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Sample records for multilayer coating deposited

  1. High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

  2. Maskless deposition technique for the physical vapor deposition of thin film and multilayer coatings with subnanometer precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Ceglio, Natale M.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is a method for the production of axially symmetric, graded and ungraded thickness thin film and multilayer coatings that avoids the use of apertures or masks to tailor the deposition profile. A motional averaging scheme permits the deposition of uniform thickness coatings independent of the substrate radius. Coating uniformity results from an exact cancellation of substrate radius dependent terms, which occurs when the substrate moves at constant velocity. If the substrate is allowed to accelerate over the source, arbitrary coating profiles can be generated through appropriate selection and control of the substrate center of mass equation of motion. The radial symmetry of the coating profile is an artifact produced by orbiting the substrate about its center of mass; other distributions are obtained by selecting another rotation axis. Consequently there is a direct mapping between the coating thickness and substrate equation of motion which can be used to tailor the coating profile without the use of masks and apertures.

  3. Practical magnetron sputtering system for the deposition of optical multilayer coatings.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, J A; Pekelsky, J R; Pelletier, R; Ranger, M; Sullivan, B T; Waldorf, A J

    1992-07-01

    A magnetron sputtering system is described in which, at any one time, as many as four different 15-cm x 46-cm rectangular planar magnetron targets can be mounted vertically in the deposition chamber. These can be attached to either dc or rf power supplies for direct or reactive deposition of metal, metal oxide, or nitride films. Typical target materials include Ag, Al, C, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, W, and Zr. Good uniformity can be obtained on stationary substrates, although better results are possible with oscillating substrates. The refractive indices are given for several useful oxide materials. The materials and thicknesses of the individual layers that comprise an optical multilayer system are entered into a computer that subsequently controls the deposition parameters, the substrate motion, and the deposition time. After a relatively simple calibration process, coatings that consist of between 20 and 60 layers can be produced to within an accuracy of 1% or 2%. A wideband optical monitor is available for checking the performance of the multilayer system during its deposition. Several examples of multilayer coatings that were prepared on this equipment are given.

  4. Hard X-ray multilayer coated astronomical mirrors by e-beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Daniele; Pareschi, Giovanni; Grisoni, Gabriele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe

    2004-10-01

    A number of X-ray astronomical missions of near future (Constellation-X, XEUS, Simbol-X) will make use of hard X-rays (10-100 keV) optics with broad-band multilayer coatings. A possible technique under development is based on an extension of the already tested replication of a coated mandrel by e-beam deposition and nickel electroforming already successfully used for the soft (0.1 - 10 keV) X-ray mirrors of the Beppo-SAX, XMM, JET-X/Swift missions. In this case graded multilayers are deposited and replicated from the mandrel replicated instead of a single layer. The roughness reduction in order to improve the coating reflectivity could be achieved by an ion assistance during the e-beam deposition. The e-beam deposition with ion assistance is a technique that allows to reach comparable (if not better) smoothness levels with respect to other methods (e.g. ion sputtering), taking the advantage of a stress mitigation between the layers and of a further improvement in reflectivity due to the low density of the e-beam evaporated Carbon, which is used as bilayer spacer. In this paper we discuss the adopted deposition technique and its implementation: we present topographic (AFM) tests and X-ray reflectivity tests performed on preliminary samples.

  5. Multilayer coatings on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.M.; Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.A.; Bennett, W.D.; Stewart, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Thin-film optical and non-optical multilayer coatings are deposited onto flexible substrates using a vacuum web coater developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The coater`s primary application is rapid prototyping of multilayer (1) polymer coatings, (2) polymer/metal coatings, (3) ceramic/metal coatings, and (4) hybrid polymer, ceramic, and metal coatings. The coater is fully automated and incorporates polymer evaporation and extrusion heads, high-rate magnetron sputtering cathodes, and e-beam evaporation sources. Polymer electrolytes are deposited by extrusion techniques. Flexible plastic, metal, and ceramic substrates can be coated using roll-to-roll or closed-loop configurations. Examples of multilayer optical coatings demonstrated to date are solar reflectors, heat mirrors, Fabry-Perot filters, and alpha particle sensors. Nonoptical coatings include multilayer magnetic metal/ceramic and lamellar composites.

  6. Deposition of robust multilayer mirror coatings for storage ring FEL lasing at 176nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günster, St.; Ristau, D.; Trovó, M.; Danailov, M.; Gatto, A.; Kaiser, N.; Sarto, F.; Piegari, A.

    2005-09-01

    Progress was achieved in the last years in the development of multilayer mirrors used in storage ring Free Electron Lasers (FEL) operating in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range. Based on dense oxide coatings deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering, a stable lasing at 190 nm was demonstrated. The extension towards shorter wavelengths had to overcome severe problems connected to the radiation resistance and the necessary reflectivity of the resonator mirrors. In this context, radiation resistance can be considered as the ability of the mirror materials to withstand the high power laser radiation and the intense energetic background radiation generated in the synchrotron source. The bombardment with high energetic photons leads to irreversible changes and a coloration on the specimen. Reflectivity requirements can be evaluated from the tolerable losses of FEL systems. At ELETTRA FEL the resonator mirror reflectivity must be above 95 %. Evaporated fluoride multilayer mirrors provide sufficient reflectivity, but they do not exhibit an adequate radiation resistance. Pure oxide multilayers show a sufficient radiation resistance, but they cannot reach the necessary reflectivity below 190 nm. A successful approach combines evaporated fluoride multilayer stack with a dense protection layer of silicon dioxide deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering. Such mirror systems were produced reaching a reflectivity of approximately 99 % at 180 nm. Lasing in the storage ring FEL at ELETTRA was realised in the range between 176 - 179 nm. The mirror reflectivity shows only a slight degradation after lasing, which could be fully restored after the lasing experiment.

  7. Deposition of multilayer optical coatings using closed-field magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Hall, G. W.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in display technologies. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to < +/-1% is accomplished simply using time, although optical monitoring can be used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, narrowband filters as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process are described.

  8. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Rong; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-06-21

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  9. Multilayer optical dielectric coating

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L.

    1990-01-01

    A highly damage resistant, multilayer, optical reflective coating includes alternating layers of doped and undoped dielectric material. The doping levels are low enough that there are no distinct interfaces between the doped and undoped layers so that the coating has properties nearly identical to the undoped material. The coating is fabricated at high temperature with plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques to eliminate defects, reduce energy-absorption sites, and maintain proper chemical stoichiometry. A number of differently-doped layer pairs, each layer having a thickness equal to one-quarter of a predetermined wavelength in the material are combined to form a narrowband reflective coating for a predetermined wavelength. Broadband reflectors are made by using a number of narrowband reflectors, each covering a portion of the broadband.

  10. Soap-film coating: High-speed deposition of multilayer nanofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyun; Andersson, Henrik A.; Andersson, Mattias; Andres, Britta; Edlund, Håkan; Edström, Per; Edvardsson, Sverker; Forsberg, Sven; Hummelgård, Magnus; Johansson, Niklas; Karlsson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Norgren, Magnus; Olsen, Martin; Uesaka, Tetsu; Öhlund, Thomas; Olin, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    The coating of thin films is applied in numerous fields and many methods are employed for the deposition of these films. Some coating techniques may deposit films at high speed; for example, ordinary printing paper is coated with micrometre-thick layers of clay at a speed of tens of meters per second. However, to coat nanometre thin films at high speed, vacuum techniques are typically required, which increases the complexity of the process. Here, we report a simple wet chemical method for the high-speed coating of films with thicknesses at the nanometre level. This soap-film coating technique is based on forcing a substrate through a soap film that contains nanomaterials. Molecules and nanomaterials can be deposited at a thickness ranging from less than a monolayer to several layers at speeds up to meters per second. We believe that the soap-film coating method is potentially important for industrial-scale nanotechnology. PMID:23503102

  11. Inkjet ink spreading on polyelectrolyte multilayers deposited on pigment coated paper.

    PubMed

    Mielonen, Katriina; Geydt, Pavel; Österberg, Monika; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Backfolk, Kaj

    2015-01-15

    Mechanisms of inkjet ink spreading and absorption on a coated paper have been studied using a polyelectrolyte multilayering technique. By applying alternating sequences of cationic and anionic polyelectrolyte layers on a mineral coated paper, the role of the interfacial chemistry was evaluated. The polyelectrolyte multilayer was created to imitate a thin resin-like liquid-absorptive layer and to clarify the role of the charge of the protruding polyelectrolyte layer on ink spreading and colorant fixation. The formation of a thin polyelectrolyte layer and coating coverage was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A submolecular mechanical imaging of the polyelectrolyte complexes with an atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed differences in modulus and different nanosize agglomerates were identified which were ascribed to polyion complexes. The polyelectrolyte coatings significantly affect the solid-liquid interaction and particularly the ink spreading revealed as intercolor bleeding and wicking. The interfacial interaction between the ink and the applied polyelectrolyte layers showed differences between dye- and pigment-based colorants, which could be emphasized by the polyelectrolyte chemistry. PMID:25454440

  12. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1999-08-10

    A novel field emitter device is disclosed for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials. 8 figs.

  13. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

  14. Antibacterial copper-nickel bilayers and multilayer coatings by pulsed laser deposition on titanium.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Vinita; Josephine, J; George, R P; Krishnan, R; Dash, S; Kamruddin, M; Kalavathi, S; Manoharan, N; Tyagi, A K; Dayal, R K

    2009-11-01

    Biofouling, especially microfouling, is a major concern with the use of titanium (Ti) in the marine environment as a condenser material in cooling water systems. Earlier, copper-nickel (Cu/Ni) alloys were extensively used in marine environments due to their high corrosion and biofouling resistance. However, the choice of condenser material for the new fast breeder reactor in Kalpakkam is Ti to avoid steam side corrosion problems, which may pose a threat to steam generator parts having sodium as the secondary coolant. This study evaluates the surface modification of Ti using nano films of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) to utilize the antibacterial property of copper ions in reducing microfouling. The surface modification of Ti was carried out by the deposition of a Cu/Ni bilayer and (Cu/Ni)(10) multilayer films using a pulsed laser deposition technique. Various surface characterization studies revealed that the deposited Cu/Ni films were thin and nanocrystalline in nature. The antibacterial properties were evaluated using total viable count and epifluorescence microscopic techniques. The results showed an apparent decrease in bacterial attachment on multilayered and bilayered Cu/Ni thin films on Ti surfaces. Comparative studies between the two types of films showed a bigger reduction in numbers of microorganisms on the multilayers. PMID:20183129

  15. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOEpatents

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  16. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  17. Ultrahard Multilayer Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzan, D.C.; Dugger, M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Friedmann, T.A.; Knapp, J.A.; McCarty, K.F.; Medlin, D.L.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Missert, N.; Newcomer, P.P.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tallant, D.R.

    1999-05-01

    We have developed a new multilayer a-tC material that is thick stress-free, adherent, low friction, and with hardness and stiffness near that of diamond. The new a-tC material is deposited by J pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature, and fully stress-relieved by a short thermal anneal at 600°C. A thick multilayer is built up by repeated deposition and annealing steps. We measured 88 GPa hardness, 1100 GPa Young's modulus, and 0.1 friction coefficient (under high load). Significantly, these results are all well within the range reported for crystalline diamond. In fact, this material, if considered separate from crystalline diamond, is the 2nd hardest material known to man. Stress-free a-tC also has important advantages over thin film diamond; namely, it is smooth, processed at lower temperature, and can be grown on a much broader range of substrates. This breakthrough will enable a host of applications that we are actively pursuing in MEMs, sensors, LIGA, etc.

  18. Comparison in mechanical and tribological properties of CrTiAlMoN and CrTiAlN nano-multilayer coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Guojun; Jiang, Bailing

    2016-02-01

    CrTiAlN and CrTiAlMoN nano-multilayer coatings were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. TiMoN and CrTiMoN nano-multilayer coatings with same Mo2N layer thickness were also prepared for comparison. The structure of these coatings is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical and tribological properties were characterized and compared by nano-indentation and ball-on-disc test. It was found that these coatings were structured by fcc metal nitride phases (including CrN, TiN, AlN and Mo2N) and the preferred orientation changed from (1 1 1) to (2 0 0) with the increase of Mo content. The TEM results showed that the coatings exhibited typical columnar structure and nano-multilayer structure with modulation periods ranged from 3.2 nm to 7.6 nm. Among these coatings, CrTiAlMoN coatings presented the highest hardness, lowest coefficient of friction (COF) and wear rate. The hardness of these nano-multilayer coatings were determined by layer interfaces: TiN/Mo2N and AlN/Mo2N layer interface showed benefit on hardness enhancement while CrN/Mo2N layer interface led to a great hardness decrement. In comparison with the other as-deposited coatings, the low COF of CrTiAlMoN coatings was not only affected by Mo addition but also related to its oxidation behaviors.

  19. Corrosion resistance of multilayer hybrid sol-gel coatings deposited on the AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Y. T.; Rondón, E. A.; Rueda, L.; Hernández Barrios, C. A.; Coy, A.; Viejo, F.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work multilayer hybrid sol-gel coatings were synthesized on the AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel employed in the fabrication of orthopaedic implants. Hybrid sols were obtained from a mixture of inorganic precursor, TEOS, and organic, GPTMS, using ethanol as solvent, and acetic acid as catalyst. The characterization of the sols was performed using pH measurements, rheological tests and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for different ageing times. On the other hand, the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the corrosion resistance was evaluated using anodic potentiodynamic polarization in SBF solution at 37±2°C. The results confirmed that sol-gel synthesis employing TEOS-GPTMS systems produces uniform and homogeneous coatings, which enhanced the corrosion resistance with regard to the parent alloy. Moreover, corrosion performance was retained after applying more than one layer (multilayer coatings).

  20. TiO2/SiO2 multilayer as an antireflective and protective coating deposited by microwave assisted magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, M.; Wojcieszak, D.; Domaradzki, J.; Kaczmarek, D.; Song, S.; Placido, F.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper designing, preparation and characterization of multifunctional coatings based on TiO2/SiO2 has been described. TiO2 was used as a high index material, whereas SiO2 was used as a low index material. Multilayers were deposited on microscope slide substrates by microwave assisted reactive magnetron sputtering process. Multilayer design was optimized for residual reflection of about 3% in visible spectrum (450-800 nm). As a top layer, TiO2 with a fixed thickness of 10 nm as a protective film was deposited. Based on transmittance and reflectance spectra, refractive indexes of TiO2 and SiO2 single layers were calculated. Ultra high vacuum atomic force microscope was used to characterize the surface properties of TiO2/SiO2 multilayer. Surface morphology revealed densely packed structure with grains of about 30 nm in size. Prepared samples were also investigated by nanoindentation to evaluate their protective performance against external hazards. Therefore, the hardness of the thin films was measured and it was equal to 9.34 GPa. Additionally, contact angle of prepared coatings has been measured to assess the wetting properties of the multilayer surface.

  1. Effect Of The Plasma Deposition Parameters On The Properties Of Ti/TiN Multilayers For Hard Coatings Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saoula, N.; Henda, K.; Kesri, R.

    2008-09-23

    In this study, we present the effect of the plasma deposition parameters on the mechanical properties of Ti/TiN multilayers. The elaboration of our films has been carried out by RF-Magnetron Sputtering (13.56 MHz) under nitrogen and argon reactive plasma at low pressure. The film depositions have been done on steel substrates. The first step of our study was the optimization of the depositions conditions in order to obtain good quality films. The amount of nitrogen in the sputtering gases being fixed at 10%. The total pressure was set between 2mTorr to 10mTorr. The deposited multilayers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-indentation.

  2. Multi-layer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze'ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  3. Enhanced water vapor barrier properties for biopolymer films by polyelectrolyte multilayer and atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 double-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi; Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Harlin, Ali; Salomäki, Mikko; Areva, Sami; Korhonen, Juuso T.; Karppinen, Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Commercial polylactide (PLA) films are coated with a thin (20 nm) non-toxic polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film made from sodium alginate and chitosan and additionally with a 25-nm thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al 2O 3 layer. The double-coating of PEM + Al 2O 3 is found to significantly enhance the water vapor barrier properties of the PLA film. The improvement is essentially larger compared with the case the PLA film being just coated with an ALD-grown Al 2O 3 layer. The enhanced water vapor barrier characteristics of the PEM + Al 2O 3 double-coated PLA films are attributed to the increased hydrophobicity of the surface of these films.

  4. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  5. Properties of multilayer coatings produced by coaxial laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovskiy, V. N.; Bykovskiy, D. P.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Polskiy, V. I.; Prokopova, N. M.; Chirikov, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of the study of multilayer coatings produced by laser cladding on the substrate steel 34HMA using iron based powder PR-10R6M5 as the filler material. The coatings were produced with consistent application of the tracks with fixed overlapping. The dependencies between the characteristics of tracks and the technological mode of deposition were revealed. Properties of coatings were determined for various overlapping of tracks and directions of the cladding layers.

  6. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy approach for predicting hardness of deposited TiN/ZrN multilayer coatings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Huang, Wesley; Huang, Guo-Ping; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an adaptive neuro-fuzzy approach based on first order function of fuzzy model for establishing the relationship between control factors and thin films properties of TiN/ZrN coatings on Si(100) wafer substrates. A statistical model was designed to explore the space of the processes by an orthogonal array scheme. Eight control factors of closed unbalance magnetron sputtering system were selected for modeling the process, such as interlayer material, argon and nitrogen flow rate, titanium and zirconium target current, rotation speed, work distance, and bias voltage. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out for determining the influence of control factors. In this study, with the application of ANOVA, the smallest effect of control factors was eliminated. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied as a tool to model the deposited process with five significant control factors. The experimental results show that ANFIS demonstrates better accuracy than additive model for the film hardness. The root mean square error between prediction values and experimental values were archived to 0.04. PMID:21128476

  7. Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1997-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition.

  8. Kerr effect in multilayer dielectric coatings.

    PubMed

    Fedulova, Elena; Trubetskov, Michael; Amotchkina, Tatiana; Fritsch, Kilian; Baum, Peter; Pronin, Oleg; Pervak, Vladimir

    2016-09-19

    We report the utilization of the optical Kerr effect in multilayer dielectric coatings, previously discussed only theoretically. We present the design and realization of multilayer dielectric optical structures with layer-specific Kerr nonlinearities, which permit tailoring of the intensity-dependent effects. The modulation depth in reflectance reaches up to 6% for the demonstrated examples of dielectric nonlinear multilayer coatings. We show that the nonlinearity is based on the optical Kerr effect, with the recovery time faster than the laser pulse envelope of 1 ps. Due to high flexibility in design, the reported dielectric nonlinear multilayer coatings have the potential to open hitherto unprecedented possibilities in nonlinear optics and ultrafast laser applications. PMID:27661917

  9. High reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2000-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  10. Process for fabricating high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2001-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  11. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-08-02

    The NSLS-II[1] program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens[2,3] (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system[4] constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of titanium carbide, titanium boron carbonitride, titanium boride/titanium carbide and titanium carbide/chromium carbide multilayer coatings by reactive and ion beam assisted, electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Douglas Edward

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the synthesis of titanium carbide, TiBCN, TiB2/TiC and TiC/Cr23C6 multilayer coatings by several methods of electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and examine the affects of various processing parameters on the properties and microstructures of the coatings. TiC was successfully deposited by reactive ion beam assisted (RIBA), EB-PVD and the results were compared to various titanium carbide coatings deposited by a variety of techniques. The affects of substrate temperature and ion beam current density were correlated with composition, hardness, changes in the lattice parameter, degree of crystallographic texture, residual stress, surface morphology, and microstructure. The average Vicker's hardness number was found to increase with increasing ion beam current density and increase over the substrate temperature range of 250°C to 650°C. The average Vicker's hardness number decreased at a substrate temperature of 750°C as a result of texturing and microstructure. The present investigation shows that the average Vicker's hardness number is not only a function of the composition, but also the microstructure including the degree of crystallographic texture. TiB2/TiC multilayer coatings were deposited by argon ion beam assisted, EB-PVD with varying number of total layers to two different film thicknesses under slightly different deposition conditions. In both cases, the hardness of the coatings increased with increasing number of total layers. The adhesion of the coatings ranged from 30 N to 50 N, with the better adhesion values obtained with the thinner coatings. The crystallographic texture coefficients of both the TiC and TiB2 layers were found to change with increasing number of total layers. The multilayer design was found to significantly affect the microstructure and grain size of the deposited coatings. The fracture toughness was found to decrease with increasing number of total layers and was

  13. Performance of multilayer coated diffraction gratings in the EUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A. M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Condor, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of multilayer coating application on the performance of a diffraction grating in the EUV spectral region was evaluated by examining the performance of a 3600-line/mm and a 1200-line/mm replica blazed gratings, designed for operation in the 300-A spectral region in first order. A ten-layer IrSi multilayer optimized for 304 A was deposited using electron-beam evaporation. The grating efficiency was measured on the SURF II calibration beamline in a chamber designed for calibrating the solar EUV rocket telescope and spectrograph multilayer coatings. A significant (by a factor of about 7) enhancement in grating efficiency in the 300-A region was demonstrated.

  14. Characterization of multilayer nitride coatings by electron microscopy and modulus mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Pemmasani, Sai Pramod; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.; Ramakrishna, M.; Valleti, Krishna; Gundakaram, Ravi C.; Joshi, Shrikant V.

    2013-07-15

    This paper discusses multi-scale characterization of physical vapour deposited multilayer nitride coatings using a combination of electron microscopy and modulus mapping. Multilayer coatings with a triple layer structure based on TiAlN and nanocomposite nitrides with a nano-multilayered architecture were deposited by Cathodic arc deposition and detailed microstructural studies were carried out employing Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Electron Backscattered Diffraction, Focused Ion Beam and Cross sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy in order to identify the different phases and to study microstructural features of the various layers formed as a result of the deposition process. Modulus mapping was also performed to study the effect of varying composition on the moduli of the nano-multilayers within the triple layer coating by using a Scanning Probe Microscopy based technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on modulus mapping of cathodic arc deposited nitride multilayer coatings. This work demonstrates the application of Scanning Probe Microscopy based modulus mapping and electron microscopy for the study of coating properties and their relation to composition and microstructure. - Highlights: • Microstructure of a triple layer nitride coating studied at multiple length scales. • Phases identified by EDS, EBSD and SAED (TEM). • Nanolayered, nanocomposite structure of the coating studied using FIB and TEM. • Modulus mapping identified moduli variation even in a nani-multilayer architecture.

  15. Alternating potentials assisted electrochemical deposition of mineralized collagen coatings.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Junjun; Lin, Jun; Li, Juan; Weng, Wenjian; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Huiming

    2015-12-01

    Mineralized collagen coatings were synthesized by electrochemical deposition with alternating negative and positive potentials. The obtained coatings demonstrated a multi-layer structure alternating consisting of weakly and highly mineralized collagen layers and the proportion of each layer could be controlled by adjusting the deposition time. The coatings deposited using alternating potentials assisted electrochemical deposition (AP-ECD) showed significantly enhanced osteoblasts proliferation, and rhBMP-2 loading capability compared to those of the coatings deposited using constant potential electrochemical deposition (CP-ECD). The enhanced cytocompatibility and rhBMP-2 loading capability of the coatings might be attributed to their high proportion of weakly mineralized collagen layer. Furthermore, the deposition mechanism for alternating potentials is proposed as that positive potential induces deposition of negatively charged collagen fibrils to form a weakly mineralized collagen layer. Our results suggest that the present deposition method could be a promising approach to engineer mineralized collagen coating with better biological performances.

  16. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  17. Structure and mechanical properties of nanoscale multilayered CrN/ZrSiN coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. G.; Rapaud, O.; Allain, N.; Baraket, M.; Dong, C.; Coddet, C.

    2009-07-15

    Nanocrystalline/amorphous CrN/ZrSiN multilayer coatings with a bilayer thickness ranging from 11 to 153 nm were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructure and mechanical properties of these thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nanoindentation. The formation of nanocrystalline CrN and nanocomposite ZiSiN in the single layer coatings was identified by XRD and FTIR. The periodic structure of the as-deposited multilayer coatings was confirmed by TEM observation. Nanoindentation tests showed that both the values of hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (E{sub r}) of CrN/ZrSiN multilayers remained almost constant despite varying the bilayer thickness. The multilayer coatings exhibited higher H of 30 GPa and higher resistance to plastic deformation when compared to the single layer CrN and ZrSiN coatings.

  18. Novel Investigation on Nanostructured Multilayer and Functionally Graded Ni-P Electroless Coatings on Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, S. R.; Monirvaghefi, S. M.; Enayati, M. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, step-wise multilayer and functionally graded Ni-P coatings were deposited with electroless in which the content of phosphorus and nickel would be changed gradually and step-wise through the thickness of the coatings, respectively. To compare the properties of these coatings with Ni-P single-layer coatings, three types of coatings with different phosphorus contents were deposited. Heat treatment of coatings was performed at 400 °C for 1 h. The microstructure and phase transformation of coatings were characterized by SEM/EDS, TEM, and XRD. The mechanical properties of coatings were studied by nanoindentation test. According to the results of the single-layer coatings, low P coating had the maximum hardness and also the ratio of hardness ( H) to elasticity modulus ( E) for the mentioned coating was maximum. In addition, low and medium P coatings had crystalline and semi-crystalline structure, respectively. The mentioned coatings had <111> texture and after heat treatment their texture didn't change. While high P coating had amorphous structure, after heat treatment it changed to crystalline structure with <100> texture for nickel grains. Furthermore, the results showed that functionally graded and step-wise multilayer coatings were deposited successfully by using the same initial bath and changing the temperature and pH during deposition. Nanoindentation test results showed that the hardness of the mentioned coatings changed from 670 Hv near the substrate to 860 Hv near the top surface of coatings. For functionally graded coating the hardness profile had gradual changes, while step-wise multilayer coating had step-wise hardness profile. After heat treatment trend of hardness profiles was changed, so that near the substrate, hardness was measured 1400 Hv and changed to 1090 Hv at the top coat.

  19. Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1997-09-23

    Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition. 6 figs.

  20. Polyelectrolyte multilayer-calcium phosphate composite coatings for metal implants.

    PubMed

    Elyada, Alon; Garti, Nissim; Füredi-Milhofer, Helga

    2014-10-13

    The preparation of organic-inorganic composite coatings with the purpose to increase the bioactivity of bioinert metal implants was investigated. As substrates, glass plates and rough titanium surfaces (Ti-SLA) were employed. The method comprises the deposition of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMLs) followed by immersion of the coated substrate into a calcifying solution of low supersaturation (MCS). Single or mixed PEMLs were constructed from poly-L-lysine (PLL) alternating with poly-L-glutamate, (PGA), poly-L-aspartate (PAA), and/or chondroitin sulfate (CS). ATR-FTIR spectra reveal that (PLL/PGA)10 multilayers and mixed multilayers with a (PLL/PGA)5 base contain intermolecular β-sheet structures, which are absent in pure (PLL/PAA)10 and (PLL/CS)10 assemblies. All PEML coatings had a grainy topography with aggregate sizes and size distributions increasing in the order: (PLL/PGA)n < (PLL/PAA)n < (PLL/CS)n. In mixed multilayers with a (PLL/PGA)n base and a (PLL/PAA)n or (PLL/CS)n top, the aggregate sizes were greatly reduced. The PEMLs promoted calcium phosphate nucleation and early crystal growth, the intensity of the effect depending on the composition of the terminal layer(s) of the polymer. In contrast, crystal morphology and structure depended on the supersaturation, pH, and ionic strength of the MCS, rather than on the composition of the organic matrix. Crystals grown on both uncoated and coated substrates were mostly platelets of calcium deficient carbonate apatite, with the Ca/P ratio depending on the precipitation conditions. PMID:25105729

  1. Polyelectrolyte multilayer-calcium phosphate composite coatings for metal implants.

    PubMed

    Elyada, Alon; Garti, Nissim; Füredi-Milhofer, Helga

    2014-10-13

    The preparation of organic-inorganic composite coatings with the purpose to increase the bioactivity of bioinert metal implants was investigated. As substrates, glass plates and rough titanium surfaces (Ti-SLA) were employed. The method comprises the deposition of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMLs) followed by immersion of the coated substrate into a calcifying solution of low supersaturation (MCS). Single or mixed PEMLs were constructed from poly-L-lysine (PLL) alternating with poly-L-glutamate, (PGA), poly-L-aspartate (PAA), and/or chondroitin sulfate (CS). ATR-FTIR spectra reveal that (PLL/PGA)10 multilayers and mixed multilayers with a (PLL/PGA)5 base contain intermolecular β-sheet structures, which are absent in pure (PLL/PAA)10 and (PLL/CS)10 assemblies. All PEML coatings had a grainy topography with aggregate sizes and size distributions increasing in the order: (PLL/PGA)n < (PLL/PAA)n < (PLL/CS)n. In mixed multilayers with a (PLL/PGA)n base and a (PLL/PAA)n or (PLL/CS)n top, the aggregate sizes were greatly reduced. The PEMLs promoted calcium phosphate nucleation and early crystal growth, the intensity of the effect depending on the composition of the terminal layer(s) of the polymer. In contrast, crystal morphology and structure depended on the supersaturation, pH, and ionic strength of the MCS, rather than on the composition of the organic matrix. Crystals grown on both uncoated and coated substrates were mostly platelets of calcium deficient carbonate apatite, with the Ca/P ratio depending on the precipitation conditions.

  2. Fabrication of a stable inorganic-organic hybrid multilayer film with uniform and dense inorganic nanoparticle deposition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xurong; Han, Joong Tark; Cho, Kilwon

    2003-04-21

    A stable inorganic-organic hybrid multilayer film with homogeneous and dense inorganic nanoparticle deposition was constructed by coating ZrO2 nanoparticles with poly(4-sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and irradiating multilayer film assembled from PSS-coated ZrO2 nanoparticles and a diazo-resin (DR). PMID:12744322

  3. Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Bajt, S; Clift, W M; Folta, J A; Gullikson, E M; Klebanoff, L E; Kleineberg, U; Malinowski, M E; Wedowski, M

    1999-08-05

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is a candidate for future application by the semiconductor industry in the production of sub-100 nm feature sizes in integrated circuits. Using multilayer reflective coatings optimized at wavelengths ranging from 11 to 14 nm, EUVL represents a potential successor to currently existing optical lithography techniques. In order to assess lifetimes of the multilayer coatings under realistic conditions, a series of radiation stability tests has been performed. In each run a dose of EUV radiation equivalent to several months of lithographic operation was applied to Mo/Si and MO/Be multilayer coatings within a few days. Depending on the residual gas concentration in the vacuum environment, surface deposition of carbon during the exposure lead to losses in the multilayer reflectivity. However, in none of the experimental runs was structural damage within the bulk of the multilayers observed. Mo/Si multilayer coatings recovered their full original reflectivity after removal of the carbon layer by an ozone cleaning method. Auger depth profiling on MO/Be multilayers indicate that carbon penetrated into the Be top layer during illumination with high doses of EUV radiation. Subsequent ozone cleaning fully removed the carbon, but revealed enhanced oxidation of the area illuminated, which led to an irreversible loss in reflectance on the order of 1%. Keywords: Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, multilayer reflective coatings, radiation stability, surface contamination

  4. Oleophobic optical coating deposited by magnetron PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernt, D.; Ponomarenko, V.; Pisarev, A.

    2016-09-01

    Thin oxinitride films of Zn-Sn-O-N and Si-Al-O-N were deposited on glass by reactive magnetron sputtering at various nitrogen-to-oxygen ratios. Nitrogen added to oxygen led to decrease of the surface roughness and increase of oleophobic properties studied by the oil-drop test. The best oleophobity was obtained for Zn-Sn-O-N oxinitride at Zn:Sn=1:1 and N:O=1:2. Improved oleophobic properties were also demonstrated if the oxinitride film was deposited on top of the multilayer coating as the final step in the industrial cycle of production of energy efficient glass.

  5. Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude; Folta, James Allen; Tan, Swie-In; Reiss, Ira

    2002-07-30

    A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

  6. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.; Mitchell, D.F.; Costich, V.R.; Vincent, S.; Thoeni, W.; Casparis, E.; Pfefferkorn, R.; Bartella, J.

    1985-08-15

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating.

  7. Self-forming TiBN Nanocomposite Multilayer Coating Prepared by Pulse Cathode Arc Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongzhi; Hu, Zhenjiang; Yan, Leilei; Yu, Fuli; Tu, Wendi

    2016-07-01

    Novel multilayer structured TiBN coatings were deposited on Si (100) substrate using TiBN complex cathode plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition technique (PIIID). The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microcopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and ball-on-disk test. XRD results reveal that both samples of TiBN coatings have the main diffraction peak of TiN (200) and (220). Cross-section TEM images reveal that these coatings have the character of self-forming multilayer and consists of face-centered cubic TiN and hexagonal BN nanocrystalline embedded in amorphous matrix. Because of the existence of hexagonal BN, the friction coefficient of the new TiBN coating in room temperature is obviously lower than that of the monolithic TiN nanocrystalline coating.

  8. Multi-layered ruthenium-containing bond coats for thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryon, Brian S.

    Advances in thermal barrier coating (TBC) technology for Ni-base superalloys have shown that B2 Pt-modified NiAl-based bond coatings outperform conventional NiAl bond coat layers for high temperature TBC multilayer systems. This thesis addresses the potential improvement in the high temperature capability of a 132 Ru-modified aluminide bond coat layer due to improved high temperature properties of RuAl over NiAl. The objectives of this research have been to define a processing path for fabrication of a multi-layered Ru-modified aluminide bond coating and to investigate its performance within a TBC system. Microstructural development and the oxidation behavior of Ru-modified and Ru/Pt-modified bond coatings have been studied in detail. Two types of Ru-modified bond coatings have been fabricated: one by means of high temperature, low activity chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processing, and one via high temperature, high activity pack-aluminization. The location of the RuAl-rich layer has been shown to be process dependent with a low activity Ru-containing bond coating producing an exterior B2 NiAl layer with an interior B2 RuAl layer and a high activity Ru-containing bond coat producing the reverse arrangement of B2 layers. While all bond coating systems studied offer some oxidation protection by forming alpha-Al2O3, the low activity Ru/Pt-modified bond coatings exhibited a higher resistance to oxidation-induced failure compared to Ru-modified bond coatings. Through 1000 cyclic oxidation exposures, the Ru/Pt-modified coatings with an initial Ru deposition of 3mum are comparable to conventional Pt-modified aluminide coatings. The Ru-Al-Ni ternary system is the basis for Ru-modifed aluminide coating systems. An experimental assessment of the Ru-Al-Ni phase diagram at 1000°C and 1100°C has been produced via a series of diffusion couple experiments. A continuous solid-solution has been shown to exist between the RuAl and NiAl phases in the ternary system at the

  9. A method for repairing amplitude defects in multilayer-coated EUV mask blanks

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Hau-Riege, S; Stearns, D; Clift, M; Mirkarimi, P; Gullikson, E; Chapman, H; Sweeney, D

    2003-10-20

    EUV mask blanks are fabricated by depositing a reflective Mo/Si multilayer film onto super-polished substrates. Localized defects in this thin film coating can significantly perturb the reflected field and produce errors in the printed image. Ideally one would want to manufacture defect-free mask blanks; however, this may be very difficult to achieve in practice. One practical way to increase the yield of mask blanks is to be able to repair a significant number of the defects in the multilayer coating. In this paper we present a method for repairing defects that are near the top surface of the coating; we call these amplitude defects because they predominantly attenuate the amplitude of the reflected field. Although the discussion is targeted to the application of manufacturing masks for EUV lithography, the conclusions and results are also applicable to understanding the optical effects of multilayer erosion, including ion-induced multilayer erosion and condenser erosion in EUVL steppers.

  10. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  11. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV–VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  12. Antifouling coating of cellulose acetate thin films with polysaccharide multilayers.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Tamilselvan; Kargl, Rupert; Tradt, Karin Eva; Kulterer, Martin R; Braćić, Matej; Hribernik, Silvo; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin; Ribitsch, Volker

    2015-02-13

    In this investigation, partially deacetylated cellulose acetate (DCA) thin films were prepared and modified with hydrophilic polysaccharides with the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. As polysaccharides, chitosan (CHI) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were used. DCA thin films were manufactured by exposing spin coated cellulose acetate to potassium hydroxide solutions for various times. The deacetylation process was monitored by attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy, film thickness and static water contact angle measurements. A maximum of three bilayers was created from the alternating deposition of CHI and CMC on the DCA films under two different conditions namely constant ionic strengths and varying pH values of the CMC solutions. Precoatings of CMC at pH 2 were used as a base layer. The sequential deposition of CMC and CHI was investigated with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, film thickness, static water contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The versatility and applicability of the developed functional coatings was shown by removing the multilayers by rinsing with mixtures containing HCl/NaCl. The developed LbL coatings are used for studying the fouling behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA).

  13. Large Area Vacuum Deposited Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.

    2003-04-30

    It's easy to make the myriad of types of large area and decorative coatings for granted. We probably don't even think about most of them; the low-e and heat mirror coatings on our windows and car windows, the mirrors in displays, antireflection coatings on windows and displays, protective coatings on aircraft windows, heater coatings on windshields and aircraft windows, solar reflectors, thin film solar cells, telescope mirrors, Hubble mirrors, transparent conductive coatings, and the list goes on. All these products require large deposition systems and chambers. Also, don't forget that large batches of small substrates or parts are coated in large chambers. In order to be cost effective hundreds of ophthalmic lenses, automobile reflectors, display screens, lamp reflectors, cell phone windows, laser reflectors, DWDM filters, are coated in batches.

  14. Large-area sol-gel multilayer laser reflectors applied by meniscus coating

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Thomas, I.M.

    1992-03-19

    A meniscus coating method to produce multilayer laser reflectors on 30+ cm substrates is described. These high-laser damage threshold (LDT) dielectric coatings are deposited from colloidal suspensions of silica and alumina nanometer-scale particles. The deposition process involves forcing a slow suspension flow through a porous applicator tube, forming a falling film on the tube. A substrate contacts this film to form a meniscus, and then moves relative to the applicator to entrain a film upon itself, which thins to optical dimensions upon solvent evaporation. The fluid dynamics of meniscus coating are briefly described, and optically measured dried film thicknesses are compared to theoretical predictions. Deviations from the theory are traced to non-Newtonian rheology of one of the suspensions used. Preliminary multilayer coating results which focus on large-scale uniformity and LDT are presented.

  15. High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wedowski, M; Underwood, J H; Gullikson, E M; Bajt, S; Folta, J A; Kearney, P A; Montcalm, C; Spiller, E

    1999-12-29

    Synchrotron-based reflectometry is an important technique for the precise determination of optical properties of reflective multilayer coatings for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL). Multilayer coatings enable normal incidence reflectances of more than 65% in the wavelength range between 11 and 15 nm. In order to achieve high resolution and throughput of EUVL systems, stringent requirements not only apply to their mechanical and optical layout, but also apply to the optical properties of the multilayer coatings. Therefore, multilayer deposition on near-normal incidence optical surfaces of projection optics, condenser optics and reflective masks requires suitable high-precision metrology. Most important, due to their small bandpass on the order of only 0.5 nm, all reflective multilayer coatings in EUVL systems must be wavelength-matched to within {+-}0.05 nm. In some cases, a gradient of the coating thickness is necessary for wavelength matching at variable average angle of incidence in different locations on the optical surfaces. Furthermore, in order to preserve the geometrical figure of the optical substrates, reflective multilayer coatings need to be uniform to within 0.01 nm in their center wavelength. This requirement can only be fulfilled with suitable metrology, which provides a precision of a fraction of this value. In addition, for the detailed understanding and the further development of reflective multilayer coatings a precision in the determination of peak reflectances is desirable on the order of 0.1%. Substrates up to 200 mm in diameter and 15 kg in mass need to be accommodated. Above requirements are fulfilled at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley. This beamline proved to be precise within 0.2% (ms) for reflectance and 0.002 nm (rms) for wavelength.

  16. Plasma Spray and Pack Cementation Process Optimization and Oxidation Behaviour of Novel Multilayered Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng

    The hot section components in gas turbines are subjected to a harsh environment with the temperature being increased continuously. The higher temperature has directly resulted in severe oxidation of these components. Monolithic coatings such as MCrAIY and aluminide have been traditionally used to protect the components from oxidation; however, increased operating temperature quickly deteriorates the coatings due to accelerated diffusion of aluminum in the coatings. To improve the oxidation resistance a group of multilayered coatings are developed in this study. The multilayered coatings consist of a Cr-Si co-deposited layer as the diffusion barrier, a plasma sprayed NiCrA1Y coating as the middle layer and an aluminized top layer. The Cr-Si and aluminized layers are fabricated using pack cementation processes and the NiCrA1Y coatings are produced using the Mettech Axial III(TM) System. All of the coating processes are optimized using the methodology of Design of Experiments (DOE) and the results are analyzed using statistical method. The optimal processes are adopted to fabricate the multilayered coatings for oxidation tests. The coatings are exposed in air at 1050°C and 1150°C for 1000 hr. The results indicate that a Cr layer and a silicon-rich barrier layer have formed on the interface between the Cr-Si coating and the NiCrA1Y coating. This barrier layer not only prevents aluminum and chromium from diffusing into the substrate, but also impedes the diffusion of other elements from the substrate into the coating. The results also reveal that, for optimal oxidation resistance at 1050°C, the top layer in a multilayered coating should have at least Al/Ni ratio of one; whereas the multilayered coating with the All Ni ratio of two in the top layer exhibits the best oxidation resistance at 1150°C. The DOE methodology provides an excellent means for process optimization and the selection of oxidation test matrix, and also offers a more thorough understanding of the

  17. Modeling of thermal stresses in elastic multilayer coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chunxue; Zhao, Zhiwei; Li, Xuehua

    2015-02-01

    The performance and reliability of multilayer coating systems are strongly influenced by thermal stresses. The present study develops an alternative analytical model to predict the thermal stresses in elastic multilayer coating systems. An exact closed-form solution is obtained which is independent of the number of coating layers. In addition, with the definition of the coordinate system, the closed-form solution is concisely formulated. Specific results are calculated for thermal stresses in HfO2/SiO2 multilayer optical coatings, and a finite element analysis is performed to confirm the analytical results. The two results agree fairly well with each other. Also, when the thicknesses of the coating layers are much less than the substrate thickness, the approximate solution is obtained based on the exact closed-form solution, and its accuracy is examined.

  18. Multilayer and Particle Size-Graded YSZ Coatings Obtained by Plasma Spraying of Micro- and Nanostructured Feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpio, P.; Bannier, E.; Salvador, M. D.; Benavente, R.; Sánchez, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to attempt to achieve a better balance between zirconia coating properties and high-temperature performance by combining the characteristics of coatings obtained from a micro- and a nanostructured feedstock having the same YSZ composition. First, two single-layer coatings were obtained as reference coatings, using the micro- and the nanostructured feedstock, respectively. Four different composite coatings were then obtained by combining these two feedstocks. Two double-layer (multilayer) YSZ coatings were prepared by depositing the microstructured feedstock on the nanostructured layer and vice versa, while two coatings with different particle size gradients (graded coatings) were prepared by depositing various mixtures of the micro- and the nanostructured feedstock in alternate layers. The microstructure and hardness of the resulting coatings were determined. In the multilayer coatings, each layer exhibited a clearly different microstructure, whereas in the graded coatings the microstructural characteristics changed gradually. Coating hardness developed analogously, each layer displaying a marked change in hardness in the multilayer coatings in contrast to a gradual change in the graded coatings. The microstructure and hardness of the individual layers were thus quite well preserved in the developed composite coatings.

  19. Vacuum arc deposited DLC based coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, Othon R.; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

    2002-05-01

    The great interest in the use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as a coating material is justified by the superior wear resistance and hardness, chemical inertness, and very low friction coefficients of these coatings. Vacuum arc deposition is well suited to prepare superhard films with high sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratios. However, the high level of internal stresses originating during growth prevents the deposition of thick films, and their hardness makes it difficult for DLC layers to comply with substrate deformations. In order to overcome these limitations, different approaches are possible. Multilayer structures are one means to maintain the surface mechanical properties of the DLC while relieving the internal stresses. Another possibility is to dope the DLC films in order to reduce the internal stress and to stabilize the desirable sp{sup 3} bonds to higher temperatures. At higher doses of dopants, the formation of nanocrystals is possible and the properties of the coatings change drastically. All these approaches were investigated on films prepared by cathodic arc and a synthesis of the results is presented here.

  20. A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 1. MODEL FORMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multilayer biochemical dry deposition model has been developed based on the NOAA Multilayer Model (MLM) to study gaseous exchanges between the soil, plants, and the atmosphere. Most of the parameterizations and submodels have been updated or replaced. The numerical integration ...

  1. Modeling of Indentation Damage in Single and Multilayer Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Bull, S. J.

    In many coating applications damage resistance is controlled by the mechanical properties of the coating, interface and substrate. As coatings become thinner and more complex, with multilayer and graded architectures now in widespread use, it is very important to obtain the mechanical properties (such as hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, etc.) of individual coating layers for use in design calculations and have failure-related design criteria which are valid for such multilayer systems. Nanoindentation testing is often the only viable approach to assess the damage mechanisms and properties of very thin coatings (< 1 µm) since it can operate at the required scale and provides fingerprint of the indentation response of the coating/substrate system. Finite element analysis of indentation load displacement curves can be used to extract materials properties for design; as coating thicknesses decrease it is observed that the yield strength required to fit the curves increases and scale-dependent materials properties are essential for design. Similarly the assessment of fracture response of very thin coatings requires modeling of the indentation stress field and how it is modified by plasticity during the indentation cycle. An FE approach using a cohesive zone model has been used to assess the locus of failure and demonstrates the complexity of adhesive failure around indentations for multilayer coatings.

  2. Selective emission multilayer coatings for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic radiator

    DOEpatents

    Cockeram, Brian Vern

    2004-01-27

    Multilayer coating designs have been developed to provide selective emission for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator surface. These coatings increase the surface emissivity of a molybdenum TPV radiator substrate in the wavelength range that matches the bandgap of the TPV cells to increase the power density of the TPV system. Radiator emission at wavelengths greater than the bandgap energy of the TPV cells is greatly reduced through the use of these coatings, which significantly increases the efficiency of the TPV system. The use of this coating greatly improves the performance of a TPV system, and the coating can be tailored to match the bandgap of any practical TPV system.

  3. Cellular response to titanium discs coated with polyelectrolyte multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jing; Luo, Qiao-jie; Huang, Ying; Li, Xiao-dong

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) coatings on the biological behavior of titanium (Ti) substrates. Collagen type Ι/hyaluronic acid (Col/HA) and chitosan/hyaluronic acid (Chi/HA) multilayer PEM coatings were introduced onto Ti substrates using layer-by-layer assembly. Contact angle instruments and quartz crystal microbalance were used for film characterization. The results obtained showed that both Col/HA and Chi/HA surfaces had high hydrophilicity and promoted cell adhesion in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast and human gingival fibroblast cells. In addition, the synthesis of function-related proteins and gene expression levels in both MC3T3-E1 and fibroblast cells was higher for the Col/HA coating compared with the Chi/HA coating, indicating better cellular response to the Col/HA coating.

  4. Multilayer crack-free hybrid coatings for functional devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Shumaila; Bidin, Noriah; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Marsin Sanagi, Mohd.; Imran, M.

    2016-04-01

    Porous acid catalyzed TiO2 single, SiO2-TiO2 hybrid, and TiO2/SiO2-TiO2/SiO2 multilayer coatings are synthesized and characterized for optical and electro-optical applications. The reflection value is reasonably reduced from the surface of the glass by integrating sol-gel based spin-coated single and multilayer thin films. Structurally, the films show uniform, crack-free, and porous nanofilms with good surface roughness of below 10 nm, which has potential for optical applications. Wide range tunability of refractive index (2.83 to 1.59) with more than 78% optical transparency is observed. The multilayered reflection profile is observed around 0.18%, so these coatings are desirable for optochemical functional devices.

  5. Reticle blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography: Ion beam sputter deposition of low defect density Mo/Si multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S.P.; Kania, D.R.; Kearney, P.A.; Levesque, R.A.; Hayes, A.V.; Druz, B.; Osten, E.; Rajan, R.; Hedge, H.

    1996-06-24

    We report on growth of low defect density Mo/Si multilayer (ML) coatings. The coatings were grown in a deposition system designed for EUVL reticle blank fabrication. Complete, 81 layer, high reflectance Mo/Si ML coatings were deposited on 150 mm dia (100) oriented Si wafer substrates using ion beam sputter deposition. Added defects, measured by optical scattering, correspond to defect densities of 2x10{sup -2}/cm{sup 2}. This represents a reduction in defect density of Mo/Si ML coatings by a factor of 10{sup 5}.

  6. Ultra-high efficiency multilayer blazed gratings through deposition kinetic control

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, D. L.; Anderson, Erik H.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2012-05-07

    Diffraction efficiency of multilayer coated blazed gratings (MBG) strongly depends on the perfection of the saw-tooth-shaped layers in the overall composite structure. Growth of multilayers on saw-tooth substrates should be carefully optimized in order to reduce groove profile distortion and at the same time to avoid significant roughening of multilayer interfaces. In this work we report on a new way to optimize growth of sputter-deposited Mo/Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates through variation of the sputtering gas pressure. Lastly, a new record for diffraction efficiency of 44% was achieved for a optimized MBG with groove density of 5250 lines/mm at the wavelength of 13.1 nm.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-y / oxide multilayers onto textured NiFe substrates for coated conductor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, R. I.; Kursumovic, A.; Majoros, M.; Kang, D.-J.; Glowacki, B. A.; Evetts, J. E.

    2002-04-01

    Pulsed laser depositions of double-buffer and triple-buffer YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO)/Y2O3(YSZ)/CeO2 heterostructures have been performed in situ onto commercially available biaxially textured NiFe 50%/50% tape. The deposition in the forming gas (4% H2/Ar) from a CeO2 target and the deposition in vacuum from a CeO2:Pd composite target have been explored as two possible routes for cube-on-cube growth of the first buffer layer. The influence of the critical processing parameters on the texture is investigated and some of the issues involved in the reduction of NiO (111) and the formation of cube-on-cube NiO (200) growth are discussed. X-ray diffraction has been used for texture evaluation of the substrate and subsequent deposited layers. The substrate-buffer interface region has been studied by focused ion beam cross section electron microscopy. Both the buffers and YBCO layers show biaxial alignment with ω and φ scans having optimum YBCO full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of 4.3° and 8.8°, respectively. The morphology has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The value of Tc (onset) has been measured at 90 K (ΔTc = 10 K). The critical current density, Jc, has been measured by transport measurements and magnetic measurements performed in a dc SQUID magnetometer.

  8. Repair of localized defects in multilayer-coated reticle blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Stearns, Daniel G.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2004-11-23

    A method is provided for repairing defects in a multilayer coating layered onto a reticle blank used in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system. Using high lateral spatial resolution, energy is deposited in the multilayer coating in the vicinity of the defect. This can be accomplished using a focused electron beam, focused ion beam or a focused electromagnetic radiation. The absorbed energy will cause a structural modification of the film, producing a localized change in the film thickness. The change in film thickness can be controlled with sub-nanometer accuracy by adjusting the energy dose. The lateral spatial resolution of the thickness modification is controlled by the localization of the energy deposition. The film thickness is adjusted locally to correct the perturbation of the reflected field. For example, when the structural modification is a localized film contraction, the repair of a defect consists of flattening a mound or spreading out the sides of a depression.

  9. Short-Pulse Laser Sintering of Multilayer Hard Metal Coatings: Structure and Wear Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny; Ipatov, Alexey; Nikolaeva, Irina; Zakirova, Raushaniya

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the phase composition and properties of multilayer hard metal coatings deposited on steel by a process variant of Selective laser melting (SLM). The process is based on layer-wise short-pulse laser sintering of high-dispersive WC-Co powder on a steel substrate. High temperature in the molten zone and chemical interaction with the substrate explain high level of adhesion strength between the coating and the substrate. The technique allows obtaining both high quality hard-metal multilayer gradient coatings with thickness up to 200 μm, density near to the theoretical density (TD), hardness up to 21 GPa and complex 3D objects by layer-wise powder based process such as SLM.

  10. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  11. Tribological performance of hybrid filtered arc-magnetron coatings - Part I: Coating deposition process and basic coating properties characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gorokhovsky, Vladimir; Bowman, C.; Gannon, Paul E.; VanVorous, D.; Voevodin, A. A.; Rutkowski, A.; Muratore, C.; Smith, Richard J.; Kayani, Asghar N.; Gelles, David S.; Shutthanandan, V.; Trusov, B. G.

    2006-12-04

    Aircraft propulsion applications require low-friction and wear resistant surfaces that operate under high contact loads in severe environments. Recent research on supertough and low friction nanocomposite coatings produced with hybrid plasma deposition processes was demonstrated to have a high potential for such demanding applications. However, industrially scalable hybrid plasma technologies are needed for their commercial realization. The Large area Filtered Arc Deposition (LAFAD) process provides atomically smooth coatings at high deposition rates over large surface areas. The LAFAD technology allows functionally graded, multilayer, super-lattice and nanocomposite architectures of multi-elemental coatings via electro-magnetic mixing of two plasma flows composed of different metal ion vapors. Further advancement can be realized through a combinatorial process using a hybrid filtered arc-magnetron deposition system. In the present study, multilayer and nanostructured TiCrCN/TiCr +TiBC composite cermet coatings were deposited by the hybrid filtered arc-magnetron process. Filtered plasma streams from arc evaporated Ti and Cr targets, and two unbalanced magnetron sputtered B4C targets, were directed to the substrates in the presence of reactive gases. A multiphase nanocomposite coating architecture was designed to provide the optimal combination of corrosion and wear resistance of advanced steels (Pyrowear 675) used in aerospace bearing and gear applications. Coatings were characterized using SEM/EDS, XPS and RBS for morphology and chemistry, XRD and TEM for structural analyses, wafer curvature and nanoindentation for stress and mechanical properties, and Rockwell and scratch indentions for adhesion. Coating properties were evaluated for a variety of coating architectures. Thermodynamic modeling was used for estimation of phase composition of the top TiBC coating segment. Correlations between coating chemistry, structure and mechanical properties are discussed.

  12. Control of surface mobility for conformal deposition of Mo-Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, D. L.; Anderson, E. H.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Warwick, T.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Padmore, H. A.

    2013-11-01

    Multilayer-coated blazed gratings (MBG) are the most promising solution for ultra-high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy, since they can have very high groove density and provide high-order operation and very high diffraction efficiency. The performance of MBGs however depends critically on the conformal deposition of the multilayer (ML) stack on a saw-tooth substrate and the minimization of roughness. We present an analysis of the roughening and smoothing processes during growth of Mo/Si multilayers deposited over a range of pressures of Ar sputtering gas on flat and saw-tooth substrates. A Linear Continuum Model (LCM) of the film growth was used to understand the interplay between smoothing and roughening of the ML films and to predict the optimum conditions for deposition. The MBG coated under the optimal deposition conditions demonstrated high diffraction efficiency in the EUV and soft X-ray wavelength ranges

  13. Electro-spark deposited coatings for protection of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.

    1995-08-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The coating is fused (metallurgically bonded) to the substrate with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperature. Rapid solidification of the deposit typically results in an extremely fine-grained deposit that may be amorphous for some materials. Nearly any electrically conductive metal, alloy or cermet can be applied to metallic substrates. The ESD process allows multi-layer coatings to be built-up using different materials to create graded structures or surface compositions that would be difficult to achieve by other means. A series of iron-aluminide coatings based on Fe{sub 3}Al and FeAl in combination with refractory metal diffusion-barrier coatings and supplementary additions of other elements are in corrosion testing at ANL. The most recent FeAl coatings are showing a factor of three better corrosion performance than the best previous coatings. Technology transfer activities are a significant portion of the ESD program effort. Notable successes now include the start-up of a new business to commercialize the ESD technology, major new applications in gas turbine engines and steam turbine blade coatings, and in military, medical, metal-working, and recreational equipment applications.

  14. Characterization of multilayer anti-fog coatings.

    PubMed

    Chevallier, Pascale; Turgeon, Stéphane; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Turcotte, Raphaël; Laroche, Gaétan

    2011-03-01

    Fog formation on transparent substrates constitutes a major challenge in several optical applications requiring excellent light transmission characteristics. Anti-fog coatings are hydrophilic, enabling water to spread uniformly on the surface rather than form dispersed droplets. Despite the development of several anti-fog coating strategies, the long-term stability, adherence to the underlying substrate, and resistance to cleaning procedures are not yet optimal. We report on a polymer-based anti-fog coating covalently grafted onto glass surfaces by means of a multistep process. Glass substrates were first activated by plasma functionalization to provide amino groups on the surface, resulting in the subsequent covalent bonding of the polymeric layers. The anti-fog coating was then created by the successive spin coating of (poly(ethylene-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layers. PEMA acted as an interface by covalently reacting with both the glass surface amino functionalities and the PVA hydroxyl groups, while PVA added the necessary surface hydrophilicity to provide anti-fog properties. Each step of the procedure was monitored by XPS, which confirmed the successful grafting of the coating. Coating thickness was evaluated by profilometry, nanoindentation, and UV visible light transmission. The hydrophilic nature of the anti-fog coating was assessed by water contact angle (CA), and its anti-fog efficiency was determined visually and tested quantitatively for the first time using an ASTM standard protocol. Results show that the PEMA/PVA coating not only delayed the initial period required for fog formation but also decreased the rate of light transmission decay. Finally, following a 24 hour immersion in water, these PEMA/PVA coatings remained stable and preserved their anti-fog properties.

  15. Plasma deposition of thin film multilayers for surface engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, R.; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-06-01

    Plasma surface Engineering for enhancing optical and tribological behaviour of a surface is discussed. Specifically, it is shown how optimized PECVD processing can produce sophisticated Rugate filters and AR coatings on plastic lenses. It is found that multilayer Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC), in a functionally graded geometry, obtained by a combination of plasma intensive processing, not only can impart high value of hardness to a surface but also wear protection at high contact loads.

  16. Ion assisted deposition of optical coatings. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.J.

    1986-08-01

    The effects on the properties of Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SiO/sub 2/ and HfO/sub 2/ single- and multi-layer optical coatings deposited using ion-assisted deposition (IAD) were investigated. IAD is a novel deposition technique which utilizes a separate ion source to direct a beam of ions at the growing film. A Kaufman ion source was used to provide a monoenergetic, neutralized beam of oxygen ions independent of the material evaporation process. The optical and physical properties, as well as laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) values, were studied for coatings bombarded with 200, 300, 500 and 1000 eV oxygen ions at values of current density from 0 to 200 microAmp/sq cm. IAD was successfully applied to deposit coatings at low temperature on heavy metal fluoride (HMF) glass substrates. The coatings deposited using IAD were hard and dense. The IAD coatings improved the durability and abrasion resistance of the HMF glass substrates. The results of this investigation show that IAD can be used to improve the optical and physical properties of optical coatings.

  17. Two-dimensional inter-layer debonding in deposited multi-layers

    SciTech Connect

    Beuth, J.L.; Narayan, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    Two-dimensional problems of residual stress-driven inter-layer debonding or delamination in successively deposited isotropic multi-layers are studied, with direct applications to the modeling of delamination in multi-layered coatings and films. Planar and axisymmetric configurations of a delamination crack extending from a free edge are considered. The term successively deposited is used to designate that each layer experiences a free thermal contraction relative to the layers below it. Results for energy release rates as a function of crack length are presented from fracture mechanics models of planar and axisymmetric multi-layer geometries. In planar problems, energy release rates reach a constant value for crack lengths greater than one or two debond thicknesses and maintain this value until the multi-layer is almost completely debonded. In axisymmetric problems, energy release rates increase steadily with increasing crack length, reaching a maximum just before the multi-layer separates into two pieces. These observed energy release rate behaviors are explained qualitatively. Methods are outlined for quantitatively predicting the steady-state energy release rate for planar debonding problems. Methods are also outlined for determining a conservative upper bound for the maximum energy release rate for an axisymmetrically extending delamination crack. Both methods are based on potential energy calculations from a residual stress model for an uncracked multi-layer. These easily-calculated energy release rate quantities for planar and axisymmetric delamination problems can be used to guide the specification of layer thicknesses, stacking sequences and other characteristics of multi-layered coatings and films.

  18. Comparing polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated PMMA microfluidic devices and glass microchips for electrophoretic separations.

    PubMed

    Currie, Christa A; Shim, Joon Sub; Lee, Se Hwan; Ahn, Chong; Limbach, Patrick A; Halsall, H Brian; Heineman, William R

    2009-12-01

    There is a continuing drive in microfluidics to transfer microchip systems from the more expensive glass microchips to cheaper polymer microchips. Here, we investigate using polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) as a coating system for PMMA microchips to improve their functionality. The multilayer system was prepared by layer-to-layer deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride and polystyrene sulfonate. Practical aspects of coating PMMA microchips were explored. The multilayer buildup process was monitored using EOF measurements, and the stability of the PEM was investigated. The performance of the PEM-PMMA microchip was compared with those of a standard glass microchip and a PEM-glass microchip in terms of EOF and separating two fluorescent dyes. Several key findings in the development of the multilayer coating procedure for PMMA chips are also presented. It was found that, with careful preparation, a PEM-PMMA microchip can be prepared that has properties comparable--and in some cases superior--to those of a standard glass microchip.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sarin, Vinod; Mulpuri, Rao

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  20. Multilayered graphene in K(a)-band: nanoscale coating for aerospace applications.

    PubMed

    Kuzhir, P; Volynets, N; Maksimenko, S; Kaplas, T; Svirko, Yu

    2013-08-01

    We report on the experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) properties of multilayered graphene in K(a)-band synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in between nanometrically thin Cu catalyst film and dielectric (SiO2) substrate. The quality of the produced multilayered graphene samples was monitored by Raman spectroscopy. The thickness of graphene films was controlled by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and was found to be a few nanometers (up to 5 nm). We discovered, that the fabricated graphene, being only some thousandth of skin depth, provided remarkably high EM shielding efficiency caused by absorption losses at the level of 35-43% of incident power. Being highly conductive at room temperature, multilayer graphene emerges as a promising material for manufacturing ultrathin microwave coatings to be used in aerospace applications.

  1. Thermal stress prediction in mirror and multilayer coatings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xianchao; Zhang, Lin; Morawe, Christian; Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer optics for X-rays typically consist of hundreds of periods of two types of alternating sub-layers which are coated on a silicon substrate. The thickness of the coating is well below 1 µm (tens or hundreds of nanometers). The high aspect ratio (∼10(7)) between the size of the optics and the thickness of the multilayer can lead to a huge number of elements (∼10(16)) for the numerical simulation (by finite-element analysis using ANSYS code). In this work, the finite-element model for thermal-structural analysis of multilayer optics has been implemented using the ANSYS layer-functioned elements. The number of meshed elements is considerably reduced and the number of sub-layers feasible for the present computers is increased significantly. Based on this technique, single-layer coated mirrors and multilayer monochromators cooled by water or liquid nitrogen are studied with typical parameters of heat-load, cooling and geometry. The effects of cooling-down of the optics and heating of the X-ray beam are described. It is shown that the influences from the coating on temperature and deformation are negligible. However, large stresses are induced in the layers due to the different thermal expansion coefficients between the layer and the substrate materials, which is the critical issue for the survival of the optics. This is particularly true for the liquid-nitrogen cooling condition. The material properties of thin multilayer films are applied in the simulation to predict the layer thermal stresses with more precision. PMID:25723932

  2. Thermal stress prediction in mirror and multilayer coatings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xianchao; Zhang, Lin; Morawe, Christian; Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer optics for X-rays typically consist of hundreds of periods of two types of alternating sub-layers which are coated on a silicon substrate. The thickness of the coating is well below 1 µm (tens or hundreds of nanometers). The high aspect ratio (∼10(7)) between the size of the optics and the thickness of the multilayer can lead to a huge number of elements (∼10(16)) for the numerical simulation (by finite-element analysis using ANSYS code). In this work, the finite-element model for thermal-structural analysis of multilayer optics has been implemented using the ANSYS layer-functioned elements. The number of meshed elements is considerably reduced and the number of sub-layers feasible for the present computers is increased significantly. Based on this technique, single-layer coated mirrors and multilayer monochromators cooled by water or liquid nitrogen are studied with typical parameters of heat-load, cooling and geometry. The effects of cooling-down of the optics and heating of the X-ray beam are described. It is shown that the influences from the coating on temperature and deformation are negligible. However, large stresses are induced in the layers due to the different thermal expansion coefficients between the layer and the substrate materials, which is the critical issue for the survival of the optics. This is particularly true for the liquid-nitrogen cooling condition. The material properties of thin multilayer films are applied in the simulation to predict the layer thermal stresses with more precision.

  3. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Loehman, Ronald E.; Corral, Erica L.

    2012-03-20

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  4. Different Cold Spray Deposition Strategies: Single- and Multi-layers to Repair Aluminium Alloy Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rech, Silvano; Trentin, Andrea; Vezzù, Simone; Vedelago, Enrico; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Irissou, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Cold spraying is increasingly being used for reconstruction or repair of damaged aluminium alloy components, especially in the aviation industry. Both thin (<0.5 mm) and thick (up to 1 cm) coatings are necessary to achieve dimensional recovery of such components. Thin and above all thick coatings can be deposited in a single pass (single layer) or in several passes (multi-pass), resulting in different thermal and stress effects in the component and the coating itself. The thermal input, the amount and type of residual stresses and the porosity affect various characteristics such as adhesion, crack propagation and mechanical properties of the coating. In this study, two sets (single- and multi-pass) of aluminium alloy (AA6061) coatings with different thicknesses (0.5 mm to 2 mm) were deposited onto AA6061 substrates and compared using metallographic and fractographic analyses, four-point bending testing, residual stress analysis and Vickers microhardness indentation. Finally, the coating adhesion and cohesion were measured using the standard ASTM-C633 adhesion test and tubular coating tensile test. This study demonstrates that the single-layer strategy results in greater adhesion and lower porosity, while multilayer coatings have higher elastic modulus. Independent of the strategy, the compressive residual stress decreases as a function of coating thickness.

  5. Preparation and properties of DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings for high humidity tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Lu, Zhibin; Wu, Guizhi; Zhang, Guangan; Wang, Liping; Xue, Qunji

    2016-06-01

    The DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings with different modulus ratios were deposited by magnetron sputtering in this study. The morphology, structure, composition, mechanical properties and tribological properties were investigated using several analytical techniques (FESEM, AFM, TEM, AES, XPS, nanoindentation and high humidity tribological test). The results showed that the well-defined multilayer coatings were composed of densely packed particles in which many nanocrystallines with some kinds of defects were distributed in matrix. The incorporation of oxygen into the lattice led to the degraded chemical stability. The coating’s hardness and elastic modulus were almost in the same range. Moderate improvement on the high humidity tribological properties were obtained, which was important for the extension of the service life of MoS2 in humid air.

  6. Reactive multilayers fabricated by vapor deposition. A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D. P.

    2014-10-02

    The reactive multilayer thin films are a class of energetic materials that continue to attract attention for use in joining applications and as igniters. Generally composed of two reactants, these heterogeneous solids can be stimulated by an external source to promptly release stored chemical energy in a sudden emission of light and heat. In our critical review article, results from recent investigations of these materials are discussed. Discussion begins with a brief description of the vapor deposition techniques that provide accurate control of layer thickness and film composition. More than 50 reactive film compositions have been reported to date, with most multilayers fabricated by magnetron sputter deposition or electron-beam evaporation. In later sections, we review how multilayer ignition threshold, reaction rate, and total heat are tailored via thin film design. For example, planar multilayers with nanometer-scale periodicity exhibit rapid, self-sustained reactions with wavefront velocities up to 100 m/s. Numeric and analytical models have elucidated many of the fundamental processes that underlie propagating exothermic reactions while demonstrating how reaction rates vary with multilayer design. Recent, time-resolved diffraction and imaging studies have further revealed the phase transformations and the wavefront dynamics associated with propagating chemical reactions. Many reactive multilayers (e.g., Co/Al) form product phases that are consistent with published equilibrium phase diagrams, yet a few systems, such as Pt/Al, develop metastable products. The final section highlights current and emerging applications of reactive multilayers. Examples include reactive Ni(V)/Al and Pd/Al multilayers which have been developed for localized soldering of heat-sensitive components.

  7. Reactive multilayers fabricated by vapor deposition. A critical review

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adams, D. P.

    2014-10-02

    The reactive multilayer thin films are a class of energetic materials that continue to attract attention for use in joining applications and as igniters. Generally composed of two reactants, these heterogeneous solids can be stimulated by an external source to promptly release stored chemical energy in a sudden emission of light and heat. In our critical review article, results from recent investigations of these materials are discussed. Discussion begins with a brief description of the vapor deposition techniques that provide accurate control of layer thickness and film composition. More than 50 reactive film compositions have been reported to date, withmore » most multilayers fabricated by magnetron sputter deposition or electron-beam evaporation. In later sections, we review how multilayer ignition threshold, reaction rate, and total heat are tailored via thin film design. For example, planar multilayers with nanometer-scale periodicity exhibit rapid, self-sustained reactions with wavefront velocities up to 100 m/s. Numeric and analytical models have elucidated many of the fundamental processes that underlie propagating exothermic reactions while demonstrating how reaction rates vary with multilayer design. Recent, time-resolved diffraction and imaging studies have further revealed the phase transformations and the wavefront dynamics associated with propagating chemical reactions. Many reactive multilayers (e.g., Co/Al) form product phases that are consistent with published equilibrium phase diagrams, yet a few systems, such as Pt/Al, develop metastable products. The final section highlights current and emerging applications of reactive multilayers. Examples include reactive Ni(V)/Al and Pd/Al multilayers which have been developed for localized soldering of heat-sensitive components.« less

  8. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  9. Sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for the 0.3-NA Micro-Exposure Tool for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Hudyma, R M; Spiller, E; Gullikson, E M; Schmidt, M A; Robinson, J C; Baker, S L; Walton, C C; Taylor, J S

    2007-01-03

    This manuscript discusses the multilayer coating results for the primary and secondary mirrors of the Micro Exposure Tool (MET): a 0.30-numerical aperture (NA) lithographic imaging system with 200 x 600 {micro}m{sup 2} field of view at the wafer plane, operating in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. Mo/Si multilayers were deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on large-area, curved MET camera substrates, and a velocity modulation technique was implemented to consistently achieve multilayer thickness profiles with added figure errors below 0.1 nm rms to achieve sub-diffraction-limited performance. This work represents the first experimental demonstration of sub-diffraction-limited multilayer coatings for high-NA EUV imaging systems.

  10. Spray-Deposited Superconductor/Polymer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Tran, Sang Q.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1993-01-01

    Coatings that exhibit the Meissner effect formed at relatively low temperature. High-temperature-superconductor/polymer coatings that exhibit Meissner effect deposited onto components in variety of shapes and materials. Simple, readily available equipment needed in coating process, mean coatings produced economically. Coatings used to keep magnetic fields away from electronic circuits in such cryogenic applications as magnetic resonance imaging and detection of infrared, and in magnetic suspensions to provide levitation and/or damping of vibrations.

  11. Production and performance of multilayer-coated conical x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Altkorn, Robert; Graham, Michael E.; Madan, Anita; Chu, Yong S.

    2003-12-01

    A method of fabricating replica figured x-ray optics with integral multilayer coatings is presented. With the intact electroforming multilayer process (IEMP) technique, we sputter multilayers onto a reusable superpolished mandrel, electroform nickel over the multilayers, and remove the multilayer-coated nickel shell intact from the mandrel. This approach offers advantages over more traditional, original, and segmented-replica fabrication techniques, including low cost; compatibility with a wide range of mirror designs, diameters, and focal lengths; simple integration with multilayer sputtering processes; and the ability to produce complete shells of revolution. The fabrication of W/Si multilayer-coated 10-cm-diameter conical x-ray mirrors is described, as are reflectivity measurements at 10 and 30 keV. The measured reflectivity of the IEMP multilayers at the 10-keV primary Bragg peak was 17%. Measurements of multiple points on the cone showed multilayer uniformity to within a few percent around the mirror.

  12. Modeling of light intensification by conical pits within multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wolfe, J E; Monterrosa, A; Feit, M D; Pistor, T V; Stolz, C J

    2009-11-02

    Removal of laser-induced damage sites provides a possible mitigation pathway to improve damage resistance of coated multilayer dielectric mirrors. In an effort to determine the optimal mitigation geometry which will not generate secondary damage precursors, the electric field distribution within the coating layers for a variety of mitigation shapes under different irradiation angles has been estimated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The coating consists of twenty-four alternating layers of hafnia and silica with a quarter-wave reflector design. A conical geometrical shape with different cone angles is investigated in the present study. Beam incident angles range from 0{sup o} to 60{sup o} at 5{sup o} increments. We find that light intensification (square of electric field, |E|{sup 2}) within the multilayers depends strongly on the beam incident direction and the cone angle. By comparing the field intensification for each cone angle under all angles of incidence, we find that a 30{sup o} conical pit generates the least field intensification within the multilayer film. Our results suggest that conical pits with shallow cone angles ({le} 30{sup o}) can be used as potential optimal mitigation structures.

  13. A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 2. MODEL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multilayer biochemical dry deposition model (MLBC) described in the accompanying paper was tested against half-hourly eddy correlation data from six field sites under a wide range of climate conditions with various plant types. Modeled CO2, O3, SO2<...

  14. Pheromone synthesis in a biomicroreactor coated with anti-adsorption polyelectrolyte multilayer

    PubMed Central

    Dimov, Nikolay; Muñoz, Lourdes; Carot-Sans, Gerard; Verhoeven, Michel L. P. M.; Bula, Wojciech P.; Kocer, Gülistan; Guerrero, Angel; Gardeniers, Han J. G. E.

    2011-01-01

    To prepare a biosynthetic module in an infochemical communication project, we designed a silicon/glass microreactor with anti-adsorption polyelectrolyte multilayer coating and immobilized alcohol acetyl transferase (atf), one of the key biosynthetic enzymes of the pheromone of Spodoptera littoralis, on agarose beads inside. The system reproduces the last step of the biosynthesis in which the precursor diene alcohol (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienol is transformed into the major component (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate. The scope of this study was to analyze and implement a multilayer, anti-adsorption coating based on layer-by-layer deposition of polyethylenimine/dextransulfate sodium salt (PEI/DSS). The multilayers were composed of two PEI with molecular weights 750 and 1.2 kDa at pH 9.2 or 6.0. Growth, morphology, and stability of the layers were analyzed by ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The anti-adsorption functionality of the multilayer inside the microreactor was validated. The activity of His6-(atf) was measured by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC-MS). PMID:22662033

  15. Residual stress analysis of multilayer environmental barrier coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, B.; Almer, J.; Weyant, C.; Lee, K.; Faber, K.; Northwestern Univ.; Rolls-Royce Corp.

    2009-02-01

    Silicon-based ceramics (SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) are promising materials systems for high-temperature structural applications in gas turbine engines. However, the silica layer that forms on these materials is susceptible to attack from water vapor present in combustion environments. To protect against this degradation, environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) have been developed to shield the underlying substrate and prevent degradation. Here we report on elastic and thermal properties, as well as internal stresses of candidate multilayer coatings, as measured in situ using microfocused high-energy X-rays in a transmission diffraction geometry. Doped aluminosilicate coatings were investigated for their stability on a SiC/SiC melt-infiltrated substrate. The coatings consisted of a Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} topcoat with a mullite or mullite+SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} interlayer, and a silicon bond coat. A numerical model was used to compare the stress results with an ideal coating system. Experiments were carried out on as-sprayed and heat-treated samples in order to analyze the strain and phase evolution as a function of multilayer depth and temperature. The phase transformation of the topcoat promoted healing of cracks in the EBC and reduced stresses in the underlying layers and the addition of SAS to the interlayer reduced stresses in thermally cycled coatings, but did not stop cracks from forming.

  16. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced.

  17. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1998-10-13

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications is disclosed. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. 8 figs.

  18. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong

    2012-12-21

    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications.

  19. Pd/B4C/Y multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet applications near 10  nm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Windt, David L; Gullikson, Eric M

    2015-06-20

    A new extreme ultraviolet (EUV) multilayer coating has been developed comprising Pd and Y layers with thin B4C barrier layers at each interface, for normal incidence applications near 10 nm wavelength. Periodic, nonperiodic, and dual-stack coatings have been investigated and compared with similar structures comprising either Mo/Y or Pd/B4C bilayers. We find that Pd/B4C/Y multilayers provide higher reflectance than either Mo/Y or Pd/B4C, with much lower film stress than Pd/B4C. We have also investigated the performance of periodic multilayers comprising repetitions of Pd/Y, Ru/Y, or Ru/B4C/Y, as well as Pd/B4C multilayers deposited using reactive sputtering with an Ar:N2 gas mixture in order to reduce stress: these material combinations were all found to provide poor EUV performance. The temporal stability of a periodic Pd/B4C/Y multilayer stored in air was investigated over a period of 16 months, and a slight reduction in peak reflectance was observed. Periodic Pd/B4C/Y multilayers were also found to be thermally stable up to 100°C; at higher temperatures (200°C and 300°C) we observe a slight reduction in peak reflectance and a slight increase in multilayer period. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction of an as-deposited Pd/B4C/Y film indicates a fully amorphous structure, with interfaces that are both smoother and more abrupt than those observed in a comparable Pd/B4C multilayer in which the Pd layers are polycrystalline. The new Pd/B4C/Y multilayers are suitable for normal-incidence imaging and spectroscopy applications, including solar physics, plasma physics, high-brightness EUV light sources, and others. PMID:26193039

  20. Multilayer hydrogel coatings to combine hemocompatibility and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marion; Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Konradi, Rupert; Friedrichs, Jens; Maitz, Manfred F; Freudenberg, Uwe; Werner, Carsten

    2015-07-01

    While silver-loaded catheters are widely used to prevent early-onset catheter-related infections [1], long term antimicrobial protection of indwelling catheters remains to be achieved [2] and antiseptic functionalization of coatings often impairs their hemocompatibility characteristics. Therefore, this work aimed to capitalize on the antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles, incorporated in anticoagulant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-heparin hydrogel coatings [3] on thermoplastic polyurethane materials. For prolonged antimicrobial activity, the silver-containing starPEG-heparin hydrogel layers were shielded with silver-free hydrogel layers of otherwise similar composition. The resulting multi-layered gel coatings showed long term antiseptic efficacy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains in vitro, and similarly performed well when incubated with freshly drawn human whole blood with respect to hemolysis, platelet activation and plasmatic coagulation. The introduced hydrogel multilayer system thus offers a promising combination of hemocompatibility and long-term antiseptic capacity to meet an important clinical need.

  1. Fabrication of Au/Ni Multilayered Nanowires by Electrochemical Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidin, N. U.; Kok, K. Y.; Ng, I. K.; Ilias, S. H.

    2013-04-01

    Electrochemical deposition of Au/Ni multilayered nanowires using template-assisted growth technique from electrolyte containing nickel chloride and gold solution was studied in details. 60 μm-thick anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with pore diameter of 200 nm was used as the template. Chronopotentiometry experiments were first carried out to determine the deposition conditions and the growth rate of individual Au and Ni layers. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that the pore channels of AAO were completely filled with Au/Ni multisegmented nanowires. By selectively removing the Ni segments in the multilayered nanowires, high-yield of pure gold nanorods were obtained. Detailed studies on the nanostructures obtained were carried out using various microscopy and probe-based techniques for structural, morphological and chemical characterizations.

  2. Sol-gel metal oxide and metal oxide/polymer multilayers applied by meniscus coating

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Thomas, I.M.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing a meniscus coating process for manufacturing large-aperture dielectric multilayer high reflectors (HR`s) at ambient conditions from liquid suspensions. Using a lab-scale coater capable of coating 150 mm square substrates, we have produced several HR`s which give 99% + reflection with 24 layers and with edge effects confined to about 10 mm. In calendar 1993 we are taking delivery of an automated meniscus coating machine capable of coating substrates up to 400 mm wide and 600 mm long. The laser-damage threshold and failure stress of sol-gel thin films can be substantially increased through the use of soluble polymers which act as binders for the metal oxide particles comprising the deposited film. Refractive index control of the film is also possible through varying the polymer/oxide ratio. Much of our present effort present is in optimizing oxide particle/binder/solvent formulations for the high-index material. Films from colloidal zirconia strengthened with polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP) have given best results to date. An increase in the laser damage threshold (LDT) for single layers has been shown to significantly increase with increased polymer loading, but as yet the LDT for multilayer stacks remains low.

  3. Reflectance Profile of BaTiO3 on Multilayer Antireflection Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaomerlioglu, Filiz

    2011-05-01

    Antireflection (AR) coating systems are very important technology for optoelectronic devices. The optical characteristics of the system can be regulated by external electric or thermal field, and designed broadband ultra low reflection coating systems. It is investigated optical properties of multilayer AR coatings based on different ferroelectric materials to reduce reflectance in other studies. In this study, reflectance profile of BaTiO3 on multilayer AR coating systems has been developed in the visible region. It has been used ZnSe and ZrO2 as multilayer AR coatings, and BaTiO3 as the substrate. Fortran program has been simulated on Fresnell equations base.

  4. Using CrAlN multilayer coatings to improve oxidation resistance of steel interconnects for solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, A.; Ramana, C. V.; Kayani, A.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, D. S.

    2004-06-01

    The requirements of low-cost and high-temperature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. The performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings, consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAlN for oxidation resistance, was investigated. The coatings were deposited using large area filtered arc deposition technology, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 °C. The composition, structure, and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

  5. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

    2004-06-01

    The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

  6. Functional properties of multilayer vacuum-arc TiN/ZrN coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, S. V.; Pogrebnyak, A. D.; Tleukenov, Y. O.; Erdybaeva, N. K.

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured multilayer Ti/ZrN coatings were synthesized by vacuum-arc deposition with a number of layers 134-533 and an average thickness 20-125nm of layers. A good planarity was revealed resulting in a range of nanometer layer from plasma streams in a reactive environment. Phase-structural changes mechanisms were established as a model of critical operating coatings’ conditions of in the surface layers under the action of an aggressive oxygen atmosphere at high temperature (700°C). The thickness parameter effect on its hardness of the multilayer system was shown. It was found that the maximum hardness of 42 GPa and the lowest abrasion of coating 1,3×10-5 mm3×H-1×mm-and counterbody 1,9×10-6 mm3×H-1×mm-1 inherent in TiN/ZrN system with the smallest layer thickness of 20 nm in the period. The results are explained by the influence of the size factor interphase boundaries magnified in a multilayer system with a nanometer thick layers.

  7. Sputter deposition system for controlled fabrication of multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Di Nardo, R.P.; Takacs, P.Z.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Stefan, P.M.

    1985-06-01

    A detailed description of a sputter deposition system constructed specifically for the fabrication of x-ray and neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is given. One of the principal design criteria is to maintain precise control of film thickness and uniformity over large substrate areas. Regulation of critical system parameters is fully automated so that response to feedback control information is rapid and complicated layer thickness sequences can be deposited accurately and efficiently. The use of either dc or rf magnetron sources makes it possible to satisfy the diverse material requirements of both x-ray and neutron optics.

  8. Functional multilayer coated long period grating tuned in transition region for life science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilla, P.; Malachovská, V.; Borriello, A.; Giordano, M.; Ambrosio, L.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2010-09-01

    We report preliminary results on the development of multilayer coated long period gratings (LPGs) for life science applications. The dip-coating technique and a solvent/nonsolvent strategy were exploited to deposit double-layer polymeric film onto a LPG. A primary coating of atactic polystyrene was used as high refractive index layer to tune the working point of the device in the so-called transition region thus achieving remarkable surrounding medium refractive index sensitivity. A secondary layer of atactic poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) containing functional carboxyl groups, characterized by a lower refractive index, was deposited onto the primary coating in order to have the desired functional groups on the surface of the device. Commonly used covalent immobilization procedure, NHS/EDC coupling method, was exploited to link streptavidin on the surface of the functionalized coated device. Finally, real-time detection of biotinylated bovine serum albumin affinity binding on immobilized streptavidin was performed by monitoring the shift of the LPG attenuation bands.

  9. Multilayer (TiN, TiAlN) ceramic coatings for nuclear fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alat, Ece; Motta, Arthur T.; Comstock, Robert J.; Partezana, Jonna M.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-09-01

    In an attempt to develop an accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) that can delay the deleterious consequences of loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA), multilayer coatings were deposited onto ZIRLO® coupon substrates by cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD). Coatings were composed of alternating TiN (top) and Ti1-xAlxN (2-layer, 4-layer, 8-layer and 16-layer) layers. The minimum TiN top coating thickness and coating architecture were optimized for good corrosion and oxidation resistance. Corrosion tests were performed in static pure water at 360 °C and 18.7 MPa for up to 90 days. The optimized coatings showed no spallation/delamination and had a maximum of 6 mg/dm2 weight gain, which is 6 times smaller than that of a control sample of uncoated ZIRLO® which showed a weight gain of 40.2 mg/dm2. The optimized architecture features a ∼1 μm TiN top layer to prevent boehmite phase formation during corrosion and a TiN/TiAlN 8-layer architecture which provides the best corrosion performance.

  10. Characterization of Multilayer Reflective Coatings for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wedowski, M.; Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J.H.; Spiller, E.A.; Montcalm, C.; Kearney, P.A.; Bajt, S.; Schmidt, M.A.; Folta, J.A.

    1999-11-01

    The synchrotron-based reflectometer at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley is an important metrology tool within the current Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) program. This program is a joint activity of three National Laboratories and a consortium of leading semiconductor manufacturers. Its goal is the development of a technology for routine production of sub-100 nm feature sizes for microelectronic circuits. Multilayer-coated normal-incidence optical surfaces reflecting in the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range near 13 nm are the basis for this emerging technology. All optical components of EUV lithographic steppers need to be characterized at-wavelength during their development and manufacturing process. Multilayer coating uniformity and gradient, accurate wavelength matching and high peak reflectances are the main parameters to be optimized. The mechanical and optical properties of the reflectometer at ALS beamline 6.3.2 proved to be well suited for the needs of the current EUVL program. In particular the facility is highly precise in its wavelength calibration and the determination of absolute EUV reflectance. The reproducibility of results of measurements at ALS beamline 6.3.2 is 0.2 % for reflectivity and 0.002 nm for wavelength.

  11. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (< 10 microns) single layers to be deposited and multilayer coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  12. Corrosion resistance and electrical properties of carbon/chromium-titanium-nitride multilayer coatings on stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo; Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Cai, Xun; Wu, Yixiong

    2014-03-01

    High electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance are central to advances in wider application of metallic bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In this study, C/Cr-Ti-N multilayer coatings are deposited by physical vapor deposition and the effect of Cr:Ti ratio on the corrosion resistance and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) are systematically investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result shows that the carbon layer is compact and uniform. Excellent corrosion resistance of 0.127 μA cm-2 current density at operating voltage in PEMFC cathode environment and low ICR of 2.03 mΩ-cm2 at compaction force of 150 N cm-2 are achieved when Cr:Ti ratio is 2:4 and 3:3, respectively. The significant enhancement in surface conductivity is probably because that the current comes from carbon paper is homogenized by two electrically conductive layers and flows to the passive film with much more contact area. After polarization, ICR increase to 3.07 mΩ-cm2 and 3.02 mΩ-cm2 in the simulated PEMFC cathode and anode environment, respectively. However, the Raman spectroscopy results disclose that the bonding type of top carbon film before and after polarization shows little difference. The results indicate that C/Cr-Ti-N multilayer coating with Cr:Ti ratio of 2:4 achieves the optimal composition.

  13. Thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings using multifrequency eddy current techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dejun; Yu, Yating; Lai, Chao; Tian, Guiyun

    2016-07-01

    To ensure the key structural performance in high-temperature and high-stress environments, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are often adopted in engineering. The thickness of these multi-layer conductive coatings is an important quality indicator. In order to measure the thickness of multi-layer conductive coatings, a new measurement approach is presented using eddy current testing techniques, and then, an inversion algorithm is proposed and proved efficient and applicable, of which the maximum experimental relative error is within 10%. Therefore, the new approach can be effectively applied to thickness measurement of multi-layer conductive coatings such as TBCs.

  14. 'One-component' ultrathin multilayer films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizing coating for phenytoin-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Zasada, Katarzyna; Łukasiewicz-Atanasov, Magdalena; Kłysik, Katarzyna; Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna; Gzyl-Malcher, Barbara; Puciul-Malinowska, Agnieszka; Karewicz, Anna; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Ultrathin "one-component" multilayer polymeric films for potential biomedical applications were designed based on polyvinyl alcohol,-a non-toxic, fully degradable synthetic polymer. Good uniformity of the obtained film and adequate adsorption properties of the polymeric layers were achieved by functional modification of the polymer, which involved synthesis of cationic and anionic derivatives. Synthesized polymers were characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering measurements and elemental analysis. The layer by layer assembly technique was used to build up a multilayer film and this process was followed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The morphology and thickness of the obtained multilayered film material was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Preliminary studies on the application of the obtained multilayer film for coating of liposomal nanocarriers containing phenytoin, an antiarrhythmic drug, were performed. The coating effectively stabilizes liposomes and the effect increases with an increasing number of deposited layers until the polymeric film reaches the optimal thickness. The obtained release profiles suggest that bilayer-coated liposomes release phenytoin less rapidly than uncoated ones. The cytotoxicity studies performed for all obtained nanocarriers confirmed that none of them has negative effect on cell viability. All of the performed experiments suggest that liposomes coated with ultrathin film obtained from PVA derivatives can be attractive drug nanocarriers. PMID:26253533

  15. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method.

    PubMed

    Uğur, Sule S; Sarıışık, Merih; Aktaş, A Hakan; Uçar, M Ciğdem; Erden, Emre

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticle-based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC) by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values) were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL) process on cotton fabrics properties. PMID:20596450

  16. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticle–based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC) by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values) were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL) process on cotton fabrics properties. PMID:20596450

  17. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uğur, Şule S.; Sarıışık, Merih; Aktaş, A. Hakan; Uçar, M. Çiğdem; Erden, Emre

    2010-07-01

    ZnO nanoparticle-based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC) by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values) were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL) process on cotton fabrics properties.

  18. Tribo-electrochemical characterization of hafnium multilayer systems deposited on nitride/vanadium nitride AISI 4140 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, M.; Vera, E.; Aperador, W.

    2016-02-01

    In this work is presented the synergistic behaviour among corrosion/wear (tribocorrosion) of the multilayer coatings hafnium nitride/vanadium nitride [HfN/VN]n. The multilayers were deposited on AISI 4140 steel using the technique of physical vapor deposition PVD magnetron sputtering, the tests were performed using a pin-on-disk tribometer, which has an adapted potentiostat galvanostat with three-electrode electrochemical cell. Tribocorrosive parameters such as: Friction coefficient between the coating and the counter body (100 Cr6 steel ball); Polarization resistance by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and corrosion rate by polarization curves were determined. It was observed an increase in the polarization resistance, a decrease in the corrosion rate and a low coefficient of friction in comparison with the substrate, due to an increase on the number of bilayers.

  19. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K. K.; Masuzawa, T.

    2011-04-01

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO2) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO2 films and DLC/TiO2/DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO2-coated and the DLC/TiO2/DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO2 coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO2/DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO2/DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO2 film was covered with the DLC film.

  20. Optimization of multilayer antireflection coating for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Urmita; Zaman, Mohammad Asif

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer antireflection coating (ARC) for photovoltaics is optimized using Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. A general transfer-matrix based mathematical formulation is used for evaluating reflection spectra of the system. Exact and complete values of refractive indices are used in the analysis to provide higher accuracy of the results. The proposed optimization method takes into account the solar irradiance spectra, absorption characteristics of semiconductors and angle of incidence to maximize efficiency. This method is found to reduce the average reflectance for a wide range of angles of incidence. The proposed method is used to design ARC for silicon solar cell and a multi-junction AlGaAs/GaAs/Ge solar cell. Finally, comparative analysis of different ARC designs is provided in terms of corresponding solar cell characteristics.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition coating for micromachines

    SciTech Connect

    MANI,SEETHAMBAL S.; FLEMING,JAMES G.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; IRWIN,LAWRENCE W.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; TANNER,DANELLE M.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.

    2000-04-21

    Two major problems associated with Si-based MEMS devices are stiction and wear. Surface modifications are needed to reduce both adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures to solve these problems. In this paper, the authors will present a process used to selectively coat MEMS devices with tungsten using a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process. The selective W deposition process results in a very conformal coating and can potentially solve both stiction and wear problems confronting MEMS processing. The selective deposition of tungsten is accomplished through silicon reduction of WF{sub 6}, which results in a self-limiting reaction. The selective deposition of W only on polysilicon surfaces prevents electrical shorts. Further, the self-limiting nature of this selective W deposition process ensures the consistency necessary for process control. Selective tungsten is deposited after the removal of the sacrificial oxides to minimize process integration problems. This tungsten coating adheres well and is hard and conducting, requirements for device performance. Furthermore, since the deposited tungsten infiltrates under adhered silicon parts and the volume of W deposited is less than the amount of Si consumed, it appears to be possible to release stuck parts that are contacted over small areas such as dimples. Results from tungsten deposition on MEMS structures with dimples will be presented. The effect of wet and vapor phase cleanings prior to the deposition will be discussed along with other process details. The W coating improved wear by orders of magnitude compared to uncoated parts. Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this approach manufacturable.

  2. Heparin-mimicking multilayer coating on polymeric membrane via LbL assembly of cyclodextrin-based supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Liu, Xinyue; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Shi, Wenbin; Nie, Chuanxiong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-12-10

    In this study, multifunctional and heparin-mimicking star-shaped supramolecules-deposited 3D porous multilayer films with improved biocompatibility were fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method on polymeric membrane substrates. Star-shaped heparin-mimicking polyanions (including poly(styrenesulfonate-co-sodium acrylate; Star-PSS-AANa) and poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate; Star-PSS-EGMA)) and polycations (poly(methyl chloride-quaternized 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate; Star-PMeDMA) were first synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based cores. Then assembly of 3D porous multilayers onto polymeric membrane surfaces was carried out by alternating deposition of the polyanions and polycations via electrostatic interaction. The surface morphology and composition, water contact angle, blood activation, and thrombotic potential as well as cell viability for the coated heparin-mimicking films were systematically investigated. The results of surface ATR-FTIR spectra and XPS spectra verified successful deposition of the star-shaped supramolecules onto the biomedical membrane surfaces; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the modified substrate had 3D porous surface morphology, which might have a great biological influence on the biointerface. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, human platelet factor 4 (PF4, indicates platelet activation), activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, indicates blood coagulant)), and blood-related complement activation (C3a and C5a, indicates inflammation potential) confirmed that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coated membranes exhibited ultralow blood component activations and excellent hemocompatibility. Meanwhile, after surface coating

  3. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces. PMID:26996815

  4. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coatings on titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Li; Shi, Jue; Wang, Huiming

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to fabricate a multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating on a titanium surface and evaluate its biological properties. A multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating was fabricated on titanium using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The rate of coating degradation was evaluated by detecting the amount of cDNA remaining. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and surface contact angle measurements revealed the multilayer structure to consist of cationic lipid and confirmed that a laminin γ2 DNA layer could be fabricated on titanium via the layer-by-layer assembly process. The transfection efficiency was highest for five layers in the multilayer structure. HEK293 cells cultured on the multilayer films displayed significantly higher adhesion activity than the control group. The expression of laminin γ2 and the co-localization of integrin β4 and plectin were more obvious in HN4 cells cultured on the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating, while weak immunoreactivities were observed in the control group. We concluded that the DNA-loaded multilayer provided a surface with good biocompatibility and that the multilayer laminin γ2 DNA coating might be effective in improving cell adhesion and the formation of hemidesmosomes on titanium surfaces.

  5. Fine tuning of the pH-sensitivity of laponite-doxorubicin nanohybrids by polyelectrolyte multilayer coating.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shili; Castro, Rita; Maciel, Dina; Gonçalves, Mara; Shi, Xiangyang; Rodrigues, João; Tomás, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Despite the wide research done in the field, the development of advanced drug delivery systems with improved drug delivery properties and effective anticancer capability still remains a great challenge. Based on previous work that showed the potentialities of the nanoclay Laponite as a pH-sensitive doxorubicin (Dox) delivery vehicle, herein we report a simple method to modulate its extent of drug release at different pH values. This was achieved by alternate deposition of cationic poly(allylamine) hydrochloride and anionic poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (PAH/PSS) polyelectrolytes over the surface of Dox-loaded Laponite nanoparticles using the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly approach. The successful formation of polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated Dox/Laponite systems was confirmed by Dynamic Light Scattering and zeta potential measurements. Systematic studies were performed to evaluate their drug release profiles and anticancer efficiency. Our results showed that the presence of the polyelectrolyte multilayers improved the sustained release properties of Laponite and allowed a fine tuning of the extension of drug release at neutral and acidic pH values. The cytotoxicity presented by polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated Dox/Laponite systems towards MCF-7 cells was in accordance with the drug delivery profiles. Furthermore, cellular uptake studies revealed that polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated Dox/Laponite nanoparticles can be effectively internalized by cells conducting to Dox accumulation in cell nucleus. PMID:26706540

  6. Fabrication of SERS Substrate by Multilayered Nanosphere Deposition Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Chit Yaw; Dinish, U. S.; Praveen, Thoniyot; Koh, Zhen Yu; Kho, Khiang Wei; Malini, Olivo

    2010-08-06

    Metal film over nanosphere (MFON) has been employed as a reproducible and predictable SERS-active device in biosensing applications. In addition to its economic fabrication process, such substrate can be further processed to a prism-structure with increased SERS enhancement and wider Plasmon tunability. In this work, we investigate an alternative coating method to deposit a larger area of well-ordered PS beads with different sizes (oe = 100nm and 400 nm) onto a glass. The result suggests that the proposed well-coating technique can be suitably used to form closely-packed PS beads with diameter less than 100 nm for developing MFON substrates.

  7. Testing multilayer-coated polarizing mirrors for the LAMP soft X-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; Salmaso, B.; She, R.; Tayabaly, K.; Wen, M.; Banham, R.; Costa, E.; Feng, H.; Giglia, A.; Huang, Q.; Muleri, F.; Pareschi, G.; Soffitta, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Wang, Z.

    2015-09-01

    The LAMP (Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe) X-ray telescope is a mission concept to measure the polarization of X-ray astronomical sources at 250 eV via imaging mirrors that reflect at incidence angles near the polarization angle, i.e., 45 deg. Hence, it will require the adoption of multilayer coatings with a few nanometers dspacing in order to enhance the reflectivity. The nickel electroforming technology has already been successfully used to fabricate the high angular resolution imaging mirrors of the X-ray telescopes SAX, XMM-Newton, and Swift/XRT. We are investigating this consolidated technology as a possible technique to manufacture focusing mirrors for LAMP. Although the very good reflectivity performances of this kind of mirrors were already demonstrated in grazing incidence, the reflectivity and the scattering properties have not been tested directly at the unusually large angle of 45 deg. Other possible substrates are represented by thin glass foils or silicon wafers. In this paper we present the results of the X-ray reflectivity campaign performed at the BEAR beamline of Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste on multilayer coatings of various composition (Cr/C, Co/C), deposited with different sputtering parameters on nickel, silicon, and glass substrates, using polarized X-rays in the spectral range 240 - 290 eV.

  8. In-situ stress analysis of multilayer environmental barrier coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, B. J.; Almer, J.; Lee, K. N.; Faber, K. T.; Northwestern Univ.; Rolls-Royce Corp.

    2009-06-01

    The biaxial stress and thermal expansion of multilayer doped-aluminosilicate environmental barrier coatings were measured in situ during cooling using microfocused high-energy X-rays in transmission. Coating stresses during cooling from 1000 C were measured for as-sprayed and thermally cycled samples. In the as-sprayed state, tensile stresses as high as 75 MPa were measured in the doped-aluminosilicate topcoat at 375 C, after which a drop in the stress occurred accompanied by through-thickness cracking of the two outermost layers. After thermally cycling the samples, the stress in the topcoat was reduced to approximately 50 MPa, and there was no drop in stress upon cooling. This stress reduction was attributed to a crystallographic phase transformation of the topcoat and the accompanying change in thermal expansion coefficient. The addition of a doped aluminosilicate to the mullite layer did not lower the stress in the topcoat, but may offer increased durability due to an increased compressive stress.

  9. Sputter process with time-variant reactive gas mixture for the deposition of optical multilayer and gradient layer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartzsch, H.; Weber, J.; Lau, K.; Glöß, D.; Frach, P.

    2008-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering of a silicon target in a time-variant mixture of the reactive gases oxygen and nitrogen allows the deposition of optical multilayer and gradient layer systems of silicon oxinitride at one stationary sputtering station. In this paper the processes within the sputter discharge and the properties of the growing film during the change of the reactive gas composition are investigated using optical in-situ monitoring, optical plasma emission spectroscopy and plasma impedance monitoring. A time delay between the change to the reactive gas composition and the resulting change to the film composition was observed. The time delay is longer for the transition from oxide to nitride deposition then vice versa. This asymmetry is attributed to the different affinity of nitrogen and oxygen to the silicon target. Examples of deposited antireflective coatings as well as rugate filters based on silicon oxinitride multilayer and gradient layer designs are given.

  10. Biodegradation-Resistant Multilayers Coated with Gold Nanoparticles. Toward a Tailor-made Artificial Extracellular Matrix.

    PubMed

    Prokopović, Vladimir Z; Vikulina, Anna S; Sustr, David; Duschl, Claus; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2016-09-21

    Polymer multicomponent coatings such as multilayers mimic an extracellular matrix (ECM) that attracts significant attention for the use of the multilayers as functional supports for advanced cell culture and tissue engineering. Herein, biodegradation and molecular transport in hyaluronan/polylysine multilayers coated with gold nanoparticles were described. Nanoparticle coating acts as a semipermeable barrier that governs molecular transport into/from the multilayers and makes them biodegradation-resistant. Model protein lysozyme (mimics of ECM-soluble signals) diffuses into the multilayers as fast- and slow-diffusing populations existing in an equilibrium. Such a composite system may have high potential to be exploited as degradation-resistant drug-delivery platforms suitable for cell-based applications. PMID:27607839

  11. Fabrication of multi-layered polymer LEDs by resonant infrared pulsed-laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. L.; Park, H. K.; Haglund, R. F., Jr.

    2007-09-01

    Multi-layered polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) have been fabricated in a vacuum environment by resonant infrared pulsed-laser deposition of the polymer layers. The light emitter used was poly[2-methoxy-5-(2- ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV), and in some cases a layer of the hole-transport polymer poly(3,4 etylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was also laser deposited, resulting in a device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/Al. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that neither of the laser-deposited polymers was significantly altered by the deposition process. Laser-fabricated devices displayed electroluminescent spectra similar to those of conventional spin-coated devices, but the differences in electrical characteristics and device efficiency were substantial. These discrepancies can probably be attributed to surface roughness of the deposited polymer layers. With the appropriate refinement of the deposition protocols, however, we believe that this process can be improved to a level that is suitable for routine fabrication of organic electronic components.

  12. A 10,000 groove/mm multilayer coated grating for EUV spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, Dmytro; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Cabrini, Stefano; Dhuey, Scott; Goray, Leonid; Gullikson, Eric; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard

    2011-02-07

    Ultra-high spectral resolution in the EUV and soft x-ray energy ranges requires the use of very high line density gratings with optimal design resulting in use of a Blazed Multilayer Grating (BMG) structure. Here we demonstrate the production of near-atomically perfect Si blazed substrates with an ultra-high groove density (10,000 l/mm) together with the measured and theoretical performance of an Al/Zr multilayer coating on the grating. A 1st order absolute efficiency of 13percent and 24.6percent was achieved at incidence angles of 11o and 36o respectively. Cross-sectional TEM shows the effect of smoothing caused by the surface mobility of deposited atoms and we correlate this effect with a reduction in peak diffraction efficiency. This work shows the high performance that can be achieved with BMGs based on small-period anisotropic etched Si substrates, but also the constraints imposed by the surface mobility of deposited species.

  13. Alignment of a multilayer-coated imaging system using extreme ultraviolet Foucault and Ronchi interferometric testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Ng, W.; Cerrina, F.; Tan, Z.; Bjorkholm, J.; Tennant, D.; Spector, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    Multilayer-coated imaging systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13 nm represent a significant challenge for alignment and characterization. The standard practice of utilizing visible light interferometry fundamentally provides an incomplete picture since this technique fails to account for phase effects induced by the multilayer coating. Thus the development of optical techniques at the functional EUV wavelength is required. We present the development of two EUV optical tests based on Foucault and Ronchi techniques. These relatively simple techniques are extremely sensitive due to the factor of 50 reduction in wavelength. Both techniques were utilized to align a Mo--Si multilayer-coated Schwarzschild camera. By varying the illumination wavelength, phase shift effects due to the interplay of multilayer coating and incident angle were uniquely detected. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  14. Development of multilayer coatings (Ni/C-Pt/C) for hard x-ray telescopes by e-beam evaporation with ion assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Daniele; Pareschi, Giovanni; Citterio, Oberto; Banham, Robert; Basso, Stefano; Cassanelli, Marco; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Negri, Barbara; Grisoni, Gabriele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis

    2004-10-01

    A number of X-ray astronomical missions of near future (XEUS, Constellation-X, SIMBOL-X, HEXIT-SAT, NEXT) will make use of hard X-ray (10-100 keV) optics with broad-band multilayer coatings. To this aim we are developing a multilayer deposition technique for large substrates based on the e-beam deposition technique, improved by the implementation of an ion beam assistance device, in order to reduce the interfacial roughness and improve the reflectivity. The e-beam deposition with ion assistance keeps the film smoothness at a good level and takes the advantage of a reduction of the interlayer stresses. This approach is well suited for the manufacturing of high-reflectance multilayer mirrors for hard X-rays space telescopes where, in addition to a high quality of the deposited films, a volume production is also requested. Moreover, we are also up-grading the replication technique by nickel electroforming, already successfully used for the gold coated soft X-ray mirrors of Beppo-SAX, XMM, JET-X/SWIFT missions, to the case of multilayer coated mirrors. In this paper we will present the technique under development and the implemented deposition facility. Some preliminary, very encouraging, results achieved with the X-ray (8.05 and 17.4 keV) and topographic characterization on flat samples will be discussed.

  15. Full spin-coated multilayer structure hybrid light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gang; Mazzeo, Marco; Carallo, Sonia; Wang, Huiping; Ma, Yuguang; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2010-09-01

    We report on a multilayer structure hybrid light-emitting device (HLED) using a water/alcohol-soluble polymer poly(9,9-bis{30-[(N,N-dimethyl)-N-ethylammonium}-propyl]-2,7-fluorene dibromide) as an electron-transporting layer and a close-packed quantum dot-layer (QD-layer) as an emitting layer. The device was realized by full spin-coating technology without thermal evaporation process for the deposition of organic layers. The QD-layer was a mixture of QDs with two different sizes, in which large size QD-emitters were dispersed in small size QDs to weaken the concentration quenching. The device achieved a maximum power efficiency of 0.58 lm/W, which nearly quadrupled that of the HLED with a plain large size QD-EML.

  16. Experimental demonstration of a Fresnel-reflection based optical fiber biosensor coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenjie; Lang, Tingting

    2014-11-01

    We report that the end facet of an optical fiber can be coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) of polycation (diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) and polyanion (styrenesulfonate sodium salt) (PDDA+PSS)n (n is the number of bilayers), which functions effectively as a Fresnel-reflection based biosensor. The experimental setup includes a broadband light source, a 3dB coupler, and an optical spectrum analyzer. Biotin and streptavidin are deposited onto the multilayers-coated end facet sequentially. The light intensity change due to variation of external refractive index is monitored. When the concentrations of streptavidin changes from 0.1mg/ml to 1mg/ml, a linear relationship between the concentration of streptavidin and the reflected optical power at the wavelength of 1530nm is observed. The sensitivity increases from -1.6262×10-3 dB/ppm to -4.7852 ×10-3 dB/ppm, when the number of PEM increases from 1 to 2. Then we confirm the optimized numbers of bilayers of PEM are 5 through experiment. Selectivity and repeatability of our proposed optical fiber biosensor are verified. When bovine serum albumin (BSA) is added instead of streptavidin, the obtained spectra overlaps with that of biotin's. The final end facet coated with PEM and biotin-streptavidin can be cleaned using microwave vibration or aqua regia. The microwave vibration method is utilized due to security concern. The optical spectra changes back to the initial one of the optical fiber in air. In conclusion, a Fresnel-reflection based optical fiber biosensor with good sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability is proposed. This biosensor has the advantages of simple structure, low cost and reliability.

  17. Electrically driven ion separations and nanofiltration through membranes coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Nicholas

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films deposited using the layer-by-layer (LBL) method are attractive for their simple deposition, tailorable nature, scalability, and charge or size-based selectivity for solutes. This dissertation explores ion separations in electrodialysis (ED) and solute removal through nanofiltration with PEMs deposited on polymer membranes. ED membranes typically exhibit modest selectivities between monovalent and divalent ions. In contrast, this work shows that K+/Mg 2+ ED selectivities reach values >1000 when using Nafion 115 cation-exchange membranes coated with multilayer poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/protonated poly(allylamine) (PAH) films. For comparison, the corresponding K+ /Mg2+ selectivity of bare Nafion 115 is <2. However, water-splitting at strongly overlimiting current densities may lead to a local pH increase close to the membrane surface and alter film permeability or allow passage of Mg(OH)x species to decrease selectivity. When the source phase contains high salt concentrations, the K+ transference number approaches unity and the K+/Mg2+ selectivity is >20,000, presumably because the applied current is below the limiting value for K+ and H+ transport is negligible at this high K+ concentration. The high selectivities of these membranes may enable electrodialysis applications such as purification of salts that contain divalent or trivalent ions. The high ED selectivities of (PAH/PSS)5PAH-coated Nafion membranes translate to separations with Li+/Co2+ and K +/La3+. Even with adsorption of only 3 polyelectrolyte layers, Nafion membranes exhibit a Li+/Co2+ selectivity >23. However, the resistance to monovalent-ion passage does not decrease significantly with fewer polyelectrolyte layers. At overlimiting currents, hydroxides from water splitting form insoluble metal hydroxides to foul the membrane. With 0.1 M source-phase salt concentrations, transference numbers for monovalent cations approach unity and selectivities are >5000

  18. Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Villar, Akira E.; Black, Eric D.; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Pierro, Vincenzo; Galdi, Vincenzo; Principe, Maria; Taurasi, Ilaria

    2010-06-15

    A standard quarter-wavelength multilayer optical coating will produce the highest reflectivity for a given number of coating layers, but in general it will not yield the lowest thermal noise for a prescribed reflectivity. Coatings with the layer thicknesses optimized to minimize thermal noise could be useful in future generation interferometric gravitational wave detectors where coating thermal noise is expected to limit the sensitivity of the instrument. We present the results of direct measurements of the thermal noise of a standard quarter-wavelength coating and a low noise optimized coating. The measurements indicate a reduction in thermal noise in line with modeling predictions.

  19. Modeling Multilayer Antireflection Coating Systems Based on LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaomerlioglu, Filiz

    Antireflection coatings have had the greatest impact on optics. The antireflection (AR) coating is the critically important technology in obtaining high performance of optoelectronic devices. In the present paper, characteristics of the ferroelectric based multilayered antireflection coating systems are investigated. Multilayer antireflection coatings consisting of insulator thin films have been modeled in the region between the 400 nm and 800 nm visible bands of electromagnetic spectrum to reduce reflectance from ferroelectric based substrate. In this type of antireflection coating we can regulate the optical properties of a system by external electric (or thermal field) and design a broadband low reflection coating system for optoelectronic devices. In order to design and simulate the normal incidence wideband visible multilayer AR coatings, we have developed a Fortran software program based upon Fresnell equations. Different types of layers which are two-different materials like ZnSe and ZrO2 for even-folded multilayer (two-, four-, six-, eight-, ten-, and twelve-layer) antireflection coatings are used. Ferroelectric material, LiNbO3 is used as the substrate. The optical thicknesses of each layer are equal to a quarter-wave thick at a certain wavelength.

  20. Microstructures and tribological properties of CrN/ZrN nanoscale multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. G.; Rapaud, O.; Allain, N.; Mercs, D.; Baraket, M.; Dong, C.; Coddet, C.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale multilayer CrN/ZrN coatings with bilayer thicknesses ranging from 11.7 to 66.7 nm were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering techniques. The structure of the thin films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction results showed that CrN individual layers presented a <1 1 1> preferred orientation in the multilayer coatings. The diffraction peaks of CrN shifted continuously to low diffraction angle with decreasing bilayer thickness. TEM observations showed that the multilayer did not form a superlattice structure instead of the coexistence of nanocrystalline CrN and ZrN layers. Columnar growth for all the coatings was observed by cross-sectional SEM. Nanoindentation tests showed that the multilayer coatings had almost a constant nanohardness of 29 GPa in spite of the variations of bilayer thickness. Pin-on-disk tests indicated that both the friction coefficients and wear rates increased when decreasing bilayer thickness. However, in comparison with the monolayer coating, the multilayer coatings exhibited excellent wear resistance.

  1. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Kendall J; Pena, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  2. Test of a multilayer-coated EUV grating for I-IV order spectroscopic measurements of the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, Luca; Frassetto, Fabio; Miotti, Paolo; Giglia, Angelo; Corso, Alain Jody; Zuppella, Paola; Pelizzo, Maria-Guglielmina; Fineschi, Silvano; Antonucci, Ester; Naletto, Giampiero; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Romoli, Marco

    2013-09-01

    METIS, the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy, is a coronagraph selected by the European Space Agency to be part of the payload of the Solar Orbiter mission. The original METIS proposal included four optical paths, for observations in: 1) linearly polarized visible-light (590-650 nm), 2) narrow-band ultraviolet HI Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm), 3) narrow-band extreme-ultraviolet HeII Lyman-alpha (30.4 nm), 4) spectrographic mode for the HI Lyman- alpha and He II Lyman-alpha in corona. The design, coating performances, and test activities of the grating for the spectroscopic path are here described. The grating is optimized to work at near normal incidence and to diffract the 121.6 nm radiation at the first order and the 30.4 nm at its 4th order, consequently the two spectroscopic channels are overlapped on the focal plane. The grating is spherical with variable-line-spaced rulings, 1800 gr/mm central density. The selection of the spectroscopic channel to be acquired, either the 121.6 nm or the 30.4 nm, is made by a suitable filter wheel. The grating is multilayer-coated, to have high efficiency in both the spectral channels. In this paper we describe the tests made on a prototype with flat surface and constant groove spacing. The measures have been carried out at the BEAR beamline at the ELETTRA Synchrotron in Trieste (Italy). The grating was initially coated by gold and successively by a Mo-Si multilayer optimized at 30.4 nm. The efficiencies at the first and fourth order (121.6 and 30.4 nm) have been measured before and after the multilayer deposition. The quality of the multilayer deposition has been tested by atomic force microscope measurements on the grating surface and by reflectivity measurements performed on a test reference mirror. The experimental data are compared with numerical simulations accounting for the coating roughness and the smoothening effect on the blaze profile after the multilayer deposition. To our knowledge, this is the first

  3. Thermal Barrier Coatings Resistant to Glassy Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, Julie Marie

    Engineering of alloys has for years allowed aircraft turbine engines to become more efficient and operate at higher temperatures. As advancements in these alloy systems have become more difficult, ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), often yttria (7 wt %) stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), have been utilized for thermal protection. TBCs have allowed for higher engine operating temperatures and better fuel efficiency but have also created new engineering problems. Specifically, silica based particles such as sand and volcanic ash that enter the engine during operation form glassy deposits on the TBCs. These deposits can cause the current industrial 7YSZ thermal barrier coatings to fail since the glass formed penetrates and chemically interacts with the TBC. When this occurs, coating failure may occur due to a loss of strain tolerance, which can lead to fracture, and phase changes of the TBC material. There have been several approaches used to stop calcium-magnesium aluminio-silcate (CMAS) glasses (molten sand) from destroying the entire TBC, but overall there is still limited knowledge. In this thesis, 7YSZ and new TBC materials will be examined for thermochemical and thermomechanical performance in the presence of molten CMAS and volcanic ash. Two air plasma sprayed TBCs will be shown to be resistant to volcanic ash and CMAS. The first type of coating is a modified 7YSZ coating with 20 mol% Al2O3 and 5 mol% TiO2 in solid solution (YSZ+20Al+5Ti). The second TBC is made of gadolinium zirconate. These novel TBCs impede CMAS and ash penetration by interacting with the molten CMAS or ash and drastically changing the chemistry. The chemically modified CMAS or ash will crystallize into an apatite or anorthite phase, blocking the CMAS or ash from further destroying the coating. A presented mechanism study will show these coatings are effective due to the large amount of solute (Gd, Al) in the zirconia structure, which is the key to creating the crystalline apatite or

  4. Structure, mechanical and tribological properties of self-toughening TiSiN/Ag multilayer coatings on Ti6Al4V prepared by arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Chaoqun; Li, Jinlong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-11-01

    The TiSiN/Ag multilayer coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate using the multi-arc ion plating system. All multilayer coatings had a same total thickness of about 2.5 μm, and the TiSiN layer had a fixed thickness and the Ag layer had different thicknesses. Evidence concluded from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that nanocrystallites and amorphous microstructure of nc-TiN and amorphous Si3N4 for individual TiSiN layers, where amorphous Si3N4 around nanocrystallites TiN boundaries, and ductile nanocrystallites silver clusters and metallic silver for individual Ag layers which can limit continuous growth of single (200) preferential orientation coarse columnar TiN crystal. In addition, the TiN grain size presented a decreasing trend with the decrease of the thickness of Ag layers. The TiSiN/Ag multilayer coatings showed a significantly improved toughness compared with the TiSiN coating. The individual Ag layers of nano-multilayer coatings, not only as a self-lubricating but also as a barrier which inhibited micro cracks propagation, the formation of threading defects throughout all coatings, cause energy dissipation by passing through the interface zones without making the coating fail and at the same time prevented the aggressive seawater through the micro-pores. Moreover, improved toughness, excellent wear resistance together with high hardness, H/E and H3/E*2 values were found for the TiSiN/Ag multilayer coating with the individual Ag layers of 22.22 nm.

  5. Ac loss reduction of multilayer superconducting power transmission cables by using narrow coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki; Li, Quan; Ito, Kaoru; Takeuchi, Katsutoku; Nakamura, Taketsune; Okuma, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    The ac loss characteristics of coated conductors are dominated by the magnetic field component normal to their superconductor layer. Multilayer cables as well as monolayer cables consisting of 4 mm-wide coated conductors (named 4 mm cables) and those consisting of 2 mm-wide coated conductors (named 2 mm cables) were designed, and numerical electromagnetic field analyses were performed in their cross sections to calculate their ac losses. Trapezoidal lateral critical current density Jc distributions with shoulders as well as uniform ones were assumed in coated conductors for the analyses. The former models the degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors. In the case of the monolayer, the calculated ac losses of the 2 mm cables were comparable to those of the 4 mm cables. In the cases of the multilayers, the calculated ac losses of the 2 mm cables were obviously less than those of the 4 mm cables. The degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors more seriously affects the ac loss characteristics of the 2 mm cables than those of the 4 mm cables. However, even if we consider the influence of the degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors, 2 mm-wide coated conductors are more profitable than 4 mm-wide coated conductors in multilayer cables from the viewpoint of ac loss reduction.

  6. Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coatings using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Yoshiyama, J. M.; Salleo, Alberto; Wu, Zhouling; Green, John; Krupka, Rene

    1998-04-01

    Multilayer coatings manufactured from metallic hafnium and silica sources by reactive electron beam deposition, are being developed for high fluence optics in a fusion lasers with a wavelength of 1053 nm and a 3 ns pulse length. Damage threshold studies have revealed a correlation between laser damage and nodular defects, but interestingly laser damage is also present in nodule-free regions. Photothermal studies of optical coatings reveal the existence of defects with strong optical absorption in nodule-free regions of the coating. A variety of microscopic techniques were employed to characterize the defects for a better understanding of the thermal properties of nodular defects and role of thermal defects in laser damage. Photothermal microscopy, utilizing the surface thermal lensing technique, was used to map the thermal characteristics of 3 mm X 3 mm areas of the coatings. High resolution subaperture scans, with a 1 micrometers step size and a 3 micrometers pump beam diameter, were conducted on the defects to characterize their photothermal properties. Optical and atomic force microscopy was used to visually identify defects and characterize their topography. The defects were then irradiated to determine the role of nodular and thermal defects in limiting the damage threshold of the multilayer.

  7. Characterization of nodular and thermal defects in hafnia/silica multilayer coatings using optical, photothermal, and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C.J.; Yoshiyama, J.M.; Salleo, A.; Wu, Z.L.; Green, J.; Krupka, R.

    1997-12-24

    Multilayer coatings manufactured from metallic hafnium and silica sources by reactive electron beam deposition, are being developed for high fluence optics in a fusion laser with a wavelength of 1053 nm and a 3 ns pulse length. Damage threshold studies have revealed a correlation between laser damage and nodular defects, but interestingly laser damage is also present in nodule-free regions. Photothermal studies of optical coatings reveal the existence of defects with strong optical absorption in nodule-free regions of the coating. A variety of microscopic techniques were employed to characterize the effects for a better understanding of the thermal properties of nodular defects and role of thermal defects in laser damage. Photothermal microscopy, utilizing the surface thermal lensing technique, was used to map the thermal characteristics of 3 mm x 3 mm areas of the coatings. High resolution subaperture scans, with a 1 pm step size and a 3 um pump beam diameter, W= conducted on the defects to characterize their photothermal properties. Optical and atomic force microscopy was used to visually identify defects and characterize their topography. The defects were then irradiated to determine the role of nodular and thermal defects in limiting the damage threshold of the multilayer.

  8. Laser-induced damage of intrinsic and extrinsic defects by picosecond pulses on multilayer dielectric coatings for petawatt-class lasers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Negres, Raluca A.; Carr, Christopher W.; Laurence, Ted A.; Stanion, Ken; Guss, Gabe; Cross, David A.; Wegner, Paul J.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we describe a damage testing system and its use in investigating laser-induced optical damage initiated by both intrinsic and extrinsic precursors on multilayer dielectric coatings suitable for use in high-energy, large-aperture petawatt-class lasers. We employ small-area damage test methodologies to evaluate the intrinsic damage resistance of various coatings as a function of deposition methods and coating materials under simulated use conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that damage initiation by raster scanning at lower fluences and growth threshold testing are required to probe the density of extrinsic defects, which will limit large-aperture optics performance.

  9. Optical coatings deposited by reactive ion plating.

    PubMed

    Waldorf, A J; Dobrowolski, J A; Sullivan, B T; Plante, L M

    1993-10-01

    The effect of different reactive ion-plating process parameters on the transmittance and the reflectance of single layers of HfO(2), Ta(2)O(5), and SiO(2) are investigated. The optical constants obtained for these three as-deposited materials are presented. Laser-damage threshold trends are examined on single- and double-layer coatings at 1064 nm and on high-reflectance coatings for 248 nm. Single- and double-cavity filters are constructed for the UV (< 1-nm bandwidth) and near-infrared (50-nm bandwidth) regions, respectively. After the filters are postannealed in air at 375 °C for several hours, a shift in the peak wavelengths is observed along with a substantial increase in the peak transmittance. As expected, no significant wavelength shifts result from changes in the humidity of the ambient atmosphere.

  10. High-rate deposition of optical coatings by closed-field magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in a wide range of optical applications. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished simply using time. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. The CFM configuration also allows plasma treatment of surfaces prior to deposition, allowing optimisation of coating adhesion to substrates such as plastics. This paper presents data on optical, durability and environmental properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process for a range of optical applications are described.

  11. Improving blood-compatibility of titanium by coating collagen-heparin multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. L.; Li, Q. L.; Chen, J. Y.; Chen, C.; Huang, N.

    2009-05-01

    This work deals with improving the blood-compatibility of titanium by coating it with heparin (Hep) and collagen (Col) using a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. In the work described here, LBL-produced Hep-Col film growth is initialized by deposition of a layer of positively charged poly L-Lysine (PLL) on a titanium surface, which is negatively charged after treatment with NaOH, followed by formation of a multilayer thin film formed by alternating deposition of negatively charged heparin and positively charged collagen utilizing electrostatic interaction. The chemical composition, wettability, surface topography, mass and thickness of the film were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electronic analytical semi-microbalances, and XP stylus profilometry. The in vitro platelet adhesion and activation were investigated by a static platelet adhesion test probing the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release of adherent platelets after lysis and by a P-selectin assay. The clotting time was examined by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. All obtained data showed that the LBL film can significantly decrease platelet adhesion and activation, and prolong clotting time of APTT and PT compared to untreated titanium. LBL-produced Hep-Col films on titanium display more excellent anticoagulation performance than on the surface of titanium.

  12. Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude; Stearns, Daniel G.; Vernon, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.

  13. Damage threshold prediction of hafnia -silica multilayer coatings by nondestructive evaluation of fluence-limiting defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhouling; Stolz, Christopher J.; Weakley, Shannon C.; Hughes, James D.; Zhao, Qiang

    2001-04-01

    A variety of microscopic techniques were employed to characterize fluence-limiting defects in hafnia -silica multilayer coatings manufactured for the National Ignition Facility, a fusion laser with a wavelength of 1.053 m and a pulse width of 3 ns. Photothermal microscopy, with the surface thermal lens effect, was used to map the absorption and thermal characteristics of 3 mm x 3 mm areas of the coatings. High-resolution subaperture scans, with a 1- m step size and a 3- m pump-beam diameter, were conducted on the defects to characterize their photothermal properties. Optical and atomic force microscopy were used to identify defects and characterize their topography. The defects were then irradiated by a damage testing laser (1.06 m and 3 ns) in single-shot mode until damage occurred. The results were analyzed to determine the role of nodular and nonnodular defects in limiting the damage thresholds of the multilayer coatings. It was found that, although different types of defect were present in these coatings, the fluence-limiting ones had the highest photothermal signals (up to 126 x over the host coating). The implication of this study is that coating process improvements for hafnia -silica multilayer coatings should have a broader focus than just elimination of source ejection, since high photothermal signals frequently occur at nodule-free regions. The study also demonstrates that, for optics subject to absorption-induced thermal damage, photothermal microscopy is an appropriate tool for nondestructive identification of fluence-limiting defects.

  14. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  15. Recovery of Mo/Si multilayer coated optical substrates

    DOEpatents

    Baker, S.L.; Vernon, S.P.; Stearns, D.G.

    1997-12-16

    Mo/Si multilayers are removed from superpolished ZERODUR and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. The two step dry etching process removes SiO{sub 2} overlayer with a fluroine-containing gas and then moves molybdenum and silicon multilayers with a chlorine-containing gas. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates. 5 figs.

  16. Recovery of Mo/Si multilayer coated optical substrates

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Sherry L.; Vernon, Stephen P.; Stearns, Daniel G.

    1997-12-16

    Mo/Si multilayers are removed from superpolished ZERODUR and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. The two step dry etching process removes SiO.sub.2 overlayer with a fluroine-containing gas and then moves molybdenum and silicon multilayers with a chlorine-containing gas. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates.

  17. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Turbine Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haven, Victor E.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings extend the operating temperature range of actively cooled gas turbine components, therefore increasing thermal efficiency. Performance and lifetime of existing ceram ic coatings are limited by spallation during heating and cooling cycles. Spallation of the ceramic is a function of its microstructure, which is determined by the deposition method. This research is investigating metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of yttria stabilized zirconia to improve performance and reduce costs relative to electron beam physical vapor deposition. Coatings are deposited in an induction-heated, low-pressure reactor at 10 microns per hour. The coating's composition, structure, and response to the turbine environment will be characterized.

  18. Record High EUV Efficiency from Multilayer-Coated Liquid-Overcoated Blazed Ion-Etched Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, M. P.; Cruddace, R. G.; Rife, J. C.; Barbee, T. W., Jr.; Hunter, W. R.; Heidemann, K. F.; Kierey, H.

    2002-12-01

    In the EUV spectra of astrophysical sources, high spectral resolution and sensitivity are required goals for measuring line widths and Doppler shifts and for resolving the many weak lines, absorption edges and other features that may appear. We have been pursuing these goals by depositing high-reflectance multilayers on ultra-smooth holographic ion-etched gratings of high groove density. At near-normal incidence we have achieved grating groove efficiencies of 34% in the first order using laminar gratings, near the theoretical limit of 40.5%. For blazed gratings, the theoretical limit in a chosen order is 100% but the highest measured values are only 25%. Accurate control of the groove profile is the key factor, and this becomes difficult when the groove density is high and the blaze angle is only a few degrees. Such configurations are typical of high-resolution EUV spectrometers, such as with the successful J-PEX sounding rocket experiment or with the proposed APEX satellite instrument. However, a new technique has been developed at Carl Zeiss where a grating of relatively high blaze angle is overcoated with a liquid polymer, which is then hardened. The resulting grating has a reduced blaze angle, accurate profile, and reduced roughness. We present the results of efficiency measurements on blazed test gratings that were overcoated with a liquid polymer, cured, and then coated further with state-of-the-art multilayers. Record values were achieved in both measured efficiency and grating groove efficiency. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research and NRL under Work Unit AMCORS (76-3641), and by NASA Space Astrophysics and Research Analysis under NDPR W-19,881.

  19. Impact of substrate surface scratches on the laser damage resistance of multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S; Wolfe, J; Monterrosa, A; Teslich, N; Feit, M; Pistor, T; Stolz, C

    2010-11-03

    Substrate scratches can limit the laser resistance of multilayer mirror coatings on high-peak-power laser systems. To date, the mechanism by which substrate surface defects affect the performance of coating layers under high power laser irradiation is not well defined. In this study, we combine experimental approaches with theoretical simulations to delineate the correlation between laser damage resistance of coating layers and the physical properties of the substrate surface defects including scratches. A focused ion beam technique is used to reveal the morphological evolution of coating layers on surface scratches. Preliminary results show that coating layers initially follow the trench morphology on the substrate surface, and as the thickness increases, gradually overcoat voids and planarize the surface. Simulations of the electrical-field distribution of the defective layers using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method show that field intensification exists mostly near the top surface region of the coating near convex focusing structures. The light intensification could be responsible for the reduced damage threshold. Damage testing under 1064 nm, 3 ns laser irradiation over coating layers on substrates with designed scratches show that damage probability and threshold of the multilayer depend on substrate scratch density and width. Our preliminary results show that damage occurs on the region of the coating where substrate scratches reside and etching of the substrate before coating does not seem to improve the laser damage resistance.

  20. Surface Modifications of Titanium Implants by Multilayer Bioactive Coatings with Drug Delivery Potential: Antimicrobial, Biological, and Drug Release Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordikhani, Farideh; Zustiak, Silviya Petrova; Simchi, Abdolreza

    2016-04-01

    Recent strategies to locally deliver antimicrobial agents to combat implant-associated infections—one of the most common complications in orthopedic surgery—are gaining interest. However, achieving a controlled release profile over a desired time frame remains a challenge. In this study, we present an innovative multifactorial approach to combat infections which comprises a multilayer chitosan/bioactive glass/vancomycin nanocomposite coating with an osteoblastic potential and a drug delivery capacity. The bioactive drug-eluting coating was prepared on the surface of titanium foils by a multistep electrophoretic deposition technique. The adopted deposition strategy allowed for a high antibiotic loading of 1038.4 ± 40.2 µg/cm2. The nanocomposite coating exhibited a suppressed burst release with a prolonged sustained vancomycin release for up to 6 weeks. Importantly, the drug release profile was linear with respect to time, indicating a zero-order release kinetics. An in vitro bactericidal assay against Staphylococcus aureus confirmed that releasing the drug reduced the risk of bacterial infection. Excellent biocompatibility of the developed coating was also demonstrated by in vitro cell studies with a model MG-63 osteoblast cell line.

  1. Electrochemical deposition of mineralized BSA/collagen coating.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Junjun; Lin, Jun; Li, Juan; Wang, Huiming; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian

    2016-09-01

    In this work, mineralized collagen coatings with different loading quantity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were prepared via in situ electrochemical deposition on titanium substrate. The microstructure and BSA loading quantity of the coatings could be controlled by the electrochemical deposition parameters, such as deposition potential, BSA concentration and its adding sequence in the electrolyte. The BSA loading quantity in the coatings was obtained in the range of 0.0170-0.173mg/cm(2), enhancing the cell adhesion and proliferation of the coatings with the simultaneous release. The distinct release behaviors of BSA were attributed to their gradient distribution with different mineralization degrees, which could be adjusted by the deposition process. These results suggest that in situ electrochemical deposition is a promising way to incorporate functional molecules into the mineralized collagen coatings and the mineralized BSA/collagen coatings are highly promising for improving the rhBMP-2 loading capability (1.8-fold).

  2. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shoji; Sugiyama, Shuta; Shimura, Kojiro; Tobayama, Go; Togashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface treatment is clinically evaluated by peeling and flex tests. However, these testing methods are not ideal for deposition coating strength measurement of electroformed metals. There have been no studies on the deposition coating strength and methods to test electroformed metals. We developed a new deposition coating strength test for electroformed metals. The influence of the negative electrolytic method, which is one of the electrochemical surface treatments, on the strength of the deposition coating of electroformed metals was investigated, and the following conclusions were drawn: 1. This process makes it possible to remove residual deposits on the electrodeposited metal surface layer. 2. Cathode electrolysis is a simple and safe method that is capable of improving the surface treatment by adjustments to the current supply method and current intensity. 3. Electrochemical treatment can improve the deposition coating strength compared to the physical or chemical treatment methods. 4. Electro-deposition coating is an innovative technique for the deposition coating of electroformed metal. PMID:27326757

  3. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Kojiro; Tobayama, Go; Togashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface treatment is clinically evaluated by peeling and flex tests. However, these testing methods are not ideal for deposition coating strength measurement of electroformed metals. There have been no studies on the deposition coating strength and methods to test electroformed metals. We developed a new deposition coating strength test for electroformed metals. The influence of the negative electrolytic method, which is one of the electrochemical surface treatments, on the strength of the deposition coating of electroformed metals was investigated, and the following conclusions were drawn: 1. This process makes it possible to remove residual deposits on the electrodeposited metal surface layer. 2. Cathode electrolysis is a simple and safe method that is capable of improving the surface treatment by adjustments to the current supply method and current intensity. 3. Electrochemical treatment can improve the deposition coating strength compared to the physical or chemical treatment methods. 4. Electro-deposition coating is an innovative technique for the deposition coating of electroformed metal. PMID:27326757

  4. IBA analysis and corrosion resistance of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl multilayer films deposited over a CoCrMo using magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, C. E.; Andrade, E.; de Lucio, O.; Cruz, J.; Solís, C.; Rocha, M. F.; Alemón, B.; Flores, M.; Huegel, J. C.

    2016-03-01

    The corrosion resistance and the elemental profile of multilayer coatings of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl synthesized by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) reactive magnetron sputtering over a CoCrMo alloy substrate in 10 periods of 30 min each were analyzed and compared to those of the substrate alone and to that of a TiAlPtN single layer coating of the same thickness. The objective of the present work was to create multilayers with different amounts of Pt to enhance the corrosion resistance of a biomedical alloy of CoCrMo. Corrosion tests were performed using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) using potentiodynamic polarization tests at typical body temperature. The elemental composition and thickness of the coatings were evaluated with the combination of two ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: a Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) with alpha beam and a Nuclear Reaction Analysis with a deuteron beam.

  5. Morphologies of laser-induced damage in hafnia-silica multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, F.Y.; Stolz, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium-silica multilayer mirrors and polarizers were deposited by e-beam evaporation onto BK7 glass substrates. The mirrors and polarizers were coated for operation at 1053 nm at 45{degree} and at Brewster`s angle (56{degree}), respectively. They were tested with a single 3-ns laser pulse. Morphology of the laser-induced damage was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Four distinct damage morphologies were found: pits, flatbottom pits, scalds, and delaminates. The pits and flat bottom pits (<30{mu}m dia) were detected at lower fluences (as low as 5 J/cm{sup 2}). The pits seemed to result from ejection of nodular defects by causing local enhancement of the electric field. Scalds and delaminates could be observed at higher fluences (above 13 J/cm{sup 2}) and seemed to result from the formation of plasmas on the surface. These damage types often originated at pits and were less than 300 {mu}m diameter; their size increased almost linearly with fluence. Finally, effects of the damage on the beam (reflectivity degradation and phase modulations) were measured.

  6. Deposition Kinetics of Bioinspired Phenolic Coatings on Titanium Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Geißler, Sebastian; Barrantes, Alejandro; Tengvall, Pentti; Messersmith, Phillip B; Tiainen, Hanna

    2016-08-16

    Polyphenols can form functional coatings on a variety of different materials through auto-oxidative surface polymerization in a manner similar to polydopamine coatings. However, the mechanisms behind the coating deposition are poorly understood. We report the coating deposition kinetics of the polyphenol tannic acid (TA) and the simple phenolic compound pyrogallol (PG) on titanium surfaces. The coating deposition was followed in real time over a period of 24 h using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). TA coatings revealed a multiphasic layer formation: the deposition of an initial rigid layer was followed by the buildup of an increasingly dissipative layer, before mass adsorption stopped after approximately 5 h of coating time. The PG deposition was biphasic, starting with the adsorption of a nonrigid viscoelastic layer which was followed by layer stiffening upon further mass adsorption. Coating evaluation by ellipsometry and AFM confirmed the deposition kinetics determined by QCM-D and revealed maximum coating thicknesses of approximately 50 and 75 nm for TA and PG, respectively. Chemical characterization of the coatings and polymerized polyphenol particles indicated the involvement of both physical and chemical interactions in the auto-oxidation reactions.

  7. Deposition Kinetics of Bioinspired Phenolic Coatings on Titanium Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Geißler, Sebastian; Barrantes, Alejandro; Tengvall, Pentti; Messersmith, Phillip B; Tiainen, Hanna

    2016-08-16

    Polyphenols can form functional coatings on a variety of different materials through auto-oxidative surface polymerization in a manner similar to polydopamine coatings. However, the mechanisms behind the coating deposition are poorly understood. We report the coating deposition kinetics of the polyphenol tannic acid (TA) and the simple phenolic compound pyrogallol (PG) on titanium surfaces. The coating deposition was followed in real time over a period of 24 h using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). TA coatings revealed a multiphasic layer formation: the deposition of an initial rigid layer was followed by the buildup of an increasingly dissipative layer, before mass adsorption stopped after approximately 5 h of coating time. The PG deposition was biphasic, starting with the adsorption of a nonrigid viscoelastic layer which was followed by layer stiffening upon further mass adsorption. Coating evaluation by ellipsometry and AFM confirmed the deposition kinetics determined by QCM-D and revealed maximum coating thicknesses of approximately 50 and 75 nm for TA and PG, respectively. Chemical characterization of the coatings and polymerized polyphenol particles indicated the involvement of both physical and chemical interactions in the auto-oxidation reactions. PMID:27452793

  8. Extreme ultraviolet performance of a multilayer coated high density toroidal grating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Roger J.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A. M.; Neupert, Werner M.; Condor, Charles E.; Gum, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of a multilayer coated diffraction grating has been evaluated at EUV wavelengths both in terms of absolute efficiency and spectral resolution. The application of ten-layer Ir/Si multilayer coating to a 3600-lines/mm blazed toroidal replica grating produced a factor of 9 enhancement in peak efficiency near the design wavelength of about 30 nm in first order, without degrading its excellent quasistigmatic spectral resolution. The measured EUV efficiency peaked at 3.3 percent and was improved over the full spectral range between 25 and 35 nm compared with the premultilayer replica which had a standard gold coating. In addition, the grating's spectral resolution of greater than 5000 was maintained.

  9. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  10. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2005-01-25

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  11. Comparing polyelectrolyte multilayer - coated poly(methylmethacrylate) microfluidic devices and glass microchips for electrophoretic separations

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Christa A.; Shim, Joon Sub; Ahn, Chong; Limbach, Patrick A.; Halsall, H. Brian

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing drive in microfluidics to transfer microchip systems from the more expensive glass microchips to cheaper polymer microchips. Here, we investigate using polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) as a coating system for poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) microchips to improve their functionality. The multilayer system was prepared by layer-on-layer depositon of poly (diallydimethylammonium) chloride (PDAD) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Practical aspects of coating PMMA microchips were explored. The multilayer buildup process was monitored using EOF measurements, and the stability of the PEM was investigated. The performance of the PEM-PMMA microchip was compared to those of a standard glass microchip and a PEM-glass microchip in terms of electroosmotic flow and separating two fluorescent dyes. Several key findings in the development of the multilayer coating procedure for PMMA chips are also presented. It was found that, with careful preparation, a PEM-PMMA microchip can be prepared that has properties comparable - and in some cases superior - to those of a standard glass microchip. PMID:20013912

  12. Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Robert; Loomis, Gary E.; Thomas, Ian M.

    1999-01-01

    Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (.about.1.10-1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm.

  13. Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer

    DOEpatents

    Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Thomas, I.M.

    1999-03-16

    Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (ca. 1.10--1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm. 2 figs.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of ultra-high resolution multilayer-coated blazed gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov,, Dmitriy; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Dhuey, Scott; Gullikson, Eric; Salmassi, Farhad; Yashchuk, Tony; Padmore, Howard

    2011-07-26

    Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the most promising candidate for ultra-high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy. They combine the ability of blazed gratings to concentrate almost all diffraction energy in a desired high diffraction order with high reflectance soft x-ray multilayers. However in order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a near perfect groove profile with an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on successful fabrication and testing of ultra-dense saw-tooth substrates with 5,000 and 10,000 lines/mm.

  15. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, Judith Alison

    1999-01-01

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet ("DUV") and Extreme Ultra-Violet ("EUV") wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10-.mu.m for the shortest wavelength (13.4-nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R.sup.2 factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates.

  16. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, J.A.

    1999-06-15

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet (DUV) and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10 [micro]m for the shortest wavelength (13.4 nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R[sup 2] factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates. 15 figs.

  17. Microstructure of vapor deposited coatings on curved substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    2015-09-15

    Thermal barrier coating systems consisting of a metallic bond coat and ceramic over layer are widely used to extend the life of gas turbine engine components. They are applied using either high-vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques in which vapor atoms rarely experience scattering collisions during propagation to a substrate, or by gas jet assisted (low-vacuum) vapor deposition techniques that utilize scattering from streamlines to enable non-line-of-sight deposition. Both approaches require substrate motion to coat a substrate of complex shape. Here, direct simulation Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods are combined to simulate the deposition of a nickel coating over the concave and convex surfaces of a model airfoil, and the simulation results are compared with those from experimental depositions. The simulation method successfully predicted variations in coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and porosity during both stationary and substrate rotated deposition. It was then used to investigate a wide range of vapor deposition conditions spanning high-vacuum physical vapor deposition to low-vacuum gas jet assisted vapor deposition. The average coating thickness was found to increase initially with gas pressure reaching a maximum at a chamber pressure of 8–10 Pa, but the best coating thickness uniformity was achieved under high vacuum deposition conditions. However, high vacuum conditions increased the variation in the coatings pore volume fraction over the surface of the airfoil. The simulation approach was combined with an optimization algorithm and used to investigate novel deposition concepts to tailor the local coating thickness.

  18. Apparatus and method for laser deposition of durable coatings

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.; Vanier, P.; Barletta, R.E.

    1995-08-15

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing durable coatings onto the surface of a substrate without heating the entire substrate to high temperatures by using lasers to heat the substrate and dissociate a deposition gas. The apparatus comprises a deposition chamber for enclosing the substrate upon which a coating is to be deposited, gas delivery means for directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate, a first laser for heating the substrate, and a second laser for irradiating the deposition gas to dissociate the gas. The method includes placing a substrate within a vacuum deposition chamber and directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate. Then the substrate is heated with a first laser while the deposition gas is irradiated with a second laser to dissociate the deposition gas. 1 fig.

  19. Sintering Characteristics of Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Gradient and Isothermal High Temperature Annealing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides have most of the relevant attributes for use as next generation thermal barrier coatings such as phase stability, low sintering kinetics and low thermal conductivity. One of the issues with the pyrochlore oxides is their lower toughness and therefore higher erosion rate compared to the current state-of-the-art TBC material, yttria (6 to 8 wt%) stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this work, sintering characteristics were investigated for novel multilayered coating consisted of alternating layers of pyrochlore oxide viz Gd2Zr2O7 and t' low k (rare earth oxide doped YSZ). Thermal gradient and isothermal high temperature (1316 C) annealing conditions were used to investigate sintering and cracking in these coatings. The results are then compared with that of relevant monolayered coatings and a baseline YSZ coating.

  20. Mitigation of substrate defects in reflective reticles using sequential coating and annealing

    DOEpatents

    Mirkanimi, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    A buffer-layer to minimize the size of defects on a reticle substrate prior to deposition of a reflective coating on the substrate. The buffer-layer is formed by either a multilayer deposited on the substrate or by a plurality of sequentially deposited and annealed coatings deposited on the substrate. The plurality of sequentially deposited and annealed coating may comprise multilayer and single layer coatings. The multilayer deposited and annealed buffer layer coatings may be of the same or different material than the reflecting coating thereafter deposited on the buffer-layer.

  1. Wideband antireflection coatings combining interference multilayers and subwavelength structures prepared by reactive ion etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruynooghe, S.; Helgert, M.; Challier, M.; Tonova, D.; Sundermann, M.; Koch, T.; Gatto, A.; Schulze, M.; Kley, E.-B.

    2015-08-01

    To further reduce the intensity of the Fresnel reflections of optical components, subwavelength structures prepared by reactive ion etching of SiO2 thin films are combined as outermost layer with a multilayer system made of conventional thin film materials and prepared by magnetron sputtering. In this approach, a hybrid coating is realized in which the nanoscaled structured outermost layer is expected to further improve the antireflection properties of common interference stacks. The subwavelength structures are examined by spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectral photometry and scanning electron microscopy. The microscopic and optical spectroscopic analysis revealed that pillar-shaped nanostructures are formed during etching which exhibit low-index properties and have a depth-dependent refractive index. To take into account the index gradient in the coating design, the optical properties of the nanostructures are modeled using the effective medium approximation. The calculated average effective refractive index is 1.11 at 500 nm wavelength. A hybrid coating was designed to minimize the residual reflectance in the 400 - 900 nm spectral range for BK7 glass substrate. Experimental results showed that the hybrid coating achieves a low residual reflectance with very good omni-directional properties, owing to the properties of its nanostructured surface. The residual reflection of the hybrid coating is found to be two times smaller than the reflection obtained by applying a common interference multilayer system which demonstrates the benefit of the use of hybrid systems for the realization of broadband antireflective coatings with wide-angle properties.

  2. Giant magnetoresistance in Co/Cu multilayers fabricated by focused ion-beam direct deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamachi, Shinji; Ueda, Masahiro; Sakakima, Hiroshi; Satomi, Mitsuo; Ishikawa, Junzo

    1996-10-01

    We report the direct deposition of patterned multilayers that exhibit giant magnetoresistance without any lithographic processes. We fabricated Co/Cu multilayers by the focused ion-beam direct deposition method and measured the magnetoresistance characteristics of the multilayers. The fabricated Co/Cu multilayers are 14×76 μm2 in size and consist of 12 layers of Co thin film with the thickness of 20 Å and 11 layers of Cu thin film with the thickness of 13-22 Å on the GaAs substrate. We used a 108 eV Co2+ ion beam and 54 eV Cu+ ion beam extracted from a Co-Cu-Au-Nb alloy ion source. The measured magnetoresistance ratio of giant magnetoresistance was 6.7% in the case of the Co(20 Å)/Cu(21 Å) multilayer. Experimental results show precise controllability of the thickness and the additional capability of the focused ion-beam direct deposition method.

  3. The role of defects in laser damage of multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, M.R.; Chow, R.

    1993-12-21

    Laser induced damage to optical coatings is generally a localized phenomenon associated with coating defects. The most common of the defect types are the well-known nodule defect. This paper reviews the use of experiments and modeling to understand the formation of these defects and their interaction with laser light. Of particular interest are efforts to identify which defects are most susceptible to laser damage. Also discussed are possible methods for stabilizing these defects (laser conditioning) or preventing their initiation (source stabilization, spatter particle trapping).

  4. Innovative multilayer coatings for space solar physics: performances and stability over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuppella, Paola; Corso, Alain J.; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Windt, David L.; Pelizzo, Maria G.

    2011-05-01

    Different solar mission are in progress and others are foreseen in the next future to study the structure and the dynamics of the Sun and its interaction with the Earth. Different instruments devoted to solar physics are required to have high reflecting MultiLayers (MLs) coatings. For example, the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (METIS) coronograph will fly on board of SOLar Orbiter (SOLO) mission to perform simultaneous observation at 30.4 nm (He - II Lyman - α line), 121.6 nm (H - I Lyman - α line) and in the visible range, therefore its optics will require high performances in a wide spectral region. It should be desirable to reach higher reflectivity as well as long term stability and lifetime, then different candidate coatings will be considered. The Sounding - Rocket Coronographic Experiment (SCORE) is a prototype of METIS equipped with Mg/SiC optics and it has flown on board of a NASA sounding rocket. The Mg/SiC multilayers offer good performances in terms of reflectivity, but the long term stability and the lifetime have been preliminary investigated and there are open problems to be further studied. Besides standard Mo/Si multilayer, a possible alternative is represented by new multilayer structures based on well known Mo/Si stack in which the performances have been improved by superimposing innovative capping layers. Another alternative is represented by a recently developed multilayer based on an Ir/Si material couple. In this paper we review and compare the performances of such multilayer in all the spectral ranges of interest for SOLO.

  5. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-silica-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Grandfield, K.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite silica-chitosan coatings. Cathodic deposits were obtained on various conductive substrates using suspensions of silica nanoparticles in a mixed ethanol-water solvent, containing dissolved chitosan. Co-deposition of silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles resulted in the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings. The deposition yield has been studied at a constant voltage mode at various deposition durations. The method enabled the formation of coatings of different thickness in the range of up to 100 {mu}m. Deposit composition, microstructure and porosity can be varied by variation of HA and silica concentration in the suspensions. It was demonstrated that EPD can be used for the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings of graded composition and laminates. The method enabled the deposition of coatings containing layers of silica-chitosan and HA-chitosan nanocomposites using suspensions with different HA and silica content. Obtained coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of deposition is discussed.

  6. Stability of EUV multilayer coatings to low energy alpha particles bombardment.

    PubMed

    Nardello, M; Zuppella, Paola; Polito, V; Corso, Alain Jody; Zuccon, Sara; Pelizzo, M G

    2013-11-18

    Future solar missions will investigate the Sun from very close distances and optical components are constantly exposed to low energy ions irradiation. In this work we present the results of a new experiment related to low energy alpha particles bombardments on Mo/Si multilayer optical coatings. Different multilayer samples, with and without a protecting capping layer, have been exposed to low energy alpha particles (4keV), fixing the ions fluency and varying the time of exposure in order to change the total dose accumulated. The experimental parameters have been selected considering the potential application of the coatings to future solar missions. Results show that the physical processes occurred at the uppermost interfaces can strongly damage the structure. PMID:24514344

  7. Use of a TiBN Multilayer Coating for Wear Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Moehwald, Kai; Deißer, Todd Alexander; Bistron, Marcus

    2007-05-01

    The near surface area of forging dies is exposed to high mechanical loads. Additionally thermal and chemical stresses occur during the forging process. Depending on the number of forged parts, several kinds of damage develop in the surface area, which lead to failures of forging dies. Die wear is the main reason of failure with a 70% ratio. The abrasion resistance of the surface area of forging dies has to be increased in order to reduce wear. Therefore different methods were examined such as the increase of the abrasion resistance by plasma nitriding and by coating with ceramic layers (TiN, TiCN, TiC, CrN). These layers are applied to the forging die by using PACVD or PAPVD treatment. At the Institute of Metal Forming and Metal-Forming Machines of the University of Hanover a wear reduction by factor 3.5 compared to nitrided forging dies for forging helical gears was achieved. This was possible by using a coating compound of 18 ceramic layers. These excellent results for the multilayer system can be explained through the energy reduction at the inner boundaries and a crack deflection effect at the phase transitions. The layer support of neighboring layers and a stress relaxation through the stacked construction of the layer system are also improving the durability of the coating. This multilayer coating consists of a TiN-TiCN-TiC layer system with an overall thickness of 1.8 μm. This paper presents investigations of this multilayer compound and further research to reduce wear through an additional TiBN coating layer. With this additional top coating an increase of the thermal resistance and the oxidation resistance can be achieved. As a result of this enhancement a further increase of the wear reduction was expected.

  8. Analysis of Counterfeit Coated Tablets and Multi-Layer Packaging Materials Using Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Winner, Taryn L; Lanzarotta, Adam; Sommer, André J

    2016-06-01

    An effective method for detecting and characterizing counterfeit finished dosage forms and packaging materials is described in this study. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging, suspect tablet coating and core formulations as well as multi-layered foil safety seals, bottle labels, and cigarette tear tapes were analyzed and compared directly with those of a stored authentic product. The approach was effective for obtaining molecular information from structures as small as 6 μm.

  9. Analysis of Counterfeit Coated Tablets and Multi-Layer Packaging Materials Using Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Winner, Taryn L; Lanzarotta, Adam; Sommer, André J

    2016-06-01

    An effective method for detecting and characterizing counterfeit finished dosage forms and packaging materials is described in this study. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging, suspect tablet coating and core formulations as well as multi-layered foil safety seals, bottle labels, and cigarette tear tapes were analyzed and compared directly with those of a stored authentic product. The approach was effective for obtaining molecular information from structures as small as 6 μm. PMID:27068491

  10. Progress toward light weight high angular resolution multilayer coated optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, M.P.; Graham, M.E.; Vaynman, S.; Echt, J.; Farber, M.; Ehlert, S.; Varlese, S.

    2008-11-18

    We have been working on 3 separate projects that together will give us the ability to make 1 arc second, light weight Wolter I optics that work above 40 keV. The three separate tasks are: (a) plasma spraying of metal-coated micro-balloons; (b) coating of the inside of Wolter I mirrors, (c) actuator designs for improving figure quality. We give a progress report on our work on all three areas. In summary, for future space missions it will be desirable for them to be affordable by reducing mass, keeping the focal length manageable, and yet having high figure quality. The avenues we have described above are straight forward paths to achieving this goal, but a great deal of work needs to be done to take us from the concept stage to a functional system.

  11. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-11-18

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~10(3); while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors.

  12. Corrosion-resistant multilayer coatings for the 28-75 nm wavelength region

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Fernandez-Perea, M; Al, E T

    2011-11-08

    Corrosion has prevented use of SiC/Mg multilayers in applications requiring good lifetime stability. We have developed Al-based barrier layers that dramatically reduce corrosion, while preserving high reflectance and low stress. The aforementioned advances may enable the implementation of corrosion-resistant, high-performance SiC/Mg coatings in the 28-75 nm region in applications such as tabletop EUV/soft x-ray laser sources and solar physics telescopes. Further study and optimization of corrosion barrier structures and coating designs is underway.

  13. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~103; while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors. PMID:25403698

  14. Oxidation resistance of iron and copper foils coated with reduced graphene oxide multilayers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwoo; Kwon, Jee Youn; Cho, Hyun; Sim, Jae-Hyoung; Hwang, Hyun Sick; Kim, Chul Su; Kim, Yong Jung; Ruoff, Rodney S; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2012-09-25

    Protecting the surface of metals such as Fe and Cu from oxidizing is of great importance due to their widespread use. Here, oxidation resistance of Fe and Cu foils was achieved by coating them with reduced graphene oxide (rG-O) sheets. The rG-O-coated Fe and Cu foils were prepared by transferring rG-O multilayers from a SiO(2) substrate onto them. The oxidation resistance of these rG-O-coated metal foils was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy after heat treatment at 200 °C in air for 2 h. The bare metal surfaces were severely oxidized, but the rG-O-coated metal surfaces were protected from oxidation. This simple solution process using rG-O is one advantage of the present study.

  15. A multilayer approach to fabricate bioactive glass coatings on Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.

    1998-12-01

    Glasses in the system Si-Ca-Na-Mg-P-K-O with thermal expansion coefficients close to that of Ti6Al4V were used to coat the titanium alloy by a simple enameling technique. Firings were done in air at temperatures between 800 and 840 C and times up to 1 minute. Graded compositions were obtained by firing multilayered glass coatings. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were mixed with the glass powder and the mixture was placed on the outer surface of the coatings to render them more bioactive. Coatings with excellent adhesion to the substrate and able to form apatite when immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) can be fabricated by this methodology.

  16. Optimization of hybrid antireflection structure integrating surface texturing and multi-layer interference coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shigeru; Kanomata, Kensaku; Suzuki, Takahiko; Hirose, Fumihiko

    2014-10-01

    The antireflection structure (ARS) for solar cells is categorized to mainly two different techniques, i.e., the surface texturing and the single or multi-layer antireflection interference coating. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid ARS, which integrates moth eye texturing and multi-layer coat, for application to organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Using optical simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we conduct nearly global optimization of the geometric parameters characterizing the hybrid ARS. The proposed optimization algorithm consists of two steps: in the first step, we optimize the period and height of moth eye array, in the absence of multi-layer coating. In the second step, we optimize the whole structure of hybrid ARS by using the solution obtained by the first step as the starting search point. The methods of the simple grid search and the Hooke and Jeeves pattern search are used for global and local searches, respectively. In addition, we study the effects of deviations in the geometric parameters of hybrid ARS from their optimized values. The design concept of hybrid ARS is highly beneficial for broadband light trapping in OPVs.

  17. Electrical transport and breakdown in graphene multilayers loaded with electron beam induced deposited platinum.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Neha; Misra, Abhishek; Koratkar, Nikhil; Misra, D S

    2013-04-24

    We demonstrate here the effect of electron beam induced deposited platinum on the electrical transport through multilayer graphene sheets. Platinum metal is deposited at different positions on the graphene multilayers, i.e., including as well as excluding the bottom contact sites and the change in electrical conductance of the same multilayer graphene sheets before and after platinum deposition is segregated. An improvement in electrical conductance is observed even if the metal is deposited at the part of the graphene sheets that does not touch the bottom gold electrodes, and hence this experimental approach directly demonstrates that the contact improvement is not the sole reason for the improved electrical conduction. The improvement in electrical performance of the graphene sheets is explained in terms of the doping of graphene sheets caused by the charge transfer between the deposited metal and the graphene and thereby modified density of states for electrical conduction. Metal deposition also leads to the increased interlayer interaction of the graphene sheets as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy analysis. Further, two types of breakdown behaviors viz. sharp and stepped breakdowns observed for these graphene devices are explained in terms of the effective graphene-metal contact area. These studies reveal the implications of top metal contact fabrication on graphene for electronic devices.

  18. Spontaneous changes in contact angle of water and oil on novel flip-flop-type hydrophobic multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Go; Ema, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hisatoshi; Wei, Xing; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-04-01

    Multilayer structures composed of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and Nafion were fabricated on glass substrates by layer-by-layer assembly. Some of the multilayers demonstrated spontaneous changes in contact angle of water and oil due to flip-flop movements of free sulfo groups in the Nafion layer, and the multilayers eventually possessed water repellency in air and oil repellency in water. The repellencies were enhanced by applying primer layers that were formed using SiO2 fine particles to increase surface roughness. Compared to typical hydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces, the multilayers showed practical levels for a use as soil release coatings.

  19. Repairing amplitude defects in multilayer-coated extreme-ultraviolet lithography reticles by use of a focused ion beam.

    PubMed

    Barty, Anton; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Stearns, Dan; Clift, Miles; Mirkarimi, Paul; Gullikson, Eric; Chapman, Henry; Sweeney, Don

    2004-12-20

    We present a method for repairing defects near the top surfaces of multilayer coatings in general and specifically on extreme-ultraviolet lithography mask blanks. Milling away the defect and a surrounding region of the multilayer by use of a focused ion beam can repair both the reflectivity and the phase of the reflected light in the vicinity of such a defect. We describe the conditions under which the repaired region will not itself be a defect and experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of this multilayer repair technique. The results described are also applicable to understanding and controlling the optical effects of ion-induced multilayer erosion.

  20. Confinement of phonon propagation in laser deposited tungsten/polycarbonate multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Florian; Ulrichs, Henning; Pagel, Sinja; Müller, Markus; Mansurova, Maria; Müller, Matthias; Eberl, Christian; Erichsen, Torben; Huebner, Dennis; Vana, Philipp; Mann, Klaus; Münzenberg, Markus; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Nanoscale multilayer thin films of W and PC (Polycarbonate) show, due to the great difference of the components’ characteristics, fascinating properties for a variety of possible applications and provide an interesting research field, but are hard to fabricate with low layer thicknesses. Because of the great acoustic mismatch between the two materials, such nanoscale structures are promising candidates for new phononic materials, where phonon propagation is strongly reduced. In this article we show for the first time that W/PC-multilayers can indeed be grown with high quality by pulsed laser deposition. We analyzed the polymer properties depending on the laser fluence used for deposition, which enabled us to find best experimental conditions for the fabrication of high-acoustic-mismatch W/PC multilayers. The multilayers were analyzed by fs pump-probe spectroscopy showing that phonon dynamics on the ps time-scale can strongly be tailored by structural design. While already periodic multilayers exhibit strong phonon localization, especially aperiodic structures present outstandingly low phonon propagation properties making such 1D-layered W/PC nano-structures interesting for new phononic applications.

  1. Boron carbide (B4C) coating. Deposition and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizov, E.; Barsuk, V.; Begrambekov, L.; Buzhinsky, O.; Evsin, A.; Gordeev, A.; Grunin, A.; Klimov, N.; Kurnaev, V.; Mazul, I.; Otroshchenko, V.; Putric, A.; Sadovskiy, Ya.; Shigin, P.; Vergazov, S.; Zakharov, A.

    2015-08-01

    Boron carbide was proposed as a material of in-situ protecting coating for tungsten tiles of ITER divertor. To prove this concept the project including investigation of regimes of plasma deposition of B4C coating on tungsten and tests of boron carbide layer in ITER-like is started recently. The paper contends the first results of the project. The results of B4C coating irradiation by the plasma pulses of QSPU-T plasma accelerator are presented. The new device capable of B4C film deposition on tungsten and testing of the films and materials with ITER-like heat loads and ion- and electron irradiation is described. The results of B4C coating deposition and testing of both tungsten substrate and coating are shown and discussed.

  2. Deposition of PLA/CDHA composite coating via electrospraying.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-01-01

    Composite coatings composed of carbonated calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) and polylactic acid (PLA) were deposited on a PLA substrate surface via electrospraying. The operation parameters, structural properties, bioactivity, cell adhesion, and growth capability of as-fabricated PLA/CDHA coatings were investigated. The composite coating showed good biocompatibility and bioactivity. The deposited coating was also applied as a carrier to assist alendronate sodium (AS) local release. AS, an approved bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis, was incorporated into a composite coating matrix via coelectrospraying. Its release behavior showed a long-term sustained release. This approach can be a potential coating technique for the surface modification of biopolymer implants. PMID:23594068

  3. Process for preparing multilayer enzyme coating on a fiber

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jungbae; Kwak, Ja Hun; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-11-03

    A process for preparing high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials is disclosed and processes for using the same. The process involves coating of a material or fiber with enzymes and enzyme aggregate providing a material or fiber with high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environments. In one illustrative approach, enzyme "seeds" are covalently attached to polymer nanofibers followed by treatment with a reagent that crosslinks additional enzyme molecules to the seed enzymes forming enzyme aggregates thereby improving biocatalytic activity due to increased enzyme loading and enzyme stability. This approach creates a useful new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with potential applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  4. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian; Hummel, Helga; Bruns, Michael; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N'-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  5. Quorum-Quenching and Matrix-Degrading Enzymes in Multilayer Coatings Synergistically Prevent Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Urinary Catheters.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kristina; Fernandes, Margarida M; Francesko, Antonio; Mendoza, Ernest; Guezguez, Jamil; Burnet, Michael; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2015-12-16

    Bacteria often colonize in-dwelling medical devices and grow as complex biofilm communities of cells embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix, which increases their resistance to antibiotics and the host immune system. During biofilm growth, bacterial cells cooperate through specific quorum-sensing (QS) signals. Taking advantage of this mechanism of biofilm formation, we hypothesized that interrupting the communication among bacteria and simultaneously degrading the extracellular matrix would inhibit biofilm growth. To this end, coatings composed of the enzymes acylase and α-amylase, able to degrade bacterial QS molecules and polysaccharides, respectively, were built on silicone urinary catheters using a layer-by-layer deposition technique. Multilayer coatings of either acylase or amylase alone suppressed the biofilm formation of corresponding Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Further assembly of both enzymes in hybrid nanocoatings resulted in stronger biofilm inhibition as a function of acylase or amylase position in the layers. Hybrid coatings, with the QS-signal-degrading acylase as outermost layer, demonstrated 30% higher antibiofilm efficiency against medically relevant Gram-negative bacteria compared to that of the other assemblies. These nanocoatings significantly reduced the occurrence of single-species (P. aeruginosa) and mixed-species (P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) biofilms on silicone catheters under both static and dynamic conditions. Moreover, in an in vivo animal model, the quorum quenching and matrix degrading enzyme assemblies delayed the biofilm growth up to 7 days. PMID:26593217

  6. Extremely high rate deposition of polymer multilayer optical thin film materials

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    This paper highlights a new technique for extremely high rate deposition of optical dielectric films (vacuum deposition of polymer multilayer thin films). This is a way to produce multilayer optical filters comprised of thousands of layers of either linear or nonlinear optical materials. The technique involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate; the monomer is then cured. Acrylic polymers deposited to date are very clear for wavelengths between 0.35 and 2.5 {mu}m; they have extinction coefficients of k{approx}10{sup {minus}7}. Application of electric field during cross linking can polarize (``pole``) the film to greatly enhance the nonlinear optical properties. ``Poling`` films with the polymer multilayer technique offers advantages over conventional approaches, in that the polarization should not decay over time. Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory is well suited for bringing linear and nonlinear polymer multilayer optical filter technology to manufacturing production status for batch and wide area web applications. 10 figs.

  7. Extremely high rate deposition of polymer multilayer optical thin film materials

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique for extremely high rate deposition of optical dielectric films (vacuum deposition of polymer multilayer thin films). This is a way to produce multilayer optical filters comprised of thousands of layers of either linear or nonlinear optical materials. The technique involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate; the monomer is then cured. Acrylic polymers deposited to date are very clear for wavelengths between 0.35 and 2.5 [mu]m; they have extinction coefficients of k[approx]10[sup [minus]7]. Application of electric field during cross linking can polarize (''pole'') the film to greatly enhance the nonlinear optical properties. ''Poling'' films with the polymer multilayer technique offers advantages over conventional approaches, in that the polarization should not decay over time. Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory is well suited for bringing linear and nonlinear polymer multilayer optical filter technology to manufacturing production status for batch and wide area web applications. 10 figs.

  8. Design Multilayer Antireflection Coatings for Terrestrial Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhipeng; Shen, Xiaoming; He, Huan; Zeng, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the influence of methods to design antireflection coatings (ARCs) on reflectivity of broadband solar cells, we provide detailed analyses about the ARC coupled with a window layer and the refractive index dispersion effect of each layer. By multidimensional matrix data simulation, two methods were employed to measure the composite reflection of a SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC within the spectral ranges of 300–870 nm (dual junction) and 300–1850 nm (triple junction) under AM1.5 solar radiation. A comparison study, between the results obtained from the commonly used weighted average reflectance method (WAR) and that from the introduced effective average reflectance method (EAR), shows that the optimization of ARC by EAR method is convenient and feasible. PMID:24592155

  9. Optimized multilayer dielectric mirror coatings for gravitational wave interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agresti, Juri; Castaldi, Giuseppe; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Galdi, Vincenzo; Pierro, Vincenzo; Pinto, Innocenzo M.

    2006-08-01

    The limit sensitivity of interferometric gravitational wave antennas is set by the thermal noise in the dielectric mirror coatings. These are currently made of alternating quarter-wavelength high/low index material layers with low mechanical losses. The quarter-wavelength design yields the maximum reflectivity for a fixed number of layers, but not the lowest noise for a prescribed reflectivity. This motivated our recent investigation of optimal thickness configurations, which guarantee the lowest thermal noise for a targeted reflectivity. This communication provides a compact overview of our results, involving nonperiodic genetically-engineered and truncated periodically-layered configurations. Possible implications for the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) are discussed.

  10. Fiber/matrix interfaces for SiC/SiC composites: Multilayer SiC coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, H.; Curtin, W.A.

    1996-08-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on composites of CVI SiC matrix reinforced with 2-d Nicalon fiber cloth, with either pyrolitic carbon or multilayer CVD SiC coatings [Hypertherm High-Temperature Composites Inc., Huntington Beach, CA.] on the fibers. To investigate the role played by the different interfaces, several types of measurements are made on each sample: (i) unload-reload hysteresis loops, and (ii) acoustic emission. The pyrolitic carbon and multilayer SiC coated materials are remarkably similar in overall mechanical responses. These results demonstrate that low-modulus, or compliant, interface coatings are not necessary for good composite performance, and that complex, hierarchical coating structures may possibly yield enhanced high-temperature performance. Analysis of the unload/reload hysteresis loops also indicates that the usual {open_quotes}proportional limit{close_quotes} stress is actually slightly below the stress at which the 0{degrees} load-bearing fibers/matrix interfaces slide and are exposed to atmosphere.

  11. Structural evolution during deposition of epitaxial Fe/Pt(001) multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, T.C.; Kautzky, M.C.; Daniels, B.J.; Clemens, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    We have investigated the structure of epitaxial Fe/Pt(001) multilayers deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. In these multilayers, the structure of the Fe layers depends on their thickness: Thick (t{sub Fe}{gt}22thinsp{Angstrom}) Fe layers are body-centered cubic (bcc), while thin (t{sub Fe}{lt}12thinsp{Angstrom}) Fe layers are face-centered cubic (fcc). {ital Ex situ} x-ray diffraction reveals that the unstrained lattice parameter of bcc Fe in epitaxial multilayers is significantly greater than that of bulk bcc Fe, possibly due to alloying with Pt. This suggests that the observed {open_quotes}fcc Fe{close_quotes} is actually an intermixed fcc Fe{endash}Pt interfacial layer. To investigate this possibility, we have performed grazing-incidence x-ray scattering {ital in situ} during deposition of epitaxial Fe/Pt(001) multilayers. The structure of Fe(001) layers as thin as 10 {Angstrom} is bcc, strained due to epitaxial mismatch with the Pt(001) underlayer. Additional Fe deposition results in relaxation of the bcc Fe lattice parameter toward its bulk value. Deposition of Pt onto a 50 {Angstrom} thick bcc Fe(001) layer has little effect on the Fe, other than to increase its lattice parameter slightly. In contrast, deposition of Pt onto a 20-{Angstrom}-thick bcc Fe(001) layer results in a partial transformation of the Fe to a fcc structure. We propose that this transformation is the result of intermixing of Pt into the previously deposited Fe layer, resulting in the formation of a fcc Fe-Pt alloy layer. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Carbon deposition on multi-layer mirrors by extreme ultra violet ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunari, S.; Aoki, T.; Murakami, K.; Gomei, Y.; Terashima, S.; Takase, H.; Tanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Kakutani, Y.; Niibe, M.; Fukuda, Y.

    2007-03-01

    Organic gases cause carbon depositions on the multi-layer mirrors by Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) light irradiations in EUV lithography tool. The dependences on organic gas species, organic gas pressure and EUV light intensity in the carbon deposition were researched in order to understand this reaction. EUV light was irradiated on a (Si/Mo) multilayer mirror sample injecting organic gas like buthane, buthanol, methyl propionate, hexane, perfluoro octane, decane, decanol, methyl nonanoate, diethyl benzene, dimethyl phthalate and hexadecane. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed that organic gases with heavier molecule weight or higher boiling temperature caused faster carbon deposition rates. Carbon deposition rates increased linearly with organic gas pressures. Dependence on EUV light intensity was estimated from comparisons between an EUV light profile and carbon distributions on irradiated samples. Carbon deposition rates increased rapidly, but became saturated at higher EUV light intensities. Three chemical reactions, an adsorption, a desorption and a carbon deposition by EUV light irradiation, were taken into account to explain the behavior of the carbon deposition. Electron irradiation on a mirror sample revealed that photoelectrons emitting from the mirror surface played an important role in carbon deposition.

  13. Structure of multilayered Cr(Al)N/SiOx nanocomposite coatings fabricated by differential pumping co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nose, Masateru; Onishi, Ichiro; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2013-11-01

    A Cr(Al)N/38 vol. % SiOx hard coating was prepared on a (001) Si substrate at 250 °C in a differential pumping co-sputtering system, which has two chambers for radio frequency (RF) sputtering and a substrate holder rotating on the chambers. The composite coating was grown by alternate sputter-depositions from CrAl and SiO2 targets with flows of N2+Ar and Ar at RF powers of 200 and 75 W, respectively, on transition layers grown on the substrate. Analytical electron microscopy reveled that the Cr(Al)N/SiOx coating had a multilayered structure of Cr(Al)N crystal layers ˜1.6 nm thick and two-dimensionally dispersed amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx) particles with sizes of ˜1 nm or less. The a-SiOx particles were enclosed with the Cr(Al)N layers. The coating had a low indentation hardness of ˜25 GPa at room temperature, due to a high oxide fraction of 38 vol. % and a low substrate rotational speed of 1 rpm. Faster rotation and lower oxide fraction would make a-SiOx particles smaller, resulting in the formation of Cr(Al)N crystal including the very fine a-SiOx particles with small number density. They would work as obstacles for the lattice deformation of the Cr(Al)N crystals. We have fabricated a superhard coating of Cr(Al)N/17 vol. % SiOx with a hardness of 46 GPa prepared at 12 rpm.

  14. Structure of multilayered Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} nanocomposite coatings fabricated by differential pumping co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nose, Masateru; Onishi, Ichiro; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2013-11-11

    A Cr(Al)N/38 vol. % SiO{sub x} hard coating was prepared on a (001) Si substrate at 250 °C in a differential pumping co-sputtering system, which has two chambers for radio frequency (RF) sputtering and a substrate holder rotating on the chambers. The composite coating was grown by alternate sputter-depositions from CrAl and SiO{sub 2} targets with flows of N{sub 2}+Ar and Ar at RF powers of 200 and 75 W, respectively, on transition layers grown on the substrate. Analytical electron microscopy reveled that the Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} coating had a multilayered structure of Cr(Al)N crystal layers ∼1.6 nm thick and two-dimensionally dispersed amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}) particles with sizes of ∼1 nm or less. The a-SiO{sub x} particles were enclosed with the Cr(Al)N layers. The coating had a low indentation hardness of ∼25 GPa at room temperature, due to a high oxide fraction of 38 vol. % and a low substrate rotational speed of 1 rpm. Faster rotation and lower oxide fraction would make a-SiO{sub x} particles smaller, resulting in the formation of Cr(Al)N crystal including the very fine a-SiO{sub x} particles with small number density. They would work as obstacles for the lattice deformation of the Cr(Al)N crystals. We have fabricated a superhard coating of Cr(Al)N/17 vol. % SiO{sub x} with a hardness of 46 GPa prepared at 12 rpm.

  15. pH-responsive drug delivery system based on hollow silicon dioxide micropillars coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Alba, María; Formentín, Pilar; Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Pallarès, Josep; Marsal, Lluís F

    2014-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated hollow silicon dioxide micropillars as pH-responsive drug delivery systems. Silicon dioxide micropillars are based on macroporous silicon formed by electrochemical etching. Due to their hollow core capable of being loaded with chemically active agents, silicon dioxide micropillars provide additional function such as drug delivery system. The polyelectrolyte multilayer was assembled by the layer-by-layer technique based on the alternative deposition of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. The polyelectrolyte pair poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) exhibited pH-responsive properties for the loading and release of a positively charged drug doxorubicin. The drug release rate was observed to be higher at pH 5.2 compared to that at pH 7.4. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of the number of polyelectrolyte bilayers on the drug release loading and release rate. Thus, this hybrid composite could be potentially applicable as a pH-controlled system for localized drug release.

  16. pH-responsive drug delivery system based on hollow silicon dioxide micropillars coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated hollow silicon dioxide micropillars as pH-responsive drug delivery systems. Silicon dioxide micropillars are based on macroporous silicon formed by electrochemical etching. Due to their hollow core capable of being loaded with chemically active agents, silicon dioxide micropillars provide additional function such as drug delivery system. The polyelectrolyte multilayer was assembled by the layer-by-layer technique based on the alternative deposition of cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. The polyelectrolyte pair poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) exhibited pH-responsive properties for the loading and release of a positively charged drug doxorubicin. The drug release rate was observed to be higher at pH 5.2 compared to that at pH 7.4. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of the number of polyelectrolyte bilayers on the drug release loading and release rate. Thus, this hybrid composite could be potentially applicable as a pH-controlled system for localized drug release. PMID:25221455

  17. Nanorods of Co/Pd multilayers fabricated by glancing angle deposition for advanced media

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Hao; Gupta, Subhadra; Natarajarathinam, Anusha

    2013-05-28

    Perpendicular anisotropy magnetic nanorods composed of Co/Pd multilayers have been successfully fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) in a planetary sputtering system. Co and Pd layer thickness, ratio, and bilayer number were optimized for both normal and GLAD depositions. Scanning electron micrographs estimated the nanorods to be about 12 nm in diameter. M-H loops showed that the coercivity for the GLAD nanorods increased from 1.3 kOe for the normally deposited continuous films to 2.9 kOe for the GLAD nanorod array, a 123% increase.

  18. Coating Layer Characterization of Laser Deposited AlSi Coating over Laser Weld Bead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hongping; Van Gelder, Aldo

    Corrosion protection of steel components is an important topic in automotive industry. Laser beam welding makes a narrow weld bead, thus minimizing the damage to the original coating on the steel material. However, the weld bead loses its original coating and is vulnerable to corrosive attack. It was demonstrated in this study that laser beam generated AlSi coating is an effective way to apply a protective coating on the weld bead. Coatings with different thickness and topography have been deposited under different laser power and processing speed. The microstructure of the as-deposited coating and its evolution after heat treatment has been studied. EDS was employed to analyze the distribution of chemical compositions of the laser generated coatings. Several metallic compounds of Al and iron have been identified. It was found that the type of metallic compounds can be influenced by the laser processing parameters.

  19. Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser-resistant multilayer high-reflector coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S. Roger; Wolfe, Justin E.; Monterrosa, Anthony M.; Feit, Michael D.; Pistor, Thomas V.; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2011-03-20

    Growing laser damage sites on multilayer high-reflector coatings can limit mirror performance. One of the strategies to improve laser damage resistance is to replace the growing damage sites with predesigned benign mitigation structures. By mitigating the weakest site on the optic, the large-aperture mirror will have a laser resistance comparable to the intrinsic value of the multilayer coating. To determine the optimal mitigation geometry, the finite-difference time-domain method was used to quantify the electric-field intensification within the multilayer, at the presence of different conical pits. We find that the field intensification induced by the mitigation pit is strongly dependent on the polarization and the angle of incidence (AOI) of the incoming wave. Therefore, the optimal mitigation conical pit geometry is application specific. Furthermore, our simulation also illustrates an alternative means to achieve an optimal mitigation structure by matching the cone angle of the structure with the AOI of the incoming wave, except for the p-polarized wave at a range of incident angles between 30 deg. and 45 deg.

  20. Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser resistant multilayer high reflector coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wolfe, J E; Monterrosa, A M; Feit, M D; Pistor, T V; STolz, C J

    2011-02-11

    Growing laser damage sites on multilayer high reflector coatings can limit mirror performance. One of the strategies to improve laser damage resistance is to replace the growing damage sites with pre-designed benign mitigation structures. By mitigating the weakest site on the optic, the large aperture mirror will have a laser resistance comparable to the intrinsic value of the multilayer coating. To determine the optimal mitigation geometry, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) was used to quantify the electric-field intensification within the multilayer, at the presence of different conical pits. We find that the field intensification induced by the mitigation pit is strongly dependent on the polarization and the angle of incidence (AOI) of the incoming wave. Therefore the optimal mitigation conical pit geometry is application specific. Furthermore, our simulation also illustrates an alternative means to achieve an optimal mitigation structure by matching the cone angle of the structure with the AOI of the incoming wave, except for the p-polarization wave at a range of incident angles between 30{sup o} and 45{sup o}.

  1. Boron coating on boron nitride coated nuclear fuels by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmazuçar, Hasan H.; Gündüz, Güngör

    2000-12-01

    Uranium dioxide-only and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide (5% and 10%) ceramic nuclear fuel pellets which were already coated with boron nitride were coated with thin boron layer by chemical vapor deposition to increase the burn-up efficiency of the fuel during reactor operation. Coating was accomplished from the reaction of boron trichloride with hydrogen at 1250 K in a tube furnace, and then sintering at 1400 and 1525 K. The deposited boron was identified by infrared spectrum. The morphology of the coating was studied by using scanning electron microscope. The plate, grainy and string (fiber)-like boron structures were observed.

  2. Friction modifier using adherent metallic multilayered or mixed element layer conversion coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Frank G. (Inventor); Starks, Sr., Lloyd L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process for creating conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes for surfaces, wherein the conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes contain potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon, and one or more non-alkaline metals. The process comprises forming a first aqueous solution of silicate, potassium hydroxide, and ammonium hydroxide; forming a second aqueous solution of water, phosphoric acid, ammonium hydroxide, an alkali metal hydroxide, and one or more non-alkaline metals, and then combining the first solution with the second solution to form a final solution. This final solution forms an anti-friction multi-layer conversion coating or a spin, drawing, and extrusion finish on a surface when applied to the surface, either directly or as an additive in lubricating fluids.

  3. Friction Modifier Using Adherent Metallic Multilayered or Mixed Element Layer Conversion Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Starks, Lloyd L., Sr. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process for creating conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes for surfaces, wherein the conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes contain potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, and one or more non-alkaline metals and/or one or more metalloids. The process comprises forming an aqueous solution of water, phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide, an alkali metal hydroxide, and one or more non-alkaline metals and/or one or more metalloids. The aqueous solution forms an anti-friction multilayer conversion and/or mixed element coating or a spin, drawing, and extrusion finish on a surface when applied to the surface, either directly without the use of applied external electromotive force, or as an additive in lubricating fluids.

  4. PUA/PSS multilayer coated CaCO3 microparticles as smart drug delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; Shi, Jun; Shi, Jin; Zhang, Li; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid CaCO3 microparticles coated by sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and aliphatic poly(urethane-amine) (PUA) were developed as thermal-/pH-responsive drug delivery vehicles via LbL self-assembly technique. The DOX release from the CaCO3 microparticles was higher than 60% within 36 h, whereas the value of PUA/PSS-coated microparticles was only 20%. The results demonstrated that the PUA/PSS multilayer coating could reduce the drug release rate and significantly assuage the initial burst release of DOX. In addition, the drug release of the hybrid microparticles was found to be thermal-/pH-dual responsive. More interestingly, more than 90% of DOX was released in 36 h at pH2.1 and 55 °C owing to the combined action of the dissolution of the CaCO3 core and the shrinkage of aliphatic PUA. PMID:23910272

  5. Multilayer coatings of 10x projection for extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Folta, J A; Montcalm, C; Spiller, E; Wedowski, M

    1999-03-09

    Two new sets of projections optics for the prototype 10X reduction EUV lithography system were coated with Mo/Si multilayers. The coating thickness was graded across the optics by using shadow masks to ensure maximum throughput at all incidence angles in the camera. The overall deviation of the (normalized) wavelength response across the clear aperture of each mirror is below 0.01% RMS. However, the wavelength mismatch between two optics coated in different runs is up to 0.07 nm. Nevertheless, this is still within the allowed tolerances, and the predicted optical throughput loss in the camera due to such wavelength mismatch is about 4%. EUV reflectances of 63-65% were measured around 13.40 nm for the secondary optics, which is in good agreement with the expected reflectance based on the substrate finish as measured with AFM.

  6. PUA/PSS multilayer coated CaCO3 microparticles as smart drug delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; Shi, Jun; Shi, Jin; Zhang, Li; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid CaCO3 microparticles coated by sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and aliphatic poly(urethane-amine) (PUA) were developed as thermal-/pH-responsive drug delivery vehicles via LbL self-assembly technique. The DOX release from the CaCO3 microparticles was higher than 60% within 36 h, whereas the value of PUA/PSS-coated microparticles was only 20%. The results demonstrated that the PUA/PSS multilayer coating could reduce the drug release rate and significantly assuage the initial burst release of DOX. In addition, the drug release of the hybrid microparticles was found to be thermal-/pH-dual responsive. More interestingly, more than 90% of DOX was released in 36 h at pH2.1 and 55 °C owing to the combined action of the dissolution of the CaCO3 core and the shrinkage of aliphatic PUA.

  7. Biased deposition of nanocrystalline Be1-x Cux coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A

    2000-11-03

    Coatings of Be{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x} are prepared by magnetron sputter deposition onto spherical polymer mandrels. The application of an applied bias during deposition refines the columnar morphology of the coating and surface finish to the nanoscale. A mechanical testing technique is developed to load the thin-walled spherical capsules under uniaxial tension at constant strain to fracture. The bias-deposited material exhibits an increase in strength by a factor of three or more following a Hall-Petch type relationship with surface roughness.

  8. Method for depositing an oxide coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A metal oxide coating is plated onto a metal substrate at the cathode from an acid solution which contains an oxidizing agent. The process is particularly useful for producing solar panels. Conventional plating at the cathode avoids the presence of oxidizing agents. Coatings made in accordance with the invention are stable both at high temperatures and while under the influence of high photon flux in the visible range.

  9. Deposition of copper coatings in a magnetron with liquid target

    SciTech Connect

    Tumarkin, A. V. Kaziev, A. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Pisarev, A. A.; Kharkov, M. M.; Khodachenko, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    Copper coatings were deposited on monocrystalline Si substrates using a magnetron discharge with a liquid cathode in the metal vapour plasma. During the deposition, the bias voltage in the range from 0 V to–400 V was applied to the substrate. The prepared films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, and their adhesive properties were studied using a scratch tester. It was demonstrated that the adhesion of the deposited films strongly depends on the bias voltage and varies in a wide range.

  10. Crack Driving Forces in a Multilayered Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the top coating thickness, modulus and shrinkage strains on the crack driving forces for a baseline multilayer Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia/Mullite/Si thermal and environment barrier coating (TEBC) system for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates are determined for gas turbine applications. The crack driving forces increase with increasing modulus, and a low modulus thermal barrier coating material (below 10 GPa) will have no cracking issues under the thermal gradient condition analyzed. Since top coating sintering increases the crack driving forces with time, highly sintering resistant coatings are desirable to maintain a low tensile modulus and maintain a low crack driving force with time. Finite element results demonstrated that an advanced TEBC system, such as ZrO2/HfO2, which possesses improved sintering resistance and high temperature stability, exhibited excellent durability. A multi-vertical cracked structure with fine columnar spacing is an ideal strain tolerant coating capable of reducing the crack driving forces to an acceptable level even with a high modulus of 50 GPa.

  11. Deformation sensor based on polymer-supported discontinuous graphene multi-layer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, G.; Schiavo, L.; Romeo, V.; Nicolais, L.

    2014-05-01

    Graphene can be conveniently used in the modification of polymer surfaces. Graphene macromolecules are perfectly transparent to the visible light and electrically conductive, consequently these two properties can be simultaneously provided to polymeric substrates by surface coating with thin graphene layers. In addition, such coating process provides the substrates of: water-repellence, higher surface hardness, low-friction, self-lubrication, gas-barrier properties, and many other functionalities. Polyolefins have a non-polar nature and therefore graphene strongly sticks on their surface. Nano-crystalline graphite can be used as graphene precursor in some chemical processes (e.g., graphite oxide synthesis by the Hummer method), in addition it can be directly applied to the surface of a polyolefin substrate (e.g., polyethylene) to cover it by a thin graphene multilayer. In particular, the nano-crystalline graphite perfectly exfoliate under the application of a combination of shear and friction forces and the produced graphene single-layers perfectly spread and adhere on the polyethylene substrate surface. Such polymeric materials can be used as ITO (indium-tin oxide) substitute and in the fabrication of different electronic devices. Here the fabrication of transparent resistive deformation sensors based on low-density polyethylene films coated by graphene multilayers is described. Such devices are very sensible and show a high reversible and reproducible behavior.

  12. Deformation sensor based on polymer-supported discontinuous graphene multi-layer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Carotenuto, G.; Schiavo, L.; Romeo, V.; Nicolais, L.

    2014-05-15

    Graphene can be conveniently used in the modification of polymer surfaces. Graphene macromolecules are perfectly transparent to the visible light and electrically conductive, consequently these two properties can be simultaneously provided to polymeric substrates by surface coating with thin graphene layers. In addition, such coating process provides the substrates of: water-repellence, higher surface hardness, low-friction, self-lubrication, gas-barrier properties, and many other functionalities. Polyolefins have a non-polar nature and therefore graphene strongly sticks on their surface. Nano-crystalline graphite can be used as graphene precursor in some chemical processes (e.g., graphite oxide synthesis by the Hummer method), in addition it can be directly applied to the surface of a polyolefin substrate (e.g., polyethylene) to cover it by a thin graphene multilayer. In particular, the nano-crystalline graphite perfectly exfoliate under the application of a combination of shear and friction forces and the produced graphene single-layers perfectly spread and adhere on the polyethylene substrate surface. Such polymeric materials can be used as ITO (indium-tin oxide) substitute and in the fabrication of different electronic devices. Here the fabrication of transparent resistive deformation sensors based on low-density polyethylene films coated by graphene multilayers is described. Such devices are very sensible and show a high reversible and reproducible behavior.

  13. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOEpatents

    Flynn, Paul L.; Giammarise, Anthony W.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  14. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOEpatents

    Flynn, Paul L.; Giammarise, Anthony W.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  15. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOEpatents

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1991-10-29

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

  16. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOEpatents

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1995-02-21

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

  17. Gold coating of micromechanical DNA biosensors by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollar, Esther; Sanz, Mikel; Esteves, Carina; Martínez, Nicolás F.; Ahumada, Óscar; Castillejo, Marta

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we describe the gold-coating of silicon microcantilever sensors by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and their performance as DNA biosensors. To test optimum deposition conditions for coating the sensors, silicon substrates were gold coated by PLD using the fifth harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (213 nm, pulse duration 15 ns). The gold deposits were characterized by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The adequate conditions were selected for coating the sensors with a 20 nm thick gold layer and subsequently functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer of thiolated DNA. To verify PLD as a tool for gold coating of biomechanical sensors, they were characterized by using a scanning laser analyzer platform. Characterization consisted in the measurement of the differential stress of the cantilevers upon hydration forces before and after functionalization with a double-stranded DNA monolayer. The measurements showed that the sensor surface stress induced by the adsorption of water molecules is approximately seven times higher than that of functionalized sensors gold coated by thermal evaporation. These results indicate that gold coating by PLD could be an advantageous method to enhance the response of biomechanical sensors based on gold-thiol chemistry.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangfei; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Shengmin

    2014-06-01

    Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by the co-precipitation method were used to coat stainless steel plates by electrophoretic deposition in n-butanol with triethanolamine as a dispersant. The effect of zinc concentration in the synthesis on the morphology and microstructure of coatings was investigated. It is found that the deposition current densities significantly increase with the increasing zinc concentration. The zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is inferred that hydroxyapatite and triethanolamine predominate in the chemical composition of coatings. With the increasing Zn/Ca ratios, the contents of triethanolamine decrease in the final products. The triethanolamine can be burnt out by heat treatment. The tests of adhesive strength have confirmed good adhesion between the coatings and substrates. The formation of new apatite layer on the coatings has been observed after 7days of immersion in a simulated body fluid. In summary, the results show that dense, uniform zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings are obtained by electrophoretic deposition when the Zn/Ca ratio reaches 5%.

  19. REACTIVE SPUTTER DEPOSITION OF CHROMIUM NITRIDE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of substrate temperature and sputtering gas compositon on the structure and properties of chromium-chromium nitride films deposited on C-1040 steel using r.f. magnetron sputter deposition was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the structure ...

  20. Tunable thick porous silica coating fabricated by multilayer-by-multilayer bonding of silica nanoparticles for open-tubular capillary chromatographic separation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qishu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Wenjun; Yan, Chao; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2015-06-19

    A simple coating procedure employing a multilayer-by-multilayer process to modify the inner surface of bare fused-silica capillaries with silica nanoparticles was established. The silica nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the capillary wall via a strong electrostatic interaction between amino functional groups and silica particles. The thickness of the coating could be tuned from 130 to 600 nm by increasing the coating cycles from one to three. Both the retention factor and the resolution were greatly increased with increasing coating cycles. The loading capacity determined by naphthalene in the column with three coating cycles is 152.1 pmol. The effects of buffer concentration and pH value on the stability of the coating were evaluated. The retention reproducibility of the separation of toluene was 0.8, 1.2, 2.3, and 4.5%, respectively, for run-to-run, day-to-day, column-to-column, and batch-to-batch, respectively. The chromatographic performance of these columns was evaluated by both capillary liquid chromatography and open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). Separation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the column with three coating cycles provided high theoretical plate numbers (up to 269,280 plates m(-1) for toluene) and short separation time (<15 min) by using OT-CEC mode. The method was also used to separate egg white proteins. Both acidic and basic proteins as well as four glycoisoforms were separated in a single run.

  1. Tunable thick porous silica coating fabricated by multilayer-by-multilayer bonding of silica nanoparticles for open-tubular capillary chromatographic separation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qishu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Wenjun; Yan, Chao; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2015-06-19

    A simple coating procedure employing a multilayer-by-multilayer process to modify the inner surface of bare fused-silica capillaries with silica nanoparticles was established. The silica nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the capillary wall via a strong electrostatic interaction between amino functional groups and silica particles. The thickness of the coating could be tuned from 130 to 600 nm by increasing the coating cycles from one to three. Both the retention factor and the resolution were greatly increased with increasing coating cycles. The loading capacity determined by naphthalene in the column with three coating cycles is 152.1 pmol. The effects of buffer concentration and pH value on the stability of the coating were evaluated. The retention reproducibility of the separation of toluene was 0.8, 1.2, 2.3, and 4.5%, respectively, for run-to-run, day-to-day, column-to-column, and batch-to-batch, respectively. The chromatographic performance of these columns was evaluated by both capillary liquid chromatography and open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). Separation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the column with three coating cycles provided high theoretical plate numbers (up to 269,280 plates m(-1) for toluene) and short separation time (<15 min) by using OT-CEC mode. The method was also used to separate egg white proteins. Both acidic and basic proteins as well as four glycoisoforms were separated in a single run. PMID:25952665

  2. Possibilities of structural engineering in multilayer vacuum-arc ZrN/CrN coatings by varying the nanolayer thickness and application of a bias potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol', O. V.; Andreev, A. A.; Gorban', V. F.; Stolbovoy, V. A.; Melekhov, A. A.; Postelnyk, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of attaining an superhard state in multilayer vacuum-arc ZrN/CrN coatings with a layer thickness of about 20 nm has been established. It has been shown that the application of a constant negative potential for structural engineering during deposition leads to the formation of solid solutions due to mixing of interfaces. The hardness of these systems exceeds 30 GPa. The application of a pulsed high-voltage bias potential at which the ordering of atoms stimulated by elevated mobility is observed makes it possible to suppress the mixing of the interfaces and to attain elevated hardness (up to 42 GPa) for nanometer layer thicknesses.

  3. Bioactive coatings based on polyelectrolyte multilayer architectures functionalized by embedded proteins, peptides or drugs.

    PubMed

    Leguen, Erell; Chassepot, Armelle; Decher, Gero; Schaaf, Pierre; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Jessel, Nadia

    2007-02-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been devoted to the design and controlled fabrication of structured materials with functional properties. The layer by layer buildup of polyelectrolyte multilayer films (PEM films) from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes offers new opportunities for the preparation of functionalized biomaterial coatings. This technique allows the preparation of supramolecular nano-architectures exhibiting specific properties in terms of control of cell activation and may also play a role in the development of local drug delivery systems. Peptides, proteins, chemically bound to polyelectrolytes, adsorbed or embedded in PEM films, have been shown to retain their biological activities.

  4. Fabrication of multilayer TiO{sub 2} thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells with high conversion efficiency by electrophoresis deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho; Chen, Wei-An; Su, Hung-Ting; Chen, Sih-Li; David Huang, K.; Chien, Shu-Hua; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2010-01-15

    This research coats a commercial TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle Degussa P25 with good roundness and size uniformity on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate and to be photoelectrical electrode by electrophoresis deposition. It combined with dye N719, electrolyte I{sup -}/ I{sub 3}{sup -} and counter-electrode of Pt layer to produce dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Through the electrophoretic technique, a multilayer film of an appropriate thickness is deposited in the suspension containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and isopropanol. In this process, electric current, voltage, and the number of deposition cycles are well controlled to obtain a single TiO{sub 2} film of around 3.3 {mu}m thick. Stacking is then performed to obtain a multilayer-typed TiO{sub 2} film of around 12 {mu}m thick. As the sintering temperature reaches 400 C, the prepared multilayer TiO{sub 2} film with a good compactness can increase the dye adsorption capability of the thin film and enhance its adsorption percentage. In addition, the heat treatment will transfer a portion of the rutile crystalline into the anatase crystalline, resulting in better material properties for DSSCs application. DSSCs produced are exposed to metal halide lamp and their energy conversion efficiency is measured. The I-V curve of the produced DSSCs shows that it has an excellent energy conversion efficiency of 6.9%. (author)

  5. Influence of ion-assisted deposition on laser-induced damage threshold and microstructure of optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abromavicius, G.; Buzelis, R.; Drazdys, R.; Grigonis, R.; Melninkaitis, A.; Miksys, D.; Rakickas, T.; Sirutkaitis, V.; Skrebutenas, A.; Juskenas, R.; Selskis, A.

    2005-12-01

    High density, improved adhesion and environmental stability are the main features of dielectric optical coatings produced using ion-assisted deposition (IAD) technology. However, investigations of resistance of IAD coatings to intensive laser radiation show controversial results. A series of experiments were done to examine the influence of ion gun operation on the transmittance of fused silica substrates. It was shown that operation of ion source introduced extinction in UV spectral range. Optical properties of single hafnia layers and multilayer dielectric mirrors deposited using conventional e-beam evaporation and different modes of IAD were investigated. Microstructural analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and AFM scanning of coated areas was carried out. Single hafnia layers deposited using high energy ion assistance had more amorphous structure with smaller crystallites of monoclinic phase. High reflection UV mirrors deposited using high energy ion assistance had slightly higher mean refractive indices of hafnia, higher extinction than conventional e-beam deposition, but demonstrated slightly higher laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) values measured at 355 nm. Deposition using the lowest energy ions produced the most porous coatings with the best LIDT of 7.7 J/cm2.

  6. The deposition of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Adrian R; Rutledge, L; Randolph, L D; Mutreja, I; Meenan, B J

    2015-02-01

    Strontium substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) coatings have received a lot of interest recently as strontium (Sr) has been shown to have the dual benefit of promoting bone formation and reducing bone resorption, in vivo. In this work, SrHA coatings were deposited onto polycrystalline titanium surfaces using radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering and compared to those deposited from HA alone. In particular, the influence of different levels of Sr-substitution of the sputtering targets (5 and 13% Sr-substituted HA targets) on the properties of the deposited coatings produced at a low discharge power level (150 W) were investigated using FTIR, XPS, XRD, ToFSIMS and AFM techniques (both before and after annealing at 500 °C). The results show that Sr could be successfully incorporated into the HA lattice to form SrHA coatings and that they contained no other impurities. However, the coating produced from the 13% Sr-substituted target had a higher Ca+Sr/P ratio (1.95±0.14) and Sr content when compared to the coating produced from the 5% Sr-substituted target (1.58±0.20). The deposition rate also decreased with increasing Sr content of the sputtering targets. Furthermore, as the Sr content of the coatings increased, so did the preferred 002 orientation of the coating along with increased surface roughness and heterogeneity of the surface features. Therefore, this study has shown that RF magnetron sputtering offers a means to control attendant properties of Sr-substituted HA, such as the crystallinity, stoichiometry, phase purity and surface topography.

  7. The deposition of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Adrian R; Rutledge, L; Randolph, L D; Mutreja, I; Meenan, B J

    2015-02-01

    Strontium substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) coatings have received a lot of interest recently as strontium (Sr) has been shown to have the dual benefit of promoting bone formation and reducing bone resorption, in vivo. In this work, SrHA coatings were deposited onto polycrystalline titanium surfaces using radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering and compared to those deposited from HA alone. In particular, the influence of different levels of Sr-substitution of the sputtering targets (5 and 13% Sr-substituted HA targets) on the properties of the deposited coatings produced at a low discharge power level (150 W) were investigated using FTIR, XPS, XRD, ToFSIMS and AFM techniques (both before and after annealing at 500 °C). The results show that Sr could be successfully incorporated into the HA lattice to form SrHA coatings and that they contained no other impurities. However, the coating produced from the 13% Sr-substituted target had a higher Ca+Sr/P ratio (1.95±0.14) and Sr content when compared to the coating produced from the 5% Sr-substituted target (1.58±0.20). The deposition rate also decreased with increasing Sr content of the sputtering targets. Furthermore, as the Sr content of the coatings increased, so did the preferred 002 orientation of the coating along with increased surface roughness and heterogeneity of the surface features. Therefore, this study has shown that RF magnetron sputtering offers a means to control attendant properties of Sr-substituted HA, such as the crystallinity, stoichiometry, phase purity and surface topography. PMID:25631262

  8. A Corrected Formulation of the Multilayer Model (MLM) for Inferring Gaseous Dry Deposition to Vegetated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saylor, Rick D.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Meyers, Tilden P.; Hicks, Bruce B.

    2014-01-01

    The Multilayer Model (MLM) has been used for many years to infer dry deposition fluxes from measured trace species concentrations and standard meteorological measurements for national networks in the U.S., including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). MLM utilizes a resistance analogy to calculate deposition velocities appropriate for whole vegetative canopies, while employing a multilayer integration to account for vertically varying meteorology, canopy morphology and radiative transfer within the canopy. However, the MLM formulation, as it was originally presented and as it has been subsequently employed, contains a non-physical representation related to the leaf-level quasi-laminar boundary layer resistance that affects the calculation of the total canopy resistance. In this note, the non-physical representation of the canopy resistance as originally formulated in MLM is discussed and a revised, physically consistent, formulation is suggested as a replacement. The revised canopy resistance formulation reduces estimates of HNO3 deposition velocities by as much as 38% during mid-day as compared to values generated by the original formulation. Inferred deposition velocities for SO2 and O3 are not significantly altered by the change in formulation (less than 3%). Inferred deposition loadings of oxidized and total nitrogen from CASTNet data may be reduced by 10-20% and 5-10%, respectively, for the Eastern U. S. when employing the revised formulation of MLM as compared to the original formulation.

  9. Electrophoretic Deposition Applied to Thick Metal-Ceramic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Windes, William Enoch; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Reimanis, Ivar E.

    2002-08-01

    Electrophoretic deposition was used to fabricate thick (4 mm) metal–ceramic deposits from a non-aqueous slurry of nickel and alumina particles. A high solid volume in the slurry was identified as the primary parameter for depositing thick cermet coatings rather than the applied electric potential or ionic additive concentration. Ionic additives (MgCl2, AlCl3, etc.) were found to adequately suspend the alumina particles and provide rapid deposition rates. The nickel particles proved to be more difficult to suspend in solution, thereby sacrificing control of the deposition composition. The use of small (3.0 µm) particles and continuously pumping the slurry alleviated the suspension problems but small electric potentials (100 V/cm) were required to avoid the formation of rough, columnar deposits on the depositing electrode.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Pang Xin; Zhitomirsky, Igor . E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca

    2007-04-15

    Cathodic electrophoretic deposition has been utilized for the fabrication of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings on 316L stainless steel substrates. The addition of chitosan to the hydroxyapatite suspensions promoted the electrophoretic deposition of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and resulted in the formation of composite coatings. The obtained coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was shown that the deposit composition can be changed by a variation of the chitosan or hydroxyapatite concentration in the solutions. Experimental conditions were developed for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposites containing 40.9-89.8 wt.% hydroxyapatite. The method enabled the formation of adherent and uniform coatings of thicknesses up to 60 {mu}m. X-ray studies revealed that the preferred orientation of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the chitosan matrix increases with decreasing hydroxyapatite content in the composite coatings. The obtained coatings provided the corrosion protection for the 316L stainless steel substrates00.

  11. Development of High Resolution Hard X-Ray Telescope with Multilayer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor); Gorenstein, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The major objective of this program is the development of a focusing hard X-ray telescope with moderately high angular resolution, i .e. comparable to the telescopes of XMM-Newton. The key ingredients of the telescope are a depth graded multilayer coatings and electroformed nickel substrates that are considerably lighter weight than those of previous missions such as XMM-Newton, which have had conventional single metal layer reflective coatings and have operated at much lower energy X-rays. The ultimate target mission for this technology is the Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) of the Constellation X-Ray Mission. However, it is applicable to potential SMEX and MIDEX programs as well.

  12. Multifunctional cantilever-free scanning probe arrays coated with multilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Wooyoung; Brown, Keith A.; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Rasin, Boris; Liao, Xing; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning probe instruments have expanded beyond their traditional role as imaging or “reading” tools and are now routinely used for “writing.” Although a variety of scanning probe lithography techniques are available, each one imposes different requirements on the types of probes that must be used. Additionally, throughput is a major concern for serial writing techniques, so for a scanning probe lithography technique to become widely applied, there needs to be a reasonable path toward a scalable architecture. Here, we use a multilayer graphene coating method to create multifunctional massively parallel probe arrays that have wear-resistant tips of uncompromised sharpness and high electrical and thermal conductivities. The optical transparency and mechanical flexibility of graphene allow this procedure to be used for coating exceptionally large, cantilever-free arrays that can pattern with electrochemical desorption and thermal, in addition to conventional, dip-pen nanolithography. PMID:23086161

  13. Analysis of microstructure and properties of multilayer coatings produced by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovskiy, D. P.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Polskiy, V. I.; Yermachenko, V. M.

    2016-02-01

    Purpose of the work is to prepare multilayer coatings corresponding to specified requirements to recovery and improvement of surface details. Requirements to coatings: providing durable and reliable adhesion base and filler materials, absence of pores, cracks, delaminations, reducing mixing metal base and cladding. We used iron-based PR-10R6M5 and tungsten carbide Hoganas 44712 powders. Experimental determination of the optimal technological mode of application of the single track, the coefficient of overlapping tracks to create a full layer, the angle of the second cladding layer, relative to the first one and, finally, the determination of the optimal additive tungsten carbide to achieve increased durability were produced to fulfill these requirements.

  14. Layer-by-layer deposited organic/inorganic hybrid multilayer films containing noncentrosymmetrically orientated azobenzene chromophores.

    PubMed

    Kang, En-Hua; Bu, Tianjia; Jin, Pengcheng; Sun, Junqi; Yang, Yanqiang; Shen, Jiacong

    2007-07-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid multilayer films with noncentrosymmetrically orientated azobenzene chromophores were fabricated by the sequential deposition of ZrO2 layers by a surface sol-gel process and subsequent layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of the nonlinear optical (NLO)-active azobenzene-containing polyanion PAC-azoBNS and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). Noncentrosymmetric orientation of the NLO-active azobenzene chromophores was achieved because of the strong repulsion between the negatively charged ZrO(2) and the sulfonate groups of the azobenzene chromophore in PAC-azoBNS. Regular deposition of ZrO(2)/PAC-azoBNS/PDDA multilayer films was verified by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance measurements. Both UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements confirmed the noncentrosymmetric orientation of the azobenzene chromophores in the as-prepared ZrO2/PAC-azoBNS/PDDA multilayer films. The square root of the SHG signal (I(2omega)(1/2)) increases with the increase of the azobenzene graft ratio in PAC-azoBNS as the number of deposition cycles of the ZrO(2)/PAC-azoBNS/PDDA films remains the same, while the second-order susceptibility chi(zzz)(2) of the film decreases with the increase of the azobenzene graft ratio. Furthermore, the present method was successfully extended to realize the noncentrosymmetric orientation of azobenzene chromophores in multilayer films when small organic azobenzene compounds with carboxylic acid and/or hydroxyl groups at one end and sulfonate groups at the other end were used. The present method was characterized by its simplicity and flexibility in film preparation, and it is anticipated to be a facile way to fabricate second-order nonlinear optical film materials. PMID:17555337

  15. Osteogenic Responses to Zirconia with Hydroxyapatite Coating by Aerosol Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Y.; Hong, J.; Ryoo, H.; Kim, D.; Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we found that osteogenic responses to zirconia co-doped with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) or tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) are comparable with responses to titanium, which is widely used as a dental implant material. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated zirconia by an aerosol deposition method for improved osseointegration. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction proved that a thin as-deposited HA film on zirconia showed a shallow, regular, crater-like surface. Deposition of dense and uniform HA films was measured by SEM, and the contact angle test demonstrated improved wettability of the HA-coated surface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast attachment did not differ notably between the titanium and zirconia surfaces; however, cells on the HA-coated zirconia exhibited a lower proliferation than those on the uncoated zirconia late in the culture. Nevertheless, ALP, alizarin red S staining, and bone marker gene expression analysis indicated good osteogenic responses on HA-coated zirconia. Our results suggest that HA-coating by aerosol deposition improves the quality of surface modification and is favorable to osteogenesis. PMID:25586588

  16. Osteogenic responses to zirconia with hydroxyapatite coating by aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y; Hong, J; Ryoo, H; Kim, D; Park, J; Han, J

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we found that osteogenic responses to zirconia co-doped with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) or tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) are comparable with responses to titanium, which is widely used as a dental implant material. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated zirconia by an aerosol deposition method for improved osseointegration. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction proved that a thin as-deposited HA film on zirconia showed a shallow, regular, crater-like surface. Deposition of dense and uniform HA films was measured by SEM, and the contact angle test demonstrated improved wettability of the HA-coated surface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast attachment did not differ notably between the titanium and zirconia surfaces; however, cells on the HA-coated zirconia exhibited a lower proliferation than those on the uncoated zirconia late in the culture. Nevertheless, ALP, alizarin red S staining, and bone marker gene expression analysis indicated good osteogenic responses on HA-coated zirconia. Our results suggest that HA-coating by aerosol deposition improves the quality of surface modification and is favorable to osteogenesis. PMID:25586588

  17. Hard carbon coatings deposited by pulsed high current magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskomov, K. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Rabotkin, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Hard (up to 17 GPa) carbon coatings are deposited onto face SiC bearings used in liquid pumps by pulsed high-current magnetron sputtering of graphite. As a result, the friction coefficient is decreased from 0.43 to 0.11 and the wear rate is decreased from 26 to 0.307 μm3 N-1 m-1, which increases the service life of the bearings by approximately three times. The deposited carbon coatings have a high hardness and wear resistance due to the generation of high-density (up to 1013 cm-3) plasma.

  18. Deposition Technique For Chemical Free Black Coatings On Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, J. G.; Cobbe, N.; O'Donoghue, J.; Pambaguian, L.; Norman, A.; Liedtke, V.; McCaul, T.

    2012-07-01

    Coatings having specific thermo-optical properties are necessary to manage the temperature equilibrium in space hardware. Incumbent black body coatings have a need to extend their operating temperature as well as increase the range of substrate materials that can be coated; in addition, issues relating to outgassing can limit the application of black body coatings. In this paper a relatively new coating technology, CoBlast, is used to deposit material on to titanium substrates, to produce a black body surface; SolarBlack. CoBlast, replaces the oxide layer of reactive metals with a fused thin surface. The process is uniquely non-complex, requiring no thermal input, no wet chemistry and is performed in an ambient temperature and pressure environment. Thermo optical and micro-structure analysis of SolarBlack was completed and the characterisation results including thermo cycling, up to 700°C, are discussed.

  19. High rate sputter deposition of wear resistant tantalum coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, D.W.; Merz, M.D.; McClanahan, E.D.

    1991-11-01

    The refractory nature and high ductility of body centered cubic (bcc) phase tantalum makes it a suitable material for corrosion- and wear-resistant coatings on surfaces which are subjected to high stresses and harsh chemical and erosive environments. Sputter deposition can produce thick tantalum films but is prone to forming the brittle tetragonal beta phase of this material. Efforts aimed at forming thick bcc phase tantalum coatings in both flat plate and cylindrical geometries by high-rate triode sputtering methods are discussed. In addition to substrate temperature, the bcc-to-beta phase ratio in sputtered tantalum coatings is shown to be sensitive to other substrate surface effects.

  20. The friction coefficient evolution of a MoS2/WC multi-layer coating system during sliding wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. Y.; Hu, Y.; Gharbi, Mohammad M.; Politis, D. J.; Wang, L.

    2016-08-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of friction coefficient for the multi-layered Molybdenum Disulphide (MoS2) and WC coated substrate during sliding against Aluminium AA 6082 material. A soft MoS2 coating was prepared over a hard WC coated G3500 cast iron tool substrate and underwent friction test using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The lifetime of the coating was reduced with increasing load while the Aluminium debris accumulated on the WC hard coating surfaces, accelerated the breakdown of the coatings. The lifetime of the coating was represented by the friction coefficient and the sliding distance before MoS2 coating breakdown and was found to be affected by the load applied and the wear mechanism.

  1. Formation of (Ti,Al)N/Ti{sub 2}AlN multilayers after annealing of TiN/TiAl(N) multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Dolique, V.; Jaouen, M.; Cabioc'h, T.; Pailloux, F.; Guerin, Ph.; Pelosin, V.

    2008-04-15

    By using ion beam sputtering, TiN/TiAl(N) multilayers of various modulation wavelengths ({lambda}=8, 13, and 32 nm) were deposited onto silicon substrates at room temperature. After annealing at 600 deg. C in vacuum, one obtains for {lambda}=13 nm a (Ti,Al)N/Ti{sub 2}AlN multilayer as it is evidenced from x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy filtered electron imaging experiments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments show that the as-deposited TiAl sublayers contain a noticeable amount of nitrogen atoms which mean concentration varies with the period {lambda}. They also evidenced the diffusion of aluminum into TiN sublayers after annealing. Deduced from these observations, we propose a model to explain why this solid-state phase transformation depends on the period {lambda} of the multilayer.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition coatings for oxidation protection of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Robinson, J. C.; Clark, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the oxidation protection afforded to Ti-14Al-21Nb and Ti-14Al-23Nb-2V titanium aluminides and Ti-17Mo-3Al-3Nb titanium alloy by aluminum-boron-silicon and boron-silicon coatings are presented. These coatings are applied by a combination of physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The former is for the application of aluminum, and the latter is for codeposition of boron and silicon. Coating thickness is in the range of 2 to 7 microns, and coating weights are 0.6 to 2.0 mg/sq cm. Oxidation testing was performed in air at temperatures to 1255 K in both static and hypersonic flow environments. The degree of oxidation protection provided by the coatings is determined from weight change measurements made during the testing and post test compositional analyses. Temperature-dependent total normal emittance data are also presented for four coating/substrate combinations. Both types of coatings provided excellent oxidation protection for the exposure conditions of this investigation. Total normal emittances were greater than 0.80 in all cases.

  3. Plasma deposited stability enhancement coating for amorphous ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Bosselmann, Stephanie; Owens, Donald E; Kennedy, Rachel L; Herpin, Matthew J; Williams, Robert O

    2011-05-01

    A hydrophobic fluorocarbon coating deposited onto amorphous ketoprofen via pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) significantly prolonged the onset of recrystallization compared to uncoated drug. Rapid freezing (RF) employed to produce amorphous ketoprofen was followed by PPECVD of perfluorohexane. The effect of coating thickness on the recrystallization and dissolution behavior of ketoprofen was investigated. Samples were stored in open containers at 40°C and 75% relative humidity, and the onset of recrystallization was monitored by DSC. An increase in coating thickness provided enhanced stability against recrystallization for up to 6 months at accelerated storage conditions (longest time of observation) when compared to three days for uncoated ketoprofen. Results from XPS analysis demonstrated that an increase in coating thickness was associated with improved surface coverage thus enabling superior protection. Dissolution testing showed that at least 80% of ketoprofen was released in buffer pH 6.8 from all coated samples. Overall, an increase in coating thickness resulted in a more complete drug release due to decreased adhesion of the coating to the substrate.

  4. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ozer, N.; Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    Electrochromic devices have increasing application in display devices, switchable mirrors and smart windows. A variety of vacuum deposition technologies have been used to make electrochromic devices. The sol- gel process offers an alternative approach to the synthesis of optical quality and low cost electrochromic device layers. This study summarizes the developments in sol-gel deposited electrochromic films. The sol-gel process involves the formation of oxide networks upon hydrolysis-condensation of alkoxide precursors. In this study we cover the sol-gel deposited oxides of WO[sub 3], V[sub 2]O[sub 5], TiO[sub 2], Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5], and NiO[sub x].

  5. Colored hard coatings with AlN–TiN multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Lu, Jong Ying Chen, Bo

    2014-03-15

    AlN–TiN multilayer structures can be used to extend the color gamut of hard coatings while maintaining good hardness and corrosion resistance. This study used reactive magnetron sputtering on a glass substrate to produce coatings with a microhardness of 19 GPa as well as optical reflectance exceeding 80% and controllable saturation (chroma) for various hues of red, yellow, green, blue, and purple. The authors characterized the complex index of refraction of the TiN films using ellipsometry; the real refractive indices of the AlN films were derived from the reflectance values obtained using photometry. Finally, the colors of the samples were quantified using CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates in the L*a*b* color space, and the microhardness of the films was measured using a nanoindenter. Simulation results using a multiple-beam-interference recursive method presented good consistency with experimental measurements with regard to the optical reflective spectra of AlN–TiN multilayer thin film samples.

  6. The mechanical robustness of atomic-layer- and molecular-layer-deposited coatings on polymer substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Foster, Ross R.; Zhang, Yadong; Jen, Shih-Hui; Bertrand, Jacob A.; Lu, Zhixing; Seghete, Dragos; O'Patchen, Jennifer L.; Yang, Ronggui; Lee, Yung-Cheng; George, Steven M.; Dunn, Martin L.

    2009-05-01

    The mechanical robustness of atomic layer deposited alumina and recently developed molecular layer deposited aluminum alkoxide ("alucone") films, as well as laminated composite films composed of both materials, was characterized using mechanical tensile tests along with a recently developed fluorescent tag to visualize channel cracks in the transparent films. All coatings were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate substrates and demonstrated a similar evolution of damage morphology according to applied strain, including channel crack initiation, crack propagation at the critical strain, crack densification up to saturation, and transverse crack formation associated with buckling and delamination. From measurements of crack density versus applied tensile strain coupled with a fracture mechanics model, the mode I fracture toughness of alumina and alucone films was determined to be KIC=1.89±0.10 and 0.17±0.02 MPa m0.5, respectively. From measurements of the saturated crack density, the critical interfacial shear stress was estimated to be τc=39.5±8.3 and 66.6±6.1 MPa, respectively. The toughness of nanometer-scale alumina was comparable to that of alumina thin films grown using other techniques, whereas alucone was quite brittle. The use of alucone as a spacer layer between alumina films was not found to increase the critical strain at fracture for the composite films. This performance is attributed to the low toughness of alucone. The experimental results were supported by companion simulations using fracture mechanics formalism for multilayer films. To aid future development, the modeling method was used to study the increase in the toughness and elastic modulus of the spacer layer required to render improved critical strain at fracture. These results may be applied to a broad variety of multilayer material systems composed of ceramic and spacer layers to yield robust coatings for use in chemical barrier and other applications.

  7. Nanoindentation and finite element modelling of chitosan-alginate multilayer coated hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Sherstova, Tatyana; Stokke, Bjørn Torger; Skallerud, Bjørn; Maurstad, Gjertrud; Prot, Victorien Emile

    2016-09-21

    Composite soft materials are used as compounds for determining the effects of mechanical cues on cell behavior and cell encapsulation and for controlling drug release. The appropriate composite soft materials are conventionally prepared by selective deposition of polymers at the surface of an ionic hydrogel. In the present study we address the impact of a mechanically stratified two-layer structure of these materials on their overall mechanical characterization by applying a combination of nanoindentation, confocal microscopy and finite element modelling. We prepare covalent cross-linked hydrogels based on acrylamide (AAM) and including an anionic group, and impregnate them using a multilayer deposition strategy of alternating exposure to cationic chitosan and anionic alginate. The thickness of the chitosan-alginate layer on the hydrogels was determined to be 0.4 ± 0.05 μm for 4 bilayers, and 0.7 ± 0.1 μm for the 8 bilayer deposition procedure employing a fluorescently labelled chitosan and confocal microscopy. The force-indentation data for the AAM gels were highly reproducible, whereas 77% and 50% of the force-indentation data were reproducible following the 4 and 8 bilayer deposition. The main trends in the reproducible force-distance data were found to yield an apparent increased Young's modulus after the deposition. Finite element modelling showed that adaption of a homogeneous Young's modulus for the specimens with deposited layers yields approximately three times too low stiffness compared to the estimate of the mechanical properties of the outer part in the two-layered mechanical model. The thickness of the multilayer region determined by confocal microscopy was used in the model. This study shows that the mechanical layered property needs to be included in the interpretation of the nanoindentation data when there is a significant mechanical contrast.

  8. AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN multilayer coatings: Effects of structure and surface composition on tribological behavior under dry and lubricated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Cartasegna, Federico; Priarone, Paolo C.; Settineri, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Nanocomposite coatings have been widely studied over the last years because of their high potential in several applications. The increased interest for these coatings prompted the authors to study the tribological properties of two nanocomposites under dry and lubricated conditions (applying typical MQL media), in order to assess the influence of the surface and bulk properties on friction evolution. To this purpose, multilayer and nanocomposite AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN coatings were deposited onto tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) samples. Uncoated WC-Co materials were used as reference. Coatings were analyzed in terms of hardness and adhesion. The structure of the samples was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the surface composition was studied by XPS analysis. Friction tests were carried out under both dry and lubricated conditions using an inox ball as counterpart. Both coatings showed high hardness and good adhesion to the substrate. As far as the friction properties are concerned, in dry conditions the surface properties affect the sliding contact at the early beginning, while bulk structure and tribolayer formation determine the main behavior. Only AlSiTiN coating shows a low and stable coefficient of friction (COF) under dry condition, while the use of MQL media results in a rapid stabilization of the COF for all the materials.

  9. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials. PMID:23218240

  10. AC electrophoretic deposition of organic-inorganic composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Chávez-Valdez, A; Roether, J A; Schubert, D W; Boccaccini, A R

    2013-02-15

    Alternating current electrophoretic deposition (AC-EPD) of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticle composites on stainless steel electrodes was investigated in basic aqueous solution. AC square wave with duty cycle of 80% was applied at a frequency of 1 kHz. FTIR-ATR spectra showed that both AC and direct current (DC) EPD successfully deposited PAA-TiO(2) composites. The deposition rate using AC-EPD was lower than that obtained in direct current DC-EPD. However, the microstructure and surface morphology of the deposited composite coatings were different depending on the type of electric field applied. AC-EPD applied for not more than 5 min led to smooth films without bubble formation, while DC-EPD for 1 min or more showed deposits with microstructural defects possibly as result of water electrolysis. AC-EPD was thus for the first time demonstrated to be a suitable technique to deposit organic-inorganic composite coatings from aqueous suspensions, showing that applying a square wave and frequency of 1 kHz leads to uniform PAA-TiO(2) composite coatings on conductive materials.

  11. Release of plasmid DNA from intravascular stents coated with ultrathin multilayered polyelectrolyte films.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Christopher M; Zhang, Jingtao; Fredin, Nathaniel J; Wolff, Matthew R; Hacker, Timothy A; Lynn, David M

    2006-09-01

    Materials that permit control over the release of DNA from the surfaces of topologically complex implantable devices, such as intravascular stents, could contribute to the development of new approaches to the localized delivery of DNA. We report the fabrication of ultrathin, multilayered polyelectrolyte films that permit both the immobilization and controlled release of plasmid DNA from the surfaces of stainless steel intravascular stents. Our approach makes use of an aqueous-based, layer-by-layer method for the assembly of nanostructured thin films consisting of alternating layers of plasmid DNA and a hydrolytically degradable polyamine. Characterization of coated stents using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that stents were coated uniformly with an ultrathin film ca. 120 nm thick that adhered conformally to the surfaces of stent struts. These ultrathin films did not crack, peel, or delaminate substantially from the surface after exposure to a range of mechanical challenges representative of those encountered during stent deployment (e.g., balloon expansion). Stents coated with eight bilayers of degradable polyamine and a plasmid encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) sustained the release of DNA into solution for up to four days when incubated in phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C, and coated stents were capable of mediating the expression of EGFP in a mammalian cell line without the aid of additional transfection agents. The approach reported here could, with further development, contribute to the development of localized gene-based approaches to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or related conditions. PMID:16961308

  12. Photonic bandgap amorphous chalcogenide thin films with multilayered structure grown by pulsed laser deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shao-qian; Němec, Petre; Nazabal, Virginie; Jin, Yu-qi

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous chalcogenide thin films were fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Thereafter, the stacks of multilayered thin films for reflectors and microcavity were designed for telecommunication wavelength. The prepared multilayered thin films for reflectors show good compatibility. The microcavity structure consists of Ge25Ga5Sb10S65 (doped with Er3+) spacer layer surrounded by two 5-layer As40Se60/Ge25Sb5S70 reflectors. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy results show good periodicity, great adherence and smooth interfaces between the alternating dielectric layers, which confirms a suitable compatibility between different materials. The results demonstrate that the chalcogenides can be used for preparing vertical Bragg reflectors and microcavity with high quality.

  13. Precise control of interface anisotropy during deposition of Co/Pd multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C. W. Thomson, T.; Slater, T. J. A.; Haigh, S. J.; Rowan-Robinson, R. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2014-11-28

    We demonstrate the control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in multilayer films without modification of either the microstructure or saturation magnetization by tuning the Ar{sup +} ion energy using remote plasma sputtering. We show that for [Co/Pd]{sub 8} multilayer films, increasing the Ar{sup +} ion energy results in a strong decrease in PMA through an increase in interfacial roughness determined by X-ray reflectivity measurements. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope image data show that the microstructure is independent of Ar{sup +} energy. This opens a different approach to the in-situ deposition of graded exchange springs and for control of the polarizing layer in hybrid spin transfer torque devices.

  14. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured ZnO coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tummala, Raghavender; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Mohanty, Pravansu S.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The solution precursor route employed is an inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale coatings at fast rates on mass scale production. {yields} It is highly capable of developing tailorable nanostructures. {yields} This technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. {yields} The ZnO coatings developed via solution precursor plasma spray process have good electrical conductivity and reflectivity properties in spite of possessing large amount of particulate boundaries, porosity and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconducting material that has various applications including optical, electronic, biomedical and corrosion protection. It is usually synthesized via processing routes, such as vapor deposition techniques, sol-gel, spray pyrolysis and thermal spray of pre-synthesized ZnO powders. Cheaper and faster synthesis techniques are of technological importance due to increased demand in alternative energy applications. Here, we report synthesis of nanostructured ZnO coatings directly from a solution precursor in a single step using plasma spray technique. Nanostructured ZnO coatings were deposited from the solution precursor prepared using zinc acetate and water/isopropanol. An axial liquid atomizer was employed in a DC plasma spray torch to create fine droplets of precursor for faster thermal treatment in the plasma plume to form ZnO. Microstructures of coatings revealed ultrafine particulate agglomerates. X-ray diffraction confirmed polycrystalline nature and hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure of the coatings. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed fine grains in the range of 10-40 nm. Observed optical transmittance ({approx}65-80%) and reflectivity ({approx}65-70%) in the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity (48.5-50.1 m{Omega} cm) of ZnO coatings are attributed to ultrafine particulate morphology of the coatings.

  15. Technologies for manufacturing of high angular resolution multilayer coated optics for the New Hard X-ray Mission: a status report II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernani, D.; Borghi, G.; Binda, R.; Citterio, O.; Grisoni, G.; Kools, J.; Marioni, F.; Orlandi, A.; Ritucci, A.; Sironi, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Basso, S.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Negri, B.

    2010-07-01

    Focusing mirrors manufactured via galvanic replication process from negative shape mandrels is the candidate solution for some of next future X-ray missions. Media Lario Technologies (MLT) is the industrial enabler developing, in collaboration with Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF/OAB) and Italian Space Agency, the Optical Payload for the New Hard X-ray Mission (NHXM) Italian project. The current and ongoing development activities in Media Lario Technologies complement the electroforming technology with a suite of critical manufacturing and assembly of the Mirror Module Unit. In this paper, the progress on mandrels manufacturing, mirror shell replication, multilayer coating deposition and mirror module integration, leading to the manufacturing and testing of some astronomical Hard X-ray Engineering Models, is reported. Mandrel production is a key point in terms of performances and schedule; the results from mandrels fabricated using a proprietary multistep surface finishing process are reported. The progress in the replication of ultrathin Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt substrates gold coated mirror shells is reported together with the results of MLT Magnetron Sputtering multilayer coating technology for the hard x-ray waveband and its application to Pt/C.

  16. Technologies for manufacturing of high angular resolution multilayer coated optics for future new hard x-ray missions: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, G.; Vernani, D.; Marchi Boscolo, E.; Citterio, O.; Grisoni, G.; Kools, J.; Marioni, F.; Orlandi, A.; Ritucci, A.; Rossi, M.; Salmaso, G.; Valsecchi, G.; Basso, S.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Negri, B.

    2009-08-01

    High throughput lightweight Hard X-ray Optics manufactured via electroforming replication process from supersmooth mandrels are the primary candidate for some of future New Hard X-ray missions. Media Lario Technologies (MLT) is the industrial enabler exploiting the electroforming technology initially applied for the ESA XMM-Newton mission and further developed in cooperation with Brera Astronomical Observatory (INAF/OAB). The current and ongoing development activities in Media Lario Technologies complement the electroforming technology with a suite of critical manufacturing and assembly of the Mirror Module Unit. In this paper, the progress on mandrels manufacturing, mirror shell replication, multilayer coating deposition, mirror module integration, and relevant metrology is reported in view of the upcoming production phase. Mandrel production is a key point in terms of performances and schedule; the results from of NiP prototype mandrels fabricated using a proprietary multistep surface finishing process are reported. The progress in the replication of ultrathin Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt substrates gold coated mirror shells is reported together with the results of MLT Magnetron Sputtering multilayer coating technology for the hard x-ray waveband and its application to W/Si. Due to the criticality of low thickness mirror handling, the integration concept has been refined and tested on prototype mechanical structures under full illumination UV vertical optical bench.

  17. Note: Large area deposition of Rh single and Rh/W/Cu multilayer thin films on stainless steel substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika

    2014-04-15

    Mirror like thin films of single layer Rh and multilayer Rh/W/Cu are deposited on highly polished 50 mm diameter stainless steel substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique for first mirror application in fusion reactors. For this, the conventional PLD technique has been modified by incorporating substrate rastering stage for large area deposition via PLD. Process optimization to achieve uniformity of deposition as estimated from fringe visibility and thickness is also discussed.

  18. Development of High Resolution Hard X-Ray Telescope with Multi-Layer Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, Paul; Brinton, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This is the annual report for the third year of a three-year program. Previous annual reports have described progress achieved in the first and second years. The major objective of this program is the development of a focusing hard X-ray telescope with moderately high angular resolution, i.e. comparable to the telescopes of XMM-Newton. The key ingredients of the telescope are a depth graded multilayer coatings and electroformed nickel substrates that are considerably lighter weight than those of previous missions such as XMM-Newton, which have had conventional single metal layer reflective coatings and have operated at much lower energy X-rays. The ultimate target mission for this technology is the Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT) of the Constellation X-Ray Mission. However, it is applicable to potential SMEX and MIDEX programs as well. We are building upon technology that has proven to be successful in the XMM-Newton and SWIFT missions. The improvements that we are adding are a significant reduction in mass without much loss of angular resolution and an order of magnitude extension of the bandwidth through the use of multilayer coatings. The distinctive feature of this approach compared to those of other hard X-ray telescope programs is that we expect the angular resolution to be superior than telescopes made by other methods thanks to the structural integrity of the substrates. They are thin walled complete cylinders of revolution with a Wolter Type 1 figure; the front half is a parabola, the rear half a hyperbola.

  19. Sputtering - A vacuum deposition method for coating material.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1972-01-01

    The sputtering method is discussed in terms of the unique features which sputter offers in depositing coatings. These features include versatility, momentum transfer, configuration of target, precise controls, and a relatively slow deposition rate. Sputtered films are evaluated in terms of adherence, coherence, and the internal stresses. The observed strong adherence is attributed to the high kinetic energies of the sputtered material, sputter etched surface, and the submicroscopic particle size. Film thickness can be controlled to a millionth of a centimeter. Very adherent films of sputtered PTFE (teflon) can be deposited in a single operation on any type of material and on any geometrical configuration.

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition for the Conformal Coating of Nanoporous Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Xiong, Guang; Han, Catherine Y.; Wang, H. Hau; Birrell, James P.; Welp, Ulrich; Hryn, John N.; Pellin, Michael J.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Poco, John F.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Amore » tomic layer deposition ( ALD ) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide ( AAO ) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered pores with diameters d ∼ 40 nm and pore length L ∼ 70 microns. The AAO membranes were coated by ALD to fabricate catalytic membranes that demonstrate remarkable selectivity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane.dditional AAO membranes coated with ALD Pd films show promise as hydrogen sensors. Silica aerogels have the lowest density and highest surface area of any solid material. Consequently, these materials serve as an excellent substrate to fabricate novel catalytic materials and gas sensors by ALD .« less

  1. Spectrometric control of coatings deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrin, D. K.; Lisenkov, A. A.; Uhov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    It is shown that one of the most important technological tasks for the process of reactive magnetron sputtering is to control the composition of a gas mix. Possibility of determining the composition of a gas mix using spectrometric equipment on example of argon–oxygen mix during deposition of tantalum pentoxide films is demonstrated. Results of experiments show that it is possible to control concentration of oxygen not only by change of intensity of oxygen lines, but also by relative change of intensity of argon lines.

  2. Strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings deposited via a co-deposition sputter technique.

    PubMed

    Boyd, A R; Rutledge, L; Randolph, L D; Meenan, B J

    2015-01-01

    The bioactivity of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings can be modified by the addition of different ions, such as silicon (Si), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) or strontium (Sr) into the HA lattice. Of the ions listed here, strontium substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) coatings have received a lot of interest recently as Sr has been shown to promote osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and reduce osteoclast activity. In this study, SrHA coatings were deposited onto titanium substrates using radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering (and compared to those surfaces deposited from HA alone). FTIR, XPS, XRD, and SEM techniques were used to analyse the different coatings produced, whereby different combinations of pure HA and 13% Sr-substituted HA targets were investigated. The results highlight that Sr could be successfully incorporated into the HA lattice to form SrHA coatings. It was observed that as the number of SrHA sputtering targets in the study were increased (increasing Sr content), the deposition rate decreased. It was also shown that as the Sr content of the coatings increased, so did the degree of preferred 002 orientation of the coating (along with obvious changes in the surface morphology). This study has shown that RF magnetron sputtering (specifically co-sputtering), offers an appropriate methodology to control the surface properties of Sr-substituted HA, such as the crystallinity, stoichiometry, phase purity and surface morphology.

  3. Strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings deposited via a co-deposition sputter technique.

    PubMed

    Boyd, A R; Rutledge, L; Randolph, L D; Meenan, B J

    2015-01-01

    The bioactivity of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings can be modified by the addition of different ions, such as silicon (Si), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) or strontium (Sr) into the HA lattice. Of the ions listed here, strontium substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) coatings have received a lot of interest recently as Sr has been shown to promote osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, and reduce osteoclast activity. In this study, SrHA coatings were deposited onto titanium substrates using radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering (and compared to those surfaces deposited from HA alone). FTIR, XPS, XRD, and SEM techniques were used to analyse the different coatings produced, whereby different combinations of pure HA and 13% Sr-substituted HA targets were investigated. The results highlight that Sr could be successfully incorporated into the HA lattice to form SrHA coatings. It was observed that as the number of SrHA sputtering targets in the study were increased (increasing Sr content), the deposition rate decreased. It was also shown that as the Sr content of the coatings increased, so did the degree of preferred 002 orientation of the coating (along with obvious changes in the surface morphology). This study has shown that RF magnetron sputtering (specifically co-sputtering), offers an appropriate methodology to control the surface properties of Sr-substituted HA, such as the crystallinity, stoichiometry, phase purity and surface morphology. PMID:25491990

  4. Deposition of antimicrobial coatings on microstereolithography-fabricated microneedles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittard, Shaun D.; Miller, Philip R.; Jin, Chunming; Martin, Timothy N.; Boehm, Ryan D.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Stafslien, Shane J.; Daniels, Justin W.; Cilz, Nicholas; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Nasir, Adnan; Narayan, Roger J.

    2011-06-01

    Microneedles are small-scale needle-like projections that may be used for transdermal delivery of pharmacologic agents, including protein-containing and nucleic acid-containing agents. Commercial translation of polymeric microneedles would benefit from the use of facile and cost effective fabrication methods. In this study, visible light dynamic mask microstereolithography, a rapid prototyping technique that utilizes digital light projection for selective polymerization of a liquid resin, was used for fabrication of solid microneedle array structures out of an acrylate-based polymer. Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit silver and zinc oxide coatings on the surfaces of the visible light dynamic mask microstereolithography-fabricated microneedle array structures. Agar diffusion studies were used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of the coated microneedle array structures. This study indicates that light-based technologies, including visible light dynamic mask microstereolithography and pulsed laser deposition, may be used to fabricate microneedles with antimicrobial properties for treatment of local skin infections.

  5. Deposition of Nanocomposite Coatings Employing a Hybrid APS + SPPS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohia, A.; Sivakumar, G.; Ramakrishna, M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2014-10-01

    A novel approach hybridizing the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying and the solution precursor plasma spraying techniques has been explored to develop nanocomposite coatings. The above hybrid processing route involves simultaneous feeding of an appropriate solution precursor and commercially available spray-grade powder feedstock to realize microstructures comprising nanostructured and micron-sized features, which are unique in thermal spraying. The attractive prospects offered by this hybrid technique for deposition of nanocomposite coatings are specifically highlighted in this paper through a case study. Plasma sprayed Mo-alloy coatings are known for their good tribological characteristics and widely used in many applications. Further augmentation in performance of these coatings is expected through incorporation of distributed nanostructured oxide phases in the microstructure. Successful development of such coatings using a spray-grade Mo-alloy powder and a suitable oxide-forming solution precursor has been demonstrated. Splat formation under varied processing conditions has been comprehensively investigated and related to microstructure and tribological behavior of the coatings to assess the efficacy of the above nanocomposite coatings for wear resistant applications.

  6. Deposition of tantalum carbide coatings on graphite by laser interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veligdan, James; Branch, D.; Vanier, P. E.; Barietta, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Graphite surfaces can be hardened and protected from erosion by hydrogen at high temperatures by refractory metal carbide coatings, which are usually prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or chemical vapor reaction (CVR) methods. These techniques rely on heating the substrate to a temperature where a volatile metal halide decomposes and reacts with either a hydrocarbon gas or with carbon from the substrate. For CVR techniques, deposition temperatures must be in excess of 2000 C in order to achieve favorable deposition kinetics. In an effort to lower the bulk substrate deposition temperature, the use of laser interactions with both the substrate and the metal halide deposition gas has been employed. Initial testing involved the use of a CO2 laser to heat the surface of a graphite substrate and a KrF excimer laser to accomplish a photodecomposition of TaCl5 gas near the substrate. The results of preliminary experiments using these techniques are described.

  7. High-Reflectivity Multi-Layer Coatings for the CLASP Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kobiki, Toshihiko; Giono, Gabriel; Auchere, Frederic; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Tsuneta, Saku

    2015-01-01

    We are planning an international rocket experiment Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is (2015 planned) that Lyman alpha line (Ly alpha line) polarization spectroscopic observations from the sun. The purpose of this experiment, detected with high accuracy of the linear polarization of the Ly alpha lines to 0.1% by using a Hanle effect is to measure the magnetic field of the chromosphere-transition layer directly. For polarization photometric accuracy achieved that approximately 0.1% required for CLASP, it is necessary to realize the monitoring device with a high throughput. On the other hand, Ly alpha line (vacuum ultraviolet rays) have a sensitive characteristics that is absorbed by the material. We therefore set the optical system of the reflection system (transmission only the wavelength plate), each of the mirrors, subjected to high efficiency of the multilayer coating in accordance with the role. Primary mirror diameter of CLASP is about 30 cm, the amount of heat about 30,000 J is about 5 minutes of observation time is coming mainly in the visible light to the telescope. In addition, total flux of the sun visible light overwhelmingly large and about 200 000 times the Ly alpha line wavelength region. Therefore, in terms of thermal management and 0.1% of the photometric measurement accuracy achieved telescope, elimination of the visible light is essential. We therefore, has a high reflectivity (greater than 50%) in Ly alpha line, visible light is a multilayer coating be kept to a low reflectance (less than 5%) (cold mirror coating) was applied to the primary mirror. On the other hand, the efficiency of the polarization analyzer required chromospheric magnetic field measurement (the amount of light) Conventional (magnesium fluoride has long been known as a material for vacuum ultraviolet (MgF2) manufactured ellipsometer; Rs = 22%) about increased to 2.5 times were high efficiency reflective polarizing element analysis. This device, Bridou et al

  8. Controllable Growth of the Graphene from Millimeter-Sized Monolayer to Multilayer on Cu by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyang; Huang, Zhigao; Lai, Fachun; Lin, Limei; Xu, Yangyang; Zuo, Chuandong; Zheng, Weifeng; Qu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    As is well established, mastery to precise control of the layer number, stacking order of graphene, and the size of single-crystal monolayer graphene is very important for both fundamental interest and practical applications. In this report, millimeter-sized single-crystal monolayer graphene has been synthesized to multilayer graphene on Cu by chemical vapor deposition. The relationship of the growth process between monolayer graphene and multilayer graphene is investigated carefully. Besides the general multilayer graphene with Bernal stacking order, parts of multilayer graphene with non-Bernal stacking order were modulated under optimized growth conditions. The oxide nanoparticle on the Cu surface derived from annealing has been found to play the key role in nucleation. In addition, the hydrogen concentration impacts significantly on the layer number and shape of the graphene. Moreover, a possible mechanism was proposed to understand the growth process discussed above, which may provide an instruction to graphene growth on Cu by chemical vapor deposition.

  9. Controllable Growth of the Graphene from Millimeter-Sized Monolayer to Multilayer on Cu by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinyang; Huang, Zhigao; Lai, Fachun; Lin, Limei; Xu, Yangyang; Zuo, Chuandong; Zheng, Weifeng; Qu, Yan

    2015-11-01

    As is well established, mastery to precise control of the layer number, stacking order of graphene, and the size of single-crystal monolayer graphene is very important for both fundamental interest and practical applications. In this report, millimeter-sized single-crystal monolayer graphene has been synthesized to multilayer graphene on Cu by chemical vapor deposition. The relationship of the growth process between monolayer graphene and multilayer graphene is investigated carefully. Besides the general multilayer graphene with Bernal stacking order, parts of multilayer graphene with non-Bernal stacking order were modulated under optimized growth conditions. The oxide nanoparticle on the Cu surface derived from annealing has been found to play the key role in nucleation. In addition, the hydrogen concentration impacts significantly on the layer number and shape of the graphene. Moreover, a possible mechanism was proposed to understand the growth process discussed above, which may provide an instruction to graphene growth on Cu by chemical vapor deposition.

  10. Superhydrophobic coating deposited directly on aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Ana M.; Llorca-Isern, Nuria

    2014-06-01

    This study develops an alternative method for enhancing superhydrophobicity on aluminum surfaces with an amphiphilic reagent such as the dodecanoic acid. The goal is to induce superhydrophobicity directly through a simple process on pure (99.9 wt%) commercial aluminum. The initial surface activation leading to the formation of the superhydrophobic coating is studied using confocal microscopy. Superhydrophobic behavior is analyzed by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The highest contact angle (approaching 153°) was obtained after forming hierarchical structures with a particular roughness obtained by grinding and polishing microgrooves on the aluminum surface together with the simultaneous action of HCl and dodecanoic acid. The results also showed that after immersion in the ethanol-acidic-fatty acid solutions, they reacted chemically through the action of the fatty acid, on the aluminum surface. The mechanism is analyzed by TOF-SIMS and XPS in order to determine the molecules involved in the reaction. The TOF-SIMS analysis revealed that the metal and its oxides seem to be necessary, and that free-aluminum is anchored to the fatty acid molecules and to the alumina molecules present in the medium. Consequently, both metallic aluminum and aluminum oxides are necessary in order to form the compound responsible for superhydrophobicity.

  11. On coating adhesion during impulse plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska-Langier, Katarzyna; Zdunek, Krzysztof; Chodun, Rafal; Okrasa, Sebastian; Kwiatkowski, Roch; Malinowski, Karol; Składnik-Sadowska, Elzbieta; Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    The impulse plasma deposition (IPD) technique is the only method of plasma surface engineering (among plasma-based technologies) that allows a synthesis of layers upon a cold unheated substrate and which ensures a good adhesion. This paper presents a study of plasma impacts upon a copper substrate surface during the IPD process. The substrate was exposed to pulsed N2/Al plasma streams during the synthesis of AlN layers. For plasma-material interaction diagnostics, the optical emission spectroscopy method was used. Our results show that interactions of plasma lead to sputtering of the substrate material. It seems that the obtained adhesion of the layers is the result of a complex surface mechanism combined with the effects of pulsed plasma energy impacts upon the unheated substrate. An example of such a result is the value of the critical load for the Al2O3 layer, which was measured by the scratch-test method to be above 40 N.

  12. A new insight into defect-induced laser damage in UV multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Reichling, M.; Bodemann, A.; Kaiser, N.

    1995-12-31

    High performance Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2} mirror coatings for 248 nm have been investigated with respect to their excimer laser damage resistivity. Global damage thresholds (in the range of 10-20 J/cm{sup 2}) averaged over large areas were determined with the pulsed photoacoustic mirage detection method. With a raster scanning technique utilizing the same detection scheme, the local damage behaviour was studied with 100 {mu}m spatial resolution. It was found that the local damage threshold at specific sites was lower than the global damage threshold and it was assumed that this phenomenon was associated with micrometer-scale defects in the multilayer coating. To test this hypothesis photothermal displacement microscopy with {mu}m lateral resolution was performed on the investigated regions prior to excimer laser light irradiation. Photothermal images revealed an extremely small background absorption and a small number of absorbing defect sites. For a number of such sites a clear correlation between the local absorption and the onset of laser damage at that specific location was found. We conclude that the crucial factor determining the damage resistivity of the high quality coating systems are defects and contaminants and that it will be possible to predict their damage thresholds by a complete microscopic photothermal inspection.

  13. Laser-resistance sensitivity to substrate pit size of multilayer coatings

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yingjie; Zhu, Meiping; Wang, Hu; Xing, Huanbin; Cui, Yun; Sun, Jian; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond laser-resistance to dielectric multilayer coatings on substrate pits was examined with respect to the electric-field (E-field) enhancement and mechanical properties. The laser-induced damage sensitivity to the shape of the substrate pits has not been directly investigated through experiments, thus preventing clear understanding of the damage mechanism of substrate pits. We performed a systematic and comparative study to reveal the effects of the E-field distributions and localized stress concentration on the damage behaviour of coatings on substrates with pits. To obtain reliable results, substrate pits with different geometries were fabricated using a 520-nm femtosecond laser-processing platform. By using the finite element method, the E-field distribution and localized stress of the pitted region were well simulated. The 1064-nm damage morphologies of the coated pit were directly compared with simulated E-field intensity profiles and stress distributions. To enable further understanding, a simplified geometrical model was established, and the damage mechanism was introduced. PMID:27252016

  14. Laser-resistance sensitivity to substrate pit size of multilayer coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yingjie; Zhu, Meiping; Wang, Hu; Xing, Huanbin; Cui, Yun; Sun, Jian; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond laser-resistance to dielectric multilayer coatings on substrate pits was examined with respect to the electric-field (E-field) enhancement and mechanical properties. The laser-induced damage sensitivity to the shape of the substrate pits has not been directly investigated through experiments, thus preventing clear understanding of the damage mechanism of substrate pits. We performed a systematic and comparative study to reveal the effects of the E-field distributions and localized stress concentration on the damage behaviour of coatings on substrates with pits. To obtain reliable results, substrate pits with different geometries were fabricated using a 520-nm femtosecond laser-processing platform. By using the finite element method, the E-field distribution and localized stress of the pitted region were well simulated. The 1064-nm damage morphologies of the coated pit were directly compared with simulated E-field intensity profiles and stress distributions. To enable further understanding, a simplified geometrical model was established, and the damage mechanism was introduced.

  15. Delamination analysis of metal-ceramic multilayer coatings subject to nanoindentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jamison, Ryan Dale; Shen, Yu -Lin

    2016-01-22

    Internal damage has been experimentally observed in aluminum (Al)/silicon carbide (SiC) multilayer coatings subject to nanoindentation loading. Post-indentation characterization has identified that delamination at the coating/substrate interface is the most prominent form of damage. In this study the finite element method is employed to study the effect of delamination on indentation-derived hardness and Young's modulus. The model features alternating Al/SiC nanolayers above a silicon (Si) substrate, in consistence with the actual material system used in earlier experiments. Cohesive elements with a traction–separation relationship are used to facilitate delamination along the coating/substrate interface. Delamination is observed numerically to be sensitive tomore » the critical normal and shear stresses that define the cohesive traction–separation behavior. Axial tensile stress below the edge of indentation contact is found to be the largest contributor to damage initiation and evolution. Delamination results in a decrease in both indentation-derived hardness and Young's modulus. As a result, a unique finding is that delamination can occur during the unloading process of indentation, depending on the loading condition and critical tractions.« less

  16. Conversion Coatings for Aluminum Alloys by Chemical Vapor Deposition Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reye, John T.; McFadden, Lisa S.; Gatica, Jorge E.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    With the rise of environmental awareness and the renewed importance of environmentally friendly processes, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has targeted surface pre-treatment processes based on chromates. Indeed, this process has been subject to regulations under the Clean Water Act as well as other environmental initiatives, and there is today a marked movement to phase the process out in the near future. Therefore, there is a clear need for new advances in coating technology that could provide practical options for replacing present industrial practices. Depending on the final application, such coatings might be required to be resistant to corrosion, act as chemically resistant coatings, or both. This research examined a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) mechanism to deposit uniform conversion coatings onto aluminum alloy substrates. Robust protocols based on solutions of aryl phosphate ester and multi-oxide conversion coating (submicron) films were successfully grown onto the aluminum alloy samples. These films were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Preliminary results indicate the potential of this technology to replace aqueous-based chromate processes.

  17. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V.

    1998-05-01

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  18. Advances in the electro-spark deposition coating process

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Sheldon, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    Electro-spark deposition (ESD) is a pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an electrode material on a metallic substrate. It is one of the few methods available by which a fused, metallurgically bonded coating can be applied with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperatures. The short duration of the electrical pulse allows an extremely rapid solidification of the deposited material and results in an exceptionally fine-grained, homogenous coating that approaches (and with some materials, actually is) an amorphous structure. This structure is believed to contribute to the good tribological and corrosion performance observed for hardsurfacing materials used in the demanding environments of high temperatures, liquid metals, and neutron irradiation. A brief historical review of the process is provided, followed by descriptions of the present state-of-the-art and of the performance and applications of electro-spark deposition coatings in liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactors.

  19. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Purandare, Yashodhan Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken; Santana, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1 μm finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5 μm with hardness in the range of 30–40 GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  20. Deposition of metal nanoparticles on phospholipid multilayer membranes modified by gramicidin.

    PubMed

    Han, Won Bae; Kim, Yongdeok; An, Hyeun Hwan; Kim, Hee-Soo; Yoon, Chong Seung

    2013-10-29

    A planar dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilayer phospholipid membrane was structurally modified by introducing a transmembrane protein, gramicidin (up to 25 mol %), to study its effect on the metal nanoparticles deposited on the membrane. Without gramicidin, when 3-nm-thick Ag, Sn, Al, and Au were deposited, the nanoparticles hardly nucleated on the DPPC membrane in rigid gel state (except for Au); however, the gramicidin addition dramatically enhanced the DPPC membrane surface's affinity for metal atoms so that a dense array of metal (Ag, Sn, and Au) or metal-oxide (Al-oxide) nanoparticles was produced on the membrane surface. The particle sizes ranged from 3 to 15 nm depending on the metal and gramicidin concentration, whereas the particle density was strongly dictated by the gramicidin concentration. The proposed method provides a convenient, generally applicable synthesis route for preparing different metal or metal-oxide nanoparticles on a relatively robust biocompatible membrane.

  1. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from themore » receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (ηsel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.« less

  2. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; Ndione, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from the receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (ηsel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies ηsel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.

  3. Vibration atomic layer deposition for conformal nanoparticle coating

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Suk Won; Woo Kim, Jun; Jong Choi, Hyung; Hyung Shim, Joon

    2014-01-15

    A vibration atomic layer deposition reactor was developed for fabricating a conformal thin-film coating on nanosize particles. In this study, atomic layer deposition of 10–15-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films was conducted on a high-surface-area acetylene black powder with particle diameters of 200–250 nm. Intense vibration during the deposition resulted in the effective separation of particles, overcoming the interparticle agglomeration force and enabling effective diffusion of the precursor into the powder chunk; this phenomenon led to the formation of a conformal film coating on the nanopowder particles. It was also confirmed that the atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films initially grew on the high-surface-area acetylene black powder particles as discrete islands, presumably because chemisorption of the precursor and water occurred only on a few sites on the high-surface-area acetylene black powder surface. Relatively sluggish growth of the films during the initial atomic layer deposition cycles was identified from composition analysis.

  4. Synthesis of mullite coatings by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mulpuri, R.P.; Auger, M.; Sarin, V.K.

    1996-08-01

    Formation of mullite on ceramic substrates via chemical vapor deposition was investigated. Mullite is a solid solution of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} with a composition of 3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{circ}2SiO{sub 2}. Thermodynamic calculations performed on the AlCl{sub 3}-SiCl{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} system were used to construct equilibrium CVD phase diagrams. With the aid of these diagrams and consideration of kinetic rate limiting factors, initial process parameters were determined. Through process optimization, crystalline CVD mullite coatings have been successfully grown on SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrates. Results from the thermodynamic analysis, process optimization, and effect of various process parameters on deposition rate and coating morphology are discussed.

  5. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ladwig, Angela

    2008-01-23

    There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of

  6. Plasma deposition of antimicrobial coating on organic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rżanek-Boroch, Zenobia; Dziadczyk, Paulina; Czajkowska, Danuta; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fabianowski, Wojciech

    2013-02-01

    Organic materials used for packing food products prevent the access of microorganisms or gases, like oxygen or water vapor. To prolong the stability of products, preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sulfites, benzoates, nitrites and many other chemical compounds are used. To eliminate or limit the amount of preservatives added to food, so-called active packaging is sought for, which would limit the development of microorganisms. Such packaging can be achieved, among others, by plasma modification of a material to deposit on its surface substances inhibiting the growth of bacteria. In this work plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide or/and sodium oxide were used as the coating precursors. As a result of bacteriological studies it was found that sulfur containing coatings show a 16% inhibition of Salmonella bacteria growth and 8% inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth. Sodium containing coatings show worse (by 10%) inhibiting properties. Moreover, films with plasma deposited coatings show good sealing properties against water vapor. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  7. Amorphous boron coatings produced with vacuum arc deposition technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepper, C. C.; Hazelton, R. C.; Yadlowsky, E. J.; Carlson, E. P.; Keitz, M. D.; Williams, J. M.; Zuhr, R. A.; Poker, D. B.

    2002-05-01

    In principle, boron (B) as a material has many excellent surface properties, including corrosion resistance, very high hardness, refractory properties, and a strong tendency to bond with most substrates. The potential technological benefits of the material have not been realized, because it is difficult to deposit it as coatings. B is difficult to evaporate, does not sputter well, and cannot be thermally sprayed. In this article, first successful deposition results from a robust system, based on the vacuum (cathodic) arc technology, are reported. Adherent coatings have been produced on 1100 Al, CP-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, 316 SS, hard chrome plate, and 52 100 steel. Composition and thickness analyses have been performed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Hardness (H) and modules (E) have been evaluated by nanoindentation. The coatings are very pure and have properties characteristic of B suboxides. A microhardness of up to 27 GPa has been measured on a 400-nm-thick film deposited on 52 100 steel, with a corresponding modulus of 180 GPa. This gives a very high value for the H/E ratio, a figure-of-merit for impact resistance of the film. A number of applications are contemplated, including corrosion/abrasion protection for die-casting dies and improved wear resistance for biomedical implants.

  8. Narrow-band EUV Multilayer Coating for the MOSES Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Scott M.; Gum, Jeffery S.; Tarrio, Charles; Dvorak, Joseph; Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Thomas, Roger J.; Kankelborg, Charles C.

    2005-01-01

    The Multi-order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) is a slitless spectrograph designed to study solar He II emission at 303.8 Angstroms, to be launched on a sounding rocket payload. One difference between MOSES and other slitless spectrographs is that the images are recorded simultaneously at three spectral orders, m = -1,0, +l. Another is the addition of a narrow-band multilayer coating on both the grating and the fold flat, which will reject out-of-band lines that normally contaminate the image of a slitless instrument. The primary metrics f a the mating were high peak reflectivity and suppression of Fe XV and XVI emission lines at 284 Angstroms and 335 Angstroms, respectively. We chose B4C/Mg2Si for our material combination since it provides better values for all three metrics together than the other leading candidates Si/Ir, Si/B4C or Si/SiC. Measurements of witness flats at NIST indicate the peak reflectivity at 303.6 is 38.5% for a 15 bilayer stack, while the suppression at 284 Angstroms, is 4.5x and at 335 Angstroms is 18.3x for each of two reflections in the instrument. We present the results of coating the MOSES flight gratings and fold flat, including the spectral response of the fold flat and grating as measured at NIST's SURF III and Brookhaven's X24C beamline.

  9. Microstructure and characterization of a novel cobalt coating prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Cheng; He, Yedong

    2015-10-01

    A novel cobalt coating was prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). The kinetics of the electrode process in cathode plasma electrolytic deposition was studied. The composition and microstructure of the deposited coatings were investigated by SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM. The novel cobalt coatings were dense and uniform, showing a typically molten morphology, and were deposited with a rather fast rate. Different from the coatings prepared by conventional electrodeposition or chemical plating, pure cobalt coatings with face center cubic (fcc) structure were obtained by CPED. The deposited coatings were nanocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 40-50 nm, exhibited high hardness, excellent adhesion with the stainless steels, and superior wear resistance. The properties of the novel cobalt coatings prepared by CPED have been improved significantly, as compared with that prepared by conventional methods. It reveals that cathode plasma electrolytic deposition is an effective way to prepare novel cobalt coatings with high quality.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni3Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo; Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong

    2016-08-01

    Nano-structured Ni/Ni3Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni3Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni3Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni3Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  11. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  12. Ionic Driven Embedment of Hyaluronic Acid Coated Liposomes in Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films for Local Therapeutic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Stephen L.; Francis, David M.; Sis, Matthew J.; Kidambi, Srivatsan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control the spatial distribution and temporal release of a therapeutic remains a central challenge for biomedical research. Here, we report the development and optimization of a novel substrate mediated therapeutic delivery system comprising of hyaluronic acid covalently functionalized liposomes (HALNPs) embedded into polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) platform via ionic stabilization. The PEM platform was constructed from sequential deposition of Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) and Poly(Sodium styrene sulfonate) (SPS) “(PLL/SPS)4.5” followed by adsorption of anionic HALNPs. An adsorption affinity assay and saturation curve illustrated the preferential HALNP deposition density for precise therapeutic loading. (PLL/SPS)2.5 capping layer on top of the deposited HALNP monolayer further facilitated complete nanoparticle immobilization, cell adhesion, and provided nanoparticle confinement for controlled linear release profiles of the nanocarrier and encapsulated cargo. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the successful embedment of a translatable lipid based nanocarrier into a substrate that allows for temporal and spatial release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. Specifically, we have utilized our platform to deliver chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin from PEM confined HALNPs. Overall, we believe the development of our HALNP embedded PEM system is significant and will catalyze the usage of substrate mediated delivery platforms in biomedical applications. PMID:26423010

  13. Fabrication of Optical Multilayer Devices from Porous Silicon Coatings with Closed Porosity by Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Godinho, Vanda; Lacroix, Bertrand; Jiménez de Haro, Maria C; Jamon, Damien; Fernández, Asunción

    2015-07-01

    The fabrication of single-material photonic-multilayer devices is explored using a new methodology to produce porous silicon layers by magnetron sputtering. Our bottom-up methodology produces highly stable amorphous porous silicon films with a controlled refractive index using magnetron sputtering and incorporating a large amount of deposition gas inside the closed pores. The influence of the substrate bias on the formation of the closed porosity was explored here for the first time when He was used as the deposition gas. We successfully simulated, designed, and characterized Bragg reflectors and an optical microcavity that integrates these porous layers. The sharp interfaces between the dense and porous layers combined with the adequate control of the refractive index and thickness allowed for excellent agreement between the simulation and the experiments. The versatility of the magnetron sputtering technique allowed for the preparation of these structures for a wide range of substrates such as polymers while also taking advantage of the oblique angle deposition to prepare Bragg reflectors with a controlled lateral gradient in the stop band wavelengths.

  14. Ionic Driven Embedment of Hyaluronic Acid Coated Liposomes in Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Films for Local Therapeutic Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Stephen L.; Francis, David M.; Sis, Matthew J.; Kidambi, Srivatsan

    2015-10-01

    The ability to control the spatial distribution and temporal release of a therapeutic remains a central challenge for biomedical research. Here, we report the development and optimization of a novel substrate mediated therapeutic delivery system comprising of hyaluronic acid covalently functionalized liposomes (HALNPs) embedded into polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) platform via ionic stabilization. The PEM platform was constructed from sequential deposition of Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) and Poly(Sodium styrene sulfonate) (SPS) “(PLL/SPS)4.5” followed by adsorption of anionic HALNPs. An adsorption affinity assay and saturation curve illustrated the preferential HALNP deposition density for precise therapeutic loading. (PLL/SPS)2.5 capping layer on top of the deposited HALNP monolayer further facilitated complete nanoparticle immobilization, cell adhesion, and provided nanoparticle confinement for controlled linear release profiles of the nanocarrier and encapsulated cargo. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the successful embedment of a translatable lipid based nanocarrier into a substrate that allows for temporal and spatial release of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. Specifically, we have utilized our platform to deliver chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin from PEM confined HALNPs. Overall, we believe the development of our HALNP embedded PEM system is significant and will catalyze the usage of substrate mediated delivery platforms in biomedical applications.

  15. Performance of multilayer optical coatings under long-term 532nm laser exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulios, D.; Konoplev, O.; Chiragh, F.; Vasilyev, A.; Stephen, M.; Strickler, K.

    2013-11-01

    The effects of long-term exposure to high intensity 532 nm radiation on various dielectric-coated optics are studied. To investigate potential photodarkening effects on optical surfaces, an accelerated life test platform was constructed where optics were exposed to 532 nm radiation from a short-pulse, high repetition rate fiber amplifier at total doses up to 1 trillion shots. The first run of trillion-shot tests were conducted on e-beam deposited and ion beam sputtering (IBS) coated high reflecting mirrors with onsurface intensities ranging from 1.0-1.4 GW/cm2. It was found that the e-beam coated mirrors failed catastrophically at less than 150 billion shots, while the IBS coated mirror was able to complete the trillionshot test with no measurable loss of reflectivity. Profiling the IBS mirror surface with a high-resolution white light interferometer post-irradiation revealed a ~10 nm high photocontamination deposit at the irradiation site that closely matched the intensity profile of the laser spot. Trillion-shot surface exposure tests were also conducted at multiple surface sites of an LBO frequency doubling crystal at ~1.5 GW/cm2 at multiple surface sites. The transmitted power and on-surface beam size were monitored throughout the tests, and periodic measurements of the beam quality and waist location of the transmitted light were also made using an M2 meter. No changes in transmitted power or M2 were observed in any of the tests, but 3D surface profiling revealed laser-induced contamination deposits at each site tested.

  16. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten substrates from atomic fluxes of boron and carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskiy, Y.; Begrambekov, L.; Ayrapetov, A.; Gretskaya, I.; Grunin, A.; Dyachenko, M.; Puntakov, N.

    2016-09-01

    A device used for both coating deposition and material testing is presented in the paper. By using lock chambers, sputtering targets are easily exchanged with sample holder thus allowing testing of deposited samples with high power density electron or ion beams. Boron carbide coatings were deposited on tungsten samples. Methods of increasing coating adhesion are described in the paper. 2 μm boron carbide coatings sustained 450 heating cycles from 100 to 900 C. Ion beam tests have shown satisfactory results.

  17. CHEMICAL SOLUTION DEPOSITION BASED OXIDE BUFFERS AND YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed briefly the growth of buffer and high temperature superconducting oxide thin films using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. In the Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) process, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, utilizes the thermo mechanical processing to obtain the flexible, biaxially oriented copper, nickel or nickel-alloy substrates. Buffers and Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconductors have been deposited epitaxially on the textured nickel alloy substrates. The starting substrate serves as a template for the REBCO layer, which has substantially fewer weak links. Buffer layers play a major role in fabricating the second generation REBCO wire technology. The main purpose of the buffer layers is to provide a smooth, continuous and chemically inert surface for the growth of the REBCO film, while transferring the texture from the substrate to the superconductor layer. To achieve this, the buffer layers need to be epitaxial to the substrate, i.e. they have to nucleate and grow in the same bi-axial texture provided by the textured metal foil. The most commonly used RABiTS multi-layer architectures consist of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-5 at.% W (Ni-W) substrate with a seed (first) layer of Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3), a barrier (second) layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a Cerium Oxide (CeO2) cap (third) layer. These three buffer layers are generally deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques such as reactive sputtering. On top of the PVD template, REBCO film is then grown by a chemical solution deposition. This article reviews in detail about the list of oxide buffers and superconductor REBCO films grown epitaxially on single crystal and/or biaxially textured Ni-W substrates using a CSD method.

  18. Deposition of wear-resistant steel surfaces by the plasma rotating electrode coating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michael Robert

    A high-deposition rate thermal spray method was investigated for the purpose of coating aluminum cylinder bores with a wear resistant surface. This method, the plasma rotating electrode coating system (PROTEC) utilized transferred-arc melting of a rapidly rotating consumable electrode to create a droplet stream via centrifugal atomization. A cylindrical substrate was placed around the rotating rod, in the flight path of the droplets, to deposit a coating onto the internal surface of the cylinder. Selected coatings of 1045 steel deposited by the PROTEC coating method exhibited lower wear loss in lubricated sliding than wire-arc sprayed carbon steel coatings and gray cast iron. Splat cohesion was shown to be a significant factor in the wear resistance of PROTEC coatings. The relationship between deposition enthalpy and cooling rate of the coating was found to have the greatest effect on coating microstructure, and the coating cohesion. The most rapidly solidified coatings showed inferior splat cohesion in comparison to coatings that cooled more slowly. The increase in splat cohesion with decreased cooling rate was accompanied by the formation of a directionally oriented coating microstructure, likely formed during cellular solidification of the coating. A model describing the thermal state of the deposition process was used to predict the deposition conditions that would result in a cellular structure, and the level of splat cohesion required to produce a wear resistant coating.

  19. Infrared transparent conductive coatings deposited by activated reactive evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcovitch, Orna; Zipin, Hedva; Klein, Zeev; Lubezky, Iftah

    1991-04-01

    Infrared transparent conductive coatings were developed for ZnS substrates. The conductive layer was an indium oxide film deposited in a reactive atmosphere consisting of low energy oxygen ions. Activation of the gas molecules was performed by an ion source of the hollow cathode type. The deposited films were characterized by their transparency, conductivity and environmental durability. It was found that the positioning of the ion source relative to the substrates was critical for the film properties. High transmission and low sheet resistance of the film were obtained by optimization of the evaporation parameters which included oxygen pressure, cathode current, deposition rate, film thickness and substrate temperature. Application of the conductive film for both 3-5jim and 8-12im infrared atmospheric windows was possible. The transmission of the indium oxide film depend on the infrared free carriers absorption and the reflections at the substrate and air interfaces. Improvement of the optical performance was accomplished by depositing antireflective and induced transmission dielectric stacks. Several dielectric stacks were designed and matched to indium oxide layers of 50Q/sq and 30Q/sq sheet resistance for maximum transmission, either at a single wavelength or for a wide band in the 3-5pm and 8-11.5pm spectral regions. Typical average transmittance values of ZnS substrates coated with conductive stacks were 82% and 7L% in the 3-5pm region and 77% and 63% in the 8-'l2pm region for sheet resistances of 50Q/sq and 30Q/sq, respectively. At 1O.5pm peak transmittance values higher than 80% were obtained. The coatings were durable and passed adhesion, humidity and moderate abrasion tests in accordance with MIL-C--675C.

  20. X-ray diffraction effect from surface acoustic waves traveling on a deposited multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Jun; Qi Jianxia; Miao Runcai

    2010-04-10

    We investigate the x-ray diffraction effects from surface acoustic waves (SAW) traveling along a multilayer. The diffraction intensity distribution depends on the incidence angle and the multilayer SAW (MLSAW) amplitude. Particularly, a small departure deviating from the Bragg incidence angle at a certain amplitude will produce a larger variation of the intensity distribution. This shows that the diffraction intensity from MLSAW has an extremely high sensitivity to the Bragg incidence angle, which is different from a SAW traveling along a solid surface without deposited layers. By carefully analyzing the relationship between the intensity distribution I and the incidence angle {theta}, the corresponding analytic expression of the intensity distribution is theoretically derived. Our theoretical prediction is in great agreement with the experimental results previously obtained. A theoretical model that can be applied to study the x-ray diffraction effect from MLSAW is developed. The extremely high sensitivity to the Bragg angle will help us in acousto-optic instrument research with MLSAW.

  1. Engineering Multifunctional Living Paints: Thin, Convectively-Assembled Biocomposite Coatings of Live Cells and Colloidal Latex Particles Deposited by Continuous Convective-Sedimentation Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jessica Shawn

    Advanced composite materials could be revolutionized by the development of methods to incorporate living cells into functional materials and devices. This could be accomplished by continuously and rapidly depositing thin ordered arrays of adhesive colloidal latex particles and live cells that maintain stability and preserve microbial reactivity. Convective assembly is one method of rapidly assembling colloidal particles into thin (<10 microm thick), ordered films with engineered compositions, thicknesses, and particle packing that offer several advantages over thicker randomly ordered composites, including enhanced cell stability and increased reactivity through minimized diffusion resistance to nutrients and reduced light scattering. This method can be used to precisely deposit live bacteria, cyanobacteria, yeast, and algae into biocomposite coatings, forming reactive biosensors, photoabsorbers, or advanced biocatalysts. This dissertation developed new continuous deposition and coating characterization methods for fabricating and characterizing <10 microm thick colloid coatings---monodispersed latex particle or cell suspensions, bimodal blends of latex particles or live cells and microspheres, and trimodal formulations of biomodal latex and live cells on substrates such as aluminum foil, glass, porous Kraft paper, polyester, and polypropylene. Continuous convective-sedimentation assembly (CSA) is introduced to enable fabrication of larger surface area and long coatings by constantly feeding coating suspension to the meniscus, thus expanding the utility of convective assembly to deposit monolayer or very thin films or multi-layer coatings composed of thin layers on a large scale. Results show thin, tunable coatings can be fabricated from diverse coating suspensions and critical coating parameters that control thickness and structure. Particle size ratio and charge influence deposition, convective mixing or demixing and relative particle locations. Substrate

  2. Enhancement of the photoprotection and nanomechanical properties of polycarbonate by deposition of thin ceramic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Mailhot, B.; Rivaton, A.; Gardette, J.-L.; Moustaghfir, A.; Tomasella, E.; Jacquet, M.; Ma, X.-G.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2006-05-15

    The chemical reactions resulting from ultraviolet radiation produce discoloration and significant changes in the surface properties of polycarbonate (PC). To prevent photon absorption from irradiation and oxygen diffusion and to enhance the surface nanomechanical properties of PC, thin ceramic coatings of ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (both single- and multi-layer) were deposited on bulk PC by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The samples were irradiated at wavelengths greater than 300 nm, representative of outdoor conditions. Despite the effectiveness of ZnO to protect PC from irradiation damage, photocatalytic oxidation at the PC/ZnO interface was the limiting factor. To overcome this deficiency, a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was used both as intermediate and top layer because of its higher hardness and wear resistance than ZnO. Therefore, PC/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO, PC/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and PC/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layered media were fabricated and their photodegradation properties were examined by infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the photocatalytic activity at the PC/ZnO interface was reduced in the presence of the intermediate Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer that limited the oxygen permeability. Nanomechanical experiments performed with a surface force apparatus revealed that the previous coating systems enhanced both the surface nanohardness and the elastic modulus and reduced the coefficient of friction in the order of ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Although irradiation increased the nanohardness and the elastic modulus of PC, the irradiation effect on the surface mechanical properties of ceramic-coated PC was secondary.

  3. Etched-multilayer phase shifting masks for EUV lithography

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.

    2005-04-05

    A method is disclosed for the implementation of phase shifting masks for EUV lithography. The method involves directly etching material away from the multilayer coating of the mask, to cause a refractive phase shift in the mask. By etching into the multilayer (for example, by reactive ion etching), rather than depositing extra material on the top of the multilayer, there will be minimal absorption loss associated with the phase shift.

  4. High temperature stability multilayers for EUV condenser optics

    SciTech Connect

    Bajt, S; Stearns, D G

    2005-05-03

    We investigate the thermal stability of Mo/SiC multilayer coatings at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies show that upon annealing a thermally-induced structural relaxation occurs that transforms the polycrystalline Mo and amorphous SiC layers in as-deposited multilayers into amorphous Mo-Si-C alloy and crystalline SiC, respectively. After this relaxation process is complete the multilayer is stable at temperatures up to 400 C.

  5. Fabrication, characterization, and biological assessment of multilayer DNA coatings on sandblasted-dual acid etched titanium surface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Li-Na; Yang, Guo-Li; Zhao, Shi-Fang; He, Fu-Ming

    2011-06-01

    As local gene therapy has received attention, immobilizing functional gene onto irregular oral implant surface has become an advanced challenge. Electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique could achieve this goal and allow local and efficient administration of genes to the target cells. In this study, multilayers of cationic lipid/plasmid DNA (pEGFP-C1) complex (LDc) and anionic hyaluronic acid were assembled onto sandblasted-dual acid etched titanium disks by the LBL technique. Surface characteristics of the coatings were performed by x-ray photospectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cell biological characteristics of the coatings were evaluated by in vitro experiments. SEM results demonstrated that the porous titanium surface was gradually flattened with the increase of the multilayer. The XPS survey indicated that the N element was found from the coating. The coating degradation and pEGFP-C1 releasing kinetics showed that the more assembled layer numbers were, the larger the amount of DNA released in the first 30 h. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured directly on the DNA-loaded surface. Higher enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression efficiency was achieved by increasing the number of layers when cells were cultured after 24 or 72 h. The MC3T3-E1 cell viability on the surface of multilayer DNA coatings was significantly higher than that on control porous titanium surface. It was concluded that the approach established by the LBL technique had great potential in immobilizing gene coatings onto the porous titanium surface and subsequently influenced the function of the cultured cell. PMID:21448994

  6. Chemical vapor deposited silica coatings for solar mirror protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Dever, Therese M.; Banholzer, William F.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of techniques is available to apply protective coatings to oxidation susceptible spacecraft components, and each has associated advantages and disadvantages. Film applications by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has the advantage of being able to be applied conformally to objects of irregular shape. For this reason, a study was made of the oxygen plasma durability of thin film (less than 5000 A) silicon dioxide coatings applied by CVD. In these experiments, such coatings were applied to silver mirrors, which are strongly subject to oxidation, and which are proposed for use on the space station solar dynamic power system. Results indicate that such coatings can provide adequate protection without affecting the reflectance of the mirror. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that oxidation of the silver layer did occur at stress crack locations, but this did not affect the measured solar reflectances. Oxidation of the silver did not proceed beyond the immediate location of the crack. Such stress cracks did not occur in thinner silica flims, and hence such films would be desirable for this application.

  7. Structure in multilayer films of zinc sulfide and copper sulfide via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Andrew; Jewell, Leila; Bielecki, Anthony; Keiber, Trevor; Bridges, Frank; Carter, Sue; Alers, Glenn

    2014-01-15

    Multilayer film stacks of ZnS and Cu{sub x}S (x ∼ 2) were made via atomic layer deposition. The precursors were bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc, bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)copper, and H{sub 2}S generated in situ for sulfur. Samples were deposited at 200 °C, in layers ranging from approximately 2 to 20 nm thick, based on binary growth rates. The properties of the film stacks were studied with atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure. The results demonstrate that the structure of films with the thinnest layers is dominated by Cu{sub x}S, whereas in the thicker films, the structure is determined by whichever material is first deposited. This can be attributed to the crystal structure mismatch of ZnS and Cu{sub x}S.

  8. Heat-Resistant Co-W Catalytic Metals for Multilayer Graphene Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Kazuyoshi; Karasawa, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Satoru; Baba, Shotaro; Hanai, Hitoshi; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Sakuma, Naoshi; Kajita, Akihiro; Sakai, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    Multilayer graphene (MLG) is expected to be a low-resistance and high-reliability interconnect material replacing copper (Cu) in nanoscale interconnects. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on catalytic metals is expected as a practical method for MLG deposition. To obtain high-quality MLG films without catalyst agglomeration by CVD, heat-resistant Co-W catalytic metals were investigated. The agglomeration of the Co-W catalytic metals was suppressed by increasing the W composition; however, MLG deposition was suppressed at the same time. The effects of W addition on the MLG growth were discussed from the viewpoints of the crystallographic change of the Co-W catalysts and chemical reactions. It was found that the Co grain size was reduced and the fcc Co formation was suppressed by W addition. In addition, graphite formation was supposed to be suppressed by W addition owing to the formation of phases other than fcc Co according to the Co-W-C phase diagram. With the optimum W concentration, MLG crystallinity was improved by high-temperature CVD using the heat-resistant Co-W catalytic metals (0.7 at. %) without agglomeration, compared with that in the case of using pure-Co catalysts.

  9. Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates Deposited with Multilayer Films for PEMFC Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyun; Yun, Young-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    A chromium nitride (CrN, Cr2N)/chromium (Cr)/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) system and a gold (Au)/titanium (Ti) system were separately deposited using a sputtering method and an E-beam method, respectively, onto stainless steel 316 and 304 plates. The XRD patterns of the deposited stainless steel plates showed the crystalline phase of typical indium-tin oxide and of metallic phases, such as chromium, gold, and the metal substrate, as well as those of external chromium nitride films. The nitride films were composed of two metal nitride phases that consisted of CrN and Cr2N compounds. The surface morphologies of the modified stainless steel bipolar plates were observed using atomic force microscopy and FE-SEM. The chromium nitride (CrN, Cr2N)/chromium (Cr)/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) multilayer that was formed on the stainless steel plates had a surface microstructural morphology that consisted of fine columnar grains 10 nm in diameter and 60 nm in length. The external gold films that were formed on the stainless steel plates had a grain microstructure approximately 100 nm in diameter. The grain size of the external surface of the stainless steel plates with the gold (Au)/titanium (Ti) system increased with increasing gold film thickness. The electrical resistances and water contact angles of the stainless steel bipolar plates that were covered with the multilayer films were examined as a function of the thickness of the ITO film or of the external gold film. In the corrosion test, ICP-MS results indicated that the gold (Au)/titanium (Ti) films showed relatively excellent chemical stability after exposure to H2SO4 solution with pH 3 at 80 °C.

  10. Modulated plasma deposition of super hydrophobic fluorinated coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favia, Pietro

    2002-10-01

    Modulated (pulsed) RF glow discharges fed with unsaturated fluorocarbons originate often films with superior characteristics and remarkable monomer structure retention degree. Properties such as low dielectric constant, low friction coefficient, high flexibility and high hydrophobic character can be granted by such coatings, as well as applications in textiles, packaging, biomaterials, microelectronics and other fields [1-4]. Albeit the surface chemistry of fluorinated films has been extensively analysed, very few works deal with the investigation of the plasma phase and of the material morphology and crystalline. We present our last results on the plasma deposition of coatings from modulated glow discharges fed with tetrafluoroethylene. Period and Duty Cycle (DC) have been changed in the range 20-200 ms and 2-100%, respectively. Chemical composition and structure of the coatings were determined by means of XPS, SIMS, FT-IR and XRD measurements; SEM and AFM allowed morphological investigations. The diagnostics of the gas phase was carried out by time resolved (TR) OES [5] and by IR-AS diagnostics [6]. At low DC (< 10%) a unique morphology is observed at the surface of the films, in form of ribbon-like features many microns long and hundreds of nanometers wide, whose surface density increases at lower DC values. XPS has been used to determine the surface fluorine to carbon ratio of the coatings; best-fitting procedures of the C1s signals have been also carried out. XPS and SIMS results show a high F/C ratio and a chemical structure close to conventional PTFE for samples with ribbon-like features. Due to the combined presence of structures and high fluorination degree, structured surfaces revealed very high hydrophobic character (Water Contact Angle > 150^o). XRD patterns of the structured coatings exhibited a diffraction peak at 2Θ = 18^o, characteristic of crystalline PTFE [4, 6]; this finding, and the presence of the structures, open questions about the

  11. 5000 groove/mm multilayer-coated blazed grating with 33percent efficiency in the 3rd order in the EUV wavelength range

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard; Ahn, Minseung; Chang, Chih-Hao; Heilmann, Ralf; Schattenburg, Mark

    2009-07-07

    We report on recent progress in developing diffraction gratings which can potentially provide extremely high spectral resolution of 105-106 in the EUV and soft x-ray photon energy ranges. Such a grating was fabricated by deposition of a multilayer on a substrate which consists ofa 6-degree blazed grating with a high groove density. The fabrication of the substrate gratings was based on scanning interference lithography and anisotropic wet etch of silicon single crystals. The optimized fabrication process provided precise control of the grating periodicity, and the grating groove profile, together with very short anti-blazed facets, and near atomically smooth surface blazed facets. The blazed grating coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers demonstrated a diffraction efficiency in the third order as high as 33percent at an incidence angle of 11? and wavelength of 14.18 nm.

  12. Morphology, Composition, and Bioactivity of Strontium-Doped Brushite Coatings Deposited on Titanium Implants via Electrochemical Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yongqiang; Li, Haoyan; Xu, Jiang; Li, Xin; Qi, Mengchun; Hu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Surface modification techniques have been applied to generate titanium implant surfaces that promote osseointegration for use in dental applications. In this study, strontium-doped brushite coatings were deposited on titanium by electrochemical deposition. The phase composition of the coating was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface morphologies of the coatings were studied through scanning electron microscopy, and the cytocompatibility and bioactivity of the strontium-doped brushite coatings were evaluated using cultured osteoblasts. Osteoblast proliferation was enhanced by the addition of strontium, suggesting a possible mechanism by which strontium incorporation in brushite coatings increased bone formation surrounding the implants. Cell growth was also strongly influenced by the composition of the deposited coatings, with a 10% Sr-doped brushite coating inducing the greatest amount of bone formation among the tested materials. PMID:24901526

  13. Morphology, composition, and bioactivity of strontium-doped brushite coatings deposited on titanium implants via electrochemical deposition.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yongqiang; Li, Haoyan; Xu, Jiang; Li, Xin; Qi, Mengchun; Hu, Min

    2014-06-04

    Surface modification techniques have been applied to generate titanium implant surfaces that promote osseointegration for use in dental applications. In this study, strontium-doped brushite coatings were deposited on titanium by electrochemical deposition. The phase composition of the coating was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The surface morphologies of the coatings were studied through scanning electron microscopy, and the cytocompatibility and bioactivity of the strontium-doped brushite coatings were evaluated using cultured osteoblasts. Osteoblast proliferation was enhanced by the addition of strontium, suggesting a possible mechanism by which strontium incorporation in brushite coatings increased bone formation surrounding the implants. Cell growth was also strongly influenced by the composition of the deposited coatings, with a 10% Sr-doped brushite coating inducing the greatest amount of bone formation among the tested materials.

  14. Effect of graded interlayer on the mode I edge delamination by residual stresses in multilayer coating-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. C.; Xu, B. S.; Wang, H. D.; Wu, Y. X.

    2008-01-01

    The mode I edge delamination could be initiated due to the presence of the interfacial peeling stresses near the edges of the multilayered systems due to the material mismatches between the adjacent layers. However, the exact peeling stress distributions could not be obtained by using the existing analytical and numerical models. It was proposed recently that the peeling moment resulting from the localized peeling stresses could be used to characterize mode I edge delamination. In this paper, the effect of the graded interlayer on the mode I edge delamination by thermal residual stresses in multilayer coating-based systems was investigated. Following the previous analysis approaches, the exact closed-form solutions for the peeling moments at individual interfaces and the curvatures for bilayer system, typical thermal barrier coating (TBC) system and TBC-based system with a graded interlayer inserted between the metallic layer and the ceramic layer were, respectively, derived. Case studies showed that the edge delamination by thermal stress could be impeded by properly selecting the coating materials and individual layer thicknesses. These studies may provide some important insights for developing fail-safe designing methodologies for multilayered systems.

  15. Coating of Nafion membranes with polyelectrolyte multilayers to achieve high monovalent/divalent cation electrodialysis selectivities.

    PubMed

    White, Nicholas; Misovich, Maria; Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Bruening, Merlin L

    2015-04-01

    Electrodialysis (ED) membranes typically exhibit modest selectivities between monovalent and divalent ions. This paper reports a dramatic enhancement of the monovalent/divalent cation selectivities of Nafion 115 membranes through coating with multilayer poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/protonated poly(allylamine) (PAH) films. Remarkably, K(+)/Mg(2+) ED selectivities reach values >1000, and similar monovalent/divalent cation selectivities occur with feed solutions containing K(+) and Ca(2+). For comparison, the corresponding K(+)/Mg(2+) selectivity of bare Nafion 115 is only 1.8 ± 0.1. However, with 0.01 M KNO3 and 0.01 M Mg(NO3)2 in the source phase, as the applied current density increases from 1.27 to 2.54 mA cm(-2), the K(+)/Mg(2+) selectivities of coated membranes decrease from >1000 to 22. Water-splitting at strongly overlimiting current densities may lead to a local pH increase close to the membrane surface and alter film permeability or allow passage of Mg(OH)x species to decrease selectivity. When the source phase contains 0.1 M KNO3 and 0.1 M Mg(NO3)2, the K(+) transference number approaches unity and the K(+)/Mg(2+) selectivity is >20,000, presumably because the applied current is below the limiting value for K(+) and H(+) transport is negligible at this high K(+) concentration. The high selectivities of these membranes may enable electrodialysis applications such as purification of salts that contain divalent or trivalent ions.

  16. Development of superlattice CrN/NbN coatings for joint replacements deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hovsepian, Papken Ehiasarian; Ehiasarian, Arutiun Papken; Purandare, Yashodhan; Sugumaran, Arunprabhu Arunachalam; Marriott, Tim; Khan, Imran

    2016-09-01

    The demand for reliable coating on medical implants is ever growing. In this research, enhanced performance of medical implants was achieved by a CrN/NbN coating, utilising nanoscale multilayer/superlattice structure. The advantages of the novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering technology, namely, its unique highly ionised plasma, were exploited to deposit dense and strongly adherent coatings on CoCr implants. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed coating superlattice structure with bi-layer thickness of 3.5 nm. CrN/NbN deposited on CoCr samples showed exceptionally high adhesion, critical load values of LC2 = 50 N in scratch adhesion tests. Nanoindentation tests showed high hardness of 34 GPa and Young's modulus of 447 GPa. Low coefficient of friction (μ) 0.49 and coating wear coefficient (K C) = 4.94 × 10(-16) m(3) N(-1) m(-1) were recorded in dry sliding tests. Metal ion release studies showed a reduction in Co, Cr and Mo release at physiological and elevated temperatures (70 °C) to almost undetectable levels (<1 ppb). Rotating beam fatigue testing showed a significant increase in fatigue strength from 349 ± 59 MPa (uncoated) to 539 ± 59 MPa (coated). In vitro biological testing has been performed in order to assess the safety of the coating in biological environment; cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and sensitisation testing have been performed, all showing no adverse effects.

  17. Development of superlattice CrN/NbN coatings for joint replacements deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hovsepian, Papken Ehiasarian; Ehiasarian, Arutiun Papken; Purandare, Yashodhan; Sugumaran, Arunprabhu Arunachalam; Marriott, Tim; Khan, Imran

    2016-09-01

    The demand for reliable coating on medical implants is ever growing. In this research, enhanced performance of medical implants was achieved by a CrN/NbN coating, utilising nanoscale multilayer/superlattice structure. The advantages of the novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering technology, namely, its unique highly ionised plasma, were exploited to deposit dense and strongly adherent coatings on CoCr implants. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed coating superlattice structure with bi-layer thickness of 3.5 nm. CrN/NbN deposited on CoCr samples showed exceptionally high adhesion, critical load values of LC2 = 50 N in scratch adhesion tests. Nanoindentation tests showed high hardness of 34 GPa and Young's modulus of 447 GPa. Low coefficient of friction (μ) 0.49 and coating wear coefficient (K C) = 4.94 × 10(-16) m(3) N(-1) m(-1) were recorded in dry sliding tests. Metal ion release studies showed a reduction in Co, Cr and Mo release at physiological and elevated temperatures (70 °C) to almost undetectable levels (<1 ppb). Rotating beam fatigue testing showed a significant increase in fatigue strength from 349 ± 59 MPa (uncoated) to 539 ± 59 MPa (coated). In vitro biological testing has been performed in order to assess the safety of the coating in biological environment; cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and sensitisation testing have been performed, all showing no adverse effects. PMID:27571960

  18. SiC/C Multi-Layered Sensor for Measurement of Recession Rate of Oxidation Protection Coating during Re-Entry from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ayaka; Koyama, Masashi; Ookita, Hiroshi; Shiota, Ichiro

    In order to develop reusable space vehicle, it is important to ensure sufficient reliability of thermal protection systems under re-entry environments. For such a purpose, a sensor system to detect a recession rate of anti-oxidation SiC coating on carbon-carbon composite was attempted to be developed. This sensor consisted of multi-layered SiC/carbon coating on a SiC substrate, and high temperature oxidation damage of SiC in the multi-layered coating can be detected by the change of electric resistant of the coating caused by oxidation of carbon layers. In the present paper, conceptual design of the sensor was presented and several required technologies to develop the sensor were discussed. The discussion included how to form the multilayered coating and measuring technique of the electric resistance at high temperatures.

  19. Multilayered Graphene in Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhir, P.; Volynets, N.; Maksimenko, S.; Kaplas, T.; Svirko, Yu.

    2013-05-01

    We report on the experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) properties of multilayered graphene in Ka-band synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in between nanometrically thin Cu catalyst film and dielectric (SiO2) substrate. The quality of the produced multilayered graphene samples were monitored by Raman spectroscopy. The thickness of graphene films was controlled by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and was found to be a few nanometers (up to 5 nm). We discovered, that the fabricated graphene provided remarkably high EM shielding efficiency caused by absorption losses at the level of 35-43% of incident power. Being highly conductive at room temperature, multi-layer graphene emerges as a promising material for manufacturing ultrathin microwave coatings to be used in aerospace applications.

  20. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of stable collagen/hyaluronic acid biomimetic multilayer on titanium coatings

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Haiyong; Xie, Youtao; Tan, Honglue; Yang, Shengbing; Li, Kai; Wu, Xiaodong; Zheng, Xuebin; Tang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique has been proved to be a highly effective method to immobilize the main components of the extracellular matrix such as collagen and hyaluronic acid on titanium-based implants and form a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film by electrostatic interaction. However, the formed PEM film is unstable in the physiological environment and affects the long-time effectiveness of PEM film. In this study, a modified LBL technology has been developed to fabricate a stable collagen/hyaluronic acid (Col/HA) PEM film on titanium coating (TC) by introducing covalent immobilization. Scanning electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the PEM film. Results of Sirius red staining demonstrated that the chemical stability of PEM film was greatly improved by covalent cross-linking. Cell culture assays further illustrated that the functions of human mesenchymal stem cells, such as attachment, spreading, proliferation and differentiation, were obviously enhanced by the covalently immobilized Col/HA PEM on TCs compared with the absorbed Col/HA PEM. The improved stability and biological properties of the Col/HA PEM covalently immobilized TC may be beneficial to the early osseointegration of the implants. PMID:23635490

  1. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten and testing of tungsten layers and coating under intense plasma load

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Buzhinskiy, O. I.; Grunin, A. V.; Gordeev, A. A.; Zakharov, A. M.; Kalachev, A. M.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.; Shigin, P. A.

    2015-12-15

    A device intended for boron carbide coating deposition and material testing under high heat loads is presented. A boron carbide coating 5 μm thick was deposited on the tungsten substrate. These samples were subjected to thermocycling loads in the temperature range of 400–1500°C. Tungsten layers deposited on tungsten substrates were tested in similar conditions. Results of the surface analysis are presented.

  2. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten and testing of tungsten layers and coating under intense plasma load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Buzhinskiy, O. I.; Grunin, A. V.; Gordeev, A. A.; Zakharov, A. M.; Kalachev, A. M.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.; Shigin, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    A device intended for boron carbide coating deposition and material testing under high heat loads is presented. A boron carbide coating 5 μm thick was deposited on the tungsten substrate. These samples were subjected to thermocycling loads in the temperature range of 400-1500°C. Tungsten layers deposited on tungsten substrates were tested in similar conditions. Results of the surface analysis are presented.

  3. The influence of working gas pressure on interlayer mixing in magnetron-deposited Mo/Si multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Pershyn, Yuriy; Gullikson, Erik; Artyukov, Igor; Kondratenko, Valeriy; Sevryukova, Victoriya; Voronov, Dmitriy; Zubarev, Evgeniy; Vinogradov, Alexander

    2011-08-08

    Impact of Ar gas pressure (1-4 mTorr) on the growth of amorphous interlayers in Mo/Si multilayers deposited by magnetron sputtering was investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering ({lambda} = 0.154 nm) and methods of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Some reduction of thickness of the amorphous inter-layers with Ar pressure increase was found, while composition of the layers was enriched with molybdenum. The interface modification resulted in raise of EUV reflectance of the Mo/Si multilayers.

  4. Seedless growth of zinc oxide flower-shaped structures on multilayer graphene by electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A seedless growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) structures on multilayer (ML) graphene by electrochemical deposition without any pre-deposited ZnO seed layer or metal catalyst was studied. A high density of a mixture of vertically aligned/non-aligned ZnO rods and flower-shaped structures was obtained. ML graphene seems to generate the formation of flower-shaped structures due to the stacking boundaries. The nucleation of ZnO seems to be promoted at the stacking edges of ML graphene with the increase of applied current density, resulting in the formation of flower-shaped structures. The diameters of the rods/flower-shaped structures also increase with the applied current density. ZnO rods/flower-shaped structures with high aspect ratio over 5.0 and good crystallinity were obtained at the applied current densities of −0.5 and −1.0 mA/cm2. The growth mechanism was proposed. The growth involves the formation of ZnO nucleation below 80°C and the enhancement of the growth of vertically non-aligned rods and flower-shaped structures at 80°C. Such ZnO/graphene hybrid structure provides several potential applications in sensing devices. PMID:25024694

  5. Microstructural, transport, and RF properties of multilayer-deposited YBCO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavrao, L. R.; Track, E. K.; Drake, R. E.; Patt, R.; Hohenwarter, G. K. G.

    1991-03-01

    Thin films of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) have been fabricated by sequential multilayer RF magnetron sputter-deposition from Y2O3, BaCo3, and CuO targets and postannealing in oxygen. This approach readily allows precise control of the film stoichiometry and is promising for applications that require deposition over large areas. Films on different substrates-including SrTiO3, LaAlO3, MgO and sapphire-are found to be c-axis oriented for film thicknesses between 300 A and 10,000 A. Transport current densities in the range of 106 A/sq cm are obtained on SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 substrates and in the range of 105 A/sq cm on MgO and sapphire. Transition temperatures of 89 K (resistive) and 87 K (inductive) are obtained repeatably with LaAlO3 substrates. Copper cavity end wall measurements at 77 K and 35.6 GHz set an upper limit for the surface resistance of the YBCO films on LaAlO3 that is equal to the surface resistance of high-quality silver films. The fabrication and properties of these films are discussed.

  6. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  7. Composite films prepared by plasma ion-assisted deposition (IAD) for design and fabrication of antireflection coatings in visible and near-infrared spectral regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Ho, Fang C.

    1994-11-01

    Ion-assisted deposition (IAD) processes configured with a well-controlled plasma source at the center base of a vacuum chamber, which accommodates two independent e-gun sources, is used to deposition TiO2MgF2 and TiO2-SiO2 composite films of selected component ratios. Films prepared by this technology are found durable, uniform, and nonabsorbing in visible and near-IR regions. Single- and multilayer antireflection coatings with refractive index from 1.38 to 2.36 at (lambda) equals 550 nm are presented. Methods of enhancement in optical performance of these coatings are studied. The advantages of AR coatings formed by TiO2-MgF2 composite films over those similar systems consisting of TiO2-SiO2 composite films in both visible and near-IR regions are also presented.

  8. Multilayered coating on titanium for controlled release of antimicrobial peptides for the prevention of implant-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Lai, Benjamin F L; Ding, Chuanfan; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Hancock, Robert E W; Wang, Rizhi

    2013-08-01

    Prevention of bacterial colonization and formation of a bacterial biofilm on implant surfaces has been a challenge in orthopaedic surgery. The treatment of implant-associated infections with conventional antibiotics has become more complicated by the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial eluting coatings on implants is one of the most promising strategies that have been attempted. This study reports a controlled release of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) from titanium surface through a non-cytotoxic multilayered coating. Three layers of vertically oriented TiO2 nanotubes, a thin layer of calcium phosphate coating and a phospholipid (POPC) film were impregnated with a potent broad-spectrum AMP (HHC-36). The coating with controlled and sustained release of AMP was highly effective against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. No cytotoxicity to osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) was observed. Moderate platelet activation and adhesion on the implant surface with no observable activation in solution, and very low red blood cell lysis was observed on the implant. This multi-layer assembly can be a potential approach to locally deliver AMPs to prevent peri-implant infection in orthopaedics without being toxic to host cells. PMID:23680363

  9. Multilayered coating on titanium for controlled release of antimicrobial peptides for the prevention of implant-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Lai, Benjamin F L; Ding, Chuanfan; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Hancock, Robert E W; Wang, Rizhi

    2013-08-01

    Prevention of bacterial colonization and formation of a bacterial biofilm on implant surfaces has been a challenge in orthopaedic surgery. The treatment of implant-associated infections with conventional antibiotics has become more complicated by the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial eluting coatings on implants is one of the most promising strategies that have been attempted. This study reports a controlled release of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) from titanium surface through a non-cytotoxic multilayered coating. Three layers of vertically oriented TiO2 nanotubes, a thin layer of calcium phosphate coating and a phospholipid (POPC) film were impregnated with a potent broad-spectrum AMP (HHC-36). The coating with controlled and sustained release of AMP was highly effective against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. No cytotoxicity to osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) was observed. Moderate platelet activation and adhesion on the implant surface with no observable activation in solution, and very low red blood cell lysis was observed on the implant. This multi-layer assembly can be a potential approach to locally deliver AMPs to prevent peri-implant infection in orthopaedics without being toxic to host cells.

  10. An Experimental Study on Slurry Erosion Resistance of Single and Multilayered Deposits of Ni-WC Produced by Laser-Based Powder Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Prabu; Hamid, Syed; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2013-11-01

    Single and multilayered deposits containing different mass fractions of tungsten carbide (WC) in nickel (Ni)-matrix (NT-20, NT-60, NT-80) are deposited on a AISI 4140 steel substrate using a laser-based powder deposition process. The transverse cross section of the coupons reveals that the higher the mass fraction of WC in Ni-matrix leads to a more uniform distribution through Ni-matrix. The slurry erosion resistance of the fabricated coupons is tested at three different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet cutting machine, which is quantified based on the erosion rate. The top layer of a multilayered deposit (i.e., NT-60 in a two-layer NT-60 over NT-20 deposit) exhibits better erosion resistance at all three tested impingement angles when compared to a single-layer (NT-60) deposit. A definite increase in the erosion resistance is noted with an addition of nano-size WC particles. The relationship between the different mass fractions of reinforcement (WC) in the deposited composite material (Ni-WC) and their corresponding matrix (Ni) hardness on the erosion rate is studied. The eroded surface is analyzed in the light of a three-dimensional (3-D) profilometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that a volume fraction of approximately 62% of WC with a Ni-matrix hardness of 540 HV resulting in the gouging out of WC from the Ni-matrix by the action of slurry. It is concluded that the slurry erosion resistance of the AISI 4140 steel can be significantly enhanced by introducing single and multilayered deposits of Ni-WC composite material fabricated by the laser-based powder deposition process.

  11. A single-step enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor composed of functional multilayer coatings for the diagnosis of marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Funano, Shun-ichi; Sugahara, Masato; Henares, Terence G; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2015-03-01

    A single-step, easy-to-use enzyme immunoassay capillary sensor, composed of functional multilayer coatings, was developed in this study. The coatings were composed of substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating, hydrogel coating, and soluble coating containing an enzyme-labeled antibody. The response mechanism involved a spontaneous immunoreaction triggered by capillary action-mediated introduction of a sample antigen solution and subsequent separation of unreacted enzyme-labeled antibodies and antigen-enzyme-labeled antibody complexes by the molecular sieving effect of the hydrogel. An enzyme reaction at the substrate-immobilized hydrophobic coating/hydrogel coating interface resulted in a protein-selective fluorescence response. An antigen concentration-dependent response was obtained for diagnostic marker protein samples (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), 7.14-16.7 mg mL(-1); alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), 1.4-140 ng mL(-1); C-reactive protein (CRP), 0.5-10 μg mL(-1)) that cover a clinically important concentration range. The successful measurement of CRP in diluted serum samples demonstrated the application of this capillary sensor.

  12. Deposition and characterization of aluminum magnesium boride thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yun

    Boron-rich borides are a special group of materials possessing complex structures typically comprised of B12 icosahedra. All of the boron-rich borides sharing this common structural unit exhibit a variety of exceptional physical and electrical properties. In this work, a new ternary boride compound AlMgB14, which has been extensively studied in bulk form due to its novel mechanical properties, was fabricated into thin film coatings by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technology. The effect of processing conditions (laser operating modes, vacuum level, substrate temperature, and postannealing, etc.) on the composition, microstructure evolution, chemical bonding, and surface morphology of AlMgB14 thin film coatings has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry; the mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of AlMgB14 thin films have been characterized by nanoindentation, four-point probe, van der Pauw Hall measurement, activation energy measurement, and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. Experimental results show that AlMgB14 films deposited in the temperature range of 300 K - 873 K are amorphous. Depositions under a low vacuum level (5 x 10-5 Torr) can introduce a significant amount of C and O impurities into AlMgB14 films and lead to a complex oxide glass structure. Orthorhombic AlMgB14 phase cannot be obtained by subsequent high temperature annealing. By contrast, the orthorhombic AlMgB 14 crystal structure can be attained via high temperature-annealing of AlMgB14 films deposited under a high vacuum level (< 3 x 10-6 Torr), accompanied by strong texture formation. Low vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films have low hardness (10 GPa), but high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films exhibit an extremely high hardness (45 GPa - 51 GPa), and the higher deposition temperature results in still higher hardness

  13. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  14. Normal incidence multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, R. A.; Haisch, B. M.; Joki, E. G.; Catura, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sputtered multilayer coatings allow the use of normal incidence optics in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region below 500 A. Multilayer mirrors can be tailored to provide images at strong EUV lines in the sun and stars, in many cases making more efficient use of the telescope aperture than grazing incidence optics. Alternatively, the bandpass can be broadened at the expense of peak effective area, by varying the multilayer structure over the mirror surface. Such mirrors can also serve as optical elements in spectrographs for investigation of specific emission and absorption line complexes, and are self-filtering in that they reject nearby geocoronal and cosmic resonance line backgrounds. Current efforts at the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory in the design, fabrication, and testing of EUV multilayer mirrors are discussed. This program includes the design and fabrication of normal incidence EUV multilayer mirrors, and the deposition of multilayers on lacquer-coated substrates.

  15. Deposition and characterization of titania-silica optical multilayers by asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc sputtering of oxide targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagdeo, P. R.; Shinde, D. D.; Misal, J. S.; Kamble, N. M.; Tokas, R. B.; Biswas, A.; Poswal, A. K.; Thakur, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Sabharwal, S. C.

    2010-02-01

    Titania-silica (TiO2/SiO2) optical multilayer structures have been conventionally deposited by reactive sputtering of metallic targets. In order to overcome the problems of arcing, target poisoning and low deposition rates encountered there, the application of oxide targets was investigated in this work with asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. In order to evaluate the usefulness of this deposition methodology, an electric field optimized Fabry Perot mirror for He-Cd laser (λ = 441.6 nm) spectroscopy was deposited and characterized. For comparison, this mirror was also deposited by the reactive electron beam (EB) evaporation technique. The mirrors developed by the two complementary techniques were investigated for their microstructural and optical reflection properties invoking atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, grazing incidence reflectometry and spectrophotometry. From these measurements the layer geometry, optical constants, mass density, topography, surface and interface roughness and disorder parameters were evaluated. The microstructural properties and spectral functional characteristics of the pulsed dc sputtered multilayer mirror were found to be distinctively superior to the EB deposited mirror. The knowledge gathered during this study has been utilized to develop a 21-layer high-pass edge filter for radio photoluminescence dosimetry.

  16. Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Nitin Padture

    2011-12-31

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used in gas-turbine engines afford higher operating temperatures, resulting in enhanced efficiencies and performance. However, in the case of syngas-fired engines, fly ash particulate impurities that may be present in syngas can melt on the hotter TBC surfaces and form glassy deposits. These deposits can penetrate the TBCs leading to their failure. In experiments using lignite fly ash to simulate these conditions we show that conventional TBCs of composition 93wt% ZrO{sub 2} + 7wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (7YSZ) fabricated using the air plasma spray (APS) process are completely destroyed by the molten fly ash. The molten fly ash is found to penetrate the full thickness of the TBC. The mechanisms by which this occurs appear to be similar to those observed in degradation of 7YSZ TBCs by molten calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) sand and by molten volcanic ash in aircraft engines. In contrast, APS TBCs of Gd{sub 2Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composition are highly resistant to attack by molten lignite fly ash under identical conditions, where the molten ash penetrates ~25% of TBC thickness. This damage mitigation appears to be due to the formation of an impervious, stable crystalline layer at the fly ash/Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} TBC interface arresting the penetrating moltenfly- ash front. Additionally, these TBCs were tested using a rig with thermal gradient and simultaneous accumulation of ash. Modeling using an established mechanics model has been performed to illustrate the modes of delamination, as well as further opportunities to optimize coating microstructure. Transfer of the technology was developed in this program to all interested parties.

  17. Inorganic-organic thin implant coatings deposited by lasers.

    PubMed

    Sima, Felix; Davidson, Patricia M; Dentzer, Joseph; Gadiou, Roger; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Gallet, Olivier; Mihailescu, Ion N; Anselme, Karine

    2015-01-14

    The lifetime of bone implants inside the human body is directly related to their osseointegration. Ideally, future materials should be inspired by human tissues and provide the material structure-function relationship from which synthetic advanced biomimetic materials capable of replacing, repairing, or regenerating human tissues can be produced. This work describes the development of biomimetic thin coatings on titanium implants to improve implant osseointegration. The assembly of an inorganic-organic biomimetic structure by UV laser pulses is reported. The structure consists of a hydroxyapatite (HA) film grown onto a titanium substrate by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and activated by a top fibronectin (FN) coating deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was employed at fluences of 7 and 0.7J/cm(2) for HA and FN transfer, respectively. Films approximately 1500 and 450 nm thick were obtained for HA and FN, respectively. A new cryogenic temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry analysis method was employed to accurately measure the quantity of immobilized protein. We determined that less than 7 μg FN per cm(2) HA surface is adequate to improve adhesion, spreading, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. We believe that the proposed fabrication method opens the door to combining and immobilizing two or more inorganic and organic materials on a solid substrate in a well-defined manner. The flexibility of this method enables the synthesis of new hybrid materials by simply tailoring the irradiation conditions according to the thermo-physical properties of the starting materials.

  18. Inorganic-organic thin implant coatings deposited by lasers.

    PubMed

    Sima, Felix; Davidson, Patricia M; Dentzer, Joseph; Gadiou, Roger; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Gallet, Olivier; Mihailescu, Ion N; Anselme, Karine

    2015-01-14

    The lifetime of bone implants inside the human body is directly related to their osseointegration. Ideally, future materials should be inspired by human tissues and provide the material structure-function relationship from which synthetic advanced biomimetic materials capable of replacing, repairing, or regenerating human tissues can be produced. This work describes the development of biomimetic thin coatings on titanium implants to improve implant osseointegration. The assembly of an inorganic-organic biomimetic structure by UV laser pulses is reported. The structure consists of a hydroxyapatite (HA) film grown onto a titanium substrate by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) and activated by a top fibronectin (FN) coating deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was employed at fluences of 7 and 0.7J/cm(2) for HA and FN transfer, respectively. Films approximately 1500 and 450 nm thick were obtained for HA and FN, respectively. A new cryogenic temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry analysis method was employed to accurately measure the quantity of immobilized protein. We determined that less than 7 μg FN per cm(2) HA surface is adequate to improve adhesion, spreading, and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. We believe that the proposed fabrication method opens the door to combining and immobilizing two or more inorganic and organic materials on a solid substrate in a well-defined manner. The flexibility of this method enables the synthesis of new hybrid materials by simply tailoring the irradiation conditions according to the thermo-physical properties of the starting materials. PMID:25485841

  19. Apparatus and method for depositing coating onto porous substrate

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, A.O.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1986-09-02

    Disclosed is an apparatus for forming a chemically vapor deposited coating on a porous substrate where oxygen from a first gaseous reactant containing a source of oxygen permeates through the pores of the substrate to react with a second gaseous reactant that is present on the other side of the substrate. The apparatus includes means for controlling the pressure and flow rate of each gaseous reactant, a manometer for measuring the difference in pressure between the gaseous reactants on each side of the substrate, and means for changing the difference in pressure between the gaseous reactants. Also disclosed is a method of detecting and closing cracks in the coating by reducing the pressure difference between the two gaseous reactants whenever the pressure difference falls suddenly after gradually rising, then again increasing the pressure difference on the two gases. The attack by the by-products of the reaction on the substrate are reduced by maintaining the flow rate of the first reactant through the pores of the substrate. 1 fig.

  20. Apparatus and method for depositing coating onto porous substrate

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for forming a chemically vapor deposited coating on a porous substrate where oxygen from a first gaseous reactant containing a source of oxygen permeates through the pores of the substrate to react with a second gaseous reactant that is present on the other side of the substrate. The apparatus includes means for controlling the pressure and flow rate of each gaseous reactant, a manometer for measuring the difference in pressure between the gaseous reactants on each side of the substrate, and means for changing the difference in pressure between the gaseous reactants. Also disclosed is a method of detecting and closing cracks in the coating by reducing the pressure difference between the two gaseous reactants whenever the pressure difference falls suddenly after gradually rising, then again increasing the pressure difference on the two gases. The attack by the by-products of the reaction on the substrate are reduced by maintaining the flow rate of the first reactant through the pores of the substrate.

  1. Ion-beam-deposited boron carbide coatings for the extreme ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Blumenstock, G M; Keski-Kuha, R A

    1994-09-01

    The normal-incidence reflectance of ion-beam-deposited boron carbide thin films has been evaluated in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region. High-reflectance coatings have been produced with reflectances greater than 30% between 67 and 121.6 nm. This high reflectance makes ion-beam-deposited boron carbide an attractive coating for EUV applications.

  2. Investigation of Microwave Surface-Wave Plasma Deposited SiOx Coatings on Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan; Yang, Lizhen; Chen, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we reported nano-scale SiOx coatings deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) webs by microwave surface-wave assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for the purpose of improving their barrier properties. Oxygen (O2) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) were employed as oxidant gas and Si monomer during SiOx deposition, respectively. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) for chemical structure and observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for surface morphology of SiOx coatings demonstrated that both chemical compounds and surface feature of coatings have a remarkable influence on the coating barrier properties. It is noted that the processing parameters play a critical role in the barrier properties of coatings. After optimization of the SiOx coatings deposition conditions, i.e. the discharge power of 1500 W, 2:1 of O2 : HMDSO ratio and working pressure of 20 Pa, a better barrier property was achieved in this work.

  3. Method of depositing a coating on Si-based ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor); Lau, Yuk-Chiu (Inventor); Spitsberg, Irene (Inventor); Henry, Arnold T. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A process of depositing a coating system suitable for use as an environmental barrier coating on various substrate materials, particularly those containing silicon and intended for high temperature applications such as the hostile thermal environment of a gas turbine engine. The process comprises depositing a first coating layer containing mullite, and preferably a second coating layer of an alkaline earth aluminosilicate, such as barium-strontium-aluminosilicate (BSAS), by thermal spraying while maintaining the substrate at a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less, preferably 500.degree. C. or less, by which a substantially crack-free coating system is produced with desirable mechanical integrity.

  4. Characterizing the focus of a multilayer coated off-axis parabola for FLASH beam at λ = 4.3 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontowich, Adam F. G.; Aquila, Andrew; Stellato, Francesco; Bean, Richard; Fleckenstein, Holger; Prasciolu, Mauro; Liang, Mengning; DePonte, Daniel P.; Barty, Anton; Wang, Fenglin; Andreasson, Jakob; Hajdu, Janos; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša.

    2013-05-01

    A super-polished substrate with an off-axis parabola figure was coated with a Sc/B4C/Cr multilayer. This optic was used to focus pulses of 4.3 nm photons from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) at normal incidence. Beam imprints were made in poly(methyl methacrylate) to align the optic and to measure the beam profile at the focal plane. The intense interaction resulted in imprints with raised perimeters, surrounded by ablated material extending out several micrometres. These features interfere with the beam profile measurement. The effect of a post-exposure development step on the beam imprints was investigated.

  5. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of environmental barrier coatings for the inhibition of solid deposit formation from heated jet fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Arun Ram

    Solid deposit formation from jet fuel compromises the fuel handling system of an aviation turbine engine and increases the maintenance downtime of an aircraft. The deposit formation process depends upon the composition of the fuel, the nature of metal surfaces that come in contact with the heated fuel and the operating conditions of the engine. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of substrate surfaces on the amount and nature of solid deposits in the intermediate regime where both autoxidation and pyrolysis play an important role in deposit formation. A particular focus has been directed to examining the effectiveness of barrier coatings produced by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on metal surfaces for inhibiting the solid deposit formation from jet fuel degradation. In the first part of the experimental study, a commercial Jet-A sample was stressed in a flow reactor on seven different metal surfaces: AISI316, AISI 321, AISI 304, AISI 347, Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Inconel 750X and FecrAlloy. Examination of deposits by thermal and microscopic analysis shows that the solid deposit formation is influenced by the interaction of organosulfur compounds and autoxidation products with the metal surfaces. The nature of metal sulfides was predicted by Fe-Ni-S ternary phase diagram. Thermal stressing on uncoated surfaces produced coke deposits with varying degree of structural order. They are hydrogen-rich and structurally disordered deposits, spherulitic deposits, small carbon particles with relatively ordered structures and large platelets of ordered carbon structures formed by metal catalysis. In the second part of the study, environmental barrier coatings were deposited on tube surfaces to inhibit solid deposit formation from the heated fuel. A new CVD system was configured by the proper choice of components for mass flow, pressure and temperature control in the reactor. A bubbler was designed to deliver the precursor into the reactor

  6. Deposition and characterization of pyrocarbon coatings produced by use of CO/sub 2/ dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.; Lackey, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    A Biso-coated fuel particle for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) consists of a 500 ..mu..m ThO/sub 2/ kernel, an 85-..mu..m layer of low-density carbon, and a 75-..mu..m layer of high-density pyrocarbon. Coatings produced from mixtures of 50% propylene, 25% CO/sub 2/, and 25% Ar were found to be more gastight than were coatings produced from mixtures of propylene and argon, helium, or H/sub 2/. Higher concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in the gas mixture caused severe oxidation of graphite components within the coating furnace. The permeability of coatings deposited by use of CO/sub 2/ dilution was found to depend on the deposition temperature. Low deposition temperatures produced more gastight coatings. It was determined that CO/sub 2/ had little or no effect on coating anisotropy. 6 figures.

  7. Study on x-ray multilayer monochromator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changxin; Li, Mao-Lian; Miao, Tongqun; Lu, Xilin; Ma, Lie; An, Qingxiang; Liang, Guoli

    1993-01-01

    At present natural crystal TLAP used usually is replaced by artificial coated with multilayer for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectral analysis. X-ray multilayer monochromator can be used for analyzing light elements such as F, Na, Mg etc. Diffraction intensity of the multilayer component is 5 times higher than that of TLAP. This paper describes operating principle, Fabrication method and technique of the X-ray multilayer monochromator and the components are used Model 3080 E sequential X-ray fluorescence spectroscope. The multilayer diffraction components are fabricated by means of coating alternatively multilayer with high and low electron density elements on single crystal silicon substrate by vapor deposition or sputtering. Gap between multilayers is d to be equivalent to lattice constant of crystal. Sample is excited to emit fluorescence with multi-wavelength when X-ray beam illuminates surface of the sample. Fluorescence emitted passes through collimator and incidences on multilayer diffraction component to be diffracted into various wavelengths which are corresponding some angles. Contents of elements in samples can be detected according to Bragg diffraction principle. Key technologies fabricating multilayer diffraction components are how to polish super-smooth surface substrate and to control d value of thickness of multilayer. Roughness of Si(111) substrate polished by us is up to 0.1 nm RMS. Gap d 2.5 nm between multilayers. It is very difficult to realize specification as mentioned above. Thicknesses of layers are controlled by quartz piezoelectric crystal and their monitor controlling errors is about 0.34 nm RMS. Ion sputtering device is adopted to improve surface finish and construct specialty of the layers. Finally we have developed multilayer diffraction components which have been used to analyze F, Na and Mg etc. by X-ray fluorescence spectroscope.

  8. Hybrid nanocomposite coatings from metal (Mg alloy)-drug deposited onto medical implant by laser adaptive ablation deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbezov, Valery; Sotirov, Sotir; Serbezov, Svetlin

    2013-03-01

    Drug-eluting medical implants are active implants whose function is to create healing effects. The current requirements for active medical coatings for Drug-eluting medical implants are to be biocompatible, biodegradable, polymer free, mechanically stable and enable a controlled release of one or more drugs and defined degradation. This brings hybrid nanocomposite coatings into focus especially in the field of cardiovascular implants. We studied the properties of Metal (Mg alloy)-Paclitaxel coatings obtained by novel Laser Adaptive Ablation Deposition Technique (LAAD) onto cardiovascular stents from 316 LVM stainless steel material. The morphology and topology of coatings were studied by Bright field / Fluorescence optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Comparative measurements were made of the morphology and topology of hybrid, polymer free nanocomposite coatings deposited by LAAD and polymerdrug coatings deposited by classical spray technique. The coatings obtained by LAAD are homogeneous without damages and cracks. Metal nanoparticles with sizes from 40 nm to 230 nm were obtained in drug matrixes. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) was used for identification of metal nanoparticles presence in hybrid nanocomposites coatings. The new technology opens up possibilities to obtain new hybrid nanocomposite coatings with applications in medicine, pharmacy and biochemistry.

  9. Biodegradable, multi-layered coatings for controlled release of small molecules†

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Elizabeth; Antoni, Per; Campos, Luis M.; Damiron, Denis; Gupta, Nalini; Amir, Roey J.; Pesika, Noshir; Drockenmuller, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Incorporation of orthogonal functional groups into biodegradable polymers permits the fabrication of multi-layered thin films with improved adhesion and tunable degradation profiles. The bi-layer structure also allows for accurate control over small molecule release. PMID:22499161

  10. Influence of substrate metal alloy type on the properties of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited using a novel ambient temperature deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Barry, J N; Cowley, A; McNally, P J; Dowling, D P

    2014-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are applied widely to enhance the level of osteointegration onto orthopedic implants. Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) is typically used for the deposition of these coatings; however, HA crystalline changes regularly occur during this high-thermal process. This article reports on the evaluation of a novel low-temperature (<47°C) HA deposition technique, called CoBlast, for the application of crystalline HA coatings. To-date, reports on the CoBlast technique have been limited to titanium alloy substrates. This study addresses the suitability of the CoBlast technique for the deposition of HA coatings on a number of alternative metal alloys utilized in the fabrication of orthopedic devices. In addition to titanium grade 5, both cobalt chromium and stainless steel 316 were investigated. In this study, HA coatings were deposited using both the CoBlast and the plasma sprayed techniques, and the resultant HA coating and substrate properties were evaluated and compared. The CoBlast-deposited HA coatings were found to present similar surface morphologies, interfacial properties, and composition irrespective of the substrate alloy type. Coating thickness however displayed some variation with the substrate alloy, ranging from 2.0 to 3.0 μm. This perhaps is associated with the electronegativity of the metal alloys. The APS-treated samples exhibited evidence of both coating, and significantly, substrate phase alterations for two metal alloys; titanium grade 5 and cobalt chrome. Conversely, the CoBlast-processed samples exhibited no phase changes in the substrates after depositions. The APS alterations were attributed to the brief, but high-intensity temperatures experienced during processing.

  11. Effect of Different TiO2-SiO2 Multilayer Coatings Applied by Sol-Gel Method on Antireflective Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lari, Najme; Ahangarani, Shahrokh; Shanaghi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Multilayer thin films prepared using the sol-gel process have been used in many antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanoscale multilayer TiO2-SiO2 coatings were formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining sol-gel method and dip coating techniques. The coatings were carried out using tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursor for SiO2 and tetrabutyl orthotitanate as precursor for TiO2. The coatings prepared in this work were characterized using scanning electron microscope, Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glasses increased due to applied multilayer coating properties. Six-layer sol-gel TiO2-SiO2 coatings showed the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

  12. Mechanical and in vitro biological performances of hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube composite coatings deposited on Ti by aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Byung-Dong; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Dong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Lee, Byoung-Kuk; Shin, Du-Sik; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2009-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite coatings on Ti plate, produced by aerosol deposition using HA-CNT powders, were developed for biomedical applications. For the deposition process HA-CNT powder mixtures with CNT contents of 1 and 3 wt.% were used. Dense coatings with a thickness of 5 microm were fabricated, irrespective of the content of CNTs. No pores or microcracks were observed in the coatings. The coatings had good adhesion to the substrate, exhibiting a high adhesion strength, ranging from 27.3 to 29.0 MPa. Microstructural observation using field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that CNTs with a typical tubular structure were found in the HA-CNT composite coatings. Nanoindentation tests revealed that the mechanical properties, such as the hardness and elastic modulus, were significantly improved by the addition of the CNTs to the HA coating. In addition, the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells grown on the HA-CNT composite coatings were higher than those on the bare Ti and pure HA coating. The ALP activity of the composite coatings considerably improved as the CNT content increased. These results suggest that CNTs would be an effective reinforcing agent to enhance both the mechanical and biological performances of HA coatings.

  13. Microwave assisted apatite coating deposition on Ti6Al4V implants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-10-01

    In this work we report a novel microwave assisted technology to deposit a uniform, ultra-thin apatite coating without any cracks on titanium implants in minutes. This method comprises of conventional biomimetic coating in synergism with microwave irradiation to result in alkaline earth phosphate nucleation. The microwave assisted coating process mainly follows the initial stages of biomimetic coating until the step of the Ca-P nuclei formation. After that, due to microwave irradiation more Ca-P nuclei are formed to cover the whole surface of the implant instead of the growth of deposited Ca-P nuclei to Ca-P globules and coatings. It is interesting to note the doping of Mg(2+) to Ca-P apatite coating can significantly change the properties and performances of as-deposited coatings. The hydrophilicity, physical properties, bioactivity, cell adhesion, and growth capability of as-deposited microwave assisted coatings were investigated. The study shows that this coating technology has great potential in biomedical applications. Additionally, since biomimetic coating can be applied to series of implant materials such as polymer, metals and glass, it is expected this microwave assisted coating technology can also be applied to these materials if they can remains stable at 100 °C, the boiling point of water.

  14. Microwave assisted apatite coating deposition on Ti6Al4V implants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-10-01

    In this work we report a novel microwave assisted technology to deposit a uniform, ultra-thin apatite coating without any cracks on titanium implants in minutes. This method comprises of conventional biomimetic coating in synergism with microwave irradiation to result in alkaline earth phosphate nucleation. The microwave assisted coating process mainly follows the initial stages of biomimetic coating until the step of the Ca-P nuclei formation. After that, due to microwave irradiation more Ca-P nuclei are formed to cover the whole surface of the implant instead of the growth of deposited Ca-P nuclei to Ca-P globules and coatings. It is interesting to note the doping of Mg(2+) to Ca-P apatite coating can significantly change the properties and performances of as-deposited coatings. The hydrophilicity, physical properties, bioactivity, cell adhesion, and growth capability of as-deposited microwave assisted coatings were investigated. The study shows that this coating technology has great potential in biomedical applications. Additionally, since biomimetic coating can be applied to series of implant materials such as polymer, metals and glass, it is expected this microwave assisted coating technology can also be applied to these materials if they can remains stable at 100 °C, the boiling point of water. PMID:23910363

  15. Controllable in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles on multilayered film-coated silk fibers for antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mei; He, Huawei; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Xie, Jiale; Lu, Zhisong

    2016-01-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a versatile technique for the preparation of multilayered polymeric films. However, fabrication of LbL polymetic film on silk for the in situ growth of high-density silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has not been realized. Herein poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDDA) multilayers are constructed on silk via the LbL approach, subsequently serving as a 3-dimensional matrix for in situ synthesis of AgNPs. After 8 rounds of LbL assembly, the silk is fully covered with a layer of polymeric film. AgNPs with good crystalline structures could be in-situ generated in the silk-coated multilayers and their amount could be tailored by adjusting the bilayer numbers. The as-prepared silk could effectively kill the existing bacteria and inhibit the bacterial growth, demonstrating the antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the release of Ag(+) from the modified silk can last for 120 h, rendering the modified silk sustainable antimicrobial activity. This work may provide a novel method to prepare AgNPs-functionalized antimicrobial silk for potential applications in textile industry. PMID:26414419

  16. Controllable in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles on multilayered film-coated silk fibers for antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mei; He, Huawei; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Xie, Jiale; Lu, Zhisong

    2016-01-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a versatile technique for the preparation of multilayered polymeric films. However, fabrication of LbL polymetic film on silk for the in situ growth of high-density silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has not been realized. Herein poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDDA) multilayers are constructed on silk via the LbL approach, subsequently serving as a 3-dimensional matrix for in situ synthesis of AgNPs. After 8 rounds of LbL assembly, the silk is fully covered with a layer of polymeric film. AgNPs with good crystalline structures could be in-situ generated in the silk-coated multilayers and their amount could be tailored by adjusting the bilayer numbers. The as-prepared silk could effectively kill the existing bacteria and inhibit the bacterial growth, demonstrating the antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the release of Ag(+) from the modified silk can last for 120 h, rendering the modified silk sustainable antimicrobial activity. This work may provide a novel method to prepare AgNPs-functionalized antimicrobial silk for potential applications in textile industry.

  17. Multilayer films with sharp, stable interfaces for use in EUV and soft X-ray application

    DOEpatents

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Bajt, Sasa

    2002-01-01

    The reflectivity and thermal stability of Mo/Si (molybdenum/silicon) multilayer films, used in soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region, is enhanced by deposition of a thin layer of boron carbide (e.g., B.sub.4 C) between alternating layers of Mo and Si. The invention is useful for reflective coatings for soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet optics, multilayer for masks, coatings for other wavelengths and multilayers for masks that are more thermally stable than pure Mo/Si multilayers

  18. THe hot-corrosion behavior of novel Co-deposited chromium-modified aluminide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, B.; Cheung, W.H.; Costa, W. Da; Young D.J. )

    1992-12-01

    This paper reports the successful co-deposition of inclusion-free chromium-modified aluminide coatings using a pack-cementation process. The substrate used was the nickel-base superalloy, Rene 80H. The coatings were of the outward-diffusion type; however, unlike the usual outward-diffusion coatings, the present coatings were relatively free of pack inclusions. The coatings consisted of [alpha]-Cr precipitates in a matrix of [beta]-NiAl. The morphology and distribution of the [alpha]-Cr precipitates could be adjusted to the extent that two types of coating structures could be obtained. The Type 1 coating structure contained lamellar [alpha]-Cr precipitates situated in the surface region of the coating, whereas the Type 2 coating structure contained small, spheroidal [alpha]-Cr precipitates distributed throughout the outer of a two-layered coating. Both coating types exhibited significantly improved hot-corrosion resistance in a 0.1% SO[sub 2]-O[sub 2] environment at 900[degrees]C compared to a commercial aluminide coating. A study of the corrosion behavior of Type 1 coatings containing pack inclusions showed that the inclusions were deleterious to the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The corrosion behavior of chromium-aluminide coatings was dependent on both the distribution and amount of [alpha]-Cr precipitates in the coating.

  19. Application of solution deposition techniques to coated conductor fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan

    2000-12-01

    Coated conductors offer a viable alternative to the BSCCO PIT tapes. However, at the current juncture, results are being reported for conductors with buffer layers and superconductor layers processed using conventional thin film deposition which are vacuum based. Also these conductors are fabricated using four or five buffer layers between the superconductor and the metal substrate. These aspects of the fabrication route drive the cost of the process to prohibitively high values. This work is directed at the development of fabrication routes for cube textured nickel substrates, and metallorganic decomposition (MOD) routes for buffer layers and Y123 layers using simple solution based techniques which can be readily scaled. Studies of cube texturing of nickel using rolling and recrystallization showed that it is possible to produce textured nickel substrates with a FWHM of 8--10°. The substrate quality of the nickel is determined by the purity of the cube texture and the cleanliness of the surface. Processing of oriented buffer layers of barium zirconate and strontium titanate using simple metal organic decomposition routes have been studied. These processes, which use precursor solutions made by dissolution of simple acetates in common solvents like acetic acid and methanol, produce highly oriented buffer layers even when processed in a partially reducing atmosphere. Therefore, these MOD routes for buffer layer processing are compatible with nickel substrates and produce buffer layers oriented as sharply as the underlying nickel substrate. Y123 processing using fluorinated precursors, as in the TFA process, effectively circumvents the BaCO3 problem associated with most MOD routes for Y123 processing. This route, under optimized process conditions, yields Y123 films with Jc of the order of 106 A/cm2 on single crystal substrates. Studies of the compatibility of the TFA process with the MOD buffer layers showed that current density of the order of 106 A/cm 2 can be

  20. Resistance to Corrosion of Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis in Nitrided Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Olaya, J. J.; Bethencourt, M.; Cifredo, G.; Blanco, G.

    2013-10-01

    Coatings of zirconium oxide were deposited onto three types of stainless steel, AISI 316L, 2205, and tool steel AISI D2, using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effect of the flux ratio on the process and its influence on the structure and morphology of the coatings were investigated. The coatings obtained, 600 nm thick, were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The resistance to corrosion of the coatings deposited over steel (not nitrided) and stainless steel nitrided (for 2 h at 823 K) in an ammonia atmosphere was evaluated. The zirconia coating enhances the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion, with the greatest increase in corrosion resistance being observed for tool steel. When the deposition is performed on previously nitrided stainless steel, the morphology of the surface improves and the coating is more homogeneous, which leads to an improved corrosion resistance.

  1. Inner Surface Coating of Non-Conductive Tubular Substrate Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreethawate, L.; Larpkiattaworn, S.; Jiemsirilers, S.; Uchikoshi, T.

    2011-10-01

    Inner surface of microporous alumina tube was coated with nanoporous alumina layer using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Polypyrrole (Ppy) film was formed on the inner wall of the porous tube to give electrical conductivity by chemical polymerization of pyrrole (Py). The nanoporous structure was controled using bimodal suspension of alumina powders with 0.6 μm and 30 nm in ethanol. The thickness of the coated layer was controlled by varying the processing parameters such as deposition time and DC applied voltage. After the deposition, the coated substrate was sintered at 1250°C for 2 h to bond the coated layer with the substrate.The microstructure of the substrate and the coated layer was observed by SEM. The results show the good interfacial joining between the substrate and the coated layer; they are not seperatated after the Ppy burnt-out. Crack-free and nanoporous layer on the microporous substrate was successfully fabricated.

  2. New insights in the structural and morphological properties of sol-gel deposited ZnO multilayer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demes, T.; Ternon, C.; Riassetto, D.; Roussel, H.; Rapenne, L.; Gélard, I.; Jimenez, C.; Stambouli, V.; Langlet, M.

    2016-08-01

    This study shows how the structural and morphological properties of sol-gel deposited ZnO films can be precisely tuned and selectively controlled. For that purpose, ZnO films have been deposited through a multilayer sol-gel route using solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate (ZAD) diluted in 1-butanol. The opto-geometrical, morphological, and structural properties of these films have been thoroughly studied in relation to the ZAD concentration in butanol, number of deposited single-layers, and heat-treatment conditions. On this basis, different physical processes occurring over the multilayer deposition procedure have been discussed to explain how the experimental parameters influence the film properties and enable to tune the grain size, texture coefficient, and surface coverage rate in a wide range of values. This work is a first step toward the optimized growth of ZnO nanowires on sol-gel films and their subsequent integration in 2D or 3D nanowire-based biosensors.

  3. Structure of as-deposited and heat-treated iron-zinc coatings from chloride bath

    SciTech Connect

    Drewien, C.A.; Goldstein, J.I.; Marder, A.R.

    1993-09-01

    The iron content, phase constitution, and microstructure of electrodeposited iron-zinc alloy (EZA) coatings, deposited from chloride baths, is described for as-deposited and heat-treated conditions of coatings containing bulk iron contents of 6, 8, 10, and 13 w/o. The observed influence of current density upon iron content, which in turn influences the phase constitution and microstructure of the coatings, is reported. The microstructure, composed of non-equilibrium phases that have nanometer grain sizes, is illustrated and described with respect to iron content, crystallography, and morphology. As-deposited {eta} phase coatings undergo transformations through a sequence of metastable phases when heated. The sequence of phase transformations varies with iron content, but the mechanisms of phase transformation from the as-deposited eta phase to the metastable G phase was found to be similar in 6, 8, and 10 w/o Fe coatings. Microstructural, compositional, and crystallographic changes associated with this phase transformation are discussed.

  4. Polyglycolic acid microneedles modified with inkjet-deposited antifungal coatings.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ryan D; Daniels, Justin; Stafslien, Shane; Nasir, Adnan; Lefebvre, Joe; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined use of piezoelectric inkjet printing to apply an antifungal agent, voriconazole, to the surfaces of biodegradable polyglycolic acid microneedles. Polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips (average tip radius = 25 ± 3 μm) were prepared using a combination of injection molding and drawing lithography. The elastic modulus (9.9 ± 0.3 GPa) and hardness (588.2 ± 33.8 MPa) values of the polyglycolic acid material were determined using nanoindentation and were found to be suitable for use in transdermal drug delivery devices. Voriconazole was deposited onto the polyglycolic acid microneedles by means of piezoelectric inkjet printing. It should be noted that voriconazole has poor solubility in water; however, it is readily soluble in many organic solvents. Optical imaging, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to examine the microneedle geometries and inkjet-deposited surface coatings. Furthermore, an in vitro agar plating study was performed on the unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles. Unlike the unmodified and vehicle-modified microneedles, the voriconazole-modified microneedles showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles did not show activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that piezoelectric inkjet printing may be useful for loading transdermal drug delivery devices such as polyglycolic acid microneedles with antifungal pharmacologic agents and other pharmacologic agents with poor solubility in aqueous solutions.

  5. Polyglycolic acid microneedles modified with inkjet-deposited antifungal coatings.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ryan D; Daniels, Justin; Stafslien, Shane; Nasir, Adnan; Lefebvre, Joe; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined use of piezoelectric inkjet printing to apply an antifungal agent, voriconazole, to the surfaces of biodegradable polyglycolic acid microneedles. Polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips (average tip radius = 25 ± 3 μm) were prepared using a combination of injection molding and drawing lithography. The elastic modulus (9.9 ± 0.3 GPa) and hardness (588.2 ± 33.8 MPa) values of the polyglycolic acid material were determined using nanoindentation and were found to be suitable for use in transdermal drug delivery devices. Voriconazole was deposited onto the polyglycolic acid microneedles by means of piezoelectric inkjet printing. It should be noted that voriconazole has poor solubility in water; however, it is readily soluble in many organic solvents. Optical imaging, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were utilized to examine the microneedle geometries and inkjet-deposited surface coatings. Furthermore, an in vitro agar plating study was performed on the unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles. Unlike the unmodified and vehicle-modified microneedles, the voriconazole-modified microneedles showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The unmodified, vehicle-modified, and voriconazole-modified microneedles did not show activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that piezoelectric inkjet printing may be useful for loading transdermal drug delivery devices such as polyglycolic acid microneedles with antifungal pharmacologic agents and other pharmacologic agents with poor solubility in aqueous solutions. PMID:25732934

  6. Low-Energy Plasma Spray (LEPS) Deposition of Hydroxyapatite/Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Biocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Parco, Maria; Stokes, Joseph; Looney, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Thermal spraying is widely employed to deposit hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-based biocomposites on hip and dental implants. For thick HA coatings (>150 μm), problems are generally associated with the build-up of residual stresses and lack of control of coating crystallinity. HA/polymer composite coatings are especially interesting to improve the pure HA coatings' mechanical properties. For instance, the polymer may help in releasing the residual stresses in the thick HA coatings. In addition, the selection of a bioresorbable polymer may enhance the coatings' biological behavior. However, there are major challenges associated with spraying ceramic and polymeric materials together because of their very different thermal properties. In this study, pure HA and HA/poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) thick coatings were deposited without significant thermal degradation by low-energy plasma spraying (LEPS). PCL has never been processed by thermal spraying, and its processing is a major achievement of this study. The influence of selected process parameters on microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties of HA and HA/PCL coatings was studied using statistical design of experiments (DOE). The HA deposition rate was significantly increased by the addition of PCL. The average porosity of biocomposite coatings was slightly increased, while retaining or even improving in some cases their fracture toughness and microhardness. Surface roughness of biocomposites was enhanced compared with HA pure coatings. Cell culture experiments showed that murine osteoblast-like cells attach and proliferate well on HA/PCL biocomposite deposits.

  7. Effect of surface fluorination of TiO2 particles on photocatalitytic activity of a hybrid multilayer coating obtained by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunfeng; Piscitelli, Filomena; Buonocore, Giovanna G; Lavorgna, Marino; Amendola, Eugenio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    A multilayer photoactive coating containing surface fluorinated TiO(2) nanoparticles and hybrid matrices by sol gel approach based on renewable chitosan was applied on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) film by a step wise spin-coating method. The upper photoactive layer contains nano-sized functionalized TiO(2) particles dispersed in a siloxane based matrix. For the purpose of improving TiO(2) dispersion at the air interface coating surface, TiO(2) nanoparticles were modified by silane coupling agent 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (FTS) with fluoro-organic side chains. An additional hybrid material consisting of chitosan (CS) cross-linked with 3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (GOTMS) was applied as interlayer between the PLA substrate and the upper photoactive coating to increase the adhesion and reciprocal affinity. The multilayer TiO(2)/CS-GOTMS coatings on PLA films showed a thickness of ~4-6 μm and resulted highly transparent. Their structure was exhaustively characterized by SEM, optical microscope, UV-vis spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the multilayer coatings were investigated using methyl orange (MeO) as a target pollutant; the results showed that PLA films coated with surface fluorinated particles exhibit higher activity than films with neat particles, because of a better dispersion of TiO(2) particles. The mechanical properties of PLA and films coated with fluorinated particles, irradiated by UV light were also investigated; the results showed that the degradation of PLA substrate was markedly suppressed because of the UV adsorptive action of the multilayer coating. PMID:22117597

  8. Nano structured physical vapor deposited coatings by means of picosecond laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Bobzin, K; Bagcivan, N; Ewering, M; Gillner, A; Beckemper, S; Hartmann, C; Theiss, S

    2011-10-01

    Molding of nano structures by injection molding leads to special requirements for the tools e.g., wear resistance and as low as possible release forces of the molded components. On the other hand it is not allowed to affect the replication precision. Physical vapor deposition is one of the promising technologies for applying coatings with adapted properties like high hardness, low roughness, low Young's modulus and less adhesion to the plastics melt. Although physical vapor deposition technology allows the deposition of films on micro structures without changing the structure significantly, film deposition on nano structures and small micro structures leads to a relevant change in surface topography. For this reason direct structuring of physical vapor deposition coatings might be beneficial. In this paper structuring was done using a picoseconds ultraviolet laser, Lumera Laser "Rapid," with a master oscillator power amplifier system at 355 nm. Two different coatings were deposited by magnetron sputter ion plating physical vapor deposition technology for laser structuring tests ((Cr, Al)N, (Cr, Al,Si)N). After deposition, the coatings were analyzed by common techniques regarding hardness, Young's modulus and morphology. The structures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show a high potential for laser structuring of coatings deposited via physical vapor deposition. Linear structures with sizes between 400 nm and 10microm were realized.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition of ceramic coatings on metals and ceramic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nable, Jun Co

    2005-07-01

    The research presented in this study consists of two major parts. The first part is about the development of ceramic coatings on metals by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Ceramics such as Al2O3 and Cr2O3, are used as protective coatings for materials used at elevated temperatures (>700°C). These metal oxides either exhibit oxidation resistance or have been used as environmental bond coats. Conventional methods of coating by chemical vapor deposition requires deposition temperatures of >950°C which could damage the substrate material during the coating process. Lower deposition temperatures (400 to 600°C) by MOCVD of these metal oxides were successful on Ni metal substrates. Surface modification such as pre-oxidation and etching were also investigated. In addition, a novel approach for the CVD of TiN on metals was developed. This new approach utilizes ambient pressure conditions which lead to deposition temperatures of 800°C or lower compared to conventional CVD of TiN at 1000°C. Titanium nitride can be used as an abrasive and wear coating on cutting and grinding tools. This nitride can also serve as a diffusion coating in metals. The second major part of this research involves the synthesis of interfacial coatings on ceramic reinforcing fibers for ceramic matrix composites. Aluminum and chromium oxides were deposited onto SiC, and Al2O3-SiO 2 fibers by MOCVD. The effects of the interface coatings on the tensile strength of ceramic fibers are also discussed. New duplex interface coatings consisting of BN or TiN together with Al2O3 or ZrO 2 were also successfully deposited and evaluated on SiC fibers.

  10. Pulsed laser deposition: the road to hybrid nanocomposites coatings and novel pulsed laser adaptive technique.

    PubMed

    Serbezov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    The applications of Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for producing nanoparticles, nanostructures and nanocomposites coatings based on recently developed laser ablating techniques and their convergence are being reviewed. The problems of in situ synthesis of hybrid inorganic-organic nanocomposites coatings by these techniques are being discussed. The novel modification of PLD called Pulsed Laser Adaptive Deposition (PLAD) technique is presented. The in situ synthesized inorganic/organic nanocomposites coatings from Magnesium (Mg) alloy/Rhodamine B and Mg alloy/ Desoximetasone by PLAD are described. The trends, applications and future development of discussed patented methods based on the laser ablating technologies for producing hybrid nanocomposite coatings have also been discussed in this review.

  11. In-situ formation of multiphase deposited thermal barrier coatings

    DOEpatents

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2004-01-13

    A multiphase ceramic thermal barrier coating is provided. The coating is adapted for use in high temperature applications in excess of about 1200.degree. C., for coating superalloy components of a combustion turbine engine. The coating comprises a ceramic single or two oxide base layer disposed on the substrate surface; and a ceramic oxide reaction product material disposed on the base layer, the reaction product comprising the reaction product of the base layer with a ceramic single or two oxide overlay layer.

  12. Inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on stainless steel by layer-by-layer deposition and surface-initiated atom-transfer-radical polymerization for combating biocorrosion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S J; Pehkonen, S O; Ting, Y P; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2009-03-01

    To improve the biocorrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) and to confer the bactericidal function on its surface for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, well-defined inorganic-organic hybrid coatings, consisting of the inner compact titanium oxide multilayers and outer dense poly(vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium) brushes, were successfully developed. Nanostructured titanium oxide multilayer coatings were first built up on the SS substrates via the layer-by-layer sol-gel deposition process. The trichlorosilane coupling agent, containing the alkyl halide atom-transfer-radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, was subsequently immobilized on the titanium oxide coatings for surface-initiated ATRP of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP). The pyridium nitrogen moieties of the covalently immobilized 4VP polymer, or P(4VP), brushes were quaternized with hexyl bromide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium salt on the SS surfaces. The excellent antibacterial efficiency of the grafted polycations, poly(vinyl-N-pyridinium bromide), was revealed by viable cell counts and atomic force microscopy images of the surface. The effectiveness of the hybrid coatings in corrosion protection was verified by the Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements.

  13. Single and multi-layered core-shell structures based on ZnO nanorods obtained by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2015-07-15

    Core–shell nanorod structures were prepared by a sequential synthesis using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Several samples consisting of ZnO nanorods were initially grown over TiO{sub 2} film-coated borosilicate glass substrates, following the synthesis conditions reported elsewhere. Later on, a uniform layer consisting of individual Al, Ni, Ti or Fe oxides was grown onto ZnO nanorod samples forming the so-called single MO{sub x}/ZnO nanorod core–shell structures, where MO{sub x} was the metal oxide shell. Additionally, a three-layer core–shell sample was developed by growing Fe, Ti and Fe oxides alternately, onto the ZnO nanorods. The microstructure of the core–shell materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to corroborate the formation of different metal oxides. X-ray diffraction outcomes for single core–shell structures showed solely the presence of ZnO as wurtzite and TiO{sub 2} as anatase. For the multi-layered shell sample, the existence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as hematite was also detected. Morphological observations suggested the existence of an outer material grown onto the nanorods and further microstructural analysis by HR-STEM confirmed the development of core–shell structures in all cases. These studies also showed that the individual Al, Fe, Ni and Ti oxide layers are amorphous; an observation that matched with X-ray diffraction analysis where no apparent extra oxides were detected. For the multi-layered sample, the development of a shell consisting of three different oxide layers onto the nanorods was found. Overall results showed that no alteration in the primary ZnO core was produced during the growth of the shells, indicating that the deposition technique used herein was and it is suitable for the synthesis of homogeneous and complex nanomaterials high in quality and purity. In addition

  14. Atomic layer deposited titanium dioxide coatings on KD-II silicon carbide fibers and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shiyi; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    To provide oxidation protection and/or to act as an interfacial coating, titanium oxide (TiO2) coatings were deposited on KD-II SiC fibers by employing atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique with tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and water (H2O) as precursors. The average deposition rate was about 0.08 nm per cycle, and the prepared coatings were smooth, uniform and conformal, shielding the fibers entirely. The as-deposited coatings were amorphous regardless of the coating thickness, and changed to anatase and rutile crystal phase after annealing at 600 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. The oxidation measurement suggests that the TiO2 coating enhanced the oxidation resistance of SiC fibers obviously. SiC fibers coated with a 70-nm-thick TiO2 layer retained a relatively high tensile strength of 1.66 GPa even after exposition to air at 1400 °C for 1 h, and thick silica layer was not observed. In contrast, uncoated SiC fibers were oxidized dramatically through the same oxidation treatment, covered with a macro-cracked thick silica film, and the tensile strength was not measurable due to interfilament adhesion. The above results indicate that TiO2 films deposited by ALD are a promising oxidation resistance coating for SiC fibers.

  15. Characterization and Performance of Magnetron-Sputtered Zirconium Coatings Deposited on 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akash; Murugesan, Somasundaram; Parameswaran, P.; Priya, R.; Thirumurugessan, R.; Muthukumar, N.; Mohandas, E.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Krishnamurthi, J.

    2016-09-01

    Zirconium coatings of different thicknesses have been deposited at 773 K on 9Cr-1Mo steel substrate using pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. These coatings were heat treated in vacuum at two different temperatures (1173 and 1273 K) for one hour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of Zr-coated samples revealed the formation of α-phase (HCP structure) of Zr. XRD analysis of heat-treated samples show the presence of Zr3Fe and Zr2Fe intermetallics. The lattice parameter of these coatings was calculated, and it matches with the bulk values when the thickness reached 2µm. In order to understand this, crystallite size and strain values of these coatings were calculated from XRD plots employing Williamson-Hall method. In order to assess the performance of the coatings, systematic corrosion tests were carried out. The corrosion current density calculated from the polarization behavior showed that the corrosion current density of the uncoated 9Cr-1Mo steel was higher than the coated sample before and after the heat treatment. Studies using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed that the coated steel has higher impedance than the uncoated steel. The corrosion resistance of 9Cr1Mo steel had improved after Zr coating. However, the corrosion resistance of the coating after heat treatment decreased when compared to the as-deposited coating. The microstructure and composition of the surface oxide film influence the corrosion resistance of the Zr-coated 9Cr1Mo steel.

  16. Cold spray deposition of Ti2AlC coatings for improved nuclear fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Benjamin R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hauch, Benjamin; Olson, Luke C.; Sindelar, Robert L.; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Coatings of Ti2AlC MAX phase compound have been successfully deposited on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) test flats, with the goal of enhancing the accident tolerance of LWR fuel cladding. Low temperature powder spray process, also known as cold spray, has been used to deposit coatings ∼90 μm in thickness using powder particles of <20 μm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the phase-content of the deposited coatings to be identical to the powders indicating that no phase transformation or oxidation had occurred during the coating deposition process. The coating exhibited a high hardness of about 800 HK and pin-on-disk wear tests using abrasive ruby ball counter-surface showed the wear resistance of the coating to be significantly superior to the Zry-4 substrate. Scratch tests revealed the coatings to be well-adhered to the Zry-4 substrate. Such mechanical integrity is required for claddings from the standpoint of fretting wear resistance and resisting wear handling and insertion. Air oxidation tests at 700 °C and simulated LOCA tests at 1005 °C in steam environment showed the coatings to be significantly more oxidation resistant compared to Zry-4 suggesting that such coatings can potentially provide accident tolerance to nuclear fuel cladding.

  17. High-speed deposition of titanium carbide coatings by laser-assisted metal–organic CVD

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yansheng; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A semiconductor laser was first used to prepare wide-area LCVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. • The effect of laser power for the deposition of TiC{sub x} coatings was discussed. • TiC{sub x} coatings showed a columnar cross section and a dense surface texture. • TiC{sub x} coatings had a 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous reports. • This study gives the possibility of LCVD applying on the preparation of TiC{sub x} coating. - Abstract: A semiconductor laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of titanium carbide (TiC{sub x}) coatings on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate using tetrakis (diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} as source materials were investigated. The influences of laser power (P{sub L}) and pre-heating temperature (T{sub pre}) on the microstructure and deposition rate of TiC{sub x} coatings were examined. Single phase of TiC{sub x} coatings were obtained at P{sub L} = 100–200 W. TiC{sub x} coatings had a cauliflower-like surface and columnar cross section. TiC{sub x} coatings in the present study had the highest R{sub dep} (54 μm/h) at a relative low T{sub dep} than those of conventional CVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. The highest volume deposition rate (V{sub dep}) of TiC{sub x} coatings was about 4.7 × 10{sup −12} m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, which had 3–10{sup 5} times larger deposition area and 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous LCVD using CO{sub 2}, Nd:YAG and argon ion laser.

  18. Sputter deposition of ZnS:Mn/SrS:Ce multilayer stacks for use as white phosphor thin film electroluminscent panels

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffner, J.A.; Tuenge, R.T.; Sun, Sey-Shing

    1995-07-01

    Sputter deposition of ZnS:Mn/SrS:Ce multilayered broad-band ``white`` emission thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) stacks has been investigated. To date, deposition of these multilayers has been limited to vacuum evaporation techniques and atomic layer epitaxy, both of which require two different substrate temperatures for growth of high quality ZnS and SrS. This repeated thermal cycling during multilayer deposition can induce stress, defects, and interdiffusion with adversely affect EL performance. Sputter deposition of ZnS and SrS produces high quality TFELs for a wider range of substrate temperatures. Both materials can be sputter deposited at a common temperature (300-350{degrees}C) which eliminates the need for thermal cycling and increases manufacturability. Luminance outputs from sputter deposited ZnS and SrS thin films are comparable to those from evaporated films, making sputtering an attractive alternative deposition technique for these materials. We report on the effects of sputter deposition parameters including chamber pressure, substrate temperature, and H2S process gas partial pressure on the resultant composition and morphology of ZnS:Mn and SrS:Ce thin films and multilayers. Their EL performance was evaluated and correlated to composition and morphology.

  19. Long period gratings coated with hafnium oxide by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for refractive index measurements.

    PubMed

    Melo, Luis; Burton, Geoff; Kubik, Philip; Wild, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Long period gratings (LPGs) are coated with hafnium oxide using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) to increase the sensitivity of these devices to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. PEALD allows deposition at low temperatures which reduces thermal degradation of UV-written LPGs. Depositions targeting three different coating thicknesses are investigated: 30 nm, 50 nm and 70 nm. Coating thickness measurements taken by scanning electron microscopy of the optical fibers confirm deposition of uniform coatings. The performance of the coated LPGs shows that deposition of hafnium oxide on LPGs induces two-step transition behavior of the cladding modes.

  20. Tribological characterization of chromium nitride coating deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, J. L.; Zhu, M. H.

    2009-06-01

    CrN coatings were prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technique. The influence of the deposition parameters (nitrogen partial pressure P, substrate bias voltage Vs and preheating of the substrate) on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the FCVA CrN coatings was investigated. Further, the FCVA CrN coating was compared in dry reciprocating sliding with commercial multi-arc ion plating (MAIP) CrN coating as to friction and wear properties. Profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) were used to evaluate the wear scars and the wear mechanisms were discussed. The results showed that the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of the FCVA CrN coatings were significantly dependent on the deposition parameters. The FCVA CrN coating deposited with P of 0.1 Pa, Vs of -100 V and without preheating exhibited the optimal mechanical and tribological properties. The FCVA CrN coating exhibited much better anti-abrasive and anti-spalling properties than the MAIP CrN coating, which was resulted from significant reduction of macroparticles and pitting defects by the FCVA technique. The MAIP CrN coating suffered severe concentrated wear by a combination wear mechanisms of delamination, abrasive and oxidative wear when high normal load was applied, while for the FCVA CrN coating the wear mechanisms were ultra-mild abrasive and oxidative wear.

  1. Fiber-optic ultrasonic hydrophone using short Fabry-Perot cavity with multilayer reflectors deposited on small stub.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Su; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2014-04-01

    A fiber-optic probe with dielectric multilayer films deposited on a small stub is studied for mega-hertz ultrasonic-wave detection in water. The small stub with a short Fabry-Perot cavity and distributed reflectors is attached on the fiber end. The structure is mechanically strong and withstands intense ultrasonic pressure. Ultrasonic waves at 1.56MHz are successfully detected in water with a good signal-to-noise ratio. The working principle and the characteristics are studied by comparing the ultrasonic sensitivity with that of a conventional piezoelectric hydrophone. The distance response and directional response are also investigated.

  2. Graphite Thin Films Consisting of Nanograins of Multilayer Graphene on Sapphire Substrates Directly Grown by Alcohol Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasaka, Yuta; Nakamura, Atsushi; Temmyo, Jiro

    2011-04-01

    Graphene has been attracting a strong interest as a transparent electrode as well as a THz nanoelectronic device owing to its unique properties. To date, large-area graphene growth has been realized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with a catalyst metal. To avoid the transfer of segregated graphene, we have examined directly graphite thin film growth on nonpolar a-sapphire substrates without any catalyst metal by alcohol CVD. Graphite thin films consisting of nanograins of multilayer graphene on a-sapphire substrates were verified by a combination of transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), and Raman analyses, and optical transparent and sheet resistance measurements.

  3. Correlation of Predicted and Observed Optical Properties of Multilayer Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal control coatings on spacecraft will be increasingly important, as spacecraft grow smaller and more compact. New thermal control coatings will be needed to meet the demanding requirements of next generation spacecraft. Computer programs are now available to design optical coatings and one such program was used to design several thermal control coatings consisting of alternating layers of WO3 and SiO2. The coatings were subsequently manufactured with electron beam evaporation and characterized with both optical and thermal techniques. Optical data were collected in both the visible region of the spectrum and the infrared. Predictions of solar absorptance and infrared emittance were successfully correlated to the observed thermal control properties. Functional performance of the coatings was verified in a bench top thermal vacuum chamber.

  4. Characterisation of the TiO2 coatings deposited by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, L. P.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma spraying of materials such as ceramics and non-metals, which have high melting points, has become a well-established commercial process. Such coatings are increasingly used in aerospace, automobile, textile, medical, printing and electrical industries to impart proprieties such as corrosion resistance, thermal resistance, wear resistance, etc. One of the most important characteristics of thermal barrier coatings is the ability to undergo fast temperature changes without failing, the so called thermal shock resistance. The formation of residual stresses in plasma sprayed ceramic and metallic coatings is a very complex process. Several factors, such as substrate material, substrate thickness, physical properties of both the substrate and the coating material, deposition rate, relative velocity of the plasma torch, etc. determine the final residual stress state of the coating at room temperature. Our objective is to characterize the titanium oxide and aluminium oxide coatings deposited by plasma spraying in structural terms, the resistance to thermal shock and residual stresses.

  5. Characterization of Environmental Stability of Pulsed Laser Deposited Oxide Ceramic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, THADM

    2004-03-02

    A systematic investigation of candidate hydrogen permeation materials applied to a substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition has been performed. The investigation focused on application of leading permeation-resistant materials types (oxide, carbides, and metals) on a stainless steel substrate. and evaluation of the stability of the applied coatings. Type 304L stainless steel substrates were coated with aluminum oxide, chromium oxide, and aluminum. Characterization of the coating-substrate system adhesion was performed using scratch adhesion testing and microindentation. Coating stability and environmental susceptibility were evaluated for two conditions-air at 350 degrees Celsius and Ar-H2 at 350 degrees Celsius for up to 100 hours. Results from this study have shown the pulsed laser deposition process to be an extremely versatile technology that is capable of producing a sound coating/substrate system for a wide variety of coating materials.

  6. Production of low fat french-fries with single and multi-layer hydrocolloid coatings.

    PubMed

    Daraei Garmakhany, A; Mirzaei, H O; Maghsudlo, Y; Kashaninejad, M; Jafari, S M

    2014-07-01

    In this study the influence of coating with different hydrocolloids on the oil absorption and quality attributes of French fries was investigated. Our results revealed that hydrocolloid coatings reduced the moisture loss during frying, and hence, reduced the oil uptake of French fries. Among the studied gums as a single layer coating, combination of carboxy methyl cellulose and pectin (0.5 and 1% w/w) lead to the lowest oil uptake of French fries. In samples coated with two and three-layer hydrocolloids, the oil absorption reduced further and the moisture content of final products was higher than the blank samples.

  7. Electrochemical Deposition of Metal-ceramic Composite Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Hong-Min; Feng, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Tian, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ning

    2016-05-01

    Nano-composite electrodeposition can improve the organizational structure of composite coatings and significantly improve the quality of the coating. Metal-ceramic composite coatings have improved mechanical, chemical and oxidation resistance properties, such as corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance and heat resistance. Content and distribution of codeposited particles determine the quality and performance of the coating. The factors which influenced the amount and distribution of codeposited particles were reviewed. The amount and distribution of codeposited particles are influenced by many process parameters, such as electrolyte composition and operating parameters. Finally an insight of the coming efforts to develop metal-ceramic composite coating is provided. It is the focus of future research to resolve reunion nanoparticles and improve codeposition amount and uniformly distributed nanoparticles of the coating.

  8. Nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayer film deposition on cotton fabrics by layer-by-layer deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Ugur, Sule S.; Sariisik, Merih; Aktas, A. Hakan

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Cationic charges were created on the cotton fibre surfaces with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride. {yields} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were deposited on the cotton fabrics by layer-by-layer deposition. {yields} The fabrics deposited with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit better UV-protection and significant flame retardancy properties. {yields} The mechanical properties were improved after surface film deposition. -- Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were used for fabrication of multilayer nanocomposite film deposition on cationic cotton fabrics by electrostatic self-assembly to improve the mechanical, UV-protection and flame retardancy properties of cotton fabrics. Cotton fabric surface was modified with a chemical reaction to build-up cationic charge known as cationization. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to verify the presence of deposited nanolayers. Air permeability, whiteness value, tensile strength, UV-transmittance and Limited Oxygen Index properties of cotton fabrics were analyzed before and after the treatment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles by electrostatic self-assemblies. It was proved that the flame retardancy, tensile strength and UV-transmittance of cotton fabrics can be improved by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle additive through electrostatic self-assembly process.

  9. Pyrolytic deposition of nanostructured titanium carbide coatings on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremlev, K. V.; Ob"edkov, A. M.; Ketkov, S. Yu.; Kaverin, B. S.; Semenov, N. M.; Gusev, S. A.; Tatarskii, D. A.; Yunin, P. A.

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured titanium carbide coatings have been deposited on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the MOCVD method with bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium dichloride precursor. The obtained TiC/MWCNT hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is established that a TiC coating deposits onto the MWCNT surface with the formation of a core-shell (MWSNT-TiC) type structure.

  10. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a coating tool for reinforcing fibers.

    PubMed

    Roy, A K; Baumann, W; König, I; Baumann, G; Schulze, S; Hietschold, M; Mäder, T; Nestler, D J; Wielage, B; Goedel, W A

    2010-03-01

    Layers of alumina were deposited on to bundled carbon fibers in an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process via sequential exposure to vapors of aluminium chloride and water, respectively. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of the coated fibers revealed that each individual fiber within a bundle was coated evenly and separately, fibers are not bridged by the coating. SEM and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images indicate that the coating was uniform and conformal with good adhesion to the fiber surface. Average deposition rate, measured from SEM images, was 0.06 nm per cycle at 500 °C. SEM also revealed that at deposition temperatures of 500 °C few of the fibers were damaged. At temperatures of 300 °C, no damaged fibers were observed, the average deposition rate decreased down to 0.033 nm per cycle. Oxidation resistance of the alumina-coated fibers was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The alumina coating improved oxidation resistance of the carbon fiber significantly. Oxidation onset temperature was 600 °C for fibers coated with a 45 nm thick alumina. Uncoated fibers, on the other hand, started to oxidize at temperatures as low as 250 °C.

  11. Multi-layer laser solid forming of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 amorphous coating: Microstructure and corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yu; Wang, Wenxian; Guan, Zhuosen; Cui, Zeqin

    2015-06-01

    Multi-layer Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 amorphous coatings were produced by laser solid forming on A283 substrate. The coatings with few pores and free of cracks had good metallurgical bonding with the substrate. The microstructural characterization, phase composition, chemical component distribution and corrosion behavior of the coatings were investigated. The results revealed that the amorphization degree increased from the substrate to the coating surface mainly due to the dilution and stir influence from the melted substrate. In the five layers coating, the volume fraction of amorphous phase in the 5th layer, 3rd layer and 1st layer was about 77%, 64% and 49% respectively. With regard to corrosion property, potentiodynamic polarization plots, Nyquist plots and the equivalent circuits were employed in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. Attributing to the presence of amorphous phase and passivation, the LSF coatings exhibit excellent corrosion resistance.

  12. An acoustic metamaterial composed of multi-layer membrane-coated perforated plates for low-frequency sound insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Shu-yi; Ding, Jin; Li, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Hui

    2015-04-01

    Insulating against low-frequency sound (below 500 Hz ) remains challenging despite the progress that has been achieved in sound insulation and absorption. In this work, an acoustic metamaterial based on membrane-coated perforated plates is presented for achieving sound insulation in a low-frequency range, even covering the lower audio frequency limit, 20 Hz . Theoretical analysis and finite element simulations demonstrate that this metamaterial can effectively block acoustic waves over a wide low-frequency band regardless of incident angles. Two mechanisms, non-resonance and monopolar resonance, operate in the metamaterial, resulting in a more powerful sound insulation ability than that achieved using periodically arranged multi-layer solid plates.

  13. Electric-Field Enhancement by Nodular Defects in Multilayer Coatings Irradiated at Normal and 45 (degree) Incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Genin, F Y; Pistor,T V

    2003-09-18

    The standing-wave electric-field profile within multilayer coatings is significantly perturbated by a nodular defect. The intensity, which is proportional to the electric field squared, is increased in the high index material by {>=}3x at normal incidence and {>=}12x at 45 degrees incidence angle. Therefore it is not surprising that nodular defects are initiation sites of laser-induced damage. In this study, the impact of reflectance-band centering and incident angle are explored for a 1 {micro}m diameter nodular defect seed overcoated with a 24 layer high-reflector constructed of quarter-wave thick alternating layers of hafnia and silica. The modeling was performed using a three-dimensional finite-element analysis code.

  14. Electrophoretic deposition of antibiotic loaded PHBV microsphere-alginate composite coating with controlled delivery potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Li, Wei; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Ding, Yaping; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-06-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique has been developed for the fabrication of antibiotic-loaded PHBV microsphere (MS)-alginate antibacterial coatings. The composite coatings deposited from suspensions with different MS concentrations were produced in order to demonstrate the versatility of the proposed method for achieving functional coatings with tailored drug loading and release profiles. Linearly increased deposit mass with increasing MS concentrations was obtained, and MS were found to be homogeneously stabilized in the alginate matrix. Chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability of the deposited coatings were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, laser profilometer and water contact angle instruments, respectively. The co-deposition mechanism was described by two separate processes according to the results of relevant measurements: (i) the deposition of alginate-adsorbed MS and (ii) the non-adsorbed alginate. Qualitative antibacterial tests indicated that MS containing coatings exhibit excellent inhibition effects against E. coli (gram-negative bacteria) after 1h of incubation. The proposed coating system combined with the simplicity of the EPD technique can be considered a promising surface modification approach for the controlled in situ delivery of drug or other biomolecules.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of antibiotic loaded PHBV microsphere-alginate composite coating with controlled delivery potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Li, Wei; Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Ding, Yaping; Cabanas-Polo, Sandra; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-06-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique has been developed for the fabrication of antibiotic-loaded PHBV microsphere (MS)-alginate antibacterial coatings. The composite coatings deposited from suspensions with different MS concentrations were produced in order to demonstrate the versatility of the proposed method for achieving functional coatings with tailored drug loading and release profiles. Linearly increased deposit mass with increasing MS concentrations was obtained, and MS were found to be homogeneously stabilized in the alginate matrix. Chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability of the deposited coatings were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, laser profilometer and water contact angle instruments, respectively. The co-deposition mechanism was described by two separate processes according to the results of relevant measurements: (i) the deposition of alginate-adsorbed MS and (ii) the non-adsorbed alginate. Qualitative antibacterial tests indicated that MS containing coatings exhibit excellent inhibition effects against E. coli (gram-negative bacteria) after 1h of incubation. The proposed coating system combined with the simplicity of the EPD technique can be considered a promising surface modification approach for the controlled in situ delivery of drug or other biomolecules. PMID:25921640

  16. Novel Bioactive Antimicrobial Lignin Containing Coatings on Titanium Obtained by Electrophoretic Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Erakovic, Sanja; Jankovic, Ana; Tsui, Gary C. P.; Tang, Chak-Yin; Miskovic-Stankovic, Vesna; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the most suitable biocompatible material for bone implant coatings; its brittleness, however, is a major obstacle, and the reason why research focuses on creating composites with biopolymers. Organosolv lignin (Lig) is used for the production of composite coatings, and these composites were examined in this study. Titanium substrate is a key biomedical material due to its well-known properties, but infections of the implantation site still impose a serious threat. One approach to prevent infection is to improve antimicrobial properties of the coating material. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag/HAP) and HAP coatings on titanium were obtained by an electrophoretic deposition method in order to control deposited coating mass and morphology by varying applied voltage and deposition time. The effect of lignin on microstructure, morphology and thermal behavior of biocomposite coatings was investigated. The results showed that higher lignin concentrations protect the HAP lattice during sintering, improving coating stability. The corrosion stability was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. Newly formed plate-shaped carbonate-HAP was detected, indicating enhanced bioactive performance. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag/HAP/Lig was confirmed by its higher reduction of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus TL (S. aureus TL) than of HAP/Lig coating. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that both coatings can be classified as non-toxic against healthy immunocompetent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PMID:25019343

  17. Effect of Heat Treatment on Wear Resistance of Nickel Aluminide Coatings Deposited by HVOF and PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benegra, M.; Santana, A. L. B.; Maranho, O.; Pintaude, G.

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the wear resistance of nickel aluminide coatings deposited using plasma transferred arc (PTA) and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) processes. Wear resistance was measured in rubber wheel abrasion tests. In both deposition processes, the same raw material (nickel aluminide powder) was atomized and deposited on a 316L steel plate substrate. After deposition, specimens were subjected to thermal cycling, aiming solubilization and precipitation. Coatings deposited using PTA developed different microstructures as a result of the incorporation of substrate elements. However, despite the presence of these microstructures, they performed better than coatings processed using HVOF before the heat treatment. After thermal cycling, the superficial hardness after the wear tests for both processes was similar, resulting in similar mass losses.

  18. Spontaneously intermixed Al-Mg barriers enable corrosion-resistant Mg/SiC multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Baker, Sherry L.; Robinson, Jeff C.; Alameda, Jennifer; Walton, Christopher C.

    2012-07-24

    Magnesium/silicon carbide (Mg/SiC) has the potential to be the best-performing reflective multilayercoating in the 25–80 nm wavelength region but suffers from Mg-related corrosion, an insidious problem which completely degrades reflectance. We have elucidated the origins and mechanisms of corrosion propagation within Mg/SiC multilayers. Based on our findings, we have demonstrated an efficient and simple-to-implement corrosion barrier for Mg/SiC multilayers. In conclusion, the barrier consists of nanometer-scale Mg and Al layers that intermix spontaneously to form a partially amorphous Al-Mg layer and is shown to prevent atmospheric corrosion while maintaining the unique combination of favorable Mg/SiC reflective properties.

  19. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  20. New capabilities and applications for electrophoretically deposited coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Our primary purpose in this test is to provide a brief general description of a few applications of various electrophoretic systems which have been investigated and have found use in various coating applications at Sandia National Laboratories. Both organic and inorganic suspensions in aqueous and non-aqueous media have been considered in these studies. Applications include high voltage insulating dielectrics, thermally conductive/electrically insulating films, adherent lubricating films, uniform photoresist films, glass coatings, and fissile uranium oxide/carbon composite films for studies of nuclear powered lasers. More recently, we have become interested in the beneficial environmental aspects of being able to provide protective polymer coatings which reduce or minimize the use of organic solvents required by traditional spray coat processes. Important practical factors which relate to film uniformity, adhesion, and composition are related to unique coating or plating capabilities and applications. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Characteristics of ZrC/ZrN and ZrC/TiN multilayers grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, D.; Bourne, G.; Socol, G.; Stefan, N.; Dorcioman, G.; Lambers, E.; Craciun, V.

    2011-04-01

    ZrC/ZrN and ZrC/TiN multilayers were grown on (1 0 0) Si substrates at 300 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser. X-ray diffraction investigations showed that films were crystalline, the strain and grain size depending on the nature and pressure of the gas used during deposition. The elemental composition, analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), showed that films contained a low level of oxygen contamination. Simulations of the X-ray reflectivity (XRR) curves acquired from films indicated a smooth surface morphology, with roughness below 1 nm (rms) and densities very close to bulk values. Nanoindentation results showed that the ZrC/ZrN and ZrC/TiN multilayer samples exhibited hardness values between 30 and 33 GPa, slightly higher than the values of 28-30 GPa measured for pure ZrC, TiN and ZrN films.

  2. Vapor-phase molecular layer deposition of self-assembled multilayers for organic thin-film transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung H; Lee, Kwang H; Im, Seongil; Sung, Myung M

    2009-12-01

    We report a vapor-phase molecular layer deposition (MLD) of self-assembled multilayer thin films for organic thin-film transistor. In the present MLD process, alkylsiloxane self-assembled multilayers (SAMs) were grown under vacuum by repeated sequential adsorptions of C=C-terminated alkylsilane and aluminum hydroxide with ozone activation. The MLD method is a self-controlled layer-by-layer growth process, and is perfectly compatible with the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The SAMs films prepared exhibited good mechanical flexibility and stability, excellent insulating properties, and relatively high dielectric capacitances of 374 nF/cm2 with a high dielectric strength of 4 MV/cm. They were then used as a 12 nm-thick dielectric for pentacene-based thin-film transistors (TFTs), which showed a maximum field effect mobility of 0.57 cm2/V s, operating at -4 V with an on/off current ratio of approximately 10(3).

  3. Effects of Plasma Polymer Films and Their Deposition Powers on the Barrier Characteristics of the Multilayer Encapsulation for Organic Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoonbae; Ban, Wonjin; Kwon, Sungruel; Yong, Sanghyun; Chae, Heeyeop; Jung, Donggeun

    2016-05-01

    Organic electronic devices (OEDs) are quite suitable for use in flexible devices due to their ruggedness and flexibility. A number of researchers have studied the use of OEDs on flexible substrates in transparent, flexible devices in the near future. However, water and oxygen can permeate through the flexible substrates and can reduce the longevity of OEDs made from organic materials, which are weak to moisture and oxygen. In order to prevent the degradation of the OEDs, researchers have applied an encapsulation layer to the flexible substrates. In this study, Al2O3/plasma polymer film/Al2O3 multi-layers were deposited on polyethylene-naphthalate substrates through a combination of atomic layer deposition and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The plasma polymer film, which is located between the Al2O3 films, is deposited via PECVD with the use of a tetrakis(trimethylsilyloxy)silane precursor. The power of the plasma deposition varied from 10 to 50 W. The hydrophobicity of the plasma polymer film surfaces was investigated by measuring the water contact angle. The chemical structures of the plasma polymer films were measured via ex-situ Fourier transform infrared analysis. The permeation curves of the various films were analyzed by performing a calcium (Ca)-test. PMID:27483936

  4. Multilayer Coating of Tetrandrine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: Effect of surface charges on cellular uptake rate and drug release profile.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Li, Ke; Chen, Zhe; Shi, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The effect of surface charges on the cellular uptake rate and drug release profile of tetrandrine-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (TPNs) was studied. Stabilizer-free nanoprecipitation method was used in this study for the synthesis of TPNs. A typical layer-by-layer approach was applied for multi-coating particles' surface with use of poly(styrene sulfonate) sodium salt (PSS) as anionic layer and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as cationic layer. The modified TPNs were characterized by different physicochemical techniques such as Zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The drug loading efficiency, release profile and cellular uptake rate were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. The resultant PSS/PAH/PSS/PAH/TPNs (4 layers) exhibited spherical-shaped morphology with the average size of 160.3±5.165 nm and zeta potential of-57.8 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency were 57.88% and 1.73%, respectively. Multi-layer coating of polymeric materials with different charges on particles' surface could dramatically influence the drug release profile of TPNs (4 layers vs. 3 layers). In addition, variable layers of surface coating could also greatly affect the cellular uptake rate of TPNs in A549 cells within 8 h. Overall, by coating particles' surface with those different charged polymers, precise control of drug release as well as cellular uptake rate can be achieved simultaneously. Thus, this approach provides a new strategy for controllable drug delivery. PMID:26838734

  5. In vivo evaluation of titanium implants coated with bioactive glass by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, Jacinto P; Serra, Julia; González, Pío; León, Betty; Muñoz, Fernando M; López, M

    2007-12-01

    During the past years, different techniques, like chemical treatment, plasma spraying, sputtering, enamelling or sol-gel; and materials, like metals, hydroxylapatite, calcium phosphates, among others, have been applied in different combinations to improve the performance of prostheses. Among the techniques, Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is very promising to produce coatings of bioactive glass on any metal alloy used as implant. In this work the biocompatibility of PLD coatings deposited on titanium substrates was examined by implantation in vivo. Different coating compositions were checked to find the most bioactive that was then applied on titanium and implanted into paravertebral muscle of rabbit.

  6. Development of sputtering process to deposit stoichiometric zirconia coatings for the inside wall of regeneratively cooled rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia and zirconia-ceria mixtures were deposited by RF reactive sputtering. Coatings were 1-2 mils thick, and were deposited on copper cylinders intended to simulate the inner wall of a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber. Coating stoichiometry and adherence were investigated as functions of deposition parameters. Modest deposition rates (approximately 0.15 mil/hr) and subambient sustrate temperatures (-80 C) resulted in nearly stoichiometric coatings which remained adherent through thermal cycles between -196 and 400 C. Coatings deposited at higher rates or substrates temperatures exhibited greater oxygen deficiences, while coatings deposited at lower temperatures were not adherent. Substrate bias resulted in structural changes in the coating and high krypton contents; no clear effect on stoichiometry was observed.

  7. Design of broadband multilayer dichroic coating for a high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system.

    PubMed

    Jiachen, Wang; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2015-05-20

    We report on the design and performance of a broadband dichroic coating for a solar energy conversion system. As a spectral beam splitter, the coating facilitates a hybrid system that combines a photovoltaic cell with a thermal collector. When positioned at a 45° angle with respect to incident light, the coating provides high reflectance in the 40-1100 nm and high transmission in the 1200-2000 nm ranges for a photovoltaic cell and a thermal collector, respectively. Numerical simulations show that our design leads to a sharp transition between the reflection and transmission bands, low ripples in both bands, and slight polarization dependence.

  8. Chemical vapor deposited fiber coatings and chemical vapor infiltrated ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetz, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) were employed to deposit a series of interfacial coatings on SiC and carbon yarn. Molybdenum, tungsten and chromium hexacarbonyls were utilized as precursors in a low temperature (350[degrees]C) MOCVD process to coat SiC yarn with Mo, W and Cr oxycarbides. Annealing studies performed on the MoOC and WOC coated SiC yarns in N[sub 2] to 1,000[degrees]C establish that further decomposition of the oxycarbides occurred, culminating in the formation of the metals. These metals were then found to react with Si to form Mo and W disilicide coatings. In the Cr system, heating in N[sub 2] above 800[degrees]C resulted in the formation of a mixture of carbides and oxides. Convention CVD was also employed to coat SiC and carbon yarn with C, Bn and a new interface designated BC (a carbon-boron alloy). The coated tows were then infiltrated with SiC, TiO[sub 2], SiO[sub 2] and B[sub 4]C by a chemical vapor infiltration process. The B-C coatings were found to provide advantageous interfacial properties over carbon and BN coatings in several different composite systems. The effectiveness of these different coatings to act as a chemically inert barrier layer and their relationship to the degree of interfacial debonding on the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The effects of thermal stability and strength of the coated fibers and composites were also determined for several difference atmospheres. In addition, a new method for determining the tensile strength of the as-received and coated yarns was also developed. The coated fibers and composites were further characterized by AES, SEM, XPS, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  9. Magnetron deposited TiN coatings for protection of Al-Cu-Ag-Mg-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Tatiana V.; Kaziev, Andrey V.; Atamanov, Mikhail V.; Tumarkin, Alexander V.; Dolzhikova, Svetlana A.; Izmailova, Nelly Ph; Kharkov, Maxim M.; Berdnikova, Maria M.; Mozgrin, Dmitry V.; Pisarev, Alexander A.

    2016-09-01

    TiN coatings were deposited on a new Al super-alloy by magnetron sputtering in argon/nitrogen environment. The deposited layer structure, microhardness, adhesion, corrosion resistance, and fatigue life were investigated and tests demonstrated improved performance of the alloy.

  10. Analysis on laser-induced transient damage behavior in multilayer coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifeng, Du; Bo, Fu; Fengyu, Li; Rongzhu, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the ionization theory and the Drude model of free electron gas, transient damage principle of the anti-reflection coating under ultrashort pulses are analyzed. Specifically, the damage of an anti-reflection coating designed by ZnS/SiO2 materials is calculated. The results show that during the irradiation process the parameters, such as the refractive index, the electric field and the free electron density, should impact on each other. The coupling relationship between these parameters causes the change in the refractive index, which further leads to the decrease of transmittance of anti-reflection coating from 0.96 to 0.01. In addition, the coupling relationship causes the repartition of free electron density constantly, which eventually leads to the external damage of anti-reflection coating.

  11. Deposition of Hard Chrome Coating onto Heat Susceptible Substrates by Low Power Microwave Plasma Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redza, Ahmad; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Microwave plasma spray requires relatively low power, which is lower than 1 kW in comparison to other plasma spraying method. Until now, we are able to deposit Cu and Hydroxyapatite coating onto heat susceptible substrate, CFRP which are difficult for conventional plasma spray due to the excessive heat input. In this paper, a hard chromium coating was deposited onto SUS304 and CFRP by a low power microwave plasma spray technique. By controlling the working gas flow rate and spraying distance, a hard chrome coating with thickness of approximately 30 μm was successfully deposited onto CFRP substrate with hardness of 1110 Hv0.05. Furthermore, the coating produced here is higher than that produced by hard chrome plating.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition and electrochemical behavior of novel graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Qian; Jia, Zhaojun; Xu, Xuchen; Shi, Yuying; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-11-01

    Novel ternary graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite (GO-HY-HA) nanocomposite coatings were prepared on Ti substrate using anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Hyaluronic acid was employed as charging additive and dispersion agent during EPD. The kinetics and mechanism of the deposition, and the microstructure of the coated samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and microscopic Fourier transform infrared analysis. The results showed that the addition of GO sheets into the HY-HA suspensions could increase the deposition rate and inhibit cracks creation and propagation in the coatings. The corrosion resistant of the resulting samples were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization method in simulated body fluid, and the GO-HY-HA coatings could effectively improve the anti-corrosion property of the Ti substrate.

  13. Coating and functionalization of high density ion track structures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mättö, Laura; Szilágyi, Imre M.; Laitinen, Mikko; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Sajavaara, Timo

    2016-10-01

    In this study flexible TiO2 coated porous Kapton membranes are presented having electron multiplication properties. 800 nm crossing pores were fabricated into 50 μm thick Kapton membranes using ion track technology and chemical etching. Consecutively, 50 nm TiO2 films were deposited into the pores of the Kapton membranes by atomic layer deposition using Ti(iOPr)4 and water as precursors at 250 °C. The TiO2 films and coated membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectometry (XRR). Au metal electrode fabrication onto both sides of the coated foils was achieved by electron beam evaporation. The electron multipliers were obtained by joining two coated membranes separated by a conductive spacer. The results show that electron multiplication can be achieved using ALD-coated flexible ion track polymer foils.

  14. Status of Plasma Physics Techniques for the Deposition of Tribological Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma physics deposition techniques of sputtering and ion-plating are reviewed. Their characteristics and potentials are discussed in terms of synthesis or deposition of tribological coatings. Since the glow discharge or plasma generated in the conventional sputtering and ion-plating techniques has a low ionization efficiency, rapid advances have been made in equipment design to further increase the ionization efficiency. The enhanced ionization favorably affects the nucleation and growth sequence of the coating. This leads to improved adherence and coherence, higher density, favorable morphological growth, and reduced internal stresses in the coatings. As a result, desirable coating characteristics can be precision tailored. Tribological coating characteristics of sputtered solid film lubricants such as MoS2, ion-plated soft gold and lead metallic films, and sputtered and ion-plated wear-resistant refractory compound films such as nitrides and carbides are discussed.

  15. Electrolytic deposition of Sn-coated mesocarbon microbeads as anode material for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Min-Jen; Tsai, Du-Cheng; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Li, Ching-Fei; Shieu, Fuh-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Deposited of crystalline tin (Sn) coatings on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) powder as anodes of lithium ion (Li-ion) battery was conducted in the SnSO4 solution by a cathodic electrochemical synthesis. The Sn-coated MCMB specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and charge/discharge tests. The synthesis condition of Sn-coated MCMB was optimized by considering the agglomeration, size, and adhesion of the samples to the current collectors in the battery. The Sn-coated MCMB electrodes exhibit increased reversible capacity without sacrificing its cycling behavior, compared with bare MCMB electrodes. It is concluded that electrolysis-deposited Sn-coated MCMB electrodes may emerge as a practical and promising anode material for secondary Li-ion batteries.

  16. Microstructure and tribological performance of nanocomposite Ti-Si-C-N coatings deposited using hexamethyldisilazane precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Ronghua; Rincon, Christopher; Langa, Edward; Yang Qi

    2010-09-15

    Thick nanocomposite Ti-Si-C-N coatings (20-30 {mu}m) were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by magnetron sputtering of Ti in a gas mixture of Ar, N{sub 2}, and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN) under various deposition conditions. Microstructure and composition of the coatings were studied using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, while the mechanical and tribological properties of these coatings were studied using Rc indentation, and micro- and nanoindentations, solid particle erosion testing, and ball-on-disk wear testing. It has been observed that the Si concentration of these coatings is varied from 0% (TiN) to 15% (Ti-Si-C-N), while the structure of these coatings is similar to the nanocomposite Ti-Si-N coatings and consists of nanocrystalline B1 structured Ti(C,N) in an amorphous matrix of SiC{sub x}N{sub y} with the grain size of 5->100 nm, depending on the coating preparation process. These coatings exhibit excellent adhesion when subjected to Rc indentation tests. The microhardness of these coatings varies from 1200 to 3400 HV25, while the nanohardness varies from 10 to 26 GPa. Both the microhardness and nanohardness are slightly lower than those of similar coatings prepared using trimethylsilane. However, the erosion test using a microsand erosion tester at both 30 deg. and 90 deg. incident angles shows that these coatings have very high erosion resistance and up to a few hundred times of improvement has been observed. These coatings also exhibit very high resistance to sliding wear with a low coefficient of friction of about 0.2 in dry sliding. There are a few advantages of using the HMDSN precursor to prepare the Ti-Si-C-N coatings over conventional magnetron sputtered deposition of Ti-Si-N coatings including composition uniformity, precursor handling safety, and high deposition rate. The coatings can be applied to protect gas turbine compressor blades from solid particle erosion and steam turbine blades

  17. C/CrC nanocomposite coating deposited by magnetron sputtering at high ion irradiation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.; Rainforth, W. M.; Gass, M. H.; Bleloch, A.; Ehiassarian, A. P.; Hovsepian, P. Eh.

    2011-10-01

    CrC with the fcc NaCl (B1) structure is a metastable phase that can be obtained under the non-equilibrium conditions of high ion irradiation. A nano-composite coating consisting of amorphous carbon embedded in a CrC matrix was prepared via the unbalanced magnetron sputtering of graphite and Cr metal targets in Ar gas with a high ionized flux (ion-to-neutral ratio Ji/Jn = 6). The nanoscale amorphous carbon clusters self-assembled into layers alternated by CrC, giving the composite a multilayer structure. The phase, microstructure, and composition of the coating were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The interpretation of the true coating structure, in particular the carbide type, is discussed.

  18. Mitigation of substrate defects in reticles using multilayer buffer layers

    DOEpatents

    Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Bajt, Sasa; Stearns, Daniel G.

    2001-01-01

    A multilayer film is used as a buffer layer to minimize the size of defects on a reticle substrate prior to deposition of a reflective coating on the substrate. The multilayer buffer layer deposited intermediate the reticle substrate and the reflective coating produces a smoothing of small particles and other defects on the reticle substrate. The reduction in defect size is controlled by surface relaxation during the buffer layer growth process and by the degree of intermixing and volume contraction of the materials at the multilayer interfaces. The buffer layers are deposited at near-normal incidence via a low particulate ion beam sputtering process. The growth surface of the buffer layer may also be heated by a secondary ion source to increase the degree of intermixing and improve the mitigation of defects.

  19. Preparation and analysis of chemically gradient functional bioceramic coating formed by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P; Muraleedharan, C V; Sureshbabu, S; Komath, Manoj; Varma, Harikrishna

    2012-02-01

    Bioactive ceramic coatings based on calcium phosphates yield better functionality in the human body for a variety of metallic implant devices including orthopaedic and dental prostheses. In the present study chemically and hence functionally gradient bioceramic coating was obtained by pulsed laser deposition method. Calcium phosphate bioactive ceramic coatings based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were deposited over titanium substrate to produce gradation in physico-chemical characteristics and in vitro dissolution behaviour. Sintered targets of HA and α-TCP were deposited in a multi target laser deposition system. The obtained deposits were characterized by X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy was used to estimate the in vitro dissolution behaviour of coatings. The variation in mechanical property of the gradient layer was evaluated through scratch test and micro-indentation hardness. The bioactivity was examined in vitro with respect to the ability of HA layer to form on the surface as a result of contact with simulated body fluid. It could be inferred that chemically gradient functional bioceramic coating can be produced by laser deposition of multiple sintered targets with variable chemical composition.

  20. Evaporative Deposition of Aluminum Coatings and Shapes with Grain Size Control

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2003-02-19

    The direct deposition of coatings with variable cross-section profiles presents a challenge for the use of physical vapor deposition technology. Coatings with constant and variable cross-section profiles are of interest for advancing the evaluation of material behavior under extreme loading conditions, as for example under high strain rate. The synthesis of a variable cross-section profile by design in the as-deposited condition requires process innovation. It is demonstrated that a thickness gradient in cross-section can be produced when the substrate is exposed to a highly collimated evaporation source. The exposure is governed using a variable position shutter as driven by a computer-controlled stepper motor. An example is shown for aluminum deposition in which the coating thickness varies linearly from one plateau to another forming a wedge shape. To deposit a controlled grain size in coatings as these wedge shapes, first requires an understanding of the affect of time at temperature. An examination of aluminum coatings with constant cross-section reveals that ideal-grain growth behavior is observed from the micron-to-millimeter scale for depositions at temperatures in excess of half the melt point.

  1. Preparation and analysis of chemically gradient functional bioceramic coating formed by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P; Muraleedharan, C V; Sureshbabu, S; Komath, Manoj; Varma, Harikrishna

    2012-02-01

    Bioactive ceramic coatings based on calcium phosphates yield better functionality in the human body for a variety of metallic implant devices including orthopaedic and dental prostheses. In the present study chemically and hence functionally gradient bioceramic coating was obtained by pulsed laser deposition method. Calcium phosphate bioactive ceramic coatings based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were deposited over titanium substrate to produce gradation in physico-chemical characteristics and in vitro dissolution behaviour. Sintered targets of HA and α-TCP were deposited in a multi target laser deposition system. The obtained deposits were characterized by X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy was used to estimate the in vitro dissolution behaviour of coatings. The variation in mechanical property of the gradient layer was evaluated through scratch test and micro-indentation hardness. The bioactivity was examined in vitro with respect to the ability of HA layer to form on the surface as a result of contact with simulated body fluid. It could be inferred that chemically gradient functional bioceramic coating can be produced by laser deposition of multiple sintered targets with variable chemical composition. PMID:22105226

  2. Grain growth of Ni-based superalloy IN718 coating fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaocheng; Yang, Li; Dai, Jun; Huang, Zedong; Meng, Tao

    2016-06-01

    The pulsed laser deposited Ni-based superalloy coating was fabricated with successive 12 layers using single tracks. The microstructure of the deposited coating was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The grain growth and the grain boundary misorientation were investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the precipitation phase was determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results showed that the dendrites were the most common microstructure in the coating, and the dendritic growth orientation was paralleled to the direction of the laser deposition. The dendrite got coarser and its space was increased with increasing laser deposited layers. Most grains grew along the preferential grain orientation <001> and formed anisotropy with grain boundaries misorientation angle about 2° in the pulsed laser deposited coating. The grain size along the texture orientation was 3-10 times larger than that in the transverse orientation. The cross section microhardness of the coating ranged between 240-280 HV, and decreased along the depositional direction due to the reasons of the variation of eutectic morphology, grain size distribution, grain misorientation and a small amounts of strengthening phase precipitation.

  3. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, Hunter; Li, Yana; Almenar, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41-35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228-303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  4. Structure and optical properties of pulsed sputter deposited CrxOy/Cr/Cr2O3 solar selective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshilia, Harish C.; Selvakumar, N.; Rajam, K. S.; Biswas, A.

    2008-01-01

    Spectrally selective CrxOy/Cr/Cr2O3 multilayer absorber coatings were deposited on copper (Cu) substrates using a pulsed sputtering system. The Cr targets were sputtered using asymmetric bipolar-pulsed dc generators in Ar +O2 and Ar plasmas to deposit a CrxOy (bottomlayer)/Cr/Cr2O3 (top layer) coating. The compositions and thicknesses of the individual component layers have been optimized to achieve high absorptance (0.899-0.912) and low emittance (0.05-0.06). The x-ray diffraction data in thin film mode showed that the CrxOy/Cr/Cr2O3 coating consists of an amorphous phase; the Raman data of the coating, however, showed the presence of A1g and Eg modes, characteristic of Cr2O3. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data from near-surface region of the absorber suggested that the chemical state of Cr was in the form of Cr3+ and no phases of CrO2 and CrO3 were present. The experimental spectroscopic ellipsometric data have been fitted with theoretical models to derive the dispersion of the optical constants (n and k). The optical constants of the three layers indicate that the bottom two layers are the main absorber layers and the top Cr2O3 layer, which has higher oxygen content, acts as an antireflection coating. In order to study the thermal stability of the CrxOy/Cr /Cr2O3 coatings, they were subjected to heat treatment (in air and vacuum) at different temperatures and durations. The coating deposited on Cu substrates exhibited high solar selectivity (α/ɛ) of 0.895/0.06 even after heat treatment in air up to 300°C for 2h. At higher temperatures, the solar selectivity decreased significantly (e.g., α /ɛ=0.855/0.24 at 350°C in air), which is attributed to oxidation of Cr crystallites, increased surface roughness, and formation of CuO. The formation of CuO and the increase in Cr3+ vacancies due to the outward diffusion of Cr at higher annealing temperatures were confirmed by XPS. In the case of vacuum annealing, for temperatures greater than 500°C the

  5. Nano-Ag-loaded hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiong; Zhang, Bailin; Wang, Yingbo; Zhou, Xianli; Weng, Jie; Qu, Shuxin; Feng, Bo; Watari, Fumio; Ding, Yonghui; Leng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium (Ti) substrates have attracted much attention owing to the combination of good mechanical properties of Ti and superior biocompatibility of HA. Incorporating silver (Ag) into HA coatings is an effective method to impart the coatings with antibacterial properties. However, the uniform distribution of Ag is still a challenge and Ag particles in the coatings are easy to agglomerate, which in turn affects the applications of the coatings. In this study, we employed pulsed electrochemical deposition to co-deposit HA and Ag simultaneously, which realized the uniform distribution of Ag particles in the coatings. This method was based on the use of a well-designed electrolyte containing Ag ions, calcium ions and l-cysteine, in which cysteine acted as the coordination agent to stabilize Ag ions. The antibacterial and cell culture tests were used to evaluate the antibacterial properties and biocompatibility of HA/Ag composite coatings, respectively. The results indicated the as-prepared coatings had good antibacterial properties and biocompatibility. However, an appropriate silver content should be chosen to balance the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Heat treatments promoted the adhesive strength and enhanced the biocompatibility without sacrificing the antibacterial properties of the HA/Ag coatings. In summary, this study provided an alternative method to prepare bioactive surfaces with bactericidal ability for biomedical devices. PMID:20880853

  6. Micro- and nano-testing of calcium phosphate coatings produced by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Arias, J L; Mayor, M B; Pou, J; Leng, Y; León, B; Pérez-Amor, M

    2003-09-01

    Micro- and nano-testing methods have been explored to study the thin calcium phosphate coatings with high adhesive strength. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique was utilised to produce calcium phosphate coatings on metal substrates, because this type of coatings exhibit much higher adhesive strength with substrates than conventional plasma-sprayed coatings. Due to the limitations of the conventional techniques to evaluate the mechanical properties of these thin coatings (1 microm thick), micro-scratch testing has been applied to evaluate the coating-to-substrate adhesion, and nano-indentation to determine the coating hardness and elastic modulus. The test results showed that the PLD produced amorphous and crystalline HA coatings are more ductile than titanium substrates, and the PLD coatings are not delaminated from the substrates by scratch. Also, the results showed that the crystalline HA coating is superior in internal cohesion to the amorphous one, even though the lower elastic modulus of amorphous coating could be more mechanically compatible with natural bone. PMID:12809768

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of double-layer HA/Al composite coating on NiTi.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Esmaeil; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Khalili, Vida

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity of NiTi alloys, which are being known as the suitable materials for biomedical applications, numerous NiTi disks were electrophoretically coated by hetero-coagulated hydroxyapatite/aluminum composite coatings in three main voltages from suspensions with different Al concentrations. In this paper, the amount of Ni ions release and bioactivity of prepared samples as well as bonding strength of the coating to substrate were investigated. The surface characterization of the coating by XRD, EDX, SEM, and FTIR showed that HA particles bonded by Al particles. It caused the formation of a free crack coating on NiTi disks. Moreover, the bonding strength of HA/Al coatings to NiTi substrate were improved by two times as compared to that of the pure HA coatings. Immersing of coated samples in SBF for 1 week showed that apatite formation ability was improved on HA/Al composite coating and Ni ions release from the surface of composite coating decreased. These results induce the appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility of the deposited HA/Al composite coatings on NiTi disks.

  8. Electrophoretic deposition of double-layer HA/Al composite coating on NiTi.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Esmaeil; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Khalili, Vida

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity of NiTi alloys, which are being known as the suitable materials for biomedical applications, numerous NiTi disks were electrophoretically coated by hetero-coagulated hydroxyapatite/aluminum composite coatings in three main voltages from suspensions with different Al concentrations. In this paper, the amount of Ni ions release and bioactivity of prepared samples as well as bonding strength of the coating to substrate were investigated. The surface characterization of the coating by XRD, EDX, SEM, and FTIR showed that HA particles bonded by Al particles. It caused the formation of a free crack coating on NiTi disks. Moreover, the bonding strength of HA/Al coatings to NiTi substrate were improved by two times as compared to that of the pure HA coatings. Immersing of coated samples in SBF for 1 week showed that apatite formation ability was improved on HA/Al composite coating and Ni ions release from the surface of composite coating decreased. These results induce the appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility of the deposited HA/Al composite coatings on NiTi disks. PMID:26478383

  9. Fabrication of BaTiO3-Based Dielectrics for Ultrathin-Layer Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor Application by a Modified Coating Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhibin; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yichi; Song, Tae-Ho; Hur, Kang Heon; Li, Longtu

    2011-02-01

    The development of multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) with base metal electrode (BME) requires precise controlling of the microstructure in a very thin dielectric layer (<1 µm). In this paper, a modified coating approach for high coverage of BaTiO3 powder for further MLCC application has been developed. The well dispersed and coated BaTiO3 powders are prepared and the relative mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, the ultrafine grained X7R dielectric ceramics were produced by both conventional mixing and modified coating methods. Compared with the conventional mixing method, the ceramics prepared by the coating approach exhibited better TCC (the temperature coefficient of capacitance) performance, with dielectric constant over 2000 and grain size below 150 nm. In addition, it is found through the coating method the content of additives can be reduced to a relatively smaller amount than that required in conventional mixing method.

  10. Pulsed-Plasma Physical Vapor Deposition Approach Toward the Facile Synthesis of Multilayer and Monolayer Graphene for Anticoagulation Applications.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Gaman, Cezar; Jose, Bincy; McCoy, Anthony P; Cafolla, Tony; McNally, Patrick J; Daniels, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the growth of multilayer and single-layer graphene on copper foil using bipolar pulsed direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering of a graphite target in pure argon atmosphere. Single-layer graphene (SG) and few-layer graphene (FLG) films are deposited at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 920 °C within <30 min. We find that the deposition and post-deposition annealing temperatures influence the layer thickness and quality of the graphene films formed. The films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical transmission spectroscopy techniques. Based on the above studies, a diffusion-controlled mechanism was proposed for the graphene growth. A single-step whole blood assay was used to investigate the anticoagulant activity of graphene surfaces. Platelet adhesion, activation, and morphological changes on the graphene/glass surfaces, compared to bare glass, were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy and SEM techniques. We have found significant suppression of the platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation on the graphene-covered surfaces, compared to the bare glass, indicating the anticoagulant activity of the deposited graphene films. Our production technique represents an industrially relevant method for the growth of SG and FLG for various applications including the biomedical field. PMID:26808203

  11. Photovoltaic effect in BiFeO3/BaTiO3 multilayer structure fabricated by chemical solution deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Kumar, Ashok; Puri, Nitin K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-06-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) properties of bismuth ferrite (BFO) and barium titanate (BTO) multilayered ferroelectric BFO/BTO/BFO/BTO thin film structure deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using chemical solution deposition technique are presented. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms pure phase polycrystalline nature of deposited perovskite multilayered structures. Simultaneously both distorted rhombohedral (R3c) and tetragonal phases (P4mm) of the respective BFO and BTO components are also well retained. The ferroelectric sandwiched structures grown on fused quartz substrates exhibit high optical transmittance (~70%) with an energy band gap 2.62 eV. Current-voltage characteristics and PV response of multilayered structures is determined in metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitor configuration. Considerably low magnitude of dark current density 1.53×10-7 A at applied bias of 5 V establish the resistive nature of semi-transparent multilayered structure. Enhanced PV response with 40 nm thin semitransparent Au as top electrode is observed under solid-state violet laser illumination (λ - 405 nm, 160 mW/cm2). The short circuit current density and open circuit voltage are measured to be 12.65 μA/cm2 and 1.43 V respectively with a high retentivity. The results obtained are highly encouraging for employing artificial multilayered engineering to improve PV characteristics.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition of graphene oxide reinforced chitosan-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings on Ti substrate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y Y; Li, M; Liu, Q; Jia, Z J; Xu, X C; Cheng, Y; Zheng, Y F

    2016-03-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a facile and feasible technique to prepare functional nanocomposite coatings for application in orthopedic-related implants. In this work, a ternary graphene oxide-chitosan-hydroxyapatite (GO-CS-HA) composite coating on Ti substrate was successfully fabricated by EPD. Coating microstructure and morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle test, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found GO-CS surface were uniformly decorated by HA nanoparticles. The potentiodynamic polarization test in simulated body fluid indicated that the GO-CS-HA coatings could provide effective protection of Ti substrate from corrosion. This ternary composite coating also exhibited good biocompatibility during incubation with MG63 cells. In addition, the nanocomposite coatings could decrease the attachment of Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26758895

  13. Physical Vapor Deposition Chamber for Coating Microchannel Plates in X-Ray Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S. L.; Drake, R. P.; Swain, A. D.; Cornwall, N. C.; Forsyth, M. A.; Harding, E. C.; Huntington, C. M.

    2010-11-01

    Experiments to characterize microchannel plates (MCPs) at the University of Michigan aim to maximize the quantum efficiency of our detector by coating the layers of a photocathode directly on a bare MCP. These experiments can be improved with more control over the processing of coating MCPs, parts often used in diagnosing high-energy-density laser experiments. Process control will allow us to alter factors that influence photocathode quantum efficiency, such as film thickness, coating angle, and substrate baking. This should ultimately reduce costs of characterizing MCPs and improve our x-ray radiography data. A thin film deposition chamber was designed and built, achieving high vacuum pressures of 1E-7 torr and temperatures of 1800 C to vaporize coating materials. A rotating substrate platform and a quartz crystal microbalance help achieve precise, even coatings. A design overview of this system is presented, with a discussion of most recent coating results.

  14. Deposition of aluminide and silicide based protective coatings on niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S.; Arya, A.; Sharma, I. G.; Suri, A. K.; Banerjee, S.

    2010-11-01

    We compare aluminide and alumino-silicide composite coatings on niobium using halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) technique for improving its oxidation resistance. The coated samples are characterized by SEM, EDS, EPMA and hardness measurements. We observe formation of NbAl3 in aluminide coating of Nb, though the alumino-silicide coating leads to formation primarily of NbSi2 in the inner layer and a ternary compound of Nb-Si-Al in the outer layer, as reported earlier (Majumdar et al. [11]). Formation of niobium silicide is preferred over niobium aluminide during alumino-silicide coating experiments, indicating Si is more strongly bonded to Nb than Al, although equivalent quantities of aluminium and silicon powders were used in the pack chemistry. We also employ first-principles density functional pseudopotential-based calculations to calculate the relative stability of these intermediate phases and the adhesion strength of the Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces. NbSi2 exhibits much stronger covalent character as compared to NbAl3. The ideal work of adhesion for the relaxed Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces are calculated to be 3226 mJ/m2 and 3545 mJ/m2, respectively, indicating stronger Nb-Si bonding across the interface.

  15. Apparatus and process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOEpatents

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1994-12-20

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

  16. Apparatus and process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOEpatents

    Flynn, Paul L.; Giammarise, Anthony W.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  17. Protecting BOPP film from UV degradation with an atomic layer deposited titanium oxide surface coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Kimmo; Maydannik, Philipp; Seppänen, Tarja; Cameron, David C.; Johansson, Petri; Kotkamo, Sami; Kuusipalo, Jurkka

    2013-10-01

    Titanium oxide layers were deposited onto a BOPP film by atomic layer deposition in order to prevent UV degradation of the film. The coatings were deposited in a low-temperature process at 80 °C by using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ozone as titanium and oxygen precursors, respectively. UV block characteristics of the coatings and their effect on the polymer were measured by using UV-vis and IR spectrometry, and differential scanning calorimetry. According to the results, the coatings provided a considerable decrease in the photodegradation of the BOPP film during UV exposure. IR spectra showed that during a 6-week UV exposure, a 67 nm titanium oxide coating was able to almost completely prevent the formation of photodegradation products in the film. The mechanical properties of the film were also protected by the coating, but as opposed to what the IR study suggested they were still somewhat compromised by the UV light. After a 6-week exposure, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the 67 nm titanium oxide coated film decreased to half of the values measured before the treatment. This should be compared to the complete degradation suffered by the uncoated base sheet already after only 4 weeks of treatment. The results show that nanometre scale inorganic films deposited by ALD show a promising performance as effective UV protection for BOPP substrates.

  18. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  19. Reactively Deposited Aluminum Oxide and Fluoropolymer Filled Aluminum Oxide Protective Coatings for Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Hunt, Jason

    1995-01-01

    Reactive ion beam sputter deposition of aluminum simultaneous with low energy arrival of oxygen ions at the deposition surface enables the formation of highly transparent aluminum oxide films. Thick (12 200 A), adherent, low stress, reactively deposited aluminum oxide films were found to provide some abrasion resistance to polycarbonate substrates. The reactively deposited aluminum oxide films are also slightly more hydrophobic and more transmitting in the UV than aluminum oxide deposited from an aluminum oxide target. Simultaneous reactive sputter deposition of aluminum along with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE Teflon) produces fluoropolymer-filled aluminum oxide films which are lower in stress, about the same in transmittance, but more wetting than reactively deposited aluminum oxide films. Deposition properties, processes and potential applications for these coatings will be discussed.

  20. Vapor deposition on doublet airfoil substrates: Control of coating thickness and microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    2015-11-15

    Gas jet assisted vapor deposition processes for depositing coatings are conducted at higher pressures than conventional physical vapor deposition methods, and have shown promise for coating complex shaped substrates including those with non-line-of-sight (NLS) regions on their surface. These regions typically receive vapor atoms at a lower rate and with a wider incident angular distribution than substrate regions in line-of-sight (LS) of the vapor source. To investigate the coating of such substrates, the thickness and microstructure variation along the inner (curved) surfaces of a model doublet airfoil containing both LS and NLS regions has been investigated. Results from atomistic simulations and experiments confirm that the coating's thickness is thinner in flux-shadowed regions than in other regions for all the coating processes investigated. They also indicated that the coatings columnar microstructure and pore volume fraction vary with surface location through the LS to NLS transition zone. A substrate rotation strategy for optimizing the thickness over the entire doublet airfoil surface was investigated, and led to the identification of a process that resulted in only small variation of coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and pore volume fraction on all doublet airfoil surfaces.

  1. Effect of deposition temperature on boron-doped carbon coatings deposited from a BCl 3-C 3H 6-H 2 mixture using low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Litong; Cheng, Laifei; Yang, Wenbin; Xu, Yongdong

    2009-08-01

    A mixture of propylene, hydrogen and boron trichloride was used to fabricate boron-doped carbon coatings by using low pressure chemical vapor deposition ( LPCVD) technique. Effect of deposition temperature on deposition rate, morphologies, compositions and bonding states of boron-doped carbon coatings was investigated. Below 1273 K, the deposition rate is controlled by reaction dynamics. The deposition rate increases with increasing deposition temperature. The activation energy is 208.74 kJ/mol. Above 1273 K, the deposition rate decreases due to smaller critical radius rc and higher nuclei formation rate J with increasing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the structure changes from glass-like to nano-laminates with increasing deposition temperature. The boron concentration decreases with increasing deposition temperature, corresponding with increasing carbon concentration. The five types of bonding states are B-C, B-sub-C, BC 2O, BCO 2 and B-O. B-sub-C and BC 2O are the main bonding states. The reactions are dominant at all temperatures, in which the B-sub-C and PyC are formed.

  2. Effect of Coating Thickness on the Properties of TiN Coatings Deposited on Tool Steels Using Cathodic Arc Pvd Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, A.; Akhter, Parvez; Hamzah, Esah; Mohd Toff, Mohd Radzi Hj.; Qazi, Ishtiaq A.

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material, was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapor deposition method. The study concentrated on cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CAPVD), a technique used for the deposition of hard coatings for tooling applications, and which has many advantages. The main drawback of this technique, however, is the formation of macrodroplets (MDs) during deposition, resulting in films with rougher morphology. Various standard characterization techniques and equipment, such as electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, hardness testing machine, scratch tester, and pin-on-disc machine, were used to analyze and quantify the following properties and parameters: surface morphology, thickness, hardness, adhesion, and coefficient of friction (COF) of the deposited coatings. Surface morphology revealed that the MDs produced during the etching stage, protruded through the TiN film, resulting in film with deteriorated surface features. Both coating thickness and indentation loads influenced the hardness of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared to those on D2 tool steel. Standard deviation indicates that the coating deposited with thickness around 6.7 μm showed the most stable trend of COF versus sliding distance.

  3. Influence of deposition parameters on hard Cr-Al-N coatings deposited by multi-arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Zhong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Mingxi

    2012-02-01

    The Cr-Al-N coatings were synthesized at various substrate bias voltages and nitrogen partial pressures by multi-arc ion plating (M-AIP). The relationships between deposition parameters and coating properties were investigated. Morphologies, phase structures, hardness and adhesion strength of the coatings were analyzed by SEM, XRD, XPS, nano-indenter and scratch tester. The results indicated that with the increase of substrate bias voltages, the surface macroparticles and deposition rate reduced mainly for the resputtering phenomenon. The (Cr, Al)N solid-solution phase kept unchanged, but the Cr2N and AlN phases disappeared gradually. Due to the change of phase structures and residual compressive stress, the hardness values decreased and the adhesion strength decreased initially and then increased. Similarly, with the increase of nitrogen partial pressures, the phase structures of CrAlN coatings varied from Cr + Cr2N + (Cr,Al)N to Cr2N + (Cr,Al)N. The surface macroparticles increased due to the decreasing resputtering efficiency, and the deposition rate increased initially and then decreased due to the resputtering phenomenon. With increasing nitrogen partial pressures, adhesion strength decreased initially and then increased. The microhardness increased mainly due to the increase of Cr2N contents and decrease of metal macroparticles.

  4. Thermal spray deposition and evaluation of low-Z coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, R.D.; Swindeman, C.J.; White, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Thermally sprayed low-Z coatings of B{sub 4}C on Al substrates were investigated as candidate materials for first-wall reactor protective surfaces. Comparisons were made to thermally sprayed coatings of B, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and composites. Graded bond layers were applied to mitigate coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch. Microstructures, thermal diffusivity before and after thermal shock loading, steel ball impact resistance, CO{sub 2} pellet cleaning and erosion tolerance, phase content, stoichiometry by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and relative tensile strengths were measured.

  5. Failure mechanisms of platinum aluminide bond coat/electron beam-physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Krishnakumar

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) allow operation of structural components, such as turbine blades and vanes in industrial and aircraft gas engines, at temperatures close to the substrate melting temperatures. They consist of four different layers; a high strength creep-resistant nickel-based superalloy substrate, an oxidation resistant bond coat (BC), a low thermal conductivity ceramic topcoat and a thermally grown oxide (TGO), that is predominantly alpha-Al 2O3, that forms between the BC and the TBC. Compressive stresses (3--5 GPa) that are generated in the thin TGO (0.25--8 mum) due to the mismatch in thermal coefficient of expansion between the TGO and BC play a critical role in the failure of these coatings. In this study, the failure mechanisms of a commercial yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) coating on platinum aluminide (beta-(Ni,Pt)Al) bond coat have been identified. Two distinct mechanisms have been found responsible for the observed damage initiation and progression at the TGO/bond coat interface. The first mechanism leads to localized debonding at TGO/bond coat interface due to increased out-of-plane tensile stress, along bond coat features that manifest themselves as ridges. The second mechanism causes cavity formation at the TGO/bond coat interface, driven by cyclic plasticity of the bond coat. It has been found that the debonding at the TGO/bond coat interface due to the first mechanism is solely life determining. The final failure occurs by crack extension along either the TGO/bond coat interface or the TGO/YSZ interface or a combination of both, leading to large scale buckling. Based on these mechanisms, it is demonstrated that the bond coat grain size and the aspect ratio of the ridges have a profound influence on spallation lives of the coating. The removal of these ridges by fine polishing prior to TBC deposition led to a four-fold improvement in life. The failure mechanism identified for the

  6. Nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings deposited by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yanfeng; Song, Lei; Liu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Wu, Yao; Chen, Jiyong; Wu, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings have great potential in dental and orthopedic medical implant applications, due to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. However, most of the coating preparation techniques either produce only thin thickness coatings or require tedious preparation steps. In this study, a new attempt was made to deposit bioactive glass-ceramic coatings on titanium substrates by the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, triethyl phosphate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate solutions were mixed together to form a suspension after hydrolysis, and the liquid suspension was used as the feedstock for plasma spraying of P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings. The in vitro bioactivities of the as-deposited coatings were evaluated by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 4 h, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. The as-deposited coating and its microstructure evolution behavior under SBF soaking were systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with nanostructure had been successfully synthesized by the LPPS technique and the synthesized coatings showed quick formation of a nanostructured HCA layer after being soaked in SBF. Overall, our results indicate that the LPPS process is an effective and simple method to synthesize nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with good in vitro bioactivity.

  7. Molecular plasma deposition: biologically inspired nanohydroxyapatite coatings on anodized nanotubular titanium for improving osteoblast density

    PubMed Central

    Balasundaram, Ganesan; Storey, Daniel M; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    In order to begin to prepare a novel orthopedic implant that mimics the natural bone environment, the objective of this in vitro study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) and coat it on titanium (Ti) using molecular plasma deposition (MPD). NHA was synthesized through a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. NHA and micron sized hydroxyapatite (MHA) were prepared by processing NHA coatings at 500°C and 900°C, respectively. The coatings were characterized before and after sintering using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the post-MPD heat treatment of up to 500°C effectively restored the structural and topographical integrity of NHA. In order to determine the in vitro biological responses of the MPD-coated surfaces, the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on the uncoated, NHA-coated, and MHA-coated anodized Ti were investigated. Most importantly, the NHA-coated substrates supported a larger number of adherent cells than the MHA-coated and uncoated substrates. The morphology of these cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the observed shapes were different for each substrate type. The present results are the first reports using MPD in the framework of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti to enhance osteoblast responses and encourage further studies on MPD-based hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for improved orthopedic applications. PMID:25609958

  8. Molecular plasma deposition: biologically inspired nanohydroxyapatite coatings on anodized nanotubular titanium for improving osteoblast density.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, Ganesan; Storey, Daniel M; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    In order to begin to prepare a novel orthopedic implant that mimics the natural bone environment, the objective of this in vitro study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA) and coat it on titanium (Ti) using molecular plasma deposition (MPD). NHA was synthesized through a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. NHA and micron sized hydroxyapatite (MHA) were prepared by processing NHA coatings at 500°C and 900°C, respectively. The coatings were characterized before and after sintering using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the post-MPD heat treatment of up to 500°C effectively restored the structural and topographical integrity of NHA. In order to determine the in vitro biological responses of the MPD-coated surfaces, the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on the uncoated, NHA-coated, and MHA-coated anodized Ti were investigated. Most importantly, the NHA-coated substrates supported a larger number of adherent cells than the MHA-coated and uncoated substrates. The morphology of these cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the observed shapes were different for each substrate type. The present results are the first reports using MPD in the framework of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti to enhance osteoblast responses and encourage further studies on MPD-based hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for improved orthopedic applications. PMID:25609958

  9. Stress analysis for multilayered coating systems using semi-analytical BEM with geometric non-linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao-Ming; Gu, Yan; Chen, Jeng-Tzong

    2011-05-01

    For a long time, most of the current numerical methods, including the finite element method, have not been efficient to analyze stress fields of very thin structures, such as the problems of thin coatings and their interfacial/internal mechanics. In this paper, the boundary element method for 2-D elastostatic problems is studied for the analysis of multi-coating systems. The nearly singular integrals, which is the primary obstacle associated with the BEM formulations, are dealt with efficiently by using a semi-analytical algorithm. The proposed semi-analytical integral formulas, compared with current analytical methods in the BEM literature, are suitable for high-order geometry elements when nearly singular integrals need to be calculated. Owing to the employment of the curved surface elements, only a small number of elements need to be divided along the boundary, and high accuracy can be achieved without increasing more computational efforts. For the test problems studied, very promising results are obtained when the thickness of coated layers is in the orders of 10-6-10-9, which is sufficient for modeling most coated systems in the micro- or nano-scales.

  10. One-step electrophoretic deposition for the preparation of superhydrophobic silica particle/trimethylsiloxysilicate composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Ogihara, Hitoshi; Katayama, Takafumi; Saji, Tetsuo

    2011-10-15

    SiO(2) particle/silicone resin (trimethylsiloxysilicate (TMSS)) composite coatings were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD), and their wettability was examined. SiO(2) coatings prepared by EPD baths without TMSS were hydrophilic, while superhydrophobicity was observed for SiO(2)/TMSS composite coatings. IR spectra and EDS analyses revealed that not only SiO(2) particles but also TMSS electrophoretically moved toward a cathode; as a result, hydrophilic SiO(2) particles turned into superhydrophobic composite coatings by one-step EPD. SEM and AFM images of the superhydrophobic SiO(2)/TMSS composite coatings showed the presence of both nanometer- and micrometer-sized roughness in their surfaces. Particle size of SiO(2) had a great influence on the wettability of the composite coatings. The superhydrophobic SiO(2)/TMSS composite coatings showed excellent water repellency; they repelled running water continuously. In addition, by controlling the amount of deposited SiO(2) particles and TMSS, transparent superhydrophobic SiO(2)/TMSS composite coatings were prepared.

  11. Atomic scale elemental mapping of light elements in multilayered perovskite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, R. F.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Ghica, C.

    2015-11-01

    Spherical aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes offer unprecedented capabilities in materials structural characterization down to atomic resolution. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) - spectrum imaging (SI) and annular bright field (ABF) imaging allow to simultaneously identify both the position and nature of the atomic species in a crystalline material. These techniques, along with conventional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy are particularly useful in heterostructures interfaces like epitaxial multilayers characterization, for identifying possible atomic interdiffusion at sub-nanometric scale. This paper presents the structural and compositional microanalysis down to atomic resolution of an epitaxial BaTiO3/SrRuO3/SrTiO3 ferroelectric heterostructure using complex complementary analytical electron microscopy techniques. The atomic arrangement of both heavy and light atomic species across the interfaces in the BaTiO3/SrRuO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures is revealed.

  12. Geometrical characteristics and damage morphology of nodules grown from artificial seeds in multilayer coating

    SciTech Connect

    Shan Yongguang; He Hongbo; Wei Chaoyang; Li Shuhong; Zhou Ming; Li Dawei; Zhao Yuan'an

    2010-08-01

    Nodules have been planted in an HfO2/SiO2 multilayer system with absorptive gold nanoparticle seeds located on the surface of a substrate. The topography of nodules was scanned by an atomic force microscope and imaged by a scanning electron microscope. The underlying characteristics of nodules were revealed by a focused ion beam. The cross-sectional profiles reveal that nodules grown from small seeds have a continuous boundary and better mechanical stability. A laser-induced damage test shows that nodules decrease the laser-induced damage threshold by up to 3 times. The damage pits are exclusively caused by nodular ejection and triggered by the absorptive seeds. The distribution of electric field and average temperature rise in the nodules were analyzed. Theoretical results met experimental results very well. The strong absorptive seed and microlens effect of the nodule play important roles in laser-induced damage of a planted nodule.

  13. Geometrical characteristics and damage morphology of nodules grown from artificial seeds in multilayer coating.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yongguang; He, Hongbo; Wei, Chaoyang; Li, Shuhong; Zhou, Ming; Li, Dawei; Zhao, Yuan'an

    2010-08-01

    Nodules have been planted in an HfO(2)/SiO(2) multilayer system with absorptive gold nanoparticle seeds located on the surface of a substrate. The topography of nodules was scanned by an atomic force microscope and imaged by a scanning electron microscope. The underlying characteristics of nodules were revealed by a focused ion beam. The cross-sectional profiles reveal that nodules grown from small seeds have a continuous boundary and better mechanical stability. A laser-induced damage test shows that nodules decrease the laser-induced damage threshold by up to 3 times. The damage pits are exclusively caused by nodular ejection and triggered by the absorptive seeds. The distribution of electric field and average temperature rise in the nodules were analyzed. Theoretical results met experimental results very well. The strong absorptive seed and microlens effect of the nodule play important roles in laser-induced damage of a planted nodule. PMID:20676185

  14. Encapsulation of photosensitizer into multilayer microcapsules by combination of spontaneous deposition and heat-induced shrinkage for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuanyuan; Bu, Jing; Zhang, Yuying; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2012-10-01

    Annealing of PDADMAC/PSS multilayer microcapsules assembled on PSS-doped CaCO(3) particles at 80 °C for 30 min reduces their size dramatically from 6.9 ± 0.3 to 3.1 ± 0.5 µm. Methylene blue molecules are encapsulated by spontaneous deposition and post-annealing with a concentration of 22 mg · mL(-1), which is 1000 times higher than the feeding value. The unreleased MB molecules are retained stably for a long time, which are then protected by the capsules against reductive enzymes and keep their photodynamic activity. The viability of HeLa cells incubated with the MB-loaded capsules decreases sharply from ≈ 75 (dark cytotoxicity) to ≈ 20% after irradiation with a laser at 671 nm and 60 J · cm(-2) for 75 s.

  15. Investigation of Cu coatings deposited by kinetic metallization

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.K.; Birbilis, N.; Spencer, K.; Zhang, M.-X.; Muddle, B.C.

    2010-11-15

    Interfacial characterisation of Kinetic Metallization (KM) sprayed Cu coatings applied on metal substrates was performed using optical and electron microscopy, as well as microindentation hardness testing and microchemical analysis. The interfacial characterisation of KM coatings remains scarce to date. Cross sectional observations of KM coatings on light metal substrates revealed an undulating, patelliform profile with thin-lipped cusps at the interface. Pure Al and Mg substrates exhibited a mechanically impinged zone <{approx}5 {mu}m on the substrate material, approximately the size of deformed Cu powder particles. Examination of the Cu side of the interface indicated there was no long range interaction in the coating. On the substrate side of the interface, the KM process induced phase transformations (i.e. recrystallisation and an alloyed zone) in thin layers contiguous to the interface on pure Al and Mg substrates. Zones of elemental interdiffusion were identified at the interface upon Al and Mg substrates using scanning TEM. The width of intermixing zones was in the vicinity of < 1 {mu}m. This metallurgical interaction at the interface occurred on the length scales involving the initial single layer of Cu particles bonded on the substrate.

  16. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Garate, Mario A.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hussain, Ahsen M.

    2000-11-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (>= 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy- replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have approximately 1 arcmin axial figure half- power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental testing. Reflectivity measurements at 8 keV on ERAFs with and without multilayer coatings show a 4.4 to 4.8 angstroms room mean square microroughness for correlation lengths

  17. Deposition of reactively ion beam sputtered silicon nitride coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, A.

    1982-01-01

    An ion beam source was used to deposit silicon nitride films by reactively sputtering a silicon target with beams of Ar + N2 mixtures. The nitrogen fraction in the sputtering gas was 0.05 to 0.80 at a total pressure of 6 to 2 millionth torr. The ion beam current was 50 mA at 500 V. The composition of the deposited films was investigated by auger electron spectroscopy and the rate of deposition was determined by interferometry. A relatively low rate of deposition of about 2 nm. one-tenth min. was found. AES spectra of films obtained with nitrogen fractions higher than 0.50 were consistent with a silicon to nitrogen ratio corresponding to Si3N4. However the AES spectra also indicated that the sputtered silicon nitride films were contaminated with oxygen and carbon and contained significant amounts of iron, nickel, and chromium, most probably sputtered from the holder of the substrate and target.

  18. Note: Influence of rinsing and drying routines on growth of multilayer thin films using automated deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Daniel; Priolo, Morgan A.; Ham, Aaron; Grunlan, Jaime C.

    2010-03-01

    A versatile, high speed robot for layer-by-layer deposition of multifunctional thin films, which integrates concepts from previous dipping systems, has been designed with dramatic improvements in software, positioning, rinsing, drying, and waste removal. This system exploits the electrostatic interaction of oppositely charged species to deposit nanolayers (1-10 nm thick) from water onto the surface of a substrate. Dip times and number of deposited layers are adjustable through a graphical user interface. In between dips the system spray rinses and dries the substrate by positioning it in the two-tiered rinse-dry station. This feature significantly reduces processing time and provides the flexibility to choose from four different procedures for rinsing and drying. Assemblies of natural montmorillonite clay and polyethylenimine are deposited onto 175 μm poly(ethylene terephthalate) film to demonstrate the utility of this automated deposition system. By altering the type of rinse-dry procedure, these clay-based assemblies are shown to exhibit variations in film thickness and oxygen transmission rate. This type of system reproducibly deposits films containing 20 or more layers and may also be useful for other types of coatings that make use of dipping.

  19. Impact of residual stress on the adhesion and tensile fracture of TiN/CrN multi-layered coatings from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Deqiang; Peng, Xianghe; Qin, Yi; Wang, Zhongchang

    2012-06-01

    Multilayered TiN/CrN coatings find a wide range of technological applications where their internal hetero-interfaces and corresponding residual stress have been long suspected as capable of influencing their intriguing mechanical and chemical performances such as the thermal stability, hardness, and corrosion, tribological and wear resistance. Here, we investigate, by first-principles calculations, atomic and electronic structures of the TiN/CrN interface and how the residual stress influences the adhesion and ideal tensile strength of the multilayered coatings. We find that calculated adhesion energies of the interfaces with (1 1 1) and (0 0 1) orientations are small under no residual stress, yet increase almost linearly when the residual stress is imposed, suggesting that the residual stress plays a dominant role in affecting adhesion. The strengthened adhesion affected by the residual stress is found to be attributable to the stress-induced shrinkage of bonds, which results in enhanced interactions between the bonds in the TiN/CrN coatings. Using several analytic techniques, we have characterized the electronic structure of the interface carefully and determined the interfacial bonding to be primarily ionic with a small degree of covalency. The tensile simulations reveal that the interface with the (1 1 1) texture is more brittle than that with the (0 0 1), although the former presents greater ideal tensile strength. The findings presented here shed light on the impact of residual stress on the adhesion and ideal tensile strength of the TiN/CrN multi-layers, which information could be hard to obtain by means of experiments alone but which is of practical importance for further understanding and improvement of the multi-layered coatings at atomic scale.

  20. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C.B.; Dill, L.H.; Kreider, K.L.; Young, G.W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E.A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S.I.

    2005-08-15

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions.

  1. Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Architectures Utilizing Rare Earth Doped YSZ and Rare Earth Pyrochlores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    To allow for increased gas turbine efficiencies, new insulating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be developed to protect the underlying metallic components from higher operating temperatures. This work focused on using rare earth doped (Yb and Gd) yttria stabilized zirconia (t' Low-k) and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores (GZO) combined with novel nanolayered and thick layered microstructures to enable operation beyond the 1200 C stability limit of current 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) coatings. It was observed that the layered system can reduce the thermal conductivity by approximately 45 percent with respect to YSZ after 20 hr of testing at 1316 C. The erosion rate of GZO is shown to be an order to magnitude higher than YSZ and t' Low-k, but this can be reduced by almost 57 percent when utilizing a nanolayered structure. Lastly, the thermal instability of the layered system is investigated and thought is given to optimization of layer thickness.

  2. Electrophoretic co-deposition of cellulose nanocrystals-45S5 bioactive glass nanocomposite coatings on stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiang; Yang, Yuyun; Pérez de Larraya, Uxua; Garmendia, Nere; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2016-01-01

    An organic-inorganic nanocomposite coating consisting of fibrous cellulose nanocrystals and 45S5 bioactive glass, intended as a bioactive surface for bone implants, was developed by a one-step electrophoretic deposition. The composition, surface roughness and wettability of the deposited coatings, influenced by the concentration of each component in the suspension, were controllable as a result of the simplicity of the coating technique. Bioactive glass particles were individually wrapped with porous cellulose layers, forming a porous coating with uniform thickness. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid revealed a rapid hydroxyapatite formation on the deposited nanocomposite coating. Furthermore, electrochemical test was carried out to understand the corrosion behavior of the deposited coatings during incubation in simulated body fluid. According to the results of this study, the obtained cellulose-bioactive glass coatings with tunable properties represent a promising approach for biofunctionalization of metallic orthopedic implants.

  3. Nano-structured yttria-stabilized zirconia coating by electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki-Ghaleh, H.; Rekabeslami, M.; Shakeri, M. S.; Siadati, M. H.; Javidi, M.; Talebian, S. H.; Aghajani, H.

    2013-09-01

    The most important role of thermal barrier coatings is to reduce the temperature of the substrate in high temperature applications. Nano particle zirconia might be a suitable choice for improving the efficiency of thermal barrier coatings. Nanostructured coatings have lower thermal conduction, higher thermal expansion and lower dimensional variations at higher temperatures in comparison with the microstructured coatings. Electrophoretic deposition has been preferred for thermal barrier coatings due to its simplicity, controllability and low cost. In the present study, three different suspensions of ZrO2-8 wt%Y2O3 (40 nm) made with ethanol, acetone and acetyl acetone were used. Electrophoretic deposition was conducted at a fixed voltage of 60 V for 120 s on aluminized Inconel 738-LC, and then heat treated at 1100 ̊C for 4 h in air atmosphere. The coating morphology and elemental distribution were studied using scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that suspension media have an important effect on the quality of the final product. Acetyl acetone showed better dispersion of particles than the other two media. Consequently, deposition from acetyl acetone resulted in uniform and crack-free layers while those from ethanol and acetone were completely non-uniform due to agglomeration and low viscosity, respectively.

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of diffusion barrier titanium oxide coatings for nuclear reactor cladding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzdor, Vahid; Brechtl, Jamieson; Hauch, Benjamin; Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd R.

    2013-10-01

    Development of TiO2 diffusion barrier coating by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been studied to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI). Important EPD deposition parameters, including solvent, additives, particle size and crystal structure, current, and voltage were optimized for coating deposition on flat T91 ferritic steel substrates. Post-deposition sintering in the range of 850-1050 °C was investigated. Diffusion characteristics of the coatings were evaluated by diffusion couple experiments at 575 °C for 100 h using cerium as one of the fission products responsible for FCCI. Results showed that the coated steel exhibited up to 83% reduction in solid state inter-diffusion with cerium. Heat transfer calculations showed that the fuel center-line temperature would increase slightly due to the addition of the TiO2 diffusion barrier coating; however, the maximum temperature still remains well below the melting point of uranium and is even lower than eutectic temperature between Fe2U and Fe2U6 at cladding centerline and cladding/fuel interface, respectively.

  5. Deposition and Evaluation of Protective PVD Coatings on Ferritic Stainless Steel SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Gannon, Paul; Deibert, Max; Smith, Richard J.; Kayani, Asghar N.; Kopczyk, M.; Van Vorous, D.; Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Visco, s.; jacobson, c.; Kurokawa, H.; Sofie, Stephen W.

    2006-09-21

    Reduced operating temperatures (600-800°C) of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) may enable the use of inexpensive ferritic steels as interconnects. Due to the demanding SOFC interconnect operating environment, protective coatings are gaining attention to increase longterm stability. In this study, large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) and hybrid filtered arc assisted electron beam physical vapor deposition (FA-EBPVD) technologies were used for deposition of two-segment coatings with Cr-Co-Al-O-N based sublayer and Mn-Co-O top layer. Coatings were deposited on ferritic steel and subsequently annealed in air for various time intervals. Surface oxidation was investigated using RBS, SEM and EDS analyses. Cr volatilization was evaluated using a transpiration apparatus and ICP-MS analysis of the resultant condensate. Electrical conductivity (Area Specific Resistance) was studied as a function of time using the four-point technique with Ag electrodes. The oxidation behavior, Cr volatilization rate, and electrical conductivity of the coated and uncoated samples are reported. Transport mechanisms for various oxidizing species and coating diffusion barrier properties are discussed.

  6. Intelligent saline enabled self-healing of multilayer coatings and its optimization to achieve redox catalytically provoked anti-corrosion ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Junaid Ali; Tang, Shaochun; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-10-01

    To obtain a coating with both self-healing and redox catalytic ability to protect a metal substrate from corrosion under aggressive environment is strongly desired. Herein, we report the design and fabrication of intelligent polyaniline-polyacrylic acid/polyethyleneimine (PANI-PAA/PEI) multilayer composite coatings by spin assembly. The main influencing factors, including solution concentration (c) and disk rotating speed (ω) were studied in order to gain excellent performance. The resulting multilayer coatings with thickness in a range from 0.47 to 2.94 μm can heal severe structural damages and sustain a superior anti-corrosive performance for 120 h in 3.5% NaCl. The PANI-PAA layer enhances the anti-corrosion property and PEI layer contributes to the self-healing ability as well as their multilayer combination strengthens them. The improved self-healing ability is attributed to the rearrangement and reversible non-covalent interactions of the PANI-PAA and PEI layers that facilitates electrostatic repairing.

  7. ZnS/diamond composite coatings for infrared transmission applications formed by the aerosol deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Scooter D.; Kub, Fritz J.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2013-06-01

    The deposition of nano-crystalline ZnS/diamond composite protective coatings on silicon, sapphire, and ZnS substrates, as a preliminary step to coating infrared transparent ZnS substrates from powder mixtures by the aerosol deposition method is presented. Advantages of the aerosol deposition method include the ability to form dense, nanocrystalline lms up to hundreds of microns thick at room temperature and at a high deposition rate on a variety of substrates. Deposition is achieved by creating a pressure gradient that accelerates micrometer- scale particles in an aerosol to high velocity. Upon impact with the target substrate the particles fracture and embed. Continued deposition forms the thick compacted lm. Deposition from an aerosolized mixture of ZnS and diamond powders onto all targets results in linear trend from apparent sputter erosion of the substrate at 100% diamond to formation of a lm with increasing fractions of ZnS. The crossover from abrasion to lm formation on sapphire occurs above about 50% ZnS and a mixture of 90% ZnS and 10% diamond forms a well-adhered lm of about 0.7 μm thickness at a rate of 0.14 μm/min. Resulting lms are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, pro lometry, infrared transmission spectroscopy, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. These initial lms mark progress toward the future goal of coating ZnS substrates for abrasion resistance.

  8. Comparative study of plasma-deposited fluorocarbon coatings on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsari, E.; Kostopoulou, M.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.; Rapakoulias, D. E.

    2011-05-01

    The deposition of hydrophobic fluorocarbon coatings from C2F6 and C2F6-H2 rf discharges on different substrates was examined. Polyester textile, glass and two different ceramic compounds were used as substrates. The effect of the total gas pressure, the rf power dissipation and the deposition time on the hydrophobic character of the samples was investigated. Films deposited on polyester textiles at low pressure (0.03 mbar) and power consumption (16 mW cm-2) using pure C2F6 presented the highest water contact angles (~150°). On the other hand, the addition of hydrogen was necessary in order to deposit stable hydrophobic coatings on glass and ceramic substrates. Coatings deposited on glass at intermediate deposition rates (~100 Å min-1) and pressures presented the highest angles (~105°). Concerning the heavy clay ceramics, samples treated in low-pressure (0.05 mbar) and low-power (16 mW cm-2) discharges showed the highest contact angles. The deposition time was found to play an important role in the hydrophobicity and long-term behaviour of porous and rough substrates.

  9. Galvanic deposition and characterization of brushite/hydroxyapatite coatings on 316L stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Blanda, Giuseppe; Brucato, Valerio; Pavia, Francesco Carfì; Greco, Silvia; Piazza, Salvatore; Sunseri, Carmelo; Inguanta, Rosalinda

    2016-07-01

    In this work, brushite and brushite/hydroxyapatite (BS, CaHPO4·H2O; HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316LSS) from a solution containing Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and NH4H2PO4 by a displacement reaction based on a galvanic contact, where zinc acts as sacrificial anode. Driving force for the cementation reaction arises from the difference in the electrochemical standard potentials of two different metallic materials (316LSS and Zn) immersed in an electrolyte, so forming a galvanic contact leading to the deposition of BS/HA on nobler metal. We found that temperature and deposition time affect coating features (morphology, structure, and composition). Deposits were characterized by means of several techniques. The morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, the elemental composition was obtained by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, whilst the structure was identified by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. BS was deposited at all investigated temperatures covering the 316LSS surface. At low and moderate temperature, BS coatings were compact, uniform and with good crystalline degree. On BS layers, HA crystals were obtained at 50°C for all deposition times, while at 25°C, its presence was revealed only after long deposition time. Electrochemical studies show remarkable improvement in corrosion resistance. PMID:27127032

  10. Elimination of stick-slip of elastomeric sutures by radiofrequency glow discharge deposited coatings.

    PubMed

    Griesser, H J; Chatelier, R C; Martin, C; Vasic, Z R; Gengenbach, T R; Jessup, G

    2000-01-01

    Fine elastomeric sutures intended for cardiovascular surgery can exhibit "stick-slip" behavior as they are pulled through tissue; the resulting oscillatory force can damage delicate tissue or cause sutures to snap. To eliminate this undesirable effect, sutures were surface-modified using a radiofrequency glow discharge in a vapor of either hexamethyldisiloxane or hexamethyldisilazane, to produce a thin polymeric coating on the suture. The same coatings were also deposited onto aluminized tape to facilitate their characterization by measurement of air/water contact angles and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Coatings from both monomers were found to be very hydrophobic. The hexamethyldisiloxane glow discharge coatings underwent negligible oxidation when stored in air, and thus remained stable over a shelf-life period akin to what may be required of sutures. The hexamethyldisilazane glow discharge coatings, in contrast, incorporated substantial amounts of oxygen over a 3-month period. The coatings did not measurably alter the tensile properties of the sutures. The frictional properties of coated sutures were assessed by measuring the dynamic friction between the suture and ovine myocardium. Both coatings were effective in removing the inherent stick-slip behavior of polybutester sutures in this model. The coatings remained intact after several passes and proved to be robust and efficacious under various strain regimes. PMID:10813763

  11. Formation of Aluminide Coatings on Fe-Based Alloys by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Pint, Bruce A; Cooley, Kevin M; Haynes, James A

    2008-01-01

    Aluminide and Al-containing coatings were synthesized on commercial ferritic (P91) and austenitic (304L) alloys via a laboratory chemical vapor deposition (CVD) procedure for rigorous control over coating composition, purity and microstructure. The effect of the CVD aluminizing parameters such as temperature, Al activity, and post-aluminizing anneal on coating growth was investigated. Two procedures involving different Al activities were employed with and without including Cr-Al pellets in the CVD reactor to produce coatings with suitable thickness and composition for coating performance evaluation. The phase constitution of the as-synthesized coatings was assessed with the aid of a combination of X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, and existing phase diagrams. The mechanisms of formation of these CVD coatings on the Fe-based alloys are discussed, and compared with nickel aluminide coatings on Ni-base superalloys. In addition, Cr-Al pellets were replaced with Fe-Al metals in some aluminizing process runs and similar coatings were achieved.

  12. Formation of the Increased Wear-Resistant Properties of Hardox 450 Steel by Deposited Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, S. V.; Kormyshev, V. E.; Kapralov, E. V.; Ivanov, Y. F.; Zavatski, O. V.; Gromov, V. E.

    2016-09-01

    The structure-phase conditions formed during the deposition of surface coatings on Hardox 450 steel by the wire comprising C, V, Cr, Nb, W were examined by the methods of X- ray phase analysis and transmission electron diffraction microscopy. It was established that after the hardened layer was deposited, the wear-resistance increased 153 times and the coefficient of friction in the material decreased 2.5 times. It was concluded that the increased properties of the surface coating were due to the formation of martensitic structure and the occurrence of high volume fraction of carbide phase inclusions.

  13. Preparation and characterization of YBCO coating on metallic RABiT substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonal, M. R.; Prajapat, C. L.; Igalwar, P. S.; Maji, B. C.; Singh, M. R.; Krishnan, M.

    2016-05-01

    Superconducting YBCO films are coated on metallic Rolling Assisted Bi-axially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) Ni-5wt % W (NiW) (002) substrate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system. Targets of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) and buffer layers of Ceria and 8 mole % Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) of high density are synthesized. At each stage of deposition coatings are characterized by XRD. Transport studies show superconducting nature of YBCO only when two successive buffer layers of YSZ and CeO2 are used.

  14. Fabrication of Nanosized Lanthanum Zirconate Powder and Deposition of Thermal Barrier Coating by Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jagdeesh, N.; Pathak, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present manuscript discusses our findings on fabrication of nanosized lanthanum zirconate powder for thermal barrier coating application and its coating by plasma spray on nickel-based superalloy substrate. Single-phase La2Zr2O7 coating of thickness of the order of 45 µm on the Ni-Cr-Al bond coat coated Ni-based superalloy substrate was deposited by plasma spray process. The layers at the interface did not show spallation and inter diffusion was very less. The microstructure, interface, porosity, and mechanical properties of different layers are investigated. The lanthanum zirconate hardness and modulus were 10.5 and 277 GPa, respectively. The load depth curve for lanthanum zirconate showed good elastic recovery around 74%.

  15. A study of the deposition of carbide coatings on graphite fibers. [to increase electrical resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suplinskas, R. J.; Henze, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition of boron carbide and silicon carbide on graphite fibers to increase their electrical resistance was studied. Silicon carbide coatings were applied without degradation of the mechanical properties of the filaments. These coatings typically added 1000 ohms to the resistance of a filament as measured between two mercury pools. When SiC-coated filaments were oxidized by refluxing in boiling phosphoric acid, average resistance increased by an additional 1000 ohms; in addition resistance increases as high as 150 K ohms and breakdown voltages as high as 17 volts were noted. Data on boron carbide coatings indicated that such coatings would not be effective in increasing resistance, and would degrade the mechanical properties.

  16. Characteristics of copper meshes coated with carbon nanotubes via electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Park, Jong-Seol; Hwang, Young-Jin; Park, Jin-Seok

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrates the characteristics of a hybrid-type transparent electrode for touch screen panels, which was fabricated by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on copper (Cu)-meshes. The surface morphologies, visible-range transmittance and reflectance, and chromatic properties, such as yellowness and redness, of the fabricated CNTs-coated Cu mesh electrodes were characterized as functions of their dimensions (line-to-line spacing, line width, and electrode thickness) and compared with those of the Cu-mesh electrodes without coating of CNTs. The experimental results showed that the coating of CNTs substantially reduced the reflectance of the Cu-mesh electrodes and also improved their chromatic properties with their transmittance and sheet resistance only slightly changed, subsequently indicating that the CNTs-coated Cu-mesh electrodes possessed desirable characteristics for touch screen panels.

  17. Studies on non-oxide coating on carbon fibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. H.; Sharma, S.; Prajapati, K. K.; Vyas, M. M.; Batra, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    A new way of improving the oxidative behavior of carbon fibers coated with SiC through Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition technique. The complete study includes coating of SiC on glass slab and Stainless steel specimen as a starting test subjects but the major focus was to increase the oxidation temperature of carbon fibers by PECVD technique. This method uses relatively lower substrate temperature and guarantees better stoichiometry than other coating methods and hence the substrate shows higher resistance towards mechanical and thermal stresses along with increase in oxidation temperature.

  18. Nanobrick wall multilayer thin films grown faster and stronger using electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Chungyeon; Wallace, Kevin L.; Hagen, David A.; Stevens, Bart; Regev, Oren; Grunlan, Jaime C.

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to speed up the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is employed with weak polyelectrolytes and clay nanoplatelets. The introduction of an electric field results in nearly an order of magnitude increase in thickness relative to conventional LbL deposition for a given number of deposited layers. A higher clay concentration also results with the EPD-LbL process, which produces higher modulus and strength with fewer deposited layers. A 20 quadlayer (QL) assembly of linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI)/poly(acrylic acid)/LPEI/clay has an elastic modulus of 45 GPa, tensile strength of 70 MPa, and thickness of 4.4 μm. Traditional LbL requires 40 QL to achieve the same thickness, with lower modulus and strength. This study reveals how these films grow and maintain a highly ordered nanobrick wall structure that is commonly associated with LbL deposition. Fewer layers required to achieve improved properties will open up many new opportunities for this multifunctional thin film deposition technique.

  19. Laser processing of high-chromium nickel-chromium coatings deposited by various thermal spraying methods

    SciTech Connect

    Longa, Y.; Takemoto, M. . Coll. of Science and Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    High-chromium Ni-Cr coatings were deposited by thermal spraying in air and in an argon gas atmosphere. Coatings sprayed in Ar gas were free of pores and defects and of the same chemical composition as the spraying material. Following thermal spraying for each coating, laser glazing or laser gas alloying was applied to provide a protective chromium oxide film, produced by the intermediate oxidation process on top of the coatings. Five types of coatings were treated: (1) arc and (2) flame spraying in Ar, (3) arc and (4) flame spraying in air, and (5) low-pressure plasma spraying (LPPS). Oxide formation mechanisms during laser processing were studied, and the oxidation and hot-corrosion resistance of the coatings in the presence of a sulfate-vanadate fused salt at 900 C in air were examined. High-chromium Ni-Cr coatings deposited by thermal spraying, and they are used mostly to prevent ash attack of boilers and furnace tubes in power plants and oil refineries.

  20. Forming strengthening nanoparticles in the metal matrix of plasma deposited powder alloys coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alontseva, D. L.; Prokhorenkova, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the generalized results of investigation of the structure-phase compositions of thick coatings on the base of Ni and Co deposited by plasma-jet on steel substrates. Research methodology included transmission and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis, X-ray structure phase analysis, mechanical testing. The phase structures and morphology of precipitation of strengthening nanoparticles from solid solution are defined; factor k is defined in the Hall-Petch equation for the coating materials; the coating structure model was developed. It was found that the exposure to plasma jet during the coating deposition leads to the evolution of the structural-phase state and to substantial improvement of microhardness of modified surfaces. The reason of doing this research is the necessity of the study of the structural and phase structure of these coatings and understanding what phase changes exactly are desirable in order to improve the structural behavior of the coatings at modifying treatment. Based on the experimental study, we plan to develop a scheme of the coating structure for the further use it in modeling processes taking place during additional irradiation treatment, and eventually to give evidence-based recommendations on the selection of modes of further processing.