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Sample records for multiethnic urban population

  1. Characteristics of vegetarian adolescents in a multiethnic urban population.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Mcguire, M T; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Story, M

    2001-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of adolescents' vegetarianism in a multiethnic, urban population, and its correlates with demographic, personal, weight-related, and behavioral factors. Self-report and anthropometric data were collected from a representative sample of 4746 adolescents from 31 public middle schools and high schools in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota. Students answered questions concerning vegetarianism, food and weight, and health behaviors. Height and weight were directly measured. Comparisons were made between self-reported vegetarians and nonvegetarians; these analyses also assessed gender and race/ethnicity interactions. In the second set of analyses, demographic and behavioral characteristics of more restricted and semi-vegetarians were examined. Analyses were done by logistic regression. Teenage vegetarians comprise about 6% of the sample. The vegetarians were more likely than nonvegetarians to be female, not black, weight- and body-conscious, dissatisfied with their bodies, and involved in a variety of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Vegetarians more often reported having been told by a physician that they had an eating disorder and were more likely to have contemplated and attempted suicide. Vegetarian males were found to be an especially high risk group for unhealthy weight control practices. Few ethnic group differences among vegetarians were noted. Adolescents who did not eat chicken and fish were at lower risk than those who also ate chicken and fish. Adolescent vegetarians are at greater risk than others for involvement in unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors. Vegetarian males are at particularly high risk. Vegetarianism among adolescents may therefore be a signal for preventive intervention. Adolescents who choose to become vegetarians may also need to learn how to healthfully do so.

  2. Neighborhood Retail Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Kannan, Srimathi; Lachance, Laurie L.; Mentz, Graciela; Ridella, William

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine relationships between the neighborhood food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population. Design Analysis of cross-sectional survey and observational data. Setting 146 neighborhoods within three large geographic communities of Detroit, Michigan. Subjects Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and White adults. Measures The dependent variable was mean daily fruit and vegetable servings measured using a modified Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Independent variables included the neighborhood food environment: store availability (large grocery, specialty, convenience, liquor, small grocery), supermarket proximity (street-network distance to nearest chain grocer), and perceived and observed neighborhood fresh fruit and vegetable supply (availability, variety, quality, affordability). Analysis Weighted multilevel regression. Results Presence of a large grocery store in the neighborhood was associated with, on average, 0.69 more daily fruit and vegetable servings in the full sample. Relationships between the food environment and fruit and vegetable intake did not differ between Whites and African-Americans. However, Latinos compared with African-Americans with a large grocery store in their neighborhood consumed 2.20 more daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Presence of a convenience store in the neighborhood was associated with 1.84 fewer daily fruit and vegetable servings among Latinos than African-Americans. Conclusion The neighborhood food environment influences fruit and vegetable intake, and the size of this relationship may vary for different racial/ethnic subpopulations. PMID:19288847

  3. Maternal and fetal exposure to parabens in a multiethnic urban U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Pycke, Benny F G; Geer, Laura A; Dalloul, Mudar; Abulafia, Ovadia; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-11-01

    Fetal exposure to five parabens was investigated due to their endocrine-disrupting potential and possible impact on fetal development. Body burdens occurring from real-world exposures were determined typically as total concentrations after conjugate hydrolysis in 181 maternal urine and 38 umbilical cord blood plasma samples from a multiethnic cohort of 185 predominantly-black, pregnant women recruited in Brooklyn, New York between 2007/9. For 33 participants, both sample types (maternal urine and cord blood) were available. Methyl- (MePB), ethyl- (EtPB), propyl- (PrPB), butyl- (BuPB), and benzylparaben (BePB) were detected in 100, 73.5, 100, 66.3 and 0.0% of the urine samples at median concentrations of 279, 1.44, 75.3, 0.39, and <0.02μg/L, respectively. Median concentrations of MePB and PrPB were, respectively 4.4- and 8.7-fold higher compared to those reported previously for the general U.S. population (NHANES, 2005/6). Listed in the order above, the five parabens were detected in 97.4, 94.7, 47.4, 47.4, and 44.7% of cord blood plasma samples at median total concentrations of 25.0, 0.36, <0.27, <0.09, and <0.10μg/L, respectively. Free MePB, EtPB, and PrPB were detected in a subset of cord blood plasma samples at, respectively, 3.9, 71.7, and 6.4% of their total concentrations, whereas free BuPB and BePB were not detected. Literature data and those reported here show the urban community studied here to rank highest in the world for MePB and PrPB exposure in pregnant women, whereas it ranks among the lowest for EtPB and BuPB. This study is the first to report the occurrence of parabens in human umbilical cord blood. Maternal exposure to parabens is widespread, and substantial differences were found to exist between communities and countries both in the spectrum and degree of paraben exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coffee and Tea Consumption Are Inversely Associated with Mortality in a Multiethnic Urban Population123

    PubMed Central

    Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and tea are commonly consumed beverages. Inverse associations with mortality have been suggested for coffee and tea, but the relationships with cause-specific mortality are not well understood. We examined regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea in relation to mortality due to all causes, vascular, nonvascular, and cancer in the multi-ethnic, prospective, population-based Northern Manhattan Study. The study population included 2461 participants with diet data who were free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer at baseline (mean age 68.30 ± 10.23 y, 36% men, 19% white, 23% black, 56% Hispanic). During a mean follow-up of 11 y, we examined the associations between coffee and tea consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and 863 deaths (342 vascular related and 444 nonvascular including 160 cancer deaths) using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99); P = 0.02]. Caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, driven by a strong protection among those who drank ≥4 cups/d. An inverse dose-response relationship between tea and all-cause mortality was suggested [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); P = 0.01]. Coffee consumption ≥4/d was protective against nonvascular death [vs. <1/mo, HR = 0.57 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.97)] and tea consumption ≥2/d was protective against nonvascular death [HR = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.95)] and cancer [HR = 0.33 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.80)]. There was a strong inverse association between coffee and vascular-related mortality among Hispanics only. Further study is needed, including investigation into the mechanisms and compounds in coffee and tea responsible for the inverse associations with mortality. The differential relationship between coffee and vascular death across race/ethnicity underscores the need for research in similar multi-ethnic cohorts

  5. Coffee and tea consumption are inversely associated with mortality in a multiethnic urban population.

    PubMed

    Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L

    2013-08-01

    Coffee and tea are commonly consumed beverages. Inverse associations with mortality have been suggested for coffee and tea, but the relationships with cause-specific mortality are not well understood. We examined regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea in relation to mortality due to all causes, vascular, nonvascular, and cancer in the multi-ethnic, prospective, population-based Northern Manhattan Study. The study population included 2461 participants with diet data who were free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer at baseline (mean age 68.30 ± 10.23 y, 36% men, 19% white, 23% black, 56% Hispanic). During a mean follow-up of 11 y, we examined the associations between coffee and tea consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and 863 deaths (342 vascular related and 444 nonvascular including 160 cancer deaths) using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99); P = 0.02]. Caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, driven by a strong protection among those who drank ≥4 cups/d. An inverse dose-response relationship between tea and all-cause mortality was suggested [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); P = 0.01]. Coffee consumption ≥4/d was protective against nonvascular death [vs. <1/mo, HR = 0.57 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.97)] and tea consumption ≥2/d was protective against nonvascular death [HR = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.95)] and cancer [HR = 0.33 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.80)]. There was a strong inverse association between coffee and vascular-related mortality among Hispanics only. Further study is needed, including investigation into the mechanisms and compounds in coffee and tea responsible for the inverse associations with mortality. The differential relationship between coffee and vascular death across race/ethnicity underscores the need for research in similar multi-ethnic cohorts

  6. Terrorism-related fear and avoidance behavior in a multiethnic urban population.

    PubMed

    Eisenman, David P; Glik, Deborah; Ong, Michael; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Long, Anna; Fielding, Jonathan; Asch, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine whether groups traditionally most vulnerable to disasters would be more likely than would be others to perceive population-level risk as high (as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level) would worry more about terrorism, and would avoid activities because of terrorism concerns. We conducted a random digit dial survey of the Los Angeles County population October 2004 through January 2005 in 6 languages. We asked respondents what color alert level the country was under, how often they worry about terrorist attacks, and how often they avoid activities because of terrorism. Multivariate regression modeled correlates of worry and avoidance, including mental illness, disability, demographic factors, and estimated color-coded alert level. Persons who are mentally ill, those who are disabled, African Americans, Latinos, Chinese Americans, Korean Americans, and non-US citizens were more likely to perceive population-level risk as high, as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level. These groups also reported more worry and avoidance behaviors because of concerns about terrorism. Vulnerable populations experience a disproportionate burden of the psychosocial impact of terrorism threats and our national response. Further studies should investigate the specific behaviors affected and further elucidate disparities in the disaster burden associated with terrorism and terrorism policies.

  7. Terrorism-Related Fear and Avoidance Behavior in a Multiethnic Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Glik, Deborah; Ong, Michael; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Long, Anna; Fielding, Jonathan; Asch, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether groups traditionally most vulnerable to disasters would be more likely than would be others to perceive population-level risk as high (as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level) would worry more about terrorism, and would avoid activities because of terrorism concerns. Methods. We conducted a random digit dial survey of the Los Angeles County population October 2004 through January 2005 in 6 languages. We asked respondents what color alert level the country was under, how often they worry about terrorist attacks, and how often they avoid activities because of terrorism. Multivariate regression modeled correlates of worry and avoidance, including mental illness, disability, demographic factors, and estimated color-coded alert level. Results. Persons who are mentally ill, those who are disabled, African Americans, Latinos, Chinese Americans, Korean Americans, and non-US citizens were more likely to perceive population-level risk as high, as measured by the estimated color-coded alert level. These groups also reported more worry and avoidance behaviors because of concerns about terrorism. Conclusions. Vulnerable populations experience a disproportionate burden of the psychosocial impact of terrorism threats and our national response. Further studies should investigate the specific behaviors affected and further elucidate disparities in the disaster burden associated with terrorism and terrorism policies. PMID:19008521

  8. Self-reported physical activity behavior of a multi-ethnic adult population within the urban and rural setting in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Baldew, Se-Sergio M; Krishnadath, Ingrid S K; Smits, Christel C F; Toelsie, Jerry R; Vanhees, Luc; Cornelissen, Veronique

    2015-05-12

    Physical activity (PA) plays an important role in the combat against noncommunicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases. In order to develop appropriate PA intervention programs, there is a need to evaluate PA behavior. So far, there are no published data on PA available for Suriname. Therefore, we aim to describe PA behavior among the multi-ethnic population living in urban and rural areas of Suriname. The World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS) was conducted in a national representative sample (N = 5751; 48.6% men) aged 15-64 years between March and September 2013. Physical activity data were assessed using the Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ) and analyzed according to the GPAQ guidelines. The prevalence of meeting the recommended PA level and prevalence ratios (PR) were computed. Only 55.5% of the overall population met the WHO recommended PA levels (urban coastal area: 55.7%, rural coastal area: 57.9%, rural interior area: 49.1%). Women were less likely to meet the recommended PA level (49% vs 62.4%; p < 0.0001) and with increasing age the PR for recommended level of PA decreased (p < 0.0001). Compared to the Hindustani's, the largest ethnic group, the Javanese reported the lowest percentage of people meeting recommended PA level (PR = 0.92; p = 0.07). Around half of the population meets the recommended PA level. Future lifestyle interventions aiming at increasing PA should especially focus on women and older individuals as they are less likely to meet the recommended levels of PA.

  9. Metal mixtures in urban and rural populations in the US: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Strong Heart Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuanjie; Peng, Roger D.; Jones, Miranda R.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Best, Lyle G.; Guallar, Eliseo; Post, Wendy S.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Background Natural and anthropogenic sources of metal exposure differ for urban and rural residents. We searched to identify patterns of metal mixtures which could suggest common environmental sources and/or metabolic pathways of different urinary metals, and compared metal-mixtures in two population-based studies from urban/sub-urban and rural/town areas in the US: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Methods We studied a random sample of 308 White, Black, Chinese-American, and Hispanic participants in MESA (2000–2002) and 277 American Indian participants in SHS (1998–2003). We used principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to evaluate nine urinary metals (antimony [Sb], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], molybdenum [Mo], selenium [Se], tungsten [W], uranium [U] and zinc [Zn]). For arsenic, we used the sum of inorganic and methylated species (∑As). Results All nine urinary metals were higher in SHS compared to MESA participants. PCA and CA revealed the same patterns in SHS, suggesting 4 distinct principal components (PC) or clusters (∑As-U-W, Pb-Sb, Cd-Zn, Mo-Se). In MESA, CA showed 2 large clusters (∑As-Mo-Sb-U-W, Cd-Pb-Se-Zn), while PCA showed 4 PCs (Sb-U-W, Pb-Se-Zn, Cd-Mo, ∑As). LDA indicated that ∑As, U, W, and Zn were the most discriminant variables distinguishing MESA and SHS participants. Conclusions In SHS, the ∑As-U-W cluster and PC might reflect groundwater contamination in rural areas, and the Cd-Zn cluster and PC could reflect common sources from meat products or metabolic interactions. Among the metals assayed, ∑As, U, W and Zn differed the most between MESA and SHS, possibly reflecting disproportionate exposure from drinking water and perhaps food in rural Native communities compared to urban communities around the US. PMID:26945432

  10. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A.; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M.

    2016-01-01

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings. PMID:27618909

  11. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-27

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%-47%; and pork dishes, 0%-50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  12. Polydactyly in the multiethnic 'Negev' population at southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Sagi, Amiram; Silberstein, Eldad

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence, ethnic mix, and associated malformations of polydactyly in a multiethnic population. A retrospective analysis of 189 polydactyly patients was carried out. The incidence of polydactyly was 0.5/1000 live births and was higher in the Bedouin population. Preaxial polydactyly was 10 times more prevalent in the Jewish population and sporadic, and postaxial polydactyly was more prevalent in the consanguineous Bedouin population and associated with other malformations. We conclude that the pathologies in embryogenesis leading to preaxial and postaxial polydactyly vary, with the former occurring sporadically compared with the latter, which predominates in consanguineous families and syndromes.

  13. Reliability and validity of the English (Singapore) and Chinese (Singapore) versions of the Short-Form 36 version 2 in a multi-ethnic urban Asian population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Thumboo, Julian; Wu, Yi; Tai, E-Shyong; Gandek, Barbara; Lee, Jeannette; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the measurement properties of the Singapore English and Chinese versions of the Short-Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) Questionnaire, an improved version of the widely used SF-36, for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a multi-ethnic urban Asian population in Singapore. SF-36v2 scores and data on medical history, demographic and lifestyle factors from the Singapore Prospective Study Programme were analyzed. Convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, known group validity and factor structure of the SF-36v2 were assessed for the English and Chinese versions, respectively. Complete data for 4,917 participants (45.8 %) out of 10,747 eligible individuals were analyzed (survey language: 4,115 English and 802 Chinese). Item-scale correlations exceeded 0.4 for all items of the English SF-36v2 and for all except one item of the Chinese SF-36v2 (bathe and dress: item-scale correlation: 0.36). In the English SF-36v2, Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.70 for all scales. In the Chinese SF-36v2, Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.7 on all scales except social functioning (Cronbach's alpha: 0.68). For known groups validity, respondents with chronic medical conditions expectedly reported lower SF-36v2 score on most English and Chinese SF-36v2 scales. In confirmatory factor analysis, the Singapore three-component model was favored over the United States two-component and Japan three-component models. The English and Chinese SF-36v2 are valid and reliable for assessing HRQoL among English and Chinese-speaking Singaporeans. Test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the English and Chinese SF-36v2 in Singapore remain to be evaluated.

  14. Haematological Reference Intervals in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Ambayya, Angeli; Su, Anselm Ting; Osman, Nadila Haryani; Nik-Samsudin, Nik Rosnita; Khalid, Khadijah; Chang, Kian Meng; Sathar, Jameela; Rajasuriar, Jay Suriar; Yegappan, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC) intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. Methods Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. Results Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men) were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. Conclusion Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs. PMID:24642526

  15. Relational pathways between socioeconomic position and cardiovascular risk in a multiethnic urban sample: complexities and their implications for improving health in economically disadvantaged populations.

    PubMed

    Schulz, A J; House, J S; Israel, B A; Mentz, G; Dvonch, J T; Miranda, P Y; Kannan, S; Koch, M

    2008-07-01

    The study was designed to provide evidence of a cascade effect linking socioeconomic position to anthropometric indicators of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk through effects on psychosocial stress, psychological distress and health-related behaviours, and consider implications for disease prevention and health promotion. A cross-sectional stratified two-stage probability sample of occupied housing units in three areas of Detroit, Michigan, was used in the study. 919 adults aged > or =25 years completed the survey (mean age 46.3; 53% annual household income <$20 000; 57% non-Hispanic black, 22% Latino, 19% non-Hispanic white). Variables included self-report (eg, psychosocial stress, depressive symptoms, health behaviours) and anthropometric measurements (eg, waist circumference, height, weight). The main outcome variables were depressive symptoms, smoking status, physical activity, body mass index and waist circumference. Income was inversely associated with depressive symptoms, likelihood of current smoking, physical inactivity and waist circumference. These relationships were partly or fully mediated by psychosocial stress. A suppressor effect of current smoking on the relationship between depressive symptoms and waist circumference was found. Independent effects of psychosocial stress and psychological distress on current smoking and waist circumference were found, above and beyond the mediated pathways. The results suggest that relatively modest improvements in the income of economically disadvantaged people can set in motion a cascade of effects, simultaneously reducing exposure to stressful life conditions, improving mental well-being, increasing health-promoting behaviours and reducing anthropometric risks associated with CVD. Such interventions offer important opportunities to improve population health and reduce health disparities.

  16. Tobacco Use Experimentation, Physical Activity, and Risk of Depression among Multiethnic Urban Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Highland, Krista B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Children with low socioeconomic status and ethnic minorities experience disproportionate risk of elevated depressive symptoms. This study examines the effects of risk/protective factors for depressive symptoms among multiethnic urban preadolescents. Eighth graders (N = 463; 34% African American, 29% Hispanic, 17% White, and 20% Other/Mixed; 23%…

  17. Tobacco Use Experimentation, Physical Activity, and Risk of Depression among Multiethnic Urban Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Highland, Krista B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Children with low socioeconomic status and ethnic minorities experience disproportionate risk of elevated depressive symptoms. This study examines the effects of risk/protective factors for depressive symptoms among multiethnic urban preadolescents. Eighth graders (N = 463; 34% African American, 29% Hispanic, 17% White, and 20% Other/Mixed; 23%…

  18. Determining optimal gestational weight gain in a multiethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Ee, Tat Xin; Allen, John Carson; Malhotra, Rahul; Koh, Huishan; Østbye, Truls; Tan, Thiam Chye

    2014-04-01

    To define the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) for the multiethnic Singaporean population. Data from 1529 live singleton deliveries was analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression analysis, with GWG as the predictor, was conducted to determine the lowest aggregated risk of a composite perinatal outcome, stratified by Asia-specific body mass index (BMI) categories. The composite perinatal outcome, based on a combination of delivery type (cesarean section [CS], vaginal delivery [VD]) and size for gestational age (small [SGA], appropriate [AGA], large [LGA]), had six categories: (i) VD with LGA; (ii) VD with SGA; (iii) CS with AGA; (iv) CS with SGA; (v) CS with LGA; (vi) and VD with AGA. The last was considered as the 'normal' reference category. In each BMI category, the GWG value corresponding to the lowest aggregated risk was defined as the optimal GWG, and the GWG values at which the aggregated risk did not exceed a 5% increase from the lowest aggregated risk were defined as the margins of the optimal GWG range. The optimal GWG by pre-pregnancy BMI category, was 19.5 kg (range, 12.9 to 23.9) for underweight, 13.7 kg (7.7 to 18.8) for normal weight, 7.9 kg (2.6 to 14.0) for overweight and 1.8 kg (-5.0 to 7.0) for obese. The results of this study, the first to determine optimal GWG in the multiethnic Singaporean population, concur with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines in that GWG among Asian women who are heavier prior to pregnancy, especially those who are obese, should be lower. However, the optimal GWG for underweight and obese women was outside the IOM recommended range. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Diabetes quality of life perception in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Goh, S G K; Rusli, B N; Khalid, B A K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine ethnic differences and predictors of the perception of quality of life (QOL) in a multiethnic Malaysian population with type 2 diabetes. A population-based cross-sectional study was done in three different states in Malaysia. The Asian Diabetes Quality of Life (AsianDQOL) tool specific for type 2 diabetes is the primary outcome tool. One-way analysis of covariance was undertaken to examine ethnic differences on the total and component AsianDQOL scores controlling for important covariates. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used for selecting predictors for the AsianDQOL score with stratification for ethnicity and language. A total of 647 subjects (338 Malays, 160 Chinese and 149 Indians) were recruited. Chinese scored significantly lower (78.1 ± 11.6) on the AsianDQOL (total) score compared to Malays (81.4 ± 9.0) and Indians (81.5 ± 9.2) (F = 3.060, p = 0.049, η (2) = 0.02). Likewise, Chinese scored significantly lower (21.0 ± 4.3) on the AsianDQOL (diet) score compared to Malays (22.8 ± 3.6) and Indians (22.5 ± 3.7) (F = 4.96, p = 0.008, η (2) = 0.04). The main predictors of AsianDQOL (total) score for the English language group of different ethnicities were sexual dysfunction (-4.5), having visual problems (-3.7), female (-2.8) and glycemic control (-1.6). Sexual dysfunction was negatively correlated with QOL in Malay, Chinese ethnic group and Indian ethnic groups. The perception of AsianDQOL is different across ethnic groups and languages spoken. Significant differences in the English-speaking group and the non-English-speaking group are detected within the same ethnicity. Sexual dysfunction severely impacts AsianDQOL in a multiethnic Asian population and remains an important determinant regardless of ethnicity and language.

  20. GFR estimating equations in a multiethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Teo, Boon Wee; Xu, Hui; Wang, Danhua; Li, Jialiang; Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Shuter, Borys; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J C

    2011-07-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend using equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) management and research. The MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) Study and CKD-EPI (CKD Epidemiology Collaboration) equations originally were derived from a North American population and had an ethnic coefficient adjustment for African Americans. A Chinese coefficient for the MDRD Study equation subsequently was determined, but this has not been externally validated. We compared the accuracy of the equations, evaluated the ethnic coefficients, and assessed the equations for disease staging in a multiethnic Asian population with CKD. A diagnostic test study comparing the Asian coefficient (and subgroups)-modified MDRD Study and CKD-EPI equations and a cross-sectional study assessing disease staging. 232 outpatients (52% men; 40.5% Chinese, 32% Malay, and 27.5% Indian/other) with stable CKD. Asian and ethnicity-based modifications of the MDRD Study and CKD-EPI equations. Measured GFR using 3-sample plasma clearance of technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA), calculated using the slope-intercept method, with body surface area normalization (du Bois) and Brochner-Mortensen correction. Overall, the CKD-EPI equation is more accurate than the MDRD Study equation throughout the GFR range, with improved bias (median difference of estimated GFR - measured GFR) and root mean square error (P <0.001). CKD-EPI versus MDRD Study equation: bias, 1.1 ± 13.8 vs -1.0 ± 15.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2); precision, 12.1 vs 12.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Ethnic coefficients did not improve estimates of GFR significantly. The correctness of staging was improved using the CKD-EPI equation. All participants had CKD, but few were of European descent. The reference GFR technique was different from the original studies. The CKD-EPI is more accurate than the MDRD Study equation, particularly at higher GFRs. Therefore, we recommend adopting the

  1. Retinal vascular fractal and blood pressure in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Sng, Chelvin C A; Wong, Wan L; Cheung, Carol Y; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Y

    2013-10-01

    To examine the effect of blood pressure (BP) on retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df), a measure of microvascular network complexity and density in a multiethnic cohort. A population-based study of 3876 Chinese, Malay and Indian participants in Singapore. Retinal Df was measured using a computer-based program from digital retinal photographs. Associations between retinal Df and mean arterial BP (MABP) in the whole cohort and in each racial group were analysed using linear regression analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between retinal Df and hypertension status. The mean retinal Df of the study population was 1.45 (standard deviation 0.03). After adjustment for age, sex, race, diabetes, BMI, cholesterol and creatinine levels, persons with smaller Df had higher MABP (mean difference MABP was 6.18 mmHg comparing lowest to highest Df quartiles, P<0.001). This was similar in Chinese, Malay and Indian persons [mean difference 6.40 (P<0.001), 4.72 (P=0.011) and 6.62 (P<0.001)mmHg, respectively]. Persons with smaller retinal Df were more likely to have uncontrolled treated or untreated hypertension [odds ratio 1.79 (P=0.003) and 2.60 (P=0.003), respectively, comparing lowest to highest Df quartiles] than those with no hypertension; this relationship was not seen comparing persons with controlled treated hypertension with no hypertension (odds ratio 1.01, P=0.972). Hypertension was associated with a sparser retinal vascular network, which was similar across different racial/ethnic groups and most apparent in those with uncontrolled or untreated hypertension. These data suggest that microvascular remodelling can be quantified by measuring retinal vasculature.

  2. African Urbanism: Preparation for Multi-Ethnic Schools' Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinde, Olu

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on cross-cultural perspectives of urbanization and urbanism by comparing the Yoruba cities of western Nigeria with cities of Europe and North America. Concludes that cross-cultural counselors working with Yoruba clients must understand Yoruba city clients and their home life, physical environment, family structure, parent attitudes, and…

  3. John Henryism, socioeconomic position, and blood pressure in a multi-ethnic urban community.

    PubMed

    LeBrón, Alana M W; Schulz, Amy Jo; Mentz, Graciela; White Perkins, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The John Henryism (JH) hypothesis suggests that, under adverse social and economic conditions, high-effort coping styles that reflect hard work and determination may contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results from tests of this hypothesis have been mixed, with variations by region, urban versus rural areas, race, gender, and age. The majority of studies reporting that socioeconomic position modifies associations between JH and blood pressure have been for non-Latino Blacks in rural communities. In contrast, most studies conducted in urban areas report little support for the JH hypothesis. Few studies have been conducted in samples that include Latinos. We extend previous research by testing the JH hypothesis in a multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income urban community. We used multivariate linear regression to test the hypothesis that associations between JH and blood pressure were modified by income, education, or labor force status in a multi-ethnic (non-Latino Black, Latino, non-Latino White) sample (N=703) in Detroit, Michigan. The outcome measures were systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). John Henryism was associated with higher SBP (β=3.92, P=.05), but not DBP (β=1.85, P=.13). These associations did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results did not differ by race or ethnicity. John Henryism is positively associated with SBP in this multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income sample. This association did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results are consistent with studies conducted in urban communities, finding limited evidence that associations between JH and blood pressure vary by socioeconomic position.

  4. JOHN HENRYISM, SOCIOECONOMIC POSITION, AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN A MULTI-ETHNIC URBAN COMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    LeBrón, Alana M. W.; Schulz, Amy Jo; Mentz, Graciela; Perkins, Denise White

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The John Henryism (JH) hypothesis suggests that, under adverse social and economic conditions, high-effort coping styles that reflect hard work and determination may contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results from tests of this hypothesis have been mixed, with variations by region, urban versus rural areas, race, gender, and age. The majority of studies reporting that socioeconomic position modifies associations between JH and blood pressure have been for non-Latino Blacks in rural communities. In contrast, most studies conducted in urban areas report little support for the JH hypothesis. Few studies have been conducted in samples that include Latinos. We extend previous research by testing the JH hypothesis in a multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income urban community. Design We used multivariate linear regression to test the hypothesis that associations between JH and blood pressure were modified by income, education, or labor force status in a multi-ethnic (non-Latino Black, Latino, non-Latino White) sample (N=703) in Detroit, Michigan. The outcome measures were systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Results John Henryism was associated with higher SBP (β=3.92, P=.05), but not DBP (β=1.85, P=.13). These associations did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results did not differ by race or ethnicity. Conclusions John Henryism is positively associated with SBP in this multi-ethnic, low-to-moderate income sample. This association did not differ by income, education, or labor force status. Results are consistent with studies conducted in urban communities, finding limited evidence that associations between JH and blood pressure vary by socioeconomic position. PMID:25812248

  5. Population, migration and urbanization.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  6. Pregnancy outcomes in severe hyperemesis gravidarum in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Vlachodimitropoulou Koumoutsea, E; Vlachodimitropoulou-Koumoutsea, E; Gosh, S; Manmatharajah, B; Ray, A; Igwe-Omoke, N; Yoong, W

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated pregnancy outcomes among women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in a North London multi-ethnic population. A retrospective case-control study was performed on records of obstetric admissions during a 4-year period, at North Middlesex University Hospital in North London. A total of 208 women with HG were identified according to Fairweather's criteria occurring in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, which is severe enough to require admission to hospital. The control study group consisted of 208 women without HG, matched for age, ethnicity and parity. Maternal characteristics as well as pregnancy outcomes were compared in the two groups. The incidence of a delivery of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonate below the 10th per centile was significantly higher in the HG group compared with unaffected pregnancies (8.7% vs 16.8%, p = 0.01). Hyperemesis gravidarum in a multi-ethnic population in North London is associated with SGA neonates.

  7. Associations between observed neighborhood characteristics and physical activity: findings from a multiethnic urban community

    PubMed Central

    Kwarteng, Jamila L.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Opperman, Alisha A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the contributions of characteristics of the neighborhood environment to inequalities in physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relationship between observed neighborhood environmental characteristics and physical activity in a multiethnic urban area. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between neighborhood environments and physical activity and the extent to which these associations varied by demographic characteristics or perceptions of the physical and social environment. Methods Cross-sectional analyses drew upon data collected from a stratified proportional probability sample of non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adults (n = 919) in low-to-moderate income neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan. Physical activity was assessed as self-reported duration and frequency of vigorous and moderate physical activity. Observed physical environment was assessed through systematic social observation by trained observers on blocks adjacent to survey respondents' residences. Results We find a positive association of sidewalk condition with physical activity, with stronger effects for younger compared with older residents. In addition, physical disorder was more negatively associated with physical activity among NHW and older residents. Conclusions These findings suggest that sidewalk improvements and reductions in physical disorder in urban communities may promote greater equity in physical activity. PMID:24159053

  8. Improving blood pressure control in a large multiethnic California population through changes in health care delivery, 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kate M; Handler, Joel; Wall, Hilary K; Kanter, Michael H

    2014-10-30

    The Kaiser Permanente Southern California (Kaiser) health care system succeeded in improving hypertension control in a multiethnic population by adopting a series of changes in health care delivery. Data from the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) was used to assess blood pressure control from 2004 through 2012. Hypertension control increased overall from 54% to 86% during that period, and 80% or more in every subgroup, regardless of race/ethnicity, preferred language, or type of health insurance plan. Health care delivery changes improved hypertension control across a large multiethnic population, which indicates that health care systems can achieve a clinical target goal of 70% for hypertension control in their populations.

  9. The California Health Interview Survey 2001: translation of a major survey for California's multiethnic population.

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Ninez A.; Lavarreda, Shana Alex; Yen, Wei; Brown, E. Richard; DiSogra, Charles; Satter, Delight E.

    2004-01-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. population presents challenges to the design and implementation of population-based surveys that serve to inform public policies. Information derived from such surveys may be less than representative if groups with limited or no English language skills are not included. The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), first administered in 2001, is a population-based health survey of more than 55,000 California households. This article describes the process that the designers of CHIS 2001 underwent in culturally adapting the survey and translating it into an unprecedented number of languages: Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, and Khmer. The multiethnic and multilingual CHIS 2001 illustrates the importance of cultural and linguistic adaptation in raising the quality of population-based surveys, especially when the populations they intend to represent are as diverse as California's. PMID:15219795

  10. Breast cancer in multi-ethnic populations: the Hawaii perspective.

    PubMed

    Goodman, M J

    1991-05-01

    The five major ethnic groups in Hawaii's population of 1.1 million are the Japanese, comprising 23%; Caucasians, 23%; ethnic Hawaiians, 19.9%; Filipinos, 11.3%; and Chinese, 4.8%. Only 14% of the population is foreign born. Breast cancer incidences are 29.2 per 100,000 among Filipinos, 51.3 for Japanese, 64.1 for Chinese, 104.3 for Hawaiian, and 105.6 for Caucasian women. The Caucasian incidence is similar to mainland US rates, but the incidence among Hawaii's Japanese is more than twice the rate in Japan. Japanese in Hawaii have less postmenopausal breast cancer than Caucasians, fewer axillary lymph node metastases, and a greater proportion of non-invasive tumors. Late stage at diagnosis is common among Filipino and ethnic Hawaiian woman, and their risk of death is 1.5-1.7 times that of Caucasian, Chinese, and Japanese women with the disease, even after adjustment for age, extent of disease, and socio-economic status. In the BCDDP screening study, only 20% of breast cancers detected in ethnic Hawaiians were not yet palpable and were found by mammography alone. Comparative studies of diet and estrogen levels in the ethnic groups of Hawaii and the parental populations in Japan and the West do not account for the degree of variation observed in breast cancer incidence and tumor pathology. Future research directions are suggested with a view to accounting for these differences.

  11. Heart failure in a multiethnic population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Aun-Yeong; Rajaratnam, Ratna; Hussein, Nur Run; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2003-08-01

    There are established differences in cardiovascular disease in different racial groups. Worldwide, the literature regarding the clinical epidemiology of congestive heart failure (CHF) in non-white populations is scarce. To document the prevalence of CHF in the multiracial population of Malaysia, and to describe the clinical features and management of these patients. Busy city centre general hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Of 1435 acute medical admissions to Kuala Lumpur General Hospital over the 4-week study period, 97 patients (6.7%) were admitted with the primary diagnosis of CHF. Coronary artery disease was the main aetiology of CHF, accounting for almost half (49.5%) the patients, followed by hypertension (18.6%). However, there were variations in associated aetiological factors between ethnic groups, with diabetes mellitus affecting the majority of Indians-as well as underutilisation of standard drugs for CHF, such as the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which were only used in 43.3%. Amongst acute medical admissions to a single centre in Malaysia the prevalence of CHF was 6.7%. Coronary artery disease was the major aetiological factor in heart failure accounting for almost half the admissions. The under-prescription of ACE inhibitors was similar to other clinical surveys carried out amongst Caucasian populations in the West.

  12. HPV prevalence in a multi-ethnic screening population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K.; Ghanem, Tamer; Stachler, Robert; Gardner, Glendon; Jones, Lamont; Schweitzer, Vanessa P.; Hall, Francis; Divine, George; Worsham, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal was to determine prevalence of high-risk HPV16 using saliva in a screening population in Detroit, MI. Materials and Methods Real time quantitative PCR was applied to detect HPV16 in saliva DNA from 349 screening subjects without head and neck cancer (HNC), 156 HNC, and 19 controls. Cut points for HPV positivity were: >0 and >0.001 copy/cell. Proportions were compared between groups using exact chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests (p<0.05). Results At cut point >0, each group had an overall HPV prevalence of over 5%, with a higher prevalence of 30.8% in the HNC patient group. At cut point >0.001, the prevalence was lower, 0% in the control, 1.2% in the screening, and 16.7% in the HNC group. In the latter, for both cut points, HPV prevalence was different across sites (<0.001) and significantly higher in the oropharynx (OP) than larynx or site as other after Hochberg’s adjustment. At >0, females in the screening group had a higher prevalence of HPV than males (p=0.010) and at >0.001, prevalence was higher for males in the HNC group than females (p=0.035). In the screening group, at >0, only AA had higher prevalence than CA (p=0.025). Conclusions In the screening group, a 6.9% and 1.2% screening rate was noted at cut-points >0 and >0.001, respectively. The results provide data to inform public health considerations of the feasibility of saliva as a screening tool in at-risk populations with the long term goal of prophylactic vaccination against oral HPV. PMID:23300223

  13. Defining obesity cut points in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Razak, Fahad; Anand, Sonia S; Shannon, Harry; Vuksan, Vladimir; Davis, Bonnie; Jacobs, Ruby; Teo, Koon K; McQueen, Matthew; Yusuf, Salim

    2007-04-24

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used to assess risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Cut points for the classification of obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2) have been developed and validated among people of European descent. It is unknown whether these cut points are appropriate for non-European populations. We assessed the metabolic risk associated with BMI among South Asians, Chinese, Aboriginals, and Europeans. We randomly sampled 1078 subjects from 4 ethnic groups (289 South Asians, 281 Chinese, 207 Aboriginals, and 301 Europeans) from 4 regions in Canada. Principal components factor analysis was used to derive underlying latent or "hidden" factors associated with 14 clinical and biochemical cardiometabolic markers. Ethnic-specific BMI cut points were derived for 3 cardiometabolic factors. Three primary latent factors emerged that accounted for 56% of the variation in markers of glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. For a given BMI, elevated levels of glucose- and lipid-related factors were more likely to be present in South Asians, Chinese, and Aboriginals compared with Europeans, and elevated levels of the blood pressure-related factor were more likely to be present among Chinese compared with Europeans. The cut point to define obesity, as defined by distribution of glucose and lipid factors, is lower by approximately 6 kg/m2 among non-European groups compared with Europeans. Revisions may be warranted for BMI cut points to define obesity among South Asians, Chinese, and Aboriginals. Using these revised cut points would greatly increase the estimated burden of obesity-related metabolic disorders among non-European populations.

  14. The association between genetic variants in SORL1 and Alzheimer disease in an urban, multiethnic, community-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph H; Cheng, Rong; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer; Lantigua, Rafael; Stern, Yaakov; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Wakutani, Yosuke; Farrer, Lindsay; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and variant alleles in SORL1 using a series of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an urban, multiethnic, community-based population. We used a nested case-control analysis in a population-based, prospective study of aging and dementia in Medicare recipients, 65 years and older. Northern Manhattan, NY. There were 296 patients with probable AD and 428 healthy, elderly controls. The participants were African American (34%), Caribbean Hispanic (51%), or non-Hispanic white (15%). We genotyped all 29 SNPs in SORL1 that were examined in the earlier report. We assessed allelic association with AD using standard case-control methods, which included apolipoprotein E genotype as a covariate. Several individual SNPs and SNP haplotypes were significantly associated with AD in this prospectively collected community-based cohort, confirming the previously reported positive association of SORL1 with AD. Single nucleotide polymorphism 12, near the 5' region, was associated with AD in African American and Hispanic individuals. Two SNPs in the 3' region were also associated with AD in African American (SNP 26) and non-Hispanic white (SNP 20) individuals. A single haplotype in the 3' region was associated with AD in Hispanic individuals. However, several different haplotypes were associated with AD in African American and white individuals, including the TTC haplotypes at SNPs 23 through 25 (P = .035), which was significantly associated with AD in the North European white individuals in our previous report. This study confirms the association between genetic variants in SORL1 and AD. While the associations observed in these data sets overlap with those previously reported, the finding of novel SNP and haplotype associations suggests that there may be extensive allelic heterogeneity in SORL1. Broad regions of the SORL1 gene will therefore need to be scrutinized for functional pathogenic variants.

  15. Marital status and its relationship with the risk and pattern of visual impairment in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yingfeng; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Chiang, Peggy P C; Rahman Anuar, Ainur; Wong, Tien Y

    2014-03-01

    To examine whether marital status is a significant determinant of visual impairment (VI) in urban multi-ethnic Asian population. We conducted a population-based study of Singapore-resident ethnic Malays, Indians and Chinese aged ≥40 years. Ophthalmic examination included the assessment of presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (PVA and BCVA) using standardized procedures. Information regarding marital status and socioeconomic status were obtained from an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Among the 10 033 participants, 7756 (77.3%) were married; 589 (5.9%) were single; 407 (4.1%) were separated and 1265 (12.6%) were widowed. Being single (never married) or widowed were significantly associated with best-corrected VI (BCVA < 20/40) and presenting VI (PVA < 20/40) (odds ratios: 1.37-1.59) compared with married people even after adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status. A marginal prediction model showed that the negative effect of unmarried status on VI increased with age and was stronger among Malays and Indians, but the influence did not vary with gender, educational level and diabetic status. Unmarried status is associated with VI, particularly among elderly Malays and Indians. Our findings suggest that single and widowed adults may benefit from specific social support and eye care programmes.

  16. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Schene, Aart H; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Jeanne H; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-09-01

    To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study and included 4969 individuals aged 18-70 years. Diet was assessed using four ethnic-specific FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived using reduced rank regression with mono- and disaccharides, saturated fat and total fat as response variables. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive symptoms by using continuous scores and depressed mood (identified using the cut-off point: PHQ-9 sum score ≥10). The Netherlands. Three dietary patterns were identified; an HSHF dietary pattern (including chocolates, red meat, added sugars, high-fat dairy products, fried foods, creamy sauces), an HS dietary pattern (including sugar-sweetened beverages, added sugars, fruit (juices)) and an HF dietary pattern (including high-fat dairy products, butter). When comparing extreme quartiles, consumption of an HSHF dietary pattern was associated with more depressive symptoms (Q1 v. Q4: β=0·18, 95 % CI 0·07, 0·30, P=0·001) and with higher odds of depressed mood (Q1 v. Q4: OR=2·36, 95 % CI 1·19, 4·66, P=0·014). No associations were found between consumption of the remaining dietary patterns and depressive symptoms. Higher consumption of an HSHF dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms and with depressed mood. Our findings reinforce the idea that the focus should be on dietary patterns that are high in both sugar and saturated fat.

  17. Use of alternative medicines in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Cappuccio, F P; Duneclift, S M; Atkinson, R W; Cook, D G

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence and cost of regular use of non-prescribed alternative medicines are rising around the world, yet, little evidence is available that demonstrates the safety, efficacy, or effectiveness of specific alternative medicine interventions. It is of interest to understand how and why these practices have become so popular in different societies with different health care organizations and provisions, and which factors predict the regular use of alternative medicines. We assessed the prevalence and the predictors of regular use of non-prescribed vitamin supplements, cod liver oil, primrose oil, and garlic in a cross-sectional population-based study in South London of 1,577 men and women, aged 40-59 years (883 women, 523 White, 549 of African origin and 505 of South Asian origin), when allowing for potential confounders. The prevalence of regular users of alternative medicines was 10.4% (164/1,577); 7.4% (116) made regular use of non-prescribed vitamin supplements, whereas 5.3% (84) used either cod liver oil, primrose oil, or garlic preparations. When adjusted for age, ethnicity and social class, women were more likely than men to use at least one alternative medicine (OR 2.09 [95% CI 1.45-3.00]). This was true both for vitamin supplements (1.98 [1.29-3.03]) and for oil or garlic supplements (1.91 [1.17-3.14]). The use of oil or garlic (P<.005) but not vitamin supplements (P=.32) varied by ethnic group. In particular, Black people of African origin were more likely to use alternative medicines than either Whites (1.78 [1.07-2.94]) or South Asians (1.66 [1.07-2.59]), the least common users. People in social classes IV and V were less likely to use alternative medicines (0.53 [0.31-0.90]) than those in social classes I and II, though this was due more to lesser use of non-prescribed vitamin supplements than of cod liver oil, primrose oil or garlic. These associations were not attenuated by further adjustment for body mass index, smoking, marital status and age at

  18. Developing nutrition education resources for a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Wharemate, Laurie; Funaki-Tahifote, Mafi; Lanumata, Tolotea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-08-01

    In New Zealand, the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including Maori and Pacific peoples. However, little research is currently available on effective ways to improve nutrition in these communities. This paper describes the development of six paper-based nutrition education resources for multi-ethnic participants in a large supermarket intervention trial. Six focus groups involving 15 Maori, 13 Pacific and 16 non-Maori, non-Pacific participants were held. A general inductive approach was applied to identify common themes around participants' understanding and thoughts on relevance and usefulness of the draft resources. Feedback from focus groups was used to modify resources accordingly. Five themes emerged across all focus groups and guided modification of the resources: (i) perceived higher cost of healthy food, (ii) difficulty in changing food-purchasing habits, (iii) lack of knowledge, understanding and information about healthy food, (iv) desire for personally relevant information that uses ethnically appropriate language and (v) other barriers to healthy eating, including limited availability of healthy food. Many issues affect the likelihood of purchase and consumption of healthy food. These issues should be taken into account when developing nutritional materials for New Zealanders and possibly other multi-ethnic populations worldwide.

  19. Developing nutrition education resources for a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Wharemate, Laurie; Funaki-Tahifote, Mafi; Lanumata, Tolotea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    In New Zealand, the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including Maori and Pacific peoples. However, little research is currently available on effective ways to improve nutrition in these communities. This paper describes the development of six paper-based nutrition education resources for multi-ethnic participants in a large supermarket intervention trial. Six focus groups involving 15 Maori, 13 Pacific and 16 non-Maori, non-Pacific participants were held. A general inductive approach was applied to identify common themes around participants' understanding and thoughts on relevance and usefulness of the draft resources. Feedback from focus groups was used to modify resources accordingly. Five themes emerged across all focus groups and guided modification of the resources: (i) perceived higher cost of healthy food, (ii) difficulty in changing food-purchasing habits, (iii) lack of knowledge, understanding and information about healthy food, (iv) desire for personally relevant information that uses ethnically appropriate language and (v) other barriers to healthy eating, including limited availability of healthy food. Many issues affect the likelihood of purchase and consumption of healthy food. These issues should be taken into account when developing nutritional materials for New Zealanders and possibly other multi-ethnic populations worldwide. PMID:18974069

  20. Dietary sodium intake in a multiethnic Asian population of healthy participants and chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Teo, Boon Wee; Bagchi, Soumita; Xu, Hui; Toh, Qi Chun; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C

    2014-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend using creatinine-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). While these equations were formulated for Caucasian-American populations and have adjustment coefficients for African-American populations, they are not validated for other ethnicities. The Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaborative Group (CKD-EPI) recently developed a new equation that uses both creatinine and cystatin C. We aimed to assess the accuracy of this equation in estimating the GFRs of participants (healthy and with chronic kidney disease [CKD]) from a multiethnic Asian population. Serum samples from the Asian Kidney Disease Study and the Singapore Kidney Function Study were used. GFR was measured using plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI equations. The performance of GFR estimation equations were examined using median and interquartile range values, and the percentage difference from the measured GFR. The study comprised 335 participants (69.3% with CKD; 38.5% Chinese, 29.6% Malays, 23.6% Indians, 8.3% others), with a mean age of 53.5 ± 15.1 years. Mean standardised serum creatinine was 127 ± 86 μmol/L, while mean standardised serum cystatin C and mean measured GFR were 1.43 ± 0.74 mg/L and 67 ± 33 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The creatinine-cystatin C CKD-EPI equation performed the best, with an estimated GFR of 67 ± 35 mL/min/1.73 m2. The new creatinine-cystatin C equation estimated GFR with little bias, and had increased precision and accuracy in our multiethnic Asian population. This two-biomarker equation may increase the accuracy of population studies on CKD, without the need to consider ethnicity.

  1. Factors associated with herbal use among urban multiethnic primary care patients: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Grace M; Hawley, Sarah T; Weiss, L Todd; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Volk, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Background The use of herbal supplements in the United States has become increasingly popular. The prevalence of herbal use among primary care patients varies in previous studies; the pattern of herbal use among urban racially/ethnically diverse primary care patients has not been widely studied. The primary objectives of this study were to describe the use of herbs by ethnically diverse primary care patients in a large metropolitan area and to examine factors associated with such use. The secondary objective was to investigate perceptions about and patterns of herbal use. Methods Data for a cross-sectional survey were collected at primary care practices affiliated with the Southern Primary-care Urban Research Network (SPUR-Net) in Houston, Texas, from September 2002 to March 2003. To participate in the study, patients had to be at least 18 years of age and visiting one of the SPUR-Net clinics for routine, nonacute care. Survey questions were available in both English and Spanish. Results A total of 322 patients who had complete information on race/ethnicity were included in the analysis. Overall, 36% of the surveyed patients (n = 322) indicated use of herbs, with wide variability among ethnic groups: 50% of Hispanics, 50% of Asians, 41% of Whites, and 22% of African-Americans. Significant factors associated with an individual's herbal use were ethnicity other than African-American, having an immigrant family history, and reporting herbal use by other family members. About 40% of survey respondents believed that taking prescription medications and herbal medicines together was more effective than taking either alone. One-third of herbal users reported using herbs on a daily basis. More Whites (67%) disclosed their herbal use to their health-care providers than did African-Americans (45%), Hispanics (31%), or Asians (31%). Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in herbal use were apparent among this sample of urban multiethnic adult primary care patients. Associated

  2. Self-reported Ethnicity, Genetic Structure and the Impact of Population Stratification in a Multiethnic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansong; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Stram, Daniel O.

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that population substructure may lead to confounding in case-control association studies. Here, we examined genetic structure in a large racially and ethnically diverse sample consisting of 5 ethnic groups of the Multiethnic Cohort study (African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, European Americans and Native Hawaiians) using 2,509 SNPs distributed across the genome. Principal component analysis on 6,213 study participants, 18 Native Americans and 11 HapMap III populations revealed 4 important principal components (PCs): the first two separated Asians, Europeans and Africans, and the third and fourth corresponded to Native American and Native Hawaiian (Polynesian) ancestry, respectively. Individual ethnic composition derived from self-reported parental information matched well to genetic ancestry for Japanese and European Americans. STRUCTURE-estimated individual ancestral proportions for African Americans and Latinos are consistent with previous reports. We quantified the East Asian (mean 27%), European (mean 27%) and Polynesian (mean 46%) ancestral proportions for the first time, to our knowledge, for Native Hawaiians. Simulations based on realistic settings of case-control studies nested in the Multiethnic Cohort found that the effect of population stratification was modest and readily corrected by adjusting for race/ethnicity or by adjusting for top PCs derived from all SNPs or from ancestry informative markers; the power of these approaches was similar when averaged across causal variants simulated based on allele frequencies of the 2,509 genotyped markers. The bias may be large in case-only analysis of gene by gene interactions but it can be corrected by top PCs derived from all SNPs. PMID:20499252

  3. Assessment of prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic population of the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Rao, Padma Gurumadhva; Multani, Satendra Kumar; Jain, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D. Not much data are available regarding the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among multiethnic UAE adult population. (1) To determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic UAE population (2) To compare the Vitamin D status in Arab and non-Arab population (3) To identify the demographic variables associated with hypovitaminosis D. It was a retrospective study conducted at a secondary care hospital. Electronic case records of all the subjects who had checked their Vitamin D levels during the time period of May 2010–October 2012 were considered for the study. Vitamin D severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency were defined as serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels < 10 ng/mL, 10–20 ng/mL, 21–30 ng/mL, and > 30 ng/mL, respectively. A total 425 subjects were included for the data analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 208 (48.9%) subjects followed by severe Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in 141 (33.2%) and 63 (14.8%) subjects, respectively. The overall prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 96.9%. Negative association (r = −0.196, P < 0.01) was observed between body mass index (BMI) and 25(OH)D levels. Ethnicity was not (P = 0.103) a predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Majority of our study subjects had Vitamin D deficiency. There was no substantial difference in 25(OH)D levels of different ethnic groups. Female gender, age, and BMI were the predictors 25(OH)D levels. PMID:27144152

  4. Assessment of prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic population of the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Rao, Padma Gurumadhva; Multani, Satendra Kumar; Jain, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D. Not much data are available regarding the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among multiethnic UAE adult population. (1) To determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in multiethnic UAE population (2) To compare the Vitamin D status in Arab and non-Arab population (3) To identify the demographic variables associated with hypovitaminosis D. It was a retrospective study conducted at a secondary care hospital. Electronic case records of all the subjects who had checked their Vitamin D levels during the time period of May 2010-October 2012 were considered for the study. Vitamin D severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency were defined as serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels < 10 ng/mL, 10-20 ng/mL, 21-30 ng/mL, and > 30 ng/mL, respectively. A total 425 subjects were included for the data analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in 208 (48.9%) subjects followed by severe Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in 141 (33.2%) and 63 (14.8%) subjects, respectively. The overall prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 96.9%. Negative association (r = -0.196, P < 0.01) was observed between body mass index (BMI) and 25(OH)D levels. Ethnicity was not (P = 0.103) a predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Majority of our study subjects had Vitamin D deficiency. There was no substantial difference in 25(OH)D levels of different ethnic groups. Female gender, age, and BMI were the predictors 25(OH)D levels.

  5. Self-reported ethnicity, genetic structure and the impact of population stratification in a multiethnic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hansong; Haiman, Christopher A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Stram, Daniel O

    2010-08-01

    It is well-known that population substructure may lead to confounding in case-control association studies. Here, we examined genetic structure in a large racially and ethnically diverse sample consisting of five ethnic groups of the Multiethnic Cohort study (African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, European Americans and Native Hawaiians) using 2,509 SNPs distributed across the genome. Principal component analysis on 6,213 study participants, 18 Native Americans and 11 HapMap III populations revealed four important principal components (PCs): the first two separated Asians, Europeans and Africans, and the third and fourth corresponded to Native American and Native Hawaiian (Polynesian) ancestry, respectively. Individual ethnic composition derived from self-reported parental information matched well to genetic ancestry for Japanese and European Americans. STRUCTURE-estimated individual ancestral proportions for African Americans and Latinos are consistent with previous reports. We quantified the East Asian (mean 27%), European (mean 27%) and Polynesian (mean 46%) ancestral proportions for the first time, to our knowledge, for Native Hawaiians. Simulations based on realistic settings of case-control studies nested in the Multiethnic Cohort found that the effect of population stratification was modest and readily corrected by adjusting for race/ethnicity or by adjusting for top PCs derived from all SNPs or from ancestry informative markers; the power of these approaches was similar when averaged across causal variants simulated based on allele frequencies of the 2,509 genotyped markers. The bias may be large in case-only analysis of gene by gene interactions but it can be corrected by top PCs derived from all SNPs.

  6. Creatine kinase as a marker of obesity in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Haan, Yentl C; Oudman, Inge; Diemer, Frederieke S; Karamat, Fares A; van Valkengoed, Irene G; van Montfrans, Gert A; Brewster, Lizzy M

    2017-02-15

    Creatine kinase (CK), the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, is particularly high in type II skeletal muscle fibers, which are associated with insulin resistance and obesity. As resting plasma CK is mainly derived from skeletal muscle, we assessed whether plasma CK is associated with markers of obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed a random sample of the multi-ethnic population of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, consisting of 1444 subjects aged 34-60 years. The primary outcome was the independent association between plasma CK after rest and waist circumference. Other outcomes included waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index. Mean waist circumference increased from the first through the third CK tertile, respectively 90.3 (SD 13.4), 93.2 (SD 14.3), and 94.4 (SD 13.3) cm (p < 0.001 for differences between tertiles). The increase in waist circumference was 8.91 (95% CI 5.35 to 12.47) cm per log CK increase after adjustment for age, sex, African ethnicity, educational level, physical activity and plasma creatinine. Similarly, CK was independently associated with waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index, with an increase of respectively 0.05 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.07) and 3.6 (95% CI 2.3 to 5.0) kg/m(2) per log CK increase. Plasma CK is independently associated with measures of obesity in a multi-ethnic population. This is in line with the central role of type II skeletal muscle fibers in energy metabolism and obesity. Prospective studies should assess whether resting plasma CK could be an easy accessible marker of CK rich type II fiber predominance that helps identify individuals at risk for obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation study of the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Mohazmi, Mohammed; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2011-11-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in dyspepsia require an assessment of symptom response. There is a lack of validated instruments assessing dyspepsia symptoms in the Asian region. We aimed to translate and validate the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A Malay and culturally adapted English version of the LDQ were developed according to established protocols. Psychometric evaluation was performed by assessing the validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instruments in both primary and secondary care patients. Between April and September 2010, both Malay (n=166) and Malaysian English (n=154) versions were assessed in primary and secondary care patients. Both language versions were found to be reliable (internal consistency was 0.80 and 0.74 (Cronbach's α) for Malay and English, respectively; spearman's correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.98 for both versions), valid (area under receiver operating curve for accuracy of diagnosing dyspepsia was 0.71 and 0.77 for Malay and English versions, respectively), discriminative (median LDQ score discriminated between primary and secondary care patients in Malay (11.0 vs 20.0, P<0.0001) and English (10.0 vs 14.0, P=0.001), and responsive (median LDQ score reduced after treatment in Malay (17.0 to 14.0, P=0.08) and English (18.0 to 11.0, P=0.008) to dyspepsia. The Malaysian versions of the LDQ are valid, reliable and responsive instruments for assessing symptoms in a multi-ethnic Asian population with dyspepsia. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Television screen time, but not computer use and reading time, is associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Salim, Agus; Wu, Yi; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Jeannette; Van Dam, Rob M

    2013-05-30

    Recent evidence shows that sedentary behaviour may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and all-cause mortality. However, results are not consistent and different types of sedentary behaviour might have different effects on health. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between television screen time, computer/reading time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic urban Asian population. We also sought to understand the potential mediators of this association. The Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004-2007), was a cross-sectional population-based study in a multiethnic population in Singapore. We studied 3305 Singaporean adults of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity who did not have pre-existing diseases and conditions that could affect their physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of television screen time and computer/reading time with cardio-metabolic biomarkers [blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiponectin, C reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Path analysis was used to examine the role of mediators of the observed association. Longer television screen time was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, HOMA-IR, and lower adiponectin after adjustment for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Dietary factors and body mass index, but not physical activity, were potential mediators that explained most of these associations between television screen time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The associations of television screen time with triglycerides and HOMA-IR were only partly explained by dietary factors and body mass index. No association was observed between computer/ reading time and worse levels of cardio-metabolic biomarkers. In this urban Asian population, television screen time was associated with worse

  9. IL-10 and IL-12B gene polymorphisms in a multiethnic Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Sam, S S; Teoh, B T; AbuBakar, S

    2015-04-13

    Inheritance of polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-10 promoter and IL-12B genes, which influence cytokine production and activities, may define the balance in T helper response in infection and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of the IL-10 promoter and IL-12B gene polymorphisms in a multiethnic Malaysian population. Overall, our findings suggest that the IL-12B and IL-10 -592 genotypes were distributed homogenously across all major ethnic groups, including Malays, Chinese, and Indians, except for polymorphisms at IL-10 -1082. At this gene locus, the ethnic Chinese showed a significantly lower allele frequency of -1082G (2.1%) compared to the Malay (12.2%) and Indian (15.3%) populations. Results for the IL-12B and IL-10 gene polymorphisms were consistent with those reported for the Asian population, but markedly different from those of the African and Caucasian populations. Our findings suggest that there are specific genetic variations between different ethnic groups, which should be examined in all gene population-based association studies.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Epiretinal Membranes in a Multi-Ethnic United States Population

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ching Hui; Cheung, Ning; Wang, Jie Jin; Islam, Amirul FM; Kawasaki, Ryo; Meuer, Stacy M; Cotch, Mary Frances; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Yin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for epiretinal membrane (ERM) in a multi-ethnic population and to evaluate possible racial/ethnic differences. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), examined at the second visit of the MESA when retinal photography was performed. Methods Data on 5960 participants aged 45 to 84 years from MESA, including white, blacks, Hispanic and Chinese from six United States communities, were analysed. ERM was assessed from digital non-stereoscopic fundus photographs and defined as cellophane macular reflex (CMR) without retinal folds or pre-retinal macular fibrosis (PMF) with retinal folds. Risk factors were assessed from standardized interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Main outcome measures ERM prevalence by ethnic/racial group, and risk factors associated with ERM. Results The prevalence of any ERM was 28.9%, of which 25.1% were CMR and 3.8% were PMF. The prevalence of ERM was significantly higher in Chinese (39.0%), compared to Hispanics (29.3%), whites (27.5%), and blacks (26.2%), p<0.001. In multivariable models, increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.06, 1.34, per year increase in age), diabetes (OR 1.92, 95% CI, 1.39, 2.65) and hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.33, 95% CI, 1.04, 1.69) were significantly associated with CMR. Conclusions This study showed that ERM was significantly more common in Chinese persons compared to whites, blacks and Hispanics. Risk factors for epiretinal membrane were increasing age, presence of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21035863

  11. Dietary choline and betaine intakes vary in an adult multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Yonemori, Kim M; Lim, Unhee; Koga, Karin R; Wilkens, Lynne R; Au, Donna; Boushey, Carol J; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2013-06-01

    Choline and betaine are important nutrients for human health, but reference food composition databases for these nutrients became available only recently. We tested the feasibility of using these databases to estimate dietary choline and betaine intakes among ethnically diverse adults who participated in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. Of the food items (n = 965) used to quantify intakes for the MEC FFQ, 189 items were exactly matched with items in the USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods for total choline, choline-containing compounds, and betaine, and 547 items were matched to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference for total choline (n = 547) and 148 for betaine. When a match was not found, choline and betaine values were imputed based on the same food with a different form (124 food items for choline, 300 for choline compounds, 236 for betaine), a similar food (n = 98, 284, and 227, respectively) or the closest item in the same food category (n = 6, 191, and 157, respectively), or the values were assumed to be zero (n = 1, 1, and 8, respectively). The resulting mean intake estimates for choline and betaine among 188,147 MEC participants (aged 45-75) varied by sex (372 and 154 mg/d in men, 304 and 128 mg/d in women, respectively; P-heterogeneity < 0.0001) and by race/ethnicity among Caucasians, African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians (P-heterogeneity < 0.0001), largely due to the variation in energy intake. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of assessing choline and betaine intake and characterize the variation in intake that exists in a multiethnic population.

  12. Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Vary in an Adult Multiethnic Population123

    PubMed Central

    Yonemori, Kim M.; Lim, Unhee; Koga, Karin R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Au, Donna; Boushey, Carol J.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2013-01-01

    Choline and betaine are important nutrients for human health, but reference food composition databases for these nutrients became available only recently. We tested the feasibility of using these databases to estimate dietary choline and betaine intakes among ethnically diverse adults who participated in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. Of the food items (n = 965) used to quantify intakes for the MEC FFQ, 189 items were exactly matched with items in the USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods for total choline, choline-containing compounds, and betaine, and 547 items were matched to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference for total choline (n = 547) and 148 for betaine. When a match was not found, choline and betaine values were imputed based on the same food with a different form (124 food items for choline, 300 for choline compounds, 236 for betaine), a similar food (n = 98, 284, and 227, respectively) or the closest item in the same food category (n = 6, 191, and 157, respectively), or the values were assumed to be zero (n = 1, 1, and 8, respectively). The resulting mean intake estimates for choline and betaine among 188,147 MEC participants (aged 45–75) varied by sex (372 and 154 mg/d in men, 304 and 128 mg/d in women, respectively; P-heterogeneity < 0.0001) and by race/ethnicity among Caucasians, African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians (P-heterogeneity < 0.0001), largely due to the variation in energy intake. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of assessing choline and betaine intake and characterize the variation in intake that exists in a multiethnic population. PMID:23616508

  13. Relationship between sleep duration and arterial stiffness in a multi-ethnic population: The HELIUS study

    PubMed Central

    Anujuo, Kenneth; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; van den Born, Bert-Jan; Peters, Ron J.; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between sleep duration and arterial stiffness among a multi-ethnic cohort, and whether the associations differed among ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. Data were derived from 10 994 participants (aged 18–71 years) of the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) study. Self-reported sleep duration was categorized into: short (<7 h/night), healthy (7–8 h/night) and long (≥9 h/night). Arterial stiffness was assessed by duplicate pulse-wave velocity (PWV in m/s) measurements using the Arteriograph system. The association of sleep duration with PWV was analysed using linear regression (β) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results showed that neither short nor long sleep was related to PWV in all ethnic groups, except for long sleep in Dutch men which was associated with higher PWV (indicating stiffer arteries) after adjustment for potential confounders (β = 0.67, 95%CI, 0.23–1.11). Our study showed no convincing evidence that sleep duration was related to arterial stiffness among various ethnic groups. The link between sleep duration and cardiovascular outcomes does not seem to operate through arterial stiffness. Further research is needed to consolidate these findings. PMID:27058653

  14. Disparities in Early Transitions to Obesity in Contemporary Multi-Ethnic U.S. Populations

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Christy L.; Holliday, Katelyn M.; Chakladar, Sujatro; Engeda, Joseph C.; Hardy, Shakia T.; Reis, Jared P.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shay, Christina M.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Heiss, Gerardo; Lin, Dan Yu; Zeng, Donglin

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined weight transitions in contemporary multi-ethnic populations spanning early childhood through adulthood despite the ability of such research to inform obesity prevention, control, and disparities reduction. Methods and Results We characterized the ages at which African American, Caucasian, and Mexican American populations transitioned to overweight and obesity using contemporary and nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (n = 21,220; aged 2–80 years). Age-, sex-, and race/ethnic-specific one-year net transition probabilities between body mass index-classified normal weight, overweight, and obesity were estimated using calibrated and validated Markov-type models that accommodated complex sampling. At age two, the obesity prevalence ranged from 7.3% in Caucasian males to 16.1% in Mexican American males. For all populations, estimated one-year overweight to obesity net transition probabilities peaked at age two and were highest for Mexican American males and African American females, for whom a net 12.3% (95% CI: 7.6%-17.0%) and 11.9% (95% CI: 8.5%-15.3%) of the overweight populations transitioned to obesity by age three, respectively. However, extrapolation to the 2010 U.S. population demonstrated that Mexican American males were the only population for whom net increases in obesity peaked during early childhood; age-specific net increases in obesity were approximately constant through the second decade of life for African Americans and Mexican American females and peaked at age 20 for Caucasians. Conclusions African American and Mexican American populations shoulder elevated rates of many obesity-associated chronic diseases and disparities in early transitions to obesity could further increase these inequalities if left unaddressed. PMID:27348868

  15. Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2017-01-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40–80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, <30 ng/mL) based on the 2011 Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors with the outcome. Of the 1139 participants, 25(OH)D concentration was suboptimal in 76.1%. In multivariable models, age ≤65 years (compared to age >65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. PMID:28327512

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2017-03-22

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40-80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, <30 ng/mL) based on the 2011 Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors with the outcome. Of the 1139 participants, 25(OH)D concentration was suboptimal in 76.1%. In multivariable models, age ≤65 years (compared to age >65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.

  17. Measurement invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in Asian, Pacific Islander, White, and multiethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C

    2016-04-01

    The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ; Raine, 1991) is one of the most commonly used self-report measures of schizotypal personality traits. Previous work has found that the SPQ has a 3- or 4-factor structure, but most of this work was with White participants. Little is known about the psychometric properties of the scale in Pacific Islander populations, and some evidence suggests scores may differ between White and Asian participants. The current study included 398 Asian, 293 White, 159 Pacific Islander, and 308 multiethnic nonclinical participants. A 4-factor model fit the data well, and this factor structure displayed configural and metric invariance, suggesting that the factor structure is the same across these diverse groups. However, results provided mixed evidence for scalar invariance, suggesting the scale may lack scalar invariance in these populations. Follow-up analyses revealed that the questionable scalar invariance was related to the intercepts of the Ideas of Reference and Suspiciousness subscales in the White sample. This suggests that mean comparisons among ethnic groups involving the Ideas of Reference and Suspiciousness subscales are not appropriate.

  18. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Rheinländer, Thilde; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-04-24

    In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS) among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July-November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September-December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15), and their parents (15), focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren (32) and school staff (20) and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most of their time working away from home in the fields

  19. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Rheinländer, Thilde; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS) among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. Objective This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July–November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September–December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15), and their parents (15), focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren (32) and school staff (20) and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Results Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most of their time

  20. Population Structure of Hispanics in the United States: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Manichaikul, Ani; Palmas, Walter; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Divers, Jasmin; Guo, Xiuqing; Chen, Wei-Min; Wong, Quenna; Williams, Kayleen; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Taylor, Kent D.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Sale, Michèle M.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.

    2012-01-01

    Using ∼60,000 SNPs selected for minimal linkage disequilibrium, we perform population structure analysis of 1,374 unrelated Hispanic individuals from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), with self-identification corresponding to Central America (n = 93), Cuba (n = 50), the Dominican Republic (n = 203), Mexico (n = 708), Puerto Rico (n = 192), and South America (n = 111). By projection of principal components (PCs) of ancestry to samples from the HapMap phase III and the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP), we show the first two PCs quantify the Caucasian, African, and Native American origins, while the third and fourth PCs bring out an axis that aligns with known South-to-North geographic location of HGDP Native American samples and further separates MESA Mexican versus Central/South American samples along the same axis. Using k-means clustering computed from the first four PCs, we define four subgroups of the MESA Hispanic cohort that show close agreement with self-identification, labeling the clusters as primarily Dominican/Cuban, Mexican, Central/South American, and Puerto Rican. To demonstrate our recommendations for genetic analysis in the MESA Hispanic cohort, we present pooled and stratified association analysis of triglycerides for selected SNPs in the LPL and TRIB1 gene regions, previously reported in GWAS of triglycerides in Caucasians but as yet unconfirmed in Hispanic populations. We report statistically significant evidence for genetic association in both genes, and we further demonstrate the importance of considering population substructure and genetic heterogeneity in genetic association studies performed in the United States Hispanic population. PMID:22511882

  1. Population structure of Hispanics in the United States: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manichaikul, Ani; Palmas, Walter; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Peralta, Carmen A; Divers, Jasmin; Guo, Xiuqing; Chen, Wei-Min; Wong, Quenna; Williams, Kayleen; Kerr, Kathleen F; Taylor, Kent D; Tsai, Michael Y; Goodarzi, Mark O; Sale, Michèle M; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C

    2012-01-01

    Using ~60,000 SNPs selected for minimal linkage disequilibrium, we perform population structure analysis of 1,374 unrelated Hispanic individuals from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), with self-identification corresponding to Central America (n = 93), Cuba (n = 50), the Dominican Republic (n = 203), Mexico (n = 708), Puerto Rico (n = 192), and South America (n = 111). By projection of principal components (PCs) of ancestry to samples from the HapMap phase III and the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP), we show the first two PCs quantify the Caucasian, African, and Native American origins, while the third and fourth PCs bring out an axis that aligns with known South-to-North geographic location of HGDP Native American samples and further separates MESA Mexican versus Central/South American samples along the same axis. Using k-means clustering computed from the first four PCs, we define four subgroups of the MESA Hispanic cohort that show close agreement with self-identification, labeling the clusters as primarily Dominican/Cuban, Mexican, Central/South American, and Puerto Rican. To demonstrate our recommendations for genetic analysis in the MESA Hispanic cohort, we present pooled and stratified association analysis of triglycerides for selected SNPs in the LPL and TRIB1 gene regions, previously reported in GWAS of triglycerides in Caucasians but as yet unconfirmed in Hispanic populations. We report statistically significant evidence for genetic association in both genes, and we further demonstrate the importance of considering population substructure and genetic heterogeneity in genetic association studies performed in the United States Hispanic population.

  2. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  3. Validation of the SCOFF Questionnaire for Eating Disorders in a Multiethnic General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Solmi, Francesca; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to validate the SCOFF, an eating disorders (ED) screening questionnaire, in a multiethnic general population sample of adults. Method A two-stage design was employed using the South East London Community Health Study phases I and II data. A total of 1,669 participants were screened using the SCOFF in SELCoHI, and 145 were administrated an ED clinical interview in SELCoHII. We explored the diagnostic validity of the questionnaire restricting to the 145 individuals with the clinical questionnaire. Results Sensitivity and specificity of the SCOFF were 53.7 and 93.5%, respectively. Conclusion The SCOFF showed good levels of specificity but low sensitivity, resulting in a high percentage of false negatives. Given the low sensitivity found in our sample the SCOFF is likely to be a suboptimal measure for the identification of ED in the community. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2015; 48:312–316) PMID:25504212

  4. Distribution of cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms among a multi-ethnic Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Kurdistani, Zana Karimi; Saberi, Samaneh; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Oghalaie, Akbar; Esmaeili, Maryam; Mohajerani, Nazanin; Bababeik, Maryam; Hassanpour, Parisa; Barani, Shaghik; Farjaddoost, Ameneh; Ebrahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Trejaut, Jean; Mohammadi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytokine gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are widely used to study susceptibility to complex diseases and as a tool for anthropological studies. Materials and Methods: To investigate cytokine SNPs in an Iranian multi-ethnic population, we have investigated 10 interleukin (IL) SNPs (IL-1β (C-511T, T-31C), IL-2 (G-384T), IL-4 (C-590T), IL-6 (G-174C), IL-8 (T-251A), IL-10 (G-1082A, C-819T, C-592A) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (G-308A) in 415 Iranian subjects comprising of 6 different ethnicities. Allelic and genotypic frequencies as well as Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were calculated by PyPop software. Population genetic indices including observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), fixation index (FIS), the effective number of alleles (Ne) and polymorphism information content (PIC) were derived using Popgene 32 software. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was constructed using Reynold's genetic distance obtained from the frequencies of cytokine gene polymorphism. Results: Genotypic distributions were consistent with the HWE assumptions, except for 3 loci (IL-4-590, IL-8-251 and IL-10-819) in Fars and 4 loci (IL-4-590, IL-6-174, IL-10-1082 and TNF-α-308) in Turks. Pairwise assessment of allelic frequencies, detected differences at the IL-4-590 locus in Gilakis versus Kurds (P = 0.028) and Lurs (P = 0.022). Mazanis and Gilakis displayed the highest (Ho= 0.50 ± 0.24) and lowest (Ho= 0.34 ± 0.16) mean observed heterozygosity, respectively. Conclusions: MDS analysis of our study population, in comparison with others, revealed that Iranian ethnicities except Kurds and Mazanis were tightly located within a single cluster with closest genetic affinity to Europeans. PMID:26436076

  5. Rural electrification in multiethnic Arizona: A study of power, urbanization and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Leah Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    From as early as the 1880s until as late as the 1970s, electrical power served as a critical tool for bringing America's diverse western communities into an urban industrial era. This study examines the process of electrification in three demographically diverse rural regions of Eastern Arizona. These three regions include the valleys of the Southeast, the White Mountains, and the Navajo Reservation to the north. While federal programs aided rural residents, local and regional factors determined the timing and nature of electrification and its impact. Access to electricity depended upon economics and technological advances, as well as a combination of local community and regional characteristics such as location, landscape, demographics, politics, and culture. At the turn of the century, electricity, with its elaborate and extensive infrastructure of wires, towers, and poles, emerged across America's cultural landscapes as the industrial era's most prominent symbol of progress, power, and a modern, urban lifestyle. Technological innovations and mechanization flourished, but primarily in the urban areas of the Northeast. People living outside concentrated settlements, of all ethnic backgrounds, had few hopes for delivery due to the cost of building power lines to a limited market. Arizona's rural population has historically been ethnically diverse, and its landscape varies from desert valleys to mountains of alpine forest. The federal government owns much of the land. Aided by federal guidance and funding sources like the New Deal's Rural Electrification Administration (REA), the existing rural communities took the initiative and constructed electrical systems specific to their local and regional needs. While products of the communities that built them, these systems symbolized and defined newly urbanized regions within the context of old rural landscapes, lifestyles, and traditions. In some ways the rural electrification process urbanized rural Arizona. The

  6. Effect of blood pressure on the retinal vasculature in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Jeannette; Sun, Cong; Kawasaki, Ryo; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Huey-Shi, Maisie Ho; Sandar, Mya; Wong, Tien Yin

    2009-11-01

    Blood pressure has a significant effect on retinal arterioles. There are few data on whether this effect varies by race/ethnicity. We examined the relationship of blood pressure and retinal vascular caliber in a multi-ethnic Asian population. The study is population-based and cross sectional in design. A total of 3749 Chinese, Malay and Indian participants aged > or =24 years residing in Singapore were included in the study. Retinal vascular caliber was measured using a computer program from digital retinal photographs. The associations of retinal vascular caliber with blood pressure and hypertension in each racial/ethnic group were analyzed. The main outcome measures are retinal arteriolar caliber and venular caliber. The results show that retinal arterioles were narrower in persons with uncontrolled/untreated hypertension (140.0 microm) as compared with persons with controlled hypertension (142.1 microm, P=0.0001) and those with no hypertension (146.0 microm, P<0.0001). On controlling for age, gender, body mass index, lipids and smoking, each 10 mm Hg increase in mean arterial blood pressure was associated with a 3.1 microm decrease in arteriolar caliber (P<0.0001), with a similar magnitude seen in all three racial/ethnic groups: 3.1 microm in Chinese, 2.8 microm in Malays and 3.2 microm in Indians (P<0.0001 for all). Each 10 mm Hg increase in mean arterial blood pressure was associated with a 1.8 microm increase in venular caliber (P<0.0001); furthermore, the magnitude of this effect was similar across the three racial/ethnic groups. The effect of blood pressure on the retinal vasculature was similar across three major racial/ethnic groups in Asia.

  7. Validation of the SQUASH Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Multi-Ethnic Population: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gademan, M. G. J.; Snijder, M. B.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Dijkshoorn, H.; Terwee, C. B.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reliability and validity of the SQUASH physical activity (PA) questionnaire in a multi-ethnic population living in the Netherlands. Methods We included participants from the HELIUS study, a population-based cohort study. In this study we included Dutch (n = 114), Turkish (n = 88), Moroccan (n = 74), South-Asian Surinamese (n = 98) and African Surinamese (n = 91) adults, aged 18–70 years. The SQUASH was self-administered twice to assess test-re-test reliability (mean interval 6–7 weeks) and participants wore an accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart) to enable assessment of construct validity. Results We observed low test-re-test reliability; Intra class correlation coefficients ranged from low (0.05 for moderate/high intensity PA in African Surinamese women) to acceptable (0.78 for light intensity PA in Moroccan women). The discrepancy between self-reported and measured PA differed on the basis of the intensity of activity: self-reported light intensity PA was lower than measured but self-reported moderate/high intensity PA was higher than measured, with wide limits of agreement. The discrepancy between questionnaire and Actiheart measures of moderate intensity PA did not differ between ethnic minority and Dutch participants with correction for relevant confounders. Additionally, the SQUASH overestimated the number of participants meeting the Dutch PA norm; Cohen’s kappas for the agreement were poor, the highest being 0.30 in Dutch women. Conclusion We found considerable variation in the test-re-test reliability and validity of self-reported PA with no consistency based on ethnic origin. Our findings imply that the SQUASH does not provide a valid basis for comparison of PA between ethnic groups. PMID:27575490

  8. Estimating ancestral proportions in a multi-ethnic US sample: implications for studies of admixed populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the ancestral composition of a multi-ethnic sample collected for studies of drug addictions in New York City and Las Vegas, and to examine the reliability of self-identified ethnicity and three-generation family history data. Ancestry biographical scores for seven clusters corresponding to world major geographical regions were obtained using STRUCTURE, based on genotypes of 168 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), for a sample of 1,291 African Americans (AA), European Americans (EA), and Hispanic Americans (HA) along with data from 1,051 HGDP-CEPH ‘diversity panel’ as a reference. Self-identified ethnicity and family history data, obtained in an interview, were accurate in identifying the individual major ancestry in the AA and the EA samples (approximately 99% and 95%, respectively) but were not useful for the HA sample and could not predict the extent of admixture in any group. The mean proportions of the combined clusters corresponding to European and Middle Eastern populations in the AA sample, revealed by AIMs analysis, were 0.13. The HA subjects, predominantly Puerto Ricans, showed a highly variable hybrid contribution pattern of clusters corresponding to Europe (0.27), Middle East (0.27), Africa (0.20), and Central Asia (0.14). The effect of admixture on allele frequencies is demonstrated for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (118A > G, 17 C > T) of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). This study reiterates the importance of AIMs in defining ancestry, especially in admixed populations. PMID:23244743

  9. Comparative performance of gene-based warfarin dosing algorithms in a multiethnic population

    PubMed Central

    LUBITZ, S.A.; SCOTT, S.A.; ROTHLAUF, E.B.; AGARWAL, A.; PETER, I.; DOHENY, D.; VAN DER ZEE, S.; JAREMKO, M.; YOO, C.; DESNICK, R.J.; HALPERIN, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Gene-based warfarin dosing algorithms have largely been developed in homogeneous populations, and their generalizability has not been established. Objectives We sought to assess the performance of published algorithms in a racially diverse and multiethnic sample, and determine if additional clinical variables or genetic variants associated with dose could enhance algorithm performance. Patients and methods In 145 compliant patients on warfarin with a goal international normalized ratio (INR) of 2–3, stable, therapeutic doses were compared with predicted doses using 12 reported algorithms that incorporated CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants. Additional covariates tested with each model included race, concurrent medications, medications known to interact with warfarin and previously described CYP4F2, CALU and GGCX variants. Results The mean patient age was 67 ± 14 years; 90 (62%) were male. Eighty-two (57%) were Caucasian, 28 (19%) African-American, 20 (14%) Hispanic and 15 (10%) Asian. The median warfarin dose was 35 mg per week (interquartile range 23–53 mg per week). Gene-based dosing algorithms explained 37–55% of the variation in warfarin dose requirements. Neither the addition of race, number of concurrent medications nor the number of concurrent medications interacting with warfarin enhanced algorithm performance. Similarly, consideration of CYP4F2, CALU or GGCX variant genotypes did not improve algorithms. Conclusions Existing gene-based dosing algorithms explained between approximately one-third and one-half of the variability in warfarin dose requirements in this racially and ethnically diverse cohort. Additional clinical and recently described genetic variants associated with warfarin dose did not enhance prediction in our patient population. PMID:20128861

  10. Accuracy of the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk Equation in a Large Contemporary, Multiethnic Real-World Population

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Jamal S.; Tabada, Grace H.; Solomon, Matthew D.; Lo, Joan C.; Jaffe, Marc G.; Sung, Sue Hee; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Go, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The accuracy of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk equation for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in contemporary and ethnically diverse populations is not well understood. Objectives We sought to evaluate the accuracy of the 2013 ACC/AHA risk equation within a large, multiethnic population in clinical care. Methods The target population for consideration of cholesterol-lowering therapy in a large, integrated health care delivery system population was identified in 2008 and followed through 2013. The main analyses excluded those with known ASCVD, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <70 or ≥190 mg/dl, prior statin use, or incomplete 5-year follow-up. Patient characteristics were obtained from electronic medical records and ASCVD events were ascertained using validated algorithms for hospitalization databases and death certificates. We compared predicted versus observed 5-year ASCVD risk, overall and by sex and race/ethnicity. We additionally examined predicted versus observed risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Results Among 307,591 eligible adults without diabetes between 40 and 75 years of age, 22,283 were black, 52,917 Asian/Pacific Islander, and 18,745 Hispanic. We observed 2,061 ASCVD events during 1,515,142 person-years. In each 5-year predicted ASCVD risk category, observed 5-year ASCVD risk was substantially lower: 0.20% for predicted risk <2.50%; 0.65% for predicted risk 2.50 to 3.74%; 0.90% for predicted risk 3.75 to 4.99%; and 1.85% for predicted risk ≥5.00%, with C: 0.74. Similar ASCVD risk overestimation and poor calibration with moderate discrimination (C: 0.68 to 0.74) was observed in sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic status subgroups, and in sensitivity analyses among patients receiving statins for primary prevention. Calibration among 4,242 eligible adults with diabetes was improved, but discrimination was worse (C: 0.64). Conclusions

  11. Capital, population and urban patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    1994-04-01

    The author develops an approach to urban dynamics with endogenous capital and population growth, synthesizing the Alonso location model, the two-sector neoclassical growth model, and endogenous population theory. A dynamic model for an isolated island economy with endogenous capital, population, and residential structure is developed on the basis of Alonso's residential model and the two-sector neoclassical growth model. The model describes the interdependence between residential structure, economic growth, population growth, and economic structure over time and space. It has a unique long-run equilibrium, which may be either stable or unstable, depending upon the population dynamics. Applying the Hopf theorem, the author also shows that when the system is unstable, the economic geography exhibits permanent endogenous oscillations.

  12. Yoga for heart failure patients: a feasibility pilot study with a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Ai; Hung, Yun-Yi; Ritterman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is highly prevalent and the most costly cardiovascular illness in the United States. Yoga is known to be effective in lowering stress, lessening depression, and increasing physical fitness and may be used as an adjuvant management program for CHF patients. To determine the feasibility of a yoga intervention program among a multiethnic CHF population living in underserved neighborhoods. Uncontrolled intervention trial. Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers, Richmond and Oakland, California. 14 CHF patients (7 female), mean age 64 (SD=6.4) years, and 62% African-American. Eight-week, 2x/week, 1-hr yoga classes that included meditation, breathing exercises, gentle yoga poses, and relaxation. The intervention feasibility was measured by recruitment rates, participant retention and adherence. Body weight and self-reported depression and quality of life were measured before and after the intervention. Among the 14 patients enrolled, 13 completed the intervention. Of those who completed the trial, 92% attended at least 50% of the classes. There was a significant reduction in weight (-3.5 lb, p=0.01) and improvement in the severity of depression (p<0.05), as well as a trend toward increased quality of life (p=08). No adverse events were observed. This pilot trial demonstrates that it is feasible for patients with CHF to incorporate yoga into their lifestyle. Yoga may help with routine disease management, prevention of fluid retention, and improvement of depression and quality of life. A larger trial is needed to confirm efficacy and to determine the long-term effects on other important outcomes, such as hospital re-admission rates or prognostic biomarkers.

  13. Survival in Alzheimer disease: a multiethnic, population-based study of incident cases.

    PubMed

    Helzner, E P; Scarmeas, N; Cosentino, S; Tang, M X; Schupf, N; Stern, Y

    2008-11-04

    To describe factors associated with survival in Alzheimer disease (AD) in a multiethnic, population-based longitudinal study. AD cases were identified in the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project, a longitudinal, community-based study of cognitive aging in Northern Manhattan. The sample comprised 323 participants who were initially dementia-free but developed AD during study follow-up (incident cases). Participants were followed for an average of 4.1 (up to 12.6) years. Possible factors associated with shorter lifespan were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models with attained age as the time to event (time from birth to death or last follow-up). In subanalyses, median postdiagnosis survival durations were estimated using postdiagnosis study follow-up as the timescale. The mortality rate was 10.7 per 100 person-years. Mortality rates were highest [corrected] among those diagnosed at older ages, and among non-Hispanic whites compared to [corrected] Hispanic [corrected] The median lifespan of the entire sample was 92.2 years (95% CI: 90.3, 94.1). In a multivariable-adjusted Cox model, history of diabetes and history of hypertension were independently associated with a shorter lifespan. No differences in lifespan were seen by race/ethnicity after multivariable adjustment. The median postdiagnosis survival duration was 3.7 years among non-Hispanic whites, 4.8 years among African Americans, and 7.6 years among Hispanics. Factors influencing survival in Alzheimer disease include race/ethnicity and comorbid diabetes and hypertension.

  14. Dietary patterns, insulin sensitivity and adiposity in the multi-ethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study population.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Schulz, Mandy; Moore, Charity G; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological investigations increasingly employ dietary-pattern techniques to fully integrate dietary data. The present study evaluated the relationship of dietary patterns identified by cluster analysis with measures of insulin sensitivity (SI) and adiposity in the multi-ethnic, multi-centre Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS, 1992-94). Cross-sectional data from 980 middle-aged adults, of whom 67 % had normal and 33 % had impaired glucose tolerance, were analysed. Usual dietary intake was obtained by an interviewer-administered, validated food-frequency questionnaire. Outcomes included SI, fasting insulin (FI), BMI and waist circumference. The relationship of dietary patterns to log(SI+1), log(FI), BMI and waist circumference was modelled with multivariable linear regressions. Cluster analysis identified six distinct diet patterns--'dark bread', 'wine', 'fruits', 'low-frequency eaters', 'fries' and 'white bread'. The 'white bread' and the 'fries' patterns over-represented the Hispanic IRAS population predominantly from two centres, while the 'wine' and 'dark bread' groups were dominated by non-Hispanic whites. The dietary patterns were associated significantly with each of the outcomes first at the crude, clinical level (P<0.001). Furthermore, they were significantly associated with FI, BMI and waist circumference independent of age, sex, race or ethnicity, clinic, family history of diabetes, smoking and activity (P<0.004), whereas significance was lost for SI. Studying the total dietary behaviour via a pattern approach allowed us to focus both on the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of diet. The present study identified highly consistent associations of distinct dietary patterns with measures of insulin resistance and adiposity, which are risk factors for diabetes and heart disease.

  15. Disease Variant Landscape of a Large Multiethnic Population of Moyamoya Patients by Exome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Lorelei D.; Clark, Michael J.; Patwardhan, Anil; Chandratillake, Gemma; Garcia, Sarah; Chen, Rong; Morgan, Alexander A.; Leng, Nan; Kirk, Scott; Chen, Richard; Cook, Douglas J.; Snyder, Michael; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare disorder characterized by cerebrovascular occlusion and development of hemorrhage-prone collateral vessels. Approximately 10–12% of cases are familial, with a presumed low penetrance autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Diagnosis commonly occurs only after clinical presentation. The recent identification of the RNF213 founder mutation (p.R4810K) in the Asian population has made a significant contribution, but the etiology of this disease remains unclear. To further develop the variant landscape of MMD, we performed high-depth whole exome sequencing of 125 unrelated, predominantly nonfamilial, ethnically diverse MMD patients in parallel with 125 internally sequenced, matched controls using the same exome and analysis platform. Three subpopulations were established: Asian, Caucasian, and non-RNF213 founder mutation cases. We provided additional support for the previously observed RNF213 founder mutation (p.R4810K) in Asian cases (P = 6.01×10−5) that was enriched among East Asians compared to Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander cases (P = 9.52×10−4) and was absent in all Caucasian cases. The most enriched variant in Caucasian (P = 7.93×10−4) and non-RNF213 founder mutation (P = 1.51×10−3) cases was ZXDC (p.P562L), a gene involved in MHC Class II activation. Collapsing variant methodology ranked OBSCN, a gene involved in myofibrillogenesis, as most enriched in Caucasian (P = 1.07×10−4) and non-RNF213 founder mutation cases (P = 5.31×10−5). These findings further support the East Asian origins of the RNF213 (p.R4810K) variant and more fully describe the genetic landscape of multiethnic MMD, revealing novel, alternative candidate variants and genes that may be important in MMD etiology and diagnosis. PMID:26530418

  16. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation in pregnancy in a multiethnic population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Eggemoen, Åse R; Falk, Ragnhild S; Knutsen, Kirsten V; Lagerløv, Per; Sletner, Line; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jenum, Anne K

    2016-01-19

    To investigate ethnic differences in vitamin D levels during pregnancy, assess risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation in women with deficiency in early pregnancy. This is a population-based, multiethnic cohort study of pregnant women attending Child Health Clinics for antenatal care in Oslo, Norway. Serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in 748 pregnant women (59% ethnic minorities) at gestational weeks (GW) 15 (SD:3.6) and 28 (1.4). Women with 25(OH)D <37 nmol/L at GW 15 were for ethical reasons recommended vitamin D3 supplementation. Main outcome measure was 25(OH)D, and linear regression models were performed. Severe deficiency (25(OH)D <25 nmol/L) was found at GW 15 in 45% of women from South Asia, 40% from the Middle East and 26% from Sub-Saharan Africa, compared to 2.5% in women from East Asia and 1.3% of women from Western Europe. Women from South Asia, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa had mean values that were -28 (95 % CI:-33, -23), -24 (-29, -18) and -20 (-27, -13) nmol/L lower than in Western women, respectively. Ethnicity, education, season and intake of vitamin D were independently associated with 25(OH)D. At GW 28, the mean 25(OH)D had increased from 23 (SD:7.8) to 47 (27) nmol/L (p < 0.01) in women who were recommended vitamin D supplementation, with small or no change in women with sufficient vitamin D levels at baseline. Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among South Asian, Middle Eastern and African women. The serum levels of 25(OH)D increased significantly from GW 15 to 28 in vitamin D deficient women who received a recommendation for supplementation. This recommendation of vitamin D supplementation increased vitamin D levels in deficient women.

  17. Gender Disparities among Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients from a Multi-ethnic Population.

    PubMed

    Galati, Alexandra; King, Sage L; Nakagawa, Kazuma

    2015-09-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a hemorrhagic stroke with high morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that minorities such as Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) with ICH are significantly younger compared to whites. However, the interaction of race and gender, and its impact on observed disparities among a multi-ethnic population in Hawai'i, have not been studied. Consecutive ICH patients (whites, Asians or NHOPI), who were hospitalized at a single tertiary center on O'ahu between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Clinical characteristics were compared between men and women among the entire cohort, and within the major racial groups. A total of 791 patients (NHOPI 19%, Asians 65%, whites 16%) were studied. Overall, men were younger than women (62±16 years vs 67±18 years respectively, P < .0001). Among whites, ages of men and women were similar (men: 67±14 years vs women: 67±17 years, P = .86). However, among Asians, men were significantly younger than women (men: 63±16 years vs women: 70±17 years, P < .0001). Among NHOPI, ages of men and women were similar (men: 53±15 years vs women: 56±17 years, P = .34), although NHOPI group overall had significantly younger age compared to whites and Asians (NHOPI: 54±16 years vs whites: 67±15 years, P < .0001; vs Asians: 66±17, P < .0001). Overall, men have younger age of ICH presentation than women. However, this observed gender difference was most significant among Asians, but not among whites or NHOPI.

  18. Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Allison G.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tanja; Sciacca, Robert R.; Jin, Zhezhen; Liu, Rui; Homma, Shunichi; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is associated with cardiovascular mortality. Its association with ischemic stroke has been mainly documented after myocardial infarction. The stroke risk associated with LVD, especially of mild degree, in the general population is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between LVD and ischemic stroke in a multiethnic cohort. Methods LV systolic function was assessed by transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography in a subset of subjects from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), 270 patients with first ischemic stroke and 288 age-, gender- and race-matched community controls. LV ejection fraction was measured by a simplified cylinder-hemiellipsoid formula, and categorized as normal (>50%), mildly (41% to 50%), moderately (31% to 40%) or severely (≤30%) decreased. The association between impaired ejection fraction and ischemic stroke was evaluated by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for established stroke risk factors. Results LVD of any degree was more frequent in stroke patients (24.1%) than in controls (4.9%; P<0.0001), as was moderate/severe LVD (13.3% versus 2.4%; P<0.001). A decreased ejection fraction was associated with ischemic stroke even after adjusting for other stroke risk factors. The adjusted odds ratio for any degree of LVD was 3.92 (95% CI, 1.93 to 7.97). The adjusted odds ratio for mild LVD was 3.96 (95% CI, 1.56 to 10.01) and for moderate/severe LVD 3.88 (95% CI, 1.45 to 10.39). The association between LVD of any degree and stroke was present in all age, gender and race-ethnicity subgroups. Conclusions LVD, even of mild degree, is independently associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The assessment of LV function should be considered in the assessment of the stroke risk. PMID:16741172

  19. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction and the risk of ischemic stroke in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Hays, Allison G; Sacco, Ralph L; Rundek, Tanja; Sciacca, Robert R; Jin, Zhezhen; Liu, Rui; Homma, Shunichi; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2006-07-01

    Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is associated with cardiovascular mortality. Its association with ischemic stroke has been mainly documented after myocardial infarction. The stroke risk associated with LVD, especially of mild degree, in the general population is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between LVD and ischemic stroke in a multiethnic cohort. LV systolic function was assessed by transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography in a subset of subjects from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), 270 patients with first ischemic stroke and 288 age-, gender- and race-matched community controls. LV ejection fraction was measured by a simplified cylinder-hemiellipsoid formula, and categorized as normal (>50%), mildly (41% to 50%), moderately (31% to 40%) or severely (< or =30%) decreased. The association between impaired ejection fraction and ischemic stroke was evaluated by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for established stroke risk factors. LVD of any degree was more frequent in stroke patients (24.1%) than in controls (4.9%; P<0.0001), as was moderate/severe LVD (13.3% versus 2.4%; P<0.001). A decreased ejection fraction was associated with ischemic stroke even after adjusting for other stroke risk factors. The adjusted odds ratio for any degree of LVD was 3.92 (95% CI, 1.93 to 7.97). The adjusted odds ratio for mild LVD was 3.96 (95% CI, 1.56 to 10.01) and for moderate/severe LVD 3.88 (95% CI, 1.45 to 10.39). The association between LVD of any degree and stroke was present in all age, gender and race-ethnicity subgroups. LVD, even of mild degree, is independently associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The assessment of LV function should be considered in the assessment of the stroke risk.

  20. Gender Disparities among Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients from a Multi-ethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Alexandra; King, Sage L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a hemorrhagic stroke with high morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that minorities such as Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) with ICH are significantly younger compared to whites. However, the interaction of race and gender, and its impact on observed disparities among a multi-ethnic population in Hawai‘i, have not been studied. Methods: Consecutive ICH patients (whites, Asians or NHOPI), who were hospitalized at a single tertiary center on O‘ahu between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Clinical characteristics were compared between men and women among the entire cohort, and within the major racial groups. Results: A total of 791 patients (NHOPI 19%, Asians 65%, whites 16%) were studied. Overall, men were younger than women (62±16 years vs 67±18 years respectively, P < .0001). Among whites, ages of men and women were similar (men: 67±14 years vs women: 67±17 years, P = .86). However, among Asians, men were significantly younger than women (men: 63±16 years vs women: 70±17 years, P < .0001). Among NHOPI, ages of men and women were similar (men: 53±15 years vs women: 56±17 years, P = .34), although NHOPI group overall had significantly younger age compared to whites and Asians (NHOPI: 54±16 years vs whites: 67±15 years, P < .0001; vs Asians: 66±17, P < .0001). Conclusions: Overall, men have younger age of ICH presentation than women. However, this observed gender difference was most significant among Asians, but not among whites or NHOPI. PMID:26793409

  1. Investigating Endothelial Activation and Oxidative Stress in relation to Glycaemic Control in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Brady, E. M.; Webb, D. R.; Morris, D. H.; Khunti, K.; Talbot, D. S. C.; Sattar, N.; Davies, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. An exploration of ethnic differences in measures of oxidative stress and endothelial activation in relation to known cardiovascular risk factors within South Asians (SA) and White Europeans (WE) residing in the UK. Methods. 202 participants within a UK multiethnic population provided biomedical and anthropometric data. Human urinary 2,3-dinor-8-iso-prostaglandin-F1α and plasma ICAM-1 were quantified as measures of oxidative stress and endothelial activation, respectively. Results. 2,3-Dinor-8-iso-prostaglandin-F1α levels were significantly higher in the SA group compared to WE group (10.36 (95% CI: 9.09, 11.79) versus 8.46 (7.71, 9.29), P = 0.021) after adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, body weight, HbA1c, and medication. Oxidative stress was positively associated with HbA1c (β = 1.08, 95% CI:1.02, 1.14, P = 0.009), fasting (β = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.10, P = 0.002), and 2 hr glucose (β = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04, P = 0.052). In each adjusted model, SA continued to have elevated levels of oxidative stress compared to WE. ICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in the composite IGR group compared to the normoglycaemic group (P < 0.001). No ethnic differences in ICAM-1 were observed. Conclusion. These results suggest that SA are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress at lower blood glucose thresholds than WE. Further research into the potential mechanisms involved is warranted. PMID:23304116

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale among a Multiethnic Population during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah Su Tin; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-05-01

    The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) was developed to measure maternal attitudes toward infant feeding, but a number of validated studies on the IIFAS found that it was subject to methodological limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IIFAS among a multiethnic population in Singapore. A cross-sectional research design was used on a sample of 417 antenatal women. The internal consistency and stability of the IIFAS were evaluated using Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability. Known-group comparisons discriminated certain group differences in a predictable way. A series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) was conducted to test the factor structure of the IIFAS using the maximum likelihood and principal axis factoring. The number of factors was selected according to theoretical and statistical considerations. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was further performed to validate the factor structure constructed in the prior EFA. The IIFAS had a Cronbach's α and Pearson correlation of 0.79 and 0.85, respectively. The known-group comparisons among certain groups were supported. The EFA results showed that the 3-factor structure produced the most interpretable and theoretical sense. A second-order CFA was conducted to confirm the construct dimensionality of the 15-item IIFAS, with satisfactory fit indices found. The 15-item IIFAS is a psychometrically sound measurement tool that health care professionals can use to understand the diverse infant feeding attitudes and knowledge among different ethnic groups in order to provide breastfeeding interventions that are culturally sensitive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Eczema and sensitization to common allergens in the United States: a multiethnic, population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Teresa; Keiser, Elizabeth; Linos, Eleni; Rotatori, Robert M; Sainani, Kristin; Lingala, Bharathi; Lane, Alfred T; Schneider, Lynda; Tang, Jean Y

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between food and environmental allergens in contributing to eczema risk is unclear on a multiethnic population level. Our purpose was to determine whether sensitization to specific dietary and environmental allergens as measured according to higher specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels is associated with eczema risk in children. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants ages 1 to 17 years were asked whether they had ever received a diagnosis of eczema from a physician (n = 538). Total and specific serum IgE levels for four dietary allergens (egg, cow's milk, peanut, and shrimp) and five environmental allergens (dust mite, cat, dog, Aspergillus, and Alternaria) were measured. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between eczema and IgE levels. In the United States, 10.4 million children (15.6%) have a history of eczema. Eczema was more common in black children (p < 0.001) and in children from families with higher income and education (p = 0.01). The median total IgE levels were higher in children with a history of eczema than in those without (66.4 vs 50.6 kU/L, p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, family income, household education, and physician-diagnosed asthma, eczema was significantly associated with sensitization to cat dander (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.4, p = 0.009) and dog dander (OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2, 1.7, p < 0.001). After correction for multiple comparisons, only sensitization to dog dander remained significant. U.S. children with eczema are most likely to be sensitized to dog dander. Future prospective studies should further explore this relationship.

  4. Ethnic differences in fetal size and growth in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Sletner, Line; Rasmussen, Svein; Jenum, Anne Karen; Nakstad, Britt; Jensen, Odd Harald Rognerud; Vangen, Siri

    2015-09-01

    Impaired or excessive fetal growth is associated with adverse short- and long-term health outcomes that differ between ethnic groups. We explored ethnic differences in fetal size and growth from mid pregnancy until birth. Data are from the multi-ethnic STORK-Groruddalen study, a population-based, prospective cohort of 823 pregnant women and their offspring in Oslo, Norway. Measures were z-scores of estimated fetal weight (EFW), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), in gestational week 24, 32 and 37, measured by ultrasound, and similar measures at birth. Differences in fetal size and growth were assessed using separate Linear Mixed Models including all four time points, with ethnic Europeans as reference. In week 24 South Asian fetuses had smaller AC, but larger FL than Europeans, and slightly lower EFW (-0.17 SD (-0.33, -0.01), p=0.04). Middle East/North African fetuses also had larger FL, but similar AC, and hence slightly higher EFW (0.18 (0.003, 0.36), p=0.05). Both groups had slower growth of AC, FL and EFW from this time until birth, and had -0.61 SD (-0.73, -0.49) and -0.28 SD (-0.41, -0.15) lower birth weight respectively. Ethnic East Asians, on the other hand, were smaller throughout pregnancy and had -0.58 SD (-0.82, -0.34) lower birth weight. Significant ethnic differences remained after adjusting for maternal factors. We observed ethnic differences in fetal size and body proportions already in gestational week 24, and in fetal growth from this time until birth, which were only partly explained by key maternal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mediterranean diet and leukocyte telomere length in a multi-ethnic elderly population.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yian; Honig, Lawrence S; Schupf, Nicole; Lee, Joseph H; Luchsinger, Jose A; Stern, Yaakov; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is considered as the marker of biological aging and may be related to environmental factors. The current study aimed to examine the relation between Mediterranean-type diet and LTL. We used a cross-sectional study of 1743 multi-ethnic community residents of New York aged 65 years or older. Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) was calculated from dietary information collected using a food frequency questionnaire. LTL was measured from leukocyte DNA using a real-time PCR method to measure T/S ratio, the ratio of telomere (T) to single-copy gene (S) sequence. Regression analysis showed that the MeDi score was not associated with LTL in the overall study population (β = 12.5; p = 0.32) after adjusting for age, sex, education, ethnicity, caloric intake, smoking, and physical and leisure activities. However, we found a significant association between MeDi and LTL among non-Hispanic whites (β = 48.3; p = 0.05), and the results held after excluding dementia subjects (β = 49.6; p = 0.05). We further found that, in the whole population, vegetable and cereal consumption above the sex-specific population median was associated with longer LTL (β = 89.1, p = 0.04) and shorter LTL (β = -93.5; p = 0.03), respectively. Among non-Hispanic whites, intake of meat or dairy below sex-specific population medians was associated with longer LTL (β = 154.7, p = 0.05; β = 240.5, p < 0.001, respectively). We found that higher adherence to a MeDi was associated with longer LTL among whites but not among African Americans and Hispanics. Additionally, a diet high in vegetables but low in cereal, meat, and dairy might be associated with longer LTL among healthy elderly.

  6. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in a multi-ethnic Asian population contains a three-factor structure.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hiromi W L; Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Chia, Kee Seng; Lim, Wei Yen

    2015-12-01

    The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely used measure for assessing sleep impairment. Although it was developed as a unidimensional instrument, there is much debate that it contains multidimensional latent constructs. We examined the dimensionality of the underlying factor structure of PSQI in Singapore, a rapidly industrialising Asian country with multi-ethnicities representing the Chinese, Malays and Indians. The PSQI was administered through an interviewer-based questionnaire in two separate population-based cross-sectional surveys. An explanatory factor analysis (EFA) was first used to explore the underlying construct of the PSQI in both studies. Then, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate an optimal factor model by comparing against other possible models identified in EFA. There are three correlated yet distinguishable factors that account for an individual's sleep experience from the same best-fit model obtained in both studies: perceived sleep quality, daily disturbances and sleep efficiency. Our three-factor structure of PSQI is superior to the originally intended unidimensional model. Our model also shows the best-fit indices when compared to the previously reported single-factor, two-factor and three-factor (by Cole et al.) models in a multi-ethnic Asian population. There is strong evidence that the PSQI contains a three-factor rather than a unidimensional structure in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Scoring the PSQI along their multidimensional perspectives may provide a more accurate understanding of the relationship between sleep impairment and health conditions rather than using a single global score.

  7. Pregnancy outcomes in women greater than 45 years: a cohort control study in a multi-ethnic inner city population.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shaine; Tran, Kim; Stewart, Laura; Soutter, Eleanor; Nauta, Maud; Yoong, Wai

    2014-05-01

    To examine the pregnancy outcomes of women >45 years in a multi-ethnic population when compared to controls and to reflect on socio-demographic details of the older mothers. A retrospective cohort control study over an 8-year period in an inner city London hospital with multi-ethnic population. The influence of advanced maternal age (>45 years at time of delivery) on fetal and maternal outcomes was assessed by comparing these women to controls (aged 20-30 years) matched for ethnicity, country of origin and parity. Data from 64 cases and 64 controls were compared. Ninety percent of the index group had undergone assisted conception. Mothers >45 years had a fourfold increase in cesarean section (35/64 vs 8/64), a threefold increase in blood loss (669.2 vs 272.4 ml) (both p < 0.001) and were more likely to have preterm birth (12/64 vs 3/64) (p < 0.05). Only 5 % of the 64 women were born in the United Kingdom, 52 % were unemployed and 50 % were not fluent in English. Seventy-five percent of the study population were multiparous, 52 % of the pregnancies were unplanned and 90 % had conceived spontaneously. In an inner city immigrant population, older mothers >45 years were more likely to have cesarean sections, postpartum hemorrhage and premature deliveries. Moreover, social and demographic factors suggest that late child bearing is influenced by cultural factors such as acceptance of large families and lack of contraception.

  8. Contribution of common PCSK1 genetic variants to obesity in 8,359 subjects from multi-ethnic American population.

    PubMed

    Choquet, Hélène; Kasberger, Jay; Hamidovic, Ajna; Jorgenson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235) have been shown to be associated with obesity in European, Asian and Mexican populations. To determine whether common PCSK1 variants contribute to obesity in American population, we conducted association analyses in 8,359 subjects using two multi-ethnic American studies: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). By evaluating the contribution of rs6232 and rs6235 in each ethnic group, we found that in European-American subjects from CARDIA, only rs6232 was associated with BMI (P = 0.006) and obesity (P = 0.018) but also increased the obesity incidence during the 20 years of follow-up (HR = 1.53 [1.07-2.19], P = 0.019). Alternatively, in African-American subjects from CARDIA, rs6235 was associated with BMI (P = 0.028) and obesity (P = 0.018). Further, by combining the two case-control ethnic groups from the CARDIA study in a meta-analysis, association between rs6235 and obesity risk remained significant (OR = 1.23 [1.05-1.45], P = 9.5×10(-3)). However, neither rs6232 nor rs6235 was associated with BMI or obesity in the MESA study. Interestingly, rs6232 was associated with BMI (P = 4.2×10(-3)) and obesity (P = 3.4×10(-3)) in the younger European-American group combining samples from the both studies [less than median age (53 years)], but not among the older age group (P = 0.756 and P = 0.935 for BMI and obesity, respectively). By combining all the case-control ethnic groups from CARDIA and MESA in a meta-analysis, we found no significant association for the both variants and obesity risk. Finally, by exploring the full PCSK1 locus, we observed that no variant remained significant after correction for multiple testing. These results indicate that common PCSK1 variants (notably rs6232 and rs6235) contribute modestly to obesity in multi-ethnic American population. Further, these results

  9. Incidence and case fatality rates of stroke subtypes in a multiethnic population: the South London Stroke Register

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, C; Rudd, A; Howard, R; Coshall, C; Stewart, J; Lawrence, E; Hajat, C; Hillen, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify sociodemographic differences in the incidence of the subtypes of first ever stroke in a multiethnic population. Methods: A prospective community stroke register (1995–8) was developed using multiple notification sources and pathological and clinical classifications of stroke. Standardisation of rates was to European and World populations and adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status in multivariate analyses. A multiethnic population of 234 533 in south London, of whom 21% are black was studied. Results: A total of 1254 cases were registered. The average age of stroke was 71.7 years with black patients being 11.3 years younger than white patients (p<0.0001). The incidence rate/1000 population was 1.33 (crude) (95% CI 1.26 to 1.41), 1.28 (European adjusted) (95% CI 1.2 to 1.35) with a 2.18 (95% CI 1.86 to 2.56) (p<0.0001) age and sex adjusted incidence rate ratio in the black population. Radiological diagnosis was confirmatory in 1107 (88.3%) with 862 (68.7%) infarction, 168 (13.4%) primary intracerebral haemorrhage, and 77 (6.2%) subarachnoid haemorrhage. Of the cerebral infarction cases 189 (21.9%) were total anterior circulatory, 250 (29%) partial anterior, 141 (16.4%) posterior (POCI) and 282 (32.7%) lacunar infarcts. The black group had a significantly higher incidence of all subtypes of stroke except for POCI and unclassified strokes. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for men compared with women was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19 to 1.50; p<0.001). The IRR for manual versus non-manual occupations in those aged 35–64 years was 1.64 (95%CI 1.22 to 2.23; p<0.0001). There was a borderline significant increase in adjusted survival at 6 months in the black group 95% (CI 0.61 to 1.03, p=0.078) with a hazard ratio of 0.79 after adjustment and stratification. Conclusions: Although the black population is at increased risk of stroke and most subtypes of stroke, this is not translated into significant differences in survival

  10. Validation of the English version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wan C; Tan, Justina W L; Wee, Eric W L; Niti, Matthew; Ng, Tze P

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of study was to assess the validity, reliability and acceptability of the English version of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population. The English version of the Standardized Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ-S) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were self-completed by 119 English-speaking Chinese, Malay and Indian asthmatic subjects, aged 17-78. Spirometric measurements, peak expiratory flow rate, current clinical symptoms and treatment requirements were documented. Reliability and responsiveness were analyzed in a subgroup of 57 patients who were reassessed 6 weeks later. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for internal consistency of the AQLQ-S was 0.97 (0.96-0.98) for the overall score. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) overall score was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-0.99) while the responsiveness index was 1.29 with strong longitudinal validity for clinical and spirometric measures of asthma severity and asthma control score (p < 0.001). The results of this study showed that the English version of the AQLQ-S is a sensitive and valid instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in asthmatic subjects from a multi-ethnic Asian population.

  11. Body mass index and mortality in an ethnically diverse population: the Multiethnic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Murphy, Suzanne P.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has been strongly related to overall mortality, but the consistency of this association across diverse ethnic groups and the effects of early adult BMI versus BMI in later adulthood have not been adequately studied. A prospective analysis was performed using data from 183,211 adults aged 45–75 who enrolled the population-based Multiethnic Cohort Study by completing a questionnaire that included self-reported weight and height information in 1993–1996. Participants were African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites living in Hawaii and California. During an average 12.5 years of follow-up, 35,664 deaths were identified. To control for confounding caused by conditions that lead to weight loss and mortality, we excluded participants with a history of cancer or heart disease, who ever smoked, and who died within the first 3 years of follow-up. An increased risk of mortality was observed in participants with a BMI ≥ 27.5 in both men and women compared with the reference category of BMI 23.0–24.9; a BMI ≥ 35.0 carried a greater risk of mortality in men than in women. Although the findings were generally similar across ethnic groups, the association of higher BMI with mortality in Latino men appeared to be weaker than in the other groups. A BMI of 25.0–34.9 at age 21 showed a stronger positive association, with no further increase in risk for a BMI ≥ 35.0, than did BMI in later adulthood. These results indicate that the association of BMI with mortality is generally consistent across sex and ethnic groups, with some variation in the strength of the effect. Most notably, the effect of overweight in young adulthood appears to be much stronger than that of overweight in later adulthood on mortality in later life. This emphasizes the importance of weight management in childhood and adolescence. PMID:22644110

  12. Ten-year detection rate of brain arteriovenous malformations in a large, multiethnic, defined population.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Rodney A; Kim, Helen; Sidney, Stephen; McCulloch, Charles E; Singh, Vineeta; Johnston, S Claiborne; Ko, Nerissa U; Achrol, Achal S; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Young, William L

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether increased neuroimaging use is associated with increased brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) detection, we examined detection rates in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of northern California between 1995 and 2004. We reviewed medical records, radiology reports, and administrative databases to identify BAVMs, intracranial aneurysms (IAs: subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] and unruptured aneurysms), and other vascular malformations (OVMs: dural fistulas, cavernous malformations, Vein of Galen malformations, and venous malformations). Poisson regression (with robust standard errors) was used to test for trend. Random-effects meta-analysis generated a pooled measure of BAVM detection rate from 6 studies. We identified 401 BAVMs (197 ruptured, 204 unruptured), 570 OVMs, and 2892 IAs (2079 SAHs and 813 unruptured IAs). Detection rates per 100 000 person-years were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3 to 1.6) for BAVMs, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.3) for OVMs, and 10.3 (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.7) for IAs. Neuroimaging utilization increased 12% per year during the time period (P<0.001). Overall, rates increased for IAs (P<0.001), remained stable for OVMs (P=0.858), and decreased for BAVMs (P=0.001). Detection rates increased 15% per year for unruptured IAs (P<0.001), with no change in SAHs (P=0.903). However, rates decreased 7% per year for unruptured BAVMs (P=0.016) and 3% per year for ruptured BAVMs (P=0.005). Meta-analysis yielded a pooled BAVM detection rate of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.4) per 100 000 person-years, without heterogeneity between studies (P=0.25). Rates for BAVMs, OVMs, and IAs in this large, multiethnic population were similar to those in other series. During 1995 to 2004, a period of increasing neuroimaging utilization, we did not observe an increased rate of detection of unruptured BAVMs, despite increased detection of unruptured IAs.

  13. Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Alexandra; Ornelas, Carolina; Jobling, Mark A; Brehm, António; Villems, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background The geographic and ethnolinguistic differentiation of many African Y-chromosomal lineages provides an opportunity to evaluate human migration episodes and admixture processes, in a pan-continental context. The analysis of the paternal genetic structure of Equatorial West Africans carried out to date leaves their origins and relationships unclear, and raises questions about the existence of major demographic phenomena analogous to the large-scale Bantu expansions. To address this, we have analysed the variation of 31 binary and 11 microsatellite markers on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in Guinea-Bissau samples of diverse ethnic affiliations, some not studied before. Results The Guinea-Bissau Y chromosome pool is characterized by low haplogroup diversity (D = 0.470, sd 0.033), with the predominant haplogroup E3a*-M2 shared among the ethnic clusters and reaching a maximum of 82.2% in the Mandenka people. The Felupe-Djola and Papel groups exhibit the highest diversity of lineages and harbor the deep-rooting haplogroups A-M91, E2-M75 and E3*-PN2, typical of Sahel's more central and eastern areas. Their genetic distinction from other groups is statistically significant (P = 0.01) though not attributable to linguistic, geographic or religious criteria. Non sub-Saharan influences were associated with the presence of haplogroup R1b-P25 and particular lineages of E3b1-M78. Conclusion The predominance and high diversity of haplogroup E3a*-M2 suggests a demographic expansion in the equatorial western fringe, possibly supported by a local agricultural center. The paternal pool of the Mandenka and Balanta displays evidence of a particularly marked population growth among the Guineans, possibly reflecting the demographic effects of the agriculturalist lifestyle and their putative relationship to the people that introduced early cultivation practices into West Africa. The paternal background of the Felupe-Djola and Papel ethnic groups suggests a better

  14. The clinical characteristics at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population: the South London Diabetes cohort (SOUL-D).

    PubMed

    Winkley, K; Thomas, S M; Sivaprasad, S; Chamley, M; Stahl, D; Ismail, K; Amiel, S A

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in an urban multi-ethnic cohort. A population-based cross-sectional design was used. People diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the preceding 6 months were recruited from primary care practices in three adjacent inner-city boroughs of South London, serving a population in which 20% of residents are of black African or Caribbean ethnicity. Sociodemographic and biomedical data were collected by standardised clinical assessment and from medical records. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to report associations between ethnicity and diabetes-complication status. From 96 general practices, 1,506 patients were recruited. Their mean age was 55.6 (± 11.07) years, 55% were men, 60% were asymptomatic at diagnosis and 51%, 38% and 11% were of white, black and South Asian/other ethnicity, respectively. Compared with white participants, black and South Asian/other participants were: younger (mean age 58.9 [± 10.09], 52.4 [± 11.19] and 51.5 [± 10.42] years, respectively; p < 0.0001); less likely to have neuropathy (10.1%, 3.6% and 4.4%; p < 0.0001) or report coronary artery disease (12.7%, 4.8% and 7.3%; p < 0.0001). In logistic regression, compared with white participants, black participants had lower levels of macrovascular complications (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.84; p = 0.01). Male sex was independently associated with microvascular disease (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.26, 2.28; p < 0.0001). The prevalence of complications at time of diagnosis was lower than expected, especially in black and South Asian/other ethnic groups. However, in multi-ethnic inner-city populations, onset of type 2 diabetes occurred almost 10 years earlier in non-white populations than in white participants, predicating a prolonged morbidity.

  15. Perspectives on urban conditions and population health.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Gibble, Emily; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The majority of the world's population will live in cities in the next few years and the pace of urbanization worldwide will continue to accelerate over the coming decades. While the number of megacities is projected to increase, the largest population growth is expected to be in cities of less than one million people. Such a dramatic demographic shift can be expected to have an impact on population health. Although there has been historic interest in how city living affects health, a cogent framework that enables systematic study of urban health across time and place has yet to emerge. Four alternate but complementary approaches to the study of urban health today are presented (urban health penalty, urban health advantage, urban sprawl, and an integrative urban conditions model) followed by three key questions that may help guide the study and practice of urban health in coming decades.

  16. The role of social networks and support in postpartum women's depression: a multiethnic urban sample.

    PubMed

    Surkan, Pamela J; Peterson, Karen E; Hughes, Michael D; Gottlieb, Barbara R

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the relationship of social support, and of social networks, to symptoms of depression in a multiethnic sample of women having recently given birth. Women at community health centers in a Northeastern city were randomly sampled from groups stratified by race/ethnicity (African American, Hispanic, and White) and postpartum interval. Mother's score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) was the dependent variable. Main independent variables included the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey and a social network item. Univariate statistics assessed the relationship between CES-D score and each of the independent variables. Multivariate linear regression models included core sociodemographic variables alone, the core model with each of the social support and social network variables added separately, and all variables together. We evaluated interactions between race and social support, race and social networks, and social support and social networks. The multivariate models with MOS Social Support and core variables indicated that each 10-point increase in the MOS Social Support Survey was related to a 2.1-unit lower score on the CES-D (95% CI -2.4, -1.7). The inclusion of the social network variable into the core model showed that having two or more friends or family members available was associated with a 13.6-point lower mean score on the CES-D (95% CI -17.5, -9.6), compared to women reporting none or only one available person. Both social support and social networks were statistically significant and independently related to depressive symptomatology.

  17. Chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and mortality: A prospective cohort study in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Cynthia C; Teo, Boon Wee; Ong, Peng Guan; Cheung, Carol Y; Lim, Su Chi; Chow, Khuan Yew; Meng, Chan Choon; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on adverse cardiovascular outcomes and deaths in Asian populations. We evaluated the associations of CKD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Prospective cohort study of 7098 individuals who participated in two independent population-based studies involving Malay adults (n = 3148) and a multi-ethnic cohort of Chinese, Malay and Indian adults (n = 3950). CKD was assessed from CKD-EPI estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Incident CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke and CVD mortality) and all-cause mortality were identified by linkage with national disease/death registries. Over a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 4.6% developed CVD and 6.1% died. Risks of both CVD and all-cause mortality increased with decreasing eGFR and increasing albuminuria (all p-trend <0.05). Adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% confidence interval)) of CVD and all-cause mortality were: 1.54 (1.05-2.27) and 2.21 (1.67-2.92) comparing eGFR <45 vs ≥60; 2.81 (1.49-5.29) and 2.34 (1.28-4.28) comparing UACR ≥300 vs <30. The association between eGFR <60 and all-cause mortality was stronger among those with diabetes (p-interaction = 0.02). PAR of incident CVD was greater among those with UACR ≥300 (12.9%) and that of all-cause mortality greater among those with eGFR <45 (16.5%). In multi-ethnic Asian adults, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were independently associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. These findings extend previously reported similar associations in Western populations to Asians and emphasize the need for early detection of CKD and intervention to prevent adverse outcomes. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  18. Factors influencing the uptake of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in a multiethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping; Sam, I-Ching

    2010-06-17

    The study aimed to determine factors influencing the uptake of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in a multiethnic Asian population. Population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and December 2009. Approximately 70% of overall participants indicated willingness to be vaccinated against the 2009 H1N1 influenza. Participants who indicated positive intention to vaccinate against 2009 H1N1 influenza were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. A halal (acceptable to Muslims) vaccine was the main factor that determined Malay participants' decision to accept vaccination, whereas safety of the vaccine was the main factor that influenced vaccination decision for Chinese and Indian participants. The study highlights the challenges in promoting the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. Ethnic-sensitive efforts are needed to maximize acceptance of H1N1 vaccines in countries with diverse ethnic communities and religious practices. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Victor; Cheung, Carol Y; Li, Xiang; Tian, Dechao; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Y

    2016-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and its risk factors in a multi-ethnic Asian population. This population-based study of 10,033 participants (75.7% response rate) included Chinese, Indian and Malay persons aged 40 years and older. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination, standardized interviews and laboratory blood tests were performed. Digital fundus photographs were assessed for presence of RVO following the definitions used in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Regression analysis models were constructed to study the relationship between ocular and systemic factors and RVO. Age-specific prevalence rates of RVO were applied to project the number of people affected in Asia from 2013 to 2040. The overall crude prevalence of RVO was 0.72% (n = 71; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.54-0.87%). The crude prevalence of RVO was similar in Chinese, Indian and Malay participants (p = 0.865). In multivariable regression models, significant risk factors of RVO included increased age (odds ratio, OR, 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06), hypertension (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.61-8.31), increased serum creatinine (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, per 10 mmol/L increase), history of heart attack (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.11-4.54) and increased total cholesterol (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.59, per 1 mmol/L increase). None of the ocular parameters were associated with RVO. RVO is estimated to affect up to 16 and 21 million people in Asia by 2020 and 2040, respectively. RVO was detected in 0.72% of a multi-ethnic Asian population aged 40-80 years in Singapore. The significant systemic risk factors of RVO are consistent with studies in white populations.

  20. Are symbols useful and culturally acceptable in health-state valuation studies? An exploratory study in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Hwee-Lin, Wee; Li, Shu-Chuen; Zhang, Xu-Hao; Xie, Feng; Feeny, David; Luo, Nan; Cheung, Yin-Bun; Machin, David; Fong, Kok-Yong; Thumboo, Julian

    2008-02-02

    Symbols have been used in health state valuation studies to help subjects distinguish the severity of various characteristics of a given health state. Symbols used in such studies need to be evaluated for their cross-cultural appropriateness because a given symbol may have different meanings or acceptability in different cultures, which may affect results of such studies. To evaluate if using symbols to differentiate health states of different severity is useful and culturally acceptable in a multi-ethnic, urban Asian population. Using in-depth interviews with adult Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporeans conducted in English/mother-tongue, subjects were shown a health state with 6 levels (Health Utilities Index 3 vision), each displayed with a symbol, and asked (1a) if symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level (measured using dichotomous and 0-10 visual analog scale [VAS] scales) or (1b) offensive and (2) to assess 7 alternative sets of symbols. Of 63 subjects (91% response rate), 18 (29%) felt symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level. Reported usefulness of symbols was fair (median VAS score: 3.0, score exceeding 5.0 for 33% of subjects). One Malay subject felt symbols were offensive. Use of symbols for health state valuation was culturally acceptable and useful for some subjects.

  1. Are symbols useful and culturally acceptable in health-state valuation studies? An exploratory study in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Hwee-Lin, Wee; Li, Shu-Chuen; Zhang, Xu-Hao; Xie, Feng; Feeny, David; Luo, Nan; Cheung, Yin-Bun; Machin, David; Fong, Kok-Yong; Thumboo, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Background Symbols have been used in health state valuation studies to help subjects distinguish the severity of various characteristics of a given health state. Symbols used in such studies need to be evaluated for their cross-cultural appropriateness because a given symbol may have different meanings or acceptability in different cultures, which may affect results of such studies. Objectives To evaluate if using symbols to differentiate health states of different severity is useful and culturally acceptable in a multi-ethnic, urban Asian population. Methods Using in-depth interviews with adult Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporeans conducted in English/mother-tongue, subjects were shown a health state with 6 levels (Health Utilities Index 3 vision), each displayed with a symbol, and asked (1a) if symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level (measured using dichotomous and 0–10 visual analog scale [VAS] scales) or (1b) offensive and (2) to assess 7 alternative sets of symbols. Results Of 63 subjects (91% response rate), 18 (29%) felt symbols were useful in differentiating severity of each level. Reported usefulness of symbols was fair (median VAS score: 3.0, score exceeding 5.0 for 33% of subjects). One Malay subject felt symbols were offensive. Conclusions Use of symbols for health state valuation was culturally acceptable and useful for some subjects. PMID:19920973

  2. Premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea: urban-rural and multiethnic differences in perception, impacts, and treatment seeking.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-10-01

    Attitudes toward menarche and menstruation are largely influenced by sociological, cultural, and family environmental factors. Recognizing the influential effects that these factors might have on shaping adolescents' attitudes is crucial in designing a more effective means of transmitting health information. This study aimed to gather an in-depth understanding of perceptions, impacts, and treatment seeking on menstruation-related issues from an ethnically mixed group of rural and urban girls. In total, 27 focus group discussions (172 participants) were conducted between November 2008 and April 2009. Participants were adolescent girls aged 13-19 years, recruited from 7 public secondary schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and 4 public secondary schools from the rural districts of Kelantan, in Malaysia. Many participants revealed that they were not given or had not received detailed information about the mechanism or physiology of menstruation prior to its onset. Thus, many described the onset of menarche as shocking, an event for which they were unprepared, and which has had a tremendous impact on their emotions. More positive acceptance of menarche was reported in the urban than with the rural groups. Despite the high prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea, participants across urban-rural and ethnic groups perceived the problems as completely normal, hence they relied on self-care methods and did not want to seek professional treatment. More rural girls compared to urban girls were embarrassed to talk to their mothers or consult their physicians regarding menstruation-related problems. Menstruation-related education would have a positive impact in improving adolescent girls' knowledge and in nurturing a positive attitude toward menstruation-related matters at home, at school, and in the community. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  4. Association between diabetes mellitus and left ventricular hypertrophy in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Kazuo; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Jin, Zhezhen; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Homma, Shunichi; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2008-06-15

    It is still controversial whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased left ventricular (LV) mass independent of body size. We tested the hypothesis that T2DM is independently associated with LV mass in a multiethnic cohort. In the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) cohort sample, a total of 1,932 subjects (67.9+/-9.6 years, 769 men and 1,163 women, 443 with DM and 1,489 without DM) were studied by transthoracic echocardiography, and LV mass was calculated. LV hypertrophy was defined as the upper quartile of LV mass. Multivariable models were used to assess the association of T2DM with LV mass after adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, education, history of coronary artery disease, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. LV mass (189+/-60 vs 174+/-59 g, p<0.0001), BMI, and systolic blood pressure were higher in the DM group than in the non-DM group, whereas age and gender distributions were similar between groups. In multivariable analysis, T2DM was independently associated with increased LV mass (p=0.03). Presence of T2DM was associated with increased risk of LV hypertrophy (adjusted odds ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.88, p=0.004). Although no interactions were observed between T2DM and BMI on LV hypertrophy (p=0.6), there was a significant interaction between T2DM and waist circumference on LV hypertrophy (p=0.01). In conclusion, T2DM was independently associated with increased LV hypertrophy independent of various covariates in this multiethnic sample. Presence of T2DM increased the risk of LV hypertrophy by about 1.5-fold, and it possibly interacted with central obesity.

  5. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. Methods A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer awareness among study population. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to identify socio-demographic variance of knowledge score on warning signs and risk factors of colorectal cancer. Results Among respondents, 38% and 32% had zero knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors respectively. Mean knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors were 2.89 (SD 2.96) and 3.49 (SD 3.17) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge score of warning signs and level of confidence in detecting a warning sign. Socio-demographic characteristics and having cancer in family and friends play important role in level of awareness. Conclusions Level of awareness on colorectal cancer warning signs and risk factors in the rural population of Malaysia is very low. Therefore, it warrants an extensive health education campaign on colorectal cancer awareness as it is one of the commonest cancer in Malaysia. Health education campaign is urgently needed because respondents would seek medical attention sooner if they are aware of this problem. PMID:23924238

  6. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Goh, Jun Yan; Tan, Jackson; Muhaimah, Abdul Rahim; Pigeneswaren, Yoganathan; Khairun, Nasirin Sallamun; Normazidah, Abdul Wahab; Tharisini, Devi Kunasekaran; Majid, Hazreen Abd

    2013-08-07

    This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer awareness among study population. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to identify socio-demographic variance of knowledge score on warning signs and risk factors of colorectal cancer. Among respondents, 38% and 32% had zero knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors respectively. Mean knowledge score for warning signs and risk factors were 2.89 (SD 2.96) and 3.49 (SD 3.17) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the knowledge score of warning signs and level of confidence in detecting a warning sign. Socio-demographic characteristics and having cancer in family and friends play important role in level of awareness. Level of awareness on colorectal cancer warning signs and risk factors in the rural population of Malaysia is very low. Therefore, it warrants an extensive health education campaign on colorectal cancer awareness as it is one of the commonest cancer in Malaysia. Health education campaign is urgently needed because respondents would seek medical attention sooner if they are aware of this problem.

  7. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  8. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  9. Conflicts between healthcare professionals and families of a multi-ethnic patient population during critical care: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Van Keer, Rose-Lima; Deschepper, Reginald; Francke, Anneke L; Huyghens, Luc; Bilsen, Johan

    2015-12-22

    Conflicts during communication in multi-ethnic healthcare settings is an increasing point of concern as a result of societies' increased ethno-cultural diversity. We can expect that conflicts are even more likely to arise in situations where difficult medical decisions have to be made, such as critical medical situations in hospital. However, in-depth research on this topic is rather scarce. During critical care patients are often unable to communicate. We have therefore investigated factors contributing to conflicts between healthcare professionals and family members from ethnic minority groups in critical medical situations in hospital. Ethnographic fieldwork was done in one intensive care unit of a multi-ethnic urban hospital in Belgium over 6 months (January 2014 to June 2014). Data were collected through negotiated interactive observation, in-depth interviews with healthcare professionals, from patients' medical records, and by making notes in a logbook. Data were analysed by using grounded theory procedures. Conflicts were essentially related to differences in participants' views on what constitutes 'good care' based on different care approaches. Healthcare professionals' views on good care were based predominantly on a biomedical care model, whereas families' views on good care were mainly inspired by a holistic lifeworld-oriented approach. Giving good care, from the healthcare professionals' point of view, included great attention to regulations, structured communication, and central decision making. On the other hand, good care from the families' point of view included seeking exhaustive information, and participating in end-of-life decision making. Healthcare professionals' biomedical views on offering good care were strengthened by the features of the critical care context whereas families' holistic views on offering good care were reinforced by the specific characteristics of families' ethno-familial care context, including their different ethno

  10. The Relationship Between Trimethylamine-N-Oxide and Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease in a Multiethnic Population Living in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Chalcraft, Kenneth; Ak, Handan; Davis, A Darlene; Lonn, Eva; Miller, Ruby; Potter, Murray A; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S; McQueen, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Microflora-dependent trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) formation, which results from intake of choline and L-carnitine-rich food, shows promise as a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but these associations have not been examined in ethnically diverse populations. In a multiethnic population-based study of adults in Canada, we assessed the stability of TMAO and L-carnitine in stored serum samples and their association with intimal medial thickness, prevalent risk factors, and clinical events. In a randomly sampled cross-sectional study of 1286 Canadians, fasting serum samples were collected and stored. In 292 consecutive individuals (99 CVD cases and 193 unmatched control subjects), L-carnitine and TMAO concentrations were assessed using validated analytical approaches. The mean (± SD) TMAO level was 1.998 ± 3.13 μM and L-carnitine was 42.29 ± 11.35 μM. The relative levels of the samples did not appreciably change after 3 freeze-thaw cycles (coefficient of variation, 5.6% and 4.7%, respectively). No significant association between L-carnitine levels and prevalent CVD was found, with adjustment for covariates (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-4.26; P trend = 0.65), for highest vs lowest quintile group. TMAO levels showed a significant, graded association with prevalent CVD (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-9.51; P trend = 0.02). After further adjustment for diabetes status, meat, fish, and cholesterol intake, the association remained significant. No significant association between carotid intimal medial thickness and L-carnitine (P = 0.64) or TMAO (P = 0.18) was found. Serum TMAO and L-carnitine analysis on stored samples is reliable. Our findings support an association between TMAO with prevalent CVD in a multiethnic population. This finding requires replication in larger studies in which dietary intake and stored serum samples exist. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. The association between "hypertriglyceridemic waist" and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in a multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background "Hypertriglyceridemic waist" (HTGW) phenotype, an inexpensive early screening tool for detection of individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease was found to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in various patient populations such as those with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, less is known regarding an association between HTGW and subclinical atherosclerosis in the apparently healthy, multiethnic population. Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore the association between HTGW and sub-clinical atherosclerosis in an apparently healthy, multiethnic population; and to investigate whether the effect of HTGW on sub-clinical atherosclerosis persists over and above the traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. Methods We studied 809 individuals of Aboriginal, Chinese, European and South Asian origin who were assessed for indices of sub-clinical atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness (IMT), total area and presence of carotid plaques), socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometrics, lipids, glucose, blood pressure, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Results We found that, compared to individuals without HTGW and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, smoking, and physical activity; men and women with HTGW had a significantly higher: IMT (men: B (95%CI = 0.084 (0.037, 1.133), p < 0.001; women: B (95%CI) = 0.041 (0.006, 0.077), p = 0.020); and total area (men: B (95%CI = 0.202 (0.058, 0.366), p = 0.005; women: B (95%CI) = 0.115 (0.006, 0.235), p = 0.037). The association between HTGW waist and presence of plaques was significant for men (OR (95%CI) = 1.904 (1.040, 3.486), p = 0.037 vs. men without HTGW), but not for women (p = 0.284). Once analyses were adjusted for additional, traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, the effect of HTGW on sub-clinical atherosclerosis was no

  12. Time-Location Patterns of a Diverse Population of Older Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    PubMed Central

    Spalt, Elizabeth W.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Allen, Ryan W.; Cohen, Martin; Adar, Sara D.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Avol, Ed; Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Nunn, Cathy; Mancera-Cuevas, Karen; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this analysis was to present and describe questionnaire data characterizing time-location patterns of an older, multi-ethnic population from six American cities. We evaluated consistency of results from repeated administration of this questionnaire and between this questionnaire and other questionnaires collected from participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Participants reported spending most of their time inside their homes (average: 121 hours/week or 72%). More than 50% of participants reported spending no time in several of the location options, including at home outdoors, at work/volunteer/school locations indoors or outdoors, or in “other” locations outdoors. We observed consistency between self-reported time-location patterns from repeated administration of the time-location questionnaire and compared with other survey instruments. Comparisons to national cohorts demonstrated differences in time-location patterns in the MESA Air cohort due to differences in demographics, but the data showed similar trends in patterns by age, gender, season, and employment status. This study was the first to explicitly examine time-location patterns in an older, multi-ethnic population and the first to add data on Chinese participants. These data can be used to inform future epidemiological research of MESA Air and other studies that include diverse populations. PMID:25921083

  13. The Relation Between Inflation in Type-I and Type-II Error Rate and Population Divergence in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Multi-Ethnic Populations.

    PubMed

    Derks, E M; Zwinderman, A H; Gamazon, E R

    2017-02-10

    Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (FST) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates; and (iii) investigate the impact of population stratification on the results of gene-based analyses. Quantitative phenotypes were simulated. Type-I error rate was investigated for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with varying levels of FST between the ancestral European and African populations. Type-II error rate was investigated for a SNP characterized by a high value of FST. In all tests, genomic MDS components were included to correct for population stratification. Type-I and type-II error rate was adequately controlled in a population that included two distinct ethnic populations but not in admixed samples. Statistical power was reduced in the admixed samples. Gene-based tests showed no residual inflation in type-I error rate.

  14. Spectrum and management of dentofacial deformities in a multiethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ming Tak

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the spectrum and management of dentofacial deformities in a multiethnic Asian community. Over a period of 3 years (2001 to 2003), 212 patients with dentofacial deformities who had undergone orthognathic surgery in a national tertiary specialist center in Singapore were reviewed. Patients with cleft lip and palate or syndromes were excluded. The mean age (range: 16 to 58 years) of the patients was 24.0 years (SD 6.4) and the ratio of female to male was 1.3:1. The predominant ethnic group was Chinese (91.5%). The majority of the patients had skeletal Class III pattern (68%). Asymmetry was diagnosed in 36% of all cases and in 48% of skeletal Class III cases. Vertical maxillary excess was diagnosed in 21% of all cases and in 47% of skeletal Class II cases. Bimaxillary surgery involving LeFort and bilateral sagittal split osteotomies was performed in 84% of skeletal Class III cases and in 73% of all cases. Segmental osteotomy and genioplasty were performed in 41% of the cases. The findings suggest that the majority of the patients were young Chinese adults with two-jaw deformities requiring bimaxillary surgeries with genioplasty or segmental osteotomy. This finding may reflect the greater severity of dentofacial deformities in patients in the Asian community.

  15. Objectively recorded physical activity in early pregnancy: a multiethnic population-based study.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, S; Richardsen, K R; Mørkrid, K; Sletner, L; Birkeland, K I; Jenum, A K

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to compare objectively recorded physical activity (PA) levels and walking steps among pregnant women. Cross-sectional data from a multiethnic cohort (n = 823) of pregnant women consisting of 44% from Western countries, 24% from South Asia, 14% from Middle East, and 18% from other countries. PA and steps were recorded by the activity monitor SenseWear™ Pro3 Armband. A total of 678 women were included in the analysis. Western women walked significantly more steps and had higher moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) levels compared with South Asian women per weekday and weekend day. Interaction terms (P = 0.008) between ethnicity (Western vs South Asian) and parity, and education, respectively, were identified: having ≥ 1 children was positively associated with steps during weekends in South Asians in contrast to Western women. Having <12 years education was associated with more MVPA time among South Asians in contrast to Western women. South Asian women are prone to low levels of PA during pregnancy and South Asian women without children and with higher education may have an elevated risk for an inactive lifestyle during pregnancy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Rare Variant Association Tests in Multiethnic Populations.

    PubMed

    Mensah-Ablorh, Akweley; Lindstrom, Sara; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Marchand, Loic Le; Lee, Seunngeun; Stram, Daniel O; Eliassen, A Heather; Price, Alkes; Kraft, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Several methods have been proposed to increase power in rare variant association testing by aggregating information from individual rare variants (MAF < 0.005). However, how to best combine rare variants across multiple ethnicities and the relative performance of designs using different ethnic sampling fractions remains unknown. In this study, we compare the performance of several statistical approaches for assessing rare variant associations across multiple ethnicities. We also explore how different ethnic sampling fractions perform, including single-ethnicity studies and studies that sample up to four ethnicities. We conducted simulations based on targeted sequencing data from 4,611 women in four ethnicities (African, European, Japanese American, and Latina). As with single-ethnicity studies, burden tests had greater power when all causal rare variants were deleterious, and variance component-based tests had greater power when some causal rare variants were deleterious and some were protective. Multiethnic studies had greater power than single-ethnicity studies at many loci, with inclusion of African Americans providing the largest impact. On average, studies including African Americans had as much as 20% greater power than equivalently sized studies without African Americans. This suggests that association studies between rare variants and complex disease should consider including subjects from multiple ethnicities, with preference given to genetically diverse groups.

  17. Multidimensional health locus of control and depressive symptoms in the multi-ethnic population of the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Tobias K; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; van Dijk, Ad; Cremer, Stephan; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Ethnic inequalities in health in Western societies are well-documented but poorly understood. We examined associations between health locus of control (HLC) and depressive symptoms among native and non-native Dutch people in the Netherlands. We used hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses on a representative sample of the multi-ethnic population of Amsterdam and The Hague (n = 10,302). HLC was measured with the multidimensional health locus of control scale. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale. Multivariate analyses showed that HLC contributes to ethnic differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms. Respondents who scored high on external locus of control (PHLC) were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those with a low score on PHLC (β = 0.133, p < 0.001). Conversely, respondents scoring high on internal locus of control (IHLC) were less likely to have depressive symptoms compared to those scoring low on IHLC (β = -0.134, p < 0.001). The associations were most pronounced among Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch respondents. Our findings suggest that HLC contributes to ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms, especially among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic groups. Professionals (e.g. clinicians and policy makers) need to take HLC into account when assessing and treating depression among ethnic minority groups, particularly in Turkish and Moroccan populations. Future research should look further into the associations within these groups.

  18. Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Yang, Adonsia Y T; Lin, Tingxuan; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C

    2015-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profi le of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients. We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake. There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <25 (in mL/min/1.73 m2) had a TPI-IDW of <0.6 g/kg/day. By Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (CARI) guidelines, 76.3% (177/232) of CKD patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR <50 had TPI-IDW between 0.6 to 0.8 g/kg/day. Only 1/6 non-diabetic CKD patients with GFR <20 had a protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day. On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.

  19. Molecular evidence of an interaction between prenatal environmental exposures and birth outcomes in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P; Rauh, Virginia; Whyatt, Robin M; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Bernert, John T; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Andrews, Howard; Ramirez, Judyth; Qu, Lirong; Tang, Deliang

    2004-01-01

    Inner-city, minority populations are high-risk groups for adverse birth outcomes and also are more likely to be exposed to environmental contaminants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in urban air. In a sample of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women, we evaluated the effects on birth outcomes of prenatal exposure to ETS, using questionnaire data and plasma cotinine as a biomarker of exposure, and environmental PAHs using BaP-DNA adducts as a molecular dosimeter. We previously reported that among African Americans, high prenatal exposure to PAHs estimated by prenatal personal air monitoring was associated with lower birth weight (p = 0.003) and smaller head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. In the present analysis, self-reported ETS was associated with decreased head circumference (p = 0.04). BaP-DNA adducts were not correlated with ETS or dietary PAHs. There was no main effect of BaP-DNA adducts on birth outcomes. However, there was a significant interaction between the two pollutants such that the combined exposure to high ETS and high adducts had a significant multiplicative effect on birth weight (p = 0.04) and head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for ethnicity, sex of newborns, maternal body mass index, dietary PAHs, and gestational age. This study provides evidence that combined exposure to environmental pollutants at levels currently encountered in New York City adversely affects fetal development. PMID:15064172

  20. A Polymorphism in TLR2 Is Associated With Arterial Thrombosis in a Multiethnic Population of Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Rachel; Tang, Ling Fung; Taylor, Kimberly E; Sterba, Kirsten; Nititham, Joanne; Brown, Elizabeth E; Edberg, Jeffrey C; McGwin, Gerald; Alarcón, Graciela S; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D; Vilá, Luis M; Petri, Michelle; Rauch, Joyce; Miller, Emily; Mesznik, Kara; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Kimberly, Robert P; Salmon, Jane E; Criswell, Lindsey A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Thrombosis is a serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Studies that have investigated the genetics of thrombosis in SLE are limited. We undertook this study to assess the association of previously implicated candidate genes, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes, with pathogenesis of thrombosis. Methods We genotyped 3,587 SLE patients from 3 multiethnic populations for 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 genes, primarily in TLRs 2, 4, 7, and 9, and we also genotyped 64 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs). We first analyzed association with arterial and venous thrombosis in the combined population via logistic regression, adjusting for top principal components of the AIMs and other covariates. We also subjected an associated SNP, rs893629, to meta-analysis (after stratification by ethnicity and study population) to confirm the association and to test for study population or ethnicity effects. Results In the combined analysis, the SNP rs893629 in the KIAA0922/TLR2 region was significantly associated with arterial thrombosis (logistic P = 6.4 × 10−5, false discovery rate P = 0.0044). Two additional SNPs in TLR2 were also suggestive: rs1816702 (logistic P = 0.002) and rs4235232 (logistic P = 0.009). In the meta-analysis by study population, the odds ratio (OR) for arterial thrombosis with rs893629 was 2.44 (95% confidence interval 1.58–3.76), without evidence for heterogeneity (P = 0.78). By ethnicity, the effect was most significant among African Americans (OR 2.42, P = 3.5 × 10−4) and European Americans (OR 3.47, P = 0.024). Conclusion TLR2 gene variation is associated with thrombosis in SLE, particularly among African Americans and European Americans. There was no evidence of association among Hispanics, and results in Asian Americans were limited due to insufficient sample size. These results may help elucidate the pathogenesis of this important clinical manifestation. PMID:24578102

  1. [The population of China, fertility and urbanization].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Y

    1985-04-01

    China is a huge country with more than 1 billion population. During some 30 years since 1949 when the new China was established, the population of China experienced several influences from political, economic, and social fluctuations on its fertility, mortality, and migration. Recently, the government of China is taking a unique policy for its fertility, so-called "only 1 child per couple" policy, having remarkable effects on actual birthrate. Trend of migration in China is also noteworthy. The number of migrants from rural to urban areas has not been large, and the proportion of urban population has not risen rapidly. There are several reasons behind this. Recently, the government has started policies to encourage sideline business of farmers to utilize effectively surplus labor in agriculture. By this way not only transfer of labor force from agriculture can be realized but also transfer of population from rural to urban areas can be realized. The target of urbanization in China is not the establishment of large cities but the creation of small cities and towns related closely with villages. The author was given the opportunity to attend the Beijing International Symposium on Population and Development, which was held in December 1984. At that Symposium many valuable papers were presented by Chinese scholars, using the latest demographic data of population census, fertility survey, and civil registration. The author shares this information with those who are concerned with the population of China in this short paper, especially putting focus on China's fertility and urbanization.

  2. Consanguinity and pregnancy outcomes in a multi-ethnic, metropolitan European population.

    PubMed

    Becker, Rolf; Keller, Thomas; Wegner, Rolf-Dieter; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Stumm, Markus; Knoll, Ute; Stärk, Markus; Fangerau, Heiner; Bittles, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of major anomalies in the offspring of consanguineous couples, including data on the prenatal situation. Over 20 years (1993-2012), 35,391 fetuses were examined by prenatal sonography. In 675 cases (1.9%), parents were consanguineous, with 307 couples (45.5%) related as first cousins, 368 couples (54.5%) beyond first cousins. Detailed information was retrieved on 31,710 (89.6%) fetuses, (consanguineous 568: 1.8%). Overall prevalence of major anomalies among fetuses with non-consanguineous parents was 2.9% (consanguineous, 10.9%; first cousins, 12.4%; beyond first cousins, 6.5%). Adjusting the overall numbers for cases having been referred because of a previous index case, the prevalences were 2.8% (non-consanguineous) and 6.1% (consanguineous) (first cousin, 8.5%; beyond first cousin, 3.9%). Further adjustment for differential rates of trisomic pregnancies indicated 2.0%/5.9% congenital anomalies (non-consanguineous/consanguineous groups), that is, a consanguinity-associated excess of 3.9%, 6.1% in first cousin progeny and 1.9% beyond first cousin. The prevalence of major fetal anomalies associated with consanguinity is higher than in evaluations based only on postnatal life. It is important that this information is made available in genetic counselling programmes, especially in multi-ethnic and multi-religious communities, to enable couples to make informed decisions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dietary supplement use within a multiethnic population as measured by a unique inventory method.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Steffen, Alana D; Yonemori, Kim M; Morimoto, Yukiko; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    Use of dietary supplements is widespread, yet intakes from supplements are difficult to quantify. The Supplement Reporting study utilized a unique inventory method to quantify dietary supplement use across 1 year in a sample of 397 supplement users. Interviewers visited participants' homes in 2005-2006 to record supplement purchases and the number of pills in each supplement bottle every 3 months. Total use for the year was calculated from these inventories. Participants in this observational study were older adults (average age 68 years) from the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with approximately equal representation of men and women and six ethnic groups (white, Japanese American, Hawaiian, African American, Latinos born in the United States, and Latinos born elsewhere). The most commonly used supplement type was one-a-day multivitamins/minerals, which were taken at least once during the year by 83% of men and 73% of women. Other common supplements were vitamin C, fish oil, vitamin E, and bone or joint supplements. Participants used a median of seven (women) and five and a half (men) different supplements during the year. There were few differences in supplement use across ethnic groups for men, but use tended to be highest for white and Japanese-American women. Use of nonvitamin/nonmineral supplements was common among these older adults, sometimes at high doses. When assessing intakes, supplement use should be correctly quantified because users tend to take many different supplements and nutrient intakes from supplements can be substantial. The inventory method may help improve the measurement of supplement use. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Utility of Two Cancer Organization Websites for a Multiethnic, Public Hospital Oncology Population: Comparative Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Katherine D; Hara, Belinda

    2005-01-01

    Background While information websites have been developed by major cancer organizations, their appropriateness for patients in multiethnic, multilingual public hospital settings has received limited attention. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the utility of cancer information websites for a public hospital patient population. Methods A 70-item questionnaire was developed to evaluate cancer information seeking behavior, Internet access and use, and content appropriateness of two cancer information websites: People Living with Cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Breast Cancer Info from the Susan Komen Breast Cancer Foundation (SKF). Interviews were conducted with consecutive consenting oncology patients seen in a public hospital oncology clinic. Results Fifty-nine persons participated in the survey. The response rate was 80%. Participants were Caucasian (25%), African American (19%), Hispanic (42%), and Asian/Pacific Islander (11%). English was the primary language in 53% of participants, 56% had a high school education or less, and 74% had an annual income less than US $35000. With respect to computer and Internet use, 71% had computer access, and 44% searched for cancer information online, with more being interested in obtaining online information in the future (63%). Participants who had computer access were likely to be English speaking (P = .04). Those less likely to have previously used a computer tended to have a lower annual income (P = .02) or to be males aged 55 years or older (P < .05). When shown sample content from the two websites, almost all participants stated that it was “easy to understand” (ASCO 96%, SKF 96%) and had “easy to understand terms” (ASCO 94%, SKF 92%). Somewhat fewer respondents agreed that the websites provided “information they could use” (ASCO 88%, SKF 80%) or that they would return to these websites (ASCO 73%, SKF 68%). The majority planned to “discuss website

  5. The assessment of an inhibited, anxiety-prone temperament in a Dutch multi-ethnic population of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vreeke, Leonie J; Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Huijding, Jorg; Bos, Arjan E R; van der Veen, Monique; Raat, Hein; Verheij, Fop

    2012-11-01

    The Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form (BIQ-SF) is a 14-item parent-rating scale for assessing an inhibited, anxiety-prone temperament in preschool children. This study examined the psychometric properties of the BIQ-SF scores in a multi-ethnic community population of Dutch boys and girls aged 2.5-6 years (total N = 2,343, from which various subsamples were derived). Results revealed that the factor structure of the BIQ-SF was as hypothesized: a model with six correlated factors representing children's inhibited behaviors in various social and non-social contexts provided a good fit for the data. The internal consistency of the BIQ-SF was generally satisfactory and scores on the scale were found to be fairly stable over a time period of up to 2 years. Parent-teacher agreement was acceptable, and relations between the BIQ-SF and observations of an inhibited temperament were moderate. Finally, BIQ-SF scores were positively associated with measures of anxiety and internalizing symptoms, whereas no significant links were found with externalizing symptoms. Altogether, these results provide support for the reliability and validity of the BIQ-SF as an economical method for assessing behavioral inhibition and anxiety proneness in young children.

  6. Ultrasound assessment of subclinical cardiovascular disease in a community-based multiethnic population and comparison to the Framingham score.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yukio; Rundek, Tanja; Sciacca, Robert R; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L; Homma, Shunichi; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2006-11-15

    The presence of subclinical cardiovascular disease has been documented to indicate high coronary risk. This study investigated the impact of subclinical cardiovascular disease derived from echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography on traditional coronary risk stratification using the Framingham risk score (FRS) in a community-based, multiethnic population. Echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography were performed in 1,445 subjects (aged >39 years; 40% men; 53% Hispanic, 20% white, 24% black) from the Northern Manhattan Study. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was defined as the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and/or carotid plaque greater than the gender-specific 75th percentile of the left ventricular mass index and maximal carotid plaque thickness distribution. The prevalence of subclinical cardiovascular disease was examined in each FRS category (low, intermediate, and high risk). In subjects with low or intermediate FRSs, 35% had subclinical cardiovascular disease (low FRS 29%, intermediate FRS 42%). In the intermediate FRS category, subclinical cardiovascular disease was significantly more prevalent in women than in men (53% vs 32%, p <0.0001) and in black and white subjects than in Hispanics (59% and 46% vs 33%, p <0.0001 and p = 0.040, respectively). In conclusion, the ultrasound assessment of subclinical cardiovascular disease may help reclassify 1/3 of subjects with low or intermediate FRSs into higher risk groups. In the intermediate FRS category, FRS appears to underestimate the coronary risk more in women than in men and more in whites and especially in blacks than in Hispanics.

  7. The Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Obesity in a Population-Based Multiracial and Multiethnic Adult Sample

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether perceived chronic discrimination was related to excess body fat accumulation in a random, multiethnic, population-based sample of US adults. Methods. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression and logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between interpersonal experiences of perceived chronic discrimination and body mass index and high-risk waist circumference. Results. Consistent with other studies, our analyses showed that perceived unfair treatment was associated with increased abdominal obesity. Compared with Irish, Jewish, Polish, and Italian Whites who did not experience perceived chronic discrimination, Irish, Jewish, Polish, and Italian Whites who perceived chronic discrimination were 2 to 6 times more likely to have a high-risk waist circumference. No significant relationship between perceived discrimination and the obesity measures was found among the other Whites, Blacks, or Hispanics. Conclusions. These findings are not completely unsupported. White ethnic groups including Polish, Italians, Jews, and Irish have historically been discriminated against in the United States, and other recent research suggests that they experience higher levels of perceived discrimination than do other Whites and that these experiences adversely affect their health. PMID:18923119

  8. The association between perceived discrimination and obesity in a population-based multiracial and multiethnic adult sample.

    PubMed

    Hunte, Haslyn E R; Williams, David R

    2009-07-01

    We examined whether perceived chronic discrimination was related to excess body fat accumulation in a random, multiethnic, population-based sample of US adults. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression and logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between interpersonal experiences of perceived chronic discrimination and body mass index and high-risk waist circumference. Consistent with other studies, our analyses showed that perceived unfair treatment was associated with increased abdominal obesity. Compared with Irish, Jewish, Polish, and Italian Whites who did not experience perceived chronic discrimination, Irish, Jewish, Polish, and Italian Whites who perceived chronic discrimination were 2 to 6 times more likely to have a high-risk waist circumference. No significant relationship between perceived discrimination and the obesity measures was found among the other Whites, Blacks, or Hispanics. These findings are not completely unsupported. White ethnic groups including Polish, Italians, Jews, and Irish have historically been discriminated against in the United States, and other recent research suggests that they experience higher levels of perceived discrimination than do other Whites and that these experiences adversely affect their health.

  9. Obesity and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survival in an Ethnically Diverse Population: The Multiethnic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Qi Jie Nicholas; Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Obesity increases mortality for several malignancies, but for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) the association between body mass index (BMI) and survival is unclear. We examined the association of pre-diagnostic BMI with overall and NHL-specific survival in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) study of African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Caucasians. Methods MEC participants free of NHL at cohort entry and diagnosed with NHL during follow-up were included in the analyses (N=1331). BMI was based on self-reported weight and height at cohort entry and after 6.1 years of cohort entry. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with BMI as time-varying exposure in relation to all-cause and NHL-specific mortality while adjusting for known confounders. Results The mean age at NHL diagnosis was 70.5 (range 45–89) years. After a mean follow-up of 4.3±3.5 years, 667 deaths including 450 NHL-specific deaths occurred. In multivariable models, obese patients (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2) had higher all-cause (HR=1.46, 95%CI 1.13–1.87) and NHL-specific (HR=1.77, 95%CI 1.30–2.41) mortality compared to patients with high-normal BMI (22.5–24.9 kg/m2). For overweight patients (BMI=25.0–29.9 kg/m2), the respective HRs were 1.21 (95%CI 0.99–1.49) and 1.36 (95%CI 1.06–1.75). Cases with low-normal BMI (<22.5 kg/m2) experienced a significant 45% higher all-cause and a 40% higher NHL-specific mortality. After stratification by NHL type, the adverse effect of BMI was stronger for chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma than for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conclusions Pre-diagnostic BMI may be a suitable prognostic marker for NHL patients. PMID:25070667

  10. Percent Emphysema and Daily Motor Activity Levels in the General Population: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, Christian M; Quante, Mirja; Hoffman, Eric A; Bertoni, Alain G; Aaron, Carrie P; Schwartz, Joseph E; Avdalovic, Mark V; Fan, Vincent S; Lovasi, Gina S; Kawut, Steven M; Austin, John H M; Redline, Susan; Barr, R Graham

    2017-05-01

    COPD is associated with reduced physical capacity. However, it is unclear whether pulmonary emphysema, which can occur without COPD, is associated with reduced physical activity in daily life, particularly among people without COPD and never smokers. We hypothesized that greater percentage of emphysema-like lung on CT scan is associated with reduced physical activity assessed by actigraphy and self-report. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) enrolled participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease from the general population. Percent emphysema was defined as percentage of voxels < -950 Hounsfield units on full-lung CT scans. Physical activity was measured by wrist actigraphy over 7 days and a questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression was used to adjust for age, sex, race/ethnicity, height, weight, education, smoking, pack-years, and lung function. Among 1,435 participants with actigraphy and lung measures, 47% had never smoked, and 8% had COPD. Percent emphysema was associated with lower activity levels on actigraphy (P = .001), corresponding to 1.5 hour less per week of moderately paced walking for the average participant in quintile 2 vs 4 of percent emphysema. This association was significant among participants without COPD (P = .004) and among ever (P = .01) and never smokers (P = .03). It was also independent of coronary artery calcium and left ventricular ejection fraction. There was no evidence that percent emphysema was associated with self-reported activity levels. Percent emphysema was associated with decreased physical activity in daily life objectively assessed by actigraphy in the general population, among participants without COPD, and nonsmokers. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fibroblast growth factor-23 and cardiovascular disease in the general population: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Bryan; Sachs, Michael C; Hoofnagle, Andy N; Siscovick, David S; Ix, Joachim H; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Lima, Joao A C; Polak, Joseph F; Blondon, Marc; Ruzinski, John; Rock, Denise; de Boer, Ian H

    2014-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a phosphate regulatory hormone that directly stimulates left ventricular hypertrophy in experimental models. The role of FGF-23 in cardiovascular disease development in the general population is unclear. We tested associations of FGF-23 with major subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease outcomes in a large prospective cohort. We evaluated 6547 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who were initially free of cardiovascular disease. We measured serum FGF-23 using the Kainos immunoassay. The MESA measured left ventricular mass by MRI, coronary calcium by computed tomography, and carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound. The MESA adjudicated incident heart failure, coronary heart disease, and stroke by medical record review. After adjustment, the highest FGF-23 quartile was associated with an estimated 2.4-g greater left ventricular mass (95% confidence interval, 0.4-4.5 greater) and a 26% greater odds of higher coronary calcium scores (95% confidence interval, 9%-46% greater) compared with the lowest quartile. During 7.5-year follow-up, each 20-pg/mL higher FGF-23 concentration was associated with a 19% greater risk of heart failure (95% confidence interval, 3%-37% greater) and a 14% greater risk of coronary heart disease (95% confidence interval, 1%-28% greater). FGF-23 was not associated with carotid intima-media thickness or stroke. Higher serum FGF-23 concentrations are associated with subclinical cardiac disease and with new heart failure and coronary disease events, but not with carotid intima-media thickness or stroke. FGF-23 may be a novel cardiovascular risk factor in the general population. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Understanding barriers and facilitators of fruit and vegetable consumption among a diverse multi-ethnic population in the USA.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Ickes, Scott B; Lowenstein, Lisa M; Shuval, Kerem; Ammerman, Alice S; Farris, Rosanne; Katz, David L

    2008-03-01

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been associated with a decreased risk of certain cancers, reduced morbidity and mortality from heart disease, and enhanced weight management. Yet to date, most of the US population does not consume the recommended amount of F&V despite numerous interventions and government guidelines to promote consumption. Research has found various impediments to F&V consumption, such as high costs, an obesogenic environment and low socio-economic status. However, studies have not sufficiently focused on barriers and enablers to F&V intake among adult multi-ethnic populations. The present qualitative study examines 147 focus group participants' perceptions of impediments and enablers to F&V consumption. Twelve focus groups were conducted among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina and Connecticut. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo Software. Text data were systematically analyzed by investigators to identify recurrent themes both within and across groups and states. Focus group results indicate that most participants were aware of the health benefits associated with a diet rich in F&V. Yet many admitted not adhering to the Health and Human Service's recommendations. Individual impediments consisted of the high costs of F&V and a perceived lack of time. Early home food environment was perceived as affecting F&V consumption later in life. Other barriers reported were ethnic-specific. The African American participants reported limited access to fresh produce. This finding is consistent with numerous studies and must be addressed through health promotion intervention. Both the church and primary care clinics were described by African Americans as appropriate settings for health behavior interventions; these findings should be considered. Hispanic participants, mostly immigrants, cited inhibiting factors encountered in their adopted US environment. There is a

  13. The influence of ethnicity on health-related quality of life in diabetes mellitus: a population-based, multiethnic study.

    PubMed

    Wee, Hwee-Lin; Li, Shu-Chuen; Cheung, Yin-Bun; Fong, Kok-Yong; Thumboo, Julian

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of ethnicity on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in diabetic participants using both profile [the Short-Form 36 (SF-36)] and single-index (the SF-6D) instruments and to evaluate the usefulness of the SF-6D as a summary measure for the SF-36. Using data from a cross-sectional, population-based survey of Chinese, Malay, and Indians in Singapore, we analyzed the influence of ethnicity and other variables on each SF-36 scale and SF-6D scores using linear regression models to adjust for the influence of known determinants of HRQoL. Data from 309 diabetic respondents were analyzed. Compared with other ethnicities, Indians were most likely to report impaired HRQoL. The unadjusted influence of ethnicity on HRQoL exceeded the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) for all SF-36 scales (MCID: 5 points) and the SF-6D (MCID: 0.033 points). After adjusting for gender, age, and education, the influence of Chinese ethnicity exceeded the MCID for all SF-36 scales, except vitality (VT) and mental health (MH), as well as for the SF-6D. The influence of Malay ethnicity exceeded the MCID only for the SF-36 MH scale and the SF-6D. The influence of ethnicity on HRQoL persisted after adjusting further for other determinants of HRQoL. The SF-6D reflected the ethnic trends for some but not all SF-36 scales. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and other factors known to influence HRQoL, ethnicity remained an important factor influencing HRQoL in this population-based multiethnic sample of diabetic Asians. Further studies to identify modifiable factors explaining the ethnic disparities in HRQoL among diabetic participants are needed. The SF-6D may be a useful summary measure for the SF-36.

  14. A polymorphism in TLR2 is associated with arterial thrombosis in a multiethnic population of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Rachel; Tang, Ling Fung; Taylor, Kimberly E; Sterba, Kirsten; Nititham, Joanne; Brown, Elizabeth E; Edberg, Jeffrey C; McGwin, Gerald; Alarcón, Graciela S; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D; Vilá, Luis M; Petri, Michelle; Rauch, Joyce; Miller, Emily; Mesznik, Kara; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Kimberly, Robert P; Salmon, Jane E; Criswell, Lindsey A

    2014-07-01

    Thrombosis is a serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Studies that have investigated the genetics of thrombosis in SLE are limited. We undertook this study to assess the association of previously implicated candidate genes, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes, with pathogenesis of thrombosis. We genotyped 3,587 SLE patients from 3 multiethnic populations for 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 genes, primarily in TLRs 2, 4, 7, and 9, and we also genotyped 64 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs). We first analyzed association with arterial and venous thrombosis in the combined population via logistic regression, adjusting for top principal components of the AIMs and other covariates. We also subjected an associated SNP, rs893629, to meta-analysis (after stratification by ethnicity and study population) to confirm the association and to test for study population or ethnicity effects. In the combined analysis, the SNP rs893629 in the KIAA0922/TLR2 region was significantly associated with arterial thrombosis (logistic P = 6.4 × 10(-5) , false discovery rate P = 0.0044). Two additional SNPs in TLR2 were also suggestive: rs1816702 (logistic P = 0.002) and rs4235232 (logistic P = 0.009). In the meta-analysis by study population, the odds ratio (OR) for arterial thrombosis with rs893629 was 2.44 (95% confidence interval 1.58-3.76), without evidence for heterogeneity (P = 0.78). By ethnicity, the effect was most significant among African Americans (OR 2.42, P = 3.5 × 10(-4) ) and European Americans (OR 3.47, P = 0.024). TLR2 gene variation is associated with thrombosis in SLE, particularly among African Americans and European Americans. There was no evidence of association among Hispanics, and results in Asian Americans were limited due to insufficient sample size. These results may help elucidate the pathogenesis of this important clinical manifestation. © 2014 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology is published by Wiley

  15. Accuracy of the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk Equation in a Large Contemporary, Multiethnic Population.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jamal S; Tabada, Grace H; Solomon, Matthew D; Lo, Joan C; Jaffe, Marc G; Sung, Sue Hee; Ballantyne, Christie M; Go, Alan S

    2016-05-10

    The accuracy of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Pooled Cohort Risk Equation for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events in contemporary and ethnically diverse populations is not well understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the 2013 ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Risk Equation within a large, multiethnic population in clinical care. The target population for consideration of cholesterol-lowering therapy in a large, integrated health care delivery system population was identified in 2008 and followed up through 2013. The main analyses excluded those with known ASCVD, diabetes mellitus, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <70 or ≥190 mg/dl, prior lipid-lowering therapy use, or incomplete 5-year follow-up. Patient characteristics were obtained from electronic medical records, and ASCVD events were ascertained by using validated algorithms for hospitalization databases and death certificates. We compared predicted versus observed 5-year ASCVD risk, overall and according to sex and race/ethnicity. We additionally examined predicted versus observed risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Among 307,591 eligible adults without diabetes between 40 and 75 years of age, 22,283 were black, 52,917 were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 18,745 were Hispanic. We observed 2,061 ASCVD events during 1,515,142 person-years. In each 5-year predicted ASCVD risk category, observed 5-year ASCVD risk was substantially lower: 0.20% for predicted risk <2.50%; 0.65% for predicted risk 2.50% to <3.75%; 0.90% for predicted risk 3.75% to <5.00%; and 1.85% for predicted risk ≥5.00% (C statistic: 0.74). Similar ASCVD risk overestimation and poor calibration with moderate discrimination (C statistic: 0.68 to 0.74) were observed in sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic status subgroups, and in sensitivity analyses among patients receiving statins for primary prevention. Calibration among 4,242 eligible adults

  16. Risk Factors for Malignant Melanoma in White and Non-White/Non-African American Populations: The Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungshim Lani; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether the established risk factors for malignant melanoma in whites influence malignant melanoma risk in non-whites. We examined the risk factors for melanoma among 39,325 whites and 101,229 non-whites/multiracials (Japanese American [47.5%], Latino American [34.8%], Native Hawaiian [2.1%] and multiracial [15.6%], excluding African Americans) in the Multiethnic Cohort study. With an average follow-up of 12.7 years, 581 invasive malignant melanoma (IMM) and 412 melanoma in situ (MIS) cases were identified, of which 107 (IMM) and 74 (MIS) were among non-whites/multiracials. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models using days from cohort entry as the underlying time variable. Among non-white/multiracial males, location of IMM tumors differed from those of white males (p<0.001); and non-white/multiracial females were more likely to be diagnosed with later stage of disease (p<0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, age at cohort entry, male sex, higher education, and sunburn susceptibility phenotypes were associated with an increased risk of invasive malignant melanoma in non-whites/multiracials (p<0.05). The risk estimates for age at cohort entry and lighter hair and eye color were greater in non-whites/multiracials than in whites (p-heterogeneity=0.062, 0.016, and 0.005, respectively). For MIS risk, RRs between whites and non-whites/multiracials also differed for study location and education (p-heterogeneity ≤ 0.015). In conclusion, similar to whites, age at cohort entry, male sex, and susceptibility to sunburn phenotypes may be predictive of malignant melanoma risk in non-white populations excluding African-Americans. PMID:22246617

  17. Predictive Models for Characterizing Disparities in Exclusive Breastfeeding Performance in a Multi-ethnic Population in the US.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yeyi; Hernandez, Ladia M; Mueller, Peter; Dong, Yongquan; Hirschfeld, Steven; Forman, Michele R

    2016-02-01

    Maternal lactation performance varies across populations, yet the relative impact of maternal sociodemographics, perinatal factors, and birth outcomes on disparities in exclusive breastfeeding (XBR) outcomes is not well known. We aimed to develop predictive models and compare the relative contribution of predictors for XBR initiation and XBR ≥ 6 months. Infant feeding data were obtained from women with children aged 0-6 years (n = 1471) in a multi-ethnic cross-sectional study in the US (2011-2012). We compared discriminant ability of predictors for ever XBR and XBR ≥ 6 months using discriminant function analysis, respectively. We also calculated adjusted ORs for factors associated with XBR outcomes and breast-bottle feeding (BrBot) subgroups. Maternal sociodemographics (education level, marital status, nativity, and age at childbirth) had greater discriminating abilities in predicting ever XBR and XBR ≥ 6 months than birth outcomes and perinatal factors. Foreign-born women were two-fold more likely to initiate XBR but not necessarily continue to 6 months compared to their US-born counterparts. Factors associated with BrBot subgroups differed from those associated with XBR outcomes, whereas maternal age was the only predictor consistently associated with ever XBR, XBR ≥ 6 months, and BrBot subgroups. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for models predicting ever XBR and XBR ≥ 6 months were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.85, 0.91) and 0.90 (95 % CI 0.88, 0.93), respectively. Findings underscore the importance of educational, clinical, and social support to promote XBR in mothers with sociodemographic factors predictive of none or poor XBR outcomes.

  18. Impact of dairy and sweetened beverage consumption on diet and weight of a multiethnic population of head start mothers.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Franklin, Frank A

    2009-05-01

    Mothers with children in Head Start play a critical role in providing healthful diets and modeling good dietary behaviors to their children, but there is little information available on their diet, especially on beverage consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers. Using a cross-sectional, secondary analysis, African-American (43%), Hispanic (33%), and white (24%) women (n=609) were divided into four beverage consumption groups: high milk/low sweetened beverage, high milk/high sweetened beverage, low milk/low sweetened beverage, and low milk/high sweetened beverage. Nutrient intake was determined by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary adequacy was determined with the Mean Adequacy Ratio. Mean body mass index for the four beverage consumption groups was compared; there were no differences among the groups (overall mean+/-standard error=30.8+/-0.3). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group had higher mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and B-6; riboflavin; thiamin; folate; phosphorus; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium (P<0.0125 for all) when compared with the other beverage consumption groups. Mean Adequacy Ratio was highest in the high milk/low sweetened beverage (71.8+/-0.8) and lowest in the low milk/high sweetened beverage (58.4+/-0.8) consumption groups (P<0.0125). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group consumed more nutrient-dense foods. Overall consumption of milk was low. Consumption of high milk/low sweetened beverage was associated with improved nutrient intake, including the shortfall nutrients, ie, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A.

  19. Impact of Dairy and Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Diet and Weight of a Multiethnic Population of Head Start Mothers

    PubMed Central

    O’NEIL, CAROL E.; NICKLAS, THERESA A.; LIU, YAN; FRANKLIN, FRANK A.

    2009-01-01

    Mothers with children in Head Start play a critical role in providing healthful diets and modeling good dietary behaviors to their children, but there is little information available on their diet, especially on beverage consumption. The objective of this study was to assess the association of milk and sweetened beverage consumption with nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers. Using a cross-sectional, secondary analysis, African-American (43%), Hispanic (33%), and white (24%) women (n=609) were divided into four beverage consumption groups: high milk/low sweetened beverage, high milk/high sweetened beverage, low milk/low sweetened beverage, and low milk/high sweetened beverage. Nutrient intake was determined by averaging 24-hour dietary recalls from 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary adequacy was determined with the Mean Adequacy Ratio. Mean body mass index for the four beverage consumption groups was compared; there were no differences among the groups (overall mean±standard error=30.8±0.3). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group had higher mean intakes of vitamins A, D, and B-6; riboflavin; thiamin; folate; phosphorus; calcium; iron; magnesium; and potassium (P<0.0125 for all) when compared with the other beverage consumption groups. Mean Adequacy Ratio was highest in the high milk/low sweetened beverage (71.8±0.8) and lowest in the low milk/high sweetened beverage (58.4±0.8) consumption groups (P<0.0125). Women in the high milk/low sweetened beverage group consumed more nutrient-dense foods. Overall consumption of milk was low. Consumption of high milk/low sweetened beverage was associated with improved nutrient intake, including the shortfall nutrients, ie, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A. PMID:19394474

  20. Impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation is associated with increased left ventricular mass in a multiethnic population. The Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takuya; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Eguchi, Kazuo; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L; Homma, Shunichi; Di Tullio, Marco R

    2010-04-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) mass and endothelial dysfunction are important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, it is not clear whether endothelial dysfunction is associated with increased LV mass. We tested the hypothesis that impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) is associated with increased LV mass in a population-based multiethnic cohort. As a part of the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), we performed two-dimensional echocardiography and FMD assessment during reactive hyperemia by high-resolution ultrasonography in 867 stroke-free community participants. LV mass was calculated according to an established method. LV hypertrophy was defined as the 90th percentile of sex-specific LV mass indexed for body surface area among normal subjects. Multivariable models were used to test the association of FMD with LV mass. In multiple linear regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, hematocrit, and race-ethnicity, FMD was inversely associated with LV mass (beta = -1.21 +/- 0.56, P = 0.03). The association persisted after further adjustment for any component of blood pressure (systolic, mean, and pulse pressure). In univariate logistic regression analysis, each 1% decrease in FMD was associated with an 8% higher risk of LV hypertrophy (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.13 per each FMD point P < 0.01). Impaired FMD is associated with LV mass, independent of other factors associated with increased LV mass. Endothelial dysfunction might be a potential risk factor for LV hypertrophy.

  1. Prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a multi-ethnic population in rural China: the Yunnan Minority Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Yu, Min-Bin; Cun, Qing; Chen, Qin; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Xu, Jian-Gang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and awareness of glaucoma in a rural community in China and to examine possible ethnic variations. The Yunnan Minority Eye Study was a multi-ethnic community-based eye survey using random cluster sampling strategies. 2133 Bai, 2205 Han and 2208 Yi Chinese aged 50 years or older participated in this study. Glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and secondary glaucoma was defined based on the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. The overall age-standardized prevalence of all glaucoma was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-3.1%) in this population. It was 1.8% (95% CI: 1.1-1.9%) for POAG and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6%) for PACG, respectively. Among 29 people with secondary glaucoma, 27 (93%) were blind in at least one eye. The presence of primary open-angle glaucoma was associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.94; comparing men with women), Yi ethnicity (OR = 2.27; comparing Yi with Han people), higher IOP (OR = 1.09 per mmHg increase), and the presence of myopia (OR = 1.84). Of the 212 participants with glaucoma, only 38 (18%) were aware of the disease and had been diagnosed previously as having glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Patients who were better educated tended to be aware of the disease. Significant ethnic difference in the prevalence of POAG was observed in this study. The low awareness of glaucoma highlights the pressing need to increase public awareness of this potentially blinding condition in rural China. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  2. Risk factors for malignant melanoma in white and non-white/non-African American populations: the multiethnic cohort.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungshim Lani; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy

    2012-03-01

    It is unknown whether the established risk factors for malignant melanoma in whites influence malignant melanoma risk in non-whites. We examined the risk factors for melanoma among 39,325 whites and 101,229 non-whites/multiracials [Japanese American (47.5%), Latino American (34.8%), Native Hawaiian (2.1%), and multiracial (15.6%), excluding African Americans] in the Multiethnic Cohort study. With an average follow-up of 12.7 years, 581 invasive malignant melanoma (IMM) and 412 melanoma in situ (MIS) cases were identified, of which 107 IMM and 74 MIS were among non-whites/multiracials. The relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models using days from cohort entry as the underlying time variable. Among non-white/multiracial males, location of IMM tumors differed from those of white males (P < 0.001); and non-white/multiracial females were more likely to be diagnosed with later stage of disease (P < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, age at cohort entry, male sex, higher education, and sunburn susceptibility phenotypes were associated with an increased risk of IMM in non-whites/multiracials (P < 0.05). The risk estimates for age at cohort entry and lighter hair and eye color were greater in non-whites/multiracials than in whites (P(heterogeneity) = 0.062, 0.016, and 0.005, respectively). For MIS risk, RRs between whites and non-whites/multiracials also differed for study location and education (P(heterogeneity) ≤ 0.015). In conclusion, similar to whites, age at cohort entry, male sex, and susceptibility to sunburn phenotypes may be predictive of malignant melanoma risk in non-white populations excluding African Americans.

  3. Blood pressure and antihypertensive medication profile in a multiethnic Asian population of stable chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Teo, Boon Wee; Chua, Horng Ruey; Wong, Weng Kin; Haroon, Sabrina; Subramanian, Srinivas; Loh, Ping Tyug; Sethi, Sunil; Lau, Titus

    2016-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different blood pressure (BP) goals for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Usage of antihypertensive medication and attainment of BP targets in Asian CKD patients remain unclear. This study describes the profile of antihypertensive agents used and BP components in a multiethnic Asian population with stable CKD. Stable CKD outpatients with variability of serum creatinine levels < 20%, taken > 3 months apart, were recruited. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated manometers, according to practice guidelines. Serum creatinine was assayed and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation. BP and antihypertensive medication profile was examined using univariate analyses. 613 patients (55.1% male; 74.7% Chinese, 6.4% Indian, 11.4% Malay; 35.7% diabetes mellitus) with a mean age of 57.8 ± 14.5 years were recruited. Mean SBP was 139 ± 20 mmHg, DBP was 74 ± 11 mmHg, serum creatinine was 166 ± 115 µmol/L and GFR was 53 ± 32 mL/min/1.73 m(2). At a lower GFR, SBP increased (p < 0.001), whereas DBP decreased (p = 0.0052). Mean SBP increased in tandem with the number of antihypertensive agents used (p < 0.001), while mean DBP decreased when ≥ 3 antihypertensive agents were used (p = 0.0020). Different targets are recommended for each BP component in CKD patients. A majority of patients cannot attain SBP targets and/or exceed DBP targets. Research into monitoring and treatment methods is required to better define BP targets in CKD patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  4. Multiple Independent Genetic Factors at NOS1AP Modulate the QT Interval in a Multi-Ethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Arking, Dan E.; Khera, Amit; Xing, Chao; Kao, W. H. Linda; Post, Wendy; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2009-01-01

    Extremes of electrocardiographic QT interval are associated with increased risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD); thus, identification and characterization of genetic variants that modulate QT interval may elucidate the underlying etiology of SCD. Previous studies have revealed an association between a common genetic variant in NOS1AP and QT interval in populations of European ancestry, but this finding has not been extended to other ethnic populations. We sought to characterize the effects of NOS1AP genetic variants on QT interval in the multi-ethnic population-based Dallas Heart Study (DHS, n = 3,072). The SNP most strongly associated with QT interval in previous samples of European ancestry, rs16847548, was the most strongly associated in White (P = 0.005) and Black (P = 3.6×10−5) participants, with the same direction of effect in Hispanics (P = 0.17), and further showed a significant SNP × sex-interaction (P = 0.03). A second SNP, rs16856785, uncorrelated with rs16847548, was also associated with QT interval in Blacks (P = 0.01), with qualitatively similar results in Whites and Hispanics. In a previously genotyped cohort of 14,107 White individuals drawn from the combined Atherosclerotic Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) cohorts, we validated both the second locus at rs16856785 (P = 7.63×10−8), as well as the sex-interaction with rs16847548 (P = 8.68×10−6). These data extend the association of genetic variants in NOS1AP with QT interval to a Black population, with similar trends, though not statistically significant at P<0.05, in Hispanics. In addition, we identify a strong sex-interaction and the presence of a second independent site within NOS1AP associated with the QT interval. These results highlight the consistent and complex role of NOS1AP genetic variants in modulating QT interval. PMID:19180230

  5. Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Multi-Ethnic United States Population: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Diana E; Klein, Barbara E K; Wong, Tien Y; Rotter, Jerome I; Li, Xiaohui; Shrager, Sandi; Burke, Gregory L; Klein, Ronald; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2016-06-01

    To describe the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors in 4 racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese) residing in the United States. Prospective cohort study. A total of 3811 participants, aged 46 to 86 years, from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort, with retinal data collected twice, on average, 8 years apart. Fundus images, taken using a digital camera through dark-adapted pupils using a standard protocol and the same equipment at both study visits, were graded centrally for early and late AMD on the basis of drusen size, type and area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions, and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory measures were included in multivariable regression models to determine their impact on the variation in AMD incidence among racial/ethnic groups. Incident early and late AMD. The overall 8-year age- and sex-standardized incidence of early and late AMD were 4.1% and 2.3%, respectively, with incidence of early and late AMD highest in whites (5.3% and 4.1%, respectively), intermediate in Chinese (4.5% and 2.2%, respectively) and Hispanics (3.3% and 0.8%, respectively), and lowest in blacks (1.6% and 0.4%, respectively). By adjusting for age and sex, blacks had a 70% lower risk of developing early AMD than whites, and this decreased only slightly to a 67% lower risk after multivariable adjustment. By adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, hyperopia was associated with early AMD (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.20), as was astigmatism (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.00-2.16), but not myopia (P = 0.29). Age, race/ethnicity, current smoking, hyperopia, and AMD-susceptibility genotypes Complement Factor H (CFH) RS1061170 and Age Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) RS3793917 were independently associated with

  6. The Paradoxes of Freedom: A Thematic Approach to Teaching a Compulsory Composition Course to a Multi-Ethnic Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Daniel J.

    A composition teacher at a New York City community college where cooperative education is stressed found that focusing the writing of his multiethnic students on the theme of freedom helped them look at their lives differently, revealing the contradictions involved in their beliefs, ideals, and prejudices. The course began with a discussion of…

  7. The Paradoxes of Freedom: A Thematic Approach to Teaching a Compulsory Composition Course to a Multi-Ethnic Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Daniel J.

    A composition teacher at a New York City community college where cooperative education is stressed found that focusing the writing of his multiethnic students on the theme of freedom helped them look at their lives differently, revealing the contradictions involved in their beliefs, ideals, and prejudices. The course began with a discussion of…

  8. The rural-urban population balance again.

    PubMed

    Simon, H A

    1982-11-01

    "This paper explores further the economics of the rural-urban population balance, using the method of comparative statics. It confirms the results obtained by Artle and his colleagues, using the method of excess demand analysis, thus demonstrating that the two methods of analysis are equivalent in this context. In analysing the effects of non-neutral technological change upon urbanization, it is essential to distinguish between the total elasticity of demand for manufactured products, and the income and (compensated) price elasticities, respectively. The empirical plausibility is questioned of assuming that total demand for the aggregate of manufactured goods is elastic."

  9. Knowledge Gaps among Physicians Caring for Multiethnic Populations at Increased Gastric Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shailja C; Itzkowitz, Steven H; Jandorf, Lina

    2017-09-07

    Although gastric cancer (GC) prevalence in the United States overall is low, there is significantly elevated risk in certain racial/ethnic groups. Providers caring for high-risk populations may not be fully aware of GC risk factors and may underestimate the potential for selective screening. Our aim was to identify knowledge gaps among healthcare providers with respect to GC. An Internet-based survey was distributed to primary care providers (PCPs) and gastroenterologists in New York City, which included questions regarding provider demographics, practice environment, GC risk factors, Helicobacter pylori, and screening practices. Three case vignettes were used to assess clinical management. Of 151 included providers (111 PCPs, 40 gastroenterologists), most reported caring for a racially/ethnically diverse population and 58% recommended GC screening for select populations. Although >85% recommended against testing patients from regions where H. pylori, a known carcinogen, is endemic, <50% were able to correctly identify non-Asian endemic regions. Minorities of respondents correctly identified Hispanic/Latino (29%), Black (22%), and Eastern European/Russian (19.7%) as additional higher-risk races/ethnicities. Vignette-based questions highlighted variability in the management of potentially higher-risk patients. Despite caring for multiracial/ethnic populations, providers demonstrated deficiencies in identifying and managing patients with elevated GC risk. Focused educational efforts should be considered to address these deficiencies.

  10. Diabetic retinopathy equity profile in a multi-ethnic, deprived population in Northern England

    PubMed Central

    Kliner, M; Fell, G; Gibbons, C; Dhothar, M; Mookhtiar, M; Cassels-Brown, A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Equity profiles are an established public health tool used to systematically identify and address inequity within health and health services. Our aim was to conduct an equity profile to identify inequity in eye health across Leeds and Bradford. This paper presents results of findings for diabetic retinopathy in Bradford and Airedale. Methods A variety of routine health data were included and sub-analysed by measures of equity, including age, sex, ethnicity, and deprivation to identify inequity in eye health and healthcare. The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the association between variables. Results The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Bradford and Airedale district is 6.6% compared to 4.3% in nearby Leeds and 5.1% nationally. The age-standardised prevalence of diagnosed diabetic retinopathy within Bradford and Airedale is 2.21% (95% CI 1.54–2.26%), with a disproportionately high prevalence of disease in the Pakistani population and the most deprived parts of the population. There was a poorer uptake of diabetic retinopathy screening in more deprived parts of the district and the proportions with a higher rate of referral to ophthalmology following the screening in Black and Minority Ethnic populations compared with the white population (13.2% vs6.9%). Uptake of secondary care outpatient appointments is much lower in more deprived populations. Conclusion Inequalities are inherent in diabetic retinopathy prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment. The reasons for these inequities are multi-factorial and further investigation of reasons for poor uptake of services is required. Addressing the inequalities in eye health and healthcare requires cross-organisational collaboration. PMID:22302063

  11. Counting the cost of diabetic hospital admissions from a multi-ethnic population in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Gulliford, M C; Ariyanayagam-Baksh, S M; Bickram, L; Picou, D; Mahabir, D

    1995-12-01

    Many middle-income countries are experiencing an increase in diabetes mellitus but patterns of morbidity and resource use from diabetes in developing countries have not been well described. We evaluated hospital admission with diabetes among different ethnic groups in Trinidad. We compiled a register of all patients with diabetes admitted to adult medical, general surgical, and ophthalmology wards at Port of Spain Hospital, Trinidad. During 26 weeks, 1447 patients with diabetes had 1722 admissions. Annual admission rates, standardized to the World Population, for the catchment population aged 30-64 years were 1031 (95% CI 928 to 1134) per 100,000 in men and 1354 (1240 to 1468) per 100,000 in women. Compared with the total population, admission rates were 33% higher in the Indian origin population and 47% lower in those of mixed ethnicity. The age-standardized rate of amputation with diabetes in the general population aged 30-64 years was 54 (37 to 71) per 100,000. The hospital admission fatality rate was 8.9% (95%CI 7.6% to 10.2%). Mortality was associated with increasing age, admission with hyperglycaemia, elevated serum creatinine, cardiac failure or stroke and with lower-limb amputation during admission. Diabetes accounted for 13.6% of hospital admissions and 23% of hospital bed occupancy. Admissions associated with disorders of blood glucose control or foot problems accounted for 52% of diabetic hospital bed occupancy. The annual cost of admissions with diabetes was conservatively estimated at TT+ 10.66 million (UK 1.24 million pounds). In this community diabetes admission rates were high and varied according to the prevalence of diabetes. Admissions, fatalities and resource use were associated with acute and chronic complications of diabetes. Investing in better quality preventive clinical care for diabetes might provide an economically advantageous policy for countries like Trinidad and Tobago.

  12. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement With Physical Activity Among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J; Zenk, Shannon N; Israel, Barbara A; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696 adults in Detroit, Michigan, multilevel models were used to examine joint effects of residential density and resident involvement in neighborhood activities in relation to physical activity. We found a marginally significant negative interaction of higher residential density and resident neighborhood involvement. Higher residential density was negatively associated with physical activity, and resident neighborhood involvement was positively associated with physical activity. Our findings suggest that future work incorporate additional neighborhood and individual-level characteristics to understand the complexity of the association between the neighborhood environment, resident social engagement in the neighborhood, and physical activity. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  13. Association of apolipoprotein A1 and B with kidney function and chronic kidney disease in two multiethnic population samples

    PubMed Central

    Goek, Oemer-Necmi; Köttgen, Anna; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    and higher eGFR estimated by the CKD-EPI equation in two large multiethnic population-based samples. While apolipoprotein B showed no consistent associations, a higher apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio was significantly associated with lower eGFR in both studies. The direction and magnitude of the longitudinal associations between apolipoproteins and CKD incidence were overall similar to those observed cross-sectionally. No consistent differences became apparent between traditional lipids and apolipoproteins. PMID:22287661

  14. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    John, Esther M; Schwartz, Gary G; Koo, Jocelyn; Wang, Wei; Ingles, Sue A

    2007-12-15

    Considerable evidence indicates that vitamin D may reduce the risk of several cancers, including breast cancer. This study examined associations of breast cancer with sun exposure, the principal source of vitamin D, and vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms (FokI, TaqI, BglI) in a population-based case-control study of Hispanic, African-American, and non-Hispanic White women aged 35-79 years from the San Francisco Bay Area of California (1995-2003). In-person interviews were obtained for 1,788 newly diagnosed cases and 2,129 controls. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the upper underarm (a sun-protected site that measures constitutive pigmentation) and on the forehead (a sun-exposed site) using reflectometry. Biospecimens were collected for a subset of the study population (814 cases, 910 controls). A high sun exposure index based on reflectometry was associated with reduced risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light constitutive skin pigmentation (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.91). The association did not vary with VDR genotype. No associations were found for women with medium or dark pigmentation. Localized breast cancer was not associated with sun exposure or VDR genotype. This study supports the hypothesis that sunlight exposure reduces risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light skin pigmentation.

  15. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to inflammation and basal glucose metabolism in a multi-ethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Salome A; Chen, Cynthia H; Naidoo, Nasheen; Xu, Wang; Lee, Jeannette; Chia, Kee Seng; Tai, E Shyong; van Dam, Rob M

    2011-06-02

    Higher coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in cohort studies, but the physiological pathways through which coffee affects glucose metabolism are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between habitual coffee and tea consumption and glucose metabolism in a multi-ethnic Asian population and possible mediation by inflammation. We cross-sectionally examined the association between coffee, green tea, black tea and Oolong tea consumption and glycemic (fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-beta, plasma HbA1c) and inflammatory (plasma adiponectin and C-reactive protein) markers in a multi-ethnic Asian population (N = 4139). After adjusting for multiple confounders, we observed inverse associations between coffee and HOMA-IR (percent difference: - 8.8% for ≥ 3 cups/day versus rarely or never; Ptrend = 0.007), but no significant associations between coffee and inflammatory markers. Tea consumption was not associated with glycemic markers, but green tea was inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein concentrations (percent difference: - 12.2% for ≥ 1 cup/day versus < 1 cup/week; Ptrend = 0.042). These data provide additional evidence for a beneficial effect of habitual caffeinated coffee consumption on insulin sensitivity, and suggest that this effect is unlikely to be mediated by anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  16. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to inflammation and basal glucose metabolism in a multi-ethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in cohort studies, but the physiological pathways through which coffee affects glucose metabolism are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between habitual coffee and tea consumption and glucose metabolism in a multi-ethnic Asian population and possible mediation by inflammation. Methods We cross-sectionally examined the association between coffee, green tea, black tea and Oolong tea consumption and glycemic (fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-beta, plasma HbA1c) and inflammatory (plasma adiponectin and C-reactive protein) markers in a multi-ethnic Asian population (N = 4139). Results After adjusting for multiple confounders, we observed inverse associations between coffee and HOMA-IR (percent difference: - 8.8% for ≥ 3 cups/day versus rarely or never; Ptrend = 0.007), but no significant associations between coffee and inflammatory markers. Tea consumption was not associated with glycemic markers, but green tea was inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein concentrations (percent difference: - 12.2% for ≥ 1 cup/day versus < 1 cup/week; Ptrend = 0.042). Conclusions These data provide additional evidence for a beneficial effect of habitual caffeinated coffee consumption on insulin sensitivity, and suggest that this effect is unlikely to be mediated by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:21631956

  17. Association of exposure to diabetes in utero with adiposity and fat distribution in a multiethnic population of youth: the Exploring Perinatal Outcomes among Children (EPOCH) Study

    PubMed Central

    Crume, T. L.; Ogden, L.; West, N. A.; Vehik, K. S.; Scherzinger, A.; Daniels, S.; McDuffie, R.; Bischoff, K.; Hamman, R. F.; Norris, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis To evaluate whether exposure to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adiposity and fat distribution in a multiethnic population of children. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 82 children exposed to maternal GDM and 379 unexposed youths 6–13 years of age with measured BMI, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, and visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat. Results Exposure to maternal GDM was associated with higher BMI (p=0.02), larger waist circumference (p=0.004), more subcutaneous abdominal fat (p=0.01) and increased subscapular to triceps skinfold thickness ratio (p=0.01) in models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity and Tanner stage. Adjustment for socioeconomic factors, birthweight and gestational age, maternal smoking during pregnancy and current diet and physical activity did not influence associations; however, adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI attenuated all associations. Conclusions/interpretation Exposure to maternal GDM is associated with increased overall and abdominal adiposity, and a more central fat distribution pattern in 6- to 13-year-old youths from a multi-ethnic population, providing further support for the fetal overnutrition hypothesis. PMID:20953862

  18. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73), respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92), 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11). The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages.

  19. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yook Chin; Gray, Sarah Yu Weng; Ching, Siew Mooi; Lim, Hooi Min; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-05-19

    This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study. A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. 967 patients' records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic. Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted. In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2-30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ(2)=3.25, p=0.78. Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Survey in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. Methods In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Results The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73), respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92), 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11). The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. Conclusions The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young

  1. Back pain in patients with severe osteoporosis on teriparatide or antiresorptives: a prospective observational study in a multiethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Songpatanasilp, Thawee; Mumtaz, Malik; Chhabra, Harvinder; Yu, Maria; Sorsaburu, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We evaluated reduced back pain in a multiethnic population treated with teriparatide and/or antiresorptives in real-life clinical settings over 12 months. METHODS This prospective observational study comprised 562 men and postmenopausal women (mean age 68.8 years) receiving either teriparatide (n = 230), antiresorptives (raloxifene or bisphosphonates; n = 322), or both (n = 10) for severe osteoporosis. The primary endpoint was the relative risk of new/worsening back pain at six months. RESULTS At baseline, a higher proportion of teriparatide-treated than antiresorptive-treated patients had severe back pain (30.9% vs. 17.7%), extreme pain/discomfort (25.3% vs. 16.8%), extreme anxiety/depression (16.6% vs. 7.8%) and were confined to bed (10.0% vs. 5.3%). Teriparatide-treated patients had higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain (5.8 ± 2.42 vs. 5.1 ± 2.58) and lower mean European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores (37.7 ± 29.15 vs. 45.5 ± 31.42) than antiresorptive-treated patients. The incidence of new/worsening back pain at six months for patients on teriparatide and antiresorptives was 9.8% and 10.3% (relative risk 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.80–1.23), respectively. The incidence of severe back pain at 12 months was 1.3% and 1.6% in the teriparatide and antiresorptive treatment groups, respectively. Teriparatide-treated patients had lower mean VAS (2.71 ± 2.21 vs. 3.30 ± 2.37) and EQ-5D (46.1 ± 33.18 vs. 55.4 ± 32.65) scores at 12 months. More teriparatide-treated patients felt better (82.7% vs. 71.0%) and were very satisfied with treatment (49.4% vs. 36.8%) compared to antiresorptive-treated patients. CONCLUSION Patients treated with either teriparatide or antiresorptives had similar risk of new/worsening back pain at six months. PMID:25273935

  2. Validation of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score in a multiethnic Asian population: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sarah Yu Weng; Ching, Siew Mooi; Lim, Hooi Min; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting. Design This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study. Setting A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Participants 967 patients’ records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic. Main outcome measures Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted. Results In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2–30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2=3.25, p=0.78. Conclusions Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting. PMID:25991451

  3. Serum ferritin concentrations and body iron stores in a multicenter, multiethnic primary-care population

    PubMed Central

    Gordeuk, Victor R.; Reboussin, David M.; McLaren, Christine E.; Barton, James C.; Acton, Ronald T.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Harris, Emily L.; Reiss, Jacob A.; Adams, Paul C.; Speechley, Mark; Phatak, Pradyumna D.; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Eckfeldt, John H.; Chen, Wen-Pin; Passmore, Leah; Dawkins, Fitzroy W.

    2013-01-01

    How often elevated serum ferritin in primary-care patients reflects increased iron stores (normally 0.8 g in men, 0.4 g in women) is not known. The Hereditary Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) study screened 101,168 primary-care participants (44% Caucasians, 27% African-Americans, 14% Asians/Pacific Islanders, 13% Hispanics, 2% others). Follow-up clinical evaluation was performed in 302 of 333 HFE C282Y homozygotes regardless of iron measures and 1,375 of 1,920 nonhomozygotes with serum ferritin >300 μg/L (men), >200 μg/L (women) and transferrin saturation >50% (men), >45% (women). Quantitative phlebotomy was conducted in 122 of 175 C282Y homozygotes and 122 of 1,102 nonhomozygotes with non-transfusional serum ferritin elevation at evaluation. The estimated prevalence in the Caucasian population of C282Y homozygotes with serum ferritin >900 μg/L at evaluation was 20 per 10,000 men and 4 per 10,000 women; this constellation was predictive of iron stores >4 g in men and >2 g in women. The estimated prevalence per 10,000 of non-C282Y homozygotes with serum ferritin >900 μg/L at evaluation was 7 among Caucasians, 13 among Hispanics, 20 among African Americans, and 38 among Asians and Pacific Islanders, and this constellation was predictive of iron stores >2 g but <4 g. In conclusion, serum ferritin >900 μg/L after initial elevations of both serum ferritin and transferrin saturation is predictive of mildly increased iron stores in multiple ethnic populations regardless of HFE genotype. Serum ferritin >900 μg/L in male C282Y homozygotes is predictive of moderately increased iron stores. PMID:18429050

  4. [A study of urban population migration and urbanization in China].

    PubMed

    Ma, X

    1988-03-01

    Under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and UN funding, a study was undertaken to assess Chinese urban migration and urbanization. A 2% random sample was taken of 74 cities of varying densities (divided into 5 categories ranging from "especially large city" to "town") from 16 provinces. This encompassed 23,895 households, 1,643 collectives and 100,167 people. Major data include: 38% of the subjects had migrated at least once; 7.58% lived away from home for at least 1 year; 23.98% were temporarily away from home at the time of the study; 3.6% were at home. With the exception of the "especially large city," which absorbed 46.5% of urban migrants, more migrants entered "towns" than they did "large city." Migration to the "especially large city" fell from 56.6% in the 1950s to 32.5% between 1981-86, whereas migration into the other categories increased. For example, population movement into towns jumped from 12.3% in the 1950s to 28.6% in 1981-86. In all 5 categories, intra-province migration was larger than inter-province migration. Over half of the urban migrants moved from villages to towns. More men migrated to cities than women, but slightly more women than men migrated from villages to cities (due to marriage customs). 56.6% of migrants were between 15-30 years; 23.34% were workers; 21.54% were farmers. Reasons given for moving were many, but the most often cited was work related. Work related moves often meant that such migration was dictated, rather than voluntary. Also, social, economic and political upheavals directly affected the pattern of urban migration from 1949-86. Current government policy is to develop smaller cities and to limit the growth of already densely populated areas. Until cities can provide adequate housing, food and jobs for its inhabitants, governmental intervention in some areas will continue to be necessary.

  5. Long term prognosis of women with gestational diabetes in a multiethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Oldfield, Matthew D; Donley, Penelope; Walwyn, Linda; Scudamore, Ian; Gregory, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess the glucose tolerance of South Asian and Caucasian women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Method A retrospective follow‐up study of 189 women diagnosed with GDM between 1995 and 2001. Glucose tolerance was reassessed by oral glucose tolerance test at a mean duration since pregnancy of 4.38 years. Results South Asian women comprised 65% of the GDM population. Diabetes developed in 36.9% of the population, affecting more South Asian (48.6%) than Caucasian women (25.0%). Women developing diabetes were older at follow‐up (mean (SD) 38.8 (5.7) vs 35.9 (5.6) years; p<0.05) and had been heavier (body mass index 31.4 (6.3) vs 27.7 (6.7) kg/m2; p<0.05), more hyperglycaemic (Gl0 6.5 (1.7) vs 5.2 (1.1) mmol/l; p<0.01: G120 11.4 (3.3) vs 9.6 (1.8) mmol/l; p<0.01: HbA1c 6.4 (1.0) vs 5.6 (0.7); p<0.01) and more likely to require insulin during pregnancy (88.1% vs 34.0%; p<0.01). Future diabetes was associated with and predicted by HbA1c taken at GDM diagnosis in both South Asian (odds ratio 4.09, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 12.40; p<0.05) and Caucasian women (OR 9.15, 95% CI 1.91 to 43.87; p<0.01) as well as by previously reported risk factors of increasing age at follow‐up, pregnancy weight, increasing hyperglycaemia and insulin requirement during pregnancy. Conclusion GDM represents a significant risk factor for future DM development regardless of ethnicity. Glycated haemoglobin values at GDM diagnosis have value in predicting future diabetes mellitus. PMID:17551077

  6. Long term prognosis of women with gestational diabetes in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Matthew D; Donley, Penelope; Walwyn, Linda; Scudamore, Ian; Gregory, Robert

    2007-06-01

    To assess the glucose tolerance of South Asian and Caucasian women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A retrospective follow-up study of 189 women diagnosed with GDM between 1995 and 2001. Glucose tolerance was reassessed by oral glucose tolerance test at a mean duration since pregnancy of 4.38 years. South Asian women comprised 65% of the GDM population. Diabetes developed in 36.9% of the population, affecting more South Asian (48.6%) than Caucasian women (25.0%). Women developing diabetes were older at follow-up (mean (SD) 38.8 (5.7) vs 35.9 (5.6) years; p<0.05) and had been heavier (body mass index 31.4 (6.3) vs 27.7 (6.7) kg/m(2); p<0.05), more hyperglycaemic (Gl(0) 6.5 (1.7) vs 5.2 (1.1) mmol/l; p<0.01: G(120) 11.4 (3.3) vs 9.6 (1.8) mmol/l; p<0.01: HbA1c 6.4 (1.0) vs 5.6 (0.7); p<0.01) and more likely to require insulin during pregnancy (88.1% vs 34.0%; p<0.01). Future diabetes was associated with and predicted by HbA1c taken at GDM diagnosis in both South Asian (odds ratio 4.09, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 12.40; p<0.05) and Caucasian women (OR 9.15, 95% CI 1.91 to 43.87; p<0.01) as well as by previously reported risk factors of increasing age at follow-up, pregnancy weight, increasing hyperglycaemia and insulin requirement during pregnancy. GDM represents a significant risk factor for future DM development regardless of ethnicity. Glycated haemoglobin values at GDM diagnosis have value in predicting future diabetes mellitus.

  7. Phytoestrogen consumption and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population: the Bay Area Breast Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Horn-Ross, P L; John, E M; Lee, M; Stewart, S L; Koo, J; Sakoda, L C; Shiau, A C; Goldstein, J; Davis, P; Perez-Stable, E J

    2001-09-01

    Research on the relation between phytoestrogens and breast cancer risk has been limited in scope. Most epidemiologic studies have involved Asian women and have examined the effects of traditional soy foods (e.g., tofu), soy protein, or urinary excretion of phytoestrogens. The present study extends this research by examining the effects of a spectrum of phytoestrogenic compounds on breast cancer risk in non-Asian US women. African-American, Latina, and White women aged 35-79 years, who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1998, were compared with women selected from the general population via random digit dialing. Interviews were conducted with 1,326 cases and 1,657 controls. Usual intake of specific phytoestrogenic compounds was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire and a newly developed nutrient database. Phytoestrogen intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 1.3 for the highest vs. lowest quartile). Results were similar for pre- and postmenopausal women, for women in each ethnic group, and for all seven phytoestrogenic compounds studied. Phytoestrogens appear to have little effect on breast cancer risk at the levels commonly consumed by non-Asian US women: an average intake equivalent to less than one serving of tofu per week.

  8. Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P; Rauh, Virginia; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Kinney, Patrick; Camann, David; Barr, Dana; Bernert, Tom; Garfinkel, Robin; Tu, Yi-Hsuan; Diaz, Diurka; Dietrich, Jessica; Whyatt, Robin M

    2003-01-01

    Inner-city, minority populations are high-risk groups for adverse birth outcomes and also are more likely to be exposed to environmental contaminants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. In a sample of 263 nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women, we evaluated the effects on birth outcomes of prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs monitored during pregnancy by personal air sampling, along with ETS estimated by plasma cotinine, and an organophosphate pesticide (OP) estimated by plasma chlorpyrifos (CPF). Plasma CPF was used as a covariate because it was the most often detected in plasma and was highly correlated with other pesticides frequently detected in plasma. Among African Americans, high prenatal exposure to PAHs was associated with lower birth weight (p = 0.003) and smaller head circumference (p = 0.01) after adjusting for potential confounders. CPF was associated with decreased birth weight and birth length overall (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively) and with lower birth weight among African Americans (p = 0.04) and reduced birth length in Dominicans (p < 0.001), and was therefore included as a covariate in the model with PAH. After controlling for CPF, relationships between PAHs and birth outcomes were essentially unchanged. In this analysis, PAHs and CPF appear to be significant independent determinants of birth outcomes. Further analyses of pesticides will be carried out. Possible explanations of the failure to find a significant effect of PAHs in the Hispanic subsample are discussed. This study provides evidence that environmental pollutants at levels currently encountered in New York City adversely affect fetal development. PMID:12573906

  9. Determinants of Breastfeeding Practices and Success in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2016-03-01

    Many countries in Asia report low breastfeeding rates and the risk factors for early weaning are not well studied. We assessed the prevalence, duration, and mode of breastfeeding (direct or expressed) among mothers of three Asian ethnic groups. Participants were 1,030 Singaporean women recruited during early pregnancy. Data collected included early breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding duration, and mode of breastfeeding. Full breastfeeding was defined as the intake of breast milk, with or without water. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with discontinuation of any and full breastfeeding. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association of ethnicity with mode of breastfeeding. At 6 months postpartum, the prevalence of any breastfeeding was 46 percent for Chinese mothers, 22 percent for Malay mothers, and 41 percent for Indian mothers; prevalence of full breastfeeding was 11, 2, and 5 percent, respectively. More Chinese mothers fed their infants expressed breast milk, instead of directly breastfeeding them, compared with the other two ethnic groups. Duration of any and full breastfeeding were positively associated with breastfeeding a few hours after birth, higher maternal age and education, and negatively associated with irregular breastfeeding frequency and being shown how to breastfeed. Adjusting for maternal education, breastfeeding duration was similar in the three ethnic groups, but ethnicity remained a significant predictor of mode of breastfeeding. The low rates and duration of breastfeeding in this population may be improved with breastfeeding education and support, especially in mothers with lower education. Further work is needed to understand the cultural differences in mode of feeding and its implications for maternal and infant health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Determinants of posterior corneal biometric measurements in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Ang, Marcus; Chong, Wesley; Huang, Huiqi; Wong, Tien Yin; He, Ming-Guang; Aung, Tin; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2014-01-01

    To describe the corneal and anterior segment determinants of posterior corneal arc length (PCAL) and posterior corneal curvature (PCC). Cross-sectional, population-based study of 1069 subjects (1069 eyes) aged 40-80 years, from three major Asian ethnic groups. All underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography imaging and analysis with Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program. Our main outcome measures were determinants of PCAL and PCC using adjusted, multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders to obtain the estimated marginal means (EMM) with standard error (SE). The overall mean (± SD) of PCC was: 6.51±0.39 mm; and PCAL was: 12.52±0.59 mm. Malays had a relatively longer PCAL (EMM = 12.74 mm, SE = 0.04 mm) than Chinese (EMM = 12.48 mm, SE = 0.03 mm, P<0.001), and Indians (EMM = 12.42 mm, SE = 0.03 mm, P<0.001). Anterior segment parameters had weak-moderate correlations with PCAL, which included: anterior chamber depth (ACD) (r = 0.55, P<0.001), PCC (r = 0.27, P<0.001), anterior corneal curvature (ACC) (r = 0.14, P<0.001) and central corneal thickness (CCT) (r = -0.07, P = 0.023). In multivariate analysis, anterior segment parameters explained only 37.6% of the variance of PCAL, with ACD being the most important determinant (partial R2  = 0.300; P<0.001). The determinants of PCC included ACC, PCAL and CCT (explaining 72.1% variation of PCC), with ACC being the most important determinant (partial R2  = 0.683; P<0.001). There was moderate correlation of PCAL with ACD, but anterior segment parameters accounted for only a small proportion of the variation in PCAL. The significant differences in PCAL and PCC amongst different Asian ethnic groups suggests that there is a need to consider this factor when planning for anterior segment surgeries such as endothelial keratoplasty.

  11. Prediction of fatness by standing 8-electrode bioimpedance: a multiethnic adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, John D; Schaaf, David; Scragg, Robert K R; Plank, Lindsay D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an 8-electrode bioimpedance analysis (BIA(8)) device (BC-418; Tanita, Tokyo, Japan) for use in populations of European, Maori, Pacific Island, and Asian adolescents. Healthy adolescents (215 M, 216 F; 129 Pacific Island, 120 Asian, 91 Maori, and 91 European; age range 12-19 years) were recruited by purposive sampling of high schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Weight, height, sitting height, leg length, waist circumference, and whole-body impedance were measured. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) derived from the BIA(8) manufacturer's equations were compared with measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). DXA-measured FFM was used as the reference to develop prediction equations based on impedance. A double cross-validation technique was applied. BIA(8) underestimated FM by 2.06 kg (P < 0.0001) and percent body fat (%BF) by 2.84% (P < 0.0001), on average. However, BIA(8) tended to overestimate FM and %BF in lean and underestimate FM and %BF in fat individuals. Sex-specific equations developed showed acceptable accuracy on cross-validation. In the total sample, the best prediction equations were, for boys: FFM (kg) = 0.607 height (cm)(2)/impedance ( ohm) + 1.542 age (y) + 0.220 height (cm) + 0.096 weight (kg) + 1.836 ethnicity (0 = European or Asian, 1 = Maori or Pacific) - 47.547, R(2) = 0.93, standard error of estimate (SEE) = 3.09 kg; and, for girls: FFM (kg) = 0.531 height (cm)(2)/impedance ( ohm) + 0.182 height (cm) + 0.096 weight (kg) + 1.562 ethnicity (0 = non-Pacific, 1 = Pacific) - 15.782, R(2) = 0.91, SEE = 2.19 kg. In conclusion, equations for fatness estimation using BIA(8) developed for our sample perform better than reliance on the manufacturer's estimates. The relationship between BIA and body composition in adolescents is ethnicity dependent.

  12. Vitamin K Dependent Protection of Renal Function in Multi-ethnic Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang-Fei; Drummen, Nadja E.A.; Schutte, Aletta E.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Jacobs, Lotte; Petit, Thibaut; Yang, Wen-Yi; Smith, Wayne; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Verhamme, Peter; Allegaert, Karel; Schutte, Rudolph; Lerut, Evelyne; Evenepoel, Pieter; Vermeer, Cees; Staessen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Following activation by vitamin K (VK), matrix Gla protein (MGP) inhibits arterial calcification, but its role in preserving renal function remains unknown. Methods In 1166 white Flemish (mean age, 38.2 years) and 714 South Africans (49.2% black; 40.6 years), we correlated estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR [CKD-EPI formula]) and stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD [KDOQI stages 2–3]) with inactive desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), using multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Among Flemish and white and black Africans, between-group differences in eGFR (90, 100 and 122 mL/min/1.73 m2), dp-ucMGP (3.7, 6.5 and 3.2 μg/L), and CKD prevalence (53.5, 28.7 and 10.5%) were significant, but associations of eGFR with dp-ucMGP did not differ among ethnicities (P ≥ 0.075). For a doubling of dp-ucMGP, eGFR decreased by 1.5 (P = 0.023), 1.0 (P = 0.56), 2.8 (P = 0.0012) and 2.1 (P < 0.0001) mL/min/1.73 m2 in Flemish, white Africans, black Africans and all participants combined; the odds ratios for moving up one CKD stage were 1.17 (P = 0.033), 1.03 (P = 0.87), 1.29 (P = 0.12) and 1.17 (P = 0.011), respectively. Interpretation In the general population, eGFR decreases and CKD risk increases with higher dp-ucMGP, a marker of VK deficiency. These findings highlight the possibility that VK supplementation might promote renal health. PMID:26981580

  13. Prevalence of prehypertension and associated risk factors among Chinese adults from a large-scale multi-ethnic population survey.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Junting; Zhu, Guangjin; Liu, Junxiu; Han, Shaomei

    2016-08-11

    Up to date, most of previous studies about Chinese prehypertension were conducted based on a small sample or in only one province, which could not represent the general population in China. Furthermore, no information on the ethnic difference in prevalence of prehypertension has been reported in China. The aim of this study is to examine the sex-specific, age-specific and ethnic-specific prevalence of prehypertension and associated risk factors in a large-scale multi-ethnic Chinese adult population. The subjects came from a large-scale population survey about Chinese physiological constants and health conditions conducted in six provinces. 47, 495 adults completed blood pressure measurement. Prehypertension was defined as not being on antihypertensive medications and having SBP of 120-139 mmHg and/or DBP of 80-89 mmHg. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) from logistic models were used to reflect the prevalence of prehypertension. The mean age of all subjects was 43.9 ± 16.8 years. The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension for all them was 29.5 and 36.4 %, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension for males (33.2 and 41.1 %, respectively) was higher than that for females (27.0 and 33.2 %, respectively), and P < 0.001. The mean age of the subjects was 54.8 ± 14.0 years for hypertensive, 44.0 ± 16.0 years for prehypertensive and 35.3 ± 14.5 years for normotensive. With aging, subjects had more odds of getting prehypertension. Multivariate logistic model indicated that males (OR = 2.076, 95 % CI: 1.952-2.208), laborers with mental work (OR = 1.084, 95 % CI: 1.020-1.152), Yi (OR = 1.347, 95 %CI: 1.210-1.500) and Hui subjects (OR = 1.133, 95 % CI: 1.024-1.253), alcohol drinkers (OR = 1.147, 95 % CI: 1.072-1.228), the generally obese (OR = 2.460, 95 % CI: 2.190-2.763), the overweight (OR = 1.667, 95 % CI: 1.563-1.788), the abdominally obese (OR = 1

  14. Association of Systemic Medication Use With Intraocular Pressure in a Multiethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Henrietta; Shi, Yuan; Chua, Jacqueline; Tham, Yih-Chung; Lim, Sing Hui; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-03-01

    There is limited understanding of the associations between systemic medication use and intraocular pressure (IOP) in the general population. To examine the association between systemic medication use and IOP in a multiethnic Asian population. In this post hoc analysis of the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study, a population-based study of 10 033 participants (78.7% response rate) from 3 racial/ethnic groups (Chinese [recruited from February 9, 2009, through December 19, 2011], Malays [recruited from August 16, 2004, though July 10, 2006], and Indians [recruited from May 21, 2007, through December 29, 2009]), participants with glaucoma, previous ocular surgery, or trauma and an IOP asymmetry greater than 5 mm Hg between eyes were excluded. Intraocular pressure was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted to collect data on medication and other variables. Data analysis was performed from August 1 through October 31, 2015. Associations between medication and IOP were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, and the medical condition for which the medication was taken (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs], angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs], and β-blockers adjusted for blood pressure, statins adjusted for lipids, and biguanides, sulfonylureas, α-glycosidase inhibitors [AGIs], and insulin adjusted for glycosylated hemoglobin). Medications associated with significant IOP differences were incorporated into regression models adjusted for concomitant use of multiple medications. Generalized estimating equation models were used to account for correlation between eyes. Of the 10 033 participants, we analyzed 8063 (mean [SD] age, 57.0 [9.6] years; 4107 female [50.9%]; 2680 Chinese [33.2%], 2757 Malay [34.2%], and 2626 Indian [32.6%] individuals). Systemic β-blocker use was independently associated with an IOP of 0.45 mm Hg lower (95% CI

  15. OBAYA (obesity and adverse health outcomes in young adults): feasibility of a population-based multiethnic cohort study using electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, we have only limited knowledge of the magnitude of these associations in young adults. A multiethnic cohort of young adults was established to close current knowledge gaps; cohort demographics, cohort retention, and the potential influence of migration bias were investigated. Methods For this population-based cross-sectional study, demographics, and measured weight and height were extracted from electronic medical records of 1,929,470 patients aged 20 to 39 years enrolled in two integrated health plans in California from 2007 to 2009. Results The cohort included about 84.4% of Kaiser Permanente California members in this age group who had a medical encounter during the study period and represented about 18.2% of the underlying population in the same age group in California. The age distribution of the cohort was relatively comparable to the underlying population in California Census 2010 population, but the proportion of women and ethnic/racial minorities was slightly higher. The three-year retention rate was 68.4%. Conclusion These data suggest the feasibility of our study for medium-term follow-up based on sufficient membership retention rates. While nationwide 6% of young adults are extremely obese, we know little to adequately quantify the health burden attributable to obesity, especially extreme obesity, in this age group. This cohort of young adults provides a unique opportunity to investigate associations of obesity-related factors and risk of cancer in a large multiethnic population. PMID:22909293

  16. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1992 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This United Nation's publication presents data on the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world and contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations that had at least one million inhabitants in 1990. Chapter 1 presents levels of urbanization and future trends for urban and rural…

  17. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1992 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This United Nation's publication presents data on the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world and contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations that had at least one million inhabitants in 1990. Chapter 1 presents levels of urbanization and future trends for urban and rural…

  18. Language in the Multi-Ethnic Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Hilary; Wight, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Center for Urban Educational Studies is engaged in various primary school language projects, notably Second Language in the Primary School Project (SLIPP) and Reading Through Understanding (RTU). Discusses how these have affected language instruction in the multi-ethnic classroom. (Author/RK)

  19. Quality of life in an urban Asian population: the impact of ethnicity and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Thumboo, Julian; Fong, Kok Yong; Machin, David; Chan, Siew Pang; Soh, Chang Heok; Leong, Keng Hong; Feng, Pao Hsii; Thio, Szu tien; Boey, Mee Leng

    2003-04-01

    The relationships between ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have not been well characterised in most Asian populations. We therefore studied the influence of ethnicity and SES on HRQoL in a multi-ethnic urban Asian population, adjusting for the influence of other known determinants of HRQoL. In a disproportionately stratified, cross-sectional, population-based survey, Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects in Singapore completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) HRQoL measure and were assessed to determine demographic, socio-economic, psychosocial and other characteristics. Multiple linear regression models were used to study the influence of ethnicity and SES on SF-36 scores while adjusting for the influence of other determinants of HRQoL. The survey participation rate was 92.8%. Ethnic differences in HRQoL were present for all 8 SF-36 scales (p<0.001 for all scales except General Health) among the 4122 Chinese, Malays and Indians surveyed. These ethnic groups also differed in several known determinants of HRQoL (e.g., Chinese had more years of education and Indians had more chronic medical conditions). After adjusting for the influence of these factors, ethnicity and SES independently influenced HRQoL, with mean differences in SF-36 scores due to ethnicity ranging from 1.4 to 13.1 points. Educational level and housing type (markers of SES) were also associated with SF-36 scores (0.5-0.6 point increase per year of education and 3.5-4.0 point increase with better housing type, respectively). Better HRQoL was also associated with better family support, and poorer HRQoL with acute and chronic medical conditions and sick days. The study concludes that ethnicity and SES are associated with clinically important differences in HRQoL in a multi-ethnic, urban Asian population.

  20. Variation in the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in a multiethnic population: a nationwide population study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Sanjay; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rahmat, Ramlee; Zain, Azhar Md; Yap, Yee Guan; Mohamed, Mafauzy; Taha, Mohamad

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between different ethnic groups and the prevalence, awareness, and control of diabetes in Malaysia. A population-based cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was conducted in Malaysia. Diabetes is defined as having a fasting blood glucose > or =7 mmol/L or a self-reported diabetic on treatment. Among the 7683 respondents aged > or =30 years, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 15.2% (95% CI = 14.1, 16.4). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with Malays, Chinese had lower odds (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.71; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.91) and Indians had higher odds of having diabetes (aOR 1.54; 95% CI = 1.20, 1.98). The odds of diabetes increased with age, family history of diabetes, body mass index, and lower education levels. Among those with diabetes mellitus, 45.0% were aware and 42.7% were under treatment. Among treated diabetics, 25.1% had their fasting blood sugar under control. There is a significant association between prevalence of diabetes and different ethnic groups.

  1. Normative data for hand grip strength and key pinch strength, stratified by age and gender for a multiethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ngee Wei; Goh, Hui Ting; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip Jun Hua; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-10-01

    Hand strength is a good indicator of physical fitness and frailty among the elderly. However, there are no published hand strength references for Malaysians aged > 65 years. This study aimed to establish normative data for hand grip strength (HGS) and key pinch strength (KPS) for Malaysians aged ≥ 60 years, and explore the relationship between hand strength and physical ability. Healthy participants aged ≥ 60 years with no neurological conditions were recruited from rural and urban locations in Malaysia. HGS and KPS were measured using hand grip and key pinch dynamometers. Basic demographic data, anthropometric measures, modified Barthel Index scores and results of the Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT) were recorded. 362 subjects aged 60-93 years were recruited. The men were significantly stronger than the women in both HGS and KPS (p < 0.001). The hand strength of the study cohort was lower than that of elderly Western populations. Significant correlations were observed between hand strength, and residential area (p < 0.001), FRT (r = 0.236, p = 0.028), TUG (r = -0.227, p = 0.009) and JTHFT (r = -0.927, p < 0.001). This study established reference ranges for the HGS and KPS of rural and urban elderly Malaysian subpopulations. These will aid the use of hand strength as a screening tool for frailty among elderly persons in Malaysia. Future studies are required to determine the modifiable factors for poor hand strength.

  2. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  3. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  4. Knowledge-driven analysis identifies a gene-gene interaction affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in multi-ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Brautbar, Ariel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F; Clark, Andrew G; Keinan, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease. We tested for gene-gene interactions affecting the level of these four lipids based on prior knowledge of established genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits, protein-protein interactions, and pathway information. Using genotype data from 9,713 European Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified an interaction between HMGCR and a locus near LIPC in their effect on HDL-C levels (Bonferroni corrected P(c) = 0.002). Using an adaptive locus-based validation procedure, we successfully validated this gene-gene interaction in the European American cohorts from the Framingham Heart Study (P(c) = 0.002) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; P(c) = 0.006). The interaction between these two loci is also significant in the African American sample from ARIC (P(c) = 0.004) and in the Hispanic American sample from MESA (P(c) = 0.04). Both HMGCR and LIPC are involved in the metabolism of lipids, and genome-wide association studies have previously identified LIPC as associated with levels of HDL-C. However, the effect on HDL-C of the novel gene-gene interaction reported here is twice as pronounced as that predicted by the sum of the marginal effects of the two loci. In conclusion, based on a knowledge-driven analysis of epistasis, together with a new locus-based validation method, we successfully identified and validated an interaction affecting a complex trait in multi-ethnic populations.

  5. Urbanization and de-urbanization of the black population before the Civil War.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, J R

    1976-08-01

    Pre-Civil War black urbanization is examined using data from federal census records, 1790 to 1860. The black population is found to be as urban as the white population initially, but its urbanization underwent relative decline in the last two decades before the Civil War. Foreshadowing current patterns, the northern black population was heavily concentrated in the largest cities, and the free black population was the most urban of all groups. The timing of black urban decline in the North, as well as regional and size of place differences in that decline, suggest that both competition with immigrants in major eastern seaboard cities and the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850 contributed to black de-urbanization. For the South, the explanations of black urban decline proposed by Wade, Conrad and Meyer, Goldin, and Bonacich are evaluated, and Bonacich's split labor market theory is judged to be most consistent with the demographic trends.

  6. Orders of magnitude of the world's urban population in history.

    PubMed

    Grauman, J V

    1976-01-01

    This article claims to be 1 of the first to attempt precise estimates of urban populations at different periods of history and to date the onset of the modern urban revolution. The few existing studies with numerical estimates for the past are first examined, and a definition of urban which includes places of 5000 or more inhabitants and with defined outer contours is advanced. The main source of data is a recently published list of population estimates for a variety o fdates beginning in 1360 BC for many cities, to which mathematical formulas are applied to derive estimates of the combined urban population of the world. The rank-size rule, which holds that the size of each city tends to be in inverse proportion to its rank, is the main principle upon which the various estimates of total urban population are based. Comparison of the results obtained using different estimation procedures and different sources of data, and a discussion of uncertainties and shortcomings in the results are included. High, low and medium estimates of the world's urban population and the assumed percentage margins of error are provided for various dates. The medium estimates of urban population are then compared to available estimates of total world population at different dates to yield an estimate of the proportions urban. Although several sources of bias occur, the results suggest that little change in the level of world urbanization occurred between 0 and 1800 AD.

  7. High urban population density of birds reflects their timing of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Diaz, Mario; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Grim, Tomas; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, Jukka; Mänd, Raivo; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-11-01

    Living organisms generally occur at the highest population density in the most suitable habitat. Therefore, invasion of and adaptation to novel habitats imply a gradual increase in population density, from that at or below what was found in the ancestral habitat to a density that may reach higher levels in the novel habitat following adaptation to that habitat. We tested this prediction of invasion biology by analyzing data on population density of breeding birds in their ancestral rural habitats and in matched nearby urban habitats that have been colonized recently across a continental latitudinal gradient. We estimated population density in the two types of habitats using extensive point census bird counts, and we obtained information on the year of urbanization when population density in urban habitats reached levels higher than that of the ancestral rural habitat from published records and estimates by experienced ornithologists. Both the difference in population density between urban and rural habitats and the year of urbanization were significantly repeatable when analyzing multiple populations of the same species across Europe. Population density was on average 30 % higher in urban than in rural habitats, although density reached as much as 100-fold higher in urban habitats in some species. Invasive urban bird species that colonized urban environments over a long period achieved the largest increases in population density compared to their ancestral rural habitats. This was independent of whether species were anciently or recently urbanized, providing a unique cross-validation of timing of urban invasions. These results suggest that successful invasion of urban habitats was associated with gradual adaptation to these habitats as shown by a significant increase in population density in urban habitats over time.

  8. Normative data for hand grip strength and key pinch strength, stratified by age and gender for a multiethnic Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Ngee Wei; Goh, Hui Ting; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip Jun Hua; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hand strength is a good indicator of physical fitness and frailty among the elderly. However, there are no published hand strength references for Malaysians aged > 65 years. This study aimed to establish normative data for hand grip strength (HGS) and key pinch strength (KPS) for Malaysians aged ≥ 60 years, and explore the relationship between hand strength and physical ability. METHODS Healthy participants aged ≥ 60 years with no neurological conditions were recruited from rural and urban locations in Malaysia. HGS and KPS were measured using hand grip and key pinch dynamometers. Basic demographic data, anthropometric measures, modified Barthel Index scores and results of the Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT) were recorded. RESULTS 362 subjects aged 60–93 years were recruited. The men were significantly stronger than the women in both HGS and KPS (p < 0.001). The hand strength of the study cohort was lower than that of elderly Western populations. Significant correlations were observed between hand strength, and residential area (p < 0.001), FRT (r = 0.236, p = 0.028), TUG (r = −0.227, p = 0.009) and JTHFT (r = −0.927, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION This study established reference ranges for the HGS and KPS of rural and urban elderly Malaysian subpopulations. These will aid the use of hand strength as a screening tool for frailty among elderly persons in Malaysia. Future studies are required to determine the modifiable factors for poor hand strength. PMID:26768064

  9. Urban Ecology: Patterns of Population Growth and Ecological Effects

    Treesearch

    Wayne C. Zipperer; Steward T.A. Pickett

    2012-01-01

    Currently, over 50% of the world’s population lives in urban areas. By 2050, this estimate is expected to be 70%. This urban growth, however, is not uniformly distributed around the world. The majority of it will occur in developing nations and create megacities whose populations exceed at least 10 million people. Not all urban areas, however, are growing. Some are...

  10. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise.

  11. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  12. Metabolic changes in urine during and after pregnancy in a large, multiethnic population-based cohort study of gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Daniel; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre I; Rise, Frode; Piehler, Armin P; Berg, Jens Petter

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify novel markers for gestational diabetes (GDM) in the biochemical profile of maternal urine using NMR metabolomics. It also catalogs the general effects of pregnancy and delivery on the urine profile. Urine samples were collected at three time points (visit V1: gestational week 8-20; V2: week 28±2; V3 10-16 weeks post partum) from participants in the STORK Groruddalen program, a prospective, multiethnic cohort study of 823 healthy, pregnant women in Oslo, Norway, and analyzed using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Metabolites were identified and quantified where possible. PCA, PLS-DA and univariate statistics were applied and found substantial differences between the time points, dominated by a steady increase of urinary lactose concentrations, and an increase during pregnancy and subsequent dramatic reduction of several unidentified NMR signals between 0.5 and 1.1 ppm. Multivariate methods could not reliably identify GDM cases based on the WHO or graded criteria based on IADPSG definitions, indicating that the pattern of urinary metabolites above micromolar concentrations is not influenced strongly and consistently enough by the disease. However, univariate analysis suggests elevated mean citrate concentrations with increasing hyperglycemia. Multivariate classification with respect to ethnic background produced weak but statistically significant models. These results suggest that although NMR-based metabolomics can monitor changes in the urinary excretion profile of pregnant women, it may not be a prudent choice for the study of GDM.

  13. Screening of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) α, γ and α Gene Polymorphisms for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Association in the Multi-Ethnic Malaysian Population.

    PubMed

    Chia, Phee-Phee; Fan, Sook-Ha; Say, Yee-How

    2015-11-05

    This study aimed to investigate the association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) genes PPARα L162V, PPARγ2 C161T and PPARδ T294C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity and metabolic syndrome (Met-S) in a multi-ethnic population in Kampar, Malaysia. Socio-demographic data, anthropometric and biochemical measurements (plasma lipid profile, adiponectin and interleukin-6 [IL-6] levels) were taken from 307 participants (124 males; 180 obese; 249 Met-S; 97 Malays, 85 ethnic Chinese, 55 ethnic Indians). The overall minor allele frequencies were .08, .22 and .30 for PPAR α L162V, γ C161T, δ T294C, respectively. All SNPs were not associated with obesity, Met-S and obesity with/without Met-S by χ(2) analysis, ethnicity-stratified and logistic regression analyses. Nevertheless, participants with V162 allele of PPARα had significantly higher IL-6, while those with T161 allele of PPARγ2 had significantly lower HOMA-IR. All PPAR SNPs were not associated with obesity and Met-S in the suburban population of Kampar, Malaysia, where only PPARα V162 and PPARγ2 T161 alleles were associated with plasma IL-6 and HOMA-IR, respectively.

  14. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Munter, Jeroen S L; van Valkengoed, Irene G; Stronks, Karien; Agyemang, Charles

    2011-11-30

    Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88) and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10) and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10), for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03), Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03), and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01). Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while the total PA 'summary score' was associated only with

  15. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88) and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10) and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10), for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03), Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03), and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01). Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while the total PA

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of 5- and 4-Item Versions of the LATCH Breastfeeding Assessment Tool during the Initial Postpartum Period among a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal consistency, structural validity, sensitivity and specificity of the 5- and 4-item versions of the LATCH assessment tool among a multiethnic population in Singapore. Methods The study was a secondary analysis of a subset of data (n = 907) from our previous breastfeeding survey from 2013 to 2014. The internal consistency of the LATCH was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. The structural validity was assessed using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the proposed factors were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using separate samples. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the LATCH score thresholds for predicting non-exclusive breastfeeding. Results The Cronbach’s alpha values of the 5- and 4-item LATCH assessments were 0.70 and 0.74, respectively. The EFA demonstrated a one-factor structure for the 5- and 4-item LATCH assessments among a randomized split of 334 vaginally delivered women. Two CFA of the 4-item LATCH demonstrated better fit indices of the models compared to the two CFA of the 5-item LATCH among another randomized split of 335 vaginally delivered women and 238 cesarean delivered women. Using cutoffs of 5.5 and 3.5 were recommended when predicting non-exclusive breastfeeding for 5- and 4-item versions of the LATCH assessment among vaginally delivered women (n = 669), with satisfactory sensitivities (94% and 95%), low specificities (0% and 2%), low positive predictive values (25%) and negative predictive values (20% and 47%). A cutoff of 5.5 was recommended to predict non-exclusive breastfeeding for 5- and 4-item versions among cesarean delivered women (n = 238) with satisfactory sensitivities (93% and 98%), low specificities (4% and 9%), low positive predictive values (41%) and negative predictive values (65% and 75%). Therefore, the tool has good sensitivity but poor specificity, positive and negative predictive

  17. Relationship Between Neighborhood Context, Family Management Practices and Alcohol Use Among Urban, Multi-ethnic, Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined relationships between alcohol-related neighborhood context, protective home and family management practices, and alcohol use among urban, racial/ethnic minority, adolescents. The sample comprised 5,655 youth who were primarily low SES (72%), African American (43%) and Hispanic (29%). Participants completed surveys in 2002–2005 (ages 11–14 years). Items assessed alcohol use, accessibility of alcohol at home and parental family management practices. Neighborhood context measures included: (1) alcohol outlet density; (2) commercial alcohol accessibility; (3) alcohol advertisement exposure; and (4) perceived neighborhood strength, reported by parents and community leaders. Structural equation modeling was used to assess direct and indirect relationships between alcohol-related neighborhood context at baseline, home alcohol access and family management practices in 7th grade, and alcohol use in 8th grade. Neighborhood strength was negatively associated with alcohol use (β=−0.078, p≤.05) and exposure to alcohol advertisements was positively associated with alcohol use (β=0.043, p≤.05). Neighborhood strength and commercial alcohol access were associated with home alcohol access (β=0.050, p≤.05 and β=−0.150, p≤.001, respectively) and family management practices (β=−0.061, p≤.01 and β=0.083, p≤.001, respectively). Home alcohol access showed a positive association with alcohol use (β=0.401, p≤.001). Tests for indirect effects suggest that home alcohol access may partially mediate the relationship between neighborhood strength and alcohol use (β=0.025, p<.062). Results suggest inner-city parents respond to environmental risk, such that as neighborhood risk increases, so also do protective home and family management practices. Parent engagement in restricting alcohol access and improving family management practices may be key to preventive efforts to reduce alcohol use. PMID:19381808

  18. Relationship between neighborhood context, family management practices and alcohol use among urban, multi-ethnic, young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-12-01

    We examined relationships between alcohol-related neighborhood context, protective home and family management practices, and alcohol use among urban, racial/ethnic minority, adolescents. The sample comprised 5,655 youth who were primarily low SES (72%), African American (43%) and Hispanic (29%). Participants completed surveys in 2002-2005 (ages 11-14 years). Items assessed alcohol use, accessibility of alcohol at home and parental family management practices. Neighborhood context measures included: (1) alcohol outlet density; (2) commercial alcohol accessibility; (3) alcohol advertisement exposure; and (4) perceived neighborhood strength, reported by parents and community leaders. Structural equation modeling was used to assess direct and indirect relationships between alcohol-related neighborhood context at baseline, home alcohol access and family management practices in seventh grade, and alcohol use in eighth grade. Neighborhood strength was negatively associated with alcohol use (beta = -0.078, p < or = 0.05) and exposure to alcohol advertisements was positively associated with alcohol use (beta = 0.043, p < or = 0.05). Neighborhood strength and commercial alcohol access were associated with home alcohol access (beta = 0.050, p

  19. Large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis in Southeast Asia reveals evolutionary effects of cultural isolation in the multi-ethnic population of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia with a population of 55 million people subdivided into more than 100 ethnic groups. Ruled by changing kingdoms and dynasties and lying on the trade route between India and China, Myanmar was influenced by numerous cultures. Since its independence from British occupation, tensions between the ruling Bamar and ethnic minorities increased. Results Our aim was to search for genetic footprints of Myanmar’s geographic, historic and sociocultural characteristics and to contribute to the picture of human colonization by describing and dating of new mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. Therefore, we sequenced the mtDNA control region of 327 unrelated donors and the complete mitochondrial genome of 44 selected individuals according to highest quality standards. Conclusion Phylogenetic analyses of the entire mtDNA genomes uncovered eight new haplogroups and three unclassified basal M-lineages. The multi-ethnic population and the complex history of Myanmar were reflected in its mtDNA heterogeneity. Population genetic analyses of Burmese control region sequences combined with population data from neighboring countries revealed that the Myanmar haplogroup distribution showed a typical Southeast Asian pattern, but also Northeast Asian and Indian influences. The population structure of the extraordinarily diverse Bamar differed from that of the Karen people who displayed signs of genetic isolation. Migration analyses indicated a considerable genetic exchange with an overall positive migration balance from Myanmar to neighboring countries. Age estimates of the newly described haplogroups point to the existence of evolutionary windows where climatic and cultural changes gave rise to mitochondrial haplogroup diversification in Asia. PMID:24467713

  20. The Singaporean public beliefs about the causes of mental illness: results from a multi-ethnic population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pang, S; Subramaniam, M; Lee, S P; Lau, Y W; Abdin, E; Chua, B Y; Picco, L; Vaingankar, J A; Chong, S A

    2017-04-03

    To identify the common causal beliefs of mental illness in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian community and describe the sociodemographic associations to said beliefs. The factor structure to the causal beliefs scale is explored. The causal beliefs relating to five different mental illnesses (alcohol abuse, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), dementia and schizophrenia) and desire for social distance are also investigated. Data from 3006 participants from a nationwide vignette-based study on mental health literacy were analysed using factor analysis and multiple logistic regression to address the aims. Participants answered questions related to sociodemographic information, causal beliefs of mental illness and their desire for social distance towards those with mental illness. Physical causes, psychosocial causes and personality causes were endorsed by the sample. Sociodemographic differences including ethnic, gender and age differences in causal beliefs were found in the sample. Differences in causal beliefs were shown across different mental illness vignettes though psychosocial causes was the most highly attributed cause across vignettes (endorsed by 97.9% of respondents), followed by personality causes (83.5%) and last, physical causes (37%). Physical causes were more likely to be endorsed for OCD, depression and schizophrenia. Psychosocial causes were less often endorsed for OCD. Personality causes were less endorsed for dementia but more associated with depression. The factor structure of the causal beliefs scale is not entirely the same as that found in previous research. Further research on the causal beliefs endorsed by Southeast Asian communities should be conducted to investigate other potential causes such as biogenetic factors and spiritual/supernatural causes. Mental health awareness campaigns should address causes of mental illness as a topic. Lay beliefs in the different causes must be acknowledged and it would be beneficial for the public

  1. Statin Therapy and Levels of Hemostatic Factors in a Healthy Population: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Nathan B.; Lutsey, Pamela L; Folsom, Aaron R; Herrington, David H; Sibley, Christopher T; Zakai, Neil A; Ades, Steven; Burke, Gregory L; Cushman, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) reduce risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in healthy people. Statins reduce levels of inflammation biomarkers, however the mechanism for reduction in VTE risk is unknown. In a large cohort of healthy people, we studied associations of statin use with plasma hemostatic factors related to VTE risk. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were performed in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort study of 6814 healthy men and women age 45–84, free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline; 1001 were using statins at baseline. Twenty-three warfarin users were excluded. Age, race, and sex-adjusted mean hemostatic factor levels were compared between statin users and nonusers, and multivariable linear regression models were used to assess associations of statin use with hemostasis factors, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, hormone replacement therapy (in women), and major cardiovascular risk factors. Results Participants using statins had lower adjusted levels of D-dimer (−9%), C-reactive protein (−21%) and factor VIII (−3%) than non-users (p<0.05). Homocysteine and von Willebrand factor were non-significantly lower with statin use. Higher fibrinogen (2%) and PAI-1 (22%) levels were observed among statin users than nonusers (p<0.05). Further adjustment for LDL and triglyceride levels did not attenuate the observed differences in these factors by statin use. Conclusions Findings of lower D-dimer, factor VIII and C-reactive protein levels with statin use suggest hypotheses for mechanisms whereby statins might lower VTE risk. A prospective study or clinical trial linking these biochemical differences to VTE outcomes in statin users and nonusers is warranted. PMID:23565981

  2. CYP1A1 MspI Polymorphism and Cervical Carcinoma Risk in the Multi-Ethnic Population of Malaysia: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yee Hock; Sidik, Shiran Mohd; Syed Husain, Sharifah Noor Akmal; Lye, Munn Sann; Chong, Pei Pei

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered a risk factor for cervical cancer development due to the presence of tobacco based carcinogenic metabolites in cervical cells of female smokers. In this study, we investigated the role of the T3801C (MspI) polymorphism of CYP1A1, a gene encoding an enzyme necessary for the initiation of tobacco based carcinogen metabolism, on cervical cancer risk. The T to C substitution may alter CYP1A1 activities, potentially elevating cervical cancer risk. Since results of gene-disease association studies vary according to the study population, the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia provides an excellent representative cohort for identifying and comparing the cervical cancer risk among the 3 major ethnics in Southeast Asia in relation to CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism. A total of 195 Thin Prep Pap smear samples from HPV negative and cancer free females were randomly selected as controls while 106 formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples from females with invasive cervical cancer were randomly selected for the cases group. The polymorphisms were identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) PCR. We found no significant associations between CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism and cervical cancer in the general Malaysian female population. However, upon ethnic stratification, the variant C/C genotype was significantly associated with a 4.66-fold increase in cervical cancer risk in Malay females (95% CI= 1.21-17.9; p=0.03). No significant association was observed in the Chinese and Indian females. Additionally, there were no significant associations in the dominant model and allele frequency model analysis in both the general and ethnically stratified female population of Malaysia. Our findings suggest that the C/C genotype of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism is associated with the development of cervical carcinoma in the Malay females of Malaysia.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure in contemporary house sparrow populations along an urbanization gradient

    PubMed Central

    Vangestel, C; Mergeay, J; Dawson, D A; Callens, T; Vandomme, V; Lens, L

    2012-01-01

    House sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have suffered major declines in urban as well as rural areas, while remaining relatively stable in suburban ones. Yet, to date no exhaustive attempt has been made to examine how, and to what extent, spatial variation in population demography is reflected in genetic population structuring along contemporary urbanization gradients. Here we use putatively neutral microsatellite loci to study if and how genetic variation can be partitioned in a hierarchical way among different urbanization classes. Principal coordinate analyses did not support the hypothesis that urban/suburban and rural populations comprise two distinct genetic clusters. Comparison of FST values at different hierarchical scales revealed drift as an important force of population differentiation. Redundancy analyses revealed that genetic structure was strongly affected by both spatial variation and level of urbanization. The results shown here can be used as baseline information for future genetic monitoring programmes and provide additional insights into contemporary house sparrow dynamics along urbanization gradients. PMID:22588131

  4. Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations.

    PubMed

    Serieys, Laurel E K; Lea, Amanda; Pollinger, John P; Riley, Seth P D; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996 to 2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite loci. We found that two freeways are significant barriers to gene flow. Further, a 3-year disease epizootic, associated with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, caused a population bottleneck that led to significant genetic differentiation between pre- and post-disease populations that was greater than that between populations separated by major freeways for >60 years. However, balancing selection acted on immune-linked loci during the epizootic, maintaining variation at functional regions. Conservation assessments need to assay loci that are potentially under selection to better preserve the adaptive potential of populations at the urban-wildland interface. Further, interconnected regions that contain appropriate habitat for wildlife will be critical to the long-term viability of animal populations in urban landscapes.

  5. Citizenship Education in the Dutch Multiethnic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne; Pels, Trees

    2006-01-01

    The main question addressed in this article is how, in light of the multiethnic composition of its population, Dutch education is and should be educating its citizens. Popular politicians and mainstream media advocate discipline-oriented approaches. The authors argue that citizenship education seems to be taking a one-sided turn in Dutch…

  6. Prevalence and control of hypercholesterolaemia as defined by NCEP-ATPIII guidelines and predictors of LDL-C goal attainment in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Chin Meng; Tan, Maudrene L S; Wu, Yi; Wai, Daniel C H; Subramaniam, Tavintharan; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Jeannette

    2013-08-01

    Few studies in Asia have assessed the burden of hypercholesterolaemia based on the global cardiovascular risk assessment. This study determines the burden of hypercholesterolaemia in an Asian population based on the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) guidelines, and examines predictors of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment. Five thousand and eighty-three Chinese, Malays and Asian-Indians living in Singapore were assigned to coronary heart disease (CHD)-risk category based on the NCEP-ATPIII guidelines. Awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolaemia based on risk- specific LDL-C goal were determined, including the use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT). Cox-regression models were used to identify predictors of LDL-C above goal among those who were aware and unaware of hypercholesterolaemia. One thousand five hundred and sixty-eight (30.8%) participants were aware of hypercholesterolaemia and 877 (17.3%) were newly diagnosed (unaware). For those who were aware, 39.3% participants received LLT. Among those with 2 risk factors, only 59.7% attained LDL-C goal. The majority of them were taking statin monotherapy, and the median dose of statins was similar across all CHD risk categories. Among participants with 2 risk factors and not receiving LLT, 34.1% would require LLT. Malays or Asian-Indians, higher CHD risk category, increasing body mass index (BMI), current smoking and lower education status were associated with higher risk of LDL-C above goal. Being on LLT reduced the risk of having LDL-C above goal. The burden of hypercholesterolaemia is high in this multi-ethnic population especially those in the higher CHD risk categories, and might be partly contributed by inadequate titration of statins therapy. Raising awareness of hypercholesterolaemia, appropriate LLT initiation and titration, weight management and smoking cessation may improve LDL-C goal attainment in this population.

  7. Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in the Multiethnic Singapore Population – A National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Griva, Konstadina; Choo, Robin; Wee, Hwee-Lin; Thumboo, Julian; Tai, E. Shyong; Newman, Stanton

    2013-01-01

    Background HRQoL is an important outcome to guide and promote healthcare. Clinical and socioeconomic factors may influence HRQoL according to ethnicity. Methodology A multiethnic cross-sectional national cohort (N = 7198) of the Singapore general population consisting of Chinese (N = 4873), Malay (N = 1167) and Indian (N = 1158) adults were evaluated using measures of HRQoL (SF-36 version 2), family functioning, health behaviours and clinical/laboratory assessments. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of physical and mental HRQoL in the overall population and their potential differential effects by ethnicity. No a priori hypotheses were formulated so all interaction effects were explored. Principal Findings HRQoL levels differed between ethnic groups. Chinese respondents had higher physical HRQoL (PCS) than Indian and Malay participants (p<0.001) whereas mental HRQoL (MCS) was higher in Malay relative to Chinese participants (p<0.001). Regressions models explained 17.1% and 14.6% of variance in PCS and MCS respectively with comorbid burden, income and employment being associated with lower HRQoL. Age and family were associated only with MCS. The effects of gender, stroke and musculoskeletal conditions on PCS varied by ethnicity, suggesting non-uniform patterns of association for Chinese, Malay and Indian individuals. Conclusions Differences in HRQoL levels and determinants of HRQoL among ethnic groups underscore the need to better or differentially target population segments to promote well-being. More work is needed to explore HRQoL and wellness in relation to ethnicity. PMID:23826215

  8. Obesity genes and risk of major depressive disorder in a multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Samaan, Zainab; Lee, Yvonne K; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Engert, James C; Bosch, Jackie; Mohan, Viswanathan; Diaz, Rafael; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies have shown a positive association between obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) and depression. Around 120 obesity-associated loci have been identified, but genetic variants associated with depression remain elusive. Recently, our team reported that the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene rs9939609 obesity-risk variant is paradoxically inversely associated with the risk of depression. This finding raises the question as to whether other obesity-associated genetic variants are also associated with depression. Twenty-one obesity gene variants other than FTO were selected from a custom ∼50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyping array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe array). Associations of these 21 SNPs and an unweighted genotype score with BMI and major depressive disorder (determined using the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) were tested in 3,209 cases and 14,195 noncases, using baseline data collected from July 2001 to August 2003 from the multiethnic EpiDREAM study. Body mass index was positively associated with depression status (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.02-1.03 per BMI unit; P = 2.9 × 10(-12), adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity). Six of 21 genetic variants (rs1514176 [TNN13K], rs2206734 [CDKAL1], rs11671664 [GIPR], rs2984618 [TAL1], rs3824755 [NT5C2], and rs7903146 [TCF7L2]) and the genotype score were significantly associated with BMI (1.47 × 10(-14) ≤ P ≤ .04). Of the 21 SNPs, TAL1 rs2984618 obesity-risk allele was associated with a higher risk of major depressive disorder (P = 1.79 × 10(-4), adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and ethnicity), and BDNF rs1401635 demonstrated significant ethnic-dependent association with major depressive disorder (OR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.97; P = .01 in non-Europeans and OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20; P = .02 in Europeans; Pinteraction = 2.73 × 10(-4)). The genotype score, calculated with or without FTO rs9939609, and adjusted for the same covariates, was not associated with

  9. Rural and urban traffic fatalities, vehicle miles, and population density.

    PubMed

    Clark, David E; Cushing, Brad M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of population density on the rates of motor vehicle mortality in rural and urban areas, while controlling for vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Rural and urban data for traffic mortality, VMT, and population were obtained for each state from the Federal Highway Administration for 1998-2000. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of population density, VMT per capita, southern location, and presence of a trauma system on mortality. Variation in rural mortality rate (per 100,000 population) was proportional to rural VMT per capita, but population density and southern location were also independent predictors, together accounting for 91% of this variation. Variation in urban mortality rates was not affected by population density, but urban rates were also higher in the south. The exposure-based rural mortality rate (deaths per 100 million VMT) was inversely proportional to population density, which along with southern location explained 41% of the variation from state to state. The presence of a state trauma system did not measurably affect mortality. After controlling for VMT and southern location, state population density was a moderately strong predictor of rural but not urban traffic mortality rates.

  10. Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Kovacs, Szilvia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the correlates of trans fat knowledge and trans fat label use; to examine the influence of trans fat knowledge, trans fat label use, and dietary attitudes on intake of high trans fat food. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: An urban commuter college. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-two college students. Variables…

  11. Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Kovacs, Szilvia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the correlates of trans fat knowledge and trans fat label use; to examine the influence of trans fat knowledge, trans fat label use, and dietary attitudes on intake of high trans fat food. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: An urban commuter college. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-two college students. Variables…

  12. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1994 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This publication presents data from the current revision of estimates and projections of the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world. The publication also contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations of at least 750,000 inhabitants in 1994. The revisions are part of a series of…

  13. Surgery or no surgery: What works best for the kidneys in primary hyperparathyroidism? A study in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Yu Kwang Donovan; Khoo, Joan; Chandran, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Whether parathyroidectomy is more beneficial to renal function when compared to medical therapy or observation in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is unclear. Neither has this premise been explored in non-Caucasian populations. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) threshold below which parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels rise if at all in PHPT has also not been established. We determined if surgery was superior to medical therapy and observation in a multi-ethnic Asian patient population with PHPT and whether there was an eGFR threshold below which PTH levels further increased in them. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of patients with PHPT. Results: There were 68.6% Chinese, 17.4% Malays, 10.7% Indians, and 3.3% Eurasians. The median (interquartile range) follow-up was 18.0 months (4.5–46.8). At last follow-up, eGFR in the surgical (80 ± 30 ml/min) was higher than the medical (52 ± 32 ml/min) or observation groups (48 ± 33 ml/min); P < 0.01. This difference persisted after adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, pre-intervention eGFR levels, nephrolithiasis, serum calcium, phosphate, urinary calcium, and duration of follow-up; P = 0.035. There was no definite eGFR level below which PTH values rose. Conclusion: Our study provides compelling evidence that in PHPT, surgery may be associated with a better renal outcome compared to medical management or observation. This has to be confirmed through prospective randomized controlled trials and the reasons for this finding have to be elucidated through functional and histological measures. The finding in our study of a lack of a specific eGFR threshold below which PTH levels further rose challenges the concept of a fixed renal threshold for secondary elevations of PTH in PHPT. PMID:26904469

  14. Physical inactivity is a strong risk factor for stroke in the oldest old: Findings from a multi-ethnic population (the Northern Manhattan Study).

    PubMed

    Willey, Joshua Z; Moon, Yeseon P; Sacco, Ralph L; Greenlee, Heather; Diaz, Keith M; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell Sv; Cheung, Yuen K

    2017-02-01

    Background The fastest growing segment of the population is those age ≥80 who have the highest stroke incidence. Risk factor management is complicated by polypharmacy-related adverse events. Aims To characterize the impact of physical inactivity for stroke by age in a multi-ethnic prospective cohort study (NOMAS, n = 3298). Methods Leisure time physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire and our primary exposure was physical inactivity (PI). Participants were followed annually for incident stroke. We fit Cox-proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HR 95% CI) for the association of PI and other risk factors with risk of stroke including two-way interaction terms between the primary exposures and age (<80 vs. ≥80). Results The mean age was 69 ± 10.3 years and 562 (17%) were ≥80 at enrolment. PI was common in the cohort (40.8%). Over a median of 14 years, we found 391 strokes. We found a significant interaction of age ≥80 on the risk of stroke with PI ( p = 0.03). In stratified models, PI versus any activity (adjusted HR 1.60, 95%CI 1.05-2.42) was associated with an increased risk of stroke among those ≥80. Conclusion Physical inactivity is a treatable risk factor for stroke among those older than age 80. Improving activity may reduce the risk of stroke in this segment of the population.

  15. Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations

    PubMed Central

    Serieys, Laurel E K; Lea, Amanda; Pollinger, John P; Riley, Seth P D; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996 to 2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite loci. We found that two freeways are significant barriers to gene flow. Further, a 3-year disease epizootic, associated with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, caused a population bottleneck that led to significant genetic differentiation between pre- and post-disease populations that was greater than that between populations separated by major freeways for >60 years. However, balancing selection acted on immune-linked loci during the epizootic, maintaining variation at functional regions. Conservation assessments need to assay loci that are potentially under selection to better preserve the adaptive potential of populations at the urban–wildland interface. Further, interconnected regions that contain appropriate habitat for wildlife will be critical to the long-term viability of animal populations in urban landscapes. PMID:25667604

  16. Do major roads reduce gene flow in urban bird populations?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Suo, Mingli; Liu, Shenglin; Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Although the negative effects of roads on the genetics of animal populations have been extensively reported, the question of whether roads reduce gene flow in volant, urban bird populations has so far not been addressed. In this study, we assess whether highways decreased gene flow and genetic variation in a small passerine bird, the tree sparrow (Passer montanus). We assessed genetic differences among tree sparrows (Passer montanus) sampled at 19 sites within Beijing Municipality, China, using 7 DNA microsatellites as genetic markers. AMOVA showed that genetic variation between sites, between urban and rural populations, and between opposite sides of the same highway, were very weak. Mantel tests on all samples, and on urban samples only, indicated that the age and number of highways, and the number of ordinary roads, were uncorrelated with genetic differences (F ST) among tree sparrows from different urban sites. Birds sampled at urban sites had similar levels of genetic diversity to those at rural sites. There was, however, evidence of some weak genetic structure between urban sites. Firstly, there were significant genetic differences (F ST) between birds from opposite sides of the same highway, but no significant F ST values between those from sites that were not separated by highways. Secondly, birds from eleven urban sites had loci that significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but no such deviation was found in birds from rural sites. We cannot, therefore, conclusively reject the hypothesis that highways have no effect on the gene flow of tree sparrow populations. Furthermore, since the significance of these results may increase with time, we suggested that research on the influence of highways on gene flow in urban bird populations needs to be conducted over several decades.

  17. Do Major Roads Reduce Gene Flow in Urban Bird Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuping; Suo, Mingli; Liu, Shenglin; Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the negative effects of roads on the genetics of animal populations have been extensively reported, the question of whether roads reduce gene flow in volant, urban bird populations has so far not been addressed. In this study, we assess whether highways decreased gene flow and genetic variation in a small passerine bird, the tree sparrow (Passer montanus). Methodology We assessed genetic differences among tree sparrows (Passer montanus) sampled at 19 sites within Beijing Municipality, China, using 7 DNA microsatellites as genetic markers. Results AMOVA showed that genetic variation between sites, between urban and rural populations, and between opposite sides of the same highway, were very weak. Mantel tests on all samples, and on urban samples only, indicated that the age and number of highways, and the number of ordinary roads, were uncorrelated with genetic differences (FST) among tree sparrows from different urban sites. Birds sampled at urban sites had similar levels of genetic diversity to those at rural sites. There was, however, evidence of some weak genetic structure between urban sites. Firstly, there were significant genetic differences (FST) between birds from opposite sides of the same highway, but no significant FST values between those from sites that were not separated by highways. Secondly, birds from eleven urban sites had loci that significantly deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium but no such deviation was found in birds from rural sites. Conclusion We cannot, therefore, conclusively reject the hypothesis that highways have no effect on the gene flow of tree sparrow populations. Furthermore, since the significance of these results may increase with time, we suggested that research on the influence of highways on gene flow in urban bird populations needs to be conducted over several decades. PMID:24204724

  18. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  19. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  20. Mineral lung burden of an urban population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; Falchi, M.; Batisti, D.; Carrieri, M. P.; Petrelli, M. G.; Ciallella, C.; Donelli, G.

    A study was carried out on mineral lung burden in 85 autopsy cases who died accidentally. Subjects of both sexes aged from 15 to 70 years were selected from all the autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rome. These subjects were living in an urban area and were not affected by neoplasm diseases. All selected subjects were residing in Rome at the time of their death. Information on years of legal residence in urban areas, smoking habits and occupational history were obtained by interviews with relatives. Lung parenchyma samples were obtained from the right upper lobe. The mineral particulate matter present in the tissue samples was studied by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) techniques: 16 mineral varieties and 22 metallic elements were identified. Smoke, age and residence seem to have influence on the lung burden.

  1. Human fetal exposure to triclosan and triclocarban in an urban population from Brooklyn, New York.

    PubMed

    Pycke, Benny F G; Geer, Laura A; Dalloul, Mudar; Abulafia, Ovadia; Jenck, Alizee M; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are antimicrobial agents formulated in a wide variety of consumer products (including soaps, toothpaste, medical devices, plastics, and fabrics) that are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In late 2014, the FDA will consider regulating the use of both chemicals, which are under scrutiny regarding lack of effectiveness, potential for endocrine disruption, and potential contribution to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Here, we report on body burdens of TCS and TCC resulting from real-world exposures during pregnancy. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the concentrations of TCS, TCC, and its human metabolites (2'-hydroxy-TCC and 3'-hydroxy-TCC) as well as the manufacturing byproduct (3'-chloro-TCC) as total concentrations (Σ-) after conjugate hydrolysis in maternal urine and cord blood plasma from a cohort of 181 expecting mother/infant pairs in an urban multiethnic population from Brooklyn, NY recruited in 2007-09. TCS was detected in 100% of urine and 51% of cord blood samples after conjugate hydrolysis. The interquartile range (IQR) of detected TCS concentrations in urine was highly similar to the IQR reported previously for the age-matched population of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2004, but typically higher than the IQR reported previously for the general population (detection frequency = 74.6%). Urinary levels of TCC are reported here for the first time from real-world exposures during pregnancy, showing a median concentration of 0.21 μg/L. Urinary concentrations of TCC correlated well with its phase-I metabolite ∑-2'-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.49) and the manufacturing byproduct ∑-3'-chloro-TCC C (r = 0.79), and ∑-2'-hydroxy-TCC correlated strongly with ∑-3'-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.99). This human biomonitoring study presents the first body burden data for TCC from exposures

  2. Human Fetal Exposure to Triclosan and Triclocarban in an Urban Population from Brooklyn, New York

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are antimicrobial agents formulated in a wide variety of consumer products (including soaps, toothpaste, medical devices, plastics, and fabrics) that are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In late 2014, the FDA will consider regulating the use of both chemicals, which are under scrutiny regarding lack of effectiveness, potential for endocrine disruption, and potential contribution to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Here, we report on body burdens of TCS and TCC resulting from real-world exposures during pregnancy. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the concentrations of TCS, TCC, and its human metabolites (2′-hydroxy-TCC and 3′-hydroxy-TCC) as well as the manufacturing byproduct (3′-chloro-TCC) as total concentrations (Σ−) after conjugate hydrolysis in maternal urine and cord blood plasma from a cohort of 181 expecting mother/infant pairs in an urban multiethnic population from Brooklyn, NY recruited in 2007–09. TCS was detected in 100% of urine and 51% of cord blood samples after conjugate hydrolysis. The interquartile range (IQR) of detected TCS concentrations in urine was highly similar to the IQR reported previously for the age-matched population of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2003 to 2004, but typically higher than the IQR reported previously for the general population (detection frequency = 74.6%). Urinary levels of TCC are reported here for the first time from real-world exposures during pregnancy, showing a median concentration of 0.21 μg/L. Urinary concentrations of TCC correlated well with its phase-I metabolite ∑-2′-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.49) and the manufacturing byproduct ∑-3′-chloro-TCC C (r = 0.79), and ∑-2′-hydroxy-TCC correlated strongly with ∑-3′-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.99). This human biomonitoring study presents the first body burden data for TCC

  3. Role of HLA-DP and HLA-DQ on the clearance of hepatitis B virus and the risk of chronic infection in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Trinks, Julieta; Nishida, Nao; Hulaniuk, María Laura; Caputo, Mariela; Tsuchiura, Takayo; Marciano, Sebastián; Haddad, Leila; Blejer, Jorgelina; Bartoli, Sonia; Ameigeiras, Beatriz; Frías, Silvia E; Vistarini, Cecilia; Heinrich, Fabiana; Remondegui, Carlos; Ceballos, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo; Charre Samman, Miguel; D'Amico, Claudia; Rojas, Amalia; Martínez, Alfredo; Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Fernández, Roberto J; Burgos Pratx, Leandro; Salamone, Horacio; Nuñez, Félix; Galdame, Omar; Gadano, Adrián; Corach, Daniel; Sugiyama, Masaya; Flichman, Diego; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Mizokami, Masashi

    2017-10-01

    HBV infection exhibits geographical variation in its distribution in South America. While HBV rates are low in central Argentina, the north-western region exhibits intermediate HBV rates. Unfortunately, the reasons that could explain this difference are still unknown. A total of 1440 Argentines were recruited and grouped into HBV patients, HBV-resolved individuals and healthy controls. Genetic ancestry was assessed by analysis of biparental lineages and ancestry autosomal typing. SNPs of HLA-DPA1 (rs3077), HLA-DPB1 (rs9277542), HLA-DQB1 (rs2856718) and HLA-DQB2 (rs7453920) were determined, and HBV genotyping was performed by phylogenetic analysis in HBV patients. Native American ancestry prevailed in the north-western region when compared with central Argentina (P<.0001). However, no differences were observed among the three groups of each region. The distribution of HBV genotypes revealed significant differences (P<.0001). Three SNPs (rs3077, rs9277542 and rs7453920) showed a significant association with protection against chronic HBV and viral clearance in both regions. The remaining SNP showed a significant association with susceptibility to chronic HBV. The frequency rates of rs3077-T, related to protection against chronic HBV and viral clearance, were lower in north-western Argentina when compared with central Argentina. The same uneven frequency rates were observed for SNP rs9277542. This is the first study addressing the associations between the HLA-DP and HLA-DQ loci and the protection against chronic HBV and viral clearance in a multiethnic South American population. The uneven distribution of HLA-DP and HLA-DQ supports the HBV epidemiological differences observed in these two regions of Argentina with dissimilar ancestry genetic background. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Complexities of holistic community-based participatory research for a low income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Downs, Timothy J; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. "Neighborhood STRENGTH", our community-based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community-based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our 'holistic', systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: (1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; (2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community-based listening sessions; (3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: (4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and (5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge.

  5. “Complexities of holistic community based participatory research for a low-income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts”

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. “Neighborhood STRENGTH”, our community based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our ‘holistic’, systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: 1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; 2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community based listening sessions; and 3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: 4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and 5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge. PMID:19762014

  6. Impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation is associated with increased left ventricular mass in a multi-ethnic population. The Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Takuya; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Eguchi, Kazuo; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L.; Homma, Shunichi; Di Tullio, Marco R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increased left ventricular (LV) mass and endothelial dysfunction are important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, it is not clear whether endothelial dysfunction is associated with increased LV mass. We tested the hypothesis that impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) is associated with increased LV mass in a population-based multi-ethnic cohort. METHODS As a part of the Northern Manhattan Study, we performed two-dimensional echocardiography and FMD assessment during reactive hyperemia by high-resolution ultrasonography in 867 stroke-free community participants. LV mass was calculated according to an established method. LV hypertrophy was defined as the 90th percentile of sex-specific LV mass indexed for body surface area among normal subjects. Multivariable models were used to test the association of FMD with LV mass. RESULTS In multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, hematocrit, and race-ethnicity, FMD was inversely associated with LV mass (β = −1.21 ± 0.56, P = 0.03). The association persisted after further adjustment for any component of blood pressure (systolic, mean, and pulse pressure). In univariate logistic regression analysis, each 1% decrease in FMD was associated with a 8% higher risk of LV hypertrophy [odds ratio (OR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.13 per each FMD point P< 0.01]. CONCLUSIONS Impaired FMD is associated with LV mass, independent of other factors associated with increased LV mass. Endothelial dysfunction might be a potential risk factor for LV hypertrophy. PMID:20057361

  7. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes

  8. Urban waterfowl population: Ecological evaluation of management and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, David M.

    1982-05-01

    An urban population of ducks in Puyallup, Washington, USA was studied for 14 consecutive months beginning in November 1978. Observations were made weekly from four study sites where ducks would congregate at early morning hours. Factors contributing to the presence of waterfowl in Puyallyup included abundant food supplies and a creek corridor that connected fragmented habitats in the urban area to the larger rural populations of waterfowl. Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos) were the most abundant of the 13 species observed and were the only ducks remaining during the nesting season. Habitat size and complexity were important factors influencing the species diversity of a particular site. Nesting success of mallards was poor due to limited distribution of nesting habitat, intraspecific aggression, and human disturbance. Both site-specific and more broad-based strategies are suggested for managing and planning for duck populations in urban areas.

  9. Conceptualizing Astronomical Distances for Urban Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popinchalk, Mark; Olson, Kristen; Ingber, Jenny; O'Brien, Mariel

    2017-01-01

    Students living in urban environments may have a washed-out night sky, but their enthusiasm for astronomy can still shine bright. As an educator, it can sometimes be a challenge to see the opportunities afforded by city living to the teaching of astronomy; however, several benefits can be identified. For example, the intrinsic understanding children have of the distances and scales involved in their everyday life is enhanced when they live in a regimented urban structure. This existing understanding of scale is critical to building a foundation for later conceptualizing of the universe.Leveraging the assets of New York City and the resources found in the American Museum of Natural History, The Science and Nature Program offers students (PreK through 8th grade) robust science learning experiences. To address concepts important for studying astronomy, we present a novel twist on the classic lesson “Earth as a Peppercorn,” by scaling the solar system to the size of New York City. Using local landmarks and their distance in relation to the Museum to represent the planets, students can use their prior knowledge of their surroundings to appreciate the impressive scale of our neighborhood in space in the context of their own neighborhoods. We correlate the activity with NGSS standards, present preliminary feedback on it’s success, and discuss the opportunities to apply a similar model lesson to other astronomical systems.

  10. Animal reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis in densely populated urban areas.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Soraia A; Silva, Fabiana L; Carvalho Neta, Alcina C; Bueno, Regina; Guerra, Rita M S N C; Abreu-Silva, Ana L; Santos, Renato L

    2008-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease of major public health and veterinary importance, affecting 88 countries with up to 2 million cases per year. This review emphasizes the animal reservoirs and spreading of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas, particularly in two Brazilian metropolitan areas, namely São Luis and Belo Horizonte, where the disease has become endemic in the past few years. Urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil during the last decades has created favorable epidemiological conditions for maintenance of the disease, with dense human populations sharing a tropical environment with abundant populations of the mammalian reservoir and the invertebrate vector, facilitating transmission of the disease.

  11. Comparing genetic ancestry and self-reported race/ethnicity in a multiethnic population in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yin Leng; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S; Wetmur, James G; Chen, Jia

    2010-12-01

    Self-reported race/ethnicity is frequently used in epidemiological studies to assess an individual's background origin. However, in admixed populations such as Hispanic, self-reported race/ethnicity may not accurately represent them genetically because they are admixed with European, African and Native American ancestry. We estimated the proportions of genetic admixture in an ethnically diverse population of 396 mothers and 188 of their children with 35 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) using the STRUCTURE version 2.2 program. The majority of the markers showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in our study population. In mothers self-identified as Black and White, the imputed ancestry proportions were 77.6% African and 75.1% European respectively, while the racial composition among self-identified Hispanics was 29.2% European, 26.0% African, and 44.8% Native American. We also investigated the utility of AIMs by showing the improved fitness of models in paraoxanase-1 genotype-phenotype associations after incorporating AIMs; however, the improvement was moderate at best. In summary, a minimal set of 35 AIMs is sufficient to detect population stratification and estimate the proportion of individual genetic admixture; however, the utility of these markers remains questionable.

  12. Social Determinants of the Health of Urban Populations: Methodologic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Caiaffa, Waleska T.; Vlahov, David

    2007-01-01

    A full understanding of the role of the urban environment in shaping the health of populations requires consideration of different features of the urban environment that may influence population health. The social environment is key to understanding the way in which cities affect the health of populations. Social determinants of health (SDH) are important, generally, yet can have different effects in different settings from urban to rural, between countries, between cities, and within cities. Failure to acknowledge, and more importantly, to understand the role of SDH in health and access to health and social services will hamper any effort to improve the health of the population. In this paper, we will briefly summarize a few key SDH and their measurement. We will also consider methodologic tools and some methodologic challenges. The concepts presented here are broadly applicable to a variety of settings: developed and developing countries, slum areas, inner cities, middle income neighborhoods, and even higher income neighborhoods. However, our focus will be on some of the more vulnerable urban populations who are most profoundly affected by SDH. PMID:17458704

  13. Multiethnic/Multicultural Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, V. Wendell; Dumett, Leonie

    Designed to implement multiethnic awareness, this guide helps teachers develop a curriculum that will assist students in understanding the benefits of cultural diversity; appreciate ethnic contributions to the nation; develop respect and tolerance for differences in race, sex, and national origins; and increase the teachers' own appreciation of…

  14. Distribution of genetic polymorphisms associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antiviral response in a multiethnic and admixed population.

    PubMed

    Trinks, J; Hulaniuk, M L; Caputo, M; Pratx, L Burgos; Ré, V; Fortuny, L; Pontoriero, A; Frías, A; Torres, O; Nuñez, F; Gadano, A; Corach, D; Flichman, D

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of genetic polymorphisms identified as predictors of therapeutic-induced hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance differs among ethnic groups. However, there is a paucity of information about their prevalence in South American populations, whose genetic background is highly admixed. Hence, single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860, rs1127354 and rs7270101 were characterized in 1350 healthy individuals, and ethnicity was assessed in 259 randomly selected samples. The frequency of rs12979860CC, associated to HCV treatment response, and rs1127354nonCC, related to protection against hemolytic anemia, were significantly higher among individuals with maternal and paternal Non-native American haplogroups (64.5% and 24.2%), intermediate among admixed samples (44.1% and 20.4%) and the lowest for individuals with Native American ancestry (30.4% and 6.5%). This is the first systematic study focused on analyzing HCV predictors of antiviral response and ethnicity in South American populations. The characterization of these variants is critical to evaluate the risk-benefit of antiviral treatment according to the patient ancestry in admixed populations.

  15. Unseen Community: Marginal Urban Populations. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Behavioral Sciences Inst., La Jolla, CA.

    In this report, an ethnographic study of the aged population of 12 hotels in downtown San Diego is described. The life styles and support groups of residents of "single room occupancy" (SRO) hotels are compared to skid-row hotels and middle class retirement hotels in the immediate neighborhood. Methodology in the study consisted of…

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in ESR1 and ESR2 genes, and risk of hypospadias in a multiethnic study population.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Shweta; Baskin, Laurence S; Lammer, Edward J; Witte, John S; Dasgupta, Sudeshna; Ma, Chen; Surampalli, Abhilasha; Shen, Joel; Shaw, Gary M; Carmichael, Suzan L

    2015-05-01

    Estrogenic endocrine disruptors acting via estrogen receptors α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) have been implicated in the etiology of hypospadias, a common congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. We determined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ESR1 and ESR2 genes with hypospadias in a racially/ethnically diverse study population of California births. We investigated the relationship between hypospadias and 108 ESR1 and 36 ESR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 647 cases and 877 population based nonmalformed controls among infants born in selected California counties from 1990 to 2003. Subgroup analyses were performed by race/ethnicity (nonHispanic white and Hispanic subjects) and by hypospadias severity (mild to moderate and severe). Odds ratios for 33 of the 108 ESR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms had p values less than 0.05 (p = 0.05 to 0.007) for risk of hypospadias. However, none of the 36 ESR2 single nucleotide polymorphisms was significantly associated. In stratified analyses the association results were consistent by disease severity but different sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with hypospadias in nonHispanic white and Hispanic subjects. Due to high linkage disequilibrium across the single nucleotide polymorphisms, haplotype analyses were conducted and identified 6 haplotype blocks in ESR1 gene that had haplotypes significantly associated with an increased risk of hypospadias (OR 1.3 to 1.8, p = 0.04 to 0.00001). Similar to single nucleotide polymorphism analysis, different ESR1 haplotypes were associated with risk of hypospadias in nonHispanic white and Hispanic subjects. No significant haplotype association was observed for ESR2. The data provide evidence that ESR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes influence the risk of hypospadias in white and Hispanic subjects, and warrant further examination in other study populations. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association

  17. Population growth, urban expansion, and private forestry in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    Private forestlands in the United States face increasing pressures from growing populations, resulting in greater numbers of people living in closer proximity to forests. What often is called the "wildland/urban interface" is characterized by expansion of residential and other developed land uses onto forested landscapes in a manner that threatens forestlands...

  18. Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in breast cancer patients in multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Phuah, Sze Yee; Lee, Sheau Yee; Kang, Peter; Kang, In Nee; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hartman, Mikael; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2) is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations. We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 122 Asian women with breast cancer, all of whom had significant family history of breast and other cancers. Further screening for nine PALB2 mutations was conducted in 874 Malaysian and 532 Singaporean breast cancer patients, and in 1342 unaffected Malaysian and 541 unaffected Singaporean women. By analyzing the entire coding region of PALB2, we found two novel truncating mutations and ten missense mutations in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations. One additional novel truncating PALB2 mutation was identified in one patient through genotyping analysis. Our results indicate a low prevalence of deleterious PALB2 mutations and a specific mutation profile within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations.

  19. Prevalence of PALB2 Mutations in Breast Cancer Patients in Multi-Ethnic Asian Population in Malaysia and Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Phuah, Sze Yee; Lee, Sheau Yee; Kang, Peter; Kang, In Nee; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hartman, Mikael; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Background The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2) is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations. Methods We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 122 Asian women with breast cancer, all of whom had significant family history of breast and other cancers. Further screening for nine PALB2 mutations was conducted in 874 Malaysian and 532 Singaporean breast cancer patients, and in 1342 unaffected Malaysian and 541 unaffected Singaporean women. Results By analyzing the entire coding region of PALB2, we found two novel truncating mutations and ten missense mutations in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations. One additional novel truncating PALB2 mutation was identified in one patient through genotyping analysis. Our results indicate a low prevalence of deleterious PALB2 mutations and a specific mutation profile within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations. PMID:23977390

  20. Physical and cognitive domains of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: validation in a multiethnic population of Asian older adults.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tze-Pin; Niti, Mathew; Chiam, Peak-Chiang; Kua, Ee-Heok

    2006-07-01

    We sought to assess the validity of the physical and cognitive domains of Lawton and Brody's Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale and its cross-cultural applicability across ethnic groups in an Asian population of community-living older adults. Using data from a random population sample of noninstitutionalized Chinese, Malay, and Indian older adults 60 years old and older in Singapore (N = 1072), we modeled the dimensional structure of the 8-item IADL Scale using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and assessed its convergent and divergent validity using known group differences and strengths of association. Factor analyses yielded two strong and reliable factors representing underlying physical and cognitive dimensions of IADL. The validity of the model was supported by the pattern of associations of the IADL with age, gender, education, self-reported health status, hospitalization, physical comorbidities, dementia and depression, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. Notably, cognitive IADL showed a greater total effect on MMSE cognitive performance score than did physical IADL, with the effect of physical IADL on MMSE score mostly explained by cognitive IADL. Reasonably good cross-cultural validity was demonstrated among Chinese, Malays, and Indians, with strongest validity for Indians. The eight-item IADL Scale has physical and cognitive domains and is cross-culturally applicable. The cognitive IADL domain taps a set of activities directly related to cognitive functioning.

  1. Family and home correlates of children's physical activity in a multi-ethnic population: the cross-sectional Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE).

    PubMed

    McMinn, Alison M; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Nightingale, Claire M; Griffin, Simon J; Cook, Derek G; Owen, Chris G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Whincup, Peter H

    2011-02-15

    The influence of the family and home environment on childhood physical activity (PA) and whether this differs between ethnic groups remains uncertain. This paper investigates associations between family and home factors and childhood PA in a multi-ethnic population and explores whether associations differ between ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 9-10 year-old schoolchildren, in which PA was objectively measured by Actigraph GT1 M accelerometers for ≤7 days to estimate average activity counts per minute (CPM). Information on 11 family and home environmental factors were collected from questionnaires. Associations between these factors and CPM were quantified using multi-level linear regression. Interactions with ethnicity were explored using likelihood ratio tests. 2071 children (mean ± SD age: 9.95 ± 0.38 years; 47.8% male) participated, including 25% white European, 28% black African-Caribbean, 24% South Asian, and 24% other ethnic origin. Family PA support and having a pet were associated with higher average CPM (adjusted mean difference: 6 (95%CI:1,10) and 13 (95%CI:3,23), respectively) while car ownership and having internet access at home were associated with lower average CPM (adjusted mean difference: -19 (95%CI:-30,-8) and -10 (95%CI:-19,0), respectively). These associations did not differ by ethnicity. Although the number of siblings showed no overall association with PA, there was some evidence of interaction with ethnicity (p for ethnicity interaction=0.04, 0.05 in a fully-adjusted model); a positive significant association with number of siblings was observed in white Europeans (per sibling CPM difference 10.3 (95% CI 1.7, 18.9)) and a positive non-significant association was observed in black African-Caribbeans (per sibling CPM difference: 3.5 (-4.2, 11.2)) while a negative, non-significant association was observed in South Asians (per sibling CPM difference -6.0 (-15.5, 3.4)). Some family and home environmental factors have modest

  2. Comparison of body mass index at diagnosis of diabetes in a multi-ethnic population: A case-control study with matched non-diabetic controls.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sanjoy K; Owusu Adjah, Ebenezer S; Samanta, Mayukh; Patel, Kiran; Bellary, Srikanth; Hanif, Wasim; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the probability of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at different body mass index levels compared to matched non-diabetic controls in a multi-ethnic population. This was a case-control study of 90 367 patients with incident diabetes and 362 548 age-sex-ethnicity matched controls from UK primary care. The probability of developing T2DM was estimated. Case and control patients were 56 years old at index and 56% were male. Patients with T2DM had significantly higher mean BMI levels by about 5 kg/m(2) at diagnosis (32.2 kg/m(2) ) compared to the matched controls (27.4 kg/m(2) ). White Europeans (n = 79 270), African-Caribbeans (n = 4115) and South Asians (n = 7252) were 58, 48 and 46 years old with a mean BMI of 32.5, 31.1 and 29.2 kg/m(2) , respectively, at diagnosis. More South Asians developed T2DM at BMI below 30 kg/m(2) (38%) than White Europeans (26%) and African-Caribbeans (29%) (all P  < .01). Within the 18 to 70-year age range, South Asian males and females had a significantly higher probability of developing diabetes in the continuously measured BMI range of 18 to 30 kg/m(2) , compared to White Europeans and African-Caribbeans. Across all age groups <70 years, South Asians and African-Caribbeans had a significantly higher probability of developing T2DM in the normal weight and overweight categories, compared to White Europeans. However, this risk pattern of developing diabetes was reversed amongst the obese in all age groups. Risk patterns of developing diabetes at different levels of obesity varies among ethnic groups across all ages, while South Asians and African-Caribbeans carry the highest risk at a younger age and at lower adiposity burden. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genome-Wide Study of Percent Emphysema on Computed Tomography in the General Population. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung/SNP Health Association Resource Study

    PubMed Central

    Manichaikul, Ani; Hoffman, Eric A.; Smolonska, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Cho, Michael H.; Baumhauer, Heather; Budoff, Matthew; Austin, John H. M.; Washko, George R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kaufman, Joel D.; Pottinger, Tess; Powell, Charles A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zanen, Pieter; Groen, Harry J. M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wanner, Adam; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Brantly, Mark L.; Powell, Rhea; Smith, Benjamin M.; Rabinowitz, Dan; Raffel, Leslie J.; Hinckley Stukovsky, Karen D.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hokanson, John E.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Dupuis, Josée; O’Connor, George T.; Boezen, H. Marike; Rich, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary emphysema overlaps partially with spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is heritable, with moderately high familial clustering. Objectives: To complete a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the percentage of emphysema-like lung on computed tomography in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung/SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) Study, a large, population-based cohort in the United States. Methods: We determined percent emphysema and upper-lower lobe ratio in emphysema defined by lung regions less than −950 HU on cardiac scans. Genetic analyses were reported combined across four race/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic white (n = 2,587), African American (n = 2,510), Hispanic (n = 2,113), and Chinese (n = 704) and stratified by race and ethnicity. Measurements and Main Results: Among 7,914 participants, we identified regions at genome-wide significance for percent emphysema in or near SNRPF (rs7957346; P = 2.2 × 10−8) and PPT2 (rs10947233; P = 3.2 × 10−8), both of which replicated in an additional 6,023 individuals of European ancestry. Both single-nucleotide polymorphisms were previously implicated as genes influencing lung function, and analyses including lung function revealed independent associations for percent emphysema. Among Hispanics, we identified a genetic locus for upper-lower lobe ratio near the α-mannosidase–related gene MAN2B1 (rs10411619; P = 1.1 × 10−9; minor allele frequency [MAF], 4.4%). Among Chinese, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with upper-lower lobe ratio near DHX15 (rs7698250; P = 1.8 × 10−10; MAF, 2.7%) and MGAT5B (rs7221059; P = 2.7 × 10−8; MAF, 2.6%), which acts on α-linked mannose. Among African Americans, a locus near a third α-mannosidase–related gene, MAN1C1 (rs12130495; P = 9.9 × 10−6; MAF, 13.3%) was associated with percent emphysema. Conclusions: Our results suggest that some genes previously identified as

  4. "They're in My Culture, They Speak the Same Way": African American Language in Multiethnic High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Django

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Paris explores the deep linguistic and cultural ways in which youth in a multiethnic urban high school employ linguistic features of African American Language (AAL) across ethnic lines. The author also discusses how knowledge about the use of AAL in multiethnic contexts might be applied to language and literacy education and how…

  5. [The rural population. The great change toward urbanization].

    PubMed

    Lopez, M P

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the population dynamics of rural areas in Mexico, defined as those with fewer than 2500 inhabitants. Mexico in recent decades has undergone a process of rapid urban industrial development. Participation in the primary sector of the economy declined steadily from 15.6% in 1960 to 11.2% in 1970, 8.2% in 1980, and 8.5% in 1987. Average annual growth rates of the total and economically active population between 1950 and 1980 exceeded 3%, compared to just 1.4% for the rural population and 0.6% for the active population in agriculture. The slower growth of rural and agricultural sectors resulted from urban migration and the weak employment generation capacity of the agricultural sector. The proportion of the economically active population in agriculture declined from 58.3% in 1950 to 29.2% in 1980. Some 70% of the population lived in rural areas around 1900, but accelerating urbanization beginning in the 1940s led to declines from 65% in 1940 to 32% by 1985. The average rural woman had 8.2 births in 1966-70, while urban women had 6.3. The slower rural fertility decline and the migration to cities primarily of young adults of working age have led to a larger proportion of the population in the 0-14 age group in rural areas. In 1985, slightly over 23 million Mexicans were estimated to live in rural areas. In 1987, only 10.7% of rural households had potable water, electric light, and sewage services, compared to 78.9% in medium sized cities and 95.3% in metropolitan areas.

  6. Association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations: A multiethnic study in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bang-Dang; Shan, Chun-Fang; Ma, Yi-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in non-invasive measurements of carotid atherosclerosis are being increasingly reported, but the association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations is not fully understood in different ethnicities. We aimed to investigate the association of carotid atherosclerosis with different subtypes of hypertension in different ethnicities in Xinjiang, a northwestern province in China. Methods A total of 14,618 participants (5,757 Hans, 4,767 Uygurs, and 4,094 Kazakhs) from 26 villages of seven cities in Xinjiang were randomly selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. A standard questionnaire, a physical examination and biochemical tests were employed. Results The mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) for the 14,618 participants was 0.86±0.003 mm. The CIMT gradually increased with age. Men (0.92±0.005 mm) had a higher CIMT than women (0.81±0.004 mm). The Uygur participants (0.82±0.006 mm) had a lower CIMT than the Han (0.88±0.005 mm) and Kazakh participants (0.88±0.005 mm). The overall prevalences of carotid intimal thickening and carotid plaques were 12.4% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of CIMT varied for the different subtypes of hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed different risk factors for abnormal CIMT in different ethnicities. The associations between abnormal CIMT and the different subtypes of hypertension within different ethnic backgrounds were also different. The risk factors for abnormal CIMT included systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) in Han participants (OR: 1.323, 95% CI: 1.100–1.590), SDH (OR: 1.426, 95% CI: 1.160–1.753) and isolated-systolic hypertension (ISH) (OR: 1.844, 95% CI: 1.470–2.313) in Uygur participants, and isolated-diastolic hypertension (IDH) (OR: 1.536, 95% CI: 1.170–2.016) in Kazakh participants. Conclusion There was an ethnic difference in the prevalence of abnormal

  7. Optimal BMI cut-off values for predicting diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kee Chee; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Lim, Kuang H; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Khor, Geok L; Shahar, Suzana; Rahman, Jamalludin Abd; Zainuddin, Ahmad A; Mustafa, Amal N

    2013-03-01

    To determine the optimal cut-offs of BMI for Malaysian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of BMI with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of three cardiovascular risk factors: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between BMI and these cardiovascular risk factors. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults aged ≥18 years (n 32 703) who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006. The optimal BMI cut-off value for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one of these cardiovascular risk factors varied from 23.3 to 24.1 kg/m2 for men and from 24.0 to 25.4 kg/m2 for women. In men and women, the odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one cardiovascular risk factor increased significantly as BMI cut-off point increased. Our findings indicate that BMI cut-offs of 23.0 kg/m2 in men and 24.0 kg/m2 in women are appropriate for classification of overweight. We suggest that these cut-offs can be used by health professionals to identify individuals for cardiovascular risk screening and weight management programmes.

  8. Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Suthandiram, Sujatha; Gan, Gin Gin; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Bee, Ping Chong; Lian, Lay Hoong; Chang, Kian Meng; Ong, Tee Chuan; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-05-01

    An imbalance in folate metabolism can adversely affect DNA synthesis and methylation systems which can lead to susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with NHL, remain inconclusive. We investigated the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs and NHL risk in a population which is made up of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic subgroups. A total of 372 NHL patients and 722 controls were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Our results of the pooled subjects failed to demonstrate significant association between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs with NHL and its subtypes. The results were in agreement with the previous meta-analyses. In the Indian ethnic subgroup however, single locus analysis of MTHFR A1298C appears to confer risk to NHL (Odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22-3.00, P=0.006). The risk is almost doubled in homozygous carrier of MTHFR 1298CC (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.56-10.43, P=0.004). Haplotype analysis revealed higher frequency of CC in the Indian NHL patients compared with controls (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.18-2.93, P=0.007). There is lack of evidence to suggest an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with the risk of NHL in the Malays and Chinese. In the Indians however, the MTHFR A1298C confers risk to NHL. This study suggests ethnicity modifies the relationship between polymorphisms in the folate-metabolizing gene and NHL.

  9. Ethnicity Modifies the Relationships of Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, and Adiponectin With Obesity in a Multiethnic Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Chin Meng; Sairazi, Sarina; Taslim, Siska; Gardner, Daphne; Wu, Yi; Lee, Jeannette; van Dam, Rob M.; Shyong Tai, E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The development of obesity-related metabolic disorders varies with ethnicity. We examined whether ethnicity modifies the relationship between BMI and three metabolic pathways (insulin resistance, inflammation, and adiponectin) that are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from 4,804 Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian residents of Singapore with complete data on insulin resistance (IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and total adiponectin levels. Linear regression models with an interaction term ethnicity*BMI were used to evaluate whether ethnicity modifies the association between BMI and IR, CRP, and adiponectin. RESULTS In both uni- and multivariate analyses, BMI was directly associated with IR and CRP and inversely with adiponectin across all ethnic groups. When compared with Chinese and Malays, Asian-Indians had higher IR and CRP and lower adiponectin levels. The associations between BMI and its metabolic pathways were significantly stronger in Chinese than in other ethnic groups. The increase in IR and CRP and the decrease in adiponectin for each unit increase in BMI were greater in Chinese than in other ethnic groups. The findings were similar when waist circumference was used in the analyses instead of BMI. CONCLUSIONS The impact of BMI on IR, CRP, and adiponectin appears greater in Chinese as compared with other major Asian ethnic groups. This may partly explain the rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetes and CVD in Chinese populations and highlights the importance of weight management in Asian ethnic groups despite the apparently low levels of obesity. PMID:21464462

  10. What stresses men? predictors of perceived stress in a population-based multi-ethnic cross sectional cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceived stress (PS) is a risk factor for a variety of diseases. However, relatively little is known about age- or ethnicity-specific differences in the effect of potential predictors of PS in men. Methods We used a population-based survey of 6,773 White, 1,681 Black, and 617 Hispanic men in Southeastern Pennsylvania to evaluate the relationship of self-reported PS and financial security, health status, social factors, and health behaviors. Interactions across levels of age and ethnicity were tested using logistic regression models adjusted for overall health status, education, and household poverty. Results High PS decreased significantly with age (p < 0.0001) and varied by ethnicity (p = 0.0001). Exposure to health-related and economic factors were more consistently associated with elevated PS in all ethnicities and ages, while social factors and health behaviors were less strongly or not at all associated with PS in most groups. Significant differences in the relationship of high PS by age and ethnicity were observed among men who are medically uninsured (p = 0.0002), reported missing a meal due to cost (p < 0.0001), or had spent a night in the hospital (p = 0.020). In contrast, not filling a prescription due to cost and diagnosed with a mental health condition were associated with high PS but did not differ by age and ethnicity subgroup. Conclusions These data suggest that some, but not all, factors associated with high PS differ by age and/or ethnicity. Research, clinical, or public health initiatives that involve social stressors should consider differences by age and ethnicity. PMID:23388399

  11. Correlates of Health Communication Preferences in a Multiethnic Population of Pregnant Women and Mothers of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Katrina; Gollenberg, Audra; Fendley, Kim

    2016-03-01

    practical approach to reaching different segments of the population including those identified as most vulnerable for infant mortality.

  12. Correlates of Health Communication Preferences in a Multiethnic Population of Pregnant Women and Mothers of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Daoud, Katrina; Gollenberg, Audra; Fendley, Kim

    2017-01-01

    incorporation of multiple methods may be a practical approach to reaching different segments of the population including those identified as most vulnerable for infant mortality. PMID:28191505

  13. Development and evaluation of pictograms on medication labels for patients with limited literacy skills in a culturally diverse multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Kheir, Nadir; Awaisu, Ahmed; Radoui, Amina; El Badawi, Aya; Jean, Linda; Dowse, Ros

    2014-01-01

    Much of the migrant workforce in Qatar is of low literacy level and does not understand Arabic or English, presenting a significant challenge to health care professionals. Medicine labels are typically in Arabic and English and are therefore poorly understood by these migrant workers. To develop pictograms illustrating selected medicine label instructions and to evaluate comprehension of the pictograms or conventional text supported with verbal instructions in foreign workers with low literacy skills. A range of common labeling instructions were identified and pictograms depicting these were developed using visual concepts and ideas from the literature. The process involved a consultative approach with input from the researchers, a local graphic artist, and members of the target population. The final set was evaluated for comprehension in participants who were randomized to one of three study groups: text plus verbal instructions, pictogram-only label, and pictogram with verbal instructions. One-way ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to assess differences between group variables. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Of 23 label instructions screened, 11 were selected for the study. A total of 123 participants took part in this study. Pictogram plus verbal instructions group achieved better results in interpreting the majority of the label instructions (P ≤ 0.05). The best interpreted pictograms with verbal instructions included: "Take two tablets three times a day," "Take one tablet in the morning and one tablet at night," and "Instill one drop in the eye." The worst interpreted pictograms with verbal instructions were: "Do not take with dairy products" and "Do not use by mouth." Some pictograms were difficult to interpret even when accompanied with verbal instructions, suggesting the need to thoroughly pilot them among users prior to implementation. Medication labels consisting of simple pictorials supported by verbal instructions were better

  14. Going public: accessing urban data and producing population estimates using the urban FIA database

    Treesearch

    Chris Edgar; Mark. Hatfield

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we describe the urban forest inventory database (U-FIADB) and demonstrate how to use the database to produce population estimates. Examples from the recently completed City of Austin inventory will be used to demonstrate the capabilities of the database. We will identify several features of U-FIADB that are different from the FIA database (FIADB)...

  15. Epigenetic variation between urban and rural populations of Darwin's finches.

    PubMed

    McNew, Sabrina M; Beck, Daniel; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Knutie, Sarah A; Koop, Jennifer A H; Clayton, Dale H; Skinner, Michael K

    2017-08-24

    The molecular basis of evolutionary change is assumed to be genetic variation. However, growing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may also be involved in rapid adaptation to new environments. An important first step in evaluating this hypothesis is to test for the presence of epigenetic variation between natural populations living under different environmental conditions. In the current study we explored variation between populations of Darwin's finches, which comprise one of the best-studied examples of adaptive radiation. We tested for morphological, genetic, and epigenetic differences between adjacent "urban" and "rural" populations of each of two species of ground finches, Geospiza fortis and G. fuliginosa, on Santa Cruz Island in the Galápagos. Using data collected from more than 1000 birds, we found significant morphological differences between populations of G. fortis, but not G. fuliginosa. We did not find large size copy number variation (CNV) genetic differences between populations of either species. However, other genetic variants were not investigated. In contrast, we did find dramatic epigenetic differences between the urban and rural populations of both species, based on DNA methylation analysis. We explored genomic features and gene associations of the differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR), as well as their possible functional significance. In summary, our study documents local population epigenetic variation within each of two species of Darwin's finches.

  16. Colonization and persistence of urban ant populations as revealed by joint estimation of kinship and population genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Uchida, Kei; Takami, Yasuoki

    2013-01-01

    The decrease in biodiversity due to increasing urbanization has been well documented, but the processes of colonization and maintenance of wildlife populations in urban areas remain poorly understood. We address this issue using 462 individuals from 10 urban populations of the ant Formica japonica in Kobe City, Japan. We sampled workers regardless of colony identity, genotyped them using 6 microsatellite loci, and estimated allele frequencies and genotypes of reproductive individuals, together with other population genetic parameters, by estimating kinship structure using a likelihood method. Estimated genetic diversity and effective size of populations were not associated with environmental parameters, suggesting that populations are unaffected by urbanization. However, effective population sizes were small, and frequent population bottlenecks were detected. These results suggest that urban F. japonica populations are unstable, and the possibility of frequent extinctions and recolonizations in urban habitats. Populations were moderately differentiated without isolation by distance, suggesting a strong dispersal ability that enables colonization of urban habitats. Dispersal was male biased. Collectively, F. japonica was regarded as an urban adapter, which can colonize urban habitats by virtue of its preference for open ground and high dispersal ability but can persist in urban populations for only a short time, showing a tendency as a temporary urban inhabitant.

  17. Prevalence, risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy among urban community-dwelling older adults in multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Li Min; McStea, Megan; Chung, Wen Wei; Nor Azmi, Nuruljannah; Abdul Aziz, Siti Azdiah; Alwi, Syireen; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chua, Siew Siang; Rajasuriar, Reena

    2017-01-01

    Polypharmacy has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the older population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy in a cohort of urban community-dwelling older adults receiving chronic medications in Malaysia. This was a baseline study in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research cohort. The inclusion criteria were individuals aged ≥55years and taking at least one medication chronically (≥3 months). Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during home visits where medications taken were reviewed. Health outcomes assessed were frequency of falls, functional disability, potential inappropriate medication use (PIMs), potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs), healthcare utilisation and quality of life (QoL). Risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy (≥5 medications including dietary supplements) were determined using multivariate regression models. A total of 1256 participants were included with a median (interquartile range) age of 69(63-74) years. The prevalence of polypharmacy was 45.9% while supplement users made up 56.9% of the cohort. The risk factors associated with increasing medication use were increasing age, Indian ethnicity, male, having a higher number of comorbidities specifically those diagnosed with cardiovascular, endocrine and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as supplement use. Health outcomes significantly associated with polypharmacy were PIMS, PDDIs and increased healthcare utilisation. A significant proportion of older adults on chronic medications were exposed to polypharmacy and use of dietary supplements contributed significantly to this. Medication reviews are warranted to reduce significant polypharmacy related issues in the older population.

  18. Prevalence, risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy among urban community-dwelling older adults in multi-ethnic Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Li Min; McStea, Megan; Chung, Wen Wei; Nor Azmi, Nuruljannah; Abdul Aziz, Siti Azdiah; Alwi, Syireen; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chua, Siew Siang

    2017-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the older population. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy in a cohort of urban community-dwelling older adults receiving chronic medications in Malaysia. Methods This was a baseline study in the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research cohort. The inclusion criteria were individuals aged ≥55years and taking at least one medication chronically (≥3 months). Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during home visits where medications taken were reviewed. Health outcomes assessed were frequency of falls, functional disability, potential inappropriate medication use (PIMs), potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs), healthcare utilisation and quality of life (QoL). Risk factors and health outcomes associated with polypharmacy (≥5 medications including dietary supplements) were determined using multivariate regression models. Results A total of 1256 participants were included with a median (interquartile range) age of 69(63–74) years. The prevalence of polypharmacy was 45.9% while supplement users made up 56.9% of the cohort. The risk factors associated with increasing medication use were increasing age, Indian ethnicity, male, having a higher number of comorbidities specifically those diagnosed with cardiovascular, endocrine and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as supplement use. Health outcomes significantly associated with polypharmacy were PIMS, PDDIs and increased healthcare utilisation. Conclusion A significant proportion of older adults on chronic medications were exposed to polypharmacy and use of dietary supplements contributed significantly to this. Medication reviews are warranted to reduce significant polypharmacy related issues in the older population. PMID:28273128

  19. Methamphetamine use in urban gay and bisexual populations.

    PubMed

    Shoptaw, Steven

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that the use of methamphetamine is 5- to 10-times more common in urban gay and bisexual men than in the general US population. Given its effects in stimulating energy, confidence, and libido, as well as its relative inexpensiveness, the drug can efficiently address serious problems in functioning among HIV-infected men, who may suffer significant symptoms of depression or fatigue associated with chronic illness and HIV-related drug treatments. Long-term methamphetamine use is associated with physical, psychologic, and social adverse effects. Increased use of the drug associates with more frequent sexual risk behaviors and increased risks for HIV transmission. Behavioral therapies, notably the approach of contingency management, are being investigated for reducing methamphetamine use and risk behaviors in the urban gay population.

  20. Mental illness in metropolitan, urban and rural Georgia populations.

    PubMed

    Reeves, William C; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Nater, Urs M

    2013-04-30

    Mental illness represents an important public health problem. Local-level data concerning mental illness in different populations (e.g., socio-demographics and residence--metropolitan/urban/rural) provides the evidence-base for public health authorities to plan, implement and evaluate control programs. This paper describes prevalence and covariates of psychiatric conditions in Georgia populations in three defined geographic areas. Data came from the Georgia population-based random-digit-dialing study investigating unwellness and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia populations of three defined geographic areas (metropolitan, urban, and rural). Respondents were screened for symptoms of fatigue, sleep, cognition, and pain at household screening interviews, and a randomly selected sample completed detailed individual phone interviews. Based on the detailed phone interviews, we conducted one-day clinical evaluations of 292 detailed interview participants classified as unwell with a probable CFS (i.e. CFS-like; a functional somatic syndrome), 268 classified as other unwell, and 223 well (matched to CFS-like). Clinical evaluation included psychiatric classification by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). To derive prevalence estimates we used sample weighting to account for the complexity of the multistage sampling design. We used 2- and 3-way table analyses to examine socio-demographic and urbanicity specific associations and multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common psychiatric conditions. Nineteen percent of participants suffered a current anxiety disorder, 18% a mood disorder and 10% had two or more conditions. There was a significant linear trend in occurrence of anxiety or mood disorders from well to CFS-like. The most common anxiety disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (6.6%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (5.8%). Logistic regression showed that

  1. Population admixture and high larval viability among urban toads

    PubMed Central

    Hase, Kazuko; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    In terms of evolutionary biology, a population admixture of more than two distinct lineages may lead to strengthened genetic variation through hybridization. However, a population admixture arising from artificial secondary contact poses significant problems in conservation biology. In urban Tokyo, a population admixture has emerged from two lineages of Japanese common toad: native Bufo japonicus formosus and nonnative B. japonicus japonicus, of which the latter was introduced in the early 20th century. To evaluate the degree of genetic disturbance in the admixed population of these two subspecies, we analyzed genotypes of toads distributed within and outside Tokyo by assessing mtDNA and seven microsatellite loci. We found that the introduced B. japonicus japonicus genotype dominates six local populations in the Tokyo admixture zone and was clearly derived from past introgressive hybridization between the two subspecies. These observations were supported by morphological assessments. Furthermore, the average larval survival rate in Tokyo was significantly higher than that outside Tokyo, suggesting that the temporary contribution of introduced toads occurred through introgression. The fitness of toads in urban Tokyo may thus be increasing with the assistance of nonnative individuals. PMID:23789077

  2. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  3. Visualizing diurnal population change in urban areas for emergency management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  4. The impact of urbanization and population density on childhood Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence rates in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kabaria, Caroline W; Gilbert, Marius; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Linard, Catherine

    2017-01-26

    Although malaria has been traditionally regarded as less of a problem in urban areas compared to neighbouring rural areas, the risk of malaria infection continues to exist in densely populated, urban areas of Africa. Despite the recognition that urbanization influences the epidemiology of malaria, there is little consensus on urbanization relevant for malaria parasite mapping. Previous studies examining the relationship between urbanization and malaria transmission have used products defining urbanization at global/continental scales developed in the early 2000s, that overestimate actual urban extents while the population estimates are over 15 years old and estimated at administrative unit level. This study sought to discriminate an urbanization definition that is most relevant for malaria parasite mapping using individual level malaria infection data obtained from nationally representative household-based surveys. Boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to determine the effect of urbanization on malaria transmission and if this effect varied with urbanization definition. In addition, the most recent high resolution population distribution data was used to determine whether population density had significant effect on malaria parasite prevalence and if so, could population density replace urban classifications in modelling malaria transmission patterns. The risk of malaria infection was shown to decline from rural areas through peri-urban settlements to urban central areas. Population density was found to be an important predictor of malaria risk. The final boosted regression trees (BRT) model with urbanization and population density gave the best model fit (Tukey test p value <0.05) compared to the models with urbanization only. Given the challenges in uniformly classifying urban areas across different countries, population density provides a reliable metric to adjust for the patterns of malaria risk in densely populated urban areas. Future malaria risk

  5. Proceedings: human leukocyte antigen haplo-homozygous induced pluripotent stem cell haplobank modeled after the california population: evaluating matching in a multiethnic and admixed population.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Derek James; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Le Gall, Caroline; Laurent, Julie; Trounson, Alan; DeWitt, Natalie; Talib, Sohel

    2015-05-01

    The development of a California-based induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) bank based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype matching represents a significant challenge and a valuable opportunity for the advancement of regenerative medicine. However, previously published models of iPSC banks have neither addressed the admixed nature of populations like that of California nor evaluated the benefit to the population as a whole. We developed a new model for evaluating an iPSC haplobank based on demographic and immunogenetic characteristics reflecting California. The model evaluates haplolines or cell lines from donors homozygous for a single HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 haplotype. We generated estimates of the percentage of the population matched under various combinations of haplolines derived from six ancestries (black/African American, American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic, and white/not Hispanic) and data available from the U.S. Census Bureau, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and the National Marrow Donor Program. The model included both cis (haplotype-level) and trans (genotype-level) matching between a modeled iPSC haplobank and the recipient population following resampling simulations. We showed that serving a majority (>50%) of a simulated California population through cis matching would require the creation, redundant storage, and maintenance of almost 207 different haplolines representing the top 60 most frequent haplotypes from each ancestry group. Allowances for trans matching reduced the haplobank to fewer than 141 haplolines found among the top 40 most frequent haplotypes. Finally, we showed that a model optimized, custom haplobank was able to serve a majority of the California population with fewer than 80 haplolines.

  6. Elder abuse and neglect in an urban chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A; Gorbien, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in an urban Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed in a major urban medical center in NanJing, China. A total of 412 participants completed the survey and 145 (35%) participants screened positive for elder abuse and neglect. The mean age of the victims was 69 years and 59% were male. Caregiver neglect was the most common form of abuse, followed by financial exploitation, psychological abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and abandonment. Thirty-six percent of the victims suffered multiple forms of abuse and neglect. In the logistical regression analyses of the data, female gender, lower education and lower income were demographic risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect. A better understanding of these and additional risk factors associated with elder abuse and neglect in older Chinese people is needed.

  7. Mammographic density and urbanization: a population-based screening study.

    PubMed

    Viel, Jean-François; Rymzhanova, Raouchan

    2012-03-01

    The high incidence of female breast cancer that has been consistently reported in urban areas could be mediated by breast density, which is considered to reflect the cumulative exposure of breast tissues to hormones. The aim of this study was to assess how mammographic density varies by the degree of urbanization. The population consisted of 55,597 cancer-free women, aged 50-59 years, who participated in a French breast cancer screening programme (Franche-Comté region) between 2005 and 2009. Ordered logistic regression was run with mammographic density as the outcome, and degree of urbanization as the independent variable, while adjusting for some known confounding factors. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data. A significant positive linear trend with urbanization was found in a univariate approach (P trend <10(-3)), and after adjusting for risk factors (P trend = 10(-3)). A negative and highly significant association with mammographic density was highlighted both for age at the time of mammography (odds ratio (OR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.43, per 10 years), and for low socioeconomic status (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.67-0.75). The OR for hormone replacement therapy use was 1.51 (95% CI 1.43-1.58). Knowledge of this urbanization gradient in density (whatever its mechanism) may help to identify women who may require full-field digital mammography for the early detection of breast cancer, and could assist primary care providers in recommending the best screening strategy in a risk factor-based approach.

  8. An Equilibrium Model of Urban Population and the Distribution of Income. Discussion Paper 355-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John; Danziger, Sheldon

    The relationship between the level of income and the population of an urban area is a familiar concern in urban economics. Existing models of the relationship between income levels and urban population are considered to assume that there is a homogeneous labor force and, hence, a world in which there is no inequality in the size distribution of…

  9. Random sampling for a mental health survey in a deprived multi-ethnic area of Berlin.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Adrian P; Aichberger, Marion C; Kliewe, Thomas; Ignatyev, Yuriy; Yayla, Seda; Heimann, Hannah; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam; Busch, Markus; Rapp, Michael; Heinz, Andreas; Ströhle, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the response to random sampling for a mental health survey in a deprived multi-ethnic area of Berlin, Germany, with a large Turkish-speaking population. A random list from the registration office with 1,000 persons stratified by age and gender was retrieved from the population registry and these persons were contacted using a three-stage design including written information, telephone calls and personal contact at home. A female bilingual interviewer contacted persons with Turkish names. Of the persons on the list, 202 were not living in the area, one was deceased, 502 did not respond. Of the 295 responders, 152 explicitly refused(51.5%) to participate. We retained a sample of 143 participants(48.5%) representing the rate of multi-ethnicity in the area (52.1% migrants in the sample vs. 53.5% in the population). Turkish migrants were over-represented(28.9% in the sample vs. 18.6% in the population). Polish migrants (2.1 vs. 5.3% in the population) and persons from the former Yugoslavia (1.4 vs. 4.8% in the population)were under-represented. Bilingual contact procedures can improve the response rates of the most common migrant populations to random sampling if migrants of the same origin gate the contact. High non-contact and non-response rates for migrant and non-migrant populations in deprived urban areas remain a challenge for obtaining representative random samples.

  10. "The Second Language of the United States": Youth Perspectives on Spanish in a Changing Multiethnic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Django

    2010-01-01

    How do youth view Spanish in our changing multiethnic urban schools and communities? In this article I explore this question by analyzing the perspectives and social interactions of students in an urban charter high school located in a community undergoing dramatic demographic shift from a predominantly African American city to a predominantly…

  11. Is channel segmentation necessary to reach a multiethnic population with weight-related health promotion? An analysis of use and perception of communication channels

    PubMed Central

    Nierkens, Vera; Cremer, Stephan W.; Verhoeff, Arnoud; Stronks, Karien

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore similarities and differences in the use and perception of communication channels to access weight-related health promotion among women in three ethnic minority groups. The ultimate aim was to determine whether similar channels might reach ethnic minority women in general or whether segmentation to ethnic groups would be required. Design Eight ethnically homogeneous focus groups were conducted among 48 women of Ghanaian, Antillean/Aruban, or Afro-Surinamese background living in Amsterdam. Our questions concerned which communication channels they usually used to access weight-related health advice or information about programs and whose information they most valued. The content analysis of data was performed. Results The participants mentioned four channels – regular and traditional healthcare, general or ethnically specific media, multiethnic and ethnic gatherings, and interpersonal communication with peers in the Netherlands and with people in the home country. Ghanaian women emphasized ethnically specific channels (e.g., traditional healthcare, Ghanaian churches). They were comfortable with these channels and trusted them. They mentioned fewer general channels – mainly limited to healthcare – and if discussed, negative perceptions were expressed. Antillean women mentioned the use of ethnically specific channels (e.g., communication with Antilleans in the home country) on balance with general audience–oriented channels (e.g., regular healthcare). Perceptions were mixed. Surinamese participants discussed, in a positive manner, the use of general audience–oriented channels, while they said they did not use traditional healthcare or advice from Surinam. Local language proficiency, time resided in the Netherlands, and approaches and messages received seemed to explain channel use and perception. Conclusion The predominant differences in channel use and perception among the ethnic groups indicate a need for channel segmentation to reach a

  12. Is channel segmentation necessary to reach a multiethnic population with weight-related health promotion? An analysis of use and perception of communication channels.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Marieke A; Nierkens, Vera; Cremer, Stephan W; Verhoeff, Arnoud; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    To explore similarities and differences in the use and perception of communication channels to access weight-related health promotion among women in three ethnic minority groups. The ultimate aim was to determine whether similar channels might reach ethnic minority women in general or whether segmentation to ethnic groups would be required. Eight ethnically homogeneous focus groups were conducted among 48 women of Ghanaian, Antillean/Aruban, or Afro-Surinamese background living in Amsterdam. Our questions concerned which communication channels they usually used to access weight-related health advice or information about programs and whose information they most valued. The content analysis of data was performed. The participants mentioned four channels - regular and traditional health care, general or ethnically specific media, multiethnic and ethnic gatherings, and interpersonal communication with peers in the Netherlands and with people in the home country. Ghanaian women emphasized ethnically specific channels (e.g., traditional health care, Ghanaian churches). They were comfortable with these channels and trusted them. They mentioned fewer general channels - mainly limited to health care - and if discussed, negative perceptions were expressed. Antillean women mentioned the use of ethnically specific channels (e.g., communication with Antilleans in the home country) on balance with general audience-oriented channels (e.g., regular health care). Perceptions were mixed. Surinamese participants discussed, in a positive manner, the use of general audience-oriented channels, while they said they did not use traditional health care or advice from Surinam. Local language proficiency, time resided in the Netherlands, and approaches and messages received seemed to explain channel use and perception. The predominant differences in channel use and perception among the ethnic groups indicate a need for channel segmentation to reach a multiethnic target group with weight

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among an Urban Population in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kaduka, Lydia U.; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K.; Bukania, Zipporah N.; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P < 0.001). The most frequently observed features were raised blood pressure, a higher waist circumference, and low HDL cholesterol (men: 96.2, 80.8, and 80%; women: 89.8, 97.2, and 96.3%, respectively), whereas raised fasting glucose and TAGs were observed less frequently (men: 26.9 and 63.3%; women: 26.9 and 30.6%, respectively). The main factors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome were increasing age, socioeconomic status, and education. CONCLUSIONS Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this urban population, especially among women, but the incidence of individual factors suggests that poor glycemic control is not the major contributor. Longitudinal studies are required to establish true causes of metabolic syndrome in Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs. PMID:22374643

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-04-01

    Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P < 0.001). The most frequently observed features were raised blood pressure, a higher waist circumference, and low HDL cholesterol (men: 96.2, 80.8, and 80%; women: 89.8, 97.2, and 96.3%, respectively), whereas raised fasting glucose and TAGs were observed less frequently (men: 26.9 and 63.3%; women: 26.9 and 30.6%, respectively). The main factors associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome were increasing age, socioeconomic status, and education. Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in this urban population, especially among women, but the incidence of individual factors suggests that poor glycemic control is not the major contributor. Longitudinal studies are required to establish true causes of metabolic syndrome in Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.

  15. Independent and joint associations between multiple measures of the built and social environment and physical activity in a multi-ethnic urban community.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Amy; Mentz, Graciela; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Israel, Barbara A; Max, Paul; Zenk, Shannon N; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of a number of health outcomes, yet fewer than half of adults in the United States report recommended levels of physical activity. Analyses of structural characteristics of the built environment as correlates of physical activity have yielded mixed results. We examine associations between multiple aspects of urban neighborhood environments and physical activity in order to understand their independent and joint effects, with a focus on the extent to which the condition of the built environment and indicators of the social environment modify associations between structural characteristics and physical activity. We use data from a stratified, multi-stage proportional probability sample of 919 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic adults in an urban community, observational data from their residential neighborhoods, and census data to examine independent and joint associations of structural characteristics (e.g., street network connectivity), their condition (e.g., sidewalk condition), and social environments (e.g., territoriality) with physical activity. Our findings suggest that sidewalk condition is associated with physical activity, above and beyond structural characteristics of the built environment. Associations between some structural characteristics of the built environment and physical activity were conditional upon street condition, physical deterioration, and the proportion of parks and playgrounds in good condition. We found modest support for the hypothesis that associations between structural characteristics and physical activity are modified by aspects of the social environment. Results presented here point to the value of and need for understanding and addressing the complexity of factors that contribute to the relationships between the built and social environments and physical activity, and in turn, obesity and co-morbidities. Bringing together urban planners, public health

  16. The effects of urbanization on population density, occupancy, and detection probability of wild felids.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jesse S; Logan, Kenneth A; Alldredge, Mat W; Bailey, Larissa L; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R

    2015-10-01

    Urbanization is a primary driver of landscape conversion, with far-reaching effects on landscape pattern and process, particularly related to the population characteristics of animals. Urbanization can alter animal movement and habitat quality, both of which can influence population abundance and persistence. We evaluated three important population characteristics (population density, site occupancy, and species detection probability) of a medium-sized and a large carnivore across varying levels of urbanization. Specifically, we studied bobcat and puma populations across wildland, exurban development, and wildland-urban interface (WUI) sampling grids to test hypotheses evaluating how urbanization affects wild felid populations and their prey. Exurban development appeared to have a greater impact on felid populations than did habitat adjacent to a major urban area (i.e., WUI); estimates of population density for both bobcats and pumas were lower in areas of exurban development compared to wildland areas, whereas population density was similar between WUI and wildland habitat. Bobcats and pumas were less likely to be detected in habitat as the amount of human disturbance associated with residential development increased at a site, which was potentially related to reduced habitat quality resulting from urbanization. However, occupancy of both felids was similar between grids in both study areas, indicating that this population metric was less sensitive than density. At the scale of the sampling grid, detection probability for bobcats in urbanized habitat was greater than in wildland areas, potentially due to restrictive movement corridors and funneling of animal movements in landscapes influenced by urbanization. Occupancy of important felid prey (cottontail rabbits and mule deer) was similar across levels of urbanization, although elk occupancy was lower in urbanized areas. Our study indicates that the conservation of medium- and large-sized felids associated with

  17. [Urbanization mechanisms in bird species: population systems transformations or adaptations at the individual level?].

    PubMed

    Fridman, V S; Eremkin, G S; Zakharova-Kubareva, N Iu

    2008-01-01

    The present research deals with urbanization of wild bird and mammal species. Forms and mechanisms of population steadiness in the urban landscape have been examined. The urbanization process turned out to be a directed change of the population system forming de novo in the urbolandscape leading to a sustainable organization peculiar for the particular environment. The population organization of different types in urbolandscape is found to provide its stability under conditions of directed and fast changes accompanied with instability and heterogenous structure of habitats. It is shown that the same type of population organization meets the corresponding demands among different species settling in the urban environment. Its features are "openness" and "flowage" of the groups, far order of settlement levels and other units of population system, constant movements of the individuals between the groups as a respond to the signals of urboenvironment significant changes. The "urban" variant of the population system organization turns out to be opposite to that of the same species in the non-urban habitats. After formation of the urban types by the species and successful developing of the town, the urban population becomes separated from the maternal local population and begins to exist independently in the urban landscape. The variety of adaptation aberrations in ecology, behavior, and mode of life of urban birds is the population system stability function in the urban landscape and is not a results of individual selection. It is shown that the urbanization process of the species goes firstly on the population level being the system structure transformation developed by the species towards the most stable state in the town (city) territory. Only after the appearance of stable urban population, the urban individuals show the rapid growth of different changes in ecology, behavior, mode of life that was traditionally described by naturalists as species adaptation to the

  18. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST, and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. We applied molecular epidemiology and population genetics to obtain insights in to the population structure, host-species relationships, gene flow and

  19. A Gender-Stratified Comparative Analysis of Various Definitions of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk in a Multiethnic U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Pawan; Nerusu, Kamalakar; Veeranna, Vikas; Sudhakar, Rajeev; Zalawadiya, Sandip; Ramesh, Krithi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We sought to evaluate the ability of various metabolic syndrome definitions in predicting primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in a vast multiethnic U.S. cohort. Methods This study included 6,814 self-identified men and women aged 45–84 years enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study. Gender-stratified analyses were performed to calculate hazard ratios of CVD, stroke, and mortality associated with various metabolic syndrome definitions and their individual constructs. Results The hazard ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] for all-cause CVD in men were 2.90 (2.18–3.85), 2.64 (1.98–3.51), 2.16 (1.62–2.88), 2.56 (1.91–3.44), 1.82 (1.35–2.46), and 2.92 (2.15–3.95) for the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), American Heart Association (AHA), World Health Organization (WHO), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR), and the newly defined consensus criteria. Hazard ratios in women were 2.11 (1.41–3.15), 2.17 (1.45–3.27), 2.04 (1.37–3.06), 1.91 (1.27–2.88), 1.85 (1.23–2.79), and 2.08 (1.37–3.14), respectively. Metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with stroke risk only in males. In men, all constitutive metabolic syndrome components were continuously and strongly associated with CVD. In women, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides did not appear to be associated with short term CVD risk. Conclusion We found the newly defined consensus criteria for metabolic syndrome to be similarly predictive of cardiovascular events when compared to existing definitions. Significant gender differences exist in the association between metabolic syndrome, its individual components, and CVD. PMID:21999397

  20. Cohort Profile: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project: a prospective study of non-communicable diseases in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100,000 individuals aged 35-70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the early detection of cancers and other diseases. At recruitment, a questionnaire-based interview was conducted, biophysical measurements were performed and biospecimens were collected, processed and stored. Baseline investigations included fasting blood sugar, fasting lipid profile, renal profile and full blood count. From April 2006 to the end of September 2012 we recruited a total of 106,527 participants. The baseline prevalence data showed 16.6% participants with diabetes, 46.5% with hypertension, 44.9% with hypercholesterolaemia and 17.7% with obesity. The follow-up phase commenced in June 2013. This is the most comprehensive and biggest cohort study in Malaysia, and has become a valuable resource for epidemiological and biological research. For information on collaboration and also data access, investigators can contact the project leader at (rahmanj@ppukm.ukm.edu.my).

  1. Cohort Profile: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project: a prospective study of non-communicable diseases in a multi-ethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100 000 individuals aged 35–70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the early detection of cancers and other diseases. At recruitment, a questionnaire-based interview was conducted, biophysical measurements were performed and biospecimens were collected, processed and stored. Baseline investigations included fasting blood sugar, fasting lipid profile, renal profile and full blood count. From April 2006 to the end of September 2012 we recruited a total of 106 527participants. The baseline prevalence data showed 16.6% participants with diabetes, 46.5% with hypertension, 44.9% with hypercholesterolaemia and 17.7% with obesity. The follow-up phase commenced in June 2013. This is the most comprehensive and biggest cohort study in Malaysia, and has become a valuable resource for epidemiological and biological research. For information on collaboration and also data access, investigators can contact the project leader at (rahmanj@ppukm.ukm.edu.my). PMID:24729425

  2. Population genomics of the Anthropocene: urbanization is negatively associated with genome-wide variation in white-footed mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Munshi-South, Jason; Zolnik, Christine P; Harris, Stephen E

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization results in pervasive habitat fragmentation and reduces standing genetic variation through bottlenecks and drift. Loss of genomewide variation may ultimately reduce the evolutionary potential of animal populations experiencing rapidly changing conditions. In this study, we examined genomewide variation among 23 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations sampled along an urbanization gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Genomewide variation was estimated as a proxy for evolutionary potential using more than 10 000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by ddRAD-Seq. We found that genomewide variation is inversely related to urbanization as measured by percent impervious surface cover, and to a lesser extent, human population density. We also report that urbanization results in enhanced genomewide differentiation between populations in cities. There was no pattern of isolation by distance among these populations, but an isolation by resistance model based on impervious surface significantly explained patterns of genetic differentiation. Isolation by environment modeling also indicated that urban populations deviate much more strongly from global allele frequencies than suburban or rural populations. This study is the first to examine loss of genomewide SNP variation along an urban-to-rural gradient and quantify urbanization as a driver of population genomic patterns.

  3. [Cities and oil. Historical and prospective aspects of the urban population of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Papail, J; Picquet, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a historical overview of urbanization in Venezuela. The impact of the oil economy on population change and spatial distribution is emphasized. A typology of cities based on socioeconomic function and on a demographic classification of urban centers is devised. Future trends in urbanization are also considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  4. The Black Urban Population of the Pre-civil War South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Jane Riblett

    1976-01-01

    Examines the urbanization of blacks in the slave states from 1790 to 1860. Changes in the geographic distribution and demographic structure of the black urban population provide new evidence to evaluate the causes of the decline of urban blacks and reveal the likelihood of a disproportionate incidence of incomplete families for both slave and free…

  5. Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaf, R.M.; Geis, A.D.; Healy, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD, were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m ? 91 m proved better than point counts. Transect counts reduced many of the problems associated with counting birds in urban areas, such as varying noise and visibility. Eighty percent of observations were recorded in the first 4 min. Habitat measurement procedures were examined also. It was found that a subsample of woody tree and shrub crown volumes made on 0.2 ha was highly correlated with similar measures made on 0.8-ha plots.

  6. Evaluation of body adiposity index as a predictor of aortic stiffness in multi-ethnic Asian population with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moh, Mei Chung; Sum, Chee Fang; Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Ng, Xiao Wei; Su, Chang; Tavintharan, Subramaniam; Yeoh, Lee Ying; Wong, Melvin Ding Sheng; Lee, Simon Biing Ming; Tang, Wern Ee; Lim, Su Chi

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the predictive ability of the recently developed body adiposity index for aortic stiffness, an intermediate endpoint of cardiovascular disease, in a cross-sectional multi-ethnic Asian type 2 diabetes mellitus cohort (N = 1408). AS was estimated using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measured by applanation tonometry. Body adiposity index was computed as hip circumference/(height)(1.5) - 18. Compared to body mass index, waist circumference and visceral fat area, body adiposity index displayed the weakest association with pulse wave velocity (r = 0.077, 0.096, 0.134 and 0.058, respectively; all p < 0.05). Interestingly, the relationship between measurements of obesity and pulse wave velocity was ethnic dependent - body mass index, body adiposity index, waist circumference and visceral fat area consistently predicted pulse wave velocity only in Indians but not others. In multi-variable analysis, body mass index was a significant determinant of pulse wave velocity in all ethnicities. In conclusion, body adiposity index is a weak predictor of aortic stiffness (when compared with body mass index) in Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chai, Weiwen; Nigg, Claudio R; Pagano, Ian S; Motl, Robert W; Horwath, Caroline; Dishman, Rod K

    2010-11-22

    High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity) with perceived quality of life (QOL) in a sample of free living adults. A cohort (N = 139) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month intervals for the first year and 6-month intervals for the second year. QOL was assessed from self-reports of mental or physical health at the end of the study. Overall, the cohort participants appeared to maintain relatively constant levels of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and TV/video watching. Physical activity was positively related to mental health (p-values < 0.05), but not physical health, at all time points regardless of participants' fruit and vegetable consumption and hours of TV/video watching. Neither mental nor physical health was associated with fruit and vegetable intake or TV/video watching. Our study supports that physical activity is positively associated with mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption and TV/video watching may be too specific to represent an individual's overall nutritional status and physical inactivity, respectively.

  8. Associations of quality of life with physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity in a free living, multiethnic population in Hawaii: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction High intake of fruit and vegetables and being physically active are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. In the current study, we examined the associations of physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and TV/video watching (indicator for physical inactivity) with perceived quality of life (QOL) in a sample of free living adults. Methods A cohort (N = 139) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of 700 adults living in Hawaii was evaluated at 3-month intervals for the first year and 6-month intervals for the second year. QOL was assessed from self-reports of mental or physical health at the end of the study. Results Overall, the cohort participants appeared to maintain relatively constant levels of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and TV/video watching. Physical activity was positively related to mental health (p-values < 0.05), but not physical health, at all time points regardless of participants' fruit and vegetable consumption and hours of TV/video watching. Neither mental nor physical health was associated with fruit and vegetable intake or TV/video watching. Conclusion Our study supports that physical activity is positively associated with mental health. Fruit and vegetable consumption and TV/video watching may be too specific to represent an individual's overall nutritional status and physical inactivity, respectively. PMID:21092223

  9. The impact of community-based, workshop activities in multiple local dialects on the vaccination coverage, sanitary living and the health status of multiethnic populations in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Keoprasith, Bounserth; Kizuki, Masashi; Watanabe, Masafumi; Takano, Takehito

    2013-09-01

    Studies on effective community-based intervention in areas inhabited by multiple ethnic groups are limited. The present study was performed to evaluate the impact of workshop activities in multiple local dialects guided by lay facilitators on vaccination coverage, sanitary living and health status in a northern district of Lao PDR. In target villages, facilitators were selected and trained to assist at village meetings to discuss health issues and develop and implement action plans. Manuals and posters with graphics were distributed. Skills were taught through demonstrations by specialists. The vaccination coverage among children and women improved significantly after 1 year. Villagers started using toilets, collecting and burning garbage, and isolating animals from human dwellings, and these activities were continued in 76, 84 and 87% of villages, respectively, 5 years after the start of the activities. The frequency of villagers falling ill was reduced in 67% of the villages. After adjustment for sociocultural characteristics and ethnicity, both the continuous sanitary living index and the reduction in the frequency of villagers falling ill were associated with the higher levels of community participation in the workshop activities. The results demonstrated that the community-based workshop activities improved vaccination coverage, sanitary living and health status. Participatory group discussions in local dialects and village activities led by lay facilitators, supervision and consultation by district trainers who were well recognized by villagers, and the distribution of pictorial educational materials can be an effective and sustainable health promotion approaches among multiethnic groups in under-resourced areas.

  10. Neighborhood-Level Socioeconomic Deprivation Predicts Weight Gain in a Multi-Ethnic Population: Longitudinal Data from the Dallas Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.; Ayers, Colby; Agyemang, Priscilla; Leonard, Tammy; Berrigan, David; Barbash, Rachel Ballard; Lian, Min; Das, Sandeep R.; Hoehner, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine relationship between neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation and weight change in a multi-ethnic cohort from Dallas County, Texas and whether behavioral/psychosocial factors attenuate the relationship. Methods Non-movers (those in the same neighborhood throughout the study period) aged 18–65 (N=939) in Dallas Heart Study (DHS) underwent weight measurements between 2000–2009 (median 7-year follow-up). Geocoded home addresses defined block groups; a neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created (higher NDI=greater deprivation). Multi-level modeling determined weight change relative to NDI. Model fit improvement was examined with adding physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions (higher score=more unfavorable perceptions) as covariates. A significant interaction between residence length and NDI was found (p-interaction=0.04); results were stratified by median residence length (11 years). Results Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, education/income, those who lived in neighborhood>11 years gained 1.0 kilograms (kg) per one-unit increment of NDI (p=0.03), or 6 kg for those in highest NDI tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Physical activity improved model fit; NDI remained associated with weight gain after adjustment for physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions. There was no significant relationship between NDI and weight change for those in their neighborhood≤11 years. Conclusions Living in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods over a longer time period was associated with weight gain in DHS. PMID:24875231

  11. Comprehensive Comparison of the Performance of Autogenous Brachial-Basilic Transposition Arteriovenous Fistula and Prosthetic Forearm Loop Arteriovenous Graft in a Multiethnic Asian Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Chue, Koy Min; Thant, Kyi Zin; Luo, Hai Dong; Soh, Yu Hang Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Aim. For patients who have exhausted cephalic vein arteriovenous fistula (AVF) options, controversy exists on whether brachial-basilic AVF with transposition (BBTAVF) or a forearm arteriovenous graft (AVG) should be the next vascular access of choice. This study compared the outcomes of these two modalities. Methods. A retrospective study of 122 Asian multiethnic patients who underwent either a BBTAVF (81) or an AVG (41). Maturation time and intervention rates were analyzed. Functional primary, secondary, and overall patency rates were evaluated. Results. The maturation time for BBTAVFs was significantly longer than AVGs. There was also a longer deliberation time before surgeons abandon a failing BBTAVF compared to an AVG. Both functional primary and secondary patency rates were significantly higher in the BBTAVF group at 1-year follow-up: 73.2% versus 34.1% (p < 0.001) and 71.8% versus 54.3% (p = 0.022), respectively. AVGs also required more interventions to maintain patency. When maturation rates were considered, the overall patency of AVGs was initially superior in the first 25 weeks after creation and then became inferior afterwards. Conclusion. BBTAVFs had superior primary and functional patency and required less salvage interventions. The forearm AVG might have a role in patients who require early vascular access due to complications from central venous catheters or with limited life expectancy. PMID:27840832

  12. Quantitative estimation of 21st-century urban greenspace changes in Chinese populous cities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Nie, Zhen; Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing

    2017-12-31

    Understanding the spatiotemporal changes of urban greenspace is a critical requirement for supporting urban planning and maintaining the function of urbanities. Although plenty of previous studies have attempted to estimate urban greenspace changes in China, there still remain shortcomings such as inconsistent surveying procedures and insufficient spatial resolution and city samples. Using cloud-free Landsat image composites in circa years 2000 and 2014, and Defense Meteorological Program Satellite Program's Operational Line-scan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime lights dataset, we quantitatively estimated the urban greenspace changes regarding both administrative divisions and urban core boundaries across 98 Chinese populous cities. Results showed that a consistent decline of urban greenspace coverage was identified at both old and new urban areas in the majority of analyzed cities (i.e., 81.63% of cities regarding the administrative boundaries, and 86.73% of cities regarding the urban core boundaries). Partial correlation analysis also revealed that total urban greenspace area shrank as a linear function of the core urban expansion (R(2)=0.28, P<0.001), and a significant correlation was confirmed between population change and urban greenspace change across those Chinese populous cities included in this study (R(2)=0.11, P<0.001). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Regional and urban population size weights in Saudi Arabia, 1962-1974.

    PubMed

    Makki, M S

    1986-09-01

    "The aim of this paper is to study the development of population weights for regions and urban centres in Saudi Arabia through the period 1962-1974. In order to achieve this aim some non-parametric statistical rules have been used such as rank-size rule and the four-city index. The results show non-balanced distribution of population on both regional and urban scales. The concentration of people in urban centres is more pronounced than the concentration in regions. This is due to internal and external movement of population towards large-sized urban centres." excerpt

  14. Prevalence of Glaucoma in an Urban West African Population

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Donald L.; Barton, Keith; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Schiffman, Joyce; Bandi, Jagadeesh; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Kim, Hanna; Hay-Smith, Graham; Tielsch, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Multiple studies have found an increased prevalence, younger age at onset, and more severe course of glaucoma in people of African descent, but these findings are based on studies conducted outside Africa. Objective To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in an urban West African population of adults. Design and Setting A population-based, cross-sectional study of adults 40 years and older conducted from September 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, from 5 communities in Tema, Ghana. Participants Participants from randomly selected clusters underwent a screening examination that consisted of visual acuity, frequency doubling perimetry, applanation tonometry, and optic disc photography. Participants who failed any of these tests were referred for complete examination, including gonioscopy, standard automated perimetry, and stereoscopic optic disc photography. Results A total of 6806 eligible participants were identified, and 5603 (82.3%) were enrolled in the study. The field examination referred 1869 participants (33.3%) to the clinic examination, and 1538 (82.2%) came for complete examination. A total of 362 participants were identified as having glaucoma of any type and category. Primary open-angle glaucoma was the underlying diagnosis in 342 participants (94.5%). The prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma was 6.8% overall, increasing from 3.7% among those 40 to 49 years old to 14.6% among those 80 years and older, and was higher in men than in women in all age groups, with an overall male-female prevalence ratio of 1.5. Of the participants with glaucoma, 9 (2.5%) were blind using World Health Organization criteria, and only 12 (3.3%) were aware that they had glaucoma. Conclusions and Relevance The prevalence of glaucoma is higher in this urban West African population than in previous studies of people of East or South African and of non-African descent. Strategies to identify affected persons and effectively manage the burden of glaucoma are needed

  15. Urbanization and industrialization versus biological status of human populations.

    PubMed

    Siniarska, A; Antoszewska, A; Dziewiecki, C

    1992-01-01

    The paper concerns the biological status of the Polish population. A comparison was made for inhabitants of towns, villages, and areas under different levels of industrialization and environmental pollution. It has been found that urban populations as compared with rural ones were characterized by a smaller number of children within a family, higher natural abortion rate, and higher infant mortality (estimated during the first 24 hours of life). An analysis of birth rate in three groups of birth weight has shown that rural habitats were more suitable for prenatal development than urban habitats, as a higher proportion of newborns had optimum body weight at birth in villages. It has been observed that the biological status of fetus (estimated as the body weight at birth) depended on the socio-economic conditions (a relatively high birth rate with optimum body weight in the first half of the 1970s, and a low birth rate in the years of the social crisis in Poland in 1981-82). Moreover, it has been found that in agricultural areas relatively little polluted (the Suwałki region), birth rate and total mortality were high, respiratory traits reached highest values, and blood pressure was low as compared with values of these traits in other areas of Poland. The inhabitants of industrial centers (Puchaczów, Bukowno) were exposed to heavier environmental pollution than the rural population, and at Puchaczów they were characterized by a short stature and low body weight. The seaside region (Jastarnia) was over-crowded and also affected by the pollution of the Puck Bay. Both these factors could account for a high mortality and emigration rate. Inhabitants of the areas being industrialized (Bełchatów) were characterized by a low total mortality, below average for infants, poor development of the respiratory system, but a high psychomotor fitness. In the city of Lódź and in Strzemieszyce, environmental pollution was very high, which was combined with a very high total

  16. Left-handedness and neurotic disturbances in adult urban population.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Sanja; Brkić, Milica; Belojević, Goran

    2013-01-01

    Controversial results on the relationship between the left-handedness and neurotic disturbances have been obtained in so far investigations. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between the left-handedness and neurotic disturbances in an adult urban population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 1,202 adult residents of the Stari Grad municipality in Belgrade, out of which 401 were males (33.4%) and 801 were females (66.6%). A questionnaire was used as an investigation instrument, with questions concerning age, gender, writing hand and neurotic disturbances: tension, agressiveness, anger, nervousness, weepiness and seclusion. Left-handedness was found in 60 subjects (5%) and it was statistically more frequent in males (7.7%) compared to females (3.6%) (p = 0.003). A decreasing trend of proportion of left-handed males was found in relation to aging. In the age group 18 to 39 years, agressiveness, as a specific neurotic disturbance, was significantly more frequent in left-handed males in comparison to right-handers (p = 0.035). In the age group 40 to 59 years, neurotic disturbances were more common among left-handed males compared to right-handers (p = 0.030).There were no significant diferences in the proportion of neurotic disturbances between the left-handed and the right-handed females. From a public health point of view, left-handed men may be regarded as a relatively vulnerable population category concerning mental health.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  18. Intimate Partner Violence among General and Urban Poor Populations in Kathmandu, Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshiro, Azusa; Poudyal, Amod K.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine; Hokama, Tomiko

    2011-01-01

    Comparative studies are lacking on intimate partner violence (IPV) between urban poor and general populations. The objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factors of physical IPV among the general and poor populations in urban Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted by structured questionnaire interview. Participants…

  19. Predictors of Change in Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Population in Hawaii at 6 and 12 Months Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Joy C.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Liu, Min; Banna, Jinan C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting behaviors have been shown to co-exist, but it is unknown if decisional balance with regards to one health behavior may predict change in another behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between benefits (pros) and costs (cons) of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) and behavior over time, both within behaviors and transbehaviorally. This longitudinal study was conducted in multiethnic adults in Hawaii (n = 700; 63% female; mean age = 47 years; mean BMI = 25.9; mean education = 14.5 years, average household income = $45,000/year). Questionnaires assessed PA and FV pros/cons on a 5-point Likert Scale, PA (MET-min/wk), and FV intake (servings/day). Multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between pros/cons for PA and FV intake and behavior at 6- and 12-month follow-up. At baseline, average FV pros were 4.08 (.91), and average FV cons were 1.88 (.90). Average baseline PA pros were 4.07 (.89), and average PA cons were 1.71 (.77). Multiple regressions revealed that baseline FV pros and cons predicted FV intake, FV cons also predicted PA, and PA pros and cons were not predictive of PA or of FV intake. Study findings provide some support for decisional balance as a useful core construct used in leading theories of behavior change. Improving decisional balance for FV intake may have a beneficial effect on FV intake and potentially PA, indicating a potential gateway effect of decisional balance for FV intake on other behaviors. PMID:27525198

  20. Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation predicts weight gain in a multi-ethnic population: longitudinal data from the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Ayers, Colby; Agyemang, Priscilla; Leonard, Tammy; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Lian, Min; Das, Sandeep R; Hoehner, Christine M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine a relationship between neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation and weight change in a multi-ethnic cohort from Dallas County, Texas and whether behavioral/psychosocial factors attenuate the relationship. Non-movers (those in the same neighborhood throughout the study period) aged 18-65 (N=939) in Dallas Heart Study (DHS) underwent weight measurements between 2000 and 2009 (median 7-year follow-up). Geocoded home addresses defined block groups; a neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created (higher NDI=greater deprivation). Multi-level modeling determined weight change relative to NDI. Model fit improvement was examined with adding physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions (higher score=more unfavorable perceptions) as covariates. A significant interaction between residence length and NDI was found (p-interaction=0.04); results were stratified by median residence length (11 years). Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, and education/income, those who lived in neighborhood >11 years gained 1.0 kg per one-unit increment of NDI (p=0.03), or 6 kg for those in highest NDI tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Physical activity improved model fit; NDI remained associated with weight gain after adjustment for physical activity and neighborhood environment perceptions. There was no significant relationship between NDI and weight change for those in their neighborhood ≤11 years. Living in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods over a longer time period was associated with weight gain in DHS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Advancing Community–Based Research with Urban American Indian Populations: Multidisciplinary Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, William E.; Wendt, Dennis C.; Saftner, Melissa A.; Marcus, John; Momper, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. has witnessed significant growth among urban AI populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides “lessons learned” from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations. PMID:24659391

  2. Advancing community-based research with urban American Indian populations: multidisciplinary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, William E; Wendt, Dennis C; Saftner, Melissa A; Marcus, John; Momper, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    The US has witnessed significant growth among urban American Indian (AI) populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides “lessons learned” from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations.

  3. Urban habitat fragmentation and genetic population structure of bobcats in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruell, E.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Douglas, M.R.; Antolin, M.F.; Pollinger, J.R.; Tracey, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Crooks, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is recognized as a primary threat to biodiversity, the effects of urban development on genetic population structure vary among species and landscapes and are not yet well understood. Here we use non-invasive genetic sampling to compare the effects of fragmentation by major roads and urban development on levels of dispersal, genetic diversity, and relatedness between paired bobcat populations in replicate landscapes in coastal southern California. We hypothesized that bobcat populations in sites surrounded by urbanization would experience reduced functional connectivity relative to less isolated nearby populations. Our results show that bobcat genetic population structure is affected by roads and development but not always as predicted by the degree that these landscape features surround fragments. Instead, we suggest that urban development may affect functional connectivity between bobcat populations more by limiting the number and genetic diversity of source populations of migrants than by creating impermeable barriers to dispersal.

  4. A viable population of the European red squirrel in an urban park.

    PubMed

    Rézouki, Célia; Dozières, Anne; Le Cœur, Christie; Thibault, Sophie; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Whether urban parks can maintain viable and self-sustaining populations over the long term is questionable. In highly urbanized landscapes, urban parks could play a role in biodiversity conservation by providing habitat and resources to native species. However, populations inhabiting urban parks are usually small and isolated, leading to increased demographic stochasticity and genetic drift, with expected negative consequences on their viability. Here, we investigated a European red squirrel population located in an urban park close to Paris, France (Parc de Sceaux; 184 ha) to assess its viability. Using mitochondrial D-loop sequences and 13 microsatellite loci, we showed that the population presented high levels of genetic variation and no evidence of inbreeding. The size of the population was estimated at 100-120 individuals based on the comparison of two census techniques, Distance Sampling and Capture-Mark-Recapture. The estimated heterozygosity level and population size were integrated in a Population Viability Analysis to project the likelihood of the population's persistence over time. Results indicate that the red squirrel population of this urban park can be viable on the long term (i.e. 20 years) for a range of realistic demographic parameters (juvenile survival at least >40%) and immigration rates (at least one immigration event every two years). This study highlights that urban parks can be potential suitable refuges for the red squirrel, a locally threatened species across western European countries, provided that ecological corridors are maintained.

  5. A Viable Population of the European Red Squirrel in an Urban Park

    PubMed Central

    Rézouki, Célia; Dozières, Anne; Le Cœur, Christie; Thibault, Sophie; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Whether urban parks can maintain viable and self-sustaining populations over the long term is questionable. In highly urbanized landscapes, urban parks could play a role in biodiversity conservation by providing habitat and resources to native species. However, populations inhabiting urban parks are usually small and isolated, leading to increased demographic stochasticity and genetic drift, with expected negative consequences on their viability. Here, we investigated a European red squirrel population located in an urban park close to Paris, France (Parc de Sceaux; 184 ha) to assess its viability. Using mitochondrial D-loop sequences and 13 microsatellite loci, we showed that the population presented high levels of genetic variation and no evidence of inbreeding. The size of the population was estimated at 100–120 individuals based on the comparison of two census techniques, Distance Sampling and Capture-Mark-Recapture. The estimated heterozygosity level and population size were integrated in a Population Viability Analysis to project the likelihood of the population's persistence over time. Results indicate that the red squirrel population of this urban park can be viable on the long term (i.e. 20 years) for a range of realistic demographic parameters (juvenile survival at least >40%) and immigration rates (at least one immigration event every two years). This study highlights that urban parks can be potential suitable refuges for the red squirrel, a locally threatened species across western European countries, provided that ecological corridors are maintained. PMID:25126848

  6. Atrial fibrillation incidence and risk factors in relation to race-ethnicity and the population attributable fraction of atrial fibrillation risk factors: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos J; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Alonso, Alvaro; Swett, Katrina; Okin, Peter M; Goff, David C; Heckbert, Susan R

    2015-02-01

    We studied incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in the prospective community-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Reportedly, non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) have a lower AF burden compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts. Information on the epidemiology of AF in Hispanic and Asian populations is much more limited. We excluded participants with a history of AF at enrollment. A total of 6721 MESA participants were monitored for the first AF event ascertained according to hospital discharge International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates (IRs) of AF were calculated per 1000 person-years of observation. IR ratios were calculated using NHWs as the reference group. Age- and sex-adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) of established modifiable AF risk factors were ascertained. In the MESA cohort, 47.2% was male; at baseline, 25.7% had hypertension; 12.5% had diabetes. Three hundred five incident hospitalized AF events occurred over a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. Age- and sex-adjusted IRs and IR ratios showed that overall AF incidence was significantly lower among Hispanics, NHBs and Chinese compared with NHWs (all P < .001). Among participants 65 years of age or greater, Hispanics, Chinese, and blacks had significantly lower AF incidence than NHWs (all P ≤ .01), but IRs were similar among participants under age 65 years. The PAF for smoking was 27% among NHBs but lower among other race-ethnic groups. Among NHWs, the PAF for hypertension was 22.2%, but this was higher among NHBs (33.1%), Chinese (46.3%), and Hispanics (43.9%). Overall, the incidence of hospitalized AF was significantly lower in Hispanics, NHBs, and Chinese than in NHWs. A larger proportion of AF events appear to be attributable to hypertension among nonwhite populations compared with NHWs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Population-based assessment of heartburn in urban Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, F K; Makipour, K; Palit, A; Shah, S; Vanar, V; Richter, J E

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence data for heartburn in the urban Black American community is lacking. In order to estimate prevalence for this community, we analyzed data from an ongoing cohort study in progress at our hospital. Comprehensive interviews allowed for exploration of factors associated with heartburn. Complex, stratified sampling design was the method used. Survey invitations are hand-delivered to random blocks in a single zip code tabulation area. One member per eligible household is invited to complete a computer-based survey. Heartburn was defined as ≥ 3 days/week of symptoms as defined by the Montreal Definition and Classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scaling and weighting factors were utilized to estimate population level prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictor variables for heartburn. Enrolled 379 participants corresponding to a weighted sample size of 22,409 (20,888-23,930) citizens. Demographic characteristics of the sample closely matched those of the entire targeted population. Overall, the weighted prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week was 17.6% (16.4-18.8%). Variables independently associated with heartburn were body mass index, daily caloric and fat intake, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 2.95; 2.59-3.36), cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (odds ratio = 2.55; 2.25-2.89). Factors inversely associated included illicit drug use and increased physical activity. Waist : hip ratio showed no relationship. The prevalence of heartburn ≥ 3 times per week is high in the Black American community. Adverse lifestyle behaviors showed particularly important associations. Our study needs to be replicated in other communities with similar demographics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  8. Diabetes mellitus in an urban population in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Waspadji, S; Ranakusuma, A B; Suyono, S; Supartondo, S; Sukaton, U

    1983-12-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in an urban population in Koja Utara subdistrict of Jakarta is 1.63%. The prevalence of diabetes increases with age. The tendency toward bimodality in the 55-64 age group of our study lends support to the usefulness of the WHO criteria 1980. There is no difference between the sexes. Male to female ratio was 1.2:1. There is a higher prevalence of diabetes among the obese, and the obese and overweight comprise 65.9% of diabetics. Obesity seems to be an important risk factor in the development of diabetes. There was a higher prevalence of diabetes in the high socio-economic level group than in the low one. The group of Chinese origin showed a higher prevalence of diabetes than the other groups. A positive family history of diabetes was found in 27% of our diabetic patients. Dietary recall analysis revealed no significant difference in the percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat, or in the percentage of refined carbohydrate. However, total caloric intake was significantly higher in the high socio-economic-diabetic group. Total caloric intake seemed to be more important than quantitative dietary factors.

  9. Genome-wide testing of putative functional exonic variants in relationship with breast and prostate cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Haiman, Christopher A; Han, Ying; Feng, Ye; Xia, Lucy; Hsu, Chris; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Patel, Yesha; Kolonel, Laurence N; Carter, Erin; Park, Karen; Le Marchand, Loic; Van Den Berg, David; Henderson, Brian E; Stram, Daniel O

    2013-03-01

    Rare variation in protein coding sequence is poorly captured by GWAS arrays and has been hypothesized to contribute to disease heritability. Using the Illumina HumanExome SNP array, we successfully genotyped 191,032 common and rare non-synonymous, splice site, or nonsense variants in a multiethnic sample of 2,984 breast cancer cases, 4,376 prostate cancer cases, and 7,545 controls. In breast cancer, the strongest associations included either SNPs in or gene burden scores for genes LDLRAD1, SLC19A1, FGFBP3, CASP5, MMAB, SLC16A6, and INS-IGF2. In prostate cancer, one of the most associated SNPs was in the gene GPRC6A (rs2274911, Pro91Ser, OR = 0.88, P = 1.3 × 10(-5)) near to a known risk locus for prostate cancer; other suggestive associations were noted in genes such as F13A1, ANXA4, MANSC1, and GP6. For both breast and prostate cancer, several of the most significant associations involving SNPs or gene burden scores (sum of minor alleles) were noted in genes previously reported to be associated with a cancer-related phenotype. However, only one of the associations (rs145889899 in LDLRAD1, p = 2.5 × 10(-7) only seen in African Americans) for overall breast or prostate cancer risk was statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. In addition to breast and prostate cancer, other cancer-related traits were examined (body mass index, PSA level, and alcohol drinking) with a number of known and potentially novel associations described. In general, these findings do not support there being many protein coding variants of moderate to high risk for breast and prostate cancer with odds ratios over a range that is probably required for protein coding variation to play a truly outstanding role in risk heritability. Very large sample sizes will be required to better define the role of rare and less penetrant coding variation in prostate and breast cancer disease genetics.

  10. Genome-Wide Testing of Putative Functional Exonic Variants in Relationship with Breast and Prostate Cancer Risk in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Haiman, Christopher A.; Xia, Lucy; Hsu, Chris; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Patel, Yesha; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Carter, Erin; Park, Karen; Le Marchand, Loic; Van Den Berg, David; Henderson, Brian E.; Stram, Daniel O.

    2013-01-01

    Rare variation in protein coding sequence is poorly captured by GWAS arrays and has been hypothesized to contribute to disease heritability. Using the Illumina HumanExome SNP array, we successfully genotyped 191,032 common and rare non-synonymous, splice site, or nonsense variants in a multiethnic sample of 2,984 breast cancer cases, 4,376 prostate cancer cases, and 7,545 controls. In breast cancer, the strongest associations included either SNPs in or gene burden scores for genes LDLRAD1, SLC19A1, FGFBP3, CASP5, MMAB, SLC16A6, and INS-IGF2. In prostate cancer, one of the most associated SNPs was in the gene GPRC6A (rs2274911, Pro91Ser, OR = 0.88, P = 1.3×10−5) near to a known risk locus for prostate cancer; other suggestive associations were noted in genes such as F13A1, ANXA4, MANSC1, and GP6. For both breast and prostate cancer, several of the most significant associations involving SNPs or gene burden scores (sum of minor alleles) were noted in genes previously reported to be associated with a cancer-related phenotype. However, only one of the associations (rs145889899 in LDLRAD1, p = 2.5×10−7 only seen in African Americans) for overall breast or prostate cancer risk was statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. In addition to breast and prostate cancer, other cancer-related traits were examined (body mass index, PSA level, and alcohol drinking) with a number of known and potentially novel associations described. In general, these findings do not support there being many protein coding variants of moderate to high risk for breast and prostate cancer with odds ratios over a range that is probably required for protein coding variation to play a truly outstanding role in risk heritability. Very large sample sizes will be required to better define the role of rare and less penetrant coding variation in prostate and breast cancer disease genetics. PMID:23555315

  11. Impaired Fasting Glucose And The Risk Of Incident Diabetes Mellitus And Cardiovascular Events In An Adult Population: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yeboah, Joseph; Bertoni, Alain G; Herrington, David M; Post, Wendy S; Burke, Gregory L

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the cardiovascular risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Background The association between IFG, incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular (CV) events remains unclear. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) included participants aged 45–84 free of clinical CV disease at baseline (2000–2002). T2DM was defined as fasting glucose >125mg/dl or anti-diabetes medication at baseline and follow-up exams, IFG as no T2DM and fasting glucose 100–125.mg/dl. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to assess the association between IFG and incident DM and also with incident CV events. Results Of 6753 participants included in these analyses 840 (12.7%) had T2DM, 940 (13.8%) had IFG at the baseline exam. During 7.5 years of follow-up there were 418 adjudicated CV events. T2DM was associated with an increased CV incidence in the univariate [hazard ratio (HR); 2.83(2.25–3.56), p<0.0001] and multivariable models (adjusted for demographics and traditional risk factors) [HR; 1.87(1.47 – 2.37), p<0.0001] compared with subjects without T2DM (IFG + NFG). IFG was associated with increased incidence of T2DM [HR; 13.2 (95%CI 10.8–16.2), p<0.001] that remained after adjusting for demographics, highest educational level, physical activity and BMI [HR; 10.5(8.4–13.1), p<0.001] compared to NFG. IFG was associated with incident CV events in the univariate [HR; 1.64(1.26 – 2.14), p=<0.001] but not in the full multivariable model [HR; 1.16(95% CI 0.88–1.52), p=0.3] compared with NFG. Conclusion Having IFG was not independently associated with an increased short-term risk for incident CV events. These data reiterate the importance of intervention in persons with IFG to reduce their incidence of T2DM. PMID:21718910

  12. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-08-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST , and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Dynamics of Cities: Assessing Scaling Relations of Past and Projected Urban Population and Infrastructure to Analyze Trajectories of Urbanization in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Future projections of population estimate that Earth will add 2.5 billion urban inhabitants by 2050. Rapid urbanization will occur to meet the demands of increasing populations. Bettencourt's theory of urban scaling states (1) that properties of urban infrastructure (Y) are power law functions of population (N), described as Y=Y0Nβ, where β < 1.0 for urban infrastructure, and (2) that the relationship is scale-invariant. Studies by Bettencourt and colleagues provide evidence to support urban scaling using a range of urban infrastructure variables, such as impervious surface area or road volume as a power law function of population size. We tested the theory of urban scaling using, as a metric of urban infrastructure, the percent developed imperviousness (%ISA) data product at 30 m spatial resolution from the USGS National Land Cover Database for 2001, 2006, and 2011. We examined the scaling relations between %ISA and population for all metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the conterminous U.S. We compared the parameter coefficients derived from data in the recent past (2001-2011) to the parameter coefficients estimated using two different urban growth projections for 2010-2100. Both urban growth datasets included projections based on the IPCC SRES storylines. As expected, we found β < 1.0 for urban infrastructure properties using both the recent data and future projections. We found β to decrease over time for both urban projection datasets, suggesting increased densification of MSAs in the future. We calculated change in %ISA and population to investigate the impacts of the SRES storylines on future urban density. We found three major patterns in projections of future urban area and population by MSA: (1) increased densification of urban areas along the border with Mexico; (2) stagnant to decreasing population by 2100 yet increasing %ISA (small MSAs); and (3) a linear trend where increases in population coincide with increases in %ISA.

  14. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. Objectives: We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. Methods: We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Conclusions: Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Citation: Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of

  15. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-07-01

    Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of heat-related mortality in an elderly urban population by

  16. HLA-A*31: 01 and HLA-B*15:02 association with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis to carbamazepine in a multiethnic Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Khor, Amy Hui-Ping; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Tan, Chong-Tin; Kwan, Zhenli; Tan, Wooi-Chiang; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2017-07-01

    The majority of the carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis CBZ-SJS/TEN are associated with HLA-B*15:02 in Asian populations where this allele is common. In contrast, the association with HLA-A*31:01 is only reported in Japanese and Europeans. This study aimed to further investigate the association with HLA-A*31:01 besides HLA-B*15:02 in a multiethnic Malaysian population. Twenty-eight CBZ-SJS/TEN cases and 227 CBZ-tolerant controls were recruited. Association was tested by comparing carrier frequencies of the alleles between cases and controls. Significant associations were detected between HLA-B*15:02 and CBZ-SJS/TEN in independent ethnic groups: Malays [P=2.00×10; odds ratio (OR): 49.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.36-256.81], Chinese (P=0.0047; OR: 14.3; 95% CI: 2.38-86.03) and Indians (P=0.04; OR: 13.8; 95% CI: 1.51-124.99). Combined analysis of all ethnic groups showed a significant association with OR Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (ORCMH) of 26.6 (95% CI: 12.80-55.25; PCMH=2.31×10). In Indians, HLA-A*31:01 was found to be associated significantly with CBZ-SJS/TEN (P=0.023; OR: 10.4; 95% CI: 1.64-65.79) and combined analyses of both variants, HLA-A*31:01 and HLA-B*15:02, increased the strength of the association (P=0.0068; OR: 14.3; 95% CI: 2.20-92.9). Besides HLA-B*15:02, our study found a new association between HLA-A*31:01 and CBZ-SJS/TEN in Indians.

  17. Seasonal associations with urban light pollution for nocturnally migrating bird populations.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Buler, Jeffrey J; Farnsworth, Andrew; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A

    2017-11-01

    The spatial extent and intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) has increased worldwide through the growth of urban environments. There is evidence that nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to ALAN, and there is evidence that nocturnally migrating bird populations are more likely to occur in urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn. Here, we test if urban sources of ALAN are responsible, at least in part, for these observed urban associations. We use weekly estimates of diurnal occurrence and relative abundance for 40 nocturnally migrating bird species that breed in forested environments in North America to assess how associations with distance to urban areas and ALAN are defined across the annual cycle. Migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with shorter distances to urban areas during migration, and stronger than expected association with higher levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas during migration. These patterns were more pronounced during autumn migration, especially within urban areas. Outside of the two migration periods, migratory bird populations presented stronger than expected associations with longer distances to urban areas, especially during the nonbreeding season, and weaker than expected associations with the highest levels of ALAN outside and especially within urban areas. These findings suggest that ALAN is associated with higher levels of diurnal abundance along the boundaries and within the interior of urban areas during migration, especially in the autumn when juveniles are undertaking their first migration journey. These findings support the conclusion that urban sources of ALAN can broadly effect migratory behavior, emphasizing the need to better understand the implications of ALAN for migratory bird populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Air Pollution and the Microvasculature: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of In Vivo Retinal Images in the Population-Based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Adar, Sara D.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y.; O'Neill, Marie S.; Shrager, Sandi; Barr, R. Graham; Siscovick, David S.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Sampson, Paul D.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Long- and short-term exposures to air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5), have been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One hypothesized mechanism for these associations involves microvascular effects. Retinal photography provides a novel, in vivo approach to examine the association of air pollution with changes in the human microvasculature. Methods and Findings Chronic and acute associations between residential air pollution concentrations and retinal vessel diameters, expressed as central retinal arteriolar equivalents (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalents (CRVE), were examined using digital retinal images taken in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants between 2002 and 2003. Study participants (46 to 87 years of age) were without clinical cardiovascular disease at the baseline examination (2000–2002). Long-term outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated at each participant's home for the 2 years preceding the clinical exam using a spatio-temporal model. Short-term concentrations were assigned using outdoor measurements on the day preceding the clinical exam. Residential proximity to roadways was also used as an indicator of long-term traffic exposures. All associations were examined using linear regression models adjusted for subject-specific age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes status, serum cholesterol, glucose, blood pressure, emphysema, C-reactive protein, medication use, and fellow vessel diameter. Short-term associations were further controlled for weather and seasonality. Among the 4,607 participants with complete data, CRAE were found to be narrower among persons residing in regions with increased long- and short-term levels of PM2.5. These relationships were observed in a joint exposure model with −0.8 µm (95% confidence interval [CI] −1.1 to −0

  19. Air Pollution and the microvasculature: a cross-sectional assessment of in vivo retinal images in the population-based multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Adar, Sara D; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Szpiro, Adam A; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y; O'Neill, Marie S; Shrager, Sandi; Barr, R Graham; Siscovick, David S; Daviglus, Martha L; Sampson, Paul D; Kaufman, Joel D

    2010-11-30

    Long- and short-term exposures to air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), have been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One hypothesized mechanism for these associations involves microvascular effects. Retinal photography provides a novel, in vivo approach to examine the association of air pollution with changes in the human microvasculature. Chronic and acute associations between residential air pollution concentrations and retinal vessel diameters, expressed as central retinal arteriolar equivalents (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalents (CRVE), were examined using digital retinal images taken in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants between 2002 and 2003. Study participants (46 to 87 years of age) were without clinical cardiovascular disease at the baseline examination (2000-2002). Long-term outdoor concentrations of PM(2.5) were estimated at each participant's home for the 2 years preceding the clinical exam using a spatio-temporal model. Short-term concentrations were assigned using outdoor measurements on the day preceding the clinical exam. Residential proximity to roadways was also used as an indicator of long-term traffic exposures. All associations were examined using linear regression models adjusted for subject-specific age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes status, serum cholesterol, glucose, blood pressure, emphysema, C-reactive protein, medication use, and fellow vessel diameter. Short-term associations were further controlled for weather and seasonality. Among the 4,607 participants with complete data, CRAE were found to be narrower among persons residing in regions with increased long- and short-term levels of PM(2.5). These relationships were observed in a joint exposure model with -0.8 µm (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.1 to -0.5) and -0.4 µm (95% CI -0.8 to 0

  20. Periodontal status in an urban adult population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Söder, P O; Jin, L J; Söder, B; Wikner, S

    1994-04-01

    The purpose was to describe the current periodontal status in a Swedish urban population aged 31-40 yr. 1681 individuals, 840 men and 841 women, participated in the study. 68.5% of the subjects had low amount of plaque, 82.8% low level of calculus and 28.9% healthy gingiva or mild gingivitis. 82.8% of the subjects had no pockets with probing depth (PD) > or = 5 mm. 4.9% of the subjects had one tooth with PD > or = 5 mm, 6.7% 2-5 teeth, 2.4% 6-9 teeth and 3.2% > or = 10 teeth with pockets. 55.8% of the subjects had no missing teeth, third molars excluded. 16.5% had one tooth missing, 23.8% 2-5 teeth, 2.7% 6-9 teeth and 1.2% > or = 10 teeth. 8.6% of the subjects had at least one front tooth missing, 28.7% one premolar and 24.1% one molar missing. Men had significantly higher scores than women for plaque (DI-S), calculus (CI-S), gingivitis (GI-M), and number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm. Smokers had significantly higher scores than non-smokers for DI-S, CI-S, GI-M, number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm, and number of missing teeth. The individuals who visited the dentist every year had better oral hygiene and gingival status than those who attended for > 3 yr. The multiple regression analysis showed that calculus (P = 0.0001) smoking (P = 0.001), and dental visits (P = 0.0284) were significantly correlated to the number of teeth with PD > or = 5 mm.

  1. Endless urban growth? On the mismatch of population, household and urban land area growth and its effects on the urban debate.

    PubMed

    Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Annegret

    2013-01-01

    In European cities, the rate of population growth has declined significantly, while the number of households has increased. This increase in the number of households is associated with an increase in space for housing. To date, the effects of both a declining population and decreasing household numbers remain unclear. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between population and household number development in 188 European cities from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006 to the growth of urban land area and per capita living space. Our results support a trend toward decreasing population with simultaneously increasing household number. However, we also found cites facing both a declining population and a decreasing household number. Nevertheless, the urban land area of these "double-declining" cities has continued to spread because the increasing per capita living space counteracts a reduction in land consumption. We conclude that neither a decline in population nor in household number "automatically" solve the global problem of land consumption.

  2. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population

    PubMed Central

    Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc’h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  3. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population.

    PubMed

    Desvars-Larrive, Amélie; Pascal, Michel; Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  4. Issues in Urban Vocational Education for Special Populations. TASPP Brief. Volume 2, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repetto, Jeanne

    1990-01-01

    Families in urban areas struggle with drug abuse, poverty, increasing housing costs, and lack of affordable child care. The challenges confronting urban schools include a higher dropout rate, higher youth unemployment, and the need to address a variety of special needs of their student population, such as programs for pregnant students, dropouts,…

  5. Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity.

    PubMed

    Tatem, Andrew J; Guerra, Carlos A; Kabaria, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Hay, Simon I

    2008-10-27

    The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs) for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed significant differences between author-defined 'urban

  6. Human population, urban settlement patterns and their impact on Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J; Guerra, Carlos A; Kabaria, Caroline W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Hay, Simon I

    2008-01-01

    Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control and the optimal distribution of appropriate interventions require accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk and of the human populations it affects. Low population densities in rural areas and high population densities in urban areas can influence malaria transmission substantially. Here, the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) global database of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys, medical intelligence and contemporary population surfaces are utilized to explore these relationships and other issues involved in combining malaria risk maps with those of human population distribution in order to define populations at risk more accurately. Methods First, an existing population surface was examined to determine if it was sufficiently detailed to be used reliably as a mask to identify areas of very low and very high population density as malaria free regions. Second, the potential of international travel and health guidelines (ITHGs) for identifying malaria free cities was examined. Third, the differences in PfPR values between surveys conducted in author-defined rural and urban areas were examined. Fourth, the ability of various global urban extent maps to reliably discriminate these author-based classifications of urban and rural in the PfPR database was investigated. Finally, the urban map that most accurately replicated the author-based classifications was analysed to examine the effects of urban classifications on PfPR values across the entire MAP database. Results Masks of zero population density excluded many non-zero PfPR surveys, indicating that the population surface was not detailed enough to define areas of zero transmission resulting from low population densities. In contrast, the ITHGs enabled the identification and mapping of 53 malaria free urban areas within endemic countries. Comparison of PfPR survey results showed significant differences

  7. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Kanavos, Panos

    2012-09-18

    Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as "excellent or good" and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality.

  8. The less healthy urban population: income-related health inequality in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health inequality has been recognized as a problem all over the world. In China, the poor usually have less access to healthcare than the better-off, despite having higher levels of need. Since the proportion of the Chinese population living in urban areas increased tremendously with the urbanization movements, attention has been paid to the association between urban/rural residence and population health. It is important to understand the variation in health across income groups, and in particular to take into account the effects of urban/rural residence on the degree of income-related health inequalities. Methods This paper empirically assesses the magnitude of rural/urban disparities in income-related adult health status, i.e., self-assessed health (SAH) and physical activity limitation, using Concentration Indices. It then uses decomposition methods to unravel the causes of inequalities and their variations across urban and rural populations. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 are used. Results The study finds that the poor are less likely to report their health status as “excellent or good” and are more likely to have physical activity limitation. Such inequality is more pronounced for the urban population than for the rural population. Results from the decomposition analysis suggest that, for the urban population, 76.47 per cent to 79.07 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic/socioeconomic-related factors, among which income, job status and educational level are the most important factors. For the rural population, 48.19 per cent to 77.78 per cent of inequalities are driven by non-demographic factors. Income and educational attainment appear to have a prominent influence on inequality. Conclusion The findings suggest that policy targeting the poor, especially the urban poor, is needed in order to reduce health inequality. PMID:22989200

  9. Inhalation of motor vehicle emissions: effects of urban population and land area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Urban population density may influence transportation demand, e.g., as expressed through average daily vehicle-kilometers traveled in private motor vehicles per capita. In turn, changes in transportation demand influence total passenger vehicle emissions to which populations are exposed. Population density can also influence the fraction of total emissions that are inhaled by the exposed urban population. Equations are presented that describe these relationships for an idealized representation of an urban area. Using analytic solutions to these equations, we investigate the effect of three changes in urban population and urban land area (infill, sprawl, and constant-density growth) on per capita inhalation intake of primary pollutants from passenger vehicles. For the system considered, the magnitude of these effects depends on density-emissions elasticity (εe) , a normalized derivative relating change in population density to change in vehicle emissions. For example, based on the idealized representation of the emissions-to-intake relationship presented herein, if urban population increases, then per capita intake is less with infill development than with constant-density growth if εe is <-0.5, while for εe >-0.5, the reverse is true.

  10. Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Browning, Jeffrey D; Szczepaniak, Lidia S; Dobbins, Robert; Nuremberg, Pamela; Horton, Jay D; Cohen, Jonathan C; Grundy, Scott M; Hobbs, Helen H

    2004-12-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its pathogenesis and clinical significance remain poorly defined. In this study, we examined and compared the distribution of hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in 2,287 subjects from a multiethnic, population-based sample (32.1% white, 48.3% black, and 17.5% Hispanic) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. HTGC varied over a wide range (0.0%-41.7%; median, 3.6%) in the population. Almost one third of the population had hepatic steatosis, and most subjects with hepatic steatosis had normal levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (79%). The frequency of hepatic steatosis varied significantly with ethnicity (45% in Hispanics; 33% in whites; 24% in blacks) and sex (42% in white men; 24% in white women). The higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis in Hispanics was due to the higher prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in this ethnic group. However, the lower frequency of hepatic steatosis in blacks was not explained by ethnic differences in body mass index, insulin resistance, ethanol ingestion, or medication use. The prevalence of hepatic steatosis was greater in men than women among whites, but not in blacks or Hispanics. The ethnic differences in the frequency of hepatic steatosis in this study mirror those observed previously for NAFLD-related cirrhosis (Hispanics > whites > blacks). In conclusion, the significant ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of hepatic steatosis documented in this study may have a profound impact on susceptibility to steatosis-related liver disease.

  11. The Relationship of Coronary Artery Calcium To Coronary Heart Disease Events is Similar in Young and Elderly Participants in The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis: A Secondary Analysis of a Prospective Population-based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tota-Maharaj, Rajesh; Blaha, Michael J.; Blankstein, Ron; Silverman, Michael; Eng, John; Shaw, Leslee J.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship of coronary artery calcium (CAC) to coronary heart disease (CHD) events among young and elderly individuals. Participants and Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from a prospective, multi-ethnic, population-based cohort study designed to study subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 6809 persons aged 45 to 84 years old without known cardiovascular disease at baseline were enrolled from July 2000-September 2002. All participants had CAC scoring performed, and were followed up for a median of 8.5 years. The main outcome measures studied were CHD events, defined as myocardial infarction, definite angina or probable angina followed by revascularization, resuscitated cardiac arrest or death attributable to coronary heart disease. Results Comparing individuals with CAC=0 to those with CAC > 100, there was an increased incidence of CHD events from 1 to 21/1000 person-years, and 2 to 23/1000 person-years in the 45-54 and 75-84 year old age groups respectively. Compared to CAC=0, CAC 1-100 and CAC >100 impart an increased multi-variable adjusted CHD event risk in both the 45-54 and 75-84 year old age groups [HR (95% CI): 45-54 years old, CAC 1-100: 2.3 (0.9-5.8), CAC>100: 12.4 (5.1-30.0); 75-84 years old, CAC 1-100: 5.4 (1.2-23.8), CAC>100: 12.1 (2.9-50.2)]. Conclusions Increased CAC imparts an increased CHD risk in younger and elderly individuals, suggesting that once CAC is known chronologic age has less importance. The utility of CAC scoring as a risk-stratification tool extends both to younger and elderly patients. PMID:25236430

  12. Living in the city: resource availability, predation, and bird population dynamics in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Anderies, John M; Katti, Madhusudan; Shochat, Eyal

    2007-07-07

    This article explores factors that shape population structure in novel environments that have received scant theoretical attention: cities. Urban bird populations exhibit higher densities and lower diversity. Some work suggests this may result from lower predation pressure and more predictable and abundant resources. These factors may lead to populations with few winners and many losers regarding access to food, body condition, and reproductive success. We explore these hypotheses with an individual-energy-based competition model with two phenotypes of differing foraging ability. We show that low frequency resource fluctuations favor strong competitors and vice versa. We show that low predation skews equilibrium populations in favor of weak competitors and vice versa. Increasing the time between resource pulses can thus shift population structure from weak to strong competitor dominance. Given recent evidence for more constant resource input and lower predation in urban areas, the model helps understand observed urban bird population structure.

  13. Grid cells analysis of urban growth using remote sensing and population census data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Urban growth and sprawl have drastically altered the ecosystems and ecosystem services. Urban areas are an increasingly important component of the global environment, yet they remain one of the most challenging areas for conducting research. Remote sensing based information is one of the most important resources to support urban planning and administration in megacities. It is possible to provide the up-to-date information regarding the extent, growth, and physical characteristics of urban land. Remote sensing provides spatially consistent image information that covers broad areas with both high spatial resolution and high temporal frequency. Therefore, remote sensing is an important tool for providing information on urban land-cover characteristics and their changes over time at various spatial and temporal scales. Urban land-use and land-cover changes are linked to socio-economic activities. Urbanization includes both the physical growth of a city and the movement of people to urban areas. As a consequence, it is essential to combine remote sensing derived parameters with socio-economic parameter to analyze the spatial-temporal changes and interaction of both factors. The aim of the research was to use1-km2 grid cells to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of urban growth in the world mega cities. The research was conducted in the 50 global cities using Landsat ETM/TM remote sensing imagery from 1985 - 2011, and time series population census data (1-km2 resolution gridded population census data of Japan and 2.5 arc-minute resolutions Gridded Population of the World). First, maximum likelihood classification (MLC) method were used to produce land cover maps by using Landsat images. Then intersect the land cover maps with 1-km2 grid cell maps to represents the proportion of each land cover category within each 1-km2 grid cell. Finally, we combined the proportional land cover maps with gridded population census data on 1-km2 resolution grid cells to

  14. Rural-urban differentials in marital fertility in four Muslim populations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S

    1985-04-01

    An analysis based on data collected as a part of the World Fertility Survey program in 4 Muslim populations Bangladesh, Java, Jordan and Pakistan does not show a consistent pattern in rural-urban differentials in marital fertility. While no significant diiferential in current fertility by place of current residence is noticeable in Bangladesh and Pakistan, urban women in Jordan showed lower fertility than their rural counterparts. Cumulative fertility, when controlled for duration of marriage, was found to be higher in urban than in rural areas of Bangladesh and Pakistan, but no clear pattern emerged in Jordan. In Java, both current and cumulative fertility were higher in urban than in rural areas; urban women who had spent their childhood and were brought up in the urban environment showed, in most instances, higher fertility than the other residence groups. (author's modified

  15. High Resolution Urban Feature Extraction for Global Population Mapping using High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2007-01-01

    The advent of high spatial resolution satellite imagery like Quick Bird (0.6 meter) and IKONOS (1 meter) has provided a new data source for high resolution urban land cover mapping. Extracting accurate urban regions from high resolution images has many applications and is essential to the population mapping efforts of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) LandScan population distribution program. This paper discusses an automated parallel algorithm that has been implemented on a high performance computing environment to extract urban regions from high resolution images using texture and spectral features

  16. Constructing an urban population model for medical insurance scheme using microsimulation techniques.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Linping; Zhang, Lulu; Tang, Weidong; Ma, Yuqin

    2012-01-01

    China launched a pilot project of medical insurance reform in 79 cities in 2007 to cover urban nonworking residents. An urban population model was created in this paper for China's medical insurance scheme using microsimulation model techniques. The model made it clear for the policy makers the population distributions of different groups of people, the potential urban residents entering the medical insurance scheme. The income trends of units of individuals and families were also obtained. These factors are essential in making the challenging policy decisions when considering to balance the long-term financial sustainability of the medical insurance scheme.

  17. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

    PubMed

    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    While the population of Ghana is expected to double in 25 years at the current rate of increase (approximately 2.5% per annum), the population of urban centers is increasing even faster. The 1970 census shows the urban population growing by 4.8% per annum. This is mainly the result of rural to urban migration and, to a smaller extent, the increase in the number of urban centers from 39 in 1948 to 98 in 1960 to 135 in 1970. In the 1970 census only 57.1% of the population were enumerated in their locality of birth and only 20.9% in a locality other than their place of birth but in the same region. 4.1% were born outside Ghana, mostly in another West African country. 1 striking difference between urban and rural areas is the differing sex ratio of the working population. In rural areas there are 91.0 males aged 15-64 years for every 100 females while in urban areas there are 107.1. Most migration in Africa is for employment and those most likely to migrate are working-age males. Because secondary schools are scarce in rural areas, urban dwellers generally have a higher education level. There are no significant differences between overall labor force participation rates for females. The nationwide participation rate was 38.9% for both males and females (males 43.8%, females 34.1%); in urban areas the total was 40.0% (males 46.3%, females 33.7%) and in rural areas 38.5% (males 42.7%, females 34.3%). Ghanaian women have traditionally occupied a prominent place in the labor force. The theory that urban migration is due to urban-rural income disparities is not confirmed by figures. Considering the high amount of unemployment in urban areas, a rural dweller can average as much as a city dweller. In fact, poorly educated migrants are the ones most affected by urban unemployment. A recent study by Kodwo Ewusi considered the impact of many variables on migration; he found depressed social conditions at the place of origin are more compelling motivations than economic factors

  18. Personality Traits and Behavioral Syndromes in Differently Urbanized Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances). On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes. PMID:22574204

  19. Multiethnic Education: Practices and Promises. Fastback 87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    An overview of the goals, common problems, and ideal characteristics of multiethnic education is presented. Section one discusses multiethnic education as being important for all children of all backgrounds. Students should have cultural and ethnic alternatives. They need skills, attitudes, and knowledge to function within their own ethnic…

  20. People: Annotated Multiethnic Bibliography K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Dolores D., Comp.; Petrie, Kenneth, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography has been compiled to assist personnel in the selection of multiethnic media for schools. The bibliography includes sections entitled "Asian Americans,""Jewish Americans,""Mexican Americans,""Native Americans,""Puerto Rican Americans,""Other Hyphenated Americans," and "All Americans (Multiethnic)." The entries for the…

  1. The problem of paralytic poliomyelitis in the urban and rural population around Lucknow, India.

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, U. C.; Mathur, A.; Singh, U. K.; Kushwaha, M. R.; Mehrotra, R. M.; Kapoor, A. K.; Rai, S.; Gurha, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    A house to house survey was done from October 1972 to March 1974, covering 528952 individuals of urban population at Lucknow and 50,156 individuals of rural population of Unnao district, to find out the incidence of polio-like paralysis in our population. Among 12874 urban children up to 8 years old 8.2/1000 had polio-like paralysis while 4.6/1000 children of the rural population of 13554 children were affected. The incidence was significantly higher in the urban population. In the preschool age group almost 1 out of every 100 children was affected. A higher number of children were affected during 1968-9 and 1971-2, though it did not reach epidemic proportion. The findings show that paralytic polio is a serious problem in our country where poliomyelitis is endemic: this is contrary to the views generally held so far. PMID:701784

  2. Racial Differences in Suicidality in an Older Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.; Colemon, Yolonda; Yaffee, Robert; Casimir, Georges J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study used epidemiological data of older African Americans and Caucasians living in an urban community to compare those factors associated with active or passive suicidal ideation in each racial group. Design and Methods: Using 1990 census data for Brooklyn, New York, we attempted to interview all cognitively intact adults aged 55 or…

  3. Racial Differences in Suicidality in an Older Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.; Colemon, Yolonda; Yaffee, Robert; Casimir, Georges J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study used epidemiological data of older African Americans and Caucasians living in an urban community to compare those factors associated with active or passive suicidal ideation in each racial group. Design and Methods: Using 1990 census data for Brooklyn, New York, we attempted to interview all cognitively intact adults aged 55 or…

  4. Injury Prevention Awareness in an Urban Native American Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, James S. J.; Williams, Scott D.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 50 Native American and 100 other families assessed injury prevention awareness and practices among urban Native Americans in Salt Lake City (Utah). Native American families were less aware of and less likely to practice prevention than others. These characteristics are more likely caused by low-income status than culture. (SLD)

  5. Taste preference for sweetness in urban and rural populations in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Jamel, H A; Sheiham, A; Cowell, C R; Watt, R G

    1996-11-01

    The consumption of sweetened foods is influenced by a variety of biological, psychological, sociological, and environmental factors. On an individual level, taste preference for sweetness has been shown to have an influence on food consumption, although this may be affected by social and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the taste preference for sweetness in urban and rural populations in Iraq. The hypothesis was that sweet preference and the consumption of sugar increase with urbanization. The sample was composed of 4152 individuals who were divided into urban and rural subgroups based on their place of residence. Sweet preference was assessed by means of a tested Sweet Preference Inventory. Results revealed statistically significant differences between urban and rural populations in preference for sweetness and in actual sugar consumption. Individuals from urban locations showed a much higher preference for sweetness than their rural counterparts and consumed more sugar. Within the urban population, those individuals who had lived in the city longer and who were from families with lower educational qualifications preferred the highest levels of sugar. The findings support the hypothesis that urbanization influences sweet preference and sugar consumption.

  6. Analysis of Urban Growth in Edwardsville Illinois Using Remote Sensing and Population Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuoha, Hilda U.

    Rapid urbanization is one of the many critical, global issues. This very significant social and economic phenomenon has brought about much debate in the past twenty years and has become a very important policy issue. Understanding its dynamics and patterns is important to develop appropriate policies and make more informed planning decisions. Many dimensions to the urban land growth have been identified in related literature including drivers, relationship with other factors like population, impacts, and methods of measurement. In this study, urban growth in the Edwardsville area (composed of Edwardsville and Glen Carbon, Illinois) is analyzed spatio-temporally using remote sensing and population change from 1990 to 2015. The objectives of this study are (a) identifying the major land use changes in the Edwardsville area from 1990 to 2015, (b) analyzing the rate of urban growth and its relationship to population change in the area from 1990 to 2015, (c) identifying the general pattern and direction of urban growth in the study area. Using multi-temporal satellite images to classify and derive changes in land cover classes during the study period, results showed that the land cover classes with major changes are the urban/built-up land and agricultural/grassland, with a steady increase in the former and steady decrease in the later. Results also show the highest rate of increase in urban land was between 2000 and 2010. In comparison to population, the both show increase over the study years but urban land shows a higher rate of increase indicating dispersion. To analyze urban growth pattern in the area, the study area was divided into three zones: NE, SE, and W. The SE zone showed the highest amount of the growth and from the results, the infill type of growth was inferred.

  7. Economic impact of dyspepsia in rural and urban malaysia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference.

  8. Economic Impact of Dyspepsia in Rural and Urban Malaysia: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Methods Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. Results The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. Conclusions The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference. PMID:22323987

  9. Freshwater mussels in an urban watershed: Impacts of anthropogenic inputs and habitat alterations on populations.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Patricia L; McInnis, Rodney; Salerno, Joseph; de Solla, Shane R; Servos, Mark R; Leonard, Erin M

    2017-01-01

    The substantial increase in urbanization worldwide has resulted in higher emissions of wastewater to riverine systems near urban centers, which often impairs aquatic populations and communities. This study examined the effect of urbanization on freshwater mussel populations, including Species at Risk in two rivers receiving wastewater. The influence of anthropogenic activities was assessed in a watershed in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, one that historically supported one of the most diverse mussel faunas in Canada. In the Grand River (ON), four sites along a 60km reach spanning from an upstream reference site to an urban-impacted downstream area were examined. In the Speed River, mussel populations at six sites along a 10km reach, selected to bracket specific anthropogenic inputs and structures were assessed. A semi-quantitative visual search method revealed that catch per unit effort in the Grand River declined by >60% from the upstream reference site to the area downstream of an urban center. The size (length) frequency distribution of the most abundant species, Lasmigona costata, was significantly (p≤0.008) different upstream of the majority of urban inputs (45-130mm) compared to downstream of the cities (85-115mm). In the Speed River, impoundments and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) reduced both the diversity and catch per effort. Most striking were 84 and 95% changes in the number of mussels found on either side of two impoundments, and a 98% drop in mussels immediately downstream of a WWTP outfall. These population level effects of decreased abundance and underrepresentation of smaller mussels downstream of the urban area correspond to previously documented impacts at the biochemical and whole organism level of biological organization in wild mussels at this location. Our results demonstrate that poor water quality and physical barriers in urban environments continue to impair susceptible populations and communities of aquatic animals. Crown

  10. Multi-ethnic perspective of uptake of HIV testing and HIV-related stigma: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify demographic characteristics and correlates of the uptake of HIV testing, willingness to be tested and perceived HIV-related stigma of Malaysian lay public. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multiracial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between December and July 2011. The survey collected information on demographics, knowledge about HIV transmission and religious beliefs on attitudes to HIV/AIDS. A total of 2271 households were successfully interviewed. The response rate was 48.65%. The HIV transmission knowledge score ranged from 0 to 15 (mean =10.56; SD±2.42). Three of the most common misconceptions about HIV transmission were mosquito bite (42.8%), eating in a restaurant where the cook is HIV positive (20.4%) and using a public toilet (20.1%). Only 20.6% reported ever having been tested for HIV, 49.1% reported a willingness to be tested for HIV and 30.3% had no intention of getting an HIV test. Low-risk perception (63.7%) constitutes a major barrier to HIV testing. Being Malay and Chinese (relative to Indian) were the strongest predictors of low-risk perception. Other significant predictors of low-risk perception were being male, being married and living in an urban locality. Perceived self-stigma if tested positive for HIV was prevalent (78.8%). Multivariate findings showed that being female, Malay, low income, living in rural localities and public stigma were significant correlates of self-stigma. These findings warrant interventions to reduce the disproportionate HIV transmission misconception, barriers to HIV testing and stigma and discriminative attitudes to involve considerations of sociocultural economic and demographic characteristics.

  11. Scaling relationship for NO2 pollution and urban population size: a satellite perspective.

    PubMed

    Lamsal, L N; Martin, R V; Parrish, D D; Krotkov, N A

    2013-07-16

    Concern is growing about the effects of urbanization on air pollution and health. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) released primarily from combustion processes, such as traffic, is a short-lived atmospheric pollutant that serves as an air-quality indicator and is itself a health concern. We derive a global distribution of ground-level NO2 concentrations from tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Local scaling factors from a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model (GEOS-Chem) are used to relate the OMI NO2 columns to ground-level concentrations. The OMI-derived surface NO2 data are significantly correlated (r = 0.69) with in situ surface measurements. We examine how the OMI-derived ground-level NO2 concentrations, OMI NO2 columns, and bottom-up NOx emission inventories relate to urban population. Emission hot spots, such as power plants, are excluded to focus on urban relationships. The correlation of surface NO2 with population is significant for the three countries and one continent examined here: United States (r = 0.71), Europe (r = 0.67), China (r = 0.69), and India (r = 0.59). Urban NO2 pollution, like other urban properties, is a power law scaling function of the population size: NO2 concentration increases proportional to population raised to an exponent. The value of the exponent varies by region from 0.36 for India to 0.66 for China, reflecting regional differences in industrial development and per capita emissions. It has been generally established that energy efficiency increases and, therefore, per capita NOx emissions decrease with urban population; here, we show how outdoor ambient NO2 concentrations depend upon urban population in different global regions.

  12. [Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Loría, Alvar; Pardío, Jeannette; Laviada, Hugo; Vargas-Ancona, Lizardo; Ward, Ryk

    2007-01-01

    To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos) showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was intermediate between ENSANUT-2006 and mixtecos and hypertension was intermediate between ENEC and mixtecos. The Maya and mestizo population of Yucatan showed a high prevalence of obesity and abnormal waist circumference not accompanied by a comparable higher hypertension frequency. This finding requires further confirmation.

  13. Influence of urbanity on perception of mental illness stigma: a population based study in urban and rural Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Zieger, Aron; Schomerus, Georg; Cao, Tien Duc; Dettling, Michael; Do, Xuan Tinh; Mungee, Aditya; Diefenbacher, Albert; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Hahn, Eric

    2016-12-01

    To examine, for the first time in Vietnam, whether urbanity of respondents among other socio-demographic factors affects the public perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness in Hanoi. A general population-based survey was carried out in 2013 in the greater Hanoi area. The perception of stigma attached to people with mental illness was elicited using Link's perceived discrimination and devaluation scale (PDDS) carried out in Vietnamese language. The survey sample (n = 806) was stratified for gender, urban/rural location, age, household size and marital status, in accordance with the 2013 Vietnamese census. Comparing the total score of the PDDS and its single items, we found less perceived stigma and discrimination among the rural population of Hanoi and in respondents who reported religious attainment to either Buddhism or Christianity. Logistic regression analyses found no significant influences of gender, age, household size or marital status regarding the perceived stigma toward persons with mental illness. Less negative perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness that was observed among the rural population in the Hanoi area may be interpreted in the light of possibly more demanding living conditions in modern urban Vietnam with less opportunities for mentally ill patients and points toward a dynamic interaction with rapidly changing living conditions in Asian megacities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Association of Growth Differentiation Factor-15 with Coronary Atherosclerosis and Mortality in a Young, Multiethnic Population: Observations from the Dallas Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Anand; Patel, Parag; Das, Sandeep R.; Ayers, Colby R.; Khera, Amit; Martinez-Rumayor, Abelardo; Berry, Jarett D.; McGuire, Darren K.; de Lemos, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is produced by cardiomyocytes and atherosclerotic lesions under stress conditions. Although higher circulating GDF-15 concentrations are associated with mortality across a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions, the relationship of GDF-15 with atherosclerosis and mortality in the general population remains undefined. Methods We measured plasma GDF-15 in 3219 participants of the Dallas Heart Study, a population sample of adults ages 30–65 years (55% women, 49% black). GDF-15 was analyzed in prespecified categories (<1200; 1200–1799; and ≥1800 ng/L) and continuously. End points included prevalent coronary artery calcium (CAC >10 Agatston units), increased CAC (CAC ≥100 Agatston units) by electron beam computed tomography, and mortality through a median 7.3 years of follow-up (120 deaths, 48 cardiovascular deaths). Results Increasing GDF-15 associated with older age, black race, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, left ventricular (LV) mass/body surface area, and worse renal function (P < 0.0001 for each). In multivariable models adjusted for traditional risk factors, renal function, and LV mass/body surface area, GDF-15 ≥1800 ng/L was associated with CAC >10 (odds ratio 2.1; 95% CI 1.2–3.7; P = 0.01), CAC ≥100 (odds ratio 2.6; 95% CI 1.4–4.9; P = 0.002), all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.5; 95% CI 2.1–5.9, P < 0.0001), and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 2.5; 95% CI 1.1–5.8, P = 0.03). Adding log GDF-15 to fully adjusted models modestly improved the c statistic (P = 0.025), the integrated discrimination index (0.028; P < 0.0001) and the category-less net reclassification index (0.42; P = 0.002). These findings remained significant with further adjustment for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide, and cardiac troponin T. Conclusions GDF-15 is independently associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and mortality, and its potential role for

  15. Association of growth differentiation factor-15 with coronary atherosclerosis and mortality in a young, multiethnic population: observations from the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, Anand; Patel, Parag; Das, Sandeep R; Ayers, Colby R; Khera, Amit; Martinez-Rumayor, Abelardo; Berry, Jarett D; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A

    2012-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is produced by cardiomyocytes and atherosclerotic lesions under stress conditions. Although higher circulating GDF-15 concentrations are associated with mortality across a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions, the relationship of GDF-15 with atherosclerosis and mortality in the general population remains undefined. We measured plasma GDF-15 in 3219 participants of the Dallas Heart Study, a population sample of adults ages 30-65 years (55% women, 49% black). GDF-15 was analyzed in prespecified categories (<1200; 1200-1799; and ≥1800 ng/L) and continuously. End points included prevalent coronary artery calcium (CAC>10 Agatston units), increased CAC (CAC≥100 Agatston units) by electron beam computed tomography, and mortality through a median 7.3 years of follow-up (120 deaths, 48 cardiovascular deaths). Increasing GDF-15 associated with older age, black race, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, left ventricular (LV) mass/body surface area, and worse renal function (P<0.0001 for each). In multivariable models adjusted for traditional risk factors, renal function, and LV mass/body surface area, GDF-15≥1800 ng/L was associated with CAC>10 (odds ratio 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.7; P=0.01), CAC≥100 (odds ratio 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.9; P=0.002), all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.5; 95% CI 2.1-5.9, P<0.0001), and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 2.5; 95% CI 1.1-5.8, P=0.03). Adding log GDF-15 to fully adjusted models modestly improved the c statistic (P=0.025), the integrated discrimination index (0.028; P<0.0001) and the category-less net reclassification index (0.42; P=0.002). These findings remained significant with further adjustment for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and cardiac troponin T. GDF-15 is independently associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and mortality, and its potential role for risk stratification in the general population merits further evaluation.

  16. Concentration of apolipoprotein B is comparable with the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio and better than routine clinical lipid measurements in predicting coronary heart disease mortality: findings from a multi-ethnic US population

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Fisher, Rachel M.; Romero-Corral, Abel; Somers, Virend K.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Öhrvik, John; Walldius, Göran; Hellenius, Mai-Lis; Hamsten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Aims Prospective studies indicate that apolipoprotein measurements predict coronary heart disease (CHD) risk; however, evidence is conflicting, especially in the US. Our aim was to assess whether measurements of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) can improve the ability to predict CHD death beyond what is possible based on traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and clinical routine lipid measurements. Methods and results We analysed prospectively associations of apolipoprotein measurements, traditional CV risk factors, and clinical routine lipid measurements with CHD mortality in a multi-ethnic representative subset of 7594 US adults (mean age 45 years; 3881 men and 3713 women, median follow-up 124 person-months) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mortality study. Multiple Cox-proportional hazards regression was applied. There were 673 CV deaths of which 432 were from CHD. Concentrations of apoB [hazard ratio (HR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–3.61], apoA-I (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27–0.85) and total cholesterol (TC) (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02–1.34) were significantly related to CHD death, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.45–1.05) was borderline significant. Both the apoB/apoA-I ratio (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.11–4.10) and the TC/HDL-C ratio (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16) were related to CHD death. Only apoB (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.05–3.86) and the apoB/apoA-I ratio (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.04–4.19) remained significantly associated with CHD death after adjusting for CV risk factors. Conclusion In the US population, apolipoprotein measurements significantly predict CHD death, independently of conventional lipids and other CV risk factors (smoking, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes and C-reactive protein). Furthermore, the predictive ability of apoB alone to detect CHD death was better than any of the routine clinical lipid measurements. Inclusion of apolipoprotein

  17. Dynamics and forecasting of population growth and urban expansion in Srinagar City - A Geospatial Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, M.; Muslim, M.

    2014-11-01

    The urban areas of developing countries are densely populated and need the use of sophisticated monitoring systems, such as remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS). The urban sprawl of a city is best understood by studying the dynamics of LULC change which can be easily generated by using sequential satellite images, required for the prediction of urban growth. Multivariate statistical techniques and regression models have been used to establish the relationship between the urban growth and its causative factors and for forecast of the population growth and urban expansion. In Srinagar city, one of the fastest growing metropolitan cities situated in Jammu and Kashmir State of India, sprawl is taking its toll on the natural resources at an alarming pace. The present study was carried over a period of 40 years (1971-2011), to understand the dynamics of spatial and temporal variability of urban sprawl. The results reveal that built-up area has increased by 585.08 % while as the population has increased by 214.75 %. The forecast showed an increase of 246.84 km2 in built-up area which exceeds the overall carrying capacity of the city. The most common conversions were also evaluated.

  18. Socioeconomic and sociocultural determinants of psychological distress and quality of life among patients with psoriasis in a selected multi-ethnic Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Zhenli; Bong, Yii Bonn; Tan, Leng Leng; Lim, Shu Xian; Yong, Adrian Sze Wai; Ch'ng, Chin Chwen; Tan, Maw Pin; Thevarajah, Suganthi; Ismail, Rokiah

    2017-02-01

    Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of psychological comorbidities. This cross-sectional study aimed at determining associations between sociocultural and socioeconomic factors with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scores and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Adult patients with psoriasis were recruited from a Dermatology outpatient clinic via convenience sampling. Interviews were conducted regarding socio-demographic factors and willing subjects were requested to complete the DASS and DLQI questionnaires. The Pearson χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis to determine independent predictors of depression, anxiety, stress and severe impairment of quality of life. Unadjusted analysis revealed that depression was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .041) and severe impairment of quality of life was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .032), higher education (p = .013), higher income (p = .042), and employment status (p = .014). Multivariate analysis revealed that Indian ethnicity was a predictor of depression (p = .024). For stress, tertiary level of education (p = .020) was an independent risk factor while a higher monthly income was a protective factor (p = .042). The ethnic Indians and Malays were significantly more likely than the ethnic Chinese to suffer reduced quality of life (p = .001 and p = .006 respectively) and subjects with tertiary education were more likely to have severe impairment of quality of life (p = .002). Our study was unique in determining sociocultural influences on psychological complications of psoriasis in a South East Asian population. This has provided invaluable insight into factors predictive of adverse effects of psoriasis on psychological distress and quality of life in our patient population. Future studies should devise interventions to specifically target at risk groups in the development of strategies

  19. MR imaging of hippocampal asymmetry at 3T in a multiethnic, population-based sample: results from the Dallas Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, R T; Peshock, R M; McColl, R; Hulsey, K; Ayers, C; Whittemore, A R; King, K S

    2013-04-01

    Asymmetry of the hippocampus is regarded as an important clinical finding, but limited data on hippocampal asymmetry are available for the general population. Here we present hippocampal asymmetry data from the Dallas Heart Study determined by automated methods and its relationship to age, sex, and ethnicity. 3D magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of gradient echo MR imaging was performed in 2082 DHS-2 participants. The MR images were analyzed by using 2 standard automated brain-segmentation programs, FSL-FIRST and FreeSurfer. Individuals with imaging errors, self-reported stroke, or major structural abnormalities were excluded. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the significance of the findings across age, sex, and ethnicity. At the 90th percentile, FSL-FIRST demonstrated hippocampal asymmetry of 9.8% (95% CI, 9.3%-10.5%). The 90th percentile of hippocampal asymmetry, measured by the difference in right and left hippocampi volume and the larger hippocampus, was 17.9% (95% CI, 17.0%-19.1%). Hippocampal asymmetry increases with age (P=.0216), men have greater asymmetry than women as shown by FSL-FIRST (P=.0036), but ethnicity is not significantly correlated with asymmetry. To confirm these findings, we used FreeSurfer. FreeSurfer showed asymmetry of 4.4% (95% CI, 4.3%-4.7%) normalized to total volume and 8.5% (95% CI, 8.3%-9.0%) normalized by difference/larger hippocampus. FreeSurfer also showed that hippocampal asymmetry increases with age (P=.0024) and that men had greater asymmetry than women (P=.03). There is a significant degree of hippocampal asymmetry in the population. The data provided will aid in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy and other neurologic disease.

  20. Association between hsCRP≥2, Coronary Artery Calcium, and Cardiovascular Events – Implications for the JUPITER Population: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Blaha, Michael J.; Budoff, Matthew J.; DeFilippis, Andrew P.; Blankstein, Ron; Rivera, Juan J.; Agatston, Arthur; O’Leary, Daniel H.; Lima, Joao; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2011-01-01

    Background The JUPITER trial demonstrated that some patients with LDL-C <130 mg/dL and hsCRP ≥2 mg/L benefit from rosuvastatin, although absolute event rates were low. We sought to determine whether coronary artery calcium (CAC) may further risk stratify a JUPITER-eligible population, and to compare hsCRP vs. CAC for risk prediction in otherwise JUPITER-eligible participants. Methods A total of 950 MESA participants met all JUPITER entry criteria. We compared CHD and CVD event rates and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios after stratifying by both presence and burden of CAC (0, 1–100, >100). We also calculated 5-year number needed to treat (NNT5) by applying the benefit observed in JUPITER to the observed event rates within each CAC strata. Findings Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Approximately 47% of the MESA JUPITER population had CAC=0, and CHD event rates in this group were <1 per 1000 person-years. Over 2/3 of all CHD events occurred in the 25% of participants with CAC >100 (20.2 per 1000 person-years). For CHD, the predicted NNT5 for CAC 0, 1–100, and >100 was 549, 94, and 24 respectively. For CVD, the NNT5 was 124, 54, and 19. Amongst otherwise JUPITER-eligible patients, presence of CAC was associated with 4.3-fold increased CHD (95% CI 2.0 – 9.3) and 2.6-fold increased CVD (95% CI 1.5–4.5), while hsCRP was not associated with either CHD or CVD after multivariable adjustment. Interpretation Within MESA, approximately half of JUPITER-eligible participants had CAC=0 and experienced an extremely low 6-year event rate. Nearly all events occurred in patients with CAC. CAC appears to further risk stratify JUPITER-eligible patients and may be used to target a subgroup of patients expected to derive the most, and the least, absolute benefit from statin treatment. Focusing treatment on the subset of individuals with measurable atherosclerosis may represent a more appropriate allocation of resources. Funding NIH-NHLBI. PMID:21856482

  1. Effects of urbanization on prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis in intermediate host populations.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Kenneth F; Page, L Kristen; Downey, Mark; McCord, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is an intestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) that can also infect humans and a wide range of wildlife species. Prevalence of B. procyonis in raccoon populations appears to decrease as the landscape urbanizes, but less is known about prevalence in the small-mammal intermediate hosts of the parasite. We measured prevalence of B. procyonis in populations of mice (Peromyscus spp.) in forest preserves along a gradient of urbanization in Illinois. Prevalence in the mouse intermediate host exhibited a trend opposite raccoons: prevalence increased as surrounding human population density increased. This counterintuitive result may be due to higher overall environmental loads of B. procyonis in urban areas due to higher raccoon densities. Our results emphasize the need to understand fully the transmission dynamics of B. procyonis in its definitive and intermediate hosts in order to design and implement effective strategies to mitigate zoonotic risks to humans.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of early onset of sexual intercourse in a random sample of a multiethnic adolescent population in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Gülen; Martin, Loic; Levy-Loeb, Mathieu; Thomas, Stéphanie; Euzet, Géneviève; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    French Guiana, a French overseas department in South America, has been classified epidemic for HIV. This territory is consisting of a very young population with almost 45% of them being younger than 20 years of age. Delaying the onset of first sexual intercourse (SI) is one of the major objectives to fight HIV infection in adolescents. The objective of this study is to identify the age of first SI and the risk factors of early onset. A behavioural surveillance survey among students living on the coastline and alongside the Maroni River was conducted in 2011/2012. A total of 1603 students filled out the survey. While 60% had already SI, the mean age of first intercourse was 12.1 years for boys and 13.9 years for girls. Accordingly, over 90% had a premature onset of SI. Risk factors are age, male gender, living alongside the Maroni River, another language than the French being mother tongue, not being religious, alcohol and cannabis consumption and a bad attitude towards condom use. Risk factors for girls are an older first sexual partner, having more than three lifetime sexual partners and condom rupture. Evidence-based implementation with respect of local and socio-demographic aspects is necessary to improve youths' appreciation of SI and related risk of sexual transmitted diseases.

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Overweight and Obesity Among a Multiethnic Population of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Austin L; Lupo, Philip J; Danysh, Heather E; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Kamdar, Kala Y

    2016-08-01

    As previous studies of obesity in survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have primarily been conducted among non-Hispanic white survivors or children treated on older protocols, our objective was to describe the prevalence and correlates of overweight status among an ethnically diverse population of pediatric ALL survivors, largely treated with more contemporary therapies. We evaluated the overweight/obesity status of pediatric ALL survivors (n=406) followed in the Texas Children's Cancer Center between 2004 and 2014. Survivors were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese on the basis of their body mass index at their most current follow-up visit. Our results showed that Hispanic ethnicity (39% of the subjects) was associated with being overweight (adjusted odds ratio=1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.14) or obese (adjusted odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-5.06) at follow-up, even after adjusting for cranial radiotherapy (CRT) exposure. Body mass index z-score at diagnosis was also associated with overweight/obesity at follow-up. In addition, there was a statistically significant interaction between younger age at diagnosis and CRT, indicating that younger age at diagnosis was associated with obesity among patients who received CRT. These findings may help identify pediatric ALL patients that are at increased risk of being overweight or obese after treatment.

  4. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixin; Tian, Ye; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wenliang; Lin, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR) images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3). Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI) yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex) in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI) outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT) in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE) of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable. PMID:27775670

  5. Birth data accessibility via primary care health records to classify health status in a multi-ethnic population of children: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Rachel; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Stocks, Janet; Harding, Seeromanie; Wade, Angela; Griffiths, Chris; Sears, David; Fothergill, Helen; Slevin, Hannah; Lum, Sooky

    2015-01-22

    Access to reliable birth data (birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA)) is essential for the identification of individuals who are at subsequent health risk. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of retrospectively collecting birth data for schoolchildren from parental questionnaires (PQ) and general practitioners (GPs) in primary care clinics, in inner city neighbourhoods with high density of ethnic minority and disadvantaged populations. Attempts were made to obtain birth data from parents and GPs for 2,171 London primary schoolchildren (34% White, 29% Black African origin, 25% South Asians, 12% Other) as part of a larger study of respiratory health. Information on BW and/or GA were obtained from parents for 2,052 (95%) children. Almost all parents (2,045) gave consent to access their children's health records held by GPs. On the basis of parental information, GPs of 1,785 children were successfully contacted, and GPs of 1,202 children responded. Birth data were retrieved for only 482 children (22% of 2,052). Missing birth data from GPs were associated with non-white ethnicity, non-UK born, English not the dominant language at home or socioeconomic disadvantage. Paired data were available in 376 children for BW and in 407 children for GA. No significant difference in BW or GA was observed between PQ and GP data, with <5% difference between sources regardless of normal or low birth weight, or term or preterm status. Parental recall of birth data for primary schoolchildren yields high quality and rapid return of data, and it should be considered as a viable alternative in which there is limited access to birth records. It provides the potential to include children with an increased risk of health problems within epidemiological studies.

  6. The role of population density on the impact of urbaniza-tion on GHG emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonghong; Gao, Chaochao; Lu, Yingying

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization directly drives rural to urban population migration and indirectly causes west to east migration in China, two phenomena that may significantly impact China's greenhouse gas emissions given its huge population and vast difference between the western rural and eastern urban areas. These two phenomena were analyzed by using emissions as a per capita term, and extending the impact from the traditional urbanization rate effect to include population density effect. The results show that population density has actually been the dominant demographic player in changing per capita emissions for the past two decades in China, and its elasticity changed from positive in economically less-developed provinces to negative for the developed provinces. This study provides a new perspective in the study of the relationship between urbanization and greenhouse gas emissions, and the results indicate that population density change should be taken into account to accurately assess the impact of urbanization.

  7. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus using HbA1c in Asians: relationship between HbA1c and retinopathy in a multiethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Khoo, Eric Y H; Lye, Weng Kit; Ikram, M Kamran; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Cheng, Ching Yu; Tan, Maudrene L S; Salim, Agus; Lee, Jeannette; Lim, Su-Chi; Tavintharan, Subramaniam; Thai, Ah-Chuan; Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Y

    2015-02-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) has recently been included as a criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. It is unclear whether this criterion is appropriate in Asians. To examine the relationship between HbA1c and diabetes-specific moderate retinopathy in Asian ethnic groups. Four independent population-based cross-sectional studies (2004-2011) in Singapore representing the three major Asian ethnic groups (n = 13 170 adults aged ≥ 25 y: Chinese, 5834; Malays, 3596; and Indians, 3740). Moderate retinopathy was assessed from digital retinal photographs and defined as a level >43 using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting moderate retinopathy were compared across ethnic groups at different HbA1c cut-points. HbA1c levels were higher in Indians and Malays compared to Chinese (P < .001). The prevalence of moderate retinopathy below HbA1c <6.5% was <1% in all ethnic groups. At HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, the sensitivity for detecting moderate retinopathy was lower in Chinese subjects compared to Indians and Malays (75.8 vs 86.0 and 85.3%), but specificity (89.7 vs 71.9 and 76.3%) was higher; however, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were similar among Chinese, Indians, and Malays (10.5, 12.3, 12.4%; and 99.6, 99.1, 99.2%, respectively). The AUCs were similar across all three ethnic groups (0.861, 0.851, and 0.853). Our study supports the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in Asians. Despite some interethnic variation in the relationship of HbA1c and retinopathy, a cut-point of 6.5% performs reasonably well in the three major Asian ethnic groups.

  8. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Impact of Perceived Discrimination and Social Support on the School Performance of Multiethnic Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Shelley L.; Smith, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are known to face increased risk of poor school performance; however, little research has focused on the educational experiences of multiethnic sexual minority youth (MSMY) in particular. Using venue-based sampling approaches, this study surveyed 255 MSMY at 15 urban high schools. The majority of participants identified as…

  10. Patient satisfaction with community pharmacy: comparing urban and suburban chain-pharmacy populations.

    PubMed

    Malewski, David F; Ream, Aimrie; Gaither, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care can be a strong predictor of medication and other health-related outcomes. Less understood is the role that location of pharmacies in urban or suburban environments plays in patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to serve as a pilot examining urban and suburban community pharmacy populations for similarities and differences in patient satisfaction. Community pharmacy patients were asked to self-administer a 30-question patient satisfaction survey. Fifteen questions addressed their relationship with the pharmacist, 10 questions addressed satisfaction and accessibility of the pharmacy, and five questions addressed financial concerns. Five urban and five suburban pharmacies agreed to participate. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. Most patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Satisfaction with pharmacist relationship and service was 70% or higher with no significant differences between locations. There were significant differences between the urban and suburban patients regarding accessibility of pharmacy services, customer service and some patient/pharmacist trust issues. The significant differences between patient satisfaction in the suburban and urban populations warrant a larger study with more community pharmacies in other urban, suburban and rural locations to better understand and validate study findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Delays in accessing electroconvulsive therapy: a comparison between two urban and two rural populations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of the timing, rates and characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy use between urban and rural populations. The medical records of patients who received an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy at two rural and two urban psychiatric hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the time from symptom onset, diagnosis and admission to commencing electroconvulsive therapy. Rates of use of electroconvulsive therapy were also compared between rural and urban hospitals using NSW statewide data. There was a significant delay in the time it took for rural patients to receive electroconvulsive therapy compared with urban patients when measured both from the time of symptom onset and from when they received a diagnosis. There were corresponding delays in the time taken for rural patients to be admitted to hospital compared with urban patients. There was no difference in the time it took to commence electroconvulsive therapy once a patient was admitted to hospital. NSW statewide urban-rural comparisons showed rates of electroconvulsive therapy treatment were significantly higher in urban hospitals. Patients in rural areas receive electroconvulsive therapy later in their acute illness due to delays in being admitted to hospital. The rate of use of electroconvulsive therapy also differs geographically. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Multi-Ethnic Media: Selected Bibliographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sch Libr, 1970

    1970-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of sources of recent multi-ethnic materials for use by librarians and teachers. Emphasis on Negroes but other minorities are represented. Includes bibliographic essays, bibliographies, and sources of information. (JS)

  13. Teaching "Huck Finn" in a Multiethnic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Ann

    1993-01-01

    Considers Mark Twain's novel "Huckleberry Finn" as an object of literary instruction, especially its racist overtones. Argues that Twain's depiction of the runaway slave Jim is positive. Shows how Twain's novel might be used from a multiethnic approach. (HB)

  14. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamovic, Adel; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  15. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamovic, Adel; Tanaka, Katsumasa; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change from 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  16. Global dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamovic, A.; Tanaka, K.; Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2015-11-01

    Global dimming refers to the decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) observed from the 1960s to the 1980s at different measurement sites all around the world. It is under debate whether anthropogenic aerosols emitted from urban areas close to the measurement sites are mainly responsible for the dimming. In order to assess this urbanization impact on SSR, we use spatially explicit population density data of 0.08° resolution to construct population indices (PI) at 157 high data quality sites. Our study extends previous population-based studies by incorporating distance-weighting as a simple aerosol diffusion model. We measured urbanization in the surrounding of a site as the PI change form 1960 to 1990 and found no negative correlation with the corresponding SSR trends from 1964 to 1989 for the 92 sites in Europe and Japan. For the 39 sites in China the correlation coefficients are significant at the 5 % level and reach around -0.35, while for the 26 remaining Asian, mostly Russian sites the correlation coefficients reach around -0.55 at the 1 % significance level. Results are similar, when the absolute levels of PIs are taken as an indicator for urbanization. Our findings call into question the existence of an urbanization effect for the sites in Europe and Japan, while such an effect cannot be ruled out for the sites in Asia, especially in Russia.

  17. Strategies to reduce exclusion among populations living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2009-08-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4-5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak.

  18. Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

  19. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sewon; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-06-22

    Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT) was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  20. Urban plants as genetic reservoirs or threats to the integrity of bushland plant populations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David G; Ayre, David J; Whelan, Robert J

    2007-06-01

    Remnant plants in urban fringes and native plants in gardens have the potential to contribute to the conservation of threatened plants by increasing genetic diversity, effective size of populations, and levels of genetic connectedness. But they also pose a threat through the disruption of locally adapted gene pools. At Hyams Beach, New South Wales, Australia, four bushland stands of the rare shrub, Grevillea macleayana McGillivray, surround an urban area containing remnant and cultivated specimens of this species. Numbers of inflorescences per plant, fruits per plant, and visits by pollinators were similar for plants in urban gardens and bushland. Urban plants represented a substantial but complex genetic resource, displaying more genetic diversity than bushland plants judged byH(e), numbers of alleles per locus, and number of private alleles. Of 27 private alleles in urban plants, 17 occurred in a set of 19 exotic plants. Excluding the exotic plants, all five stands displayed a moderate differentiation (F(ST)= 0.14 +/- 0.02), although the urban remnants clustered with two of the bushland stands. These patterns may be explained by high levels of selfing and inbreeding in this species and by long-distance dispersal (several seeds in the urban stand were fathered by plants in other stands). Genetic leakage (gene flow) from exotic plants to 321 seeds on surrounding remnant or bushland plants has not occurred. Our results demonstrate the conservation value of this group of urban plants, which are viable, productive, genetically diverse, and interconnected with bushland plants. Gene flow has apparently not yet led to genetic contamination of bushland populations, but high levels of inbreeding would make this a rare event and difficult to detect.

  1. Recent Patterns of Population Change in America's Urban Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    Current U.S. settlement patterns have begun to exhibit a significant shift away from very large metropolitan centers toward more thinly settled peripheral areas. This new trend has been the subject of many recent studies which have considered data on the county level but have been unable to detect population movement within counties and among…

  2. Recent Patterns of Population Change in America's Urban Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.

    Current U.S. settlement patterns have begun to exhibit a significant shift away from very large metropolitan centers toward more thinly settled peripheral areas. This new trend has been the subject of many recent studies which have considered data on the county level but have been unable to detect population movement within counties and among…

  3. Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas

    Treesearch

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Aelred D. Geis; Patricia A. Healy

    1991-01-01

    Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD. were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m × 91 m proved better than point...

  4. Urban occupational health in the Mexican and Latino/Latina immigrant population: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gany, Francesca; Novo, Patricia; Dobslaw, Rebecca; Leng, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Mexican and Latino/Latina immigrants represent a rapidly growing population within the United States. The majority settle in urban areas. As a group, Mexican immigrants typically have low educational attainment and socioeconomic status, and limited English proficiency. These immigrants often find work in hazardous jobs, with high injury and fatality rates. They often have inadequate or no safety training, no personal protective equipment, limited understanding of workers’ rights, job insecurity, fear of report of undocumented status and lack health care benefits. This review includes what has been published on the urban occupational health of this population. The findings suggest that Mexican and Latino/Latina immigrants experience higher rates of workrelated fatalities and injuries compared to other populations, and may be less likely to report such incidents to employers or to apply for workers’ compensation. There is a strong need to develop effective programs to address the health and safety of this vulnerable population. PMID:23468371

  5. Smoking prevalence in urban and rural populations: findings from California between 2001 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianqi; Edland, Steven; Myers, Mark G; Hofstetter, C Richard; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2016-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and related health problems are still major public health concerns in the United States despite the declining smoking prevalence. This study explored differences in smoking prevalence between urban and rural areas potentially relevant to tobacco control efforts in California. Public use adult smoking data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) between 2001 and 2011-2012 were analyzed. A total of 282 931 adults were surveyed across the six CHIS cycles. A ZIP code-based geographic classification (Urban, Second-City, Suburban, and Town/Rural) was used to examine the association between smoking prevalence and area of residency. The overall smoking prevalence in California decreased from 17.0% in 2001 to 13.8% in 2011-2012. Within each CHIS cycle, the Town/Rural areas had the highest smoking prevalence, followed by Urban and Second-City areas, and Suburban areas had the lowest. Pooled data from all CHIS cycles showed a similar pattern, with rates in Urban, Second-City, Suburban and Town/Rural areas being 15.2%, 15.2%, 13.1% and 17.3%, respectively. Weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated significantly higher odds of smoking in Urban, Second-City and Town/Rural areas compared to Suburban areas (all adjusted odds ratios > 1.10), although this trend varied by race/ethnicity, being present in non-Hispanic Whites and not present in Hispanics. Town/Rural and Urban populations of California are consistently at higher risk of smoking than Suburban populations. These results indicate a need for population-specific tobacco control approaches that address the lifestyle, behavior, and education of disparate populations within the same state or region.

  6. The Prevalence and Incidence of Juvenile Rheumatiod Arthritis in an Urban Black Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, Marc C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted in an urban Black population in Baltimore, Maryland, suggests that the Black race is not associated with significantly increased risk of development of juvenile rheumatiod arthritis. The prevalence rate was estimated as 0.26 per 1,000 and the average annual incidence as 6.6 per 100,000/year. (GC)

  7. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

  8. The importance of resident environmental awareness in conservation of urban wildlife populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proximity of humans and wildlife to each other along the wildland-urban interface results in constant potential conflict between human activity and wildlife populations. Since 2002, California biologists have observed a drastic increase in carnivore mortalities that are asso...

  9. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-01-01

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world’s largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990–2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005–2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales. PMID:28358399

  10. The Urban Impacts of Federal Policies: Vol. 4, Population and Residential Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Roger J.; Vogel, Mary E.

    This analysis of Federal impacts on the urban residential sector focuses on: (1) the influence of Federal programs and policies on intermetropolitan population movements (migration from the North to the sunbelt); and (2) program and policy influences on the process of suburbanization (the flight of the affluent from central cities). Considered are…

  11. The importance of resident environmental awareness in conservation of urban wildlife populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proximity of humans and wildlife to each other along the wildland-urban interface results in constant potential conflict between human activity and wildlife populations. Since 2002, California biologists have observed a drastic increase in carnivore mortalities that are asso...

  12. Natural areas and urban populations: communication and environmental education challenges and actions in outdoor recreation

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez

    2005-01-01

    Challenges, opportunities, and actions exist in areas where large urban populations interface with natural areas, such as outdoor recreation sites in southern California. Challenges in the interface include intense recreation use, public safety issues, and complex information strategies. Research results on communications and environmental education offer opportunities...

  13. The Prevalence and Incidence of Juvenile Rheumatiod Arthritis in an Urban Black Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochberg, Marc C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Research conducted in an urban Black population in Baltimore, Maryland, suggests that the Black race is not associated with significantly increased risk of development of juvenile rheumatiod arthritis. The prevalence rate was estimated as 0.26 per 1,000 and the average annual incidence as 6.6 per 100,000/year. (GC)

  14. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-03-01

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world’s largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990-2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005-2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales.

  15. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

  16. The Urban Impacts of Federal Policies: Vol. 4, Population and Residential Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Roger J.; Vogel, Mary E.

    This analysis of Federal impacts on the urban residential sector focuses on: (1) the influence of Federal programs and policies on intermetropolitan population movements (migration from the North to the sunbelt); and (2) program and policy influences on the process of suburbanization (the flight of the affluent from central cities). Considered are…

  17. Population, Behavioural and Physiological Responses of an Urban Population of Black Swans to an Intense Annual Noise Event

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Catherine J.; Jessop, Tim S.; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A.

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated. PMID:23024783

  18. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    PubMed

    Payne, Catherine J; Jessop, Tim S; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  19. Refinement of a model for evaluating the population exposure in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J.; Kousa, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Matilainen, L.; Kangas, L.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Riikonen, K.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Rasila, T.; Hänninen, O.; Koskentalo, T.; Aarnio, M.; Hendriks, C.; Karppinen, A.

    2014-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the determination of human exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area; the model is a refined version of a previously developed mathematical model EXPAND (EXposure model for Particulate matter And Nitrogen oxiDes). The model combines predicted concentrations, information on people's activities and location of the population to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of average exposure of the urban population to ambient air pollution in different microenvironments. The revisions of the modelling system containing the EXPAND model include improvements of the associated urban emission and dispersion modelling system, an improved treatment of the time use of population, and better treatment for the infiltration coefficients from outdoor to indoor air. The revised model version can also be used for estimating intake fractions for various pollutants, source categories and population subgroups. We present numerical results on annual spatial concentration, time activity and population exposures to PM2.5 in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and Helsinki for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Approximately 60% of the total exposure occurred at home, 17% at work, 4% in traffic and 19% in other microenvironments in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. The population exposure originating from the long-range transported background concentrations was responsible for a major fraction, 86%, of the total exposure in Helsinki. The largest local contributors were vehicular emissions (12%) and shipping (2%).

  20. The rural-to-urban migrant population in China: gloomy prospects for tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Ruoyan Gai; Xu, Lingzhong; Song, Peipei; Huang, Yong

    2011-12-01

    The migrant population is a population with a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection and transmission. Globally, migration is likely to have a significant impact on TB epidemiology, particularly in countries that receive substantial numbers of migrants from countries with a high infection burden. China, a country with the world's second highest TB burden, faces a considerable increase in the number of rural-to-urban migrants. This population has a significant impact on urban TB epidemics and is specifically targeted by national guidelines for TB control. TB control among the migrant population has had relatively poor outcomes. Barriers to detection and treatment have both financial and non-financial aspects, such as the "migratory" nature of the migrant population, their marginalized working and living environment, poor financial status, little awareness of TB, inadequate referral to TB dispensaries, and potential social stigma in the workplace. Currently, the free TB treatment policy has limited ability to relieve the financial burden on most migrant TB patients as would allow optimal outcomes of TB detection and treatment. Universal health insurance coverage and fostering of personnel in community-based primary health care for the rural-to- urban migrant population represent two pillars of successful TB control.

  1. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    SciTech Connect

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  2. Home-based Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in an Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Natasha; Rolle, Andrew J.; Lee, Todd A.; Prasad, Bharati

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Home-based diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with portable monitoring (PM) is increasingly utilized, but remains understudied in underserved and minority populations. We tested the feasibility of home PM in an urban population at risk for OSA compared to in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and examined patient preference with respect to home PM versus PSG. Methods: Randomized crossover study of home PM (WatchPAT200) and in-laboratory simultaneous PSG and PM in 75 urban African Americans with high pre-test probability of OSA, identified with the Berlin questionnaire. Results: Fifty-seven of 75 participants were women, average age 45 ± 11 years (mean ± SD), 35% with ≤ high school education, and 76% with annual household income < $50,000. Technical failure rates were 5.3% for home vs. 3.1% for in-laboratory PM. There was good agreement between apnea hypopnea index on PSG; AHIPSG and AHI on home PM (mean ± 2 SD of the differences = 0.64 ± 46.5 and intraclass correlation coefficient; ICC = 0.73). The areas under the curve for the receiver-operator characteristic curves for home PM were 0.90 for AHIPSG ≥ 5, 0.95 for AHIPSG ≥ 10, and 0.92 for AHIPSG ≥ 15. 62/75 (82%) participants preferred home over in-laboratory testing. Conclusions: Home PM for diagnosis of OSA in a high risk urban population is feasible, accurate, and preferred by patients. As home PM may improve access to care, the cost-effectiveness of this diagnostic strategy for OSA should be examined in underserved urban and rural populations. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01997723 Citation: Garg N, Rolle AJ, Lee TA, Prasad B. Home-based diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in an urban population. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):879-885. PMID:25126034

  3. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations: impact of ethnicity and urbanization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Dirk L; Eis, Jeanette; Hansen, Andreas W; Larsson, Melanie W; Mwaniki, David L; Kilonzo, Beatrice; Tetens, Inge; Boit, Michael K; Kaduka, Lydia; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Friis, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition in rural and urban Kenya. In a cross-sectional study carried out among Luo, Kamba and Maasai in rural and urban Kenya, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasonography. Height and weight, waist, mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. Body mass index (BMI), arm fat area (AFA) and arm muscle area (AMA) were calculated. Among 1430 individuals (58.3% females) aged 17-68 years, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, BMI, AFA and waist circumference (WC) increased with age, and were highest in the Maasai and in the urban population. AMA was only higher with increasing age among males. The prevalence of overweight (BMI > or = 25) (39.8% vs. 15.8%) and obesity (BMI > or = 30) (15.5% vs. 5.1%) was highest in the urban vs. rural population. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness was higher with urban residency. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. The Maasai had the highest overall fat accumulation.

  4. Cancer risk perceptions in an urban Mediterranean population.

    PubMed

    García, Montse; Fernández, Esteve; Borràs, Josep Maria; Nieto, F Javier; Schiaffino, Anna; Peris, Mercè; Pérez, Glòria; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2005-10-20

    The objective of our study was to analyze the perceived (belief) or adopted (behavior) measures to reduce cancer risk in a Spanish population. We used cross-sectional data from the Cornella Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study (CHIS.FU). We analyzed 1,438 subjects who in 2002 answered questions about risk perceptions on cancer and related behavior (668 males and 770 females). The benefits of avoiding cigarette smoking (95.8%), sunlight exposure (94.9%) and alcohol (81.0%) were widely recognized. On the other hand, electromagnetic fields (92.1%), food coloring and other food additives (78.4%) or pesticides (69.4%), whose role in cancer occurrence, if any, remain unproven, were clearly considered as cancer risk factors in this population. Compared to men, women more frequently reported healthy behaviors, and the role of exogenous factors (i.e., environmental risk factors) were widely popular. There was a socioeconomic gradient on cancer risk perception with respect to several lifestyle or dietary factors. Individuals with higher educational level scored lower in several risk factors than those with primary or less than primary school education. Smokers reported adopting fewer healthy behaviors than former or never smokers. How people perceive health issues and risk or make choices about their own behavior does not always follow a predictable or rational pattern.

  5. Definition and prevalence of sedentarism in an urban population.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, M S; Morabia, A; Sloutskis, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study sought to formulate a precise definition of sedentarism and to identify activities performed by active people that could serve as effective preventive goals. METHODS: A population-based sample of 919 residents of Geneva, Switzerland, aged 35 to 74 years, completed a 24-hour recall. Sedentary people were defined as those expending less than 10% of their daily energy in the performance of moderate- and high-intensity activities (at least 4 times the basal metabolism rate). RESULTS: The rates of sedentarism were 79.5% in men and 87.2% in women. Among sedentary and active men, average daily energy expenditures were 2600 kcal (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2552, 2648) and 3226 kcal (95% CI = 3110, 3346), respectively; the corresponding averages for women were 2092 kcal (95% CI = 2064, 2120) and 2356 kcal (95% CI = 2274, 2440). The main moderate- and high-intensity activities among active people were sports (tennis, gymnastics, skiing), walking, climbing stairs, gardening, and (for men only) occupational activities. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of sedentarism outlined in this article can be reproduced in other populations, allows comparisons across studies, and provides preventive guidelines in that the activities most frequently performed by active people are the ones most likely to be adopted by their sedentary peers. PMID:10358676

  6. [Trends in smoking in an urban population over recent decades].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartoll, Xavier; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Borrell, Carme

    2016-05-06

    The objective of this study is to describe the distribution of smoking in the population and to assess changes and trends over recent decades. Cross sectional study in a sample of the non-institutionalized resident population (n=3,509) in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) using data from persons over 14 years of age from the health survey of 2011, and assessing trends for 1983-2011 using previous surveys. Dependent variables are having ever been a smoker, having quit, being a current smoker, and smoking daily. Independent variables include sex, age, and time. Prevalence and proportions are estimated, stratifying or adjusting for age. The prevalence of daily smokers is 18.8% in 2011: 22.2% for men and 15.9% for women. The age groups with higher smoking prevalence are 25-34 years for men and 15-24 for women. From 1983 to 2011 the reduction among men has been intense, and for women the prevalence has been decreasing since the survey of 2000. Among smokers, the proportion of both genders who do not smoke daily has increased. The smoking epidemic over the last years shows promising trends. The data do not lend support to the hardening hypothesis for current smokers. Smokers are a shrinking minority, although to improve public health it would be desirable to speed the process of change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding rural-urban differences in risk factors for breast cancer in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nagrani, Rajini; Mhatre, Sharayu; Boffetta, Paolo; Rajaraman, Preetha; Badwe, Rajendra; Gupta, Sudeep; Romieu, Isabelle; Parmar, Vani; Dikshit, Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    Although cancer registry data indicate that there are large differences in breast cancer (BC) rates between rural and urban regions of India, the reasons for these differences are not well understood. We conducted a hospital based case-control study (1,637 breast cancer cases; 1,515 visitor controls) in Mumbai, India, during the years 2009-2013. Extensive questionnaire data, anthropometry measurement and blood samples were collected on all participants. Using logistic regression models, we estimated risk based on odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for various reproductive and anthropometric measures, stratified by rural-urban status depending upon residence in first 20 years of life. Waist-to-hip ratio of ≥0.95 compared to ratio ≤0.84 was strongly associated with risk of BC in both rural and urban populations (ORurban = 4.10, 95 % CI 3.03-5.56; ORrural = 3.01, 95 % CI 1.85-4.90). First full-term pregnancy after the age of 25 compared to first full-term pregnancy below 20 years of age was associated with risk of BC in both urban and rural women (ORurban = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.32-2.41; ORrural = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.13-4.43). The prevalence of age at first full-term pregnancy was significantly lower in rural (mean age at first full-term pregnancy = 19.39 years) versus urban women (mean age at first full-term pregnancy = 22.62 years), whereas mean waist circumference was much higher in urban women (82.13 cm) compared to rural women (79.26 cm). We did not observe any association between breast feeding and risk of BC. Differences in the prevalence of central adiposity and age at first full-term pregnancy between rural and urban women from India may explain some differences in breast cancer rates between these two populations.

  8. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  9. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2015-01-01

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population. PMID:26729146

  10. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2015-12-30

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945-1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  11. The factors of urban population growth: net inmigration versus natural increase.

    PubMed

    Ledent, J

    1982-10-01

    "As a country evolves from a traditional to an advanced society, the part of urban growth that is due to net inmigration follows a simple pattern, which can be described by an inverted U-shaped curve: it first increases, then passes through a maximum, and decreases thereafter. This hypothesis is confirmed by quantitative analysis using time-series and cross-section data. The analysis suggests that in the second half of this century natural increase often provides a slightly higher contribution to urban population growth than net inmigration." (summary in FRE, ITA, JPN, )

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican middle-class urban population. The Lindavista Study. Baseline data.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Alejandra; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Salmean, Gabriela; Samaniego-Méndez, Virginia; Vela-Huerta, Agustín; Alcocer, Luis; Zárate-Chavarría, Elisa; Mendoza-Castelán, Emma; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martínez-Marroquín, Yolanda; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Meaney, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to describe the cardiovascular risk factors affecting a Mexican urban middle-class population. A convenience sample of 2602 middle class urban subjects composed the cohort of the Lindavista Study, a prospective study aimed to determine if conventional cardiovascular risks factors have the same prognosis impact as in other populations. For the baseline data, several measurements were done: obesity indexes, smoking, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides. This paper presents the basal values of this population, which represents a sample of the Mexican growing urban middle-class. The mean age in the sample was 50 years; 59% were females. Around 50% of the entire group were overweighed, while around 24% were obese. 32% smoked; 32% were hypertensive with a 20% rate of controlled pressure. 6% had diabetes, and 14% had impaired fasting glucose; 66% had total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL; 62% showed HDL-c levels<40 mg/dL; 52% triglycerides>150 mg/dL, and 34% levels of LDL-c ≥ 160 mg/dL. Half of the population studied had the metabolic syndrome. These data show a population with a high-risk profile, secondary to the agglomeration of several cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Interpolating a consumption variable for scaling and generalizing potential population pressure on urbanizing natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia; Jiang, Bin; Yao, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    Measures of population pressure, referring in general to the stress upon the environment by human consumption of resources, are imperative for environmental sustainability studies and management. Development based on resource consumption is the predominant factor of population pressure. This paper presents a spatial model of population pressure by linking consumption associated with regional urbanism and ecosystem services. Maps representing relative geographic degree and extent of natural resource consumption and degree and extent of impacts on surrounding areas are new, and this research represents the theoretical research toward this goal. With development, such maps offer a visualization tool for planners of various services, amenities for people, and conservation planning for ecologist. Urbanization is commonly generalized by census numbers or impervious surface area. The potential geographical extent of urbanism encompasses the environmental resources of the surrounding region that sustain cities. This extent is interpolated using kriging of a variable based on population wealth data from the U.S. Census Bureau. When overlayed with land-use/land-cover data, the results indicate that the greatest estimates of population pressure fall within mixed forest areas. Mixed forest areas result from the spread of cedar woods in previously disturbed areas where further disturbance is then suppressed. Low density areas, such as suburbanization and abandoned farmland are characteristic of mixed forest areas.

  14. Methods for successful follow-up of elusive urban populations: an ethnographic approach with homeless men.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, S.; Berkman, A.; Gheith, A.; Jahiel, R.; Stanley, D.; Geller, P. A.; Valencia, E.; Susser, E.

    1997-01-01

    Public health is paying increasing attention to elusive urban populations such as the homeless, street drug users, and illegal immigrants. Yet, valid data on the health of these populations remain scarce; longitudinal research, in particular, has been hampered by poor follow-up rates. This paper reports on the follow-up methods used in two randomized clinical trials among one such population, namely, homeless men with mental illness. Each of the two trials achieved virtually complete follow-up over 18 months. The authors describe the ethnographic approach to follow-up used in these trials and elaborate its application to four components of the follow-up: training interviewers, tracking participants, administering the research office, and conducting assessments. The ethnographic follow-up method is adaptable to other studies and other settings, and may provide a replicable model for achieving high follow-up rates in urban epidemiologic studies. PMID:9211004

  15. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Vershinin, Vladimir L; Vershinina, Svetlana D; Berzin, Dmitry L; Zmeeva, Darya V; Kinev, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats.

  16. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Vershinin, Vladimir L.; Vershinina, Svetlana D.; Berzin, Dmitry L.; Zmeeva, Darya V.; Kinev, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats. PMID:25984350

  17. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershinin, Vladimir L.; Vershinina, Svetlana D.; Berzin, Dmitry L.; Zmeeva, Darya V.; Kinev, Alexander V.

    2015-05-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats.

  18. Sustainability of population growth: a case study of urban settlements in Israel.

    PubMed

    Portnov, B A; Pearlmutter, D

    1997-01-01

    "One of the most sensitive criteria for gauging the degree of socio-economic prosperity of an urban settlement is the ability to sustain stable rates of population growth by attracting newcomers and retaining existing population. The present paper argues that after reaching a particular size (on the average, 20-30,000 residents), urban localities in Israel tend to experience substantial changes in components of their annual population growth. Starting with this inflection point, the growth of settlements gradually becomes less dependent on natural causes (birth and death rates) than on the ability to attract newcomers and retain current residents. On the basis of this conclusion, a strategy of ¿redirecting priorities' to developing the peripheral regions of the country is suggested." excerpt

  19. Association of traffic-related hazardous air pollutants and cervical dysplasia in an urban multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause in the development of cervical cancer; however, not all women infected with HPV develop cervical cancer indicating that other risk factors are involved. Our objective was to determine the association between exposure to ambient levels of common traffic-related air toxics and cervical dysplasia, a precursor lesion for cervical cancer. Methods The study sample consisted of women enrolled in a Phase II clinical trial to evaluate diagnostic techniques for cervical disease in Houston, Texas. The current assessment is a secondary data analysis in which cases were defined as women diagnosed with cervical dysplasia, while those without cervical dysplasia served as controls. Residential census tract-level estimates of ambient benzene, diesel particulate matter (DPM), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to assess exposure. Census tract-level pollutant estimates were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and HPV status. Results Women in the highest residential exposure categories for benzene and DPM had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia compared to the lowest exposure category (Benzene: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 1.97[1.07-3.62], very high exposure = 2.30[1.19-4.46]. DPM: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 2.83[1.55-5.16], very high exposure = 2.10[1.07-4.11]). Similarly, women with high residential exposure to PAHs had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia (aOR [95% CI] = 2.46[1.35-4.48]). The highest PAH exposure category was also positively associated with cervical dysplasia prevalence but was not statistically significant. Assessment of the combined effect of HAP exposure indicates that exposure to high levels of more than one HAP is positively associated with cervical dysplasia prevalence (p for trend = 0.004). Conclusions Traffic-related HAPs, such as benzene, DPM, and PAHs, are not as well-regulated and monitored as criteria air pollutants (e.g., ozone), underscoring the need for studies evaluating the role of these toxicants on disease risk. Our results suggest that exposure to traffic-related air toxics may increase cervical dysplasia prevalence. PMID:24924773

  20. Association of traffic-related hazardous air pollutants and cervical dysplasia in an urban multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Michael E; Danysh, Heather E; Follen, Michele; Lupo, Philip J

    2014-06-13

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause in the development of cervical cancer; however, not all women infected with HPV develop cervical cancer indicating that other risk factors are involved. Our objective was to determine the association between exposure to ambient levels of common traffic-related air toxics and cervical dysplasia, a precursor lesion for cervical cancer. The study sample consisted of women enrolled in a Phase II clinical trial to evaluate diagnostic techniques for cervical disease in Houston, Texas. The current assessment is a secondary data analysis in which cases were defined as women diagnosed with cervical dysplasia, while those without cervical dysplasia served as controls. Residential census tract-level estimates of ambient benzene, diesel particulate matter (DPM), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to assess exposure. Census tract-level pollutant estimates were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and HPV status. Women in the highest residential exposure categories for benzene and DPM had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia compared to the lowest exposure category (Benzene: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 1.97[1.07-3.62], very high exposure = 2.30[1.19-4.46]. DPM: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 2.83[1.55-5.16], very high exposure = 2.10[1.07-4.11]). Similarly, women with high residential exposure to PAHs had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia (aOR [95% CI] = 2.46[1.35-4.48]). The highest PAH exposure category was also positively associated with cervical dysplasia prevalence but was not statistically significant. Assessment of the combined effect of HAP exposure indicates that exposure to high levels of more than one HAP is positively associated with cervical dysplasia prevalence (p for trend = 0.004). Traffic-related HAPs, such as benzene, DPM, and PAHs, are not as well-regulated and monitored as criteria air pollutants (e.g., ozone), underscoring the need for studies evaluating the role of these toxicants on disease risk. Our results suggest that exposure to traffic-related air toxics may increase cervical dysplasia prevalence.

  1. Genetic structure and admixture in urban populations of the Argentine North-West.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, E L; Dipierri, J E; Gutiérrez, N I; Vullo, C M

    2005-01-01

    From the ethnic point of view, the Argentine North-West (ANW) constitutes one of the most noticeable areas in the country due to the cultural peculiarities that integrate it to the Andean world and the ethno-historical and demographic characteristics of how it became populated. The study analysed the genetic structure and diversity of the ANW urban populations, and the contribution of parental populations to its genetic pool. Previously reported data on allele frequencies of HLA-A and HLA-B loci of 1293 individuals from Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca and La Rioja were used. Our estimates include: (a) genetic intra-population diversity; (b) genetic distances between populations; (c) linkage disequilibrium (LD); (d) admixture rates and genetic distances with respect to three parental populations (European, American Indian and African). Low intra-population genetic differentiation and low genetic distances between populations were found. Differential LD distribution varied according to province, with 60% variance due to intra-population differences. The Spanish contribution (50%) predominated in ANW, followed by the American Indian (40%) and African (10%) contributions, and a marked inter-population heterogeneity of genetic admixture rates was observed. The shortest genetic distance was found in the American Indian parental population, and the longest in the African parental population. Five hundred years after the Spanish conquest, urban populations at ANW that have probably been subject to the same evolutionary forces present low genetic diversity and a similar genetic structure. Genetic distances and admixture percentages observed agree with census and ethno-historical data on settlement in the region.

  2. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  3. Smokeless tobacco consumption in a multi-ethnic community in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abbas, S M; Alam, A Y; Usman, M; Siddiqi, K

    2014-06-18

    Smokeless tobacco is commonly used in south Asia. In addition to causing oral and pharyngeal cancers, its harmful effects are comparable to smoking tobacco. A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted in 2010-2011 to investigate smokeless tobacco use in a multi-ethnic, semi-urban population in Islamabad, Pakistan (n = 2030). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was 16.0% (21.6% among males and 8.8% among females); 51.7% of smokeless tobacco users were also cigarette smokers. The rate of smokeless tobacco use was comparatively high among Pakhtun males (38.2%) and Sindhi females (22.4%). The associations between smokeless tobacco use and ethnicity, age group, income level and cigarette smoking were statistically significant among male smokeless tobacco users. Of the sample 41.4% (840/2030) had inadequate knowledge about the health problems associated with smokeless tobacco. Appropriate interventions are needed to raise awareness of the health risks and to prevent smokeless tobacco use.

  4. Prevalence of Depression in a Large Urban South Indian Population — The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (Cures – 70)

    PubMed Central

    Poongothai, Subramani; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Ganesan, Anbhazhagan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    Background In India there are very few population based data on prevalence of depression. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in an urban south Indian population. Methods and Findings Subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), involving 26,001 subjects randomly recruited from 46 of the 155 corporation wards of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in South India. 25,455 subjects participated in this study (response rate 97.9%). Depression was assessed using a self-reported and previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) – 12. Age adjustment was made according to the 2001 census of India. The overall prevalence of depression was 15.1% (age-adjusted, 15.9%) and was higher in females (females 16.3% vs. males 13.9%, p<0.0001). The odds ratio (OR) for depression in female subjects was 1.20 [Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.12–1.28, p<0.001] compared to male subjects. Depressed mood was the most common symptom (30.8%), followed by tiredness (30.0%) while more severe symptoms such as suicidal thoughts (12.4%) and speech and motor retardation (12.4%) were less common. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of depression with age among both female (p<0.001) and male subjects (p<0.001). The prevalence of depression was higher in the low income group (19.3%) compared to the higher income group (5.9%, p<0.001). Prevalence of depression was also higher among divorced (26.5%) and widowed (20%) compared to currently married subjects (15.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions This is the largest population-based study from India to report on prevalence of depression and shows that among urban south Indians, the prevalence of depression was 15.1%. Age, female gender and lower socio-economic status are some of the factors associated with depression in this population. PMID:19784380

  5. Population genetic structure of urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Ashwani; Dube, Madhulika; Gakhar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India because climatic condition and geography of India provide an ideal environment for development of malaria vector. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in India and its control has been hampered by insecticide resistance. In present study population genetic structure of A. stephensi is analyzed at macro geographic level using 13 microsatellite markers. Significantly high genetic differentiation was found in all studied populations with differentiation values (FST) ranging from 0.0398 to 0.1808. The geographic distance was found to be playing a major role in genetic differentiation between different populations. Overall three genetic pools were observed and population of central India was found to be coexisting in two genetic pools. High effective population size (Ne) was found in all the studied populations.

  6. PREVALENCE OF PRIMARY ALDOSTERONISM IN AN URBAN HYPERTENSIVE POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Galati, Sandi-Jo; Cheesman, Khadeen C; Springer-Miller, Ryan; Hopkins, Sarah M; Krakoff, Lawrence; Bagiella, Emilia; Zhuk, Rachel A; Ying, Tiffany K; Amer, Chelsey; Boyajian, Michael K; Inabnet, W B; Levine, Alice C

    2016-08-02

    To determine the prevalence of Primary Aldosteronism (PA) in hypertensive patients presenting to the primary care clinic at The Mount Sinai Hospital, regardless of the degree of hypertension and to identify clinical criteria that should prompt screening for PA. An ARR (cutoff ≥20, with PAC ≥ 10 and suppressed renin) was used to prospectively screen 296 hypertensive patients (BP ≥ 140/90) over the age of 18 from August 2012 through May 2013. Subjects who screened positive then underwent confirmatory oral salt load testing (OSLT). Of the 296 patients, fourteen screened positive for PA, an overall prevalence of 4.7%. Six of the fourteen cases underwent confirmatory OSLT upon which two confirmed positive, prevalence of 0.7%. Overall, patients with confirmed PA were more likely to have resistant hypertension (42.9% vs. 18.1% (p= 0.0334)) and require more anti-hypertensive agents (2.8 ±1.2 agents vs 2.1 ± 1.1 agents (p=0.0213)). There was a trend toward lower potassium values in the cases. The prevalence of PA in our clinic is much lower than in reports from certain "at-risk" populations. PA screening is indicated in patients with resistant hypertension, regardless of serum potassium levels.

  7. Determinants of infant sleep position in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Rachel Y; Omron, Rodney

    2002-10-01

    The incidence of SIDS has decreased by 40% since the Back to Sleep campaign was initiated. However, the rate of SIDS in the District of Columbia continues to be approximately double the national rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of prone sleeping among infants in the District of Columbia and to ascertain what information is being provided to parents by health care professionals by a cross-sectional survey of parents of infants 0-6 months of age presenting for well child care at Children's Health Center, Children's National Medical Center, in Washington, DC. We recruited a consecutive sample of 126 parent-infant pairs, of which 92.9% were African-American. The average infant was 73 days old, was 3,003 grams at birth, and was full term. When asked how the infants were placed for sleep the night before the interview, 34.1 % of parents had placed the infant supine, 50.8% side, and 15.1% prone. Nearly half (48%) of infants slept in an adult bed with the mother. More than one third of the infants had been placed prone for sleep at least once since hospital discharge. Most common reasons for sleeping supine included SIDS risk reduction or health care professional advice. Side sleepers did so primarily because of concern about vomiting, health care provider advice, or SIDS. Infants were placed prone primarily because the infant slept better. When asked about information received from a health care provider, 70.6% of parents stated that they had received information about sleep position and 64.3% about the hazards of passive smoking. Eight parents observed nursery personnel placing their infants prone. Only 16.7% of the total study population had received a Back to Sleep brochure, read it, and recalled that it recommended back sleeping. Infants were more likely to sleep prone if there was a grandparent in the home (OR 2.9, p<0.05) or if they were the firstborn (OR 2.17, p<0.05). Infants were more likely to sleep supine if

  8. PREVELENCE OF PRIMARY ALDOSTERONISM IN AN URBAN HYPERTENSIVE POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Galati, Sandi-Jo; Cheesman, Khadeen C; Springer-Miller, Ryan; Hopkins, Sarah M; Krakoff, Lawrence; Bagiella, Emilia; Zhuk, Rachel A; Ying, Tiffany K; Amer, Chelsey; Boyajian, Michael K; Inabnet, W B; Levine, Alice C

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in hypertensive patients presenting to the primary care clinic at The Mount Sinai Hospital, regardless of the degree of hypertension and to identify clinical criteria that should prompt screening for PA. An aldosterone:renin ratio (ARR, cutoff ≥20, with plasma aldosterone concentration [PAC] ≥10 and suppressed renin) was used to prospectively screen 296 hypertensive patients (blood pressure [BP] ≥140/90) over the age of 18 from August 2012 through May 2013. Subjects who screened positive then underwent confirmatory oral salt load testing (OSLT). Of the 296 patients, 14 screened positive for PA, an overall prevalence of 4.7%. Six of the 14 cases underwent confirmatory OSLT, upon which 2 were confirmed positive, for a prevalence of 0.7%. Overall, patients with confirmed PA were more likely to have resistant hypertension (42.9% vs. 18.1% (P = .0334)) and require more antihypertensive agents (2.8 ± 1.2 agents vs. 2.1 ± 1.1 agents, P = .0213). There was a trend toward lower potassium values in the cases. The prevalence of PA in our clinic is much lower than in reports from certain "at-risk" populations. PA screening is indicated in patients with resistant hypertension, regardless of serum potassium levels. ARR = aldosterone:renin ratio ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone AVS = adrenal venous sampling BP = blood pressure MRA = mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist OSLT = oral salt load confirmatory test PA = primary aldosteronism PAC = plasma aldosterone concentration PCP = primary care provider PRA = plasma renin activity.

  9. Metal induced inhalation exposure in urban