guinea (Postebogui): an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Etard, Jean-François; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Leroy, Sandrine; Touré, Abdoulaye; Taverne, Bernard; Keita, Alpha Kabinet; Msellati, Philippe; Magassouba, N'Fally; Baize, Sylvain; Raoul, Hervé; Izard, Suzanne; Kpamou, Cécé; March, Laura; Savane, Ibrahima; Barry, Moumié; Delaporte, Eric

    2017-05-01

    The high number of survivors from the 2013-16 west African outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has raised several new issues: long-term clinical complications, psychosocial consequences, risks of EVD reactivation, and secondary transmission due to viral persistence in body fluids. We aimed to assess long-term clinical, psychosocial, and viral outcomes in EVD survivors in Guinea. In this multidisciplinary observational cohort study, we recruited patients aged 1 year or more in four sites in Guinea (Donka National Hospital, Conakry; Macenta Prefectoral Hospital, Macenta; N'zérékoré Regional Hospital, N'zérékoré; and Forécariah Prefectoral Hospital, Forécariah) following discharge from any Ebola treatment centre in Guinea. Eligible patients had had laboratory-confirmed EVD and had then been declared clear of the virus in the blood. All consenting patients were included, with no exclusion criteria. Trained clinicians assessed patients at enrolment to the cohort, recording clinical symptoms and signs of depression. We did routine blood examinations and examined viral persistence in body fluids using RT-PCR. We did psychological evaluations using questionnaires developed for different age groups. Follow-up is planned to 2 years, and here we present findings at enrolment. Between March 23, 2015, and July 11, 2016, we recruited 802 patients, of whom 360 (45%) were male, 442 (55%) were female; 158 (20%) were younger than 18 years. The median age was 28·4 years (range 1·0-79·9, IQR 19·4-39·8). The median delay after discharge was 350 days (IQR 223-491). The most frequent symptoms were general symptoms (324 [40%] patients), musculoskeletal pain (303 [38%]), headache (278 [35%]), depression (124 [17%] of 713 responses), abdominal pain (178 [22%]), and ocular disorders (142 [18%]). More adults than children had at least one clinical symptom (505 [78%] vs 101 [64%], p<0·0003), ocular complications (124 [19%] vs 18 [11%], p=0·0200), or musculoskeletal symptoms

  15. Stable Isotopes, Multidisciplinary Studies, and the Leadership of J.G. Liou in UHP Metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.

    2005-12-01

    J.G. Liou has played a crucial role in improving knowledge of UHP metamorphism by leading multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams of researchers and by encouraging new investigators and providing them access to samples. Stable isotope geochemistry has made important contributions to understanding UHP metamorphism including: (1) The discovery of O- and H-isotope signatures of meteoric water in UHP rocks from China and Kazakhstan demonstrates that their protoliths originated at or near Earth's surface in a cold climate(a); (2) The mapping of contiguous tracts of outcrops extending over distances of 100 km where both eclogites and their wall rocks retain unusually low d18O and dD is consistent with the subduction and exhumation of UHP slabs as coherent structural units(b); (3) Analysis of samples from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project reveals not only that UHP metamorphic rocks have not exchanged O-isotopes with mantle rocks while they were buried in the upper mantle but also that garnet peridotite slabs from the mantle have not exchanged with crustal wall rocks(c). Recent advances have resulted from multidisciplinary geochemical investigations. The analysis of zircons for both d18O and U-Pb established the age of cold climate, meteoric water alteration of protoliths to be Neoproterozoic for UHP rocks from Dabie and Sulu, China(d). Thus, O-isotopes plus age dating raises the possibility that evidence of snowball Earth conditions has been preserved in an unlikely host: UHP metamorphic rocks. A comparison of U-Pb, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr isotope data with analyses for d18O in coexisting minerals shows that discordant age dates correlate with mineral pairs that are not in O-isotope exchange equilibrium(e). It may be seen that multidisciplinary geochemical investigations provide mutually reinforcing data that greatly strengthens interpretations. New discoveries of de novo microdiamonds accompanied by multiphase mineral inclusions in UHP metamorphosed

  16. Randomized controlled trial of multidisciplinary team stress and performance in immersive simulation for management of infant in shock: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Daniel Aiham; Ragot, Stéphanie; Breque, Cyril; Guechi, Youcef; Boureau-Voultoury, Amélie; Petitpas, Franck; Oriot, Denis

    2016-03-25

    Human error and system failures continue to play a substantial role in adverse outcomes in healthcare. Simulation improves management of patients in critical condition, especially if it is undertaken by a multidisciplinary team. It covers technical skills (technical and therapeutic procedures) and non-technical skills, known as Crisis Resource Management. The relationship between stress and performance is theoretically described by the Yerkes-Dodson law as an inverted U-shaped curve. Performance is very low for a low level of stress and increases with an increased level of stress, up to a point, after which performance decreases and becomes severely impaired. The objectives of this randomized trial are to study the effect of stress on performance and the effect of repeated simulation sessions on performance and stress. This study is a single-center, investigator-initiated randomized controlled trial including 48 participants distributed in 12 multidisciplinary teams. Each team is made up of 4 persons: an emergency physician, a resident, a nurse, and an ambulance driver who usually constitute a French Emergency Medical Service team. Six multidisciplinary teams are planning to undergo 9 simulation sessions over 1 year (experimental group), and 6 multidisciplinary teams are planning to undergo 3 simulation sessions over 1 year (control group). Evidence of the existence of stress will be assessed according to 3 criteria: biological, electrophysiological, and psychological stress. The impact of stress on overall team performance, technical procedure and teamwork will be evaluated. Participant self-assessment of the perceived impact of simulations on clinical practice will be collected. Detection of post-traumatic stress disorder will be performed by self-assessment questionnaire on the 7(th) day and after 1 month. We will concomitantly evaluate technical and non-technical performance, and the impact of stress on both. This is the first randomized trial studying

  17. Multidisciplinary studies, systems approaches and parasite eco-epidemiology: something old, something new.

    PubMed

    Giraudoux, P; Raoul, F; Pleydell, D; Craig, P S

    2008-09-01

    Parasite requires an understanding of complex transmission systems where individual, population and environmental factors and their interactions can hardly been considered separately. Moreover, the importance of space and time in host population and parasite transmission processes is increasingly recognised. The present review illustrates how epidemiology and transmission ecology have evolved in a multidisciplinary framework to a systems approach that includes both spatial and temporal dimensions. Focusing on population processes, three significant challenges are discussed: (i) integration of landscape ecology concepts and modelling across time-space scales, (ii) development of molecular methods that permits easy parasite/host identification and process tracking (e.g. host and parasite movements), and (iii) integration of sociology methods to estimate zoonotic risk and exposure.

  18. ID migraine questionnaire in temporomandibular disorders with craniofacial pain: a study by using a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Carlo; Di Nunno, Anna; Vanacore, Nicola; Bruti, Gianluca

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of migraine and related disability and the role of ID migraine questionnaire as a screening tool in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and craniofacial pain (CFP). TMDs patients with CFP underwent stomatognathic (RDC/TMD criteria) and neurological visits (IHS criteria, 2004). ID migraine questionnaire and MIgraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) were also administered. Out of 45 patients, 69% met diagnosis of migraine plus chronic tension-type headache (CTTH); 9% presented CTTH and 20% were migraineurs. Out of 39 migraineurs who completed MIDAS, 56% presented the highest disability grade. Out of 37 patients who completed ID migraine questionnaire, 32 resulted affected by probable migraine with a diagnostic sensibility and specificity of 94% and 100%, respectively. Our findings showed a clinical association between TMDs and migraine. We support a clinical role of ID migraine and MIDAS in TMDs patients with CFP and we underline the importance of a multidisciplinary evaluation in this group of migraineurs.

  19. A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Luk, Keith Dip Kei; Wan, Thomas Wai Man; Wong, Yat Wa; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee; Chan, Keith Ying Kei; Cheng, Aldous Chun Shing; Kwan, Mike Wing Wang; Law, Karlen Kar Pui; Lee, Peter Wing Ho; Cheing, Gladys Lai Ying

    2010-08-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain in Hong Kong, and to identify factors associated with work resumption. 57 men and 8 women aged 20 to 56 (mean, 39) years who had a more than 3-month history of low back pain and were unresponsive to more than 6 months of conventional treatment participated in a 14-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme involving physical conditioning, work conditioning, and work readiness. Training protocols entailed flexibility and endurance training, hydrotherapy, weight lifting, and work stimulation. Patients were assessed at baseline (week 1), week 7, week 14, and month 6 with regard to the intensity of low back pain, self-perceived disability, range of lumbar motion, isoinertial performance of the trunk muscles, and depression level. Patient demographics that influenced work resumption were identified using a prediction model. Patients who did and did not return to work were compared. Of the 54 patients who completed all follow-up assessments, 28 returned to work and 26 did not. The latter was significantly older (37 vs. 42 years, p=0.038) and absent from work longer (11 vs. 22 months, p=0.029) than the former. The rehabilitation programme helped patients regain physical function and the ability to work. Patients who returned to work showed greater improvement in self-perceived disability and physical function. This rehabilitation programme facilitated regain of physical functioning and the ability to return to work. The pre-programme employment status, duration of absence from work, and patient age were the most important predictors for work resumption.

  20. Multidisciplinary Team Contributions Within a Dedicated Outpatient Palliative Radiotherapy Clinic: A Prospective Descriptive Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pituskin, Edith; Fairchild, Alysa; Dutka, Jennifer; Gagnon, Lori; Driga, Amy; Tachynski, Patty; Borschneck, Jo-Ann; Ghosh, Sunita

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with bone metastases may experience pain, fatigue, and decreased mobility. Multiple medications for analgesia are often required, each with attendant side effects. Although palliative-intent radiotherapy (RT) is effective in decreasing pain, additional supportive care interventions may be overlooked. Our objective was to describe the feasibility of multidisciplinary assessment of patients with symptomatic bone metastases attending a dedicated outpatient palliative RT clinic. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients referred for RT for painful bone metastases were screened for symptoms and needs relevant to their medications, nutritional intake, activities of daily living, and psychosocial and spiritual concerns from January 1 to December 31, 2007. Consultations by appropriate team members and resulting recommendations were collected prospectively. Patients who received RT were contacted by telephone 4 weeks later to assess symptom outcomes. Results: A total of 106 clinic visits by 82 individual patients occurred. As determined by screening form responses, the clinical Pharmacist, Occupational Therapist, Registered Dietician and Social Worker were consulted to provide assessments and recommendations within the time constraints presented by 1-day palliative RT delivery. In addition to pain relief, significant improvements in tiredness, depression, anxiety, drowsiness and overall well-being were reported at 4 weeks. Conclusions: Systematic screening of this population revealed previously unmet needs, addressed in the form of custom verbal and written recommendations. Multidisciplinary assessment is associated with a high number of recommendations and decreased symptom distress. Our findings lend strong support to the routine assessment by multiple supportive care professionals for patients with advanced cancer being considered for palliative RT.

  1. Multidisciplinary team contributions within a dedicated outpatient palliative radiotherapy clinic: a prospective descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Pituskin, Edith; Fairchild, Alysa; Dutka, Jennifer; Gagnon, Lori; Driga, Amy; Tachynski, Patty; Borschneck, Jo-Ann; Ghosh, Sunita

    2010-10-01

    Patients with bone metastases may experience pain, fatigue, and decreased mobility. Multiple medications for analgesia are often required, each with attendant side effects. Although palliative-intent radiotherapy (RT) is effective in decreasing pain, additional supportive care interventions may be overlooked. Our objective was to describe the feasibility of multidisciplinary assessment of patients with symptomatic bone metastases attending a dedicated outpatient palliative RT clinic. Consecutive patients referred for RT for painful bone metastases were screened for symptoms and needs relevant to their medications, nutritional intake, activities of daily living, and psychosocial and spiritual concerns from January 1 to December 31, 2007. Consultations by appropriate team members and resulting recommendations were collected prospectively. Patients who received RT were contacted by telephone 4 weeks later to assess symptom outcomes. A total of 106 clinic visits by 82 individual patients occurred. As determined by screening form responses, the clinical Pharmacist, Occupational Therapist, Registered Dietician and Social Worker were consulted to provide assessments and recommendations within the time constraints presented by 1-day palliative RT delivery. In addition to pain relief, significant improvements in tiredness, depression, anxiety, drowsiness and overall well-being were reported at 4 weeks. Systematic screening of this population revealed previously unmet needs, addressed in the form of custom verbal and written recommendations. Multidisciplinary assessment is associated with a high number of recommendations and decreased symptom distress. Our findings lend strong support to the routine assessment by multiple supportive care professionals for patients with advanced cancer being considered for palliative RT. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Problems and potential solutions of regional palliative care: a trial of the multiregional and multidisciplinary conference in the OPTIM study].

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Akemi; Morita, Tatsuya; Komura, Kazue; Sueda, Chie; Shirahige, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Hiroya; Akizuki, Nobuya; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kato, Masashi; Eguchi, Kenji

    2011-11-01

    Quality palliative care is required at the community level, and interaction among multidisciplinary practitioners from various regions might be useful for improving community palliative care. The aims of the present study are: 1)to evaluate the participant's-perception of the usefulness of the interactive conference of multidisciplinary multiregional healthcare practitioners, and 2)to clarify the areas needing to be improved in community palliative care, raised in the conference. A total of 336 multidisciplinary practitioners from 4 areas of Japan participated in the conference. Overall, more than 80% of the participants evaluated the conference as very useful or useful; more than half reported that the conference was very useful or useful to obtain a concrete solution for the obstacles and to utilize the lessons though the conference as a means to improve quality of care in their own community. The identified areas needing improvement are: 1)developing an interactive networking among healthcare practitioners and/or organizations in the community; 2)developing a system of high quality, easily-available specialized palliative care service; 3)improving the knowledge and perception of medical professionals concerning palliative care and home care; 4)developing a collaborative care system between hospitals and community healthcare practitioners and/or organizations; 5)developing a collaborative care system among community healthcare practitioners and/or organizations; 6)optimizing existing resources available in the community; 7)improving the perception of patients and the general public about palliative care, home care, and cancer; and 8)to reevaluate the regulations, laws, healthcare system, and financial or human resources at the social level.

  3. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Study the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Relapsing and Progressive MS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    for this study at UCSF and Mt Sinai, Clinical evaluation and invitations to participate, mailing kits have been designed, prepared and started to...Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c . THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev...collection and initial processing Subtask 1: Preparation of collection mailing kits Subtask 2: Bacterial DNA extraction from stool material Subtask

  4. From user needs to system specifications: multi-disciplinary thematic seminars as a collaborative design method for development of health information systems.

    PubMed

    Scandurra, I; Hägglund, M; Koch, S

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a new multi-disciplinary method for user needs analysis and requirements specification in the context of health information systems based on established theories from the fields of participatory design and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). Whereas conventional methods imply a separate, sequential needs analysis for each profession, the "multi-disciplinary thematic seminar" (MdTS) method uses a collaborative design process. Application of the method in elderly homecare resulted in prototypes that were well adapted to the intended user groups. Vital information in the points of intersection between different care professions was elicited and a holistic view of the entire care process was obtained. Health informatics-usability specialists and clinical domain experts are necessary to apply the method. Although user needs acquisition can be time-consuming, MdTS was perceived to efficiently identify in-context user needs, and transformed these directly into requirements specifications. Consequently the method was perceived to expedite the entire ICT implementation process.

  5. Exercise capacity before and after an 8-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program in lung cancer patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Martijn A; Janssen, Paul P; Willemsen, Sonja C P; Hochstenbag, Monique M H; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2006-05-01

    Although lung cancer is a highly prevalent type of cancer, the effects of an inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on pulmonary function and exercise capacity have never been studied in these patients. Pulmonary function, 6-min walking distance and peak exercise capacity of 10 patients with a severely impaired pulmonary function following treatment of lung cancer were assessed in this pilot study before and after an 8-week inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. At baseline, patients had a restrictive pulmonary function and an apparent exercise intolerance (median 6-min walking distance: 63.6% predicted; median peak cycling load: 58.5% predicted). Despite the lack of change in median pulmonary function [FEV1: -0.01L, p = 0.5469], functional exercise capacity [145 m; 43.2% of the initial values, p=0.0020] and peak exercise capacity [26 W; 34.4% of the initial values, p = 0.0078] improved significantly compared to baseline. Future trials have to corroborate the present findings. Nevertheless, patients with lung cancer have a clear indication to start a comprehensive rehabilitation program following intensive treatment of their disease. In fact, based on the results of the present pilot study it appears that these patients are good candidates for pulmonary rehabilitation programs.

  6. [Ergonomic technology. Design study].

    PubMed

    Apostol, I; Ciobanu, O

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with domains and technological developments and related supports that enhance the rehabilitation process. Ergonomic Technology, Rehabilitation Engineering, Accessibility and Assistive technology are factors involved in promoting a greater independence for people with disabilities by designing and developing new devices with improved design and functionality. Results of a device design study for people with disabilities are presented.

  7. The effect of a structured model for stroke rehabilitation multi-disciplinary team meetings on functional recovery and productivity: a Phase I/II proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sarah F; Burton, Louisa; McGovern, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Regular multidisciplinary team meetings are the main way that teams operate, yet our earlier research found they can sometimes be suboptimal. We developed a model to structure multidisciplinary team meetings and assessed the feasibility, acceptability and impact of its implementation on meeting quality and patient outcomes. Longitudinal cohort design with non-participant observation of multidisciplinary team meetings before and after implementation of the intervention. Inpatient stroke rehabilitation units. Members of the multidisciplinary inpatient stroke rehabilitation teams. A model to structure multidisciplinary team meetings. Quality of multidisciplinary team meetings (using a predefined checklist); change in independence (Barthel Index) during admission; length of stay; meeting duration and the number of patients discussed. At baseline, meeting quality was generally low. Following implementation, all aspects of meeting quality improved by 5%-58%. This was achieved without loss of staff productivity or additional resources: The mean number of patients treated during the observation periods was 36 (SD 17.6), which was unchanged after implementation. Nor were there any significant changes in the length of meetings (mean = 76 minutes), time spent discussing each patient (5.4 vs. 7 minutes) or length of stay (26.7 vs. 30.3 days), but there was a greater increase in Barthel Index score after implementation (3.8 vs. 4.7) indicating greater functional recovery. A feasible and acceptable model to structure multidisciplinary stroke team meetings has been developed and implemented. This increased meeting quality without increase in resources and may increase patient recovery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Patient and practice characteristics predict the frequency of general practice multidisciplinary referrals of patients with chronic diseases: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mark F; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Chan, Bibiana C; Proudfoot, Judy; Crookes, Patrick; Zwar, Nick; Powell Davies, Gawaine

    2011-07-01

    Chronic diseases require a multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal patient care in general practice. In Australian general practice, this usually involves referral to an allied health provider outside the practice. This study explored the patient and practice factors associated with referral of patients with diabetes, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or hypertension to external allied health providers (AHPs). A multilevel analysis of data collected as part of a quasi-experimental study was conducted in 26 practices in Sydney. The frequency of patient-reported referral to AHPs 6-months post-intervention was measured against patient and practice characteristics assessed by patients and practice staff questionnaires. Seven per cent of the total variance in the referrals was due to differences between practices and 93% attributed to differences between patients. Previous referral, age over 45 years, multiple conditions, longer illness duration, poor mental and physical health were associated with the likelihood of referral to AHPs but not socio-economic status, patient self-assessment of care and the intervention. Those attending practices with over three GPs were more likely to be referred. Referral to multidisciplinary care for patients with long term conditions was appropriately linked to the complexity, duration and impact of these conditions. The lack of association between the intervention and the frequency of referral suggests that factors other than knowledge and communication such as the accessibility of the allied health services may have been more important in determining referral. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Research in Small-Scale Societies: Studying Emotions and Facial Expressions in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Crivelli, Carlos; Jarillo, Sergio; Fridlund, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Although cognitive science was multidisciplinary from the start, an under-emphasis on anthropology has left the field with limited research in small scale, indigenous societies. Neglecting the anthropological perspective is risky, given that once-canonical cognitive science findings have often been shown to be artifacts of enculturation rather than cognitive universals. This imbalance has become more problematic as the increased use of Western theory-driven approaches, many of which assume human uniformity (“universality”), confronts the absence of a robust descriptive base that might provide clarifying or even contrary evidence. We highlight the need for remedies to such shortcomings by suggesting a two-fold methodological shift. First, studies conducted in indigenous societies can benefit by relying on multidisciplinary research groups to diminish ethnocentrism and enhance the quality of the data. Second, studies devised for Western societies can readily be adapted to the changing settings encountered in the field. Here, we provide examples, drawn from the areas of emotion and facial expressions, to illustrate potential solutions to recurrent problems in enhancing the quality of data collection, hypothesis testing, and the interpretation of results. PMID:27486420

  10. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Research in Small-Scale Societies: Studying Emotions and Facial Expressions in the Field.

    PubMed

    Crivelli, Carlos; Jarillo, Sergio; Fridlund, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Although cognitive science was multidisciplinary from the start, an under-emphasis on anthropology has left the field with limited research in small scale, indigenous societies. Neglecting the anthropological perspective is risky, given that once-canonical cognitive science findings have often been shown to be artifacts of enculturation rather than cognitive universals. This imbalance has become more problematic as the increased use of Western theory-driven approaches, many of which assume human uniformity ("universality"), confronts the absence of a robust descriptive base that might provide clarifying or even contrary evidence. We highlight the need for remedies to such shortcomings by suggesting a two-fold methodological shift. First, studies conducted in indigenous societies can benefit by relying on multidisciplinary research groups to diminish ethnocentrism and enhance the quality of the data. Second, studies devised for Western societies can readily be adapted to the changing settings encountered in the field. Here, we provide examples, drawn from the areas of emotion and facial expressions, to illustrate potential solutions to recurrent problems in enhancing the quality of data collection, hypothesis testing, and the interpretation of results.

  11. Implementation of a Novel Medical School Multidisciplinary and Interprofessional Oncology Curriculum: a Mixed Method Study.

    PubMed

    McKillip, Ryan P; Hahn, Olwen M; Bartkowiak, Bartlomiej; Rosenberg, Carol A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Arora, Vineet M; Golden, Daniel W

    2017-08-22

    As the population of patients with cancer and survivors grows, physician knowledge of oncology clinical care and research is increasingly important. Despite this patient population growth, medical students and non-oncology physicians report insufficient oncologic and survivorship care training. First-year students at a single US medical school completing a summer research experience were invited to participate in integrated Scholars in Oncology-Associated Research (SOAR) program. SOAR seeks to broaden students' understanding of multidisciplinary and interprofessional oncology clinical care and research. SOAR consists of three components: structured didactics, multidisciplinary tumor board attendance, and interprofessional shadowing. A mixed-methods approach investigated whether student knowledge improved after SOAR. Thirty-three students enrolled in SOAR (20 in 2015, 13 in 2016) and completed pre-assessments. Twenty-five (75.8%) students completed SOAR and post-assessments. Self-reported understanding of clinical (2[2, 3] vs. 4[4], p < 0.01) and research oncology (2[2, 3] vs. 4[4], p < 0.01) improved after SOAR. Understanding of individual disciplines also significantly improved. When describing clinical oncology, responses written post-SOAR were more comprehensive, averaging 3.7 themes per response vs. 2.8 on pre-assessments (p = 0.03). There were more references to "survivorship" as a component of oncology on post-assessments (0[0.0%] vs. 7[28.0%], p < 0.01) and "screening/prevention" (2[6.1%] vs. 7[28.0%], p = 0.03). Additionally, students more often described cancer care as a continuum on post-assessments (4[12.1%] vs. 11[44.0%], p = 0.01). A structured didactic and experiential introduction to oncology, SOAR, was successfully piloted. SOAR improved participant understanding of oncology and its distinct clinical and research disciplines. Future work will focus on expanding SOAR into a longitudinal oncology curriculum.

  12. Computational developments for simulation-based design: Multi-disciplinary flow/thermal/cure/stress modeling, analysis, and validation for processing of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Nam Duc

    In the process modeling and manufacturing of large geometrically complex structural components comprising of fiber-reinforced composite materials by Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), a polymer resin is injected into a mold cavity filled with porous fibrous preforms. The overall success of the manufacturing process depends on the complete impregnation of the fiber preform by the polymer resin, prevention of polymer gelation during filling, and subsequent avoidance of dry spots. Since the RTM process involves the injection of a cold resin into a heated mold, the associated physics encompasses a moving boundary value problem in conjunction with the multi-disciplinary study of flow/thermal/cure and the subsequent prediction of residual stresses inside the mold cavity. Although experimental validations are indispensable, routine manufacture of large complex structural geometries can only be enhanced via computational simulations; thus, eliminating costly trial runs and helping designers in the set-up of the manufacturing process. This thesis describes an in-depth study of the mathematical and computational developments towards formulating an effective simulation-based design methodology using the finite element method. The proposed methodology is well suited for applications to practical engineering structural components encountered in the manufacture of complex RTM type composites, and encompasses both thick and thin composites with the following distinguishing features: (i) an implicit pure finite element computational methodology with illustrations first to isothermal situations to overcome the deficiencies of traditional explicit type methods while permitting standard mesh generators to be employed in a straightforward manner; (ii) a methodology for predicting permeability of fiber preform microstructures in both virgin and manufactured states; (iii) extension of the implicit pure finite element methodology to non-isothermal situations with and without influence of

  13. Transitions of Care Between Acute and Chronic Heart Failure: Critical Steps in the Design of a Multidisciplinary Care Model for the Prevention of Rehospitalization.

    PubMed

    Comín-Colet, Josep; Enjuanes, Cristina; Lupón, Josep; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Badosa, Neus; Verdú, José María

    2016-10-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of heart failure, mortality, the number of readmissions, and their associated health care costs are very high. Heart failure care models inspired by the chronic care model, also known as heart failure programs or heart failure units, have shown clinical benefits in high-risk patients. However, while traditional heart failure units have focused on patients detected in the outpatient phase, the increasing pressure from hospital admissions is shifting the focus of interest toward multidisciplinary programs that concentrate on transitions of care, particularly between the acute phase and the postdischarge phase. These new integrated care models for heart failure revolve around interventions at the time of transitions of care. They are multidisciplinary and patient-centered, designed to ensure continuity of care, and have been demonstrated to reduce potentially avoidable hospital admissions. Key components of these models are early intervention during the inpatient phase, discharge planning, early postdischarge review and structured follow-up, advanced transition planning, and the involvement of physicians and nurses specialized in heart failure. It is hoped that such models will be progressively implemented across the country.

  14. Methodology for sensitivity analysis, approximate analysis, and design optimization in CFD for multidisciplinary applications. [computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Arthur C., III; Hou, Gene W.

    1992-01-01

    Fundamental equations of aerodynamic sensitivity analysis and approximate analysis for the two dimensional thin layer Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed, and special boundary condition considerations necessary to apply these equations to isolated lifting airfoils on 'C' and 'O' meshes are discussed in detail. An efficient strategy which is based on the finite element method and an elastic membrane representation of the computational domain is successfully tested, which circumvents the costly 'brute force' method of obtaining grid sensitivity derivatives, and is also useful in mesh regeneration. The issue of turbulence modeling is addressed in a preliminary study. Aerodynamic shape sensitivity derivatives are efficiently calculated, and their accuracy is validated on two viscous test problems, including: (1) internal flow through a double throat nozzle, and (2) external flow over a NACA 4-digit airfoil. An automated aerodynamic design optimization strategy is outlined which includes the use of a design optimization program, an aerodynamic flow analysis code, an aerodynamic sensitivity and approximate analysis code, and a mesh regeneration and grid sensitivity analysis code. Application of the optimization methodology to the two test problems in each case resulted in a new design having a significantly improved performance in the aerodynamic response of interest.

  15. The challenges of meeting nutritional requirements in children and adults with epidermolysis bullosa: proceedings of a multidisciplinary team study day.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, L; Haynes, L; Sklar, M; Martinez, A E; Mellerio, J E

    2011-08-01

    This is a report of a study day held in London on 3 March 2010 to discuss measures with which to meet the nutritional requirements of patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Members of national and international multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) caring for patients with EB attended this event. The study day focused on four challenging aspects of management intimately associated with nutritional status in EB, necessitating close cooperation between MDT members: iron-deficiency anaemia, gastrostomy placement and feeding, muscle mass and mobility, and dental health. The study day provided a unique forum for dietitians, doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, psychologists, psychotherapists, dentists, dental hygienists and occupational therapists to share knowledge and debate problems common to all who strive to promote best practice in this rare and complex group of conditions. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Study design: the basics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Ja; Hoffmann, Raymond G

    2007-01-01

    In biomedical research, meaningful conclusions can only be drawn based on data collected from a valid scientific design using appropriate statistical methods. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate study design is important in order to provide an unbiased and scientific evaluation of the research questions. In this chapter, the different kinds of experimental studies commonly used in biology and medicine are introduced. A brief survey of basic experimental study designs, randomization, blinding, possible biases, issues in data analysis, and interpretation of the study results are mainly provided.

  17. Nanovehicles as a novel target strategy for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a multidisciplinary study of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Maciej; Wisniewski, Marek; Werengowska-Ciecwierz, Karolina; Roszek, Katarzyna; Czarnecka, Joanna; Łakomska, I.; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Tyloch, Dominik; Debski, Robert; Pietkun, Katarzyna; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Grzanka, Dariusz; Czajkowski, Rafał; Drewa, Gerard; Jundziłł, A.; Agyin, Joseph K.; Habib, Samy L.; Terzyk, Artur P.; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    In general, detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) occurs at the late stage when there is no treatment option. In the present study, we designed novel drug delivery systems that are functionalized with anti-CD133 antibodies. The C1, C2 and C3 complexes with cisplatin were introduced into nanotubes, either physically or chemically. The complexes were reacted with anti-CD133 antibody to form the labeled product of A0-o-CX-chem-CD133. Cytotoxicity screening of all the complexes was performed on CHO cells. Data showed that both C2 and C3 Pt-complexes are more cytotoxic than C1. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that nanotubes conjugated to CD133 antibody have the ability to target cells expressing the CD133 antigen which is responsible for the emergence of resistance to chemotherapy and disease recurrence. The shortest survival rate was observed in the control mice group (K3) where no hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy procedures were used. On the other hand, the longest median survival rate was observed in the group treated with A0-o-C1-chem-CD133. In summary, we designed a novel drug delivery system based on carbon nanotubes loaded with Pt-prodrugs and functionalized with anti-CD133 antibodies. Our data demonstrates the effectiveness of the new drug delivery system and provides a novel therapeutic modality in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26254295

  18. Rational design of lyophilized high concentration protein formulations-mitigating the challenge of slow reconstitution with multidisciplinary strategies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjin; Krishnan, Sampathkumar; Ricci, Margaret Speed; Shih, Liang-Yu; Liu, Dingjiang; Gu, Jian Hua; Jameel, Feroz

    2013-10-01

    An increasing number of protein therapies require chronic administration at high doses (>200 mg) by subcutaneous (sc) injection. Due to the injection volume limitation (<1.5 mL) associated with sc administration, high protein concentration formulations at or exceeding 100 mg/mL are required to achieve the dose. Development of a high concentration protein formulation can be challenging due to increased aggregation at higher concentration and/or chemical instability, which necessitates the development of lyophilized formulation for high protein concentration drug products. Unique challenges, such as long reconstitution time for a lyophilized high protein concentration drug product, can limit practical usage and commercial marketability of the product. In this paper, a systematic approach is presented to develop a lyophilized high concentration protein formulation. The focus is on achieving reasonable reconstitution times with multidisciplinary strategies. Many strategies have been shown to provide nominal improvement in reconstitution times, such as adding wetting agents in the diluents, incorporating high annealing steps in the lyophilization cycle and reconstituting under vacuum. The reconstitution strategy of reduced diluent volume, however, has enabled significant decrease in reconstitution time (4-7-fold) of lyophilized high protein concentration formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvements in Chilean patients with obesity following a 5-month multidisciplinary exercise program: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Caamaño-Navarrete, Felipe; Gonzalez-Rivera, Javier; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Banzer, Winfried; Martinez Salazar, Cristian

    2017-04-26

    To determine the effects of a multidisciplinary exercise program on physical fitness, metabolic profile and nutritional status of obese patients. Seventeen women and four men (n=21, age 18 to 60 years), with severe obesity (BMI = 35-40 kg/m2, n=7), morbid obesity (BMI = 40-50 kg/m2, n=9), and super obesity (BMI > 50 kg/m2, n=5), took part in a physical exercise program with nutritional and psychological support. The intermittent physical exercise program was applied three times per week (1 hour/session), with 4-8 exercises with weights. Three series were carried out for 60 s each, with increasing intensity leading to exhaustion at the end of the period and with 1-2 min recovery between series. Outcomes include the BMI, waist contour, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise capacity, maximum dynamic strength, hand grip strength, basal glucose and lipid profiles. The patients decreased in weight and BMI (p < 0.05). Morbid (n = 9) and super obese (n = 5) improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (p = 0.005 and 0.040) and lowered their triglycerides (-25.70% and -15.38%; p = 0.008). Hand grip strength improved in the super obese (p < 0.001). Descriptively, patients with super obesity had the largest improvements. Multi-modal lifestyle and exercise interventions improve the condition especially in super obese patients. The improved health status may improve the outcome of secondary steps in weight loss, such as bariatric surgery. The program was feasible to be executed and patients compliant to the intervention.

  20. New Approach to Concept Feasibility and Design Studies for Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M. J.; McLaughlin, W.; Nichols, J.

    1998-01-01

    JPL has assembled a team of multidisciplinary experts with corporate knowledge of space mission and instrument development. The advanced Concept Design Team, known as Team X, provides interactive design trades including cost as a design parameter, and advanced visualization for pre-Phase A Studies.

  1. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: recommendations of Turkish multidisciplinary neuroendocrine tumor study group on diagnosis, treatment and follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Fahri; Erdamar, Sibel; Kucuk, Ozlem; Oruc, Nevin; Coker, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) are a relatively rare, heterogeneous group of diseases in which important advances have been observed in the diagnosis and treatment as well as in our understanding of the biology and genetics of the disease in recent years. Given the insufficient scientific data available on evidence-based management of GEPNETs and the differences in circumstances in individual countries, a multidisciplinary study group was established to provide guidelines for the management of GEPNETS. This study group consisted of a medical oncologist, endocrinologist, surgeon, pathologist, gastroenterologist, and a nuclear medicine specialist, who aimed to prepare a practical guide in the light of existing scientific data and international guidelines, to be used in common clinical practice. PMID:28261279

  2. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: recommendations of Turkish multidisciplinary neuroendocrine tumor study group on diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Suayib; Bayram, Fahri; Erdamar, Sibel; Kucuk, Ozlem; Oruc, Nevin; Coker, Ahmet

    2017-03-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) are a relatively rare, heterogeneous group of diseases in which important advances have been observed in the diagnosis and treatment as well as in our understanding of the biology and genetics of the disease in recent years. Given the insufficient scientific data available on evidence-based management of GEPNETs and the differences in circumstances in individual countries, a multidisciplinary study group was established to provide guidelines for the management of GEPNETS. This study group consisted of a medical oncologist, endocrinologist, surgeon, pathologist, gastroenterologist, and a nuclear medicine specialist, who aimed to prepare a practical guide in the light of existing scientific data and international guidelines, to be used in common clinical practice.

  3. Description and design considerations of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of a multidisciplinary cognitive-behavioural intervention for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ideal rehabilitation strategy following lumbar spinal fusion surgery has not yet been established. This paper is a study protocol, describing the rationale behind and the details of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation intervention for lumbar spinal fusion patients based on the best available evidence. Predictors of poor outcome following spine surgery have been identified to provide targets for the intervention, and the components of the intervention were structured in accordance with the cognitive-behavioural model. The study aims to compare the clinical and economical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation strategy to that of usual care for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Methods/Design The study is a randomized clinical trial including 96 patients scheduled for lumbar spinal fusion surgery due to degenerative disease or spondylolisthesis. Patients were recruited in the period October 2011 to July 2013, and the follow-up period is one year from date of surgery. Patients are allocated on a 1:2 ratio (control: intervention) to either treatment as usual (control group), which implies surgery and the standard postoperative rehabilitation, or in addition to this, a patient education focusing on pain behaviour and pain coping (intervention group). It takes place in a hospital setting, and consists of six group-based sessions, managed by a multidisciplinary team of health professionals. The primary outcomes are disability (Oswestry Disability Index) and sick leave, while secondary outcomes include coping (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), fear-avoidance belief (Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire), pain (Low Back Pain Rating Scale, pain index), mobility during hospitalization (Cumulated Ambulation Score), generic health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) and resource use. Outcomes are measured using self report questionnaires, medical records and national registers. Discussion It is expected that the intervention can

  4. Your next clinical cancer research project: preparation in a multidisciplinary environment is key

    PubMed Central

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Bosco, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    For clinical cancer research to have an impact, careful planning in a multidisciplinary translational setting is required. Once your multidisciplinary research team is established, the first step is to define an answerable research question, followed by planning the study design and identifying the study population—allowing for appropriate statistical analyses of high-quality data, whether patient or lab-based. Finally, interpretation of the results also requires multidisciplinary discussions and academic writing in a clear and concise way. This editorial is designed to give you some helpful tips and structure when planning your next clinical cancer research project. PMID:28386300

  5. Reducing patients’ suicide ideation through training mental health teams in the application of the Dutch multidisciplinary practice guideline on assessment and treatment of suicidal behavior: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To strengthen suicide prevention skills in mental health care in The Netherlands, multidisciplinary teams throughout the country are trained in the application of the new Dutch guideline on the assessment and treatment of suicidal behavior. Previous studies have shown beneficial effects of additional efforts for guideline implementation on professionals’ attitude, knowledge, and skills. However, the effects on patients are equally important, but are rarely measured. The main objective of this study is to examine whether patients of multidisciplinary teams who are trained in guideline application show greater recovery from suicide ideation than patients of untrained teams. Methods/Design This is a multicentre cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which multidisciplinary teams from mental health care institutions are matched in pairs, and randomly allocated to either the experimental or control condition. In the experimental condition, next to the usual dissemination of the guideline (internet, newsletter, books, publications, and congresses), teams will be trained in the application of the guideline via a 1-day small interactive group training program supported by e-learning modules. In the control condition, no additional actions next to usual dissemination of the guideline will be undertaken. Assessments at patient level will start when the experimental teams are trained. Assessments will take place upon admission and after 3 months, or earlier if the patient is discharged. The primary outcome is suicide ideation. Secondary outcomes are non-fatal suicide attempts, level of treatment satisfaction, and societal costs. Both a cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis will be performed. The effects of the intervention will be examined in multilevel models. Discussion The strengths of this study are the size of the study, RCT design, training of complete multidisciplinary teams, and the willingness of both management and staff to participate

  6. LOXT mirror design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanspeybroeck, L.; Antrim, W.; Boyd, D.; Giacconi, R.; Sinnamon, G.; Stille, F.

    1972-01-01

    The final report for the large orbiting X-ray telescope (LOXT) high resolution mirror design study is presented. The following tasks were performed: (1) Generation of a reference and alternate preliminary design for the LOXT high resolution mirror assembly, which will meet the LOXT scientific requirements, and are within the present state of the art of materials and fabrication techniques. (2) Measurement, in X-rays, of the scattering properties of a variety of optical flats, embodying materials, coatings, and polishing techniques which might be applicable to the flight configuration LOXT high resolution mirror. (3) Preparation of a procurement specification for a paraboloid test mirror of the size of the innermost paraboloid of the high resolution mirror assembly, including the design requirements for the reference design evolved from this preliminary design study. The results of the engineering and scientific analysis and the conclusions drawn are presented. The procurement specification for the test mirror is included.

  7. Methods for a study of Anticipatory and Preventive multidisciplinary Team Care in a family practice.

    PubMed

    Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Lemelin, Jacques; Liddy, Clare; Legault, Frances

    2010-02-01

    BACKGROUND T o examine the methodology used to evaluate whether focusing the work of nurse practitioners and a pharmacist on frail and at-risk patients would improve the quality of care for such patients. Evaluation of methodology of a randomized controlled trial including analysis of quantitative and qualitative data over time and analysis of cost-effectiveness. A single practice in a rural area near Ottawa, Ont. A total of 241 frail patients, aged 50 years and older, at risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes. At-risk patients were randomly assigned to receive Anticipatory and Preventive Team Care (from their family physicians, 1 of 3 nurse practitioners, and a pharmacist) or usual care. The principal outcome for the study was the quality of care for chronic disease management. Secondary outcomes included other quality of care measures and evaluation of the program process and its cost-effectiveness. This article examines the effectiveness of the methodology used. Quantitative data from surveys, administrative databases, and medical records were supplemented with qualitative information from interviews, focus groups, work logs, and study notes. Three factors limit our ability to fully demonstrate the potential effects of this team structure. For reasons outside our control, the intervention duration was shorter than intended; the practice's physical layout did not facilitate interactions between the care providers; and contamination of the intervention effect into the control arm cannot be excluded. The study used a randomized design, relied on a multifaceted approach to evaluating its effects, and used several sources of data. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT00238836 (CONSORT).

  8. The effect of a multidisciplinary intervention program on hepatic adiposity in overweight-obese children: protocol of the EFIGRO study.

    PubMed

    Medrano, M; Maiz, E; Maldonado-Martín, S; Arenaza, L; Rodríguez-Vigil, B; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; Larrarte, E; Diez-López, I; Sarasúa-Miranda, A; Tobalina, I; Barrenechea, L; Pérez-Asenjo, J; Kannengiesser, S; Manhães-Savio, A; Echaniz, O; Labayen, I

    2015-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most frequent liver abnormality observed in overweight or obese children and is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. (i) To evaluate the effect of a 22-week multidisciplinary intervention program on hepatic fat fraction in overweight or obese children and (ii) to examine the effect of the intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors, self-esteem and well-being. A total of 160 children, 9-11 years, will be recruited by pediatricians and randomly assigned to control (N = 80) or intervention (N = 80) groups. The control group will receive a family-based lifestyle and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week). The duration of training sessions will be 90 min of exercise, including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises. The primary outcome is the change in hepatic fat fraction (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI). Secondary outcomes include cardiometabolic risk factors such as total adiposity (dual Xray absorptiometry), visceral adiposity (MRI), functional peak aerobic capacity (cardiopulmonary exercise testing), blood pressure, muscular fitness, speed–agility, and fasting blood insulin, glucose, C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile and psychological measurements (questionnaires). All the measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention. This study will provide insight in the efficacy of a multidisciplinary intervention program including healthy lifestyle education, psycho-education and supervised exercise to reduce hepatic fat and cardiometabolic risk in overweight children.

  9. Multi-Objective and Multidisciplinary Design Optimisation (MDO) of UAV Systems using Hierarchical Asynchronous Parallel Evolutionary Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-17

    blade design, (Obayashi 1998), (Oyama, Liou et al. September, 2002), (Parmee and Watson July 1999), (Raymer 2003; Gonzalez 2005). The application of...and there have been different efforts to explore the benefits and capabilities of EAs for MDO, aircraft, wing, aerofoil and rotor blade design...significantly reduce the amount of time and money in the early stages of aircraft design. Ruben et al. ( Ruben and . 2000) conducted some work on GAs for

  10. A multi-stakeholder framework for sustainable energy behavior: A multidisciplinary systems study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansari, Nasrin

    Growth of population and moving towards over-consumption and over-pollution are significant threats to the environment and therefore necessitate moving towards sustainability approaches. CO2 emissions are considered to be the main basis of the incredible increase in the earth's surface temperature in recent years. Most emissions result from human activities. Thus, developing a detailed framework representing the parameters affecting individuals' energy behaviors is required. This dissertation offers an integrated conceptual framework to increase the efficiency of energy systems under complex and uncertainty conditions, facilitate energy consumption problem solving, and support the development of capacities at the individual, social, and technical levels to improve managing energy consumptions in the future. This research presents a conceptual soft systems model to explore the process of individuals' energy behavior change based on socio-structural and techno-structural contexts. In addition, a comprehensive model based on systems dynamics principles is presented to address the issue of CO2 emissions related to the households' energy consumption behavior. The proposed systems dynamics model provides a broad overview of the key agents affecting energy consumption, including government/public sector, households, and power industry. The model is created based on the research in the literature discussing the causal relations between various variables. The proposed systems dynamics model is verified by simulating different scenarios. In this research a survey is designed and conducted to investigate the role of individual, social and technical behaviors in reducing energy consumption, energy costs and carbon footprints based on the energy use profile. In sum, this study investigates the process of energy behavior change based on socio-structural and techno-structural contexts.

  11. Prevalence of HIV among childbearing women and women having termination of pregnancy: multidisciplinary steering group study.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D. J.; MacKinnon, H.; Smith, R.; Patel, N. B.; Scrimgeour, J. B.; Inglis, J. M.; Peutherer, J. F.; Urquhart, G. E.; Emslie, J. A.; Covell, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women, in particular those whose behaviour or that of their partners put them at "low risk" of infection. DESIGN--Voluntary named or anonymous HIV testing of pregnant women during 21 months (November 1988 to July 1990). SUBJECTS AND SETTING--All women who planned to continue their pregnancy and attended clinics serving the antenatal populations of Edinburgh and Dundee. All women admitted for termination of pregnancy to gynaecology wards serving the pregnant populations of Dundee and outlying rural areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Period prevalence of HIV antibody positivity. RESULTS--91% of antenatal clinic attenders and 97% of women having termination of pregnancy agreed to HIV testing on a named or anonymous basis. HIV period prevalences for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy tested in Dundee were 0.13% and 0.85% respectively, and for antenatal clinic attenders tested in Edinburgh 0.26%. For those at "low risk" rates for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy in Dundee were 0.11% and 0.13%, and for antenatal clinic attenders in Edinburgh 0.02%. In Dundee HIV prevalence among women having a termination of pregnancy (0.85%) was significantly greater than that among antenatal clinic attenders (0.13%). CONCLUSIONS--HIV infection is undoubtedly occurring among women at "low risk," and it is clear that a policy of selective testing of those at only "high risk" is inadequate for pregnant women living in areas of high prevalence such as Edinburgh and Dundee. Moreover, when studying pregnant populations in such areas there is the need to include those having a termination of pregnancy. PMID:1586820

  12. Feasibility and potential effectiveness of a non-pharmacological multidisciplinary care programme for persons with generalised osteoarthritis: a randomised, multiple-baseline single-case study

    PubMed Central

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; Rietveld, Leonie; den Broeder, Alfons A; de Bie, Rob A; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a 12-week, non-pharmacological multidisciplinary intervention in patients with generalised osteoarthritis (GOA). Design A randomised, concurrent, multiple-baseline single-case design. During the baseline period, the intervention period and the postintervention period, all participants completed several health outcomes twice a week on Visual Analogue Scales. Setting Rheumatology outpatient department of a specialised hospital in the Netherlands. Participants 1 man and four women (aged 51–76 years) diagnosed with GOA. Primary outcome measures To assess feasibility, the authors assessed the number of dropouts and adverse events, adherence rates and patients' satisfaction. Secondary outcome measures To assess the potential effectiveness, the authors assessed pain and self-efficacy using visual data inspection and randomisation tests. Results The intervention was feasible in terms of adverse events (none) and adherence rate but not in terms of participants' satisfaction with the intervention. Visual inspection of the data and randomisation testing demonstrated no effects on pain (p=0.93) or self-efficacy (p=0.85). Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that the proposed intervention for patients with GOA was insufficiently feasible and effective. The data obtained through this multiple-baseline study have highlighted several areas in which the therapy programme can be optimised. PMID:22815466

  13. User's guide for ENSAERO: A multidisciplinary program for fluid/structural/control interaction studies of aircraft (release 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1994-01-01

    Strong interactions can occur between the flow about an aerospace vehicle and its structural components resulting in several important aeroelastic phenomena. These aeroelastic phenomena can significantly influence the performance of the vehicle. At present, closed-form solutions are available for aeroelastic computations when flows are in either the linear subsonic or supersonic range. However, for aeroelasticity involving complex nonlinear flows with shock waves, vortices, flow separations, and aerodynamic heating, computational methods are still under development. These complex aeroelastic interactions can be dangerous and limit the performance of aircraft. Examples of these detrimental effects are aircraft with highly swept wings experiencing vortex-induced aeroelastic oscillations, transonic regime at which the flutter speed is low, aerothermoelastic loads that play a critical role in the design of high-speed vehicles, and flow separations that often lead to buffeting with undesirable structural oscillations. The simulation of these complex aeroelastic phenomena requires an integrated analysis of fluids and structures. This report presents a summary of the development, applications, and procedures to use the multidisciplinary computer code ENSAERO. This code is based on the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations and modal/finite-element structural equations.

  14. Effectiveness of three treatment strategies on occupational limitations and quality of life for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: Is a multidisciplinary approach the key feature to success: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain (cLBP) is a significant public health problem, being the primary cause of work absenteeism, as well as affecting sufferers’ quality of life, in industrialized society. International guidelines recommend intensive multidisciplinary approaches for patients with cLBP. However, these costly and time-consuming programs can only be offered to a minority of the most heavily affected patients and therefore do not seem likely to respond to public health requirements. Lighter programs may be an alternative to full time hospital-based programs with valuable results in terms of disability and occupational activity for cLBP patients. It is therefore important to define both what the determining components of management to improve activity restriction are and how to treat a larger number of patients more effectively at a lower cost. The aim of this study is to compare three programs with various levels of intensity and multidisciplinary. Methods/Design This paper describes the protocol for a prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trial in working aged patients with cLBP. Three treatment strategies are compared: (1) intensive and multidisciplinary program conducted in a rehabilitation center; (2) less intensive outpatient program conducted by a private physiotherapist; (3) mixed strategy combining the same out program with a multidisciplinary intervention. The primary outcome of the trial is the impact of the mixed strategy on being able to work compared to hospital centered-program and out program. The secondary outcome is the impact of the mixed strategy on quality of life and social ability compared to the two others programs. The intervention part of the trial programs will take 5 weeks and observational follow-up will take 12 months. The sample size will be 180 participants (60 for each arm). The project has been approved by the Ethical Committee of Angers Hospital, France. Discussion On the hypothesis that a multidisciplinary

  15. Design Thinking: Employing an Effective Multidisciplinary Pedagogical Framework to Foster Creativity and Innovation in Rural and Remote Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a project to develop and track "design thinking" skills within groups of students in late primary and early secondary years of schooling in order to strengthen their creative skills and innovative mindsets. The outcome of the research will be the development of a model for the broad-based implementation of design…

  16. Design Thinking: Employing an Effective Multidisciplinary Pedagogical Framework to Foster Creativity and Innovation in Rural and Remote Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines a project to develop and track "design thinking" skills within groups of students in late primary and early secondary years of schooling in order to strengthen their creative skills and innovative mindsets. The outcome of the research will be the development of a model for the broad-based implementation of design…

  17. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in Physiotherapy in Multidisciplinary Vocational Rehabilitation: A Case Study of Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Finger, Monika E; Selb, Melissa; De Bie, Robert; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2015-12-01

    Multidisciplinary teamwork is increasingly recognized as a critical factor of success in vocational rehabilitation. Although its clinical implementation is still challenging, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has shown to be a useful framework to facilitate communication between stakeholders, to help structure rehabilitation plans and for setting goals and clarifying team roles. With this in mind, the objective of this teaching case study is to illustrate an application of ICF-based tools in a multidisciplinary return to work (RTW) program for patients with non-specific low back pain (NLBP) from the perspective of the physiotherapist. The participant is a 42-year-old kindergarten teacher, who was on sick leave for 10 weeks due to NLBP. This case study describes the use of ICF-based tools such as the Rehabilitation Management Sheet (RehabManagement-Sheet) to guide the rehabilitation process and facilitate team-based and physiotherapist goal setting and documentation in a multidisciplinary RTW program for NLBP. Utilizing ICF tools, we defined long-term and short-term goals, documented improvements in the patient's impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions and formulated action steps. The use of ICF-based tools in multidisciplinary rehabilitation allows for a comprehensive assessment, common goal setting and coordinated intervention planning. ICF-based tools like the RehabManagement-Sheet support the physiotherapist's role within the rehabilitation team by enhancing transparency in goal setting and intervention planning across disciplines. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. GasTurbnLab: a multidisciplinary problem solving environment for gas turbine engine design on a network of nonhomogeneous machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houstis, E. N.; Catlin, A. C.; Tsompanopoulou, P.; Gottfried, D.; Balakrishnan, G.; Su, K.; Rice, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    Gas turbine engines are very complex (with 20-40,000 parts) and have extreme operating conditions. The important physical phenomena take place on scales from 10-100 microns to meters. A complete and accurate dynamic simulation of an entire engine is enormously demanding. Designing a complex system, like a gas turbine engine, will require fast, accurate simulations of computational models from multiple engineering disciplines along with sophisticated optimization techniques to help guide the design process. In this paper, we describe the architecture of an agent-based software framework for the simulation of various aspects of a gas turbine engine, utilizing a "network" of collaborating numerical objects through a set of interfaces among the engine parts. Moreover, we present its implementation using the Grasshopper agent middleware and provide simulation results that show the feasibility of the computational paradigm implemented.

  19. X-traktor: A Rookie Robot, Simple, Yet Complex, Impeccably Designed, a Very Innovative Multidisciplinary Engineering Masterpiece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, A. J., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    FIRST is the acronym of For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology. FIRST is a 501.C.3 non-profit organization whose mission is to generate an interest in science and engineering among today's young adults and youth. This mission is accomplished through a robot competition held annually in the spring of each year. NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center, Education Programs Department, awarded a grant to Lee High School, the sole engineering magnet school in Huntsville, Alabama. MSFC awarded the grant in hopes of fulfilling its goal of giving back invaluable resources to its community and engineers, as well as educating tomorrow's work force in the high-tech area of science and technology. Marshall engineers, Lee High School students and teachers, and a host of other volunteers and parents officially initiated this robot design process and competitive strategic game plan. The FIRST Robotics Competition is a national engineering contest, which immerses high school students in the exciting world of science and engineering. Teaming with engineers from government agencies, businesses, and universities enables the students to learn about the engineering profession. The students and engineers have six weeks to work together to brainstorm, design, procure, construct, and test their robot. The team then competes in a spirited, 'no-holds barred' tournament, complete with referees, other FIRST-designed robots, cheerleaders, and time clocks. The partnerships developed between schools, government agencies, businesses, and universities provide an exchange of resources and talent that build cooperation and expose students to new and rewarding career options. The result is a fun, exciting, and stimulating environment in which all participants discover the important connections between classroom experiences and real-world applications. This paper will highlight the story, engineering development, and evolutionary design of Xtraktor, the rookie robot, a manufacturing

  20. Rational design on controlled release ion-exchange polymeric microspheres and polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of water-soluble drugs through a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongqiang

    surfactants applied. A three-factor spherical composite experimental design was used to map the cause-and-effect relationship. PLN with high drug loading efficiency (92%) and small particle size (100 nm) were predicted by ANN and confirmed by experiment. The roles of various factors on the properties of PLN were also investigated. In summary, this thesis demonstrates that an integrated multidisciplinary strategy ranging from preformulation to formulation to optimization is suitable for the rational design of SP-DS microspheres and PLN with desired properties.

  1. Multicentre evaluation of multidisciplinary team meeting agreement on diagnosis in diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon L F; Wells, Athol U; Desai, Sujal R; Poletti, Venerino; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Nunes, Hilario; Valeyre, Dominique; Brillet, Pierre Y; Kambouchner, Marianne; Morais, António; Pereira, José M; Moura, Conceição Souto; Grutters, Jan C; van den Heuvel, Daniel A; van Es, Hendrik W; van Oosterhout, Matthijs F; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Rasmussen, Finn; Madsen, Line B; Gooptu, Bibek; Pomplun, Sabine; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuoka, Junya; Johkoh, Takeshi; Nicholson, Andrew G; Sayer, Charlie; Edmunds, Lilian; Jacob, Joseph; Kokosi, Maria A; Myers, Jeffrey L; Flaherty, Kevin R; Hansell, David M

    2016-07-01

    first-choice diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) versus not IPF for MDTMs, clinicians, and radiologists, using univariate Cox regression analysis. 70 patients were included in the final study cohort. Clinicians, radiologists, pathologists, and the MDTMs assigned their patient diagnoses between Jan 1, and Oct 15, 2015. IPF made up 88 (18%) of all 490 MDTM first-choice diagnoses. Inter-MDTM agreement for first-choice diagnoses overall was moderate (κ=0·50). Inter-MDTM agreement on diagnostic likelihoods was good for IPF (κw=0·71 [IQR 0·64-0·77]) and connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease (κw=0·73 [0·68-0·78]); moderate for non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP; κw=0·42 [0·37-0·49]); and fair for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (κw=0·29 [0·24-0·40]). High-confidence diagnoses (>65% likelihood) of IPF were given in 68 (77%) of 88 cases by MDTMs, 62 (65%) of 96 cases by clinicians, and in 57 (66%) of 86 cases by radiologists. Greater prognostic separation was shown for an MDTM diagnosis of IPF than compared with individual clinician's diagnosis of this disease in five of seven MDTMs, and radiologist's diagnosis of IPF in four of seven MDTMs. Agreement between MDTMs for diagnosis in diffuse lung disease is acceptable and good for a diagnosis of IPF, as validated by the non-significant greater prognostic separation of an IPF diagnosis made by MDTMs than the separation of a diagnosis made by individual clinicians or radiologists. Furthermore, MDTMs made the diagnosis of IPF with higher confidence and more frequently than did clinicians or radiologists. This difference is of particular importance, because accurate and consistent diagnoses of IPF are needed if clinical outcomes are to be optimised. Inter-multidisciplinary team agreement for a diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis is low, highlighting an urgent need for standardised diagnostic guidelines for this disease. National Institute of Health Research, Imperial

  2. A randomised controlled trial of a lengthened and multi-disciplinary consultation model in a socially deprived community: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Whitford, David L; Chan, Wai-Sun

    2007-06-28

    There has been little development of the general practice consultation over the years, and many aspects of the present consultation do not serve communities with multiple health and social problems well. Many of the problems presenting to general practitioners in socio-economically disadvantaged areas are not amenable to a purely medical solution, and would particularly benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. Socio-economic deprivation is also associated with those very factors (more psychosocial problems, greater need for health promotion, more chronic diseases, more need for patient enablement) that longer consultations have been shown to address. This paper describes our study protocol, which aims to evaluate whether a lengthened multidisciplinary primary care team consultation with families in a socially deprived area can improve the psychological health of mothers in the families. In a randomised controlled trial, families with a history of social problems, substance misuse or depression are randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The study is based in three general practices in a highly deprived area of North Dublin. Primary health care teams will be trained in conducting a multidisciplinary lengthened consultation. Families in the intervention group will participate in the new style multidisciplinary consultation. Outcomes of families receiving the intervention will be compared to the control group who will receive only usual general practitioner care. The primary outcome is the psychological health of mothers of the families and secondary outcomes include general health status, quality of life measures and health service usage. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a lengthened multidisciplinary team consultation in primary care. The embedded nature of this study in general practices in a highly deprived area ensures generalisability to other deprived communities, but more particularly it promises relevance to

  3. Environmental transformations and cultural changes: A multidisciplinary case study for the Late Glacial and Final Palaeolithic from Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, F.; Tolksdorf, J. F.; Viehberg, F.; Schwarz, A.; von Bramann, U.; Bittmann, F.; Kaiser, K.; Schwalb, A.; Staesche, U.; Breest, K.; Pott, R.; Veil, S.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to younger periods, studies integrating archaeological and environmental records for the Palaeolithic are still rare. Especially our knowledge about interactions between the drastic climatic/environmental changes and cultural developments during the Late Glacial is very limited. This multidisciplinary case study from river Jeetzel, a western Elbe tributary in Northern Germany, combines high resolution palaeoenvironmental investigations with fine-scaled archaeological research on stratified and surface sites. Various dating methods (palynostratigraphy, radiocarbon- and OSL-dating) and analyses of environmental and climatological proxies (pollen and plant macro-remains, ostracods, diatoms and green algae) on river palaeochannel sediments allow detailed reconstruction of interactions between Late Glacial climate, vegetation and fluvial developments. Biostratigraphical analyses on stratified archaeological sites and dating of charcoal / bone fragments from artefact scatters place the Late Palaeolithic occupation of Early Federmesser groups in an environmental context. Thus the former production of hitherto unknown amber art (amongst others a figurine representing a moose) can be ascribed to the Older Dryas and Early Allerød, which are the periods of main Late Glacial afforestation. Therewith our investigations suggest that Final Palaeolithic cultural changes may have been triggered by climatic and environmental transformations.

  4. Integrated Multidisciplinary Design of High Pressure Multistage Compressor Systems (la Conception integree des compresseurs multi-etage a haute performance)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    d6veloppement. Les textes contenus dans cette publication ont 6t6 pr6sent6s lors d’un cycle de conf6rences organis6 par la commission RTO des technologies... analyses are also of AVT Symposium, Toulouse, 11-15 May 1998. prime importance to simulate the fatigue behavior taking 7. HOPPER, P.J., "Designing for...efficient way. Analyses of customer The first phase of the product definition lifecvcle is the to supplier relations have been extended from the pure

  5. Study Design for Sequencing Studies.

    PubMed

    Honaas, Loren A; Altman, Naomi S; Krzywinski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Once a biochemical method has been devised to sample RNA or DNA of interest, sequencing can be used to identify the sampled molecules with high fidelity and low bias. High-throughput sequencing has therefore become the primary data acquisition method for many genomics studies and is being used more and more to address molecular biology questions. By applying principles of statistical experimental design, sequencing experiments can be made more sensitive to the effects under study as well as more biologically sound, hence more replicable.

  6. Integrated multidisciplinary biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study of southern California Neogene coastal sections

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.H.; Arends, R.G.; Filewicz, M.V.; Thornton, M.L.C.; Vork, D.R.

    1988-03-01

    This integrated biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study of several Neogene sections of coastal southern California is based on the use of diatoms, calcareous nannofossils, palynology, and benthic foraminifera. The study included the Naples Bluff, Topanga Canyon, and Newport Bay sections, and DSDP Site 468.

  7. Feasibility and potential effectiveness of a non-pharmacological multidisciplinary care programme for persons with generalised osteoarthritis: a randomised, multiple-baseline single-case study.

    PubMed

    Hoogeboom, Thomas J; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Rietveld, Leonie; den Broeder, Alfons A; de Bie, Rob A; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a 12-week, non-pharmacological multidisciplinary intervention in patients with generalised osteoarthritis (GOA). A randomised, concurrent, multiple-baseline single-case design. During the baseline period, the intervention period and the postintervention period, all participants completed several health outcomes twice a week on Visual Analogue Scales. Rheumatology outpatient department of a specialised hospital in the Netherlands. 1 man and four women (aged 51-76 years) diagnosed with GOA. To assess feasibility, the authors assessed the number of dropouts and adverse events, adherence rates and patients' satisfaction. To assess the potential effectiveness, the authors assessed pain and self-efficacy using visual data inspection and randomisation tests. The intervention was feasible in terms of adverse events (none) and adherence rate but not in terms of participants' satisfaction with the intervention. Visual inspection of the data and randomisation testing demonstrated no effects on pain (p=0.93) or self-efficacy (p=0.85). The results of the present study indicate that the proposed intervention for patients with GOA was insufficiently feasible and effective. The data obtained through this multiple-baseline study have highlighted several areas in which the therapy programme can be optimised.

  8. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Study the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Relapsing and Progressive MS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    EAE induction 5 Subtask 1: re-derivation of Tob1/2D2 mice into a GF line Subtask 2: Transfer of live microbiota from select patients into germ...free mice, EAE induction and follow-up Major Task 2: Immuno-pathological characterization of experimental mice Subtask 1: tissue dissection...and essential study staff being unavailable due to planned leave. We anticipate that the recruitment rate will improve now that the study is up and

  9. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Study the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Relapsing and Progressive MS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    microbiota transfer into germ-free mice and EAE induction 5 Subtask 1: re-derivation of Tob1/2D2 mice into a GF line Subtask 2: Transfer of live...microbiota from select patients into germ-free mice, EAE induction and follow-up Major Task 2: Immuno-pathological characterization of experimental mice...study starting during the summer months, and essential study staff being unavailable due to planned leave. We anticipate that the recruitment rate will

  10. [Disability after stroke: a longitudinal study in moderate and severe stroke patients included in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program].

    PubMed

    Noe-Sebastian, E; Balasch-Bernat, M; Colomer-Font, C; Moliner-Munoz, B; Rodriguez Sanchez-Leiva, C; Ugart, P; Llorens, R; Ferri-Campos, J

    2017-05-01

    Stroke is a recognized cause of disability among adults. However the impact that the deficits that occur after a moderate/severe stroke have on long-term disability, as well as the response of the resultant deficits to rehabilitation, are not completely understood. A total of 396 patients with a modified Rankin score >= 3 after an ischemic (n = 221) or hemorrhagic (n = 175) stroke were included in this study. All patients were assessed with cognitive, behavior, emotional, motor and functional domains. All patients were assessed at baseline and six months after inclusion in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. Risk of falling (Berg Balance Scale < 45 in 83.1% of the sample at baseline and 49.5% at follow-up) and functional problems (82.8% with a Barthel Index < 75 at baseline and 53% at follow-up) were the most prevalent deficits. Emotional disturbances were those that most improved while behavioral problems were those that did less. Although global disability improved during treatment among most patients, only 11% of our patients, especially those with preserved cognitive function at baseline, could be classified as patients with mild disability at follow-up. Stroke consequences are multidimensional. The symptoms that the stroke can cause in multiple domains, as well as the pattern of recovery are widely diverse, with prevalence of behavioral long-term disturbances.

  11. Experiences of hospital-based multidisciplinary team meetings in oncology: An interview study among participating general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pype, Peter; Mertens, Fien; Belche, Jeanluc; Duchesnes, Christiane; Kohn, Laurence; Sercu, Marij; Deveugele, Myriam

    2017-12-01

    Cancer care has become complex, requiring healthcare professionals to collaborate to provide high-quality care. Multidisciplinary oncological team (MDT) meetings in the hospital have been implemented to coordinate individual cancer patients' care. General practitioners (GPs) are invited to join, but their participation is minimal. Aim of this study is to explore participating GPs' perceptions of their current role and to understand their preferences towards effective role execution during MDT meetings. In May to June 2014, semi-structured interviews (n = 16) were conducted involving GPs with MDT experience in Belgium. The analysis was done according to qualitative content analysis principles. Attendance of an MDT meeting is perceived as part of the GP's work, especially for complex patient care situations. Interprofessional collaborative relationships and the GP's perceived benefit to the MDT meeting discussions are important motivators to participate. Enhanced continuity of information flow and optimized organizational time management were practical aspects triggering the GP's intention to participate. GPs valued the communication with the patient before and after the meeting as an integral part of the MDT dynamics. GPs perceive attendance of the MDT meeting as an integral part of their job. Suggestions are made to enhance the efficiency of the meetings.

  12. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Sustainable Management of Watershed Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lack of integration in the study and management of water resource problems suggests the need for a multidisciplinary approach. As practiced in the Shepherd Creek stormwater management study (Cincinnati OH), we envision a multidisciplinary approach involving economic incentive...

  13. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Sustainable Management of Watershed Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lack of integration in the study and management of water resource problems suggests the need for a multidisciplinary approach. As practiced in the Shepherd Creek stormwater management study (Cincinnati OH), we envision a multidisciplinary approach involving economic incentive...

  14. Pan-Britain, mixed-methods study of multidisciplinary teams teaching parents to manage children's long-term kidney conditions at home: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Swallow, Veronica M; Allen, Davina; Williams, Julian; Smith, Trish; Crosier, Jean; Lambert, Heather; Qizalbash, Leila; Wirz, Lucy; Webb, Nicholas J A

    2012-02-14

    Care of children and young people (children) with long-term kidney conditions is usually managed by multidisciplinary teams. Published guidance recommends that whenever possible children with long-term conditions remain at home, meaning parents may be responsible for performing the majority of clinical care-giving. Multidisciplinary team members, therefore, spend considerable time promoting parents' learning about care-delivery and monitoring care-giving. However, this parent-educative aspect of clinicians' role is rarely articulated in the literature so little evidence exists to inform professionals' parent-teaching interventions. This ongoing study addresses this issue using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods involving the twelve children's kidney units in England, Scotland and Wales. Phase I involves a survey of multidisciplinary team members' parent-teaching interventions using:i) A telephone-administered questionnaire to determine: the numbers of professionals from different disciplines in each team, the information/skills individual professionals relay to parents and the teaching strategies/interventions they use. Data will be managed using SPSS to produce descriptive statisticsii) Digitally-recorded, qualitative group or individual interviews with multidisciplinary team members to explore their accounts of the parent-teaching component of their role. Interviews will be transcribed anonymously and analysed using Framework Technique. Sampling criteria will be derived from analysis to identify one/two unit(s) for subsequent in-depth studyPhase II involves six prospective, ethnographic case-studies of professional-parent interactions during parent-teaching encounters. Parents of six children with a long-term kidney condition will be purposively sampled according to their child's age, diagnosis, ethnicity and the clinical care-giving required; snowball sampling will identify the professionals involved in each case-study. Participants will

  15. Fracture in the Elderly Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation (FEMuR): a phase II randomised feasibility study of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation package following hip fracture

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nefyn H; Roberts, Jessica L; Din, Nafees Ud; Totton, Nicola; Charles, Joanna M; Hawkes, Claire A; Morrison, Val; Hoare, Zoe; Williams, Michelle; Pritchard, Aaron W; Alexander, Swapna; Lemmey, Andrew; Woods, Robert T; Sackley, Catherine; Logan, Pip; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Wilkinson, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a rigorous feasibility study for a future definitive parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT) and economic evaluation of an enhanced rehabilitation package for hip fracture. Setting Recruitment from 3 acute hospitals in North Wales. Intervention delivery in the community. Participants Older adults (aged ≥65) who received surgical treatment for hip fracture, lived independently prior to fracture, had mental capacity (assessed by clinical team) and received rehabilitation in the North Wales area. Intervention Remote randomisation to usual care (control) or usual care+enhanced rehabilitation package (intervention), including six additional home-based physiotherapy sessions delivered by a physiotherapist or technical instructor, novel information workbook and goal-setting diary. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary: Barthel Activities of Daily Living (BADL). Secondary measures included Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living scale (NEADL), EQ-5D, ICECAP capability, a suite of self-efficacy, psychosocial and service-use measures and costs. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and 3-month follow-up by blinded researchers. Results 62 participants were recruited, 61 randomised (control 32; intervention 29) and 49 (79%) completed 3-month follow-up. Minimal differences occurred between the 2 groups for most outcomes, including BADL (adjusted mean difference 0.5). The intervention group showed a medium-sized improvement in the NEADL relative to the control group, with an adjusted mean difference between groups of 3.0 (Cohen's d 0.63), and a trend for greater improvement in self-efficacy and mental health, but with small effect sizes. The mean cost of delivering the intervention was £231 per patient. There was a small relative improvement in quality-adjusted life year in the intervention group. No serious adverse events relating to the intervention were reported. Conclusions The trial methods were feasible in terms of

  16. Current multidisciplinary oncology series

    PubMed Central

    Sebio, Ana

    2014-01-01

    “Cancers of the Colon and Rectum: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis and Management” represents a truly multidisciplinary compendium of the management of these tumors that will be of value both for any physician involved in providing care for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients as well as for trainees of many medical disciplines.

  17. Multidisciplinary Studies of Viruses: The Role of Structure in Shaping the Questions and Answers

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution to the 50th anniversary issue of the Journal of Structural Biology traces a path in which the author evolved from seeing macromolecular structure as end in it self to a means of organizing and correlating data from many sources. The author looks at where we have been and where we are going in this enterprise and the role that structure plays in defining ever more ambitious biological questions and testing and refining models that incorporate data from many techniques. In this, essentially, personal account, the author reflects on 35 years of structural virology and the stages experienced; from “stand alone” crystallography of virus particles to the study of virus assembly and maturation in vitro and eventually into the entire virus infection process from particle cell entry to egress. In the process data from many sources were incorporated into reasonable and testable models based on structures ranging in resolution from near-atomic determined by crystallography, to nanometer, determined by electron cryo-microscopy and image reconstruction, to 5 nanometer tomographic studies in the cell. The technological development over this period, for structural studies at all resolutions and functional studies that were unimaginable three decades ago, has been astonishing. Here we look at an aspect of this development applied to virology. PMID:18485736

  18. The Carbon Cycle and the Earth Systems--Studying the Carbon Cycle in Multidisciplinary Environmental Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudovitch, Yossi; Orion, Nir

    This paper describes a method that attempts to confront the challenges of developing an environmentally-based earth sciences program. The research scheme includes five stages: (1) predevelopment study; (2) curriculum development; (3) implementation; (4) formative evaluation; and (5) curriculum modification. The research results indicate that the…

  19. Integrating Augmented Reality in Higher Education: A Multidisciplinary Study of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delello, Julie A.; McWhorter, Rochell R.; Camp, Kerri M.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is an emerging technology that blends physical objects with virtual reality. Through the integration of digital and print media, a gap between the "on and offline" worlds are merged, radically shifting student-computer interaction in the classroom. This research examined the results of a multiple case study on the…

  20. Multi-disciplinary studies of viruses: the role of structure in shaping the questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, John E

    2008-09-01

    This contribution to the 50th anniversary issue of the Journal of Structural Biology traces a path in which the author evolved from seeing macromolecular structure as end in it self to a means of organizing and correlating data from many sources. The author looks at where we have been and where we are going in this enterprise and the role that structure plays in defining ever more ambitious biological questions and testing and refining models that incorporate data from many techniques. In this, essentially, personal account, the author reflects on 35 years of structural virology and the stages experienced; from "stand alone" crystallography of virus particles to the study of virus assembly and maturation in vitro and eventually into the entire virus infection process from particle cell entry to egress. In the process data from many sources were incorporated into reasonable and testable models based on structures ranging in resolution from near-atomic determined by crystallography, to nanometer, determined by electron cryo-microscopy and image reconstruction, to five nanometer tomographic studies in the cell. The technological development over this period, for structural studies at all resolutions and functional studies that were unimaginable three decades ago, has been astonishing. Here we look at an aspect of this development applied to virology.

  1. Integrating Augmented Reality in Higher Education: A Multidisciplinary Study of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delello, Julie A.; McWhorter, Rochell R.; Camp, Kerri M.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is an emerging technology that blends physical objects with virtual reality. Through the integration of digital and print media, a gap between the "on and offline" worlds are merged, radically shifting student-computer interaction in the classroom. This research examined the results of a multiple case study on the…

  2. Discourse as Social Interaction. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Teun A., Ed.

    The collection of essays on discourse as a form of social interaction includes: "Discourse as Interaction in Society" (Teun A. van Dijk); "Discourse Pragmatics" (Shoshana Blum-Kulka); "Conversation Analysis: An Approach to the Study of Social Action as Sense Making Practices" (Anita Pomerantz, B. J. Fehr); "Institutional Dialogue" (Paul Drew,…

  3. A Multi-disciplinary Study of Frontal Systems in the Tay Estuary, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, G.; Anderson, J. M.

    1997-09-01

    The results of a remote sensing study of tidal mixing processes in the Tay Estuary have been correlated with the results of mathematical and physical models and ground sampling data in an attempt to assess the nature, the spatial and temporal extent and the variability in the formation of convergent fronts in the Tay Estuary. The application of remote sensing methods to the study of estuarine mixing processes in the Tay Estuary, supported by ground measurements, has discovered convergent front mechanisms and complex hydrodynamic processes which had not previously been recognized in the Tay Estuary. This integrated approach has enabled the various features and mixing mechanisms found in the lower section of the estuary to be interrelated. The limitations of using a two-dimensional mathematical and a physical model to predict the complex mixing processes affecting water quality in the Tay Estuary are discussed.

  4. Disorders of sex development: a genetic study of patients in a multidisciplinary clinic

    PubMed Central

    Laino, Luigi; Majore, Silvia; Preziosi, Nicoletta; Grammatico, Barbara; De Bernardo, Carmelilia; Scommegna, Salvatore; Rapone, Anna Maria; Marrocco, Giacinto; Bottillo, Irene; Grammatico, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Sex development is a process under genetic control directing both the bi-potential gonads to become either a testis or an ovary, and the consequent differentiation of internal ducts and external genitalia. This complex series of events can be altered by a large number of genetic and non-genetic factors. Disorders of sex development (DSD) are all the medical conditions characterized by an atypical chromosomal, gonadal, or phenotypical sex. Incomplete knowledge of the genetic mechanisms involved in sex development results in a low probability of determining the molecular definition of the genetic defect in many of the patients. In this study, we describe the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular study of 88 cases with DSD, including 29 patients with 46,XY and disorders in androgen synthesis or action, 18 with 46,XX and disorders in androgen excess, 17 with 46,XY and disorders of gonadal (testicular) development, 11 classified as 46,XX other, eight with 46,XX and disorders of gonadal (ovarian) development, and five with sex chromosome anomalies. In total, we found a genetic variant in 56 out of 88 of them, leading to the clinical classification of every patient, and we outline the different steps required for a coherent genetic testing approach. In conclusion, our results highlight the fact that each category of DSD is related to a large number of different DNA alterations, thus requiring multiple genetic studies to achieve a precise etiological diagnosis for each patient. PMID:25248670

  5. Pediatric pain management: the multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Odell, Shannon; Logan, Deirdre E

    2013-11-11

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is a growing problem and one that is increasingly being addressed with multidisciplinary treatment teams. This review summarizes different multidisciplinary clinics, focusing specifically on intensive pediatric pain rehabilitation centers. This review offers a summary of the challenges faced by these programs and areas for future study.

  6. Multidisciplinary approach in a water salinity study of the southern San Pitch drainage, Sanpete County, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, C.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic mapping and geophysical techniques corroborate surface water surveys to identify regions in the subsurface that likely influence San Pitch River salinity in central Utah. Geologic mapping reveals that two members of the Arapien Shale are likely present in the subsurface beneath the areas where saline springs are found. Previous studies specified halite deposits in one member, and indicated the other member is known to contain halite in the general region. A total of 49 unique Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM) stations were measured in the study area using a ground loop layout. Modeling of TEM data reveals one very shallow conductive body (1 to 10 ohm.m) between desilting basins and the San Pitch River that we interpret to be saline groundwater. A larger, deeper, and more continuous conductive body, observed in the northeast part of the study area, is interpreted as a geologic feature, most likely Arapien Shale. We measured or estimated discharge (flow) at 53 unique locations within streams and from seeps and springs, and estimated water quality (field parameters) at 172 different sites within the flow regime, measuring some sites multiple times during different seasons. Our results show that a 1.6 mile reach of the San Pitch River between the Highway 89 bridge and the confluence with Twelvemile Creek is a major source of salt loading; salt load increases from mostly less than 50 g/s above the bridge to nearly 300 g/s above the confluence. An addition of 80 to 90 g/s salt load from Twelvemile Creek, which carries salt from a 10-acre saline marsh, combines to bring the overall salt load carried by the San Pitch River at a point of irrigation use 3 miles downstream to between approximately 400 g/s in the spring to approximately 650 g/s in autumn. Our combined geologic, geophysical, and hydrologic assessment indicates that the source of salinity in the San Pitch River and Twelvemile Creek is dissolution of salt from the Arapien Shale and its erosional

  7. [Preliminary and multidisciplinary study of three Coptic mummies of the Testut-Latarjet museum at Lyon].

    PubMed

    Fischer, L P; Cantéro, F; Goyon, J C; Bochu, M; Allogo, J J; Sweydan, N; Morin, A; Neidhardt, J C; Bejui, J; Fessy, M H

    1995-09-01

    In 1901 Albert Gayet raked up from Antinoe three mummies exhibited to day at the Anatomy Museum of Lyon. The study of the three mummies was made in detail as to their dress, anthropometric and scannographic findings. The clothes were characteristic of coptic civilization. The radiographic date gave a life span of around 40 years. The X-ray imagery shows the remains of cerebral and visceral organs. The sexual criteria are thought to be those of two women and undetermined for the child. Later, several investigations like endoscopic autopsy, tooth microscopy and chromosomic map will be necessary.

  8. Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis in the Era of a Multi-Disciplinary Approach Based on Biocompatible Solutions: the NEXT-PD Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Masanobu; Honda, Kazuho; Kasai, Kenji; Tomo, Tadashi; Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Kawanishi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Introduction: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Over the past decade in Japan, a multidisciplinary approach has been adopted to minimize the incidence and improve outcomes of EPS. This strategy includes planned PD discontinuation for high-risk patients and the introduction of biocompatible solutions. This study examined the current clinical status of EPS in representative PD centers in Japan. ♦ Design, setting, participants and measurements: Patients (n = 1,338) from 55 PD centers in Japan who were using neutral-pH solutions from the initiation of therapy (mean age, 62 years; median PD duration, 32 months; concomitant use of icodextrin, 35.2%; PD and hemodialysis combination therapy, 12.2%) were assessed every 6 months to ascertain the reasons for PD discontinuation and the development of EPS development. Outcomes were also recorded. The study period was from November 2008 to March 2012. ♦ Results: There were 727 patients who discontinued PD, including 163 deaths. Among all causes of PD withdrawal except for death, planned PD discontinuation to avoid EPS was utilized in 58 cases (7.1% in total). The strategy was increasingly utilized in proportion to the duration of PD: 0.5% for patients undergoing PD for < 3 years, 0.6% for patients undergoing PD for 5 years, 14.7% for patients undergoing PD for 8 years, and 35.5% for patients undergoing PD for > 8 years. Fourteen patients developed EPS (three cases after PD), which corresponded with an overall incidence of 1.0%. The incidence according to the duration of PD was 0.3% for PD < 3 years, 0.6% for PD = 5 years, 2.3% for PD = 8 years, and 1.2% for PD > 8 years. In terms of therapy, 11 patients were treated with prednisolone (PSL), and surgical enterolysis was utilized in two cases. Complete remission of abdominal symptoms was achieved in twelve patients (85.7%), and three died due to EPS (mortality rate of 21.4%). ♦ Conclusions: Use of the

  9. Multidisciplinary study of phase separation in a supersaturated Ni-Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haydn . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Epperson, J.E. )

    1990-07-01

    The subject of {gamma}{prime} precipitation in a Ni-12.5 at. % Si alloy has been studied by modern diffraction and scattering techniques in the small-angle and large angle regimes, and by transmission electron microscopy. Special attention is placed upon the mechanism and kinetic evolution of {gamma}{prime} precipitates as a function of ageing conditions. Methods are shown for the determination of interdiffusion coefficient, the interfacial energy and the coherent solubility. The strain effect, due to lattice mismatch, on the spatial correlation and preferred alignment of precipitates is addressed. Scaling law for the particle growth has been tested against the current theories. Results obtained from the three mutually beneficial techniques are shown to be consistent, thereby allowing an integral view of the phase separation process in this system. 29 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Multidisciplinary geophysical study of the NE sector of the unstable flank of Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Cocina, Ornella; Siniscalchi, Agata; Barberi, Graziella; Guglielmino, Francesco; Romano, Gerardo; Sicali, Simona; Tripaldi, Simona

    2015-04-01

    On volcanic areas, usually characterized by complex structural environments, a lot of independent geophysical studies are usually performed. The non-uniqueness of the geophysical inverse models, the different level of resolution and sensitivity of the results spurred us to integrate independent geophysical datasets and results collected on Mt. Etna volcano, in order to obtain more accurate and reliable model interpretation. Mt. Etna volcano is located along the eastern coast of Sicily and it is characterized by a complex structural setting. In this region, the general N-S compressive regime related to the Africa - Europe collision interacts with the WNW-ESE extensional regime associated to the Malta Escarpment dynamics, observable along the eastern coast of Sicily. At Mt Etna, a great number of studies concerns the existence of instability phenomena; a general eastward motion of the eastern flank of the volcano has been measured with always increasing detail and its relationship with the eruptive and magmatic activity is being investigated. The unstable flank appears bounded to the north by the E-W-trending Provenzana - Pernicana Fault System and to the SW by the NS Ragalna Fault system. Eastwards, this area is divided by several NW-SE trending faults. Recent studies consider this area as divided into several blocks characterized by different shape and kinematics. Ground deformation studies (GPS and InSAR) define the NE portion of the unstable flank as the most mobile one. In the frame of the MEDiterranean Supersites Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project, ground deformation data (GPS and INSAR), 3D seismicity, seismic tomography and two resistivity model profiles, have been analyzed together, in order to put some constraints on the deep structure of the NE sector of the unstable flank. Seismic data come from the permanent network run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) - Sezione di Catania, Osservatorio Etneo. Ground deformation data comes from In

  11. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  12. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Liver tumors: Multidisciplinary management

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, W.J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on an aggressive, multidisciplinary approach toward patients with liver tumors. It was written in response to the recognition that a greater range of therapeutic management is being offered. Management of such tumors involve more than one individual - included is the primary physician first contacted by the patient, the diagnostician and finally the group of individuals that actually treats the disease. Either intermittent systemic chemotherapy is given, or a few highly selected cases have massive hepatic resections in a very few major medical centers. Further, the perception has been clouded by a combination of high surgical mortality and poor results obtainable with conventional systemic chemotherapy. For this reason, the authors have undertaken a study of liver tumors. Their major objective is to show that it is possible to obtain superior results by presenting a range of options.

  14. Methane seepage along the Hikurangi Margin offshore New Zealand: 6 years of multidisciplinary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greinert, J.; Bialas, J.; Klaucke, I.; Crutchley, G.; Dale, A.; Linke, P.; Sommer, S.; Bowden, D.; Rowden, A.; de Haas, H.; de Stigter, H.; Faure, K.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed studies in 2006, 2007 and 2011 along the east coast of New Zealand's North Island highlighted the close link of sub-bottom fluid pathways and seafloor expressions of methane seepage such as clam fields, carbonate build-ups, tubeworms, bacterial mats and methane release (Marine Geology 272). Prior to our studies, only accidental observations of hydroacoustic anomalies, recoveries of calyptogena shells and methane-derived carbonate chimneys indicated active seepage. Wide areas of the sub-seafloor show BSR structures, gas migration pathways, gas chimneys and blanking zones, which are closely linked to actual seep sites. Sidescan surveys showed four prominent seep areas at Omakere Ridge in 1120m water depth, three of them perfectly matching the shapes and locations of faults seen in high resolution 3D-seismic surveys. The fourth seep, Bear's Paw, on its western side represents an old seep which developed into a cold water coral habitat. At the actively seeping eastern part, gas hydrates could be retrieved and bubble release was observed hydroacoustically and confirmed by high dissolved methane values (380nM). No strong microbial oxidation effects could be found in δ13C values plotting along a mixing curve between pure seep (-70 ‰PDB) and atmospheric methane (-47 ‰PDB). Lander deployments show a tide-influenced gas discharge with sometimes eruptive bubble release with possible plume development transporting methane-charged water higher up into the water column. Rock Garden, with just above 600m water depth at its top outside the gas hydrate stability zone, hosts two main seep areas. ROV observations at Faure Site document eruptive releases of free gas from decimeter-wide craters at the seafloor. Flux estimates show peak releases of 420ml/min with bubbles up to 9mm in diameter. Concentrations of dissolved methane reach up to 3500nM close to the bottom, but higher concentrations are limited to below 400m of water depth; here, methane is transported towards

  15. Polycationic Macrocyclic Scaffolds as Potential Non-Viral Vectors of DNA: A Multidisciplinary Study.

    PubMed

    Barrán-Berdón, Ana L; Yélamos, Belén; García-Río, Luis; Domènech, Òscar; Aicart, Emilio; Junquera, Elena

    2015-07-08

    The potential of lipoplexes constituted by the DNA pEGFP-C3 (encoding green fluorescent protein), polycationic calixarene-based macrocyclic vector (CxCL) with a lipidic matrix (herein named TMAC4), and zwitterionic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) as nontoxic DNA vectors has been analyzed from both biophysical and biochemical perspectives. For that purpose, several experimental methods, such as zeta potential (PALS methodology), agarose gel electrophoresis, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electronic cryo-microscopy (cryo-TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), fluorescence microscopy, and cytotoxicity assays have been used. The electrochemical study shows that TMAC4 has 100% of its nominal charge available, whereas pDNA presents an effective negative charge that is only 10% that of its nominal one. PALS studies indicate the presence of three populations of nanoaggregates in TMAC4/DOPE lipid mixtures, with sizes of approximately 100, 17, and 6 nm, compatible with liposomes, oblate micelles, and spherical micelles, respectively, the first two also being detected by cryo-TEM. However, in the presence of pDNA, this mixture is organized in Lα multilamellar structures at all compositions. In fact, cryo-TEM micrographs show two types of multilamellar aggregation patterns: cluster-type at low and moderate CxCL molar fractions in the TMAC4/DOPE lipid mixture (α = 0.2 and 0.5), and fingerprint-type (FP), which are only present at low CxCL molar fraction (α = 0.2). This structural scenario has also been observed in SAXS diffractograms, including the coexistence of two different phases when DOPE dominates in the mixture. AFM experiments at α = 0.2 provide evidence that pDNA makes the lipid bilayer more deformable, thus promoting a potential enhancement in the capability of penetrating the cells. In fact, the best transfection perfomances of these TMAC4/DOPE-pDNA lipoplexes have been obtained at low CxCL molar fractions (α = 0

  16. Multidisciplinary geophysical approach to map a disposal site: The Ponza island case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapia, Vincenzo; Baccheschi, Paola; Villani, Fabio; Taroni, Matteo; Marchetti, Marco

    2017-03-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and magnetometric surveys are extensively used for environmental investigations of uncontrolled landfills, where the presence of waste with potential contaminants and metal objects requires a detailed characterization and monitoring of their subsurface location. Capacitively-coupled resistivity (CCR) measurements applied for similar environmental studies are far less used. In this study, we show the results and discuss the advantages of a combined application of ERT, CCR and magnetometric surveys applied to the characterization of the disposal site of Mt. Pagliaro, in the island of Ponza (central Italy). The survey area is located on volcanic deposits, which characterize the low resistive geological bedrock. We acquired four CCR profiles and five ERT profiles in addition to a magnetic survey covering a total area of about 7000 m2. The recovered smooth resistivity models suggest the presence of a shallow resistive layer (ρ > 75 Ωm) of variable thickness (2.0-6.0 m), overlying a relatively low-resistive layer, which we interpret as the electrical response of the volcanic bedrock. This interpretation is supported by few shallow boreholes and field observation in the northern part of the landfill area. The magnetic maps show three suspicious dipolar magnetic anomalies, probably ascribed to the presence of a high concentration of buried ferrous waste. Several small-scale dipolar anomalies have been interpreted as due to the presence of sparse and shallow metal objects within the waste material. Due to the resistivity models' smoothness, to improve the characterization of the interface between the bedrock and the waste material we performed a statistical analysis of the resistivity data. Following the philosophy of the steepest gradient method, we found a significative change in resistivity computed on an averaged depth resistivity function of the ERT data. Accordingly, we classify two distinct units: a) an upper unit, with

  17. Behavioral predictors of attrition in adolescents participating in a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program: EVASYON study.

    PubMed

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Muro, C; Santabárbara, J; López-Antón, R; Morandé, G; Martín-Matillas, M; Azcona-San Julián, M C; Martí, A; Campoy, C; Marcos, A; Moreno, L A; Garagorri, J M

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents' cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents' perception of their child's behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescent's social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents' social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individual's social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the family's awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment.

  18. A multidisciplinary study on the crustal nature of volcanic conduits and magma reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, Ashton F.

    Volcanic settings vary widely not only in their eruptive style and products, but in the manner magma travels from deep sources to individual eruptive centers. Imaging these pathways, and their associated crustal reservoirs, provides unique and unprecedented views into these environments. Imaging techniques are varied with the strength of the technique often based on data availability. As such, we focus on two methods---gravity and seismic---in two different settings, each with its own unique volcanic environments, crustal structures, and associated data resources. The first, the Hawaiian Islands, are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world, yet the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45 years old. We present a new chain-wide gravity compilation allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, a previously suggested volcano, and show that volcanoes along the chain are composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume). At the second area, the arc-volcanism of southern Washington, we used ambient seismic noise methods to constrain the crustal pathways of deep-sourced melt to the surface. We image two zones of reduced velocity, one of which correlates with a proposed extensive zone of mid-crustal partial melt which likely supplies evolved magmas to the surrounding volcanoes and vents, including Mounts St. Helens and Adams.

  19. Multidisciplinary population monitoring when demographic data are sparse: a case study of remote trout populations

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Calvert, Anna M; Bernatchez, Louis; Coon, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetic, genomic, and phenotypic metrics for monitoring population trends may be especially high in isolated regions, where traditional demographic monitoring is logistically difficult and only sporadic sampling is possible. This potential, however, is relatively underexplored empirically. Over eleven years, we assessed several such metrics along with traditional ecological knowledge and catch data in a socioeconomically important trout species occupying a large, remote lake. The data revealed largely stable characteristics in two populations over 2–3 generations, but possible contemporary changes in a third population. These potential shifts were suggested by reduced catch rates, reduced body size, and changes in selection implied at one gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism. A demographic decline in this population, however, was ambiguously supported, based on the apparent lack of temporal change in effective population size, and corresponding traditional knowledge suggesting little change in catch. We illustrate how the pluralistic approach employed has practicality for setting future monitoring efforts of these populations, by guiding monitoring priorities according to the relative merits of different metrics and availability of resources. Our study also considers some advantages and disadvantages to adopting a pluralistic approach to population monitoring where demographic data are not easily obtained. PMID:24455128

  20. Using Student-Generated Analogies to Investigate Conceptions of Energy: A multidisciplinary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderman Lancor, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The concept of energy is widely employed in introductory science courses. However, the term energy is defined and utilized in different ways depending on the context, even within a given discipline. Through the lens of metaphor theory, these various definitions of energy are seen as metaphors that highlight and obscure characteristics of energy. Working under this framework, undergraduate students in introductory biology, chemistry, and physics courses were asked to write analogies that reflect their understanding of the role of energy in the context of ecosystems (n = 49), chemical reactions (n = 36), mechanical systems (n = 65), and electrical circuits (n = 44). These analogies were analyzed qualitatively using metaphor theory to gain understanding of how students conceptualize energy in these different contexts. The results of this study indicate that students use seven different conceptual metaphors to explain the role of energy in various scientific contexts: energy as a substance that can be accounted for, energy as a substance that can flow, can change forms, can be carried, can be lost, can be an ingredient or a product, and energy as a process or interaction. This result gives teachers a framework to use in evaluating student ideas about energy.

  1. Shuttle communications design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a space shuttle communication system are discussed. The subjects considered include the following: (1) Ku-band satellite relay to shuttle, (2) phased arrays, (3) PN acquisition, (4) quadriplexing of direct link ranging and telemetry, (5) communications blackout on launch and reentry, (6) acquisition after blackout on reentry, (7) wideband communications interface with the Ku-Band rendezvous radar, (8) aeroflight capabilities of the space shuttle, (9) a triple multiplexing scheme equivalent to interplex, and (10) a study of staggered quadriphase for use on the space shuttle.

  2. Seal design alternatives study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  3. CATALISE: A Multinational and Multidisciplinary Delphi Consensus Study. Identifying Language Impairments in Children

    PubMed Central

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul A.; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2016-01-01

    Delayed or impaired language development is a common developmental concern, yet there is little agreement about the criteria used to identify and classify language impairments in children. Children's language difficulties are at the interface between education, medicine and the allied professions, who may all adopt different approaches to conceptualising them. Our goal in this study was to use an online Delphi technique to see whether it was possible to achieve consensus among professionals on appropriate criteria for identifying children who might benefit from specialist services. We recruited a panel of 59 experts representing ten disciplines (including education, psychology, speech-language therapy/pathology, paediatrics and child psychiatry) from English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom and USA). The starting point for round 1 was a set of 46 statements based on articles and commentaries in a special issue of a journal focusing on this topic. Panel members rated each statement for both relevance and validity on a seven-point scale, and added free text comments. These responses were synthesised by the first two authors, who then removed, combined or modified items with a view to improving consensus. The resulting set of statements was returned to the panel for a second evaluation (round 2). Consensus (percentage reporting 'agree' or 'strongly agree') was at least 80 percent for 24 of 27 round 2 statements, though many respondents qualified their response with written comments. These were again synthesised by the first two authors. The resulting consensus statement is reported here, with additional summary of relevant evidence, and a concluding commentary on residual disagreements and gaps in the evidence base. PMID:27392128

  4. Perceived "out of control" sexual behavior in a cohort of young adults from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study.

    PubMed

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-08-01

    Out of control sexual behavior, also known as compulsive sexual behavior or sexual addiction, has not been studied in a representative sample of the general population. At age 32 years, 940 (93%) of 1,015 members of the birth cohort of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study responded to a series of questions about sexual behavior, administered by computer. We enquired about sexual fantasies, urges or behavior that participants regarded as out of control during the previous year, and defined such experiences as out of control sexual experiences (OCSE). Nearly 13% of men and 7% of women reported OCSE in the past year. Women who reported such experiences were more likely than other women to have reported (elsewhere in the interview) having had high numbers of opposite sex partners, concurrent sexual relationships, or sex with a partner met on the internet, as well as a higher likelihood of same-sex attraction or behavior. Among men reporting OCSE, there was an association with having paid for heterosexual sex and with same-sex attraction and behavior. Few believed that OCSE had interfered with their lives (3.8% of all men and 1.7% of all women in the cohort). Only 0.8% of men and 0.6% of women reported that their actual sexual behavior had interfered with their lives. OCSE were also analyzed in relation to certain personality traits and to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Some evidence of a link with impulsivity (women only) and negative affectivity was found. CSA was associated with OCSE among men. In conclusion, this population-based study has provided the first empirical estimations of the occurrence of OCSE and its relationship to a range of sexual behaviors in a representative sample.

  5. Effects of a Two-Year Intensive Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Huntington's Disease: a Prospective Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Piira, Anu; van Walsem, Marleen R; Mikalsen, Geir; Øie, Lars; Frich, Jan C; Knutsen, Synnove

    2014-11-25

    To assess effects of a two year intensive, multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for patients with early- to mid-stage Huntington's disease. A prospective intervention study. One inpatient rehabilitation center in Norway. 10 patients, with early- to mid-stage Huntington's disease. A two year rehabilitation program, consisting of six admissions of three weeks each, and two evaluation stays approximately three months after the third and sixth rehabilitation admission. The program focused on physical exercise, social activities, and group/teaching sessions. Standard measures for motor function, including gait and balance, cognitive function, including MMSE and UHDRS cognitive assessment, anxiety and depression, activities of daily living (ADL), health related quality of life (QoL) and Body Mass Index (BMI). Six out of ten patients completed the full program. Slight, but non-significant, decline was observed for gait and balance from baseline to the evaluation stay after two years. Non-significant improvements were observed in physical QoL, anxiety and depression, and BMI. ADL-function remained stable with no significant decline. None of the cognitive measures showed a significant decline. An analysis of individual cases revealed that four out of the six participants who completed the program sustained or improved their motor function, while motor function declined in two participants. All the six patients who completed the program reported improved or stable QoL throughout the study period. Our findings suggest that participation in an intensive rehabilitation program is well tolerated among motivated patients with early to mid-stage HD. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size in this study.

  6. Does exercise intensity affect blood pressure and heart rate in obese adolescents? A 6-month multidisciplinary randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    Farah, B Q; Ritti-Dias, R M; Balagopal, P B; Hill, J O; Prado, W L

    2014-04-01

    Aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular health in general, but whether the impact varies with exercise intensity is not clear. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of a high-intensity aerobic exercise training (HIT) vs. a low-intensity aerobic exercise training (LIT) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in obese adolescents. Forty-three (13-18 years) Tanner stage (III-IV) matched obese adolescents were studied in a randomized trial of either HIT (corresponding to the ventilatory threshold I; n = 20) or LIT (corresponding to 20% below the ventilatory threshold I; n = 23) programme for a period of 6 months. All participants also received a multidisciplinary therapy that included nutritional, psychological and clinical counselling. Both HIT and LIT sessions were isocaloric, with energy expenditure set at 350 kcal. BP, HR and HRV were measured along with markers of body adiposity and insulin resistance before and after the respective interventions. The participants in both groups had similar physical and clinical characteristics. After the 6-month intervention, systolic, diastolic and mean BP decreased (P < 0.05, for all) similarly in both groups, whereas waist circumference, HR and HRV showed beneficial changes only in the HIT group (P < 0.05). Aerobic exercise training set at a high intensity compared with the low intensity appears to have additional benefits on abdominal obesity and cardiovascular health in that it enhances the parasympathetic and autonomic modulation of the heart in obese adolescents. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Using peer observers to assess the quality of cancer multidisciplinary team meetings: a qualitative proof of concept study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jenny; Green, James SA; Sevdalis, Nick; Taylor, Cath

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidisciplinary team (MDT) working is well established as the foundation for providing cancer services in the UK and elsewhere. A core activity is the weekly meeting (or case conference/tumor boards) where the treatment recommendations for individual patients are agreed. Evidence suggests that the quality of team working varies across cancer teams, and this may impact negatively on the decision-making process, and ultimately patient care. Feedback on performance by expert observers may improve performance, but can be resource-intensive to implement. This proof of concept study sought to: develop a structured observational assessment tool for use by peers (managers or clinicians from the local workforce) and explore its usability; assess the feasibility of the principle of observational assessment by peers; and explore the views of MDT members and observers about the utility of feedback from observational assessment. Methods For tool development, the content was informed by national clinical consensus recommendations for best practice in cancer MDTs and developed in collaboration with an expert steering group. It consisted of ten subdomains of team working observable in MDT meetings that were rated on a 10-point scale (very poor to very good). For observational assessment, a total of 19 peer observers used the tool (assessing performance in 20 cancer teams from four hospitals). For evaluation, telephone interviews with 64 team members and all peer observers were analyzed thematically. Results The tool was easy to use and areas for refinement were identified. Peer observers were identified and most indicated that undertaking observation was feasible. MDT members generally reported that observational assessment and feedback was useful, with the potential to facilitate improvements in team working. Conclusion This study suggests that observation and feedback by peers may provide a feasible and acceptable approach to enhance MDT performance. Further tool

  8. A multidisciplinary study of the complex Santa Barbara-Furrial oilfields, Northern Monagas area, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bojas, B.; Salazar, A.; Robinson, A.; Meunier, M.; Oviedo, P.; Swallow, J.; Diamond, L. )

    1993-02-01

    A multidisciplinary study has been conducted on the giant oilfields located in the northern Monagas area of the eastern Venezuela basin. The oilfields occur in a lower tertiary and Cretaceous sequence which has been heavily tectonized as a consequence of recent transpression along the Caribbean south American plate boundary. This structurally complex area was initially mapped by using 3000 km. Of 2D seismic data. Experience has shown these data to be inadequate and a 150 sq Km 3D survey was acquired over the Santa Barbara area. These data have been interpreted and several new structural features have been identified. As a consequence of this work the structural model has been modified and applied throughout the area. The Cretaceous to late Oligocene sediments, including the Naricual formation which is the main producing horizon, has been studied systematically. These sediments were deposited initially in a fluvial environment which was gradually inundated by successive marine incursions. Approximately 7000 ft of core has been logged and the sedimentary facies and sequence boundaries recognized were then used to calibrate electric logs which allowed facies extrapolation across the whole area. The final parasequence analysis has provided a detailed and reliable reservoir correlation. Original pressure data and subsequent production histories, together with different known oil-water contacts implies separate producing areas. Complex fluid segregations, from condensates to heavy oil had also to be explained. The integration of the geophysical, geological, fluid and production data has allowed each discipline to refine their field models by removing conflicts between these data, thereby producing a better overall description of the reservoir.

  9. Using peer observers to assess the quality of cancer multidisciplinary team meetings: a qualitative proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jenny; Green, James Sa; Sevdalis, Nick; Taylor, Cath

    2014-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) working is well established as the foundation for providing cancer services in the UK and elsewhere. A core activity is the weekly meeting (or case conference/tumor boards) where the treatment recommendations for individual patients are agreed. Evidence suggests that the quality of team working varies across cancer teams, and this may impact negatively on the decision-making process, and ultimately patient care. Feedback on performance by expert observers may improve performance, but can be resource-intensive to implement. This proof of concept study sought to: develop a structured observational assessment tool for use by peers (managers or clinicians from the local workforce) and explore its usability; assess the feasibility of the principle of observational assessment by peers; and explore the views of MDT members and observers about the utility of feedback from observational assessment. For tool development, the content was informed by national clinical consensus recommendations for best practice in cancer MDTs and developed in collaboration with an expert steering group. It consisted of ten subdomains of team working observable in MDT meetings that were rated on a 10-point scale (very poor to very good). For observational assessment, a total of 19 peer observers used the tool (assessing performance in 20 cancer teams from four hospitals). For evaluation, telephone interviews with 64 team members and all peer observers were analyzed thematically. The tool was easy to use and areas for refinement were identified. Peer observers were identified and most indicated that undertaking observation was feasible. MDT members generally reported that observational assessment and feedback was useful, with the potential to facilitate improvements in team working. This study suggests that observation and feedback by peers may provide a feasible and acceptable approach to enhance MDT performance. Further tool refinement and validation is required.

  10. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Determinants of treatment plan implementation in multidisciplinary team meetings for patients with chronic diseases: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Rosalind; Xanthopoulou, Penny; Wallace, Isla; Nic a’ Bháird, Caoimhe; Lanceley, Anne; Clarke, Alex; Livingston, Gill; Prentice, Archie; Ardron, Dave; Harris, Miriam; King, Michael; Michie, Susan; Blazeby, Jane M; Austin-Parsons, Natalie; Gibbs, Simon; Barber, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are assumed to produce better decisions and are extensively used to manage chronic disease in the National Health Service (NHS). However, evidence for their effectiveness is mixed. Our objective was to investigate determinants of MDT effectiveness by examining factors influencing the implementation of MDT treatment plans. This is a proxy measure of effectiveness, because it lies on the pathway to improvements in health, and reflects team decision making which has taken account of clinical and non-clinical information. Additionally, this measure can be compared across MDTs for different conditions. Methods We undertook a prospective mixed-methods study of 12 MDTs in London and North Thames. Data were collected by observation of 370 MDT meetings, interviews with 53 MDT members, and from 2654 patient medical records. We examined the influence of patient-related factors (disease, age, sex, deprivation, whether their preferences and other clinical/health behaviours were mentioned) and MDT features (as measured using the ‘Team Climate Inventory’ and skill mix) on the implementation of MDT treatment plans. Results The adjusted odds (or likelihood) of implementation was reduced by 25% for each additional professional group represented at the MDT meeting. Implementation was more likely in MDTs with clear goals and processes and a good ‘Team Climate’ (adjusted OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.31 for a unit increase in Team Climate Inventory (TCI) score). Implementation varied by disease category, with the lowest adjusted odds of implementation in mental health teams. Implementation was also lower for patients living in more deprived areas (adjusted odds of implementation for patients in the most compared with least deprived areas was 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.91). Conclusions Greater multidisciplinarity is not necessarily associated with more effective decision making. Explicit goals and procedures are also crucial. Decision

  12. Reduced 30-day gastrostomy placement mortality following the introduction of a multidisciplinary nutrition support team: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hvas, C L; Farrer, K; Blackett, B; Lloyd, H; Paine, P; Lal, S

    2017-09-29

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding allows patients with dysphagia to receive adequate nutritional support, although gastrostomy insertion is associated with mortality. A nutrition support team (NST) may improve a gastrostomy service. The present study aimed to evaluate the introduction of a NST for assessment and follow-up of patients referred for gastrostomy. We included adult inpatients referred for gastrostomy insertion consecutively between 1 October 2010 and 31 March 2013. During the first 6 months, a multidisciplinary NST assessment service was implemented. Patient characteristics, clinical condition, referral appropriateness and follow-up were documented prospectively. We compared the frequencies of appropriate referrals, 30-day mortality and mental capacity/consent assessment time spent between the 6 months implementation phase and 2 years following establishment of the assessment service ('established phase'). In total, 309 patients were referred for gastrostomy insertion and 199 (64%) gastrostomies placed. The percentage of appropriate referrals rose from 72% (61/85) during the implementation phase to 87% (194/224) during the established phase (P = 0.002). Thirty-day mortality reduced from 10% (5/52) to 2% (3/147) (P = 0.01), whereas time allocated to assessment of mental capacity and attainment of informed consent rose from mean 3 days (limits of normal variation 0-7) to mean 6 (0-13) days. The introduction of a NST to assess and select patients referred for gastrostomy placement was associated with a rise in the frequency of appropriate referrals and a decrease in 30-day mortality following gastrostomy insertion. Concomitantly, time spent on patient assessment and attainment of informed consent increased. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. A Multi-Disciplinary Study Evaluating Magma Emplacement Processes of the Oligocene Zákupy Diatreme (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, S.; Petronis, M. S.; Rapprich, V.; Lindline, J.; Valenta, J.; Falance, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Oligocene Zákupy diatreme, Czech Republic is located at the SE termination of the NE-SW Eger Rift, near the intersect with the NW-SE dextral Labe-Odra fault system. The formation of maar-diatremes in continental rift systems remains an important but poorly understood subject as the roots of these systems are not often accessible. The Zákupy diatreme was quarried for building stone and the exposed high walls reveal up to 50m of the lower and upper diatreme facies that consist of proto-diatreme like intrusions injected into unconsolidated, lithic-rich, diatreme fill, that during assent, changed geometry, forming sills along bedding planes in water saturated, non-welded, lapilli tuffs. These sills are often highly fragmented with angular peperite horizons. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data from 32 Zákupy sites yields primarily oblate magnetic fabrics. K1-K2 magnetic foliation planes and K1 lineation directions from paired margins of dikes indicate that there could be a structural control on magma flow in and out of the diatreme as dikes either follow a NE-SW fabric or a NW-SE fabric. Preliminary paleomagnetic data from 19 of 25 sites yield stable, single component magnetizations that decay linearly to the origin with less than 10% of the characteristic remenant magnetization remaining after treatment in 120mt applied field or thermal demagnetization up to 550° C. These data show scatter about the expected Miocene reverse polarity direction and statistically distinct directions between individual intrusions. We argue that these data reflect secular variation of the geomagnetic field and thus significant time between events. In addition, we report five new 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from dikes and sills that further constrain the age of emplacement. The results from this multidisciplinary study reveal that the Zákupy Diatreme is a complex, long-lived, volcanic system that displays characteristics that are better described by polygenetic emplacement

  14. Strategies to improve the efficiency and utility of multidisciplinary team meetings in urology cancer care: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Sevdalis, Nick; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A

    2014-09-08

    The prevalence of multidisciplinary teams (MDT) for the delivery of cancer care is increasing globally. Evidence exists of benefits to patients and healthcare professionals. However, MDT working is time and resource intensive. This study aims to explore members' views on existing practices of urology MDT working, and to identify potential interventions for improving the efficiency and productivity of the MDT meeting. Members of urology MDTs across the UK were purposively recruited to participate in an online survey. Survey items included questions about the utility and efficiency of MDT meetings, and strategies for improving the efficiency of MDT meetings: treating cases by protocol, prioritising cases, and splitting the MDT into subspeciality meetings. 173 MDT members participated (Oncologists n = 77, Cancer Nurses n = 54, Urologists n = 30, other specialities n = 12). 68% of respondents reported that attending the MDT meeting improves efficiency in care through improved clinical decisions, planning investigations, helping when discussing plans with patients, speciality referrals, documentation/patient records. Participants agreed that some cases including low risk, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and localised, low-grade prostate cancer could be managed by pre-agreed pathways, without full MDT review. There was a consensus that cases at the MDT meeting could be prioritised by complexity, tumour type, or the availability of MDT members. Splitting the MDT meeting was unpopular: potential disadvantages included loss of efficiency, loss of team approach, unavailability of members and increased administrative work. Key urology MDT members find the MDT meeting useful. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness may be possible by prioritising cases or managing some low-risk cases according to previously agreed protocols. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness of such strategies on MDT meetings, cancer care pathways and patient outcomes in clinical

  15. A New Multidisciplinary Home Care Telemedicine System to Monitor Stable Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    León, Agathe; Cáceres, César; Fernández, Emma; Chausa, Paloma; Martin, Maite; Codina, Carles; Rousaud, Araceli; Blanch, Jordi; Mallolas, Josep; Martinez, Esteban; Blanco, Jose L.; Laguno, Montserrat; Larrousse, Maria; Milinkovic, Ana; Zamora, Laura; Canal, Neus; Miró, Josep M.; Gatell, Josep M.; Gómez, Enrique J.; García, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy has changed the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in developed countries, where it has become a chronic disease. This clinical scenario requires a new approach to simplify follow-up appointments and facilitate access to healthcare professionals. Methodology We developed a new internet-based home care model covering the entire management of chronic HIV-infected patients. This was called Virtual Hospital. We report the results of a prospective randomised study performed over two years, comparing standard care received by HIV-infected patients with Virtual Hospital care. HIV-infected patients with access to a computer and broadband were randomised to be monitored either through Virtual Hospital (Arm I) or through standard care at the day hospital (Arm II). After one year of follow up, patients switched their care to the other arm. Virtual Hospital offered four main services: Virtual Consultations, Telepharmacy, Virtual Library and Virtual Community. A technical and clinical evaluation of Virtual Hospital was carried out. Findings Of the 83 randomised patients, 42 were monitored during the first year through Virtual Hospital (Arm I) and 41 through standard care (Arm II). Baseline characteristics of patients were similar in the two arms. The level of technical satisfaction with the virtual system was high: 85% of patients considered that Virtual Hospital improved their access to clinical data and they felt comfortable with the videoconference system. Neither clinical parameters [level of CD4+ T lymphocytes, proportion of patients with an undetectable level of viral load (p = 0.21) and compliance levels >90% (p = 0.58)] nor the evaluation of quality of life or psychological questionnaires changed significantly between the two types of care. Conclusions Virtual Hospital is a feasible and safe tool for the multidisciplinary home care of chronic HIV patients. Telemedicine should be considered as an

  16. ATW neutronics design studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D. C.; Yang, W. S.; Khalil, H.

    2000-11-10

    The Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept has been proposed as a transuranics (TRU) (and long-lived fission product) incinerator for processing the 87,000 metric tonnes of Light Water Reactor used fuel which will have been generated by the time the currently deployed fleet of commercial reactors in the US reach the end of their licensed lifetime. The ATW is proposed to separate the uranium from the transuranics and fission products in the LWR used fuel, to fission the transuranics, to send the LWR and ATW generated fission products to the geologic repository and to send the uranium to either a low level waste disposal site or to save it for future use. The heat liberated in fissioning the transuranics would be converted to electricity and sold to partially offset the cost of ATW construction and operations. Options for incineration of long-lived fission products are under evaluation. A six-year science-based program of ATW trade and system studies was initiated in the US FY 2000 to achieve two main purposes: (1) ''to evaluate ATW within the framework of nonproliferation, waste management, and economic considerations,'' and (2) ''to evaluate the efficacy of the numerous technical options for ATW system configuration.'' This paper summarizes the results from neutronics and thermal/hydraulics trade studies which were completed at Argonne National Laboratory during the first year of the program. Core designs were developed for Pb-Bi cooled and Na cooled 840 MW{sub th} fast spectrum transmuter designs employing recycle. Additionally, neutronics analyses were performed at Argonne for a He cooled 600 MW{sub th} hybrid thermal and fast core design proposed by General Atomics Co. which runs critical for 3/4 and subcritical for 1/4 of its four year once-thin burn cycle. The mass flows and the ultimate loss of transuranic isotopes to the waste stream per unit of heat generated during transmutation have been calculated on a consistent basis and are compared. (Long

  17. Sensitivity Analysis for Multidisciplinary Systems (SAMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TM-2017-0017 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY SYSTEMS (SAMS) Richard D. Snyder Design & Analysis Branch Aerospace Vehicles...February 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR MULTIDISCIPLINARY SYSTEMS (SAMS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c...comprising an interim briefing for this work effort. PA Case Number 88ABW-2016-6159; Clearance Date: 30 Nov 2016. 14. ABSTRACT The Sensitivity Analysis

  18. Multi-disciplinary data organization and visualization models for clinical and pre-clinical studies: A case study in the application of proton beam radiosurgery for treating spinal cord injury related pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.

    2016-03-01

    An increasing adoption of electronic medical records has made information more accessible to clinicians and researchers through dedicated systems such as HIS, RIS and PACS. The speed and the amount at which information are generated in a multi-institutional clinical study make the problem complicated compared to day-to-day hospital workflow. Often, increased access to the information does not translate into the efficient use of that information. Therefore, it becomes crucial to establish models which can be used to organize and visualize multi-disciplinary data. Good visualization in turn makes it easy for clinical decision-makers to reach a conclusion within a small span of time. In a clinical study involving multi-disciplinary data and multiple user groups who need access to the same data and presentation states based on the stage of the clinical trial or the task are crucial within the workflow. Therefore, in order to demonstrate the conceptual system design and system workflow, we will be presenting a clinical trial based on application of proton beam for radiosurgery which will utilize our proposed system. For demonstrating user role and visualization design purposes, we will be focusing on three different user groups which are researchers involved in patient enrollment and recruitment, clinicians involved in treatment and imaging review and lastly the principle investigators involved in monitoring progress of clinical study. Also datasets for each phase of the clinical study including preclinical and clinical data as it related to subject enrollment, subject recruitment (classifier), treatment (DICOM), imaging, and pathological analysis (protein staining) of outcomes.

  19. Conceptual design optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollowell, S. J.; Beeman, E. R., II; Hiyama, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying multilevel functional decomposition and optimization techniques to conceptual design of advanced fighter aircraft was investigated. Applying the functional decomposition techniques to the conceptual design phase appears to be feasible. The initial implementation of the modified design process will optimize wing design variables. A hybrid approach, combining functional decomposition techniques for generation of aerodynamic and mass properties linear sensitivity derivatives with existing techniques for sizing mission performance and optimization, is proposed.

  20. Is multidisciplinary teamwork the key? A qualitative study of the development of respiratory services in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Pinnock, Hilary; Huby, Guro; Tierney, Alison; Hamilton, Sonya; Powell, Alison; Kielmann, Tara; Sheikh, Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives Using frameworks, such as the long-term conditions pyramid of healthcare, primary care organizations (PCOs) in England and Wales are exploring ways of developing services for people with long-term respiratory disease. We aimed to explore the current and planned respiratory services and the roles of people responsible for change. Setting A purposive sample of 30 PCOs in England and Wales. Design Semi-structured telephone interviews with the person responsible for driving the reconfiguration of respiratory services. Recorded interviews were transcribed and coded, and themes identified. The association of the composition of the team driving change with the breadth of services provided was explored using a matrix. Results All but two of the PCOs described clinical services developed to address the needs of people with respiratory conditions, usually with a focus on preventing admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the majority identified the need to develop a strategic approach to service development and to meet educational needs of primary care professionals, relatively few described clearly developed plans for addressing these issues. Involvement of clinicians from both primary and secondary care was associated with a broad multifaceted approach to service development. Teamwork was often challenging, but could prove rewarding for participants and could result in a fruitful alignment of objectives. The imminent merger of PCOs and overriding financial constraints resulted in a ‘fluid’ context which challenged successful implementation of plans. Conclusions While the majority of PCOs are developing clinical services for people with complex needs (principally in order to reduce admissions), relatively few are addressing the broader strategic issues and providing for local educational needs. The presence of multidisciplinary teams, which integrated primary and secondary care clinicians with PCO management, was

  1. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full

  2. The anatomy of clinical decision-making in multidisciplinary cancer meetings: A cross-sectional observational study of teams in a natural context.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Tayana; Petrides, Konstantinos V; Lamb, Benjamin W; Sarkar, Somita; Arora, Sonal; Shah, Sujay; Darzi, Ara; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick

    2016-06-01

    In the UK, treatment recommendations for patients with cancer are routinely made by multidisciplinary teams in weekly meetings. However, their performance is variable.The aim of this study was to explore the underlying structure of multidisciplinary decision-making process, and examine how it relates to team ability to reach a decision.This is a cross-sectional observational study consisting of 1045 patient reviews across 4 multidisciplinary cancer teams from teaching and community hospitals in London, UK, from 2010 to 2014. Meetings were chaired by surgeons.We used a validated observational instrument (Metric for the Observation of Decision-making in Cancer Multidisciplinary Meetings) consisting of 13 items to assess the decision-making process of each patient discussion. Rated on a 5-point scale, the items measured quality of presented patient information, and contributions to review by individual disciplines. A dichotomous outcome (yes/no) measured team ability to reach a decision. Ratings were submitted to Exploratory Factor Analysis and regression analysis.The exploratory factor analysis produced 4 factors, labeled "Holistic and Clinical inputs" (patient views, psychosocial aspects, patient history, comorbidities, oncologists', nurses', and surgeons' inputs), "Radiology" (radiology results, radiologists' inputs), "Pathology" (pathology results, pathologists' inputs), and "Meeting Management" (meeting chairs' and coordinators' inputs). A negative cross-loading was observed from surgeons' input on the fourth factor with a follow-up analysis showing negative correlation (r = -0.19, P < 0.001). In logistic regression, all 4 factors predicted team ability to reach a decision (P < 0.001).Hawthorne effect is the main limitation of the study.The decision-making process in cancer meetings is driven by 4 underlying factors representing the complete patient profile and contributions to case review by all core disciplines. Evidence of dual-task interference was

  3. Experiences of general practitioners, home care nurses, physiotherapists and seniors involved in a multidisciplinary home-based fall prevention programme: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Amacher, Astrid E; Nast, Irina; Zindel, Barbara; Schmid, Lukas; Krafft, Valérie; Niedermann, Karin

    2016-09-05

    The feasibility of effective fall prevention programmes (FPPs) for use in daily clinical practice needs to be assessed in the specific healthcare settings. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived benefits and barriers of an evidence-based, home-based pilot FPP among the involved seniors, general practitioners (GPs), home care nurses (HCNs) and physiotherapists (PTs), in order to develop tailored implementation strategies. The study was a mixed method study using an 'exploratory sequential design'. In the initial qualitative sequence, semi-structured interviews were performed with four participants from each group and analysed using a deductive content analysis. In the successive quantitative sequence, target group specific postal surveys were conducted with all participants. The triangulation of both steps allowed merging the in-depth experiences from the interviews with the general findings from the survey. In this evaluation study participated 17 seniors (mean age 79.7 (SD +/-6.2) years). 40 GPs, 12 HCNs and four PTs. All were satisfied with the organization and processes of the FPP. The main benefit, perceived by each target group, was the usefulness of the FPP in detecting risk of falling at the senior's home. A low number of recruiting GPs and HCNs, divergent opinions of the health professionals towards the aim of the FPP as well as no perceived need for changes by the seniors were the most important barriers to the participation of (more) seniors. Multidisciplinary home-based fall prevention is a useful approach to detect the risk of falling in seniors. The barriers identified need to be resolved through tailored strategies to facilitate the successful nationwide implementation of this pilot FPP.

  4. A multi-disciplinary approach to study coastal complex landslides: the case of Torino di Sangro (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Marco; Carabba, Luigi; Urbano, Tullio; Calista, Monia

    2016-04-01

    This work illustrates the studies carried out on a complex landslide phenomenon between the Sangro and Osento River's mouths, near Torino di Sangro village in Southern Abruzzo Region (Italy). Historical activity of this landslide is well-documented since 1916; the activation/reactivation of the movements caused several interruptions of a national railway and the damage of few houses. The Torino di Sangro case study can be regarded as representative of many large landslides distributed along the central Adriatic coast (e.g., Ancona, Ortona, Vasto and Petacciato Landslides) that affect densely populated urban areas with a large amount of man-made infrastructure. The main controlling factors of these large and deep-seated landslides are still debated. From the geological and geomorphological viewpoint, the central Adriatic coast is characterized by a low-relief landscape (mesa) carved on clay-sandstone-conglomerate bedrock belonging to the Upper Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene marine deposits and locally to the Middle Pleistocene marine to continental transitional deposits. This high coast is widely affected by slope instability (rock falls, rotational, complex and shallow landslides) on both active and inactive sea cliffs, the first being mainly affected by wave-cut erosion and the latter influenced by heavy rainfall and changes of pore pressure. The main landslide has the typical characteristics of a deep-seated gravitation deformation. The landslide study was based on a multidisciplinary approach including: 1) definition and GIS mapping of geology and geomorphology factors (slope, aspect, topographic curvature, bedrock lithology, near-surface deposits, deposit thickness and land use), by means of DTM processing, multi-temporal analysis, and large-scale geomorphological field survey; 2) monitoring system in the landslide; 3) application of empiric models for the analysis of unstable sandstone-conglomerate escarpments; 4) slope stability analysis performed using a

  5. "Partners rather than just providers…": A qualitative study on health care professionals' views on implementation of multidisciplinary group meetings in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot.

    PubMed

    Kassianos, Angelos P; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Greenfield, Geva; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Pappas, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary group meetings are one of the key drivers of facilitating integrated care. Health care professionals attending such groups have a key role in the success of these discussions and hence, in the forming of multi-professional integrated care. The study aimed to explore the professionals' experiences and views of participating and implementing the groups in integrated care context. A qualitative study including 25 semi-structured interviews with professionals participating in the Northwest London Integrated Care Pilot analysed using thematic content analysis. Participants mentioned a number of benefits of participating in the meetings, including shared learning and shared decision-making between different services and specialties. Yet, they perceived barriers that diminish the efficiency of the groups, such as time constraints, group dynamics and technicalities. The participants felt that the quality of discussions and facilitation could be improved, as well as technical arrangements that would make them easier to participate. Most of the participants perceived the groups to be beneficial for providers mostly questioning the benefits for patient care. Findings provide an insight into how health professionals' views of their participation to the multidisciplinary group meetings can be more effectively translated into more tangible benefits to the patients. To benefit patient care, the multidisciplinary groups need to be more patient-oriented rather than provider-oriented, while overcoming professional boundaries for participating.

  6. NEMO-SN1 seafloor observatory at EMSO Western Ionian Sea site: a multidisciplinary approach for geophysical, oceanographic and environmental studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embriaco, Davide; Marinaro, Giuditta; Monna, Stephen; Lo Bue, Nadia; Giovanetti, Gabriele; De Caro, Mariagrazia; De Santis, Angelo; Sgroi, Tiziana; Frugoni, Francesco; Montuori, Caterina; Riccobene, Giorgio; Viola, Salvo; Sciacca, Virginia; Pulvirenti, Sara; Caruso, Francesco; Simeone, Francesco; Chierici, Francesco; D'Amico, Antonio; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The Western Ionian Sea is one of the sites of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory Research Infrastructure (EMSO). A prototype of a cabled deep-sea observatory (NEMO-SN1) was set up and has been operational in real-time since 2005 at 2100 m depth, 25 km off the harbour of Catania. In 2012 the observatory was upgraded to a fully integrated system for multidisciplinary deep-sea science, capable to transmit and distribute data in real time to the scientific community and to the general public. NEMO-SN1 hosts a large number of sensors to monitor and study oceanographic, environmental parameters (CTD, ADCP, current meter), and geophysical phenomena (hydrophones, accelerometer, gravity meter, magnetometers, seismometer, pressure gauges). Ocean noise monitoring and identification of biological acoustic sources in deep sea have also been possible with hydrophones working at low and high frequencies. The whole system was connected and powered from shore, by means of the electro-optical cable net installed at the East Sicily Site Infrastructure, and synchronised with GPS time. Sensors data sampling is performed underwater and transmitted via optical fibre link. A dedicated computing and networking infrastructure for data acquisition, storage and distribution through the internet has been also operative. Some examples of seafloor data analyses will be described to show the importance of such an integrated multidisciplinary infrastructure to geophysical, oceanographic and environmental studies.

  7. Early coordinated multidisciplinary intervention to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion in patients with low back pain: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders account for one third of the long-term absenteeism in Denmark and the number of individuals sick listed for more than four weeks is increasing. Compared to other diagnoses, patients with musculoskeletal diseases, including low back pain, are less likely to return to work after a period of sick leave. It seems that a multidisciplinary intervention, including cooperation between the health sector, the social sector and in the work place, has a positive effect on days off work due to musculoskeletal disorders and particularly low back pain. It is a challenge to coordinate this type of intervention, and the implementation of a return-to-work (RTW)-coordinator is suggested as an effective strategy in this process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol and present a new type of intervention, where the physiotherapist both has the role as RTW-coordinator and treating the patient. Methods/design A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is currently on-going. The RCT includes 770 patients with low back pain of minimum four weeks who are referred to an outpatient back centre. The study population consists of patients, who are sick-listed or at risk of sick-leave due to LBP. The control group is treated with usual care in a team of a physiotherapist, a chiropractor, a rheumatologist and a social worker employed at the centre. The Intervention group is treated with usual care and in addition intervention of a psychologist, an occupational physician, an ergonomist, a case manager from the municipal sickness benefit office, who has the authority in the actual case concerning sickness benefit payment and contact to the patients employer/work place. The treating physiotherapist is the RTW-coordinator. Outcome will be reported at the end of treatment as well as 6 and 12 months follow up. The primary outcome is number of days off work. Secondary outcomes are disability, pain, and quality of life. The study will follow the

  8. Effects of a Two-Year Intensive Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Huntington’s Disease: a Prospective Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Piira, Anu; van Walsem, Marleen R.; Mikalsen, Geir; Øie, Lars; Frich, Jan C.; Knutsen, Synnove

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess effects of a two year intensive, multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for patients with early- to mid-stage Huntington’s disease. Design: A prospective intervention study. Setting: One inpatient rehabilitation center in Norway. Subjects: 10 patients, with early- to mid-stage Huntington’s disease. Interventions: A two year rehabilitation program, consisting of six admissions of three weeks each, and two evaluation stays approximately three months after the third and sixth rehabilitation admission. The program focused on physical exercise, social activities, and group/teaching sessions. Main outcome measures: Standard measures for motor function, including gait and balance, cognitive function, including MMSE and UHDRS cognitive assessment, anxiety and depression, activities of daily living (ADL), health related quality of life (QoL) and Body Mass Index (BMI). Results: Six out of ten patients completed the full program. Slight, but non-significant, decline was observed for gait and balance from baseline to the evaluation stay after two years. Non-significant improvements were observed in physical QoL, anxiety and depression, and BMI. ADL-function remained stable with no significant decline. None of the cognitive measures showed a significant decline. An analysis of individual cases revealed that four out of the six participants who completed the program sustained or improved their motor function, while motor function declined in two participants. All the six patients who completed the program reported improved or stable QoL throughout the study period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that participation in an intensive rehabilitation program is well tolerated among motivated patients with early to mid-stage HD. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size in this study. PMID:25642382

  9. An Implementation Study of a TPACK-Based Instructional Design Model in a Technology Integration Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Kim, ChanMin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to develop an instructional design model for preservice teachers' learning of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in multidisciplinary technology integration courses and (b) to apply the model to investigate its effects when used in a preservice teacher education setting. The model was applied…

  10. An Implementation Study of a TPACK-Based Instructional Design Model in a Technology Integration Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Kim, ChanMin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to develop an instructional design model for preservice teachers' learning of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in multidisciplinary technology integration courses and (b) to apply the model to investigate its effects when used in a preservice teacher education setting. The model was applied…

  11. Modular antenna design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribble, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanical design of a modular antenna concept was developed sufficiently to allow manufacture of a working demonstration model of a module, to predict mass properties, and to make performance estimates for antenna reflectors composed of these modules. The primary features of this concept are: (1) each module is an autonomous structural element which can be attached to adjacent modules through a three point connection; (2) the upper surface is a folding hexagonal truss plate mechanism which serves as the supporting structure for a reflective surface; and (3) the entire truss and surface can be folded into a cylindrical envelope in which all truss elements are essentially parallel. The kinematic studies and engineering demonstration model fully verified the deployment kinematics, stowing philosophy, and deployment sequencing for large antenna modules. It was established that such modules can be stowed in packages as small as 25 cm in diameter, using 1.27 cm diameter structural tubes. The development activity indicates that this deployable modular approach towards building large structures in space will support erection of 450 m apertures for operation up to 3 GHz with a single space shuttle flight.

  12. Distributed expertise: qualitative study of a British network of multidisciplinary teams supporting parents of children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Swallow, V; Smith, T; Webb, N J A; Wirz, L; Qizalbash, L; Brennan, E; Birch, A; Sinha, M D; Krischock, L; van der Voort, J; King, D; Lambert, H; Milford, D V; Crowther, L; Saleem, M; Lunn, A; Williams, J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term childhood conditions are often managed by hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) of professionals with discipline specific expertise of a condition, in partnership with parents. However, little evidence exists on professional-parent interactions in this context. An exploration of professionals' accounts of the way they individually and collectively teach parents to manage their child's clinical care at home is, therefore, important for meeting parents' needs, informing policy and educating novice professionals. Using chronic kidney disease as an exemplar this paper reports on one aspect of a study of interactions between professionals and parents in a network of 12 children's kidney units in Britain. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 112 professionals (clinical-psychologists, dietitians, doctors, nurses, pharmacists, play-workers, therapists and social workers), exploring accounts of their parent-educative activity. We analysed data using framework and the concept of distributed expertise. Four themes emerged that related to the way expertise was distributed within and across teams: (i) recognizing each other's' expertise, (ii) sharing expertise within the MDT, (iii) language interpretation, and (iv) acting as brokers. Two different professional identifications were also seen to co-exist within MDTs, with participants using the term 'we' both as the intra-professional 'we' (relating to the professional identity) when describing expertise within a disciplinary group (for example: 'As dietitians we aim to give tailored advice to optimize children's growth'), and the inter-professional 'we' (a 'team-identification'), when discussing expertise within the team (for example: 'We work as a team and make sure we're all happy with every aspect of their training before they go home'). This study highlights the dual identifications implicit in 'being professional' in this context (to the team and to one

  13. Implementing web-based ping-pong-type e-communication to enhance staff satisfaction, multidisciplinary cooperation, and clinical effectiveness: A SQUIRE-compliant quality-improving study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Pei-Han; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lai, Chun-Liang; Tsai, Wei-Ta; Hsieh, Hui-Ling; Shih, Yi-Ting; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Lin, Yi-An; Lin, Po-Hao; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Dai-Wei; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Liu, Jia-Chi; Chung, En-Seu; Lin, Hon-Yi

    2016-11-01

    Frequent multidisciplinary communication is essential in conducting daily radiotherapy (RT) practice. However, traditional oral or paper-based communication has limitations. E-communication has been suggested, but its effects are still not well demarcated in the field of radiation oncology. In our web-based integrated information platform, we constructed a ping-pong-type e-communication function to transfer specific notations among multidisciplinary RT staffs. The purpose was to test whether applying this e-communication can increase effectiveness of multidisciplinary cooperation when compared with oral or paper-based practice. Staff satisfaction and clinical benefits were also demonstrated. A real-world quality-improving study was conducted in a large center of radiation oncology. Before and after applying multidisciplinary e-communication (from 2014 to 2015), clinical RT staffs were surveyed for their user experience and satisfaction (n = 23). For measuring clinical effectiveness, a secondary database of irradiated head and neck cancer patients was re-analyzed for comparing RT toxicities (n = 402). Applying ping-pong-type multidisciplinary reflective e-communication was the main intervention. For measuring staff satisfaction, eight domains were surveyed, such as timeliness, convenience, and completeness. For measuring clinical effectiveness of multidisciplinary cooperation, event rates of severe (i.e., grade 3-4) RT mucositis and dermatitis were recorded. Overall, when compared with oral communication only, e-communication demonstrated multiple benefits, particularly on notation-review convenience (2.00 ± 1.76 vs 9.19 ± 0.81; P < 0.0001).When compared with paper-based practice, e-communication showed statistically significant benefits on all eight domains, especially on notation-review convenience (5.05 ± 2.11 vs 9.19 ± 0.81; P < 0.0001) and convenience of feedback notation (4.81 ± 1.72 vs 8.76 ± 1.09; P < 0

  14. Dynamically Reconfigurable Approach to Multidisciplinary Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalie M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and autonomy of the constituent disciplines and the diversity of the disciplinary data formats make the task of integrating simulations into a multidisciplinary design optimization problem extremely time-consuming and difficult. We propose a dynamically reconfigurable approach to MDO problem formulation wherein an appropriate implementation of the disciplinary information results in basic computational components that can be combined into different MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms, including hybrid strategies, with relative ease. The ability to re-use the computational components is due to the special structure of the MDO problem. We believe that this structure can and should be used to formulate and solve optimization problems in the multidisciplinary context. The present work identifies the basic computational components in several MDO problem formulations and examines the dynamically reconfigurable approach in the context of a popular class of optimization methods. We show that if the disciplinary sensitivity information is implemented in a modular fashion, the transfer of sensitivity information among the formulations under study is straightforward. This enables not only experimentation with a variety of problem formations in a research environment, but also the flexible use of formulations in a production design environment.

  15. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  16. Studies in Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  17. Determinants of treatment plan implementation in multidisciplinary team meetings for patients with chronic diseases: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Raine, Rosalind; Xanthopoulou, Penny; Wallace, Isla; Nic A' Bháird, Caoimhe; Lanceley, Anne; Clarke, Alex; Livingston, Gill; Prentice, Archie; Ardron, Dave; Harris, Miriam; King, Michael; Michie, Susan; Blazeby, Jane M; Austin-Parsons, Natalie; Gibbs, Simon; Barber, Julie

    2014-10-01

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are assumed to produce better decisions and are extensively used to manage chronic disease in the National Health Service (NHS). However, evidence for their effectiveness is mixed. Our objective was to investigate determinants of MDT effectiveness by examining factors influencing the implementation of MDT treatment plans. This is a proxy measure of effectiveness, because it lies on the pathway to improvements in health, and reflects team decision making which has taken account of clinical and non-clinical information. Additionally, this measure can be compared across MDTs for different conditions. We undertook a prospective mixed-methods study of 12 MDTs in London and North Thames. Data were collected by observation of 370 MDT meetings, interviews with 53 MDT members, and from 2654 patient medical records. We examined the influence of patient-related factors (disease, age, sex, deprivation, whether their preferences and other clinical/health behaviours were mentioned) and MDT features (as measured using the 'Team Climate Inventory' and skill mix) on the implementation of MDT treatment plans. The adjusted odds (or likelihood) of implementation was reduced by 25% for each additional professional group represented at the MDT meeting. Implementation was more likely in MDTs with clear goals and processes and a good 'Team Climate' (adjusted OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.15 to 3.31 for a unit increase in Team Climate Inventory (TCI) score). Implementation varied by disease category, with the lowest adjusted odds of implementation in mental health teams. Implementation was also lower for patients living in more deprived areas (adjusted odds of implementation for patients in the most compared with least deprived areas was 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.91). Greater multidisciplinarity is not necessarily associated with more effective decision making. Explicit goals and procedures are also crucial. Decision implementation should be routinely monitored to

  18. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    -Biosphere Program: integrated regional study of contemporary natural and climatic changes' is one of several funded interdisciplinary projects, and it serves to unite regional studies from 14 RAS and SB RAS institutes and 5 universities. In the course of this and similar national1 a